WorldWideScience

Sample records for drip-irrigated apricot orchard

  1. Evaluation of three semi-empirical approaches to estimate the net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael López-Olivari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of actual evapotranspiration (ETα models requires an appropriate parameterization of the available energy, where the net radiation (Rn is the most important component. Thus, a study was carried out to calibrate and evaluate three semi-empirical approaches to estimate net radiation (Rn over a drip-irrigated olive (Olea europaea L. 'Arbequina' orchard during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons. The orchard was planted in 2005 at high density in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The evaluated models were calculated using the balance between long and short wave radiation. To achieve this objective it was assumed that Ts = Tα for Model 1, Ts = Tv for Model 2 and Ts = Tr for Model 3 (Ts is surface temperature; Tα is air temperature; and Tv is temperature inside of the tree canopy; Tr is radiometric temperature. For the three models, the Brutsaert's empirical coefficient (Φ was calibrated using incoming long wave radiation equation with the database of 2009/2010 season. Thus, the calibration indicated that Φ was equal to 1.75. Using the database from 2010/2011 season, the validation indicated that the three models were able to predict the Rn at a 30-min interval with errors lower than 6%, root mean square error (RMSE between 26 and 39 W m-2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 20 and 31 W m-2. On daily time intervals, validation indicated that models presented errors, RMSE and MAE between 2% and 3%, 1.22-1.54 and 1.04-1.35 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. The three R„-Models would be evaluated and used in others Mediterranean conditions according to the availability of data to estimate net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard planted at high density.

  2. Estimation of Energy Balance Components over a Drip-Irrigated Olive Orchard Using Thermal and Multispectral Cameras Placed on a Helicopter-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ortega-Farías

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to implement a remote sensing energy balance (RSEB algorithm for estimating the incoming solar radiation (Rsi, net radiation (Rn, sensible heat flux (H, soil heat flux (G and latent heat flux (LE over a drip-irrigated olive (cv. Arbequina orchard located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile (35°25′S; 71°44′W; 90 m above sea level. For this study, a helicopter-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was equipped with multispectral and infrared thermal cameras to obtain simultaneously the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and surface temperature (Tsurface at very high resolution (6 cm × 6 cm. Meteorological variables and surface energy balance components were measured at the time of the UAV overpass (near solar noon. The performance of the RSEB algorithm was evaluated using measurements of H and LE obtained from an eddy correlation system. In addition, estimated values of Rsi and Rn were compared with ground-truth measurements from a four-way net radiometer while those of G were compared with soil heat flux based on flux plates. Results indicated that RSEB algorithm estimated LE and H with errors of 7% and 5%, respectively. Values of the root mean squared error (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE for LE were 50 and 43 W m−2 while those for H were 56 and 46 W m−2, respectively. Finally, the RSEB algorithm computed Rsi, Rn and G with error less than 5% and with values of RMSE and MAE less than 38 W m−2. Results demonstrated that multispectral and thermal cameras placed on an UAV could provide an excellent tool to evaluate the intra-orchard spatial variability of Rn, G, H, LE, NDVI and Tsurface over the tree canopy and soil surface between rows.

  3. Effectiveness of inorganic and organic mulching for soil salinity and sodicity control in a grapevine orchard drip-irrigated with moderately saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Aragüés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil mulching is a sensible strategy to reduce evaporation, accelerate crop development, reduce erosion and assist in weed control, but its efficiency for soil salinity control is not as well documented. The benefits of inorganic (plastic and organic (grapevine pruning residues mulching for soil salinity and sodicity control were quantified in a grapevine orchard (cultivars ‘Autumn’ Royal and ‘Crimson’ drip-irrigated with moderately saline waters. Soil samples were taken at the beginning and end of the 2008 and 2009 irrigation seasons in six vines of each cultivar and mulching treatment. Soil saturation extract electrical conductivity (ECe, chloride (Cle and sodium adsorption ratio (SARe values increased in all treatments of both grapevines along the irrigation seasons, but the increases were much lower in the mulched than in the bare soils due to reduced evaporation losses and concomitant decreases in salt evapo-concentration. The absolute salinity and sodicity daily increases in ‘Autumn’ and ‘Crimson’ 2008 and in ‘Crimson’ 2009 were on the average 44% lower in the plastic and 76% lower in the organic mulched soils than in the bare soil. The greater efficiency of the organic than the plastic mulch in ‘Crimson’ 2009 was attributed to the leaching of salts by a precipitation of 104 mm that infiltrated the organic mulch but was intercepted by the plastic mulch. Although further work is needed to substantiate these results, the conclusion is that the plastic mulch and, particularly, the organic mulch were more efficient than the bare soil for soil salinity and sodicity control.

  4. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  5. Spatial variability of leaf nutrient contents in a drip irrigated citrus orchard Variabilidade espacial dos teores foliares de nutrientes em um pomar de citros sob irrigação localizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson A. Armindo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of leaf content of macro and micronutrients. The citrus plants orchard with 5 years of age, planted at regular intervals of 8 x 7 m, was managed under drip irrigation. Leaf samples were collected from each plant to be analyzed in the laboratory. Data were analyzed using the software R, version 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, along with geostatistics package GeoR. All contents of macro and micronutrients studied were adjusted to normal distribution and showed spatial dependence.The best-fit models, based on the likelihood, for the macro and micronutrients were the spherical and matern. It is suggest for the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur the minimum distances between samples of 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 and 15 m respectively, while for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese and zinc, the distances suggests are 29; 9; 113; 35 and 14 m, respectively.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade espacial de macro e micronutrientes foliares. O pomar com plantas de 5 anos de idade, plantado com espaçamento regular de 8 x 7 m, foi manejado sob irrigação localizada. Foram coletadas amostras foliares de cada planta do pomar para serem analisadas em laboratório. Os dados foram analisados por meio do programa computacional R, versão 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, juntamente com o pacote GeoR. Todos os teores de macro e micronutrientes estudados ajustaram-se à distribuição normal e apresentaram dependência espacial. Os modelos de melhor ajuste, com base na verosimilhança, para os macro e micronutrientes, foram esférico e matern. Para os macronutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio e enxofre, sugerem-se distâncias mínimas entre amostras de 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 e 15 m, respectivamente, enquanto para os micronutrientes boro, cobre, ferro, manganês e zinco, essas distâncias são de 29; 9; 113; 35 e 14 m, respectivamente.

  6. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  7. Phytoplasmas in apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards in East Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, H.; Fránová, Jana; Suchá, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. (2011), s. 67-68 ISSN 1721-8861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum * PCR/RFLP * apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2011

  8. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  9. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  10. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  11. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  12. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  13. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  14. APPLICATION OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON COTTON PLANT GROWTH (Gossypium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahruni Thamrin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The condition of cotton planting in South Sulawesi is always constrained in the fulfillment of water. All plant growth stages are not optimal to increase production, so it is necessary to introduce good water management technology, such as through water supply with drip irrigation system. This study aims to analyze the strategy of irrigation management in cotton plants using drip irrigation system. Model of application by designing drip irrigation system and cotton planting on land prepared as demonstration plot. Observations were made in the germination phase and the vegetative phase of the early plants. Based on the result of drip irrigation design, the emitter droplet rate (EDR was 34.266 mm/hour with an operational time of 4.08 min/day. From the observation of cotton growth, it is known that germination time lasted from 6 to 13 days after planting, the average plant height reached 119.66 cm, with the number of leaves averaging 141.93 pieces and the number of bolls averaging 57.16 boll.

  15. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  16. Water and nitrogen requirements of subsurface drip irrigated pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface drip irrigation is a well-developed practice for both annual and perennial crops. The use of subsurface drip is a well-established practice in many annual row crops, e.g. tomatoes, strawberries, lettuce. However, the use of subsurface drip on perennial crops has been slow to develop. With th...

  17. Evaluation of dripper clogging using magnetic water in drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshravesh, Mojtaba; Mirzaei, Sayyed Mohammad Javad; Shirazi, Pooya; Valashedi, Reza Norooz

    2018-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the uniformity of distribution of water and discharge variations in drip irrigation using magnetic water. Magnetic water was achieved by transition of water using a robust permanent magnet connected to a feed pipeline. Two main factors including magnetic and non-magnetic water and three sub-factor of salt concentration including well water, addition of 150 and 300 mg L-1 calcium carbonate to irrigation water with three replications were applied. The result of magnetic water on average dripper discharge was significant at ( P ≤ 0.05). At the final irrigation, the average dripper discharge and distribution uniformity were higher for the magnetic water compared to the non-magnetic water. The magnetic water showed a significant effect ( P ≤ 0.01) on distribution uniformity of drippers. At the first irrigation, the water distribution uniformity was almost the same for both the magnetic water and the non-magnetic water. The use of magnetic water for drip irrigation is recommended to achieve higher uniformity.

  18. Farmers’ Logics in Engaging With Projects Promoting Drip Irrigation Kits in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, J.; Venot, J.-P.; Zwarteveen, M.; de Fraiture, C.

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not to

  19. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

    In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security,

  20. Farmers’ Logics in Engaging With Projects Promoting Drip Irrigation Kits in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, Jonas; Venot, Jean Philippe; Zwarteveen, Margreet; Fraiture, de Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not

  1. Bricolage as innovation: opening the black box of drip irrigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Zwarteveen, M.; Kuper, M.

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of

  2. Bricolage as innovation: opening the black box of Drip Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Kuper, M.

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of

  3. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  4. Farmers' logics in engaging with projects promoting drip irrigation kits in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Wanvoeke, J.; Venot, Jean-Philippe; Zwarteveen, M.; de Fraiture, C.

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not to be interested in their water and labor-saving attributes. We combine practice-based theories of innovation with insights from the anthropology of development to explain that in development project ...

  5. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C.; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these

  6. Phosphorus distribution in sandy soil profile under drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendy, R.W.; Rizk, M.A.; Abd El Moniem, M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Fahmi, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at to studying the impact of irrigation water applied using drip irrigation system in sandy soil with snap bean on phosphorus distribution. This experiment was carried out in soils and water research department farm, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, cairo, Egypt. Snap bean was cultivated in sandy soil and irrigated with 50,37.5 and 25 cm water in three water treatments represented 100, 75 and 50% ETc. Phosphorus distribution and direction of soil water movement had been detected in three sites on the dripper line (S1,S2 and S3 at 0,12.5 and 25 cm distance from dripper). Phosphorus fertilizer (super phosphate, 15.5% P 2 O 5 in rate 300 kg/fed)was added before cultivation. Neutron probe was used to detect the water distribution and movement at the three site along soil profile. Soil samples were collected before p-addition, at end developing, mid, and late growth stages to determine residual available phosphorus. The obtained data showed that using 50 cm water for irrigation caused an increase in P-concentration till 75 cm depth in the three sites of 100% etc treatment, and covered P-requirements of snap bean for all growth stages. As for 37.5 and 25 cm irrigation water cannot cover all growth stages for P-requirements of snap bean. It could be concluded that applied irrigation water could drive the residual P-levels till 75 cm depth in the three sites. Yield of the crop had been taken as an indicator as an indicator profile. Yield showed good response according to water quantities and P-transportation within the soil profile

  7. Transformations accompanying a shift from surface to drip irrigation in the Cànyoles Watershed, Valencia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sese-Minguez, Saioa; Boesveld, Harm; Asins-Velis, Sabina; Kooij, van der Saskia; Maroulis, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is widely promoted in Spain to increase agricultural production and to save water. In the Cànyoles watershed, Valencia, we analysed the consequences of change from surface irrigation to drip irrigation over the past 25 years. There were a number of transformations resulting from,

  8. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-05-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (soil moisture) for one hour on 0.25m(2) circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide

  9. Drip irrigation emitter clogging in Dutch greenhouses as affected by methane and organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.; Burg, van der A.M.M.; Runia, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the serious clogging of drip irrigation emitters in the Dutch greenhouse industry is caused by methane-oxidising bacteria and/or organic acids used as anti-clogging agents. In this study greenhouses with moderate to severe emitter clogging have been examined. High methane

  10. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  11. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies

  12. Longevity of shallow subsurface drip irrigation tubing under three tillage practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallow Sub-Surface drip irrigation (S3DI) has drip tubing buried about 2-in below the soil surface. It is unknown how long drip tubing would be viable at this shallow soil depth using strip- or no-tillage systems. The objectives were to determine drip tube longevity, resultant crop yield, and parti...

  13. Cotton, tomato, corn, and onion production with subsurface drip irrigation – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The usage of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) has increased by 89% in the USA during the last ten years according to USDA NASS estimates and over 93% of the SDI land area is located in just ten states. Combining public entity and private industry perceptions of SDI in these ten states, the major cro...

  14. The crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton in a semi-arid region of Turkey. ... Four irrigation treatments designated as full (I100) with no water stress and slight (DI70), moderate (DI50) and strong water ... from 32 Countries:.

  15. Performing the success of an innovation: the case of smallholder drip irrigation in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.; Venot, J.P.J.N.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, smallholder drip irrigation has gained almost unanimous popularity as an effective tool to achieve the combined goals of sustainable water use, food security and poverty alleviation in the developing world. Based on a study in Sub-Saharan Africa, this article shows that this

  16. The conundrum of low-cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : Why development interventions that have little to show continue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, J.; Venot, J.-P.; Zwarteveen, M.; de Fraiture, C.; Venot, J.-P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Research and development efforts concerning drip irrigation have traditionally been oriented toward intensive commercial farming in developed economies, focusing on ways to improve efficiencies and productivities. From the mid-1990s onward, an increasing number of research institutes and

  17. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; Al-Mashharawi, Samir K.; McCabe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    -Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water

  18. The Application of Drip Irrigation System on Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaningrum, Diah Ayu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the performance of drip irrigation systems, determine performance of tomato treated under the irrigation systems.Field research was conducted at the Laboratory of Land and Water Resources Engineering; and at the Laboratory ofintegrated field, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung in August 2013 to December 2013.Irrigation systems consisted of main componens: water supplies, Polythilene lateral tube, and emitters. Emitter on every pot, were made of Polythile...

  19. Control of soil moisture with radio frequency in a photovoltaic-powered drip irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; ÖZDEN, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Solar-powered irrigation systems are becoming increasingly widespread. However, the initial setup costs of these systems are very high. To reduce these costs, both the energy usage and the prevention of losses from irrigation systems are very important. In this study, a drip irrigation control system of 1000 dwarf cherry trees was controlled using soil moisture sensors in order to prevent excessive water consumption and energy losses in a solar-powered irrigation system. The control sys...

  20. Hydraulic performance evaluation of pressure compensating (pc) emitters and micro-tubing for drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrio, A.G.; Asif, M.; Jahangir, I.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation system is necessary for those areas, where the water scarcity issues are present. The present study was conducted at the field station of Climate Change, Alternate Energy and Water Resources Institute (CAEWRI), National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, during 2013, regarding drip irrigation system. Drip irrigation system depends on uniform emitter application flow. All the emitters were tested and replicated thrice at pressure head (34 to 207Kpa) with an increment of 34 Kpa. The minimum and maximum discharges were 1.32 - 3.52, 3.36 - 5.42, and 43.22 - 100.99 Lph, with an average of 2.42, 4.63 and 73.66 Lph, for Bow Smith, RIS and Micro-tubing, respectively. It indicates that more than 90% of emission uniformity (EU) and uniformity coefficient (CU) for all Emitters, which shows excellent water application with least standard deviation, ranging 0.12 to 2.37, throughout the operating pressure heads in all emitters. An average coefficient of variation (CV) of all emitters were behaving less than 0.07, indicating an excellent class at all operating pressure heads between 34 to 207 Kpa. Moreover, the relationship of discharge and pressure of emitters indicates that discharge increased with the increase of pressure head. The Q-H curve plays key role in the selection of emitters. (author)

  1. Sprinkler and drip irrigation in the organic tomato for single crops and when intercropped with coriander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Aparecido Marouelli

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of both sprinkler and drip irrigation systems on the organic production of the tomato, cultivar Duradouro, when cultivated both as a single crop and intercropped with coriander. The experiment was carried out in the Distrito Federal, Brazil, using a randomized block design with six replications and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for the treatments. There was no significant interaction between the factors of irrigation system and cropping system. The productivity and mass of the tomato fruits were not affected by the treatments, but for the coriander, productivity was higher under the sprinkler system. Drip irrigation hindered the development of late blight (Phytophthora infestans and reduced the percentage of rotten fruit, whereas the incidence of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica and infestation by the tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta were higher under the sprinkler system. The volume of soil exploited by the roots of tomato plants was higher with the sprinkler system, while the water productivity index with the drip system was 47% higher than with the sprinkler system. Firmer fruits were produced under drip irrigation. The cultivation system had a significant effect on the occurrence of insect pests, with the tomato intercropped with coriander showing a lower percentage of damaged fruit due to the Tomato Leafminer and to Spodoptera eridania.

  2. Drip irrigation and fertigation of potato under light-textured soils of cappadocia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitgil, M. B.; Onaran, H.; Munsuz, N.; Kislal, H.; Akin, A.; Unlenen, A. L.; Cayci, G.; Kutuk, C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to evaluate potato response to drip irrigation and N fertigation; and also to improve nitrogen and water use efficiencies of potato and eventually to obtain less nitrogen polluted surface and water, 10 field experiments were carried out at three different locations in Cappadocia Region of Turkey in 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. Nitrogen as ammonium sulphate ((NH 4 ) 2 So 4 ), was supplied by drip irrigation water (fertigation) at rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/da. Also, soil N application treatment equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 60kg N/da was included. These five treatments were investigated in a completely randomized block design with four replicants. Agria potato variety was used in all experiments and potato was planted in mid May and harvested at the end of October.''1''5N-labelled ammonium sulphate fertilizer were applied in isotope-sub plots within the macroplots for each treatment, in order to determine the amount of nitrogen taken up by the plant, nitrogen use efficiency and the distribution of residual nitrogen at different depths in the soil profile. Each year, during the growth period, total 12 irrigations were done and 50 mm of water was applied at each irrigation. At harvest, plant samples (tuber and leaf+vein) and soil samples were taken from each plot and N%, ''1''5N% atom excess (''1''5N% a.e.) and Ndff% determinations were done. Soil water contents at differrent soil depths were determined by soil moisture neutron probe at plantingand at harvest period so that water contents at different soil layers and water use efficiencies were calculated for each treatment. The results obtained showed that 3350 kg/da mean total marketable tuber yield was obtained with application of 600 mm irrigation water. Also,it was found that water did not move below 90 cm of soil layer in drip irrigation-fertigation system, which showed clearly that no nitrogen movement occured beyond 90 cm soil depth. Tuber yields and %Ndff increased when

  3. Characteristics and influencing factors of crop coefficient for drip-irrigated cotton under plastic mulch conditions in arid environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Zhipin; Yang, Yonghui; Wang, Qinxue

    2017-01-01

    agronomy practice such as plastic mulching and drip irrigation in arid environments. This study calculated and analyzed Kc of a drip-irrigated and plastic-mulched cotton field in Aksu Oasis of the arid Tarim River Basin, China, and its relationships with several crop-, soil- and management variables......-mulched condition already published, the Kc of mulched cotton for the entire growth season decreased by 16 to 39%. The largest reductions in Kc due to plastic mulch were found in the initial and developmental growth stage. Kc could be calculated by a third-degree polynomial model in relation to RGD, which...... significantly increased Kc, i.e., 29% on average, partly due to arid advection. This study provided up-to-date and detailed information on cotton crop coefficient under plastic mulching and drip irrigation conditions in arid environment, and it is useful for improved management of agricultural water resources....

  4. Distribution of the root system of peach palm under drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Silva Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of technologies has resulted in increased productivity and the more rational management of peach palm, with irrigation being an important tool for certain regions. Thus, studies leading to proper crop management are extremely important, such as the estimate of the effective depth of the root system, which is indispensable for proper irrigation management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths, as applied by drip irrigation, on the distribution of the root system of peach palm. This experiment was conducted in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo State, Brazil, with drip irrigation, with the two systems (flow of 0.0023 m3 h-1 consisting of four irrigation treatments corresponding to 0, 50, 100 and 150% of Class ‘A’ pan evaporation. After five years, an analysis of the Bactris gasipaes root system was performed at a distance of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 meters from the trunk, collecting sampling at two depths (0.0 to 0.3 m and 0.3 to 0.6 m via the auger method (volumetric analysis. We concluded that the effective depth of the root system used for irrigation management should be a maximum of 0.3 meters.

  5. A Wireless Low Power Valve Controller for Drip Irrigation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Tai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation control systems in fields generally include a large number of sensors and valves; controlling these devices efficiently can be achieved by using distributed irrigation control (DIC, which has the advantages of reduced wiring and piping costs and easier installation and maintenance. In this study, a wireless low power valve controller for drip irrigation control systems was developed and tested. The specific tasks included the controller design (hardware and software, energy consumption tests, and field tests. The controller uses the highly integrated JN5139 module, which is based on IEEE802.15.4, for hardware design; low power consumption sleep algorithms for software design; and two alkaline batteries for supply of power to the valve controller. Results of laboratory and field tests show continuous working days of the valve controller powered by two alkaline batteries are at least 3 months under different sleep periods and frequencies of valve control. The controller described here is characterized as reliable, low cost, easy to install, and having low power consumption.

  6. Obstruction and uniformity in drip irrigation systems by applying treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of wastewater in agriculture is an alternative to control surface water pollution, and helps to promote the rational use of water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the obstruction and uniformity of application of treated wastewater in drip irrigation systems. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. The treatments were composed by the factorial combination of two factors: three types of water (supply water-ABAST, effluent of a constructed wetland system -WETLAND and upflow of anaerobic reactor effluent followed by constructed wetland system -UASB + WETLAND, and two drip irrigation systems (surface and subsurface, set in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The results indicated that the pH, suspended solids, total iron and coliforms of the WETLAND and UASB + WETLAND treatments represented a severe risk of clogging of drippers; the flow of the emitters increased as the service pressure was increased; values of CUC and CUD in surface and subsurface drip were classified as excellent in ABAST and WETLAND treatments. The degree of clogging reduced as pressure under surface and subsurface drip was increased.

  7. Sorption of pathogens during sub-surface drip irrigation with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Laillach; Gillerman Gillerman, Leonid; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Oron, Gideon

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity continues to be one of the major threats to human survival in many regions worldwide, such as Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the State of California in the US. Due to a mixture of factors such as population growth, reduction in water resources availability and higher demand for high quality waters in these regions these countries face water shortage issues that stem from overuse, extensive extraction of groundwater, and frequent drought events. In addition, there are increases in environmental and health awareness that have led to intensive efforts in the treatment and reuse of nonconventional water sources, mainly wastewater and greywater. One approach to water shortages issues is to use wastewater as means to close the gap between supply and demand. However, the need to treat wastewater and to disinfect it forces additional economic burden on the users, primarily for agricultural irrigation. A possible solution might be to use the soil as a sorbent for the contained pathogens. Under sub-surface drip irrigation, not allowing the wastewater to reach the soil surface, the pathogens will remain in the soil. It was as well shown in field experiments that the opening size of roots will not allow pathogens to penetrate into the plants. Additional advantages such as water saving, protection of the pipe systems and others are also important. Field experiments in commercial fields just emphasize the main advantages of sub-surface drip irrigation.

  8. Drip Irrigation Aided Phytoremediation for Removal of TCE FR-om Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    Groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and by-products resulting FR-om discharges of this organic solvent during past disposal practices. This contaminated groundwater occurs primarily at depths of 9 meters to 15 meters below ground surface, well below the depths that are typically penetrated by plant roots. The process investigated in this study involved pumping water FR-om the contaminated aquifer and discharging the water into overlying test plots two inches below the surface using drip irrigation. The field treatability study was conducted FR-om 8/31/00 to 4/18/02 using six 0.08 hectare test plots, two each containing pines, cottonwoods, and no vegetation (controls). The primary objective was to determine the overall effectiveness of the process for TCE removal and to determine the principal biotic and abiotic pathways for its removal. Results demonstrated that the process provides a viable method to remove TCE-contaminated groundwater. The data clearly showed that the presence of trees reduced volatilization of TCE FR-om the drip irrigation system to the atmosphere. Influent groundwater TCE concentrations averaging 89 mg/L were reduced to non-detectable levels (less than 5 mg/L) within the upper two feet of soil (rhizosphere)

  9. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  10. Calibration Curve of Neutron Moisture Meter for Sandy Soil under Drip Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abd El- Moniem M.; Gendy, R. W.; Bedaiwy, M. N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a neutron calibration curve in order to be able to use the neutron probe in sandy soils under drip irrigation systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Soil and Water Department of the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority. Three replicates were used along the lateral lines of the drip irrigation system. For each dripper, ten neutron access tubes were installed to 100-cm depth at distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm from the dripper location around the drippers on the lateral line, as well as between lateral lines. The neutron calibrations were determined at 30, 45, and 60-cm depths. Determining coefficients as well as t-test in pairs were employed to detect the accuracy of the calibrations. Results indicated that in order for the neutron calibration curve to express the whole wet area around the emitter; three-access tubes must be installed at distances of 5, 15, and 25 cm from the emitter. This calibration curve will be correlating the average count ratio (CR) at the studied soil depth of the three locations (5, 15, and 25-cm distances from the emitter) to the average moisture content (θ) for this soil depth of the entire wetted area. This procedure should be repeated at different times in order to obtain different θ and C.R values, so that the regression equation of calibration curve at this soil depth can be obtained. To determine the soil moisture content, the average CR of the three locations must be taken and substituted into the regression equation representing the neutron calibration curve. Results taken from access tubes placed at distances of 15 cm from the emitter, showed good agreement with the average calibration curve both for the 45- and the 60-cm depths, suggesting that the 15-cm distance may provide a suitable substitute for the simultaneous use of the three different distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm. However, the obtained results show also that the neutron calibration curves of the 30-cm depth for

  11. Development of fine and coarse roots of Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant' in non-irrigated and drip irrigated field plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Willigen, de P.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aboveground dry mass, total root dry mass and root length density of the fine roots of Thuja occidentalis `Brabant' were determined under non- and drip-irrigated field conditions. Two-dimensional diffusion parameters for dynamic root growth were estimated based on dry mass production of the fine

  12. Stalk yield of sugarcane cultivars under different water regimes by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the stalk yield of ten sugarcane cultivars (RB962962, RB931011, RB931530, RB98710, RB92579, RB867515, RB863129, SP791011, RB72545 and VAT90212 subjected to water deficit, full irrigation and water surplus by subsurface drip irrigation, during three cropping seasons (2011-2014. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, in dystrophic Red Yellow Argisol. The cultivars RB962962 (162.3 Mg ha-1 and RB867515 (158.5 Mg ha-1 have better stalk yield compared with other cultivars in all water regimes and cropping seasons.

  13. A Computer Program for Drip Irrigation System Design for Small Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipova, Nina; Nicheva, Olga; Kazandjiev, Valentin; Chilikova-Lubomirova, Mila

    2012-12-01

    A computer programhas been developed for design of surface drip irrigation system. It could be applied for calculation of small scale fields with an area up to 10 ha. The program includes two main parts: crop water requirements and hydraulic calculations of the system. It has been developed in Graphical User Interface in MATLAB and gives opportunity for selecting some parameters from tables such as: agro- physical soil properties, characteristics of the corresponding crop, climatic data. It allows the user of the program to assume and set a definite value, for example the emitter discharge, plot parameters and etc. Eight cases of system layout according to the water source layout and the number of plots of the system operation are laid into hydraulic section of the program. It includes the design of lateral, manifold, main line and pump calculations. The program has been compiled to work in Windows.

  14. Low salinity hydrocarbon water disposal through deep subsurface drip irrigation: leaching of native selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Engle, Mark A.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Zupancic, John W.; Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A subsurface drip irrigation system is being used in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin that treats high sodium, low salinity, coal bed methane (CBM) produced water with sulfuric acid and injects it into cropped fields at a depth of 0.92 m. Dissolution of native gypsum releases calcium that combats soil degradation that would otherwise result from high sodium water. Native selenium is leached from soil by application of the CBM water and traces native salt mobilization to groundwater. Resulting selenium concentrations in groundwater at this alluvial site were generally low (0.5–23 μg/L) compared to Wyoming’s agricultural use suitability standard (20 μg/L).

  15. Study of capillary experiments and hydrologic factors under subsurface drip irrigation with fractal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W; Cao, L

    2012-01-01

    Soil spatial variability is one of the primary environmental factors that influences the hydraulic factors and technical indicators of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), whose emitters are buried in the soil. This paper aimed at evaluating these effects of soil spatial variability on hydrologic factors under SDI. And some SDI emitter and capillary experiments were designed to obtain test data and distribution of pressure and emitter discharge. First, The results of labyrinth non-turbulent mosaic drip emitter test and fractal theory were used to research the fractal and quantitative relationship between single emitter hydrologic factors and soil physical parameters; and then, the capillary experiments and the relationship among hydrologic factors of capillary were used to analyze the fractal and quantitative relationship between hydrologic factors of capillary and soil physical parameters, which explained the inner relationship between spatial variability of soil and hydrologic factors of filed pipeline network under SDI, and provide theory support for the plan, design, management and production of SDI.

  16. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  17. Simulation of Salinity Distribution in Soil Under Drip Irrigation Tape with Saline Water Using SWAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The to be limited available water amount from one side and to be increased needs of world population from the other side have caused increase of cultivation for products. For this reason, employing new irrigation ways and using new water resources like using the uncommon water (salty water, water drainage are two main strategies for regulating water shortage conditions. On the other side, accumulation of salts on the soil surface in dry regions having low rainfall and much evaporation, i.e. an avoidable case. As doing experiment for determining moisture distribution form demands needs a lot of time and conducting desert experiments are costly, stimulator models are suitable alternatives in answering the problem concerning moving and saltiness distribution. Materials and Methods: In this research, simulation of soil saltiness under drip irrigation was done by the SWAP model and potency of the above model was done in comparison with evaluated relevant results. SWAP model was performed based on measured data in a corn field equipped with drip irrigation system in the farming year 1391-92 in the number one research field in the engineering faculty of water science, ShahidChamran university of Ahvaz and hydraulic parameters of soil obtained from RETC . Statistical model in the form of a random full base plan with four attendants for irrigating water saltiness including salinity S1 (Karoon River water with salinity 3 ds/m as a control treatment, S2 (S1 +0/5, S3 (S1 +1 and S4 (S1 +1/5 dS/m, in 3 repetition and in 3 intervals of 10 cm emitter, 20 cm emitters on the stack, at a depth of 0-90 cm (instead of each 30 cm from soil surface and intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days after modeling cultiviation was done. The cultivation way was done handheld in plots including four rows of 3 m in distance of 75 cm rows and with denseness of 80 bushes in a hectar. Drip irrigation system was of type strip with space of 20 cm pores. Results and Discussion

  18. Soil salinity under deficit drip irrigation of potato and millet in in an arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of deficit irrigation (DI with saline water on soil salinity in a drip-irrigated potato and millet fields was investigated. We had compared proportional soil salinity developed under Full and DI under drip irrigation. For both experiments, the treatments were (1 Full, control treatment where rooting zone soil water content was increased to field capacity at each irrigation; (2 DI80; (3 DI60 and DI40; 20, 40 and 60% deficit irrigation compared to Full treatment were applied, respectively. Soil salinity was assessed using the isosalinity maps constructed with grid soil sampling of plant root zone at harvest. Results show that high spatial variability was observed in salinity along soil profiles when applying saline water with drip irrigation for potato. For the DI40 and DI60 treatments, high soil salinity was recorded in the upper soil layer close to the emitter. Increase of soil salinity within soil depths of 30 cm or below was also observed under DI60 and DI40 treatments. The lowest increase was noted under the full treatment. Surface soil salinity was somewhat higher under DI60 and DI40 compared with that of full and DI80 irrigation treatments. The distribution of salts around the dripper changes during the crop season according to applied irrigation treatments, with overall higher concentrations between the drippers and towards the margin of wetted band. Iso-salinity maps at harvest of potato showed that the surface layer of 30 cm depth had the lowest salinity which gradually increased at deeper zones irrespective of the treatment. Salt accumulation essentially occurred at wetting front between the drippers and the plant row. Although salt accumulation was relatively highest along the row under DI treatments, the area of accumulation was relatively shifted toward the center between the rows and the drip line. The results also show the importance of the potato cropping season to benefit from the leaching of soluble salts with the

  19. FEATURES OF MINERAL NUTRITION FOR TOMATO PLANTS WITH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN OPEN FIELD CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Akhmetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dagestan is the largest region with irrigation system of agriculture in Russia. Irrigated lands provide 70% of total plant production. The field cultivation is carried on arable land in plain region of the republic. The drip irrigation as an ecologically safe technology for watering is regarded as major means for vegetable production farming. This approach maintains the propitious level of water and air in the soil without surface and deep drainage of irrigating water. These irrigated lands are expected to be used first of all for valuable and profitable crops such as tomato that is a leading crop in Dagestan. The experimental work was carried out at OOO ‘Dagagrocomplex’, Aleksandro-Nevskoye, in Tarumovskiy region. The aim of the study was to determinate the optimal dose of mineral fertilizers and the way of their application to improve the productivity without quality loss. The complex analysis of the technology for tomato production under drip irrigation through nontransplanting culture showed its high efficiency, because volume and quality of yield directly depended on soil moisture and precise supporting of mineral nutrition rates. The maximal yield of tomato fruits, 88.7-94.5 t/ha was observed with once mineral fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60 with soil humidity 70-80% (field moisture capacity, and also at the dose of N180P135K60 with basic application of N100 in nutrition rate. The result of the study showed that the optimization of two factors, namely soil water rate and mineral nutrition, enabled to produce additionally 39.2 t/ha. It was shown the tight connection between yielding and its quality; when yielding 95 t/ha, the increased contents of dry matter to 7.01%, sugar to 3.8% vitamin C to 18.46% were noticed. The high quality of produced output was supported by pre-watering threshold of moisture at 75-80% (field moisture capacity, when once fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60. 

  20. Application of drip irrigation technology for producing fruit of Salak ‘Gula Pasir’ (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir off season on dry land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Rai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Naturally, Salak Gula Pasir (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir is flowering every three months or four times a year, but only one or two flowering seasons that the flowers can develop into fruit. The condition causes Salak Gula Pasir is available in the market in a short period (only 2-3 months i.e. at the time of harvest (on-season from December to February. This seasonal nature of Salak Gula Pasir occurs because Salak Gula Pasir is planted on dry land where irrigation depends only on rainfall, and drought occurs when water is shortage so that the plant internal water content is low that causes a high failure development rate of flower to become fruit (fruit-set failure. This study was aimed to overcome the fruit-set failure by providing drip irrigation. Two treatments (with drip irrigation and without drip irrigation/control with sixteen replicates were tested at Salak Gula Pasir production centre (at Sibetan village, Bebandem District, of Karangasem Regency, Bali at two harvest seasons, i.e. Gadu (July and Sela II (October. The results showed that the plant provided with drip irrigation significantly yielded fruit-set percentage higher that that without drip irrigation, both in Gadu and Sela II seasons. The percentages of fruit-set in Gadu and Sela II seasons provided with drip irrigation were 75.30% and 93.13%, respectively, while those without drip irrigation were only 59.94% and 61.67%, respectively. The increase of fruit-set observed for drip irrigation treatment associated with the increase of leaf chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC of leaves, and leaf N, P, and K contents. The increase of fruit-set led to higher number of fruits and fruit weight per plant under drip irrigation than that without drip irrigation. Based on the results of this study, drip irrigation can be applied to produce Salak Gula Pasir planted out of season on dry land.

  1. Water and nutrient productivity in melon crop by fertigation under subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping intensification and technical, economic and environmental issues require efficient application of production factors to maintain the soil productive capacity and produce good quality fruits and vegetables. The production factors, water and NPK nutrients, are the most frequent limiting factors to higher melon yields. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in a protected environment on the water and NPK nutrients productivity in melon cropped in two soil types: sandy loam and clay. The melon crop cultivated under environmental conditions with underground drip irrigation at 0.20m depth, with mulching on sandy loam soil increased water and N, P2O5 and K use efficiency.

  2. Leaching of human pathogens in repacked soil lysimeters and contamination of potato tubers under subsurface drip irrigation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Anita; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    The risk for contamination of potatoes and groundwater through subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water was explored in 30 large-scale lysimeters containing repacked coarse sand and sandy loam soils. The human pathogens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O......, phage 28B was detected in low concentrations (2 pfu ml1) in leachate from both sandy loam soil and coarse sand lysimeters. After 27 days, phage 28B continued to be present in similar concentrations in leachate from lysimeters containing coarse sand, while no phage were found in lysimeters with sandy....... The findings of bacterial pathogens and phage 28 on all potato samples suggest that the main risk associated with subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water is faecal contamination of root crops, in particular those consumed raw....

  3. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Huijin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE) was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink) over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, w...

  4. assessment of injection of liquid rhizobial inoculum and traditional inoculation of soybean under furrow and drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Kurdali, F.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean in naturally N 2 -fixing legume, but it needs artificial inoculation with appropriate strains of rhizobia when introduced to land not previously cultivated to the crop. As soybean is being introduced to Syria, inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum is essential to ensure effective biological nitrogen fixation by the crop. The question is: what is the most effective mean of inoculation?. As Syria is a water-short country, we examined the possibility of applying the rhizobial inoculant in irrigation system (Biofertigation) in contrast with the conventional seed pelleting application. In a 2 year experiment at a research station near Damascus, we compared seed pelleting of the inoculant under furrow and drip irrigation, with repeated inoculation by injection of a liquid culture rhizobial inoculum through the drip system. Drip irrigation enhanced N 2 fixation by soybean regardless of inoculation technique ad repeated inoculation. Injection of the liquid rhizobial inoculum through drip irrigation system was shown to enhances the acquisition of atmospheric N 2 and improve N 2 fixation by soybean.(author)

  5. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region.

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    Xiaoyu Li

    Full Text Available Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, which was more than that in cotton cropland without plastic film mulching and drip-irrigation. Moreover, when time is scaled up from a half-hour to a month, the correlations of gross primary production (GPP to air temperature (Tair, net solar radiation (Rn and soil water content (SWC gradually become stronger due to ecosystem resistance and resilience as well as the protection of plastic film mulching. The GPP is more strongly correlated with Rn than Tair at time scales from minutes to days, while it reverses at time scales from days to weeks. This outcome is largely determined by the biochemical characteristics of photosynthesis. SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD at all time scales are weakly correlated with GPP because plastic film mulching and regularly drip-irrigation allow soil to maintain sufficient water.

  6. Improving yield and water use efficiency of sugarcane under drip irrigation in the Gharb region of Morocco

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    M. AABAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most limiting factors for agricultural development in Morocco is water scarcity linked to climate change. Since 2008, an important program promoting drip irrigation was undertaken by the state to achieve water saving and productivity. An experiment on sugarcane was conducted in the Gharb region under Mediterranean climate with a silty clay soil during two cropping seasons. The objectives were to assess the sugarcane water requirements, optimize WUE and test the crop response to variable irrigation water supplies under drip irrigation. The experiment was conducted using ‘’CP70-321’’ sugarcane cultivar in an experimental station using a randomized block design with four replications and five water regimes. The results showed a highly significant effect of the water regime on sugar and stems yields and also on height of stems. Water requirements for sugarcane were estimated at 7500 m³.ha-1, but 5000 m³.ha-1 equivalent to 67%ETc, was sufficient to optimize WUE (132 to 157 kg of stems ha-1.mm-1 and 22.2 to 24.2 kg of sugar ha-1.mm-1. This means that drip irrigation on sugarcane could potentially i save about 50% of the irrigation volume, comparatively to sprinkler irrigation, ii almost double the stem yields and iii increase the sugar yields from 8 to 23 tons/ha.

  7. Development, yield and quality attributes of sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip irrigation

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    André L. B. de O. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the development, yield and quality of four sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip system. The experiment was carried out in Campinas-SP, Brazil, from January 2012 to November 2013, with the cultivars SP79-1011, IACSP94-2101, IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000 subjected to daily irrigations. The irrigations depths were applied to bring soil moisture to field capacity. Soil moisture was monitored using soil moisture probes. Samples were collected along the crop cycle in order to evaluate crop development and yield, at the end of the first and second ratoons. Stalk height showed good correlation for the estimation of crop yield, with R2 equal to or higher than 0.96. The cultivar IACSP95-5000 showed the highest yield in the first ratoon. In the second ratoon the highest yield was observed in IACSP94-2101, followed by IACSP95-5000 and SP79-1011. Considering the yield results associated with the technological analysis, such as soluble solids content and apparent sucrose, the cultivar IACSP95-5000 excelled the others in the cultivation under subsurface drip irrigation.

  8. An optimization model to design and manage subsurface drip irrigation system for alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelous, M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J. A.; Simunek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods for watering alfalfa plants. Lateral installation depth and distance, emitter discharge, and irrigation time and frequency of SDI, in addition to soil and climatic conditions affect alfalfa’s root water uptake and yield. Here we use a multi-objective optimization approach to find optimal SDI strategies. Our approach uses the AMALGAM evolutionary search method, in combination with the HYDRUS-2D unsaturated flow model to maximize water uptake by alfalfa’s plant roots, and minimize loss of irrigation and drainage water to the atmosphere or groundwater. We use a variety of different objective functions to analyze SDI. These criteria include the lateral installation depth and distance, the lateral discharge, irrigation duration, and irrigation frequency. Our framework includes explicit recognition of the soil moisture status during the simulation period to make sure that the top soil is dry for harvesting during the growing season. Initial results show a wide spectrum of optimized SDI strategies for different root distributions, soil textures and climate conditions. The developed tool should be useful in helping farmers optimize their irrigation strategy and design.

  9. Evaluation of different methods of measuring evapotranspiration as a scheduling guide for drip-irrigated cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.; Marani, A.; Mahrer, Y.; Berkovich, D.

    1983-01-01

    Evapotranspiration in a drip-irrigated cotton field was estimated by the energy balance method, net radiation, standard evaporation pan, evaporation pan in the field at canopy height, and by the Penman equation, and the results were compared with the soil-water balance based on neutron meter and tensiometer data from seven observation sites. Evapotranspiration according to the soil-water balance was only about 85% of that determined by the energy balance method, and this is attributed to the fact that irrigation laterals were placed every second row, and the soil-water balance was determined in the irrigated rows. The crop also utilized moisture stored from winter rains in the unirrigated inter-row spaces, which was detected by the energy balance method. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was 96% of potential ET (Penman), and the latter equalled 98% of net radiation energy. The actual ET equalled 90% of free water evaporation from the pan in the field at canopy height, and 88% of net radiation. The high-frequency drip regime maintained ET very close to potential ET, and under these conditions the field-installed evaporation pan, or the net radiometer, are good indicators of crop water use, with the latter being adaptable to computer-controlled irrigation. (author)

  10. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF MANGOSTEEN FOR EXPORT THROUGH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND YELLOW FLUORESCENT STICKY TRAP INSTALLATION

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    Affandi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. dubbed as “finest fruit of the world”, has potential for both domestic market and export. However, this potential is threatened by low fruit quality caused by production of yellow latex and fruit scarring. The research objective was to obtain technology to reduce yellow latex and control Scirtothrips dorsalis, a pest that causes scarring on mangosteen. A randomized block design with four treatments and 14 replications was used in this research. Significant differences among the treatments were calculated using the Honestly Significant Difference (HSD test. The results showed that treatment of drip irrigation system in combination with removing weeds under the canopy (A or removing weeds followed by minimum tillage under the canopy (B or removing weeds then covering with rice hay mulch under the canopy (C, where N, P, K, Ca, Mg fertilizer and yellow fluorescent sticky trap were applied could reduce scarring intensity and percentage of yellow latex on the fruit peel. However, the treatments did not significantly impact fruit diameter or percentage of yellow latex inside the fruit. Nevertheless, treatment C improved mangosteen quality by as much as 67.79% fulfilling export standard requirements.

  11. The effects of three techniques that change the wetting patterns over subsurface drip-irrigated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnesr, M.N.; Alazba, A.A.

    2015-07-01

    Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods) that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE) of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%); the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10%) and the WUE (~14%), but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability. (Author)

  12. Double row spacing and drip irrigation as technical options in energy sorghum management

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    Neri Roncucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two row spacing configurations and four water supply levels was investigated on sweet and fibre sorghum in Central Italy for two consecutive years. Results highlighted the influence of both irrigation and row spatial configuration on crop productivity. Indeed, several studies have pointed out the positive response of sorghum to irrigation in Mediterranean climate, as in this environment water stress represents one of the main limiting factors on crop productivity. On the other hand, few attempts have been made to explore the role of row spacing on energy sorghum productivity. Results outlined an average increase in sorghum dry biomass yield ranging from +23% to +79% at variable rates of water supply as compared to rainfed control. The positive effect of irrigation was also observed on leaf area index and radiation use efficiency. Moreover, we observed a crop yield increase, from 9% to 20%, under double row spacing compared to the standard planting pattern (i.e. single row spacing. Finally, it was confirmed the efficient use of water by sorghum and the great ability of sorghum to increase its biomass yield in response to increasing volumes of water supplied. Therefore, this work suggests how row spacing configuration and drip irrigation could be feasible technical options to increase sorghum biomass yields in Mediterranean environments. These techniques should be experienced by farmers towards a sustainable intensification of current cropping systems.

  13. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legind, Charlotte N; Kennedy, Coleen M; Rein, Arno; Snyder, Nathan; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw(-1). Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw(-1). Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates. Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between applications and before harvest, through the integrated accounting of soil, plant and environmental influences. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Water-Yield Relations of Drip Irrigated Watermelon in Temperate Climatic Conditions

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    Pejić Borivoj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study, conducted in Vojvodina a northern part of the Serbia Republic, was to analyse the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of watermelon (Cirullus lanatus Thunb. grown with plasticulture. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration was computed using the reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficient. The yield of watermelon in irrigation conditions (37,28 t/ha was significantly higher compared to non irrigated (9,98 t/ha. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions was 398 mm and 117 mm on non irrigated variant. The crop yield response factor of 1,04 for the whole growing season reveals that relative yield decrease was nearly equal to the rate of evapotranspiration deficit. The values of irrigation water use efficiency and evapotranspiration water use efficiency were 9,93 kg/m3 and 10,29 kg/m3 respectively. The determined results could be used as a good platform for watermelon growers in the region, in terms of improvement of the optimum utilization of irrigation water.

  15. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  16. Nitrogen utilization efficiency and yield response of drip-irrigated tomatoes grown in the glass house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    This greenhouse study conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil, as a single crop production, heated only for anti frost, was designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0, 50, 100 or 150 mgN/l and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K, respectively, were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N 15 labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). For each plant the amount of water, P,K and the N 15 applied through the bottles was equivalent to that amount applied through a single dripper. These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 400 kgN/ha that was equivalent to 100 mgN/l treatment. The resulting N application totals ranged from 200 to 600 kgN/ha.The total amount of water applied was 427mm. The results obtainedshowed that the percentage fertilizer utilization by the tomatoes was the highest in 50 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha) treatment, 100 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) treatment, was on the second row, the percentage fertilizer utilization in 150 mgN/l (600 kgN/ha) and soil applications (400 kgN/ha) were the same and were significantly lower than the other treatments. The highest yield was achieved in the 100 and 150 mgN/l (400 and 600 kgN/ha) treatments. This experiment demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes to obtain high yield in production under greenhouse conditions

  17. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  18. Optimized solar-wind-powered drip irrigation for farming in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carolina M.

    The two billion people produce 80% of all food consumed in the developing world and 1.3 billion lack access to electricity. Agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% worldwide by 2050 and to achieve this about 50% more primary energy has to be made available by 2035. Energy-smart agri-food systems can improve productivity in the food sector, reduce energy poverty in rural areas and contribute to achieving food security and sustainable development. Agriculture can help reduce poverty for 75% of the world's poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The costs associated with irrigation pumping are directly affected by energy prices and have a strong impact on farmer income. Solar-wind (SW) drip irrigation (DI) is a sustainable method to meet these challenges. This dissertation shows with onsite data the low cost of SW pumping technologies correlating the water consumption (evapotranspiration) and the water production (SW pumping). The author designed, installed, and collected operating data from the six SWDI systems in Peru and in the Tohono O'odham Nation in AZ. The author developed, tested, and a simplified model for solar engineers to size SWDI systems. The author developed a business concept to scale up the SWDI technology. The outcome was a simplified design approach for a DI system powered by low cost SW pumping systems optimized based on the logged on site data. The optimization showed that the SWDI system is an income generating technology and that by increasing the crop production per unit area, it allowed small farmers to pay for the system. The efficient system resulted in increased yields, sometimes three to four fold. The system is a model for smallholder agriculture in developing countries and can increase nutrition and greater incomes for the world's poor.

  19. Effect of soil properties on Hydraulic characteristics under subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wangtao; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a technique that has a high potential in application because of its high efficiency in water-saving. The hydraulic characteristics of SDI sub-unit pipe network can be affected by soil physical properties as the emitters are buried in soils. The related research, however, is not fully explored. The laboratory tests were carried out in the present study to determine the effects of hydraulic factors including operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density on flow rate and its sensitivity to each hydraulic factor for two types of SDI emitters (PLASSIM emitter and Heping emitter). For this purpose, three soils with contrasting textures (i.e., light sand, silt loam, and light clay) were repacked with two soil bulk density (1.25 and1.40 g cm-3) with two initial soil water content (12% and 18%) in plexiglass columns with 40 cm in diameter and 40 cm in height. Drip emitters were buried at depth of 20 cm to measure the flow rates under seven operating pressures (60, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 370 kPa). We found that the operating pressure was the dominating factor of flow rate of the SDI emitter, and flow rate increased with the increase of operating pressure. The initial soil water content and bulk density also affected the flow rate, and their effects were the most notable in the light sand soil. The sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor was dependent on soil texture, and followed a descending order of light sand>silt loam>light clay for both types of emitters. Further, the sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor decreased with the increase of operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density. This study may be used to guide the soil specific-design of SDI emitters for optimal water use and management.

  20. Impacts of Ridge-Furrow Planting on Salt Stress and Cotton Yield under Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitao Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat (F, mini-ditch (MD, and ridge-furrow (RF are three conventional cotton planting patterns that are usually adopted around the world, yet soil and crop responses to these three patterns are poorly studied, as is their suitability for increasing yield for coastal areas in Eastern China. The effects of three planting methods on water and salt dynamics as well as on growth and lint yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. were investigated in a saline field in Bohai Rim, China, to select the best planting pattern for cultivating coastal saline fields of Eastern China. Soil moisture in the root zone with RF was 11.9% and 12.1% higher than with F and MD, whereas the electrical conductivity of a saturated soil extract (ECe in the root zone with RF was 18.0% and 13.8% lower than with MD and F, respectively, during the growth period, which indicated that RF could efficiently collect rainfall and leach salt in the root zone. After drip irrigation, the infiltration and salt-leaching depth with RF were both deeper than that with F and MD. The stand establishment of MD was the highest (80.3% due to the greenhouse effect from film mulching, and was 12.8% and 4.6% higher than that with F and RF, respectively. Growth indicators and lint yield demonstrated that RF was superior to F and MD because of the higher soil moisture and lower ECe. The lint yield was significantly higher in RF, suggesting that RF can be an optimal planting pattern for agricultural reclamation in similar saline-alkaline areas around the world.

  1. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part II. geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Waters with low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) present a challenge to irrigation because they degrade soil structure and infiltration capacity. In the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, such low salinity (electrical conductivity, EC 2.1 mS cm-1) and high-SAR (54) waters are co-produced with coal-bed methane and some are used for subsurface drip irrigation(SDI). The SDI system studied mixes sulfuric acid with irrigation water and applies water year-round via drip tubing buried 92 cm deep. After six years of irrigation, SAR values between 0 and 30 cm depth (0.5-1.2) are only slightly increased over non-irrigated soils (0.1-0.5). Only 8-15% of added Na has accumulated above the drip tubing. Sodicity has increased in soil surrounding the drip tubing, and geochemical simulations show that two pathways can generate sodic conditions. In soil between 45-cm depth and the drip tubing, Na from the irrigation water accumulates as evapotranspiration concentrates solutes. SAR values >12, measured by 1:1 water-soil extracts, are caused by concentration of solutes by factors up to 13. Low-EC (-1) is caused by rain and snowmelt flushing the soil and displacing ions in soil solution. Soil below the drip tubing experiences lower solute concentration factors (1-1.65) due to excess irrigation water and also contains relatively abundant native gypsum (2.4 ± 1.7 wt.%). Geochemical simulations show gypsum dissolution decreases soil-water SAR to 14 and decreasing EC in soil water to 3.2 mS cm-1. Increased sodicity in the subsurface, rather than the surface, indicates that deep SDI can be a viable means of irrigating with sodic waters.

  2. Greenhouse and field-based studies on the distribution of dimethoate in cotton and its effect on Tetranychus urticae by drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangtao; Zhou, Lijuan; Yao, Qiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Hanhong; Huang, Jiguang

    2018-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton. We investigated the efficacy of dimethoate in controlling T. urticae by drip irrigation. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae and the absorption and distribution of dimethoate in cotton. Greenhouse results showed that cotton leaves received higher amounts of dimethoate compared with cotton roots and stems, with higher amounts in young leaves compared with old leaves and cotyledon having the lowest amounts among leaves. Field results showed the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae by drip irrigation varied by volume of dripping water, soil pH and dimethoate dosage. Dimethoate applied at 3.00 kg ha -1 with 200 m 3  ha -1 water at weak acidic soil pH (5.70-6.70) through drip irrigation can obtain satisfactory control efficacy (81.49%, 7 days) to T. urticae, without negatively impacting on its natural enemy Neoseiulus cucumeris. The residue of dimethoate in all cotton seed samples were not detectable. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of applying dimethoate by drip irrigation for control of T. urticae on cotton. This knowledge could aid in the applicability of dimethoate by drip irrigation for field management of T. urticae populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Irrigation Levels of Drip Irrigation (Tape on Yield and Yield Components of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the serious problems in the further development of maize cultivation is increasing irrigation efficiency. Using conventional irrigation causes a shortage of water resources to increase the acreage of the crop. With regard to the development of maize cultivation, agronomic and executable methods must be studied to reduce water consumption. Using drip irrigation system is most suitable for row crops. Hamedi et al. (2005 compared drip (tape and surface irrigation systems on yield of maize in different levels of water requirement and indicated that drip irrigation increases the amount of yield to 2015 kg/ha and water use efficiency to 3 time. Kohi et al. (2005 investigated the effects of deficit irrigation use of drip (tape irrigation on water use efficiency on maize in planting of one and two rows. The results showed that maximum water use efficiency related to crop density, water requirement and planting pattern 85000, 125% and two rows, respectively with 1.46 kg/m3. Jafari and Ashrafi (2011 studied the effects of irrigation levels, plant density and planting pattern in drip irrigation (tape on corn. The results showed that the amount of irrigation water and crop density on the level of 1% and their interactions and method of planting were significant at the 5 and 10% on water use efficiency, respectively. The yield was measured under different levels of irrigation, crop density and method of planting and the difference was significant on the level of 1%. Lamm et al. (1995 studied water requirement of maize in field with silt loam texture under sub drip irrigation and reported that water use reduced to 75%; but yield of maize remained at maximum amount of 12.5 t/ha. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drip (tape irrigation method for corn production practices in the Qazvin province in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, yield and yield components of corn (SC 704 were investigated under different levels of

  4. Two year measurement of nitrous oxide emission from high frequency surface and subsurface drip irrigations in pomegranate orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building resiliency in California agriculture means utilizing adaptive farming practices that will produce better yields while overcoming the State’s current challenges, such as diminishing water supply and deteriorating water quality. In addition, California agriculture also needs to take proactive...

  5. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  6. Prototype of a subsurface drip irrigation emitter: Manufacturing, hydraulic evaluation and experimental analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wanderley De Jesus; Rodrigues Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez, Raúl; Arriel Botrel, Tarlei; Duarte Coelho, Rubens

    2013-04-01

    Root and soil intrusion into the conventional emitters is one of the major disadvantages to obtain a good uniformity of water application in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). In the last years, there have been different approaches to reduce these problems such as the impregnation of emitters with herbicide, and the search for an emitter geometry impairing the intrusion of small roots. Within the last this study, has developed and evaluated an emitter model which geometry shows specific physical features to prevent emitter clogging. This work was developed at the Biosystems Engineering Department at ESALQ-USP/Brazil, and it is a part of a research in which an innovated emitteŕs model for SDI has been developed to prevent root and soil particles intrusion. An emitter with a mechanical-hydraulic mechanism (opening and closing the water outlet) for SDI was developed and manufactured using a mechanical lathe process. It was composed by a silicon elastic membrane a polyethylene tube and a Vnyl Polychloride membrane protector system. In this study the performance of the developed prototype was assessed in the laboratory and in the field conditions. In the laboratory, uniformity of water application was calculated by the water emission uniformity coefficient (CUE), and the manufacturer's coefficient of variation (CVm). In addition, variation in the membrane diameter submitted to internal pressures; head losses along the membrane, using the energy equation; and, precision and accuracy of the equation model, analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and by Willmott's concordance index (d) were also calculated with samples of the developed emitters. In the field, the emitters were installed in pots with and without sugar cane culture from October 2010 to January 2012. During this time, flow rate in 20 emitters were measured periodically, and the aspects of them about clogging at the end of the experiment. Emitters flow rates were measured quarterly to calculate

  7. Transitional Effects of Double-Lateral Drip Irrigation and Straw Mulch on Irrigation Water Consumption, Mineral Nutrition, Yield, and Storability of Sweet Cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field trial was conducted on a Cherryhill silt loam soil at The Dalles, OR from 2006 through 2008. The impacts of switching from the traditional micro sprinkler irrigation (MS) to double-lateral drip irrigation (DD) and from no ground cover with herbicide control of weeds (NC) to in-row wheat (Tri...

  8. Rational Water and Nitrogen Management Improves Root Growth, Increases Yield and Maintains Water Use Efficiency of Cotton under Mulch Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to optimize water-nitrogen (N applications to increase seed cotton yield and water use efficiency (WUE under a mulch drip irrigation system. This study evaluated the effects of four water regimes [moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W1, deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W2, pre-sowing and moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W3, pre-sowing and deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W4] and N fertilizer at a rate of 520 kg ha-1 in two dressing ratios [7:3 (N1, 2:8 (N2] on cotton root morpho-physiological attributes, yield, WUE and the relationship between root distribution and dry matter production. Previous investigations have shown a strong correlation between root activity and water consumption in the 40–120 cm soil layer. The W3 and especially W4 treatments significantly increased root length density (RLD, root volume density (RVD, root mass density (RMD, and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer. Cotton RLD, RVD, RMD was decreased by 13.1, 13.3, and 20.8%, respectively, in N2 compared with N1 at 70 days after planting (DAP in the 0–40 cm soil layer. However, root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer at 140 DAP was 31.6% higher in N2 than that in N1. Total RMD, RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil were significantly and positively correlated with shoot dry weight. RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer was highest in the W4N2 treatments. Therefore increased water consumption in the deep soil layers resulted in increased shoot dry weight, seed cotton yield and WUE. Our data can be used to develop a water-N management strategy for optimal cotton yield and high WUE.

  9. Water movement through a shallow unsaturated zone in an inland arid region: Field drip irrigation experiment under matrix potential control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Han, D.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    It is vital to study soil water movement in unsaturated zone for evaluating and improving current irrigation mode for prevention and control of soil secondary salinization, especially in inland arid area, where is characterized by strong evaporation, poor drainage system and shallow water table depth. In this study, we investigated the applicability of drip irrigation under matrix potential control during cotton growth seasons in an inland arid region of northwest China. Combined physical observation with stable isotopes tracing method, we studied soil water flow system and recharge sources of shallow groundwater in heavy (Pilot 1) and light (Pilot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. Evaporation depths (about 50-60 cm) are about the same for both pilots, but infiltration depths (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 150 cm for Pilot 2) are very different due to different soil texture, soil structure and soil salt content. Middle layer (about 100 cm thick) is a critical barrier for water exchange between surface and deep layer. Irrigation water is the major source (about 79.6% for Pilot 1 and 81.6% for Pilot 2), while evapotranspiration is the major sink (about 80.7% for Pilot 1 and 83.1% for Pilot 2) of unsaturated zone. The increase of soil water storage is not enough to make up the water shortage of middle layer and thus drip irrigation water doesn't recharge into groundwater for both pilots. Water table rise (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 50 cm for Pilot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. This irrigation mode could retard the water table rise in this region. However, improving horizontal drainage system may be indispensable for sustainable agriculture development. The study can provide important basis for soil secondary salinization prevention and agricultural water management in inland arid areas.

  10. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  11. Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, G.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest ChinaGuanghui Ming1, Fuqiang Tian1*, Hongchang Hu11State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,Abstracts: Agricultural ecosystems have the potential to offset rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere but the potential is often altered by agricultural management. Plastic film mulching and drip irrigation (PMDI) have been widespread for saving water and improving crop yield worldwide. To comprehensively assess the carbon balance and to detect the controlling factors of the carbon flux in a PMDI cotton field, experiments combining eddy covariance (EC) system, chamber method and crop sampling were implemented in an arid oasis of Xinjiang from the year 2012 to 2016. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was -250.18 ± 80.41 g C m-2 in the five years, which indicated that the filed was a much stronger carbon sink. After removal of the harvest of cotton as seed oil (Ch) of 108.81±7.57 g C m-2, the field was still a moderate carbon sink with net biome productivity (NBP) of 141.37±73.7 g C m-2. Soil temperature can explain 82% of seasonal variation of nighttime NEE while PAR can explain 36-81% of daytime NEE varying with crop development and photosynthetic activity. NEE was separated into total ecosystem respiration (Reco, 1214.20±144.42 g C m-2) and gross primary productivity (GPP, 1464.38±122.78 g C m-2). Interannual Reco changed more drastically than GPP and respiration may be the main determinant of carbon balance in the PMDI field. Seasonal NPP measured by cop sampling method (NPPCS) agreed well with NPP calculated with EC (NPPEC), with the annual NPP of 708.86 ± 52.26 g C m-2, which indicated that our carbon flux measurements and separating methods reasonable. The PMDI cotton field induced more GPP and Reco than other croplands with larger light use efficiency (LUE) but relatively

  12. Impacto de los sistemas de riego por goteo en arándanos Impact of drip irrigation systems in blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pannunzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examinó los efectos de diferentes sistemas de riego por goteo en el rendimiento de la variedad O´Neal de arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L. El estudio se realizó en Zarate (33º 41’ S y 59º 41’ W, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El cultivo se implantó en agosto de 2001, la primera cosecha se efectuó en octubre de 2003. El objetivo fue determinar cual era el sistema de riego por goteo que maximizaba el rendimiento, siendo los tratamientos, un lateral de tubería de goteo por fila de plantas con goteros a 40 cm (T1 y dos laterales de tubería de goteo con goteros a 20 cm por fila de plantas (T2. El porcentaje de suelo mojado por sistema se incrementa a medida que aumenta el número de emisores por metro lineal. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con bloques de cinco plantas y cinco repeticiones por tratamiento. La cosecha de 2003, reportó rendimientos de 2436 kg ha-1 para el tratamiento T1 y de 4335 kg ha-1 para tratamiento T2. El mojado parcial del suelo que realiza el tratamiento T1, de menor cantidad de goteros por metro lineal, no es suficiente para mojar un porcentaje de suelo compatible con altos rendimientos.The experiment examined the effects of different drip irrigation systems in an O´Neal variety of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. It was contucted at Zarate (33º 41’ S and 59º 41’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants of the experiment were planted in August of 2001, after one year in nursery. The first harvest was realized in October of 2003. The main scope of the experiment was to find the irrigation system which maximized yields. Treatments were: one drip irrigation line with drippers at 40 cm (T1 and two laterals with drippers at 20 cm per row (T2. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, each one with 5 plants and 5 replications. During the harvest of October and November of 2003, reported yields were 2436 kg ha-1 for the treatment T1 and

  13. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, C. R.; Boehlke, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Geboy, N. J.; Schroeder, K. T.; Zupancic, J. W.

    2013-10-04

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (~3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO{sub 4} salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  14. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Engle, Mark A.; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Schroeder, K.T.; Zupancic, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (∼3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (∼24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  15. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaib Jadoon, Khan; Umer Altaf, Muhammad; McCabe, Matthew Francis; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Nisar; Moghadas, Davood; Weihermüller, Lutz

    2017-10-01

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  16. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Jadoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  17. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2017-10-26

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes\\' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  18. Nitrogen utilization efficiencies and yield responses of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as influenced by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    These greenhouse studies conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an plastic greenhouse, were designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)grown as a spring production and peppers (Capsicum annuum) heated for anti frost to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0,50,100 or 150 mgN/l for tomatoes, 0,70,140 or 210 mgN/l for peppers as NH 4 S 2 O 4 , and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K respectively were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 320 kgN/ha for tomatoe sand 350 kgN/ha for peppers that were equivalent to the 100 mgN/l and 140 mgN/l treatments. The total amount of water applied was 345 mm for tomatoes and 260 mm for peppers. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was achieved in 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and in 140 mgN/l for peppers. The percentage fertilizer N utilization and yield increase by tomatoes and peppers were significantly increased with applying the N fertilizer by the irrigation water, fertigation, relative to the soil application of N at the same level fertilization. Evidently, the nutrient uptake efficiency as indicated by the highest yield is higher with fertigation which is extend means more environmental friendly approach. These experiments demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and 140 mgN/l for peppers to obtain high yield

  19. Nitrous oxide emission and denitrifier communities in drip-irrigated calcareous soil as affected by chemical and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rui; Wakelin, Steven A; Liang, Yongchao; Hu, Baowei; Chu, Guixin

    2018-01-15

    The effects of consecutive application of chemical fertilizer with or without organic fertilizer on soil N 2 O emissions and denitrifying community structure in a drip-irrigated field were determined. The four fertilizer treatments were (i) unfertilized, (ii) chemical fertilizer, (iii) 60% chemical fertilizer plus cattle manure, and (iv) 60% chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. The treatments with organic amendments (i.e. cattle manure and biofertilizer) reduced cumulative N 2 O emissions by 4.9-9.9%, reduced the N 2 O emission factor by 1.3-42%, and increased denitrifying enzyme activities by 14.3-56.2%. The nirK gene copy numbers were greatest in soil which received only chemical fertilizer. In contrast, nirS- and nosZ-copy numbers were greatest in soil amended with chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. Chemical fertilizer application with or without organic fertilizer significantly changed the community structure of nirK-type denitrifiers relative to the unfertilized soil. In comparison, the nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifier genotypes varied in treatments receiving organic fertilizer but not chemical fertilizer alone. The changes in the denitrifier communities were closely associated with soil organic carbon (SOC), NO 3 - , NH 4 + , water holding capacity, and soil pH. Modeling indicated that N 2 O emissions in this soil were primarily associated with the abundance of nirS type denitrifying bacteria, SOC, and NO 3 - . Overall, our findings indicate that (i) the organic fertilizers increased denitrifying enzyme activity, increased denitrifying-bacteria gene copy numbers, but reduced N 2 O emissions, and (ii) nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifiers were more sensitive than nirK-type denitrifiers to the organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2015-05-12

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (σb) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (σ) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of σ were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract – ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  1. Effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments showing the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. were conducted at the experimental field of the Alternative Crops Department, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of the water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration (ETd was computed from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo and crop coefficient (kc in May, June, July and August of 0.5, 0.6, 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. ETo was calculated using Hargreaves equation. The irrigation depth was restricted to the soil depth of 0.3 m. In other words, irrigation started when readily available water in the soil layer of 0.3 m was completely depleted by plants. The irrigation rate was 30 mm (30 l m-2 while the amount of water added by irrigation during the season was 140 mm. Basil sensitivity to water stress was determined using a yield response factor (Ky. According to the results, the yield of fresh herb of basil under irrigation (32.015 t ha-1 was higher by 9% compared to non-irrigated, control variant (29.364 t ha-1. Worthy of note, basil essential oil yield was significantly affected by irrigation (35.329/28.766 kg ha-1. The content of essential oil was significantly higher in irrigated (6.45 g kg-1 than in non-irrigated variant (5.33 g kg-1 in the first harvest, while no significant difference between irrigated and non-irrigated variants was obtained in the second harvest (6.83 and 6.62 g kg-1 , respectively. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions (ETm was 431 mm and 270 mm in non-irrigated, control variant (ETa. The values of irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue and evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue were 1.89 kg m-3 and 1.65 kg m-3 respectively. Ky value (0.22 exhibits all essential characteristics of climate conditions of 2016 rainy year. These preliminary results could be used as a good platform for basil growers in the

  2. Nitrogen use efficiencies of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as affected by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.; Besiroglu, A.

    1996-01-01

    This greenhouse study conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an unheated plastic greenhouse was designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and peppers (Capsicum annum) to four nitrogen levels continually applied with irrigation stream. Water containing 0,67,134 or 201 mgN/l and uniformly supplied with 80 and 240 mg/l of P and K, respectively, were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N 15 labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). For each plant the amount of water, P, K and the N 15 applied through the bottles was to that amount applied through a single dripper. In addition to the fertigation soil application of 400 kgN/ha was included with three adjacent plants in each plot were fertilized receiving N 15 labeled (3.3 % a.e. enrichment) The total amount of water applied was 392 mm and the resulting N application totals ranged from 200 to 600 kgN/ha. According to the results obtained, the maximum yield of tomatoes and peppers were achieved with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha) treatment. The percentage fertilizer utilization by tomatoes was highest with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha), which was followed by 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) .The percentage fertilizer utilization was the lowest with 201 mgN/l (600 kgN/ha) or soil application (400 kgN/ha). The results indicated that the percentage fertilizer utilization of tomatoes was significantly greater by the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha). The fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) than the other applications. The results indicated that although the percentage fertilizer utilization was the same, the fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha)

  3. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad baghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any research done on the use of saline and brackish waters is statistically significant. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of different water salinity and water management on some of the agronomic traits of late summer melon with drip irrigation, an experiment with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions was conducted in a randomized complete block design, in Torogh station, Mashhad. The irrigation treatments were: 1- fresh water from planting to harvesting, 2- water (3 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 3- water (6 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 4- water (6 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 5-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting, 6-water (3 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 7-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting. Row spacing and plant spacing were 3 m and 60 cm, respectively and the pipe type had 6 liters per hour per unit of meters in the drip irrigation system. Finally, the amount of salinity water, number of male and female flowers, number of seed germination, dry leaves' weight, leaf area, chlorophyll (with SPAD etc. were measured and all data were analyzed by using MSTAT-C software and all averages of data, were compared by using the Duncan test. Results and Discussion The results of analysis of data showed the following: Number of seeds germination: Salinity in water irrigation had no significant effects on the number of seed germination. However, there was the most number of seed

  4. [Effects of soil wetting pattern on the soil water-thermal environment and cotton root water consumption under mulched drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-wei; Li, Ming-si; Liu, Dong; Lyu, Mou-chao; Jia, Yan-hui

    2015-08-01

    Abstract: To explore the effects of soil wetting pattern on soil water-thermal environment and water consumption of cotton root under mulched drip irrigation, a field experiment with three drip intensities (1.69, 3.46 and 6.33 L · h(-1)), was carried out in Shihezi, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The soil matric potential, soil temperature, cotton root distribution and water consumption were measured during the growing period of cotton. The results showed that the main factor influencing the soil temperature of cotton under plastic mulch was sunlight. There was no significant difference in the soil temperature and root water uptake under different treatments. The distribution of soil matrix suction in cotton root zone under plastic mulch was more homogeneous under ' wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern (W633). Under the 'wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern, the average difference of cotton root water consumption between inner row and outer row was 0.67 mm · d(-1), which was favorable to the cotton growing trimly at both inner and outer rows; for the 'narrow and deep' soil wetting pattern (W169), the same index was 0.88 mm · d(-1), which was unfavorable to cotton growing uniformly at both inner and outer rows. So, we should select the broad-shallow type soil wetting pattern in the design of drip irrigation under mulch.

  5. Using Hydrus 2-D to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplants under surface and subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Autovino, Dario; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdel Hamid; Provenznao, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the work is to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplant crop (Solanum melongena L.) in a sandy loam soil irrigated with surface or subsurface drip irrigation systems, by means of field measurements and simulations carried out with Hydrus-2D model. Initially, the performance of the model is evaluated on the basis of the comparison between simulated soil water contents (SWC) and the corresponding measured in two plots, in which laterals with coextruded emitters are laid on the soil surface (T0) and at 20 cm depth (T20), respectively. In order to choose the best position of the lateral, the results of different simulation runs, carried out by changing the installation depth of the lateral (5 cm, 15 cm and 45 cm) were compared in terms of ratio between actual transpiration and total amount of water provided during the entire growing season (WUE). Experiments were carried out, from April to June 2007, at Institut Supérieur Agronomique de Chott Mériem (Sousse, Tunisia). In the two plots, plants were spaced 0.40 m along the row and 1.2 m between the rows. Each plot was irrigated by means of laterals with coextruded emitters spaced 0.40 m and discharging a flow rate equal to 4.0 l h-1 at a nominal pressure of 100 kPa. In each plot, spatial and temporal variability of SWCs were acquired with a Time Domain Reflectometry probe (Trime-FM3), on a total of four 70 cm long access tubes, installed along the direction perpendicular to the plant row, at distances of 0, 20, 40 and 60 cm from the emitter. Irrigation water was supplied, accounting for the rainfall, every 7-10 days at the beginning of the crop cycle (March-April) and approximately once a week during the following stages till the harvesting (May-June), for a total of 15 one-hour watering. To run the model, soil evaporation, Ep, and crop transpiration, Tp were determined according to the modified FAO Penman-Monteith equation and the dual crop coefficient approach, whereas soil hydraulics

  6. Effects of deficit drip-irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on pepper yield, water productivity and soil salinity under arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in order to assess the effects of different irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of pepper under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Pepper was grown on a sandy soil and drip-irrigated with water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. Irrigation treatments consisted in water replacements of accumulated ETc at levels of 100% (FI, full irrigation, 80% (DI-80, 60% (DI-60, when the readily available water in the control treatment (FI is depleted, deficit irrigation during ripening stage (FI-MDI60 and farmer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers (FM. Results on pepper yield and soil salinity are globally consistent between the two-year experiments and shows significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity was maintained over the two seasons, 2008 and 2009, with DI-60 and FM treatments than FI. FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments resulted also in low ECe values. Highest yields for both years were obtained under FI (22.3 and 24.4 t/ha although we didn’t find significant differences with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (FI-DI60. However, the DI-80 and DI-60 treatments caused significant reductions in pepper yields through a reduction in fruits number/m² and average fruit weight in comparison with FI treatment. The FM increased soil salinity and caused significant reductions in yield with 14 to 43%, 12 to 39% more irrigation water use than FI, FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments, respectively, in 2008 and 2009. Yields for all irrigation treatments were higher in the second year compared to the first year. Water productivity (WP values reflected this difference and varied between 2.31 and 5.49 kg/m3. The WP was found to vary significantly among treatments, where the highest and the lowest values were observed for DI-60 treatment and FM, respectively. FI treatment provides

  7. The impact of agriculture management on soil quality in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondebrink, Merel; Cerdà, Artemi; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the agricultural management of citrus orchard in the Valencia region in E Spain, is changing from traditionally irrigated and managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. It is not known what is the effect of such changes on soil quality and hope to shed some light with this study on this transition. It is known that the drip-irrigated orchards built in sloping terrain increase soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009; Li et al., 2014) and that agricultural management such as catch crops and mulches reduce sediment yield and surface runoff (Xu et al., 2012; ), as in other orchards around the world (Wang et al., 2010; Wanshnong et al., 2013; Li et al., 2014; Hazarika et al., 2014): We hypothesize that these changes have an important impact on the soil chemical and physical properties. Therefor we studied the soil quality of 12 citrus orchards, which had different land and irrigation management techniques. We compared organic (OR) and conventional (CO) land management with either drip irrigation (DRP) or flood irrigation (FLD). Soil samples at two depths, 0-1 cm and 5-10 cm, were taken for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. These parameters included soil chemical parameters, bulk density, texture, soil surface shear strength and soil aggregation. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other 6 were conventionally managed, and for each of these 6 study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots (FLD) and the other three drip irrigated systems (DRP) In total 108 soil samples were taken as well additional irrigation water samples. We will present the results of this study with regard to the impact of the studied irrigation systems and land management systems with regard to soil quality. This knowledge might help in improving citrus orchard management with respect to maintaining or improving soil quality to ensure sustainable agricultural practices. References Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and

  8. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  9. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen application, and a nitrification inhibitor on nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, S.C., E-mail: stefania@macs.udl.cat [University of Lleida, Environment and Soil Science Department, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Teira-Esmatges, M.R. [University of Lleida, Environment and Soil Science Department, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Arbonés, A.; Rufat, J. [Programa Ús Eficient de l’Aigua, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic Agroalimentari de Lleida (PCiTAL). Parc de Gardeny, Edifici Fruitcentre, E-2503 Lleida (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Drip irrigation combined with nitrogen (N) fertigation is applied in order to save water and improve nutrient efficiency. Nitrification inhibitors reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) associated with the application of N fertiliser through fertigation (0 and 50 kg N ha{sup −1}), and 50 kg N ha{sup −1} + nitrification inhibitor in a high tree density Arbequina olive orchard. Spanish Arbequina is the most suited variety for super intensive olive groves. This system allows reducing production costs and increases crop yield. Moreover its oil has excellent sensorial features. Subsurface drip irrigation markedly reduced N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} emissions compared with surface drip irrigation. Fertiliser application significantly increased N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2}, but not N{sub 2}O emissions. Denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O. The N{sub 2}O losses (calculated as emission factor) ranging from − 0.03 to 0.14% of the N applied, were lower than the IPCC (2007) values. The N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} losses were the largest, equivalent to 1.80% of the N applied, from the 50 kg N ha{sup −1} + drip irrigation treatment which resulted in water filled pore space > 60% most of the time (high moisture). Nitrogen fertilisation significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions in 2011, but only for the subsurface drip irrigation strategies in 2012. The olive orchard acted as a net CH{sub 4} sink for all the treatments. Applying a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), the cumulative N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} emissions were significantly reduced with respect to the control. The DMPP also inhibited CO{sub 2} emissions and significantly increased CH{sub 4} oxidation. Considering global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity, cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions and oil production, it can be concluded that applying DMPP with 50 kg N ha{sup −1

  10. The Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Potato in Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jolaini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After wheat, rice and corn, potato is the fourth most important food plant in the world. In comparison with other species, potato is very sensitive to water stress because of its shallow root system: approximately 85% of the root length is concentrated in the upper 0.3-0.4 m of the soil. Several studies showed that drip irrigation is an effective method for enhancing potato yield. Fabeiro et al. (2001 concluded that tuber bulking and ripening stages were found to be the most sensitive stages of water stress with drip irrigation. Water deficit occurring in these two growth stages could result in yield reductions. Wang et al. (2006 investigated the effects of drip irrigation frequency on soil wetting pattern and potato yield. The results indicated that potato roots were not limited in wetted soil volume even when the crop was irrigated at the highest frequency while high frequency irrigation enhanced potato tuber growth and water use efficiency (WUE. Though information about irrigation and N management of this crop is often conflicting in the literature, it is accepted generally that production and quality are highly influenced by both N and irrigation amounts and these requirements are related to the cropping technique. Researches revealed that nitrogen fertilizers play a special role in the growth, production and quality of potatoes. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out during two growing seasons. Studied factors were irrigation frequency (I1:2 and I2:4 days interval and nitrogen fertilizer levels (applying 100 (N1, 75 (N2 and 50 (N3 % of the recommended amount. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied through irrigation water. In each plot two rows with within-and between-row spacing of 45 and 105 cm and 20 m length. The amount of nitrogen fertilizer for the control treatment was determined by soil analysis (N1. In all treatments, nitrogen fertilizer

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Kamran; Najafi, Payam; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2014-05-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater for irrigation over long periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants, animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of treated wastewater on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of using a deep emitter installation on lowering the potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub treatments (0, 15 and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam soil, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m a.s.l.. A two-crop rotation of wheat [Triticum spp.] and corn [Zea mays]) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting (initial value) and after harvesting (final value) for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were also collected. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. The results showed no significant difference (P>0.05) of soil heavy metal content between different depths of emitters. A pollution load index PLI showed that there was not substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils compared to

  12. [Effect of mineral N fertilizer reduction and organic fertilizer substitution on soil biological properties and aggregate characteristics in drip-irrigated cotton field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Tai, Rui; Wang, Dan; Chu, Gui-Xin

    2017-10-01

    A four year field study was conducted to determine how soil biological properties and soil aggregate stability changed when organic fertilizer and biofertilizer were used to reduce chemical fertilizer application to a drip irrigated cotton field. The study consisted of six fertilization treatments: unfertilized (CK); chemical fertilizer (CF, 300 kg N·hm -2 ; 90 kg P2O5 · hm -2 , 60 kg K2 O·hm -2 ); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm -2 organic fertilizer (80%CF+OF); 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm -2 organic fertilizer (60%CF+OF); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm -2 biofertilizer (80%CF+BF); and 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm -2 biofertilizer (60%CF+BF). The relationships among soil organic C, soil biological properties, and soil aggregate size distribution were determined. The results showed that organic fertilizer and biofertilizer both significantly increased soil enzyme activities. Compared with CF, the biofertilizer treatments increased urease activity by 55.6%-84.0%, alkaline phosphatise activity by 53.1%-74.0%, invertase activity by 15.1%-38.0%, β-glucosidase activity by 38.2%-68.0%, polyphenoloxidase activity by 29.6%-52.0%, and arylsulfatase activity by 35.4%-58.9%. Soil enzyme activity increased as the amount of organic fertilizer and biofertilizer increased (i.e., 60%CF+OF > 80%CF+OF, 60%CF+BF > 80%CF+BF). Soil basal respiration decreased significantly in the order BF > OF > CF > CK. Soil microbial biomass C and N were 22.3% and 43.5% greater, respectively, in 60%CF+BF than in CF. The microbial biomass C:N was significantly lower in 60%CF+BF than in CF. The organic fertilizer and the biofertilizer both improved soil aggregate structure. Soil mass in the >0.25 mm fraction was 7.1% greater in 80%CF+OF and 8.0% greater in (60%CF+OF) than in CF. The geometric mean diameter was 9.2% greater in 80%CF+BF than in 80%CF+OF. Redundancy analysis and cluster analysis both demonstrated that soil aggregate structure and biological activities increased when organic fertilizer and biofertilizer were

  13. Application of near-surface geophysics as part of a hydrologic study of a subsurface drip irrigation system along the Powder River floodplain near Arvada, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, James I.; Veloski, Garret; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Engle, Mark A.; Lipinski, Brian A.; Hammack, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming has occurred since 1997. National attention related to CBNG development has focused on produced water management, which is the single largest cost for on-shore domestic producers. Low-cost treatment technologies allow operators to reduce their disposal costs, provide treated water for beneficial use, and stimulate oil and gas production by small operators. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems are one potential treatment option that allows for increased CBNG production by providing a beneficial use for the produced water in farmland irrigation.Water management practices in the development of CBNG in Wyoming have been aided by integrated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrologic studies of both the disposal and utilization of water. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have utilized multi-frequency airborne, ground, and borehole electromagnetic (EM) and ground resistivity methods to characterize the near-surface hydrogeology in areas of produced water disposal. These surveys provide near-surface EM data that can be compared with results of previous surveys to monitor changes in soils and local hydrology over time as the produced water is discharged through SDI.The focus of this investigation is the Headgate Draw SDI site, situated adjacent to the Powder River near the confluence of a major tributary, Crazy Woman Creek, in Johnson County, Wyoming. The SDI system was installed during the summer of 2008 and began operation in October of 2008. Ground, borehole, and helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) conductivity surveys were conducted at the site prior to the installation of the SDI system. After the installation of the subsurface drip irrigation system, ground EM surveys have been performed quarterly (weather permitting). The geophysical surveys map the heterogeneity of the near

  14. Effect of different levels of water consumptive use of squash under drip irrigation system on salt distribution, yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moniem, M.; El-Gendy, R.W.; Gadalla, A.M.; Hamdy, A.; Zeedan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to trace the distribution of salts and fertilizers through drip irrigation system and the response of squash (yield and water use efficiency) to irrigation treatments, i.e. T1 (100 % ETc), T2 (75 % ETc) and T3 (50 % ETc). This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Soil samples were taken from three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distance from the emitters between drippers and laterals lines) for evaluating the salt content (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that salt accumulation was noticed at the surface layer and was affected by the direction of soil water movement (horizontal and vertical motion). The highest salt concentrations were in 75 % and 50 % ETc treatments between emitters and laterals. As for the three sites, salt concentration behaved in the sequence: 25 >12.5 > 0 cm sites. For squash yield, the first treatment produced high yield without significant differences between the second treatment so, 75 % ETc treatment was considered the best one for saving water

  15. Cyclic use of saline and non-saline water to increase water use efficiency and soil sustainability on drip irrigated maize in a semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanli, M.; Ebrahimian, H.

    2016-01-01

    Use of saline water for irrigation is a strategy to mitigate water shortage. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the cyclic and constant use of saline and non-saline water on drip irrigated maize yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). Nine field treatments were laid out based on alternative irrigation management of non-saline and saline water combinations. The treatments were: two salinity levels of 3.5 and 5.7 dS/m and freshwater (0.4 dS/m) application in every one, three and five saline water application (1:1, 3:1 and 5:1, respectively). Results showed that the 1:1 combination management was the best in terms of crop yield and IWUE. In this treatment, salt concentration at the end of growing season was not significantly changed compared to its initial condition. If off-season precipitation or leaching was available, the 3:1 and 5:1 treatments were appropriated. Highest and lowest values of IWUE were 15.3 and 8.7 kg/m3 for the 1:1 management using water salinity of 3.5 dS/m and the treatment of constant irrigation with water salinity of 5.7 dS/m, respectively. Under low off-season precipitations, artificial leaching is essential for land sustainability in most treatments.

  16. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  17. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  18. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  19. Cyclic use of saline and non-saline water to increase water use efficiency and soil sustainability on drip irrigated maize in a semi-arid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanli, M.; Ebrahimian, H.

    2016-07-01

    Use of saline water for irrigation is a strategy to mitigate water shortage. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the cyclic and constant use of saline and non-saline water on drip irrigated maize yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). Nine field treatments were laid out based on alternative irrigation management of non-saline and saline water combinations. The treatments were: two salinity levels of 3.5 and 5.7 dS/m and freshwater (0.4 dS/m) application in every one, three and five saline water application (1:1, 3:1 and 5:1, respectively). Results showed that the 1:1 combination management was the best in terms of crop yield and IWUE. In this treatment, salt concentration at the end of growing season was not significantly changed compared to its initial condition. If off-season precipitation or leaching was available, the 3:1 and 5:1 treatments were appropriated. Highest and lowest values of IWUE were 15.3 and 8.7 kg/m3 for the 1:1 management using water salinity of 3.5 dS/m and the treatment of constant irrigation with water salinity of 5.7 dS/m, respectively. Under low off-season precipitations, artificial leaching is essential for land sustainability in most treatments.

  20. Increase globe artichoke cropping sustainability using sub-surface drip-irrigation systems in a Mediterranean coastal area for reducing groundwater withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantino, Alberto; Marchina, Chiara; Bonari, Enrico; Fabbrizzi, Alessandro; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades in coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin, human growth posed severe stresses on freshwater resources due to increasing demand by agricultural, industrial and civil activities, in particular on groundwater. This in turn led to worsening of water quality, loss/reduction of wetlands, up to soil salinization and abandonment of agricultural areas. Within the EU LIFE REWAT project a number of demonstration measures will take place in the lower Cornia valley (Livorno, Italy), both structural (pilot) and non-structural (education, dissemination and capacity building), aiming at achieving sustainable and participated water management. In particular, the five demonstration actions are related to: (1) set up of a managed aquifer recharge facility, (2) restoration of a Cornia river reach, (3) water saving in the civil water supply sector, (4) water saving in agriculture, (5) reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation purposes. Thus, the REWAT project general objective is to develop a new model of governance for sustainable development of the lower Cornia valley based on the water asset at its core. As per water use in agriculture, the lower Cornia valley is well known for the horticultural production. In this regard, globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. (Fiori)) crops, a perennial cool-season vegetable, cover a surface of about 600 ha. In order to increase stability and productivity of the crop, about 2000 - 4000 m3 ha-1 yr-1 of irrigation water is required. Recent studies demonstrated that yield of different crops increases using Sub-surface Drip-Irrigation (SDI) system under high frequency irrigation management enhancing water use efficiency. In the SDI systems, the irrigation water is delivered to the plant root zone, below the soil surface by buried plastic tubes containing embedded emitters located at regular spacing. Within the LIFE REWAT, the specific objectives of the pilot on irrigation efficiency is to (i) demonstrate the

  1. [Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of soil water for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan desert under saline water drip-irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin-yuan; Zhou, Zhi-bin; Xu, Xin-wen; Lei, Jia-qiang; Lu, Jing-jing; Ma, Xue-xi; Feng, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimension temporal and spatial dynamics of the soil water characteristics during four irrigating cycles of months from April to July for the artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan Desert under saline water drip-irrigation had been analyzed by timely measuring the soil water content in horizontal and vertical distances 60 cm and 120 cm away from the irrigating drips, respectively. Periodic spatial and temporal variations of soil water content were observed. When the precipitation effect was not considered, there were no significant differences in the characteristics of soil water among the irrigation intervals in different months, while discrepancies were obvious in the temporal and spatial changes of soil moisture content under the conditions of rainfall and non-rainfall. When it referred to the temporal changes of soil water, it was a little higher in April but a bit lower in July, and the soil water content in June was the highest among four months because some remarkable events of precipitation happened in this month. However, as a whole, the content of soil moisture was reduced as months (from April to July) went on and it took a decreasing tendency along with days (1-15 d) following a power function. Meanwhile, the characteristics of soil water content displayed three changeable stages in an irrigation interval. When it referred to the spatial distributions of soil water, the average content of soil moisture was reduced along with the horizontal distance following a linear regression function, and varied with double peaks along with the vertical distance. In addition, the spatial distribution characteristics of the soil water were not influenced by the factors of precipitation and irrigating time but the physical properties of soil.

  2. Net melon performance as affected by the drip irrigation depth and mulching Desempenho do melão rendilhado em função da profundidade de gotejo e utilização de mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo OC Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern techniques of water supply through irrigation can substantially reduce water waste, which contributes to attend the enlarging water demand. The objective of this work was to study the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching over melon yield and quality characteristics, in a sandy soil (Typic Hapludox. The experimental design was blocks at random, with four replications. Treatments were displayed in a 2 x 3 factorial (with and without mulching x surface and 0.20 and 0.40 depth subsurface drip irrigation. Mulching using double-sided silver/black film increased fruit average mass, plant production, yield, daily growth rate for plant height and crown diameter, fruit distal diameter, and pulp thickness. The subsurface drip irrigation at 0.20 m depth resulted in larger fruit average mass, plant production, and yield than surface and 0.40 m depth drip irrigation.As atuais técnicas de aplicação de água pelos sistemas de irrigação podem reduzir substancialmente os desperdícios de água, o que contribui para atender a crescente demanda por esse recurso natural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos produtivos e de qualidade de frutos de melão rendilhado em sistema de gotejo subterrâneo e cobertura plástica (mulching, em solo arenoso (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos, com o arranjo dos tratamentos em fatorial 2 x 3 (com e sem mulching x gotejo superficial e subsuperficial, a 0,20 e 0,40 m de profundidade. O mulching utilizando filme dupla-face prateado/preto incrementou a massa média de fruto, a produção por planta, a produtividade, a taxa de crescimento diário da altura de planta e do diâmetro do colo da planta, o diâmetro longitudinal do fruto e a espessura de polpa. A profundidade de gotejo a 0,20 m resultou em maior massa média de fruto, produção por planta e produtividade quando comparado ao gotejo superficial ou em subsuperfície, a 0

  3. Effects of surface and subsurface drip irrigation regimes with saline water on yield and water use efficiency of potato in arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia El Mokh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on a sandy soil during spring of 2009 and autumn of 2010 in southern Tunisia for evaluating the effects of two drip irrigation methods and three irrigation regimes on soil moisture and salinity, yield and water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. The surface drip (SDI and subsurface drip (SSDI irrigation methods were used. Irrigation regimes consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI100, 60% (DI60 and 30% (DI30. FI100 was considered as full irrigation while DI60 and DI30 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Well water with an ECi of 7.0 dS/m was used for irrigation. Findings are globally consistent between the two experiments. Results show that soil moisture content and salinity were significantly affected by irrigation treatments and methods. Higher soil moisture content and lower soil salinity were maintained with SSDI than SDI for all irrigation treatments. For both irrigation methods, higher salinity and lower moisture content in the root zone are observed under DI60 and DI30 treatments compared to FI100. Potato yields were highest over two cropping periods for the SSDI method although no significant differences were observed with the SDI. Irrigation regimes resulted in significant difference in both irrigation methods on yield and its components. Yields were highest under FI100. Compared to FI100, considerable reductions in potato yields were observed under DI60 and DI30 deficit treatments resulting from a reduction in tubers number/m² and average tuber weight and size. Water use efficiency (WUE was found to vary significantly among irrigation methods and treatments and varied between 5.9 and 20.5 kg/m3. WUE of SSDI method had generally higher values than SDI. The lowest WUE values were observed for the FI100 treatment, while the highest values were obtained under DI30 treatment for both methods. SSDI method provides

  4. [Effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching on the net primary productivity, soil heterotrophic respiration, and net CO2 exchange flux of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Run-Hua; Lai, Dong-Mei; Yan, Zheng-Yue; Jiang, Li; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2012-04-01

    In April-October, 2009, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching (MD) on the net primary productivity (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) , and net CO2 exchange flux (NEF(CO2)) of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, taking the traditional flood irrigation with no mulching (NF) as the control. With the increasing time, the NPP, Rh, and NEF(CO2) in treatments MD and NF all presented a trend of increasing first and decreased then. As compared with NF, MD increased the aboveground and belowground biomass and the NPP of cotton, and decreased the Rh. Over the whole growth period, the Rh in treatment MD (214 g C x m(-2)) was smaller than that in treatment NF (317 g C x m(-2)), but the NEF(CO2) in treatment MD (1030 g C x m(-2)) was higher than that in treatment NF (649 g C x m(-2)). Treatment MD could fix the atmospheric CO2 approximately 479 g C x m(-2) higher than treatment NF. Drip irrigation with plastic mulching could promote crop productivity while decreasing soil CO2 emission, being an important agricultural measure for the carbon sequestration and emission reduction of cropland ecosystems in arid area.

  5. Physic nut seed productivity (Jatropha curcas L.), in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages; Produtividade de sementes de pinhao-manso (Jatropha curcas L.), da estacao chuvosa, submetido a diferentes laminas de irrigacao e adubacao potassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, Fabio Ponciano de; Faria, Manoel Alves de; Portela, Jaqueline Damyane [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], E-mail: fpdagricola@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, Ednaldo Liberato de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Januaria, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this research was to value the Physic nut seed productivity, in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages, for 2008, 2009 and for the accumulated of theses years, in Lavras - MG, Brazil. The experimental design was the one of randomized blocks, in split plot design, with four replicates. The treatment levels were four water levels (plots) and four potassium dosages (subplots). The irrigation was applied based on the amount estimated by the water balance considering the class A pan evaporation (ECA) and rain depths - L{sub 0} (non irrigated), L{sub 40}, L{sub 80} and L{sub 120} (40, 80 and 120% of the balance respectively). The potassium dosages were K{sub 30}, K{sub 60}, K{sub 90} and K{sub 120} (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.ha{sup -1} respectively). It was used the drip irrigation system. It was used the Sisvar 4.0 software, for analysis of variance and the Tukey test at 5% level of probability to compare the means. However, it was possible to observe in rainy season, that the irrigation has not changed the Physic nut seed productivity. The potassium level 120 kg.ha{sup -1} in all significant situations was the treatment with higher productivity. (author)

  6. Development and experiences of photovoltaic water pumping for a drip irrigation in agriculture; Desarrollo y experiencias de sistemas de bombeo fotovoltaico para aplicaciones de riego tecnificado en la agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Sapiain, Raul; Torres, Ariel; Loose, Dirk [Centro de Energias Renovables, Arica (Chile); Hahn, Andreas [Eschborn (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The following paper shows results and experiences from a pilot project of photovoltaic water pumping for drip irrigation in agriculture of rural areas. The project participants are local farmers in direct co-operation with the Renewable Energy Centre of the University of Tarapaca and the German Agency for Technical Co-operation, GTZ. Activities focus on the planification, design, implementation and evaluation of four different pilot installations for the small and medium scale agriculture in different locations of the desert area of northern Chile. In the first phase, photovoltaic pumping systems were installed with water storage tanks and a drip irrigation systems were installed with water storage tanks and a drip irrigation system working only by gravity at very low operating pressures. In the second phase, a new system configuration was developed with a direct driven photovoltaic pumping system without water storage tank, the drip irrigation system here is directly connected to the pump with variable water flow and system pressure conditions. Part of the pilot project is a monitoring system, which allows a complete short term and long term evaluation under technical, agricultural and economical aspects. The measured data and obtained experiences shown so far interesting result as for example the high system's reliability, a good performance of the low pressure irrigation, an adequate matching between the solar pump and the drip irrigation in the direct driven system and a simple irrigation management and operation, compared with conventional pumping systems. The project's results could offer a new alternative for photovoltaic pumping systems in the productive agricultural sector of desert rural areas. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra los resultados y experiencias obtenidas en un programa piloto de bombeo fotovoltaico para nuevas aplicaciones de riego tecnificado en la agricultura de zonas rurales. En este programa el Centro de Energias Renovables

  7. Distribuição de água no solo aplicado por gotejamento enterrado e superficial Soil water distribution for subsurface and surface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C. Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de estudos sobre o movimento da água quando aplicada abaixo da superfície, realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição de água aplicada pelo sistema de gotejamento enterrado e convencional. O experimento de campo foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da ESALQ/USP - Piracicaba, SP. Para o estudo, trincheiras foram abertas e instaladas sondas de TDR, dispostas a 0,05; 0,15; 0,25; 0,35 e 0,45 m profundidade, e a 0,05; 0,15; 0,25; 0,35 m comprimento, totalizando 17 sondas por trincheira. Os tratamentos foram baseados na profundidade de aplicação (0,0 e 0,10 m e vazão aplicada (2 e 4 L h-1: ENT2; ENT4; SUP2 e SUP4. A cada hora era aplicado 1 L de água (total de 10 L, seguida de leituras com o TDR. Medições do disco úmido e saturado foram feitas com régua milimetrada; além disso, estabeleceu-se um volume controle onde foi avaliada a uniformidade de aplicação; assim, foi possível verificar, em relação aos sistemas superficiais, que os sistemas enterrados apresentaram menor área superficial molhada e atingiram maior largura e profundidade; já as maiores concentrações foram obtidas próximas ao ponto de emissão.Studies of sub-surface water movement is an interesting topic in irrigation but, in spite of the its importance, there is little literature. One of the purposes of this study was to contribute to this subject and evaluate the distribution of water applied by both subsurface drip irrigation (SDI and conventional irrigation. Experiments were conducted at the Department of Rural Engineering (ESALQ/USP, located at Piracicaba, SP. Trenches were opened and 17 three-rod TDR probes were installed, placed at 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 m depths, and to 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 m intervals. This procedure was repeated using a dripper buried at 0 and 0.10 m for each discharge rate of 2 and 4 L h-1 tested. Wetted soil volume was observed with 1 L of water

  8. Soil capacitance sensors and stem dendrometers. Useful tools for irrigation scheduling of commercial orchards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonet, L.; Ferrer, P.; Castel, J. R.; Intrigliolo, D. S.

    2010-07-01

    Irrigation scheduling is often performed based on a soil water balance, where orchard evapotranspiration is estimated using the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) times the crop coefficient (Kc). This procedure, despite being widely spread, has some uncertainties. Because of this, plant and soil water status monitoring could be alternatively or complementarity used to schedule irrigation. The usefulness of capacitance probes was evaluated during several seasons in large irrigation districts where irrigation practices were changed over years from the ETo * Kc model to the analysis of soil water status trend. This area corresponds to drip irrigated orchards planted with citrus, peach, nectarine and persimmon. Around 25% less irrigation was applied with no substantial yield penalty when the information provided by capacitance probes was correctly applied for irrigation management. On the other hand, the usefulness of stem dendrometers for continuously monitoring plant water status was evaluated in a young plum experimental orchard. Over two years, irrigation was scheduled using exclusively trunk shrinkage via the signal intensity approach by means of a baseline equation previously obtained in the orchard. Results showed that it was not always possible to schedule irrigation based on the trunk shrinkage signal intensity due to the temporal changes in the reference values that occurred as trees aged. Overall, results obtained are discussed in terms of the possible extrapolation at field level of both capacitance probes and stem dendrometers. Advantages and drawbacks of each technique are analyzed and discussed. (Author) 34 refs.

  9. Design development and testing of a solar PV pump based drip system for orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.C.; Singh, A.K.; Ansari, S.; Vyas, S.K.; Dave, B.K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    A Solar Photovoltaic (PV) pump operated drip irrigation system has been designed and developed for growing orchards in arid region considering different design parameters like pumps size, water requirements, the diurnal variation in the pressure of the pump due to change in irradiance and pressure compensation in the drippers. The system comprising a PV pump with 900 W{sub p} PV array and 800 W dc motor-pump mono-block, microfilter, main and sub-mains and three open-able low-pressure compensating drippers on each plant was field tested. The emission uniformity was observed to be 92-94% with discharge of 3.8 l/h in the pressure range of 70-100 kPa provided by the pump and thus the system could irrigate some 1 ha area within 2 h. Based on the performance of the PV pump and the drip system, it was inferred that about 5 ha area of orchard could be covered. The projected benefit-cost ratio for growing pomegranate orchards with such a system was evaluated to be above 2 even with the costly PV pump and therefore the system was considered to be an appropriate technology for the development of arid region. (Author)

  10. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of drip irrigated watermelon in Piaui coastline, Brazil Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo da melancia irrigada por gotejamento no litoral do Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson A. Bastos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficient (Kc is fundamental to plan and to manage the irrigation of any crop. The aim of this study was to determine the daily and hourly evapotranspiration of drip irrigated watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus, var. Crimson Sweet and crop coefficient (Kc in each crop development phase. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area of 1.27 ha of Embrapa Mid-North, localized in Parnaíba (02°54'S, 41°47'W and 46 m above of sea, State of Piauí, Brazil, from September to November, 2006. Electronic weighing lysimeters of 1.5 m x 1.5 m wide and long and 1.0 m deep were used to obtain the evapotranspiration. The plants were drip irrigated with a lateral row per plant row and drippers spaced 0.5 m from each other. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation from the climatic data obtained by electronic sensors. The total evapotranspiration during the watermelon crop cycle cultivated in the state of Piauí was 233.87 mm, with mean values of 3.7 mm day-1, minimum of 1.18 and maximum of 8.14 mm day-1. The Kc of the drip irrigated watermelon was 0.18 in the initial stage of crop growth; 0.18 to 1.3, in crop development stage; 1.3 in the intermediate stage and 0.43 in the final stage.O conhecimento da evapotranspiração e do coeficiente de cultivo (Kc é fundamental para dimensionar e manejar a irrigação de qualquer cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc diária e horária da melancia (Citrullus lanatus Schrad, var. Crimson Sweet irrigada por gotejamento e o Kc em cada fase de desenvolvimento da cultura. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área experimental de 1,27 ha da Embrapa Meio-Norte, localizada em Parnaíba - PI (02° 54'S, 41° 47'W e 46 m de altitude, no período de setembro a novembro de 2006. Utilizaram-se quatro lisímetros de pesagem eletrônica de 1,5 m x 1,5 m de largura e comprimento com 1,0 m de

  11. Temperature profile in apricot tree canopies under the soil and climate conditions of the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Chitu, Emil

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey.

  12. Radiosensitivity of apricot budsticks exposed to acute gamma rays and nursery observations on the second vegetative generation from irradiated buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legave, J.M.; Garcia, G.

    1988-01-01

    Varietal improvement is essential if a new impetus is to be given to the French apricot crop. We have accordingly started a mutation breeding programme by bud irradiation. Because of the scarcity of bibliographical data, the first step was to study the budwood radiosensitivity of the apricot cultivars used as starting material. Budsticks of various cultivars were exposed to increasing doses of acute gamma rays. The physiological effects induced by irradiation were evaluated from bud survival and growth. These results allowed us, in the first instance, to fix the optimal dose range for dormant buds irradiated at 6 to 7 Gy/mm. Observations in the nursery on scions from the second vegetative generation (V2) already showed the limits of bud irradiation. Further observations in the orchard are need to estimate the value of this method for apricot breeding [fr

  13. Population density of mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) on fruit orchards in south Baghdad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, M. Z.; Shbar, A. K.; Naher, F. H.; Jabo, N. F.; Abdulhamza, B. H.; Abod, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata distributed in the orchards of central Iraq and caused highly economic losses. This study was conducted in orchards in South Baghdad during 2009 and 2010 and made field survey of the insect in four types of orchards (Citrus, Apricot, Figs and Citrus and A mixture of fruit trees) and used for this purpose tephri traps supplied with Q-Lure and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP). The present preliminary study has shown that the Mediterranean fruit fly C.capitata has a year round presence in fruit orchards in central Iraq and reached its highest numerical density of the pest in citrus orchards during November and December were 345 and 363 insect / Trap per month in citrus orchards and the least numerical density during of January and February while the highest numerical density of the insect in orchards of orchards of apricot in Mrch 2010, Figs and Citrus in August 2009 and a Mixture of fruit trees in November 2009 were 45, 116, 311 Insect/ trap per month respectively. The population density of the pest was highest beginning 2010 compared with 2009 , but the high temperature degree (46 - o 5 2) in August 2010 caused a decrease in population density of this pest. C.capitata caused highly economic losses in citrus reaching 68, 71, 82% of the Mandarin, Kaki, Apricot fruits respectively. Currently in Iraq no control method to reduce the economic losses caused by this pest except the use of pesticides GF-120. Therefore, results of this study could be of benefit for orcharch owners when applying an integrated program for controlling fruit fly pests. (Author)

  14. Viabilidade econômica do uso do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento na cultura da cebola Economic viability of the use of drip irrigation system on onion crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Carvalho Vilas Boas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a viabilidade econômica do uso do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento na cultura da cebola. O experimento foi conduzido em canteiros construídos a céu aberto, na área experimental do Departamento de Agricultura/ UFLA, no período de junho a outubro de 2008. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas cultivares de cebola, cultivar híbrida Optima F1 e cultivar não híbrida Alfa Tropical, e seis tensões da água no solo, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 e 75 kPa. A análise econômica da lavoura irrigada foi fundamentada na teoria dos custos de produção e, considerando-se a metodologia aplicada, conclui-se que as despesas com os recursos variáveis foram as que mais oneraram o custo final da cebola em todos os tratamentos estudados. Os custos totais médios foram, inversamente, proporcionais às produtividades dos tratamentos de tensão da água no solo, para ambas as cultivares, indicando uma resposta à escala de produção. Na condição do experimento, a recomendação é de que se adote, como momento de irrigar, a tensão da água no solo de 15 kPa e, como cultivar o híbrido Optima F1, para que se obtenha maior rentabilidade na atividade produtiva. A irrigação por gotejamento na cultura da cebola, adotando-se as tensões da água no solo e as cultivares estudadas neste trabalho, é uma técnica economicamente viável.The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of the use of drip irrigation system on onion crop. The experiment was set at open field beds in the experimental area of the Agricultural Department/UFLA, from June to October 2008. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replicates. Treatments consisted of two onion cultivars, the hybrid Optima F1 and the non hybrid Alfa Tropical and six soil water tension values, 15

  15. Modelagem da dinâmica do potássio no solo sob irrigação por gotejamento: validação do modelo Potassium modeling dynamics in the soil under drip irrigation: model validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René N. C. Rivera

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão do transporte simultâneo de água e solutos a partir de uma fonte pontual permite desenvolver estratégias eficientes na fertirrigação, sendo importante no dimensionamento, operação e manejo de sistemas de irrigação localizada. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar a validação de modelo matemático desenvolvido para simular o deslocamento simultâneo de água e potássio na irrigação por gotejamento. O desenvolvimento do modelo baseou-se na resolução numérica de equações diferenciais parciais de segunda ordem, aplicadas à fonte puntiforme sob fluxo transiente de água e solutos. O experimento de validação foi conduzido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da ESALQ/USP. O solo utilizado foi um Latossolo Vermelho, fase arenosa, série "Sertãozinho", no qual foi aplicada uma solução de cloreto de potássio com concentração de 500 mg L-1 de K, com vazão de 3 L h-1, durante 2 h. Os tempos de amostragem foram 24; 48 e 72 h após o início da irrigação. Observou-se que houve bom ajuste nos valores da distribuição conjunta de água e potássio no bulbo quando foram comparados os dados simulados pelo modelo e os obtidos experimentalmente. A distribuição do potássio ficou limitada às camadas mais internas do bulbo, mostrando que o deslocamento do cátion foi retardado ao interagir com a matriz do solo.The understanding of simultaneous water and solute transport from a punctual source allow, in fertigation, to develop efficient strategies, important in design, operation and handling of drip irrigation systems. Thus, the present work has as objective to present a mathematical model validation applied to simulate the simultaneous water and potassium dynamic under drip irrigation. The model development was based on the numeric resolution of partial differential equations of second order from point sources under transient flow of water and solute. The validation experiment was done at ESALQ

  16. Avaliação da uniformidade de aplicação de água em um sistema de gotejamento para pequenas propriedades Uniformity of water application for a drip irrigation system to small farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva do Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento à baixa pressão tem como objetivo oferecer uma técnica de irrigação viável para pequenas propriedades. Foram dimensionados oito sistemas de irrigação, um com os seguintes acessórios: 210 metros de tubo gotejador com diâmetro interno (DI de 10,4 mm, sete conectores de 12 mm, e seis metros de tubo de polietileno, um adaptador para tubo de polietileno, uma curva de 90º e três metros de tubo de PVC com DI igual a 20,6 mm. Quatro sistemas foram montados com um filtro de tela de 130 μm e os demais com um filtro de disco de 200 μm. Em todos os sistemas foram utilizados um reservatório de 1 m³ localizado a 3 m acima do nível do solo. Irrigou-se 1296 m² de uma cultura de tomate, em canteiros com dimensões de 1,20 m por 60 m. Para avaliação técnica do projeto foi obtida a uniformidade de aplicação de água através do coeficiente de uniformidade de emissão (UE e coeficiente de uniformidade de distribuição (UD, durante um período de 90 dias. Os resultados indicaram que o UE e o UD foram excelentes e que os valores de grau de entupimento aumentaram com o uso da irrigação. Assim, de acordo com os resultados, comprova-se a viabilidade técnica da utilização de sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento funcionando a baixa pressão para pequenas áreas.A low pressure drip irrigation gravity feed system may be a viable technique to small farms. So, according with it, eight irrigation systems with 10.4 mm internal diameter driptubing 210 m long, seven 12 mm adapters, 20.6 mm polyethylene pipe 6 m long, polyethylene adapter, 20.6 mm 90º elbow, 20.6 mm PVC pipe 3 m long and 1 m³ water reservoir at 3 m height, were designed and assembled to irrigate 1.296 m² with tomato cultivated in 0.8 x 60 m beds. One 130 mm screen filter was used to four systems and one 200 mm disc filter for the other ones. Emission uniformity coefficients (UE and distribution uniformity coefficients (UD were

  17. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2018-01-30

    Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP) and thermal infrared (TIR) imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI) have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm) obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R²) increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SE) decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  18. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Poblete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP and thermal infrared (TIR imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R2 increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE and standard error (SE decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  19. Produção de pimenta tabasco com aplicação de CO2, utilizando-se irrigação por gotejamento = Tabasco pepper production with CO2 application using drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Luiza Matielo de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de CO2 via água de irrigação produz o rebaixamento do pH da solução do solo, causando variações na mobilidade dos nutrientes e consequentes efeitos na absorção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos de doses de dióxido de carbono (CO2, aplicadas via irrigação por gotejamento, na produção da pimenta Tabasco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro doses de CO2: 0 (T1, 451,95 (T2; 677,93 (T3 e 903,92 (T4 kg ha-1. Os frutos foram pesados e contados; o comprimento e o diâmetro de frutos foram obtidos com a média de 20 frutos por planta. Ocorreu efeito quadrático (p Application of CO2 through water reduces the soil solution pH, causing variations in nutrient mobility and consequent effects on the absorption. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of carbon dioxide rates supplied by drip irrigation in the production of Capsicum frutescens L. crop. A randomized block design with four treatments and eight replications was used. The treatments were four rates of CO2: 0 (T1, 451.95 (T2; 677.93 (T3 and 903.92 (T4 kg ha-1. The fruits were counted and weighed; the length and the diameter were obtained from an average of 20 fruits per plant, randomly taken, from each treatment in the plot. The quadratic effect (p < 0.01 occurred for CO2 on the yield and there was quadratic effect (p < 0.05 of the rates on the number of fruits. There were no effects of CO2 rates on the green matter, dry matter and fruit length and diameter. The T2 treatment provided greater yield and higher number of fruits per plant with an increase of 16 and 26%, respectively in relation to T1 (without CO2. CO2 application favored the increase in the yield because of the greater number of fruits per plant in the Tabasco pepper crop.

  20. Desempenho de famílias e híbridos comerciais de tomateiro para processamento industrial com irrigação por gotejamento Evaluation of tomato families and commercial hybrids for processing using drip irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O.M. Carvalho

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas e selecionadas as famílias provenientes do programa de melhoramento do tomateiro da UFU, com potencial para processamento industrial e comparados seus desempenhos com os híbridos mais utilizados pelos produtores na região de Patos de Minas. O ensaio foi conduzido na EE Fazenda Barreiro da Unilever Bestfoods Brasil, em Patos de Minas. Utilizaram-se 30 famílias de tomateiro e os híbridos Heinz 9553, Heinz 7155N2 e Hypeel 108. As Parcelas constituíram-se de linhas duplas espaçadas 0,5 m entre si, com 10 m de comprimento, irrigadas por gotejamento. O espaçamento entre as linhas duplas foi de 1,3 m e a população de 27 mil plantas por hectare. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A semeadura foi realizada em 19/05/01. O rendimento de polpa mostrou correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas positivas com a produção total, produção de frutos comerciais, % de sólidos solúveis totais, coloração do suco, número de frutos maduros por planta e pH e negativa com acidez total titulável. Destacaram-se a família UFU 06 e os três híbridos comerciais.Tomato families originated from the processing tomato breeding program of the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia were evaluated and selected and compared to the performance with the most planted hybrids in Patos de Minas, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in the E. E. Barreiro, Unilever Bestfoods, in Patos de Minas. Thirty tomato families and the hybrids Heinz 9553, Heinz 7155N2 and Hypeel 108 were used. Experimental plots consisted of two lines, each one 10 m long, spaced 0,5 m from each other and irrigated with drip irrigation. The space between each double row was 1,3 m and the population of 27 thousand plants per hectare. The experimental design was a randomised complete block with four repetitions, installed on 05/19/01. The paste yield showed positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with total fruit yield, commercial fruit

  1. Estimating Evapotranspiration of an Apple Orchard Using a Remote Sensing-Based Soil Water Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Odi-Lara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ETc of a drip-irrigated apple orchard located in the semi-arid region of Talca Valley (Chile using a remote sensing-based soil water balance model. The methodology to estimate ETc is a modified version of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO dual crop coefficient approach, in which the basal crop coefficient (Kcb was derived from the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI calculated from satellite images and incorporated into a daily soil water balance in the root zone. A linear relationship between the Kcb and SAVI was developed for the apple orchard Kcb = 1.82·SAVI − 0.07 (R2 = 0.95. The methodology was applied during two growing seasons (2010–2011 and 2012–2013, and ETc was evaluated using latent heat fluxes (LE from an eddy covariance system. The results indicate that the remote sensing-based soil water balance estimated ETc reasonably well over two growing seasons. The root mean square error (RMSE between the measured and simulated ETc values during 2010–2011 and 2012–2013 were, respectively, 0.78 and 0.74 mm·day−1, which mean a relative error of 25%. The index of agreement (d values were, respectively, 0.73 and 0.90. In addition, the weekly ETc showed better agreement. The proposed methodology could be considered as a useful tool for scheduling irrigation and driving the estimation of water requirements over large areas for apple orchards.

  2. 21 CFR 145.115 - Canned apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.115 Canned apricots. (a... lower end of the rod is a plane surface to which the vertical axis of the rod is perpendicular. Adjust...

  3. Desempenho de cultivares de cebola em função do manejo da irrigação por gotejamento Performance of onion cultivars as a function of drip irrigation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C Vilas Boas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar o efeito de diferentes tensões da água no solo sobre a produção de duas cultivares de cebola irrigadas por gotejamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lavras, Minas Gerais (21° 14' S, 45° 00' W e 918,8 m, no período de junho a outubro de 2008. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos se constituíram de duas cultivares de cebola, cultivar híbrida Optima F1 e cultivar não híbrida Alfa Tropical, e seis níveis críticos de tensões da água no solo, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 e 75 kPa. Com os resultados, concluiu-se que o híbrido Optima F1 apresentou melhores respostas com relação às seguintes características analisadas: produtividade total de bulbos, produtividade de bulbos comerciais, massa média de bulbos comerciais e eficiência no uso da água. Visando à obtenção de maiores produtividades de bulbos (total e comercial e maior massa média de bulbos comerciais, em ambas as cultivares, deve-se irrigar no momento em que a tensão da água no solo estiver em torno de 15 kPa na profundidade de 0,15 m. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais apresentou resposta quadrática com relação às tensões da água no solo. A eficiência no uso da água aumentou linearmente em virtude do acréscimo da tensão da água no solo.Different soil water tension values were tested to evaluate the effects on onion yield of two drip irrigated onion cultivars. The experiment was carried out at Lavras, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil (21° 14' S, 45° 00' W and 918.8 m, from June to October 2008. The statistical design used was randomized blocks with a factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replications. The treatment levels were two onion cultivars (hybrid Optima F1 and the non hybrid Alfa tropical and six critical soil water tension levels (15, 25, 35, 45, 60 and 75 kPa. It can be concluded that the hybrid Optima F1 presented the

  4. Crescimento inicial de duas cultivares de cafeeiro adensado influenciado por níveis de irrigação localizada Initial growth of two high-density coffee tree cultivars influenced by drip irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Santana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Água Limpa, Universidade de Brasília, tendo como objetivo avaliar o crescimento das cultivares de café IAPAR-59 e Obatã, submetidas a cinco níveis de irrigação por gotejamento durante o primeiro ano de formação e estudar formas de manejo da água do solo. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos completos ao acaso para o fator irrigação em parcelas, com o fator cultivar em subparcela e o fator tempo em dias após o transplante (dat em subsubparcela, com seis repetições. Os cinco níveis de irrigação foram tensões de 20; 40 e 60 kPa determinadas com o auxílio de tensiômetros, sistema Irrigas com tensão definida pelo próprio sensor e sem irrigação. As variáveis de crescimento avaliadas foram índice de área foliar, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, altura de plantas e número de ramos plagiotrópicos. Aos 316 dat, os tratamentos irrigados tiveram o mesmo comportamento de crescimento, mas foram significativamente maiores em relação ao tratamento não irrigado. O sistema Irrigas mostrou ser uma opção para o manejo adequado da água com manutenção nula. As cultivares IAPAR-59 e Obatã têm comportamento de crescimento diferenciado, com todas as variáveis avaliadas favorecendo esta última.The experiment was carried out at "Água Limpa" Farm, University of Brasilia. The objective was to evaluate growth of IAPAR-59 and Obatã cultivars using five drip irrigation levels, during the crop of the first year and to study soil water management. It was used a randomized complete block design for the irrigation factor, with the cultivar factor as a split plot on irrigation and the factor time in days after transplanting (dat as a split plot on cultivar. The five irrigation levels were 20; 40 and 60 kPa, established using tensiometers; Irrigas system with soil water tension defined by its sensor; and no irrigation. Growth variables evaluated were leaf area index, leaf number

  5. Identification of Water Usage Efficiency for Corn(Zea mays L.Lines Irrigated with Drip Irrigation Under Green House Conditions asPer Plant Water Stress Index Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Beyhan UÇAK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted as a greenhouse study under Çukurova conditions during the years2011-2012. Two different dent corn lines (5A2-B and 22K were used as the plant material of the experiments. Crop water stress index (CWSI values determined through leaf canopy temperature measurements performed ahead of irrigations were used to find outwater use efficiencies. Experiments were conducted in randomized blocks-split plots experimental design with three replications. Drip irrigation was used for irrigations and two different irrigation programs were created as of I100(supplying 100% of depleted water in every seven days and I75(applying 75% of depleted water. The amount of irrigation water applied for in the interaction of I100irrigation and corn lines (5A2-B and22K in the first and second year were respectively varied between 253.0-274.0and between 238.0-261.0mm, seasonal plant water consumptions varied between 294.0-305.0and between 284.6-302.6 mm, kernel yields varied between 2950.0-2990.0 and between 3130.0-3186.0kgha-1. With regard to (in the interaction irrigation treatments xcorn lines, the lowest and the highest CWSI values were observed in the interaction full irrigation (I100 and of the line 22K as 0.22 and in deficit irrigation treatment (I75 of the line 5A2-B as 0.41in the first year; in full irrigation treatment (I100 of the line 22K as 0.20 and in deficit irrigation treatment (I75 of the line 5A2-B as 0.36. The greatest and the lowest chlorophyll contents (in the interaction irrigation treatments x corn lines were respectively observed in I100treatment of the line 22K as 58.3 spad and in I75treatment of the line 5A2-Bas 50.9 spad in the first year; in I100treatment of the line 22K as 59.1 SPAD and in I75treatment of the line 5A2-B as 55.1 spad. While the effects of irrigation treatments on average dry matter contents of the lines were not found to be significant, significant differences were observed in water use efficiency

  6. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress, 180 (moderate stress and 90 (severe stress m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potential near harvest: -1.2, -1.5 and -1.7 MPa, respectively from the mid-pit hardening stage (12th of June until harvest (23rd of Sep. applied. Predawn, stem and leaf water potentials, leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, the number of new shoots on fruit bearing shoots and vegetative shoots lengths during growing season as well as leaf area at harvest were measured. The results showed that water deficit stress had negative effects on peach tree water status, thereby resulting in decreased leaf gas exchange and tree vegetative growth. As significant decreased assimilate production of tree was resulted from both decreased leaf assimilation rate (until about 23 % and 50 %, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions and decreased leaf area of tree (until about 57% and 79%, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions at harvest. The significant positive correlation between leaf water potential and vegetative growth of peach revealed that shoot growth would decrease by 30% and 50% of maximum at leaf water potential of –1.56 and –2.30 MPa, respectively.

  7. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  8. Studies on cloud stability of apricot nectar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siliha, H.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Cloud loss behaviour in pasteurized apricot nectar was found to be different from that of other fruit juices. The cloud particles settled slowly on standing and a gel formed. On standing for a longer period the gel contracts and a clear supernatant layer which can be considered partly as

  9. Apricot - An Object-Oriented Modeling Language for Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Huixing; Zhu, Huibiao; Shi, Jianqi

    2013-01-01

    We propose Apricot as an object-oriented language for modeling hybrid systems. The language combines the features in domain specific language and object-oriented language, that fills the gap between design and implementation, as a result, we put forward the modeling language with simple and distinct syntax, structure and semantics. In addition, we introduce the concept of design by convention into Apricot.As the characteristic of object-oriented and the component architecture in Apricot, we c...

  10. Definição do posicionamento de sensores para monitoramento da água no solo em bananeira irrigada por diferentes sistemas de irrigação localizada Sensor placement for soil water monitoring in banana crop irrigated by drip irrigation systens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio F. Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente da água na irrigação localizada dependerá, além de outros fatores, também do correto monitoramento da água no solo. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar as zonas efetivas de comprimento de raízes e de extração de água, bem como indicar o correto posicionamento de sensores de água no solo para o manejo da irrigação por gotejamento na bananeira em fase de produção. No experimento, conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, foram estudados diferentes sistemas de irrigação localizada, diante dos seguintes tratamentos: T1 - dois emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em uma lateral por fileira de plantas; T2 - quatro emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em uma lateral por fileira de plantas; T3 - cinco emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em faixa contínua com uma lateral por fileira. Pelos resultados obtidos, pode-se observar que as regiões mais adequadas para a instalação de sensores de umidade no solo nos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3 são as limitadas pelas distâncias e profundidades de 0,2 m e 0,4 m; 0,5 m e 0,35 m; 0,55 m e 0,35 m, respectivamente.The efficient use of water for drip irrigation will depend, among other factors, the correct monitoring of water in the soil profile. This work aimed to characterize root zones of effective root length and effective root water uptake and also to indicate the correct sensors location in the soil profile for drip irrigation management in banana crop during the production stage of the first cycle. The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits, under different systems: T1 - one lateral per plant row with two 4 L h-1 emitters per plant; T2 - one lateral per plant row with four 4 L h-1 emitters per plant; T3 - one lateral per plant row as line source, with five 4 L h-1 emitters per plant. The results showed that the more appropriate regions for soil water sensor placement in treatments T1, T2 and T3, should correspond to zones limited

  11. Modelo aplicado à dinâmica da água e do potássio no solo sob irrigação por gotejamento: análise de sensibilidade Model applied to water and potassium dynamics under drip irrigation: sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René N.C. Rivera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão do transporte simultâneo da água e de solutos, a partir de uma fonte pontual, permite desenvolver estratégias eficientes na fertirrigação, sendo importante no dimensionamento, na operação e no manejo de sistemas de irrigação localizada. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar a análise de sensibilidade de um modelo matemático, desenvolvido para simular o deslocamento simultâneo de água e de potássio na irrigação por gotejamento. A análise de sensibilidade foi realizada com respeito às variações individuais da condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado, umidade inicial e saturada do solo, dispersividade, fator de retardamento e vazão do emissor. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que o modelo matemático, com relação à distribuição de água, é bastante sensível à umidade de saturação e inicial do solo e, em relação à distribuição de potássio, é bastante sensível a variações negativas da condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado e da vazão do gotejador; já em relação aos parâmetros de transporte de solutos no solo, é bastante sensível a variações negativas do fator de retardamento e pouco sensível às variações da dispersividade do solo.The understanding of the simultaneous transport of water and solute, from a punctual source, allows developing efficient strategies in fertigation, being important in design, operation and management of drip irrigation. The present work had as objective to show the sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model, developed to simulate the simultaneous water and potassium movement in drip irrigation. The sensitivity analysis was performed considering individual variations of saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, initial and saturated soil moisture, dispersivity, retardation factor and emitter flow. The obtained results showed that the mathematical model, regarding water distribution, is quite sensitive to the saturation and initial soil

  12. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  13. Assessment of the soil water balance by the combination of cosmic ray neutron sensing and eddy covariance technique in an irrigated citrus orchard (Marrakesh, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroos, Katja; Baroni, Gabriele; Er-Raki, Salah; Francke, Till; Khabba, Said; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation water requirement plays a crucial role in many agricultural areas and especially in arid and semi-arid landscapes. Improvements in the water management and the performance of the irrigation systems require a correct evaluation of the hydrological processes involved. However, some difficulties can arise due to the heterogeneity of the soil-plant system and of the irrigation scheme. To overcome these limitations, in this study, the soil water balance is analyzed by the combination of the Eddy Covariance technique (EC) and Cosmic Ray neutron Sensing (CRS). EC provides the measurement of the actual evapotranspiration over the area as it was presented in many field conditions. Moreover CRS showed to be a valuable approach to measure the root zone soil moisture integrated in a footprint of ~30 ha. In this way, the combination of the two methodologies should provide a better analysis of the soil water balance at field scale, as opposed to point observations, e.g. by TDR, evaporimeter and fluxmeter. Then, this could increase the capability to assess the irrigation efficiency and the agricultural water management. The study is conducted in a citrus orchard situated in a semi-arid region, 30 km southwest of Marrakesh (Morocco). The site is flat and planted with trees of same age growing in parallel rows with drip irrigation lines and application of fertilizer and pesticides. The original soil seems modified on the surface by the agricultural use, creating differences between trees, rows and lines. In addition, the drip irrigation creates also a spatial variability of the water flux distribution in the field, making this site an interesting area to test the methodology. Particular attention is given to the adaptation of the standard soil sampling campaign used for the calibration of the CRS and the introduction of a weighing function. Data were collected from June to December 2013, which corresponds to the high plant transpiration. Despite the intention of the

  14. Cana-de-açúcar fertirrigada com vinhaça e adubos minerais via irrigação por gotejamento subsuperficial: ciclo da cana-planta Sugarcane fertigated with stillage and mineral fertilizers under subsurface drip irrigation: cycle of cane-plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. A. Barbosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da irrigação, a aplicação de vinhaça e fertirrigação mineral via irrigação por gotejamento enterrado nos valores biométricos na fase de maturação, produção de colmos, qualidade do caldo da cana-de-açúcar e rendimento de açúcar teórico recuperável. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram: adubação mineral sem irrigação; irrigação e fertirrigação de NPK com adubos minerais; irrigação e fertirrigação com vinhaça, suprindo o K e complementação do NP com adubos minerais, além de irrigação e fertirrigação com vinhaça, suprindo o NK e complementação do P com adubos minerais. O sistema de irrigação utilizado foi o gotejamento subsuperficial. Os tratamentos irrigados promoveram alterações no número de perfilhos e índice de área foliar quando comparados com o cultivo de sequeiro, independente do manejo da fertirrigação. A fertirrigação com vinhaça suprindo o K proporcionou maior Brix e produção de colmos, quando comparada ao cultivo não irrigado. A irrigação e a fertirrigação com a vinhaça atendendo ao NK, proporcionaram maior rendimento teórico de açúcar recuperável, quando comparado com o do cultivo sem irrigação.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of subsurface drip irrigation and the application of stillage and nutrients in some agronomic parameters, stem yield, technological characteristics of sugarcane and yield of theoretical recoverable sugar. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were: mineral fertilizers without irrigation; irrigation and fertigation with NPK using mineral fertilizers; irrigation and fertigation with stillage supplying the K and complementation of N and P with mineral fertilizers; and irrigation and fertigation with stillage supplying the NK and

  15. Sistema com aeração, decantação e filtragem para a melhoria da qualidade de água em irrigação localizada System with aeration, sedimentation and filtering for the improving of water quality in drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. F. Lemos Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da água é muito importante para irrigação por gotejamento, pois ela escoa por pequenos bocais dos emissores, podendo ocorrer obstrução devido à deposição dos sólidos em suspensão. Portanto, antes da instalação do projeto, devem-se avaliar parâmetros de qualidade da água, para adotar medidas preventivas, evitando o risco de entupimento do sistema. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar um sistema composto por aeradores com aspersores, sobre leito de pedra, para a precipitação dos íons Fe+2e Mn+2 em tanque de decantação, e um conjunto de filtragem composto por três filtros de areia e um de disco, em sistema de irrigação localizada. O trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Alvorada, no município de Nova Granada - SP, no período de março a outubro de 2008. Foram realizadas determinações de variáveis físicas e químicas da água, ao longo do sistema de aeração, decantação e filtragem, o qual foi eficiente para a melhoria da qualidade de água, reduzindo os níveis de risco de entupimento de severo para médio e de médio para baixo. Oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica, pH, Fe+2e Fe+3 não diferenciaram a qualidade de água entre os pontos do sistema de tratamento, porém a turbidez, sólidos dissolvidos, sólidos em suspensão, ferro total e manganês total reduziram-se significativamente pelo uso do sistema proposto, melhorando a qualidade da água.Water quality is very important to drip irrigation, as it flows in small diameter holes, and may cause obstruction due to deposition of solid matter. Whence the water must be evaluated before installation of the project. Parameters related to water quality are essential to define conducting measures to avoid the risk of clogging the system. This study aimed to evaluate a system with sprinklers aeration on bedrock, for Fe+2and Mn total precipitation in sedimentation tank and a set of filtering consisting of three sand filters and a disk, installed in

  16. Quality Characteristics of Frankfurters Formulated with Apricot Pomace Obtained from Apricot Juice Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çilem Purma Adıbelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of dried apricot pomace (AP on the technological, nutritional and sensory quality of frankfurters were investigated. Frankfurters formulated with 5% AP showed better quality compared to the addition of 10 and 15% AP. Protein and fat content decreased as the concentration of added AP was over 5%. AP addition resulted in lower pH and energy values. Frankfurters formulated with AP had higher cooking and process yield values. AP addition resulted with decrement in lightness and increment in yellowness of samples. 5% addition of AP resulted in good sensory scores. The results indicate that apricot pomace could be an effective functional ingredient in emulsion type meat products.

  17. Use of organic mulch to enhance water-use efficiency and peach production under limiting soil conditions in a three-year-old orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordan, J.; Pascual, M.; Villar, J.M.; Fonseca, F.; Papió, J.; Montilla, V.; Rufat, J.

    2015-07-01

    Mulching techniques have emerged in recent years to overcome soil constraints and improve fruit tree productivity. The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low-cost organic mulch application in a newly planted peach orchard under a ridge planting system. Three treatments were performed in 12 elementary plots using a randomized complete block design. The orchard was drip-irrigated. Mulch was applied in two treatments, which differed in fertigation (none vs. multi-nutrient fertigation), while the third treatment did not include either mulch or fertigation and served as the control. Treatments were compared in terms of their effects on the physical properties of the soil, crop response, and water-use efficiency. Mulch treatments did not alter the soil bulk density. However, the mulch significantly (p=0.0004) increased the water infiltration rate (2.21 mm/h vs. 121 mm/h), which is a key issue when working in high frequency irrigation systems under soil limiting conditions. Similarly, mulched treatments showed a more favorable water status both in the second and the third year, which was translated in a better crop response. Thus, mulched treatments recorded higher yields both in the second (+155%, p=0.0005) and the third year (+53%, p=0.0007) of the experiment. Water use efficiency (WUEagr) was higher in the mulch treatments (+50% in average, p=0.0007) than in the control in the third year of the study. On the basis of our results, we propose that organic-mulching techniques should be considered as a beneficial practice to apply in fruit-trees production under limiting soil conditions.(Author)

  18. Use of organic mulch to enhance water-use efficiency and peach production under limiting soil conditions in a three-year-old orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Lordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulching techniques have emerged in recent years to overcome soil constraints and improve fruit tree productivity. The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low-cost organic mulch application in a newly planted peach orchard under a ridge planting system. Three treatments were performed in 12 elementary plots using a randomized complete block design. The orchard was drip-irrigated. Mulch was applied in two treatments, which differed in fertigation (none vs. multi-nutrient fertigation, while the third treatment did not include either mulch or fertigation and served as the control. Treatments were compared in terms of their effects on the physical properties of the soil, crop response, and water-use efficiency. Mulch treatments did not alter the soil bulk density. However, the mulch significantly (p=0.0004 increased the water infiltration rate (2.21 mm/h vs. 121 mm/h, which is a key issue when working in high frequency irrigation systems under soil limiting conditions. Similarly, mulched treatments showed a more favorable water status both in the second and the third year, which was translated in a better crop response. Thus, mulched treatments recorded higher yields both in the second (+155%, p=0.0005 and the third year (+53%, p=0.0007 of the experiment. Water use efficiency (WUEagr was higher in the mulch treatments (+50% in average, p=0.0007 than in the control in the third year of the study. On the basis of our results, we propose that organic-mulching techniques should be considered as a beneficial practice to apply in fruit-trees production under limiting soil conditions.

  19. The effect of apricot kernel flour incorporation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... 2Department of Food Engineering, Erciyes University 38039, Kayseri, Turkey. Accepted 27 ... Key words: Noodle; apricot kernel, flour, cooking, sensory properties. ... their simple preparation requirement, desirable sensory.

  20. Phenolic profiles of raw apricots, pumpkins, and their purees in the evaluation of apricot nectar and jam authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovic-Uzelac, Verica; Delonga, Karmela; Levaj, Branka; Djakovic, Senka; Pospisil, Jasna

    2005-06-15

    The possibility of proving the undeclared addition of pumpkin puree in apricot nectars and jams has been investigated by using the phenol compound fingerprint and sensory evaluation. The cheaper pumpkin admixtures in apricot nectars and jams could not be detected by the sensory evaluation, particularly if present in quantities of pumpkin puree in apricot nectars and jams could be detected by the presence of syringic acid, a phenolic compound characteristic of the investigated pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo cv. Gleisdorff and Table Gold, Cucurbita maxima cv. Turkinja, and Cucurbita moschata cv. Argenta). Syringic acid was isolated from pumpkin puree and determined by using HPLC with diode array detection. By using the phenolic profile, undeclared pumpkin admixture (> or =5%) in the apricot nectars and jams could be proven.

  1. Apricot Breeding Studies and New Varieties in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Murat Asma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Apricot, with high contents of vitamin A and dietary fiber, is one of most popular summer fruit with its attractive color, flavor and aroma. Losses caused by late spring frosts, poor adaptation to different climatic conditions, short serving time of fresh apricot to the market, Sharka and Monilia diseases effect on fruits are the main problems of apricot production. In addition, due mainly to rapid change in consumer preferences, the demand for new varieties with different color, size, flavor and aroma is increased. A significant part of the apricot breeding program is concentrated in the northern hemisphere with leading countries of USA (74 varieties and France (70 varieties. Meanwhile, only 11 varieties were registered in Turkey. Seven of these varieties (Alata Yıldızı, Çağataybey, Çağrıbey, Dr. Kaşka, Şahinbey, Dilbay and Eylül were bred with crossbreeding techniques and others with selection methods. Alkaya suits to both drying and fresh consumption. Eylül and Mihralibey are late ripening varieties, and others are early or mid-season ripening varieties. In this paper, apricot breeding studies in Turkey are discussed considering their contents and breeding methods, and results of those studies were summarized.

  2. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  3. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  4. Determining pomegranate water and nitrogen requirements with drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being an ancient crop there is limited knowledge on the water and nitrogen (N) requirements of pomegranate. We conducted research at the University of California, Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center (KARE) to determine the water and nitrogen requirements of a developing pomegr...

  5. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  6. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    soil contamination and the cumulative impact of wastewater, we compared two plots, all under orange- ... A slight increase in the concentration of soil enteric bacteria and soil fungal densities was ..... could be used for fruit tree irrigation.

  7. Does apricot seeds consumption cause changes in human urine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tušimová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural substances, such as amygdalin, used in alternative medicine gained high popularity. Common people as well as patients with different diseases have almost unlimited access to various natural supplements. To protect human health, it is very important to study effect of these substances. Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glucoside derived from seeds of rosaceous plants, for example seeds of bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis, or apricot, cherry, apple, peach, plum, etc. It is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, it has also been used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, leprosy and diabetes and produces a kind of antitussive and antiasthmatic effects. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin in apricot seeds has got an effect on human urine composition, pH value and urine associated health status after six weeks of oral administration. The study group finally consisted of 34 healthy adult volunteers (21 females and 13 males. All participants were asked to consume 60 mg.kg-1 body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily (approximately 3.0 mg.kg-1 of amygdalin during 6 weeks. During the experiment, three urine collections were carried out (first collection - at the beginning of the experiment; second collection - after 21 days; third collection - after 42 days. Quantification of urine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorides (Cl-, urea and pH value after apricot seeds supplementation was performed. Statistical analysis of variance showed, that consumption of bitter apricot seeds during 42 days had a significant (p <0.01 effect on amount of calcium excreted in urine, though this decrease shifted its level from elevated mean value in control collection into normal physiological range. Significant changes were observed in urea (p <0.05 and phosphorus (p <0.01 levels in urine after apricot seed ingestion, but gender was also considered to be a source of their variation.

  8. Regulated deficit irrigation can decrease soil CO2 emissions in fruit orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raul; Acosta, José Alberto; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Faz, Angel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation water restrictions in the Mediterranean area have created a growing interest in water conservation. Apart from environmental and economic benefits by water savings, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) may contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions and enhance C sequestration in soils, by decreasing microbial and root activity in response to decreased soil moisture levels. An experiment was established in four orchards (peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape) to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on soil CO2 emissions. Two irrigation treatments were assayed: full irrigation (FI), and RDI, irrigated as FI except for postharvest period (peach, apricot, Saturn peach) or post-veraison period (grape) were 50% of FI was applied. The application of deficit caused a significant decrease in CO2 emission rates, with rates in average of 90 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 120 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 and 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 lower than FI during the period when deficit was applied for peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape. This confirms the high effectiveness of the RDI strategies not only to save water consumption but also to decrease soil CO2 emissions. However, monitoring during longer periods is needed to verify that this trend is long-term maintained, and assess if soil carbon stocks are increase or most CO2 emissions derive from root respiration. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  9. 7 CFR 922.321 - Apricot Regulation 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apricot Regulation 21. 922.321 Section 922.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... least as yellow as Shade 3 on U.S. Department of Agriculture Standard Ground Color Chart of Apples and...

  10. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  11. Desenvolvimento vegetativo da pupunheira irrigada por gotejamento em função de níveis de depleção de água no solo Effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated peach palm plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da irrigação complementar por gotejamento no desenvolvimento vegetativo de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth com três anos de idade. Durante 94 dias (agosto a novembro/97 foram estabelecidos quatro níveis de irrigação, baseados nas porcentagens de 25% (T1, 50% (T2, 75% (T3 de água disponível consumida em função da evapotranspiração de referência, medida em um par de lisímetros de lençol freático constante, e a testemunha (T4, sem irrigação, com turnos de rega de 2, 4 e 6 dias respectivamente. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro tratamentos, oito repetições e dezesseis plantas úteis por parcela. A resposta das plantas aos diferentes tratamentos foi avaliada por meio da taxa absoluta de crescimento das características diâmetro do estipe na região do colo, altura da planta, comprimento de ráquis, número de perfilhos, número de folhas e emissão de folhas novas. As avaliações tiveram início quatro dias antes da imposição dos tratamentos e foram repetidas aos 34; 68; 83; 98; 133 e 168 dias. Houve diferenças entre os tratamentos para número de folhas emitidas, diâmetro e altura da planta. O tratamento 1 (25% foi superior aos demais para número de folhas emitidas (pThe effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated three-years-old peach palm plants were evaluated. Four irrigation levels were established for a 94-day period (August to November of 1997, based on 25% (T1, 50% (T2 and 75% (T3 of available water consumed in function of the evapotranspiration of measured reference in a lysimeter of constant water table, and the control (T4 without irrigation. A split randomized block design, with four treatments, eight replications and sixteen inner plants per plot was utilized. Peach palm response to the different treatments was evaluated throughout the absolute growth rate of the

  12. Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Some Apricot Cultivars Grown in Zanjan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sanaz molaie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. has special position in Iran fruit culture industry. In terms of cultivation and producing, Iran is one of the major countries in the world but in terms of export Iran is ranked 23. For this reason, research on necessities of fruit culture industries and access to new cultivars by breeding project is required. Obviously, paying attention to quality and quantity of products and using of local germplasm that known completely, played a significant role in this project. Apricot with genomic feature 2n=16, has extensive diversity due to sexual propagation and cultivation in different areas. Central Asia and Caucasian groups of apricot that involving Iranian and Turkish cultivars, have greatest phenotypic variations, while European group including cultivars that cultivated in North America, Australia and South Africa have the lowest diversity. Climate adaptation, increasing of fruits quality, self-compatibility and resistance to diseases are the most important goals of apricot breeding. Of course, the quality of fruits depends on sugar and acid balance and special aroma. One of the important targets of apricot breeding is introduce and develop of cultivars that can be cultivated in extensive areas. Target of recent study is primary evaluating of morphological and pomological traits of some cultivar and genotypes of apricot grown in Zanjan province. In order to introduce the cultivars that produces fruit with high quality and complete scientific researches to selection of ideal cultivars in this region for future. Method and material: This research carried out on four cultivars (Badami, Daneshkadeh, Shekarpareh, Shahroodi and two genotypes (C and D and was conducted in a completely randomize design with three replications. Evaluating of tree, branch, leaf, flower and some fruit traits performed based on existing descriptor. For determining some important pomological traits, fruits harvested in commercial time

  13. The antioxidant effects of dry apricot in the various tissues of rats with induced cold restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguralp, S; Ozturk, F; Aktay, G; Cetin, A; Gursoy, S

    2012-01-01

    α-Tocopherol and β-carotene are the best known and most widely used natural antioxidant substances. Apricot contains β-carotene, tocopherols and flavonoids. This experimental study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Malatya kabashi apricot in stress-induced injury in various tissues of rats. In total, 32 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, apricot, stress and apricot-stress groups. Apricot was administrated to rats by gavage for 10 days in the apricot and apricot-stress groups. Then rats were kept at 4°C for 4 h in stress and apricot-stress groups. The rats were killed at the end of the experiment for biochemical and histological examinations. This study shows apricot supplementation decreased oxidative stress injury in both the stomach and intestine.

  14. Scientific opinion on the acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in raw apricot kernels and products derived from raw apricot kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    of kernels promoted (10 and 60 kernels/day for the general population and cancer patients, respectively), exposures exceeded the ARfD 17–413 and 3–71 times in toddlers and adults, respectively. The estimated maximum quantity of apricot kernels (or raw apricot material) that can be consumed without exceeding...

  15. The Present Situation of Fresh Apricot in the World and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    TOPCU, Yavuz; UZUNDUMLU, Ahmet Semih

    2010-01-01

    Apricot (Prunus armenica) being one of the stone fruits is firstly consumed as fresh, and then as dried fruit and concentrated juice, as well. Moreover, it as an important raw material is also used for jam and marmalade production in manufacturing industries. The aim of this study is to examine the production, consumption, foreign trade of fresh apricot in the world and Turkey by considering the data of FAO and TUIK institution. Apricot is almost cultivated in the worldwide, and about 96% of ...

  16. Effect of apricot seeds on renal structure of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kolesárová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present in apricot seeds and is degraded to cyanide by chewing or grinding. The animal data available did not provide a suitable basis for acute human health hazard. The apricot seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment of several diseases especially cancer. The present study demonstrates the potential effect of short-term oral application of apricot seeds on renal structure of rabbit as a biological model. Meat line P91 Californian rabbits from the experimental farm of the Animal Production Research Centre Nitra (Slovak Republic were used in the experiments. The animals were randomly divided into the three groups (C-control, P1, P2 - experimental groups leading to 8 rabbits in each group. The control group received no apricot seeds while the experimental groups P1 and P2 received a daily dose 60 and 300 mg.kg-1 b.w. of crushed apricot seeds mixed with feed during 28 days, respectively. After 28 days all animals were slaughtered and kidney tissue was processed by standard histopathological techniques. Tissue sections were observed under an optical microscope with camera Olympus CX41 (Olympus, Japan at a magnification of 10 x 0.40. The basic morphometric criteria of the preparations were quantified using image program MeasurIT (Olympus, Japan. From each sample (n = 24 three histological sections with five different fields of view in each section were analysed and followed parameters were analysed: diameter of renal corpuscles (RC, diameter of glomeruli (G, diameter of tubules (T and the height of epithelial tubules (E. In our study, we observed a slight increase in the most frequent occurrence parenchyma dystrophy experimental animals. These changes were more pronounced in the experimental group (P2 rabbits received a daily dose of 300 mg.kg-1 of body weight of apricot seeds. Most often, we have found enlarged glomeruli filling the entire space of the capsule, and also glomerular

  17. Impact of canning and storage on apricot carotenoids and polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Gouble, Barbara; Bureau, Sylvie; Reling, Patrice; Bott, Romain; Ribas-Agusti, Albert; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2018-02-01

    Apricot polyphenols and carotenoids were monitored after industrial and domestic cooking, and after 2months of storage for industrial processing. The main apricot polyphenols were flavan-3-ols, flavan-3-ol monomers and oligomers, with an average degree of polymerization between 4.7 and 10.7 and caffeoylquinic acids. Flavonols and anthocyanins were minor phenolic compounds. Upon processing procyanidins were retained in apricot tissue. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ol monomers, flavonols and anthocyanins leached in the syrup. Flavonol concentrations on per-can basis were significantly increased after processing. Industrial processing effects were higher than domestic cooking probably due to higher temperature and longer duration. After 2months of storage, among polyphenols only hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ol monomers and anthocyanins were reduced. Whichever the processing method, no significant reductions of total carotenoids were observed after processing. The cis-β-carotene isomer was significantly increased after processing but with a lower extent in domestic cooking. Significant decreased in total carotenoid compounds occurred during storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Canning and Freezing on the Nutritional Content of Apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Erin Claire; Biasi, William B; Bikoba, Veronique; Holstege, Dirk M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2018-05-22

    The effect of commercial canning and freezing on the nutritional content of fresh apricots was investigated. Processed samples were analyzed post-processing and after 3 months of storage and compared directly to fresh apricots from the same source. Vitamin C, beta-carotene, total phenols, and antioxidants were quantified. Compared to fresh, canned apricots initially exhibited similar levels of antioxidants, a 17% increase in beta-carotene, and a 48% increase in phenols, while vitamin C was reduced by 37%. After 3 months of storage, antioxidant levels were 47% higher than fresh. Vitamin C did not change significantly following storage and beta-carotene decreased by 15%. The canned apricot fruit packed in light syrup did not have higher total soluble solids (TSS) levels indicating no increase in fruit sugar content. Frozen apricots exhibited large increases in antioxidants (529%), beta-carotene (35%), vitamin C (3,370%), and phenols (406%) compared to fresh. After 3 months of storage, frozen apricots decreased in vitamin C (29%) and phenols (17%), but remained 2,375% and 318% higher than fresh, respectively. Beta-carotene increased during storage, reaching levels 56% higher than fresh while antioxidant activity was unchanged. This study demonstrates that key nutrients in canned and frozen apricots are retained or amplified upon processing, with the exception of vitamin C in canned apricots. The routine addition of citric and ascorbic acid to fruit prior to freezing resulted in significantly higher antioxidants, vitamin C, and phenols. Consumers eating canned or frozen apricots can feel confident of similar or superior nutritional content as compared to fresh apricots. The apricot industry is limited by the short shelf life of the fruit and consumer belief that processed produce is not as nutritious as fresh. Assessing the nutritional content of canned and frozen apricots and determining that processed apricots can deliver nearly comparable nutrient levels to fresh

  19. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Batnini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian and a modern (Spanish apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening.

  20. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batnini, M.A.; Krichen, L.; Bourguiba, H.; Trifi-Farah, N.; Ruiz, D.; Martínez-Gómez, P.; Rubio, M.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian) and a modern (Spanish) apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening. (Author)

  1. Peach and apricot stone combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynak, B.; Atimtay, Aysel T. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Topal, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara 06570 (Turkey)

    2005-07-25

    In this study, a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) of 102 mm inside diameter and 900 mm height was used to investigate the combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry. A lignite coal was also burned in the same combustor. The combustion characteristics of the wastes were compared with that of a lignite coal that is most widely used in Turkey. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. By changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate), the variation of emissions of various pollutants was studied. Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. During the combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from peach and apricot stones quickly volatilizes and mostly burn in the freeboard. The temperature profiles along the bed and the freeboard also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter of fruit stones increases, the combustion takes place more in the freeboard region. The results of this study have shown that the combustion efficiencies ranged between 98.8% and 99.1% for coal, 96.0% and 97.5% for peach stone and 93.4% and 96.3% for apricot stones. The coal has zero CO emission, but biomass fuels have very high CO emission which indicates that a secondary air addition is required for the system. SO{sub 2} emission of the coal is around 2400-2800 mg/Nm{sup 3}, whereas the biomass fuels have zero SO{sub 2} emission. NO{sub x} emissions are all below the limits set by the Turkish Air Quality Control Regulation of 1986 (TAQCR) for all tests. As the results of combustion of two biomass fuels are compared with each other, peach stones gave lower CO and NO{sub x} emissions but the SO{sub 2} emissions are a little higher than for apricot stones. These results suggest that

  2. New insights into the history of domesticated and wild apricots and its contribution to Plum pox virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroocq, Stéphane; Cornille, Amandine; Tricon, David; Babayeva, Sevda; Chague, Aurélie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Karychev, Raul; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Kostritsyna, Tatiana; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Weisheng; Geng, Wenjuan; Liao, Kang; Asma, Bayram M; Akparov, Zeynal; Giraud, Tatiana; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-10-01

    Studying domesticated species and their wild relatives allows understanding of the mechanisms of population divergence and adaptation, and identifying valuable genetic resources. Apricot is an important fruit in the Northern hemisphere, where it is threatened by the Plum pox virus (PPV), causing the sharka disease. The histories of apricot domestication and of its resistance to sharka are however still poorly understood. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype a collection of 230 wild trees from Central Asia and 142 cultivated apricots as representatives of the worldwide cultivated apricot germplasm; we also performed experimental PPV inoculation tests. The genetic markers revealed highest levels of diversity in Central Asian and Chinese wild and cultivated apricots, confirming an origin in this region. In cultivated apricots, Chinese accessions were differentiated from more Western accessions, while cultivated apricots were differentiated from wild apricots. An approximate Bayesian approach indicated that apricots likely underwent two independent domestication events, with bottlenecks, from the same wild population. Central Asian native apricots exhibited genetic subdivision and high frequency of resistance to sharka. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of cultivated apricot and point to valuable genetic diversity in the extant genetic resources of wild apricots. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Orchard navigation using derivative free Kalman filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localization and navigation in an orchard. The localization algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features representing the surrounding fruit trees of the orchard. The line features are created on basis of 2...

  4. Influence of processing on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. variety Narmo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Wani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh apricot pulp and its processed products (bar, chutney, and leather were analyzed for physicochemical (moisture content, titrable acidity (TA, ascorbic acid, and percent reducing sugars and antioxidant properties (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, reducing power, total phenolics, lipid peroxidation, ferric reducing antioxidant potential, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Reducing sugars, TA, and ascorbic acid content were found to be higher in the processed products than the fresh pulp. A significant difference in the antioxidant properties between the fresh apricot pulp and its processed products was observed. The difference in antioxidant properties between the fresh and the processed products may be attributed to the partial degradation of the bioactive compounds by the action of heat during processing. Among the processed products, apricot bar showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Therefore, production of apricot bar could a suitable option for processing of apricots.

  5. Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Extracts from Sea Buckthorn Berries (Hippophae rhamnoides, Apricot Pulp and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreea Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A healthy human diet requires the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds. Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and apricot fruits (Prunus armeniaca L. are cultivated and appreciated in Romania both as fresh fruits and as derived products. Characterized by a complex chemical composition, sea buckthorn is rich in unsaturated lipids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Except for β-carotene content, less is known about other lipophilic compounds in apricot fruits. The aim of this paper was to separate and quantify the individual carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn, apricot pulp and kernels and also to determine the antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extracts using the TEAC  method.  Chemical characterization of lipophilic extract was performed by HPLC with PDA and fluorescence detection. The total carotenoid content was 17.19±1.4 mg/100g F.W. in sea buckthorn; 3.51±0.25 mg/100g F.W. in apricot fruits and 0.58±0.04 mg/100 g F.W. in apricot kernels. The major carotenoids in sea buckthorn were β-carotene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin esters. Apricots fruits are rich in β-carotene and its geometric isomers while in kernels we could properly identified only lycopene. The α-tocopherol concentration was higher in sea buckthorn (46 mg/kg than in apricot fruits (1.09 mg/kg while apricot kernel contain large amounts of γ-tocopherol (111 mg/kg. Sea buckthorn fruits showed the highest antioxidant capacity, correlated with a high content of both tocopherols and carotenoids.

  6. Study of the changes in the dietary fatty acids and physicochemical values of sweet and bitter apricot oils in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, H.; Hamid, S.

    2007-01-01

    The quantity of oil in local varieties of sweet and bitter apricot was found to be more than that earlier reported for the Indian varieties. Both, sweet and bitter apricot oils, were semi-drying type. Refractive index of bitter apricot oil was higher whereas, free fatty acids were more in sweet apricot oil. Amount of cyanide, cadmium, antimony, arsenic, lead and copper as well as of palmitic acid insignificantly increased with ripening, being more in bitter apricot oil. Major difference was noted in fatty acid composition. Linoleic acid was present in higher amount in sweet apricot oil (21.4%) than in bitter apricot oil (19.6%). Concentration of palmitic acid in sweet oil was 5.0%, while in bitter oil, it was 6.4%. (author)

  7. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  8. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  9. Assessing the performance of surface and subsurface drip systems on irrigation water use efficiency of citrus orchards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo Martinez-Gimeno, Maria; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Bonet, Luis; Intrigliolo, Diego S.; Badal, Eduardo; Ballestrer, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, water scarcity represents a real environmental concern at present and, according to the current climate change models predictions, the problem will be amplified in the future. In order to deal with this issue, application of strategies aimed to optimize the water resources in agriculture and to increase water use efficiency have become essential. On the one hand, it is important the election of the appropriate irrigation system for each particular case. On the other hand, identify the best management options for that specific irrigation system is crucial to optimize the available water resources without affecting yield. When using water saving strategies, however, it is a must to monitor the soil and/or crop water status in order to know the level of stress reached by the plants and to avoid levels that could lead to detrimental effects on yield. Stem water potential, ψstem, expressing the instantaneous condition of crop water stress, is considered a robust indicator of crop water status. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of a surface (DI) and subsurface (SDI) drip irrigation system in a citrus orchard with 7 (DI7, SDI7) or 14 emitters (DI14, SDI14) per plant, in terms of irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and possible amount of water saving. The experiment was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in Alberique, Spain, (39˚ 7'31" N, 0˚ 33'17" W), in a commercial orchard (Citrus clementina, Hort. ex Tan. 'Arrufatina') in which four different treatments with three replications (12 sub-plots) were prepared according to a complete randomized block design. Irrigation doses and timing were scheduled based on the estimated maximum crop evapotranspiration corrected according to measurements of ψstem and soil water content, and weather forecasts. In order to limit the maximum crop water stress, the thresholds of ψstem were assumed in the range between -0.8 and -1.0 MPa from January to June and between -1.0 and -1

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organization of Chile (Servicio Agricola y Ganadero, referred to in this section as SAG) or a private export...) Responsibilities of Servicio Agricola y Ganadero. SAG will ensure that: (1) Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot...

  11. Studies on Osmo-air dehydration of different Indian apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Dev; Sharma, P C; Sharera, Sanjay K

    2015-06-01

    Suitability of seven cultivars of apricot viz. New Castle, Kaisha, Royal, Suffaida, Nari, Kullu (Local) and Chulli (wild apricot) was evaluated for dehydration. Osmotic dehydration of fruits consisting of dipping prepared fruits in 70° Brix sucrose syrup containing 2,000 ppm potassium metabisulphite (KMS) for 24 h followed by cabinet air drying (55 °C) to desired moisture (20 ± 0.5 %) gave better dried product with good colour and appeal. Dried whole or halved fruits after removal of stones were preferred over whole fruits with stones with respect to appearance, texture and overall acceptability. Among different cultivars of apricot; cv. Kaisha followed by New Castle were found better with respect to yield as well as quality of dried product. Further, the quality of the osmo-air dried wild apricot fruits was found statistically at par with the quality of the osmo-air dried product obtained from cultivated apricots. Therefore, wild apricot fruits can also be utilized for preparation of acceptable quality of dried product.

  12. On-farm energy flow in grape orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Karimi; Hossein Moghaddam

    2018-01-01

    Efficient use of energy is an important step toward enhancing the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this study, we evaluated the energy balance of grape orchards in Shahriar, Iran. We collected information of energy input and energy output in 120 grape orchards through face to face questionnaires. This information was further used to evaluate net energy, energy use efficiency, energy intensity, and energy productivity in these orchards. The total energy used in grape orchards was 317...

  13. Simple and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricots (prunus armeniaca L.) by means of reflectance colorimetry and photoacoustic spectrometry spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Buijnsters, J.; Vegvari, G.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and reflectance colorimetry are suggested as new tools for the analysis of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricot powders. The data obtained by these two techniques from seven apricot cultivars were compared to those acquired by spectrophotometry and

  14. Oxidative stress induction by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus infection in apricot seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Pallás, Vincente; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Hernández, José Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot rvirus (PNRSV) was able to invade the immature apricot seed including the embryo. The amount of virus was very high inside the embryo compared with that present in the cotyledons. PNRSV infection produced an oxidative stress in apricot seeds as indicated by the increase in lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. This lipid peroxidation increase was parallelled with an imbalance in the seed antioxidant enzymes. A significant decrease in the ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes as well as in peroxidase (POX) activity took place in infected seeds, suggesting a low capability to eliminate H2O2. No changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase activity were observed. A significant decrease in polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was also observed. Native PAGE revealed the presence of three different SOD activity bands in apricot seeds: a Mn-containing SOD and two CuZn-containing SODs. Only an isozyme with catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) or PPO activity was detected in both healthy and infected apricot seeds. Regarding POX staining, three bands with POX activity were detected in native gels in both healthy and infected seeds. The gel results emphasise that the drop detected in POX, GR and PPO activities in PNRSV-infected apricot seeds by kinetic analyses was also evident from the results obtained by native PAGE. The oxidative stress and the imbalance in the antioxidant systems from PNRSV-infected apricot seeds resemble the hypersensitive response observed in some virus-host interactions. This defence mechanism would inactivate PNRSV during seed formation and/or the storage period or even during seed germination. Those results can explain the decrease in seed germination and the low transmission of PNRSV by seeds in apricot trees.

  15. Gamma irradiation of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    The study is aimed at the optimization of gamma irradiation treatment of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes. Sun-dried apricots pre-treated with potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) at 2.5% w/v were procured from progressive apricot grower of district Kargil, Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. The sun-dried apricots were packed in 250 gauge polyethylene packs and gamma irradiated in the dose range 1.0-3.0 kGy. The gamma irradiated fruit including control was stored under ambient (15±2-25±2 o C, RH 70-80%) conditions and periodically evaluated for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality parameters. Radiation treatment at dose levels of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy proved significantly (p≤0.05) beneficial in retention of higher levels of β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total sugars and color values without impairing the taste as perceived by the sensory panel analysists. The above optimized doses retained the β-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to the extent of 71.2% and 72.6% compared to 63.9% in control samples after 18 months of storage. Irradiation treatment facilitated the release of residual sulfur dioxide in KMS pre-treated sun-dried apricots significantly (p≤0.05) below the prescribed limit for dried products. During storage, two-fold decrease in sulfur dioxide content was recorded in irradiated samples (3.0 kGy) as compared to 16.9% in control. The above optimized doses besides maintaining the higher overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots resulted in 5 log reductions in microbial load just after irradiation and 1.0 and 1.3 log reductions in yeast and mold and bacterial count after 18 months of ambient storage.

  16. Turbulent energy losses during orchard heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Two rapid-response drag anemometers and low time constant thermocouples, all at 4 m above a heated orchard floor, sampled wind component in the vertical direction and temperature at 30 Hz. The turbulent heat flux calculated revealed not more than 10% of the heat lost from the orchard was via turbulent transort. The observations failed to support previous estimates that at least a third of the energy applied was lost through turbulent transport. Underestimation of heat loss due to mean flow and a newly revealed flux due to spatial variations in the mean flow may explain the unaccounted for loss.

  17. Electron beam irradiation of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Ming; Zhou, Linyan; Song, Hongbo; Yi, Jianyong; Wu, Bin; Li, Yaru; Zhang, Le; Che, Fengbin; Wang, Zhidong; Gao, Meixu

    2014-01-01

    The chemical, sensory, and microbial quality parameters of electron beam (EB)-irradiated and non-irradiated sun-dried apricots were periodically evaluated to optimize the EB irradiation of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance. The sun-dried apricots were treated with 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 kGy of EB and subsequently stored at ambient temperature. EB treatment at 1.0–3.0 kGy proved to be beneficial for retaining high levels of β-carotene, ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, total sugars, and color without any significant effect on sensory properties. Doses of 1.0–3.0 kGy retained the β-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to 8.21%, 9.27%, and 10.43% compared with 6.09% in control samples after 10 months of storage. After 10 months of storage, the maximum losses of ascorbic acid were 37.8% in control samples and 35.5% in 3.0 kGy-irradiated samples. Titratable acidity and total sugars were significantly enhanced immediately after 1.0–3.0 kGy irradiation treatment, and both parameters showed no significant change after 10 months of storage. Samples subjected to EB treatment at 3.0 kGy maintained a high overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots. Decreased number of viable microorganisms to below detection limits were observed after 3.0 kGy irradiation, and compared with the control, the logarithmic reductions after 10 months of storage were 0.98 for yeast and mold count, as well as 1.71 for bacterial count. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation was used for sun-dried apricots quality maintenance. • The chemical, sensory, and microbial quality parameters of apricots were evaluated. • 1.0–3.0 kGy proved to be beneficial for retaining high levels of apricots quality. • 3.0 kGy of irradiation maintained a high overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots. • 3.0 kGy of irradiation reduced the viable microorganisms to below detection limits

  18. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Early Invasion and Its Effects on Apricot Pollen Grain Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Burgos, Lorenzo; Pallas, Vicente; Sanchez-Pina, María Amelia

    2007-08-01

    ABSTRACT The route of infection and the pattern of distribution of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in apricot pollen were studied. PNRSV was detected both within and on the surface of infected pollen grains. The virus invaded pollen during its early developmental stages, being detected in pollen mother cells. It was distributed uniformly within the cytoplasm of uni- and bicellular pollen grains and infected the generative cell. In mature pollen grains, characterized by their triangular shape, the virus was located mainly at the apertures, suggesting that PNRSV distribution follows the same pattern as the cellular components required for pollen tube germination and cell wall tube synthesis. PNRSV also was localized inside pollen tubes, especially in the growth zone. In vitro experiments demonstrated that infection with PNRSV decreases the germination percentage of pollen grains by more than half and delays the growth of pollen tubes by approximately 24 h. However, although PNRSV infection affected apricot pollen grain performance during germination, the presence of the virus did not completely prevent fertilization, because the infected apricot pollen tubes, once germinated, were able to reach the apricot embryo sacs, which, in the climatic conditions of southeastern Spain, mature later than in other climates. Thus, infected pollen still could play an important role in the vertical transmission of PNRSV in apricot.

  19. Gum in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. shoots induced by methyl jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well known that some fungal pathogens (Monilia laxa, M. fructigena, Cytospora cincta, larvae of Grapholita molesta and plant hormone - ethylene, induce gummosis in apricot shoots. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me was also found to induce gummosis in apricot shoots as well as biotic and abiotic factors mentioned above. In order to know the mode of action of JA-Me on gum induction and/or formation, chemical composition of polysaccharides (after hydrolysis in gums of apricot shoots induced by JA-Me compared with those by ethephon and their mixture, and naturally occurring ones was studied, resulted in the succesful identification of monosaccharides, and the similarity of a composition consisting of xylose, arabinose and galactose at molar ratio 1:10:14, respectively. These results suggest that beside different inducers of gum in apricot the mechanism of polysaccharides biosynthesis of gums is the same or similar. The physiological role for JA-Me on gum induction and/or formation in apricot shoots, and other species are also discussed.

  20. Autonomous Rule Based Robot Navigation In Orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2010-01-01

    Orchard navigation using sensor-based localization and exible mission management facilitates successful missions independent of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This is especially important while driving between tight tree rows where the GPS coverage is poor. This paper suggests localization ...

  1. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of Jumbo Cot, Tom Cot, Gold Strike, Gold Bar, Bergeron, Bergarouge, Sweet Cot, Yellow cot and Zebra apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among all cultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9 and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences between cultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption daily intake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.

  2. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozyardimci, B.; Denli, E.; Ic, E.

    2006-01-01

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses (∼1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes

  3. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetinkaya, N. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurcet@taek.gov.tr; Ozyardimci, B. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Denli, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Ic, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses ({approx}1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.

  4. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  5. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  6. Studies on Osmo-air dehydration of different Indian apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Dev; Sharma, P. C.; Sharera, Sanjay K.

    2014-01-01

    Suitability of seven cultivars of apricot viz. New Castle, Kaisha, Royal, Suffaida, Nari, Kullu (Local) and Chulli (wild apricot) was evaluated for dehydration. Osmotic dehydration of fruits consisting of dipping prepared fruits in 70° Brix sucrose syrup containing 2,000 ppm potassium metabisulphite (KMS) for 24 h followed by cabinet air drying (55 °C) to desired moisture (20 ± 0.5 %) gave better dried product with good colour and appeal. Dried whole or halved fruits after removal of stones w...

  7. Phenolic compounds and vitamins in wild and cultivated apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) fruits grown in irrigated and dry farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tuncay; Gundogdu, Muttalip; Ercisli, Sezai; Muradoglu, Ferhad; Celik, Ferit; Gecer, Mustafa Kenan; Kodad, Ossama; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2014-09-23

    Turkey is the main apricot producer in the world and apricots have been produced under both dry and irrigated conditions in the country. In this study, phenolic compounds and vitamins in fruits of one wild (Zerdali) and three main apricot cultivars ('Cataloglu', 'Hacihaliloglu' and 'Kabaasi') grown in both dry and irrigated conditions in Malatya provinces in Turkey were investigated. The findings indicated that higher content of phenolic compounds and vitamins was found in apricot fruits grown in irrigated conditions. Among the cultivars, 'Cataloglu' had the highest rutin contents both in irrigated and dry farming conditions as 2855 μg in irrigated and 6952 μg per 100 g dried weight base in dry conditions and the highest chlorogenic acid content in irrigated and dry farming conditions were measured in fruits of 'Hacıhaliloglu' cultivar as 7542 μg and 15251 μg per 100 g dried weight base. Vitamin C contents in homogenates of fruit flesh and skin was found to be higher than β-caroten, retinol, vitamin E and lycopen contents in apricot fruits both in irrigated and dry farming conditions. The results suggested that apricot fruits grown in both dry and irrigated conditions had high health benefits phytochemicals and phytochemical content varied among cultivars and irrigation conditions as well. However, more detailed biological and pharmacological studies are needed for the demonstration and clarification of health benefits of apricot fruits.

  8. Phenolic compounds and vitamins in wild and cultivated apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. fruits grown in irrigated and dry farming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Kan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Turkey is the main apricot producer in the world and apricots have been produced under both dry and irrigated conditions in the country. In this study, phenolic compounds and vitamins in fruits of one wild (Zerdali and three main apricot cultivars ('Cataloglu', 'Hacihaliloglu' and 'Kabaasi' grown in both dry and irrigated conditions in Malatya provinces in Turkey were investigated. RESULTS: The findings indicated that higher content of phenolic compounds and vitamins was found in apricot fruits grown in irrigated conditions. Among the cultivars, 'Cataloglu' had the highest rutin contents both in irrigated and dry farming conditions as 2855 µg in irrigated and 6952 µg per 100 g dried weight base in dry conditions and the highest chlorogenic acid content in irrigated and dry farming conditions were measured in fruits of 'Hacıhaliloglu' cultivar as 7542 µg and 15251 µg per 100 g dried weight base. Vitamin C contents in homogenates of fruit flesh and skin was found to be higher than β-caroten, retinol, vitamin E and lycopen contents in apricot fruits both in irrigated and dry farming conditions. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that apricot fruits grown in both dry and irrigated conditions had high health benefits phytochemicals and phytochemical content varied among cultivars and irrigation conditions as well. However, more detailed biological and pharmacological studies are needed for the demonstration and clarification of health benefits of apricot fruits.

  9. Grassland communities of traditional orchards in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Zarnovican

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional orchards are a valuable feature of the rural landscape and they are specific for regions with scattered settlement such as the Myjava hilly land and White Carpathians. Here, the permanent species-rich grasslands beneath trees were regularly managed in the traditional manner until some were replaced in the 1970’s and 80’s by intensively managed orchards, some of which were abandoned in the early 1990’s. Our 2011–2015 phytosociological research followed the standard Braun-Blanquet approach. We classified 178 phytosociological relevés recorded in orchard meadows (156 relevés, former intensively managed orchards (16 relevés, and two relevés from a semi-intensively grazed orchard. Traditionally managed orchard meadows were classified in the following five units: (i Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – thermophilous variant, (ii Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – transitional variant to Alchemillo-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iii Ranunculo bulbosi-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iv Onobrychido viciifoliae-Brometum erecti, and (v Brachypodio pinnati-Molinietum arundinaceae. Formerly intensively managed large-scale orchards were classified as Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris association and the semi-intensively grazed orchard as Lolio perennis-Cynosuretum cristati association. The species composition varies considerably due to tree-shading and different management treatments applied in the orchards, so the relevés of the delimited syntaxonomic units are not typical and have transitional character. Moisture, soil nutrients, and soil reaction were identified as the main environmental gradients influencing species composition. We tested four management treatments in direct gradient analysis and found that abandonment has the strongest effect on species composition. Comparison of grassland vegetation in the studied traditional orchards with that described in Germany reveals differences in species

  10. Determination of self-(incompatibility in some Turkish cultivated and wild apricots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, self-(in compatibility of 34 wild apricot genotypes, called as Sakit apricots, sampled from Sakit valley located in east Mediterranean region of Turkey and 9 well known Turkish apricot cultivars were determined by using molecular methods. Genomic PCR with S-RNase and SFB-specific primers was conducted using the degenerate primers EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD for the amplification of the second intron region of the S-RNase gene. To amplify the first intron, the fluorescently labelled (JOE forward primer SRc-F was used in combination with the reverse primer SRc-R. According to the results, Sc (self-compatible allele is not present in all wild and cultivated materials. All wild genotypes had same S allele (S6S19 composition indicating they do not carry the SC-haplotype. These wild materials previously reported self-compatible by fruit set studies on field. Mutations rendering the S-locus non-functional in these genotypes can be supposed and checked in the future. The most important dried apricot cultivars of Turkey such as Hacihaliloglu, Kabaasi, and Cataloglu were observed to be self-incompatible cultivars.

  11. Crop load and harvest maturity effects on consumer preferences for apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jill; Feng, Jinquan; Olsson, Shane

    2015-03-15

    Improving apricot fruit quality delivered to consumers is key to ensuring a successful apricot industry. Previous studies have focused on effects of either soluble solids content (SSC) or fruit firmness on consumer preferences, and results have been equivocal. This study evaluated the effects of crop load and harvest maturity how they affected on fruit SSC and firmness, and on subsequent consumer preferences. SSC of apricots was an important factor only when fruit were firmer than 15 N and not immature. When fruit were softer than 15 N, SSC had little influence on consumer liking. In general, consumers preferred fruit that were grown on trees thinned to approximately 10-20% less than typical commercial crop loads and were harvested in a more mature condition. Consumers also preferred fruit that had a higher sugar/acid ratio or BrimA value, which is the °Brix - k × titratable acidity, where k is a constant that varies between species and cultivars depending on the specific acids and sugars present. High apricot flavour and juiciness were associated with greater sweetness. Management practices that increase fruit SSC and sugar/acid ratio, such as reducing crop load, will improve consumer satisfaction as long as fruit are harvested at an adequate maturity stage and are maintained in storage so that they do not soften too quickly. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Organoleptic and Nutritional evaluation of Apricot products developed for Hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mundeja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is an important public health problem worldwide. Dietary modifications include DASH diet with less sodium and high potassium and fiber intake. Aim: Development of value added products using dried apricots for hypertensive patients. Methodology: Dried apricot was selected based on its nutritional quality and high potassium content and was incorporated at different % levels in the formulation of two basic tea time snacks i.e. muffins and cookies. The products were studied for their organoleptic and nutritional parameters. Results: Products incorporated with 15% of apricots were most acceptable by the panel members having potassium content of 4.9 ± 0.07 and 4.2 ± 0.05 %, in muffins and cookies respectively. Protein, fat and ash content of muffin was found to be 6.96 ± 1.17, 10.79 ± 0.11 and 0.84 ± 0.05% respectively. Protein, fat and ash content of cookies were found to be 5.86± 0.09, 10.02 ±0.12 and 1.41 ±0.07% respectively. Conclusion: Considering the potassium content and nutritional and organoleptic evaluation it was concluded that apricot incorporated products developed were acceptable by people and inclusion of such fortified common daily use snacks will help community to maintain a healthy life.

  13. Apricot melanoidins prevent oxidative endothelial cell death by counteracting mitochondrial oxidation and membrane depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Cossu

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular benefits associated with diets rich in fruit and vegetables are thought to be due to phytochemicals contained in fresh plant material. However, whether processed plant foods provide the same benefits as unprocessed ones is an open question. Melanoidins from heat-processed apricots were isolated and their presence confirmed by colorimetric analysis and browning index. Oxidative injury of endothelial cells (ECs is the key step for the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, therefore the potential protective effect of apricot melanoidins on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative mitochondrial damage and cell death was explored in human ECs. The redox state of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments was detected by using the redox-sensitive, fluorescent protein (roGFP, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP was assessed with the fluorescent dye, JC-1. ECs exposure to hydrogen peroxide, dose-dependently induced mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation. Additionally detected hydrogen peroxide-induced phenomena were MMP dissipation and ECs death. Pretreatment of ECs with apricot melanoidins, significantly counteracted and ultimately abolished hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and cell death. In this regard, our current results clearly indicate that melanoidins derived from heat-processed apricots, protect human ECs against oxidative stress.

  14. 75 FR 51924 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, apricot handlers in... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0050...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  15. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  16. Navigation and Tree Mapping in Orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Andersen, Jens Christian

    In this paper an algorithm for estimating tree positions is presented. The sensors used for the algorithm is GNSS and LIDAR, and data is collected in an orchard with grapefruit trees while driving along the rows. The positions of the trees are estimated using ellipse fitting on point clouds....... The average accuracy for the center point estimation is 0.2 m in the along track direction and 0.35 m in the across track direction. The goal of the tree mapping algorithm is create a database of individual trees, and be the basis for creation of a graph map that can be used for mission planning...

  17. Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N.; Galinha, C.; Dung, H.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sitoe, T. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well.

  18. Profitability of Irrigated Improved Pecan Orchards in the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Job D.; Swinford, Wyatt; Rohla, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine if an irrigated improved pecan orchard is economical relative to agronomic systems commonly implemented by producers that have access to irrigation. Results show that the improved pecan orchard is more profitable than competitive enterprises after a twenty year time frame, but is sensitive to pecan price, pecan yield and attitude toward risk.

  19. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  20. Epiphytic lichens of apple orchards in Poland, Slovakia, and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zarabska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the study of epiphytic lichens in 30 apple orchards from Poland, Slovakia and Italy the list of 74 taxa was prepared. The most common are the meso- to xerophytic and heliophilous species. The highest number of taxa was observed in Slovak orchards. Moreover, lichens shared with at least one other country were also noted mainly in Slovakia. Bark of apple trees seems to create favourable habitats for Bacidia rubella, which together with Strangospora pinicola were valuable founds in Polish orchards. In Slovak orchards, special attention should be paid to Acrocordia gemmata, Melanelixia glabra and Usnea hirta. Among interesting records in Italian orchards, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Ph. kairamoi can be mentioned.

  1. Co-combustion of peach and apricot stone with coal in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T.; Kaynak, Burcak [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    In this study a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry with coal. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. For co-combustion of apricot and peach fruit stones with a lignite coal, various ratios of biomass to coal ranging from 0 to 100 wt.% were tested. For the peach stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies are about 98% and for the apricot stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies ranged between 94.7% and 96.9% for 25%, 50% and 75% of apricot stone in the fuel mixture. The results of this study have shown that as the biomass ratio in the fuel mixture increases, the combustion takes place at the upper regions of the main column. This causes higher temperatures in the freeboard than the bed. Also the CO and hydrocarbon (C{sub m}H{sub n}) emissions increase as the biomass percentage increases in the fuel mixture. This causes decrease in the combustion efficiency. These results suggest that peach and apricot stones are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production in small-scale fruit juice industries by using BFBC. The percentage of peach stones or apricot stones in the fuel mixture is suggested to be below 50 wt.% in order to obtain the emission limits of EU. During the design of the BFBC, one has to be careful about the volatile matter (VM) content of the biomass. For the complete combustion of the VM, longer freeboard or secondary air addition should be

  2. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  3. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  4. Removal of cobalt and europium radioisotopes using activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifullah, A.A.M.; Moloukhia, H.

    2002-01-01

    the phenomena of cobalt and europium sorption by activated carbon from aqueous solution was studied. Activated carbon prepared from locally available agricultural wastes; apricot stones; was used. The prepared carbon was characterized using different techniques. The chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon was also studied. Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate and optimize the various process variables i.e. equilibrium time, carbon dose, solution ph and the presence of competitive. Optimal conditions for the sorption of the radioisotopes have been identified. The sorption isotherm of Freundlich was the best fitting for the concentration range studied. Interference of oxalic acid, EDTA and phenol molecules were discussed. Percentages desorption of both acid, EDTA and phenol using bi-distilled water and IMHCI was determined. The data suggest the possible use of activated carbon of apricot stone (ACAS) for the concentration of these cations

  5. Effect of sucrose and potassium metabisulphite on the physicochemical and microbial analysis of apricot pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, M.; Durrani, T.; Zeb, A.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of different concentration of sucrose and potassium metabisulphite on the apricot pulp was studied fortnightly for 90 days through physicochemical and microbial analysis. No significant change in total soluble solids (TSS) of apricot pulp was observed during the storage. Acidity and non-reducing sugar significantly (p<0.05) decreased, while pH and reducing sugars significantly (p<0.05) increased during the storage. Samples with added 20% sucrose and 0.2% potassium metabisulphite, packed in plastic and glass containers, had negligible microbial population maintained maximum nutrients and the best sensory characteristics during the storage. Storage duration and treatments had significant (p<0.05) effect on pH, acidity, non reducing sugars and total fungal count, while on TSS (total soluble solids) and reducing sugar, the effect of treatments was nonsignificant (p<0.05). (author)

  6. low cost constant low cost constant – head drip irrigation emitter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    manufacturer's coefficient of variation and distribution uniformity of discharge were 0.098 and ... The system operates under low pressure (87.9 mbar) and can deliver the daily crop .... The concept underlining the design is to develop a drip.

  7. Hydraulic performance of locally made LDPE-Pipes for drip irrigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Mangrio, A.G.; Ibrar, S.U.

    2007-01-01

    LDPE pipes give controlled and efficient irrigation practices for plant-water requirement. All five sizes of pipes i.e. 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm with wall thicknesses of 1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mm respectively in 100 and 200 m lengths were selected for determination of pressure-discharge relationships, manufacturing coefficient of variation and friction coefficient. The pipes were operated at pressure ranging from 10 to 50 psi (7.00 -35.00 meter head) with an increment of 5 psi. The discharge of different sizes of LDPE pipes was measured under various pressures. The average discharge of the pipes with 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm pipe sizes between 10 to 50 psi pressure heads were 0.058, 0.301, 0.402, 0.909 and 2.076 lps respectively for 100 meter pipe length and 0.056, 0.10, 0.13, 0.45 and 1.993 lps respectively for 200 meter pipe length. The average friction head loss of the pipes with 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm pipe sizes between 10 to 50 psi pressure heads were 3.21, 2.51, 1.66, 3.99 and 3.64 meter per 100 meter pipe length and 6.44, 5.03, 3.15, 6.79 and 6.85 meter per 200 meter pipe length respectively. The average C-value of all sizes of selected pipes for both lengths between 10-50 psi was indicated 18% less than the recommend value. Results indicated that the discharge, friction head losses and friction coefficient increased with the increase in pressure. This study helped describe the optimal pressure requirement to achieve the desirable discharge low friction head losses and minimum friction coefficients. (author)

  8. Soil microbial diversity, site conditions, shelter forest land, saline water drip-irrigation, drift desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengzhong; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu; Xu, Xinwen

    2013-10-01

    Soil microbes in forest land are crucial to soil development in extreme areas. In this study, methods of conventional culture, PLFA and PCR-DGGE were utilized to analyze soil microbial quantity, fatty acids and microbial DNA segments of soils subjected to different site conditions in the Tarim Desert Highway forest land. The main results were as follows: the soil microbial amount, diversity indexes of fatty acid and DNA segment differed significantly among sites with different conditions (F 84%), followed by actinomycetes and then fungi (<0.05%). Vertical differences in the soil microbial diversity were insignificant at 0-35 cm. Correlation analysis indicated that the forest trees grew better as the soil microbial diversity index increased. Therefore, construction of the Tarim Desert Highway shelter-forest promoted soil biological development; however, for enhancing sand control efficiency and promoting sand development, we should consider the effects of site condition in the construction and regeneration of shelter-forest ecological projects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Crop growth and two dimensional modeling of soil water transport in drip irrigated potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Mollerup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    of abscisic acid (ABA). Model outputs from the mechanistic simulation model Daisy, in SAFIR developed to include 2D soil processes and gas exchange processes based on Ball et al. and Farquhar were compared with measured crop dynamics, final DM yield and volumetric water content in the soil measured by TDR...

  10. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  11. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Kennedy, C. M.; Rein, Arno

    2011-01-01

    irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. RESULTS: The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging...... from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw—1. Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw—1. Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates...

  12. Evaluation of subsurface drip irrigation design and management parameters for alfalfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandelous, M.M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J.A.; Šimůnek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most cultivated crops in the US, and is being used as livestock feed for the dairy, beef, and horse industries. About nine percent of that is grown in California, yet there is an increasing concern about the large amounts of irrigation water required to attain maximum yield. We

  13. Bountiful crop with every drop: Using drip irrigation to increase yields and conserve water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Cauliflower, broccoli, sweet pepper and many other nutritious vegetables used to be expensive in Mauritius. The island’s climate and traditional agricultural practices were not suitable for cultivating several high value vegetable crops, while importing them to the island state was prohibitively costly due to the long distances involved. This has all changed over the past few years, and local farms are now starting to supply the country’s growing population and burgeoning tourism industry with fresh, locally grown produce.

  14. Drip irrigation in coffee crop under different planting densities: Growth and yield in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice A. de Assis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation associated to reduction on planting spaces between rows and between coffee plants has been a featured practice in coffee cultivation. The objective of the present study was to assess, over a period of five consecutive years, influence of different irrigation management regimes and planting densities on growth and bean yield of Coffea arabica L.. The treatments consisted of four irrigation regimes: climatologic water balance, irrigation when the soil water tension reached values close to 20 and 60 kPa; and a control that was not irrigated. The treatments were distributed randomly in five planting densities: 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1. A split-plot in randomized block design was used with four replications. Irrigation promoted better growth of coffee plants and increased yield that varied in function of the plant density per area. For densities from 10,000 to 20,000 plants ha-1, regardless of the used irrigation management, mean yield increases were over 49.6% compared to the non-irrigated crop.

  15. Effect of Limited Drip Irrigation Regime on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame under Mediterranean Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiota PAPASTYLIANOU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sesame is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Irrigation is of great importance to sesame production due to its positive effect on growth parameters. Although sesame has good drought tolerance compared with many other crops, it is particularly susceptible to drought damage during the seedling, flowering and seed filling stages and this can lead to yield loss. The aim of this study was to determine the response of sesame landraces to different irrigation applications during the 2015 growing season. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replicates, four main plots (irrigation treatments, designated as 100%, 75% 50% and 0 of the daily crop evapotranspiration and two sub-plots (sesame landraces, Limnos and Evros. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of seeds per capsule, and number of capsules per plant, seed yield, 1000-seed weight and % capsules without seeds, were recorded. The results indicated that all traits except 1000-seed weight were significantly affected by irrigation regimes. Plant height, shattering losses and number of capsules per plant decreased with increasing water shortage. Seed yield and number of seeds per capsule were less affected by irrigation level and showed higher values in the 50% of the daily crop evapotranspiration treatment. Limnos produced higher seed yield and number of seeds per capsule under all irrigation regimes. Evros showed higher plant height and shattering losses than Limnos. The results of this study suggest that sesame landraces can use water efficiently, are locally adapted and associated with traditional farming systems.

  16. Continuous measurement of soil evaporation in a drip-irrigated wine vineyard in a desert area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation from the soil surface (E) can be a significant source of water loss in arid areas. In sparsely vegetated systems, E is expected to be a function of soil, climate, irrigation regime, precipitation patterns, and plant canopy development, and will therefore change dynamically at both daily ...

  17. Mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin OZER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruit is fruit that is preserved by removing the original water content naturally, through sun drying or artificially, by the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value and long shelf life. Traditional dried fruits such as raisins, figs, dates, apricots and prunes have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. The Mediterranean region is very favourable for production of dried fruits, not only with its climatic conditions, but also its exceptional fertile lands. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically has allowed Mediterranean countries more access to dried fruits than landlocked countries. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold throughout the world are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. Dates, prunes, apricots, figs and raisins are the major dried fruits produced in the Mediterranean area. Dried fruits are not perishable but can support mold growth, some of which can produce mycotoxins. Occurence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on these dried fruits can be a problem in the Mediterranean basin, as in the other parts of the world, being a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local products. Although the most important mycotoxins occuring in Mediterranean crops are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A, the type and level of mycotoxins and toxigenic molds vary by crop and also by country and in some cases geographic location within a country. In this review mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops are reported and discussed.

  18. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Evica MRATINIĆ; Bojan POPOVSKI; Tomo MILOŠEVIĆ; Melpomena POPOVSKA

    2011-01-01

    Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control) such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness), arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X...

  19. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distributi...

  20. Input-output energy analysis in dry apricot production of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esengun, Kemal; Guenduez, Orhan; Erdal, Guelistan

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the amount of input-output energy used in dry apricot production, to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption and to make an economic analysis of dry apricot production in Malatya, Turkey. Data used in this study were obtained from 97 farmers using a face to face questionnaire method. The sample farms were selected through a stratified random sampling technique. The population investigated was divided into two strata based on the size of apricot farms as 0.1-3.0 ha (66 farms) and larger than 3.1 ha (31 farms). The results revealed that 28647.03 MJ ha -1 energy were consumed by the first group and 17884.72 MJ ha -1 by the second group of farmers. The input-output ratio and productivities were 1.24 and 0.24 in the first strata and 1.31 and 0.25 in the second strata, respectively. Results further indicated that in both types of farms, 3/4 of the total energy cost was in non-renewable energy forms, and only 1/4 was in renewable forms. The economic analyses showed that the profit-cost ratios of the farms were 1.11 and 1.19, respectively. Net returns calculated were 414.51 $ ha -1 and 495.59 $ ha -1 in the farms investigated. It was concluded that extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption in dry apricot production and to employ environmentally friendly agricultural management practices and production methods

  1. Antioxidant and Sensorial Properties of Polyfloral Honey with Dried Apricots after One Year of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vulić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenol (TPh and flavonoid (TFd contents, antioxidant and sensorial properties of polyfloral (PH, and polyfloral honey after one year of storage (PHs with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40% were evaluated. In comparison to honey, TPh increased 1.86 times for PH40. After storage time, TPh of PH40s increased slightly lower (1.77 times, compared to PHs. TFd slightly increased, approximately 3.23-fold, from PH to PH40, while PHs showed increase of 5.15-fold for PH40s. Antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. EC50OH varied from 3.36 for PH to 2.29 mg/mL for PH40 and from 3.48 for PHs to 2.68 mg/mL for PH40s; EC50DPPH ranged from 30.60 for PH to 14.95 mg/mL for PH40 and from 31.22 for PHs to 17.43 mg/mL for PH40s; RP0.5 ranged from 66.37 for PH to 31.83 mg/mL for PH40 and from 67.99 for PHs to 35.03 mg/mL for PH40s. Statistical analysis suggested that TPh and TFd were associated with antioxidant activity and colour. Sensory parameters, before and after storage, indicated very good sensory qualities. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory properties were promoted after addition of dried apricots and these parameters stayed improved, since antioxidant compounds present in dried apricots aided in maintenance of honey properties along one year of storage.

  2. Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Skutkova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Powermethods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964 was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (–- and (+- catechin.

  3. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of �Jumbo Cot�, �Tom Cot�, �Gold Strike�, �Gold Bar�, Bergeron�, �Bergarouge�, �Sweet Cot�, �Yellow cot� and �Zebra� apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among all cultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9 and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences between cultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption daily intake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.

  4. Physical characteristics, mineral analysis and antioxidant properties of some apricot varieties grown in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Wani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven apricot varieties (Chinese, Rival, Tilton, Cuminis Haley, Harcot, Margulam, Narmu, Khante, Halman, Badam Chuli, and Cuban were studied for their mineral analysis, physical characteristics, and antioxidant properties. The physical characteristics varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05 among the apricot varieties. Cuban and Harcot showed a comparatively larger fruit size. However, Cuminis Haley and Harcot showed the highest edible bulk. Nine minerals (Zn, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Mn, P, and K were analyzed and were found to vary significantly (p ≤ 0.05 among the apricot varieties. Mn, Cu, and Zn elements were present in micro amounts, while K, Mg, Ca, P, and Fe levels were present in macro amounts. Halman and Margulam showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher amount of the minerals. All the varieties showed lower amounts of Cu as compared to the recommended daily intake, ranging from 0–0.82 ppm. All the varieties proved to be rich sources of polyphenols, with significant (p ≤ 0.05 varietal difference. Khante and Halman showed the significantly (p ≤ 0.05 highest methanolic 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical scavenging activity.

  5. Antinutritional factors and hypocholesterolemic effect of wild apricot kernel (Prunus armeniaca L.) as affected by detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Beenu; Modgil, Rajni; Goyal, Ankit

    2018-04-25

    The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of detoxification on the nutrients and antinutrients of wild apricot kernel followed by its hypocholesterolemic effect in male Wistar albino rats. The results revealed a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect of detoxification on the proximate composition except total carbohydrates and protein content. However, detoxification led to a significant (p acid (76.82%), β-carotene (25.90%), dietary fiber constituents (10.51-28.92%), minerals (4.76-31.08%) and antinutritional factors (23.92-77.05%) (phenolics, tannins, trypsin inhibitor activity, saponins, phytic acid, alkaloids, flavonoids, oxalates) along with the complete removal (100%) of bitter and potentially toxic hydrocyanic acid (HCN). The quality parameters of kernel oil indicated no adverse effects of detoxification on free fatty acids, lipase activity, acid value and peroxide value, which remained well below the maximum permissible limit. Blood lipid profile demonstrated that the detoxified apricot kernel group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of HDL-cholesterol (48.79%) and triglycerides (15.09%), and decreased levels of total blood cholesterol (6.99%), LDL-C (22.95%) and VLDL-C (7.90%) compared to that of the raw (untreated) kernel group. Overall, it can be concluded that wild apricot kernel flour could be detoxified efficiently by employing a simple, safe, domestic and cost-effective method, which further has the potential for formulating protein supplements and value-added food products.

  6. HEAVY METALS IN VINEYARDS AND ORCHARD SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of foliar fungicides in vineyards and orchards can increase soil concentration of heavy metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, up to the toxicity threshold for fruit trees and cover crops. However, some agronomic practices, such as liming, addition of organic fertilizers, cultivation of soil cover crops and inoculation of young plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the availability and the potential of heavy metal toxicity to fruit trees. This review aims to compile and present information about the effects of increasing concentrations of heavy metals, especially Cu and Zn, on soils cultivated with fruit trees and provides some agronomic practices of remediation. Information about the sources of heavy metals found in soils cultivated with fruit trees are presented; mechanisms of absorption, transport, accumulation and potential toxicity to plants are described.

  7. Changes in polyphenol profile of dried apricots containing SO2 at various concentrations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındağ, Melek; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    Changes in polyphenols have important effects on the quality (especially color) and health benefits of dried apricots. SO 2 concentration, storage and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were factors which had significant effects on polyphenols. Polyphenol profile and activities of PPO and PAL in sulfured dried apricots (SDAs, 0, 451, 832, 2112 and 3241 mg SO 2 kg -1 ) were monitored during storage at 4, 20 and 30 °C for 379 days for the first time. Even the lowest SO 2 concentration (451 mg kg -1 ) was sufficient to inactivate PPO during the entire storage period. However, while SO 2 led to the increase in PAL activity of the samples (r = 0.767) before storage, PAL activities of SDAs decreased during storage. After 90 days of storage, PAL activity was determined in only non-sulfured dried apricots (NSDAs) and dried apricots containing 451 mg SO 2 kg -1 . Although the major polyphenol in NSDAs was epicatechin (611.4 mg kg -1 ), that in SDAs was chlorogenic acid (455-1508 mg kg -1 ), followed by epicatechin (0-426.8 mg kg -1 ), rutin (148.9-477.3 mg kg -1 ), ferulic acid (23.3-55.3 mg kg -1 ) and gallic acid (2.4-43.6 mg kg -1 ). After storage at 30 °C for 379 days, the major polyphenol in SDAs was gallic acid (706-2324 mg kg -1 ). However, the major polyphenol in NSDAs did not change after storage. The highest total polyphenol content was detected in SDAs containing 2112 mg SO 2 kg -1 and stored at 30 °C. To produce dried apricots having high polyphenol content, ∼2000 mg SO 2 kg -1 should be used. Low storage temperature (<30 °C) was not necessary for the protection of polyphenols. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Pesticides and brain cancer linked in orchard farmers of Kashmir

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A. R.; Raina, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The atmosphere of valley of Kashmir is ideal for fresh and dry fruit production. Millions of tons of pesticides, insecticides and fungicides (chemicals like chlorpyriphos, mancozeb, captan, dimethoate, phosalone, etc.) are being used by the orchard farmers to spray the plants, fruits and the leaves every year. The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers of Kashmir is alarming. Aim: To determine the relationship between the patients of...

  9. Carbon footprint of apple and pear : orchards, storage and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, F.; Castanheira, E.G.; Feliciano, M.; Rodrigues, M.A.; Peres, A.; Maia, F.; Ramos, A.; Carneiro, J.P.; Coroama, V.C.; Freire, F.

    2013-01-01

    Apple and pear represent 51% of fresh fruit orchards in Portugal. This paper presents a life-cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment (so-called carbon footprint) of 3 apple and 1 pear Portuguese production systems. An LC model and inventory were implemented, encompassing the farm stage (cultivation of fruit trees in orchards), storage and distribution (transport to retail). The functional unit considered in this study was 1 kg of distributed fruit (at retail). Four different LC inventories...

  10. The effects of orchard pesticide applications on breeding robins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E.V.; Mack, G.L.; Thompson, D.Q.

    1976-01-01

    From 1966 through 1968, robins reproduced successfully in commercial apple orchards which were periodically sprayed with DDT, dieldrin, and other pesticides. Observations by a Z-man team using walkie-talkies revealed that breeding robins obtained essentially all food for themselves and nestlings from unsprayed areas adjacent to the orchards. Invertebrate trapping in sprayed and unsprayed areas showed that these food items were 5 or 6 times more abundant in unsprayed habitat. Worms forced to live in sprayed orchard soil displayed significantly greater mortality than controls. Mean robin clutch sizes in the study orchards were lower than those reported for robins in other studies, perhaps because of food shortage and/or increased foraging distances. Levels of DDT and its analogs in food items from robin foraging areas did not exceed 8 ppm wet weight basis. From late April to July, adult robins showed small but significant increases in DDE levels in all tissues examined, as well as an increase in dieldrin in brains. Pesticides sprayed on the farm had no direct demonstrable adverse effects on the robins; productivity was high and adult mortality low. The situation was in large measure fortuitous, since any changes in orchard management practices which resulted in the presence or availability of invertebrates under orchard trees would be expected to result in robin mortality and/or reduced breeding success.

  11. HPLC-DAD-MS(n) characterisation of carotenoids from apricots and pumpkins for the evaluation of fruit product authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christina; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2008-09-15

    Carotenoids including carotenoid esters from six apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and from eight cultivars from three pumpkin species (Cucurbita maxima Duch., Cucurbita pepo L., and Cucurbita moschata Duch.) were extracted without saponification, separated on a C-30 reversed-phase column and characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The predominant free carotenoids were quantified by HPLC with diode array detection. In contrast to previously published data, α-carotene could not be detected in apricots. Although the pumpkins showed significant differences in their free carotenoid profiles, major unesterified compounds different from those found in apricots could be determined. However, due to the natural heterogeneity, authentication of the apricot products cannot be accomplished exclusively using the profile of free carotenoids. Therefore, the investigations were extended to carotenoid esters. The xanthophyll ester profiles in pumpkins significantly differed from those in apricots in that the latter also contained both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, whereas in pumpkins exclusively saturated fatty acids were detected. Admixtures of lower cost pumpkins could be detected in quantities of ⩾5% by increased contents of lutein and zeaxanthin, and by the appearance of antheraxanthin and α-carotene, respectively, depending on the added pumpkin cultivar, as well as the presence of characteristic lutein and antheraxanthin esters. However, pronounced differences in the carotenoid profiles of the investigated pumpkins and the partly minor amount of characteristic compounds lead to limitations of the detection of 5% level of admixture of pumpkin to apricot and of the method in general. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tamarind orchards: agro forestry for dry lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Anita, R. [Indian Inst. of Science, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Bangalore (India); Meili, Anandi [WSD, ADATS Campus, Kolar, Karnataka (India)

    1998-09-01

    Agroforestry has a potential for sequestering as much carbon if not more than forests. Massive benefits can be channeled to small farmers and landless labourers through cultivation of Tamarind and other fast growing and fruit yielding trees. This paper describes a project in a semiarid area of south India. The aim is to upgrade dryland holdings of the member families through economically sound dry land horticulture, community woodlots, and planting of fast growing species along orchard and field boundaries. The small farmers invest massive labour inputs and project gives economic benefits to change their land use practices and improve environmental quality. This paper describes the planning processes of the project, hurdles in findings AIJ partners, current monitoring procedures and costs of C sequestration. This shows the project is economically viable on its own, but initially needed, and continues to need, carbon credit investment in order to spread rapidly across the geopolitical region covered by the organization. It argues that economic gains to small farmers and landless labourers are the most certain way of achieving massive biomass increase and soil carbon replenishment, and that multiple holistic benefits are achieved through this kind of project. (author)

  13. Mechanical property evaluation of apricot fruits under quasi-static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some forces and impacts that occur during transporting and handling can reduce the apricot quality. Bruise damage is a major cause of fruit quality loss. Bruises occur under dynamic and static loading when stress induced in the fruit exceeds the failure stress of the fruit tissue. Needless to say that physical and mechanical properties of fruits in the design and optimization of systems related to production, processing and packaging of the products are important. Harvesting, transport, packaging and transportation of fruits and vegetables, result in their bruising which can cause loss of marketability of the fruit by consumers. The term of ‘absorbed energy’ could be used to express the quantity of damage done on the fruit and the high the absorbed energy, the higher the damage on the fruit. The object of this research was due to the importance of apricot fruit and lack of information about the mechanical behavior. Materials and Methods: In this study, apricot fruit variety “Ziaolmolki” was examined to determine some physical and mechanical properties. In order avoid any damage, the fruits were carefully harvested from trees and gathered in plastic boxes in a row, to prevent damage to the apricots. For determination of mechanical properties and levels of impact energy used test axial machine and pendulum device, respectively. Dependent variables (acoustics stiffness, radius of curvature, color characteristic a* and b*, Brix percentage, penetration force, penetration work and penetration deformation and independent variables (impact energy in three levels, temperature and color in 2 levels each were selected and analyzed by block designs with factorial structure. In the experimental design, the fruits were stored in two temperature levels, 3oC and 25oC. Two areas of any fruit (red and yellow areas were subjected to 3 impact energy levels. For each of the 8 levels, 8 fruit samples were selected. Overall, 96 fruits {8 (number

  14. Optimization of Enzymatic Production of Oligopeptides from Apricot Almonds Meal with Neutrase and N120P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrase 0.8L and N120P proteases were used for oligopeptide production from apricot almonds meal, and response surface design was carried out to optimize the effect of hydrolysis conditions on hydrolysis degree (DH and oligopeptide yield rate. Four independent variables were used to optimize the hydrolysis process: hydrolysis temperature (X1, enzyme-to substrate ratio (E/S (X2, substrate concentration (X3 and reaction time (X4. Statistical analysis indicated that the four variables, quadratic terms of X1, X3, and X4, and the interaction terms with X1 had a significant (p

  15. The Missing Set: How Landscape Acts in The Cherry Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Leone

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Why is the cherry orchard almost entirely absent from the stage? How does this absent landscape function dramatically? Chekhov's own garden expertise supports a study of the way that landscape in this play—its presence at once pervasive and virtual—both transcends and subverts the functions of setting. Such a reading of the function of landscape leads us to new ways of answering old questions about the play, as well: is the orchard more or other than a symbol? is the play a comedy? I examine the features and conventions of an orchard and garden landscape as they collide with characters' apprehension of the orchard as a repository of the past, and with Lopahin's plans—radical, practical and Romantic—for its future. The orchard's fate parallels the dispersal and re-definition of the family; that shared human and landscape drama can be read to show how landscape is constructed and how that construct depends upon, reflects, and may subvert human intentions.

  16. In Vitro Proliferation of Three Iranian Apricot Varieties by Single Node Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Khazaei Kojori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro propagation of three Iranian apricot cultivars, “Ghavami”, “RajabAli” and “Khiveei” was studied by direct micropropagation technique. To optimize sterile manipulation, shoot nods of one year-old dormant vegetative shoots and current growing vegetative shoot were cultured in WPM medium after treatment by HgCl2, citric acid, ethanol and NaClO (10, 15, 20 min. Establishment of buds was tested in the MS and WPM mediums. Proliferation of sprouting buds was evaluated in WPM medium supplemented with three concentrations of (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/l BAP and 0.05 mg/l of IBA. A half-Strength MS medium supplemented with three concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/l of IBA was used as a rooting medium. The greatest number of contamination-free shoots in HgCl2 0.01% and citric acid 0.07% treatments were obtained. No significant difference was found between two different mediums in terms of bud vegetative growth. The shoot number and length were significantly affected by apricot varieties and BAP concentrations. The greatest numbers of proliferated shoot were observed in Rajabali and Ghavami varieties at 1 mg/l of BAP, whereas maximum number of shoot in Khiveei cultivar was observed in 0.5 mg/l of BAP. The maximum shoot length in Rajabali and Ghavami cultivars was obtained in 2 mg/l of BAP.

  17. Modeling of the process of moisture loss during the storage of dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, G; Berna, A; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2011-10-01

    Moisture content is a reference parameter for dried food because the growth of most microorganisms is inhibited below certain water activity levels. In addition, it has a determining influence on the evolution of important parameters, such as color and flavor, and on other properties and deterioration reactions, such as texture, oxidation processes and nutritional value. During the storage of some dried fruits, moisture is produced due to Maillard reactions and exchanged with the surrounding environment through the packaging. The evolution of dried foods during their shelf life depends on the storage conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the moisture content in dried apricots packaged in different types of containers, namely glass and thermosealed polypropylene trays. The samples were stored at constant temperatures: 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C and were analyzed periodically over a period of 12 months. The sorption isotherms of apricots used in this study were also determined. In order to model how the moisture evolved, an empirical kinetic model was tested. This model considers both water transfer from the fruit and also water production as a result of the Maillard processes. The explained variance was higher than 95% in the samples stored in trays, which were thermosealed with film.

  18. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  19. Fungicide application practices and personal protective equipment use among orchard farmers in the agricultural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, C J; Deddens, J A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M C R

    2007-04-01

    Fungicides are routinely applied to deciduous tree fruits for disease management. Seventy-four private orchard applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study participated in the Orchard Fungicide Exposure Study in 2002-2003. During 144 days of observation, information was obtained on chemicals applied and applicator mixing, application, personal protective, and hygiene practices. At least half of the applicators had orchards with orchard applicators.

  20. Comparison of the variability of apricot seedlings obtained from irradiated and non irradiated seeds of the same origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legave, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experiences of low intensity gamma-ray irradiation on apricot seedlings and comparison of the variability to the variability of a control population. The characteristics studied were: flowering, fructification, growth and vegetative spreading. Favourable and unfavourable results are observed (earlier ripening time, or low fruitfulness), meanwhile, for higher intensity irradiation, only unfavourable results are obtained [fr

  1. 76 FR 31577 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and... commodities from South Africa. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and... for approving the importation of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can...

  2. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  3. Gap probability - Measurements and models of a pecan orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiaowen; Moody, Aaron; Liu, YI

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and models are compared for gap probability in a pecan orchard. Measurements are based on panoramic photographs of 50* by 135 view angle made under the canopy looking upwards at regular positions along transects between orchard trees. The gap probability model is driven by geometric parameters at two levels-crown and leaf. Crown level parameters include the shape of the crown envelope and spacing of crowns; leaf level parameters include leaf size and shape, leaf area index, and leaf angle, all as functions of canopy position.

  4. Reducing post-harvest losses in South Asia's mango orchards ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Spraying a small concentration of hexanal in mango orchards has been found to delay the ripening of the fruit by an extra three weeks, enabling farmers to earn up to 15% more for their crop. Once the crop is harvested, hexanal-sprayed mangoes also have a much longer shelf life—up to 26 days in cold ...

  5. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  6. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  7. Pesticides and brain cancer linked in orchard farmers of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A R; Raina, T H

    2010-10-01

    The atmosphere of valley of Kashmir is ideal for fresh and dry fruit production. Millions of tons of pesticides, insecticides and fungicides (chemicals like chlorpyriphos, mancozeb, captan, dimethoate, phosalone, etc.) are being used by the orchard farmers to spray the plants, fruits and the leaves every year. The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers of Kashmir is alarming. To determine the relationship between the patients of primary malignant brain tumors and their occupation. Retrospectively case files along with death certificates of 432 patients of primary malignant brain tumors and 457 controls (non-tumor neurologic diseases), admitted for treatment simultaneously over a period of 4 years from January 2005 to December 2008, to the Department of Neurosurgery, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Kashmir, were studied. Follow-up and family contact was established. The serum cholinesterase activity was measured by kinetic/DGKC calorimetric method and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) samples were sent to the laboratory. The results are expressed in U/l which is U/l×1000. The laboratory at SKIMS, Srinagar, and Dr Lal PathLabs at New Delhi used a reference range for serum cholinesterase as 3167-6333 U/l. Analysis revealed that 90.04% (389 out of 432) patients were orchard-farm workers, orchard residents and orchard playing children exposed to the high levels of multiple types of neurotoxic and carcinogenic (chlorpyriphos, dimethoate, mancozeb and captan) chemicals for more than 10-20 years. About 31.9% (124 out of 389) of these from both sexes were younger than 40 years beginning exposure at an early age and had higher (orchard-related 389 patients had high grade tumors as compared to the non-pesticide tumors. Mortality in pesticide exposed tumors was 12%. Higher levels of SCE were found in 31.9% (124 out of 389) patients and decreased levels in only 45.3% (176 out of 389) orchard

  8. Brain cancer and pesticide relationship in orchard farmers of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A R

    2010-09-01

    The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers and their families in Kashmir. To determine the relationship between the patients of primary malignant brain tumors and their occupation. Retrospectively, case files along with death certificates of 432 patients of primary malignant brain tumors and 457 controls (non-tumor neurologic diseases), admitted for treatment simultaneously over a period of 4 years from January 2005 to December 2008, to the Neurosurgery, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Kashmir, were studied. Follow-up and family interaction was established. Analysis revealed that 90.04% (389 out of 432) patients were orchard farm workers, orchard residents and orchard playing children exposed to the high levels of multiple types of neurotoxic and carcinogenic (chlorpyriphos, dimethoate, mancozeb and captan) chemicals for more than 10 years [relative risk (RR) = 10.6; odds ratio (OR) = >10; 95% confidence interval (CI) = >25-40]. The 9.96% (43 out of 432) patients were not exposed to pesticides. On the other hand, only 19 patients out of 457 controls had recorded history of pesticide exposure and 438 were unrelated to pesticides. Out of 389 patients, 71.7% (279 out of 389) were males and 28.3% (110 out of 389), including six members of three families, were females (one male child). All orchard-related 389 patients had high-grade tumors as compared to the non-pesticide tumors. Mortality in pesticide-exposed tumors was 12%. The higher or upper-normal levels of serum cholinesterase (AChE) were observed in 54.7% (213 out of 389) patients and decreased levels were found in only 45.3% (176 out of 389) orchard-related patients (RR = 19.4; OR = >5; 95% CI = >1-10). Although serum AChE levels were a routine investigation in malignant brain tumors, this was not a routine in other neurological conditions (hospitalized controls). The familial gliomas have shown an emerging trend in the orchard residents of

  9. Effect of short-term consumption bitter apricot seeds on the body composition in healthy population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of fat in different areas of the body is important since accumulation of fat within the abdominal cavity represents a much more severe cardiovascular risk than accumulation in subcutaneous adipose tissues. Apricot seeds contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds and that consumption can decrease blood pressure and total blood cholesterol levels, fight oxidative stress and maintain body weight. The aim of the study was to analyse body composition: body fat mass (BFM, fat free mass (FFM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM, body fat percentage (%BFM, visceral fat area (VFA, total body water (TBW - intracellular water (ICW and extracellular water (ECW and to evaluate the changes that occur after 6-weeks consumption of bitter apricot seeds. The study group finally consisted of 34 healthy adults volunteers (21 females and 13 males. Volunteers were recruited from the general population of Slovakia. Respondents were 23 - 65 years old, where the average age of women was 40.65 ±11.31 years and the average age of men was 36.91 ±9.98 years. All participants were asked to consume 60 mg.kg-1 of body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily during 6 weeks. Body composition was diagnosed by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA by InBody 720 (Biospace Co., Korea, which measures the total impedance at frequencies of 1, 5, 50, 100, 500, 1000 kHz. At baseline mean body weight was 85.78 ±14.66 and 62.84 ±12.19 kg in the male and female participants, respectively. After 6 weeks of consumation we observed non-significant decreasing of mean body weight. The mean BFM was 19.25 ±8.81 kg in the male group and 19.47 ±7.21 kg in the female group. After six weeks, BFM decreased non-significantly (on average 0.5 kg in both groups. The mean FFM at baseline was 43.37 ±5.98 and 66.54 ±7.98 kg in the female and male participants, respectively. The statistical analysis confirmed that the increase of FFM (43.37 ±5.98 kg to 43.56 ±5.80 kg in the

  10. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Zivoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  11. Physical and chemical characteristics of toilet soap made from apricot kernel oil and palm stearin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis, Adel Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to use apricot kernel oil with palm stearin in toilet soap-making. Apricot kernel oil was obtained from apricot kernel seed (Prunus armeniaca through hydraulic pressing (12000lb/in2. Kernel contained 43.3% oil. The fatty acids of apricot kernel oil had high oleic acid (81.73% while, the major of the fatty acid in palm stearin was palmitic acid (55.17%. Eight of the toilet soap samples were prepared from apricot kernel oil, palm kernel oil and palm stearin at different ratios. The structure of soap samples nº1 and 8 were sticky and with bad physical properties. On the other hand, the physical characteristics of blends nos 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 had firm consistency and creamy lather while, in soap nº 7, its were moderatement; i. e. medium hard makeup with fairly lather. After storage (6 months on a shelf at room temperature, all soaps (nº1-8 were declined in their moisture content. On contrary, the total fatty acids of the same samples were augmented at different ratios during storage. Physical characteristics of soap samples nos 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were increased after the storage time (6 months, their consistencies were very firm with creamy lather and reducement in their erosion from handwashing ratios was observed. It can be recommended that apricot kernel oil can be used in the manufacturing of toilet soap until ratio 50% of the fatty blend (the blend was bear palm stearin.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el uso del aceite de semilla de albaricoque con estearina de palma en la fabricación de jabón de tocador. El aceite de semilla de albaricoque (Prunus armeniaca se obtuvo por presión hidráulica (12000lb/in2, y la semilla contenía el 43.3% de aceite. Los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de albaricoque tenían altos contenidos de ácido oleico (81.73% mientras, el ácido graso mayoritario en la estearina de palma fue el ácido palm

  12. Adsorption of gold ions from industrial wastewater using activated carbon derived from hard shell of apricot stones - an agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mansooreh; Kaghazchi, Tahereh

    2008-09-01

    In this study, hard shell of apricot stones was selected from agricultural solid wastes to prepare effective and low cost adsorbent for the gold separation from gold-plating wastewater. Different adsorption parameters like adsorbent dose, particle size of activated carbon, pH and agitation speed of mixing on the gold adsorption were studied. The results showed that under the optimum operating conditions, more than 98% of gold was adsorbed onto activated carbon after only 3h. The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Isotherms have been used to obtain thermodynamic parameters. Gold desorption studies were performed with aqueous solution mixture of sodium hydroxide and organic solvents at ambient temperatures. Quantitative recovery of gold ions is possible by this method. As hard shell of apricot stones is a discarded as waste from agricultural and food industries, the prepared activated carbon is expected to be an economical product for gold ion recovery from wastewater.

  13. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluetsch, K.M.; Sparling, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of operational use of pesticides on avian species inhabiting apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Mourning dove (Zenaida rnacroura) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests were monitored in three organic and three conventional apple orchards during 1990 and 1991. In 1991 we surveyed the avian communities of these orchards by using line transects. Organophosphorus (OP) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, phosphamidon, parathion, dimethoate), carbamate (CA) (e.g., methomyl, formetanate, oxamyl), and organochlorine (endosulfan) pesticides, known to be highly toxic to birds, were sprayed individually or in mixtures as part of routine pest management as many as 19 times during peaks in breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 86% of the nests in conventional orchards. Daily survival rates (DSRs) for nests of both species were higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards for 1991 and for years combined (p the organic orchards (H= 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H=1.79). Repeated applications of pesticides within the conventional orchards reduced the reproductive success of doves and robins and may have lowered avian species diversity compared with organic orchards.

  14. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Application of carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Oe, Takaaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2017-08-01

    Japanese apricot liqueur manufacturers are required to control the quality and authenticity of their liqueur products. Citric acid made from corn is the main acidulant used in commercial liqueurs. In this study, we conducted spiking experiments and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid used as an acidulant in Japanese apricot liqueurs. Our results showed that the δ 13 C values detected exogenous citric acid originating from C 4 plants but not from C 3 plants. The δ 2 H values of citric acid decreased as the amount of citric acid added increased, whether the citric acid originated from C 3 or C 4 plants. Commercial liqueurs with declared added acidulant provided higher δ 13 C values and lower δ 2 H values than did authentic liqueurs and commercial liqueurs with no declared added acidulant. Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses are suitable as routine methods for detecting exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Real-time PCR assays for the quantitation of rDNA from apricot and other plant species in marzipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Ilka; Brüning, Philipp; Matissek, Reinhard; Fischer, Markus

    2013-04-10

    Marzipan or marzipan raw paste is a typical German sweet which is consumed directly or is used as an ingredient in the bakery industry/confectionery (e.g., in stollen) and as filling for chocolate candies. Almonds (blanched and pealed) and sugar are the only ingredients for marzipan production according to German food guidelines. Especially for the confectionery industry, the use of persipan, which contains apricot or peach kernels instead of almonds, is preferred due to its stronger aroma. In most of the companies, both raw pastes are produced, in most cases on the same production line, running the risk of an unintended cross contamination. Additionally, due to high almond market values, dilutions of marzipan with cheaper seeds may occur. Especially in the case of apricot and almond, the close relationship of both species is a challenge for the analysis. DNA based methods for the qualitative detection of apricot, peach, pea, bean, lupine, soy, cashew, pistachio, and chickpea in marzipan have recently been published. In this study, different quantitation strategies on the basis of real-time PCR have been evaluated and a relative quantitation method with a reference amplification product was shown to give the best results. As the real-time PCR is based on the high copy rDNA-cluster, even contaminations <1% can be reliably quantitated.

  17. Ethylene regulation of carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in colour-contrasted apricot varieties (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, I; Bureau, S; Sarkissian, G; Gouble, B; Audergon, J M; Albagnac, G

    2005-07-01

    In order to elucidate the regulation mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis in apricot fruit (Prunus armeniaca), carotenoid content and carotenogenic gene expression were analysed as a function of ethylene production in two colour-contrasted apricot varieties. Fruits from Goldrich (GO) were orange, while Moniqui (MO) fruits were white. Biochemical analysis showed that GO accumulated precursors of the uncoloured carotenoids, phytoene and phytofluene, and the coloured carotenoid, beta-carotene, while Moniqui (MO) fruits only accumulated phytoene and phytofluene but no beta-carotene. Physiological analysis showed that ethylene production was clearly weaker in GO than in MO. Carotenogenic gene expression (Psy-1, Pds, and Zds) and carotenoid accumulation were measured with respect to ethylene production which is initiated in mature green fruits at the onset of the climacteric stage or following exo-ethylene or ethylene-receptor inhibitor (1-MCP) treatments. Results showed (i) systematically stronger expression of carotenogenic genes in white than in orange fruits, even for the Zds gene involved in beta-carotene synthesis that is undetectable in MO fruits, (ii) ethylene-induction of Psy-1 and Pds gene expression and the corresponding product accumulation, (iii) Zds gene expression and beta-carotene production independent of ethylene. The different results obtained at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels revealed the complex regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in apricots and led to suggestions regarding some possible ways to regulate it.

  18. Green Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hybrid N-Doped ORR Electro-Catalysts Derived from Apricot Sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Karunagaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid depletion of fossil fuel and increased energy demand has initiated a need for an alternative energy source to cater for the growing energy demand. Fuel cells are an enabling technology for the conversion of sustainable energy carriers (e.g., renewable hydrogen or bio-gas into electrical power and heat. However, the hazardous raw materials and complicated experimental procedures used to produce electro-catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in fuel cells has been a concern for the effective implementation of these catalysts. Therefore, environmentally friendly and low-cost oxygen reduction electro-catalysts synthesised from natural products are considered as an attractive alternative to currently used synthetic materials involving hazardous chemicals and waste. Herein, we describe a unique integrated oxygen reduction three-dimensional composite catalyst containing both nitrogen-doped carbon fibers (N-CF and carbon microspheres (N-CMS synthesised from apricot sap from an apricot tree. The synthesis was carried out via three-step process, including apricot sap resin preparation, hydrothermal treatment, and pyrolysis with a nitrogen precursor. The nitrogen-doped electro-catalysts synthesised were characterised by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, and BET techniques followed by electro-chemical testing for ORR catalysis activity. The obtained catalyst material shows high catalytic activity for ORR in the basic medium by facilitating the reaction via a four-electron transfer mechanism.

  19. Green Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hybrid N-Doped ORR Electro-Catalysts Derived from Apricot Sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunagaran, Ramesh; Coghlan, Campbell; Shearer, Cameron; Tran, Diana; Gulati, Karan; Tung, Tran Thanh; Doonan, Christian; Losic, Dusan

    2018-01-28

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel and increased energy demand has initiated a need for an alternative energy source to cater for the growing energy demand. Fuel cells are an enabling technology for the conversion of sustainable energy carriers (e.g., renewable hydrogen or bio-gas) into electrical power and heat. However, the hazardous raw materials and complicated experimental procedures used to produce electro-catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells has been a concern for the effective implementation of these catalysts. Therefore, environmentally friendly and low-cost oxygen reduction electro-catalysts synthesised from natural products are considered as an attractive alternative to currently used synthetic materials involving hazardous chemicals and waste. Herein, we describe a unique integrated oxygen reduction three-dimensional composite catalyst containing both nitrogen-doped carbon fibers (N-CF) and carbon microspheres (N-CMS) synthesised from apricot sap from an apricot tree. The synthesis was carried out via three-step process, including apricot sap resin preparation, hydrothermal treatment, and pyrolysis with a nitrogen precursor. The nitrogen-doped electro-catalysts synthesised were characterised by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, and BET techniques followed by electro-chemical testing for ORR catalysis activity. The obtained catalyst material shows high catalytic activity for ORR in the basic medium by facilitating the reaction via a four-electron transfer mechanism.

  20. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  1. Determination of Chilling and Heat Requirement of Four Apricot Cultivars of Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohreh hoshyar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Dormancy is one of the most important stages in the life cycle of temperate plants and plants are required to exit from it with supply of chill unit. Flowering is defined with chilling and heat requirement. Owing to low chilling requirement, blooming happens too early and cold temperatures produce an important loss of yield by frost. In temperate fruits, awareness of the need buds to avoid winter frost is one of the main objectives in breeding programs. Studies concerning chilling and heat requirements are thus of special interest in these species, being very important for the choice of parents in breeding programs to create superior varieties of winter and spring frost (late flowering and resistant cold provide. Utah is one of the most important model was introduced in 1974 by Richardson and colleagues. Effective temperature on cold storage in Utah model is 1/9-5/2. This is 6/1-9/12 in North Carolina and 8/1-9/13 in low chilling. Temperatures above 16 have negative effect on accumulation in Utah model. Later models were developed according to the Utah model that the Low chilling requirement (18 and the North Carolina (31 models are among them. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. is belonging to warm temperate regions and due to the lack of compatibility and apricot spring frost in Khorasan Razavi province, the identification of varieties and genotypes with high compatibility and high thermal and cooling requirements to reduce the risk of early frost and increase production efficiency, seems important. The purpose of this study was to determine the need for chilling and heat requirement in apricot cultivars. Material and methods: In this research, chilling and heating requirements of four local cultivars of apricot were evaluated under field and laboratory conditions. This experiment was conducted at agricultural research station Golmakan. A factorial (two-factor experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with tree

  2. Brain cancer and pesticide relationship in orchard farmers of Kashmir

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers and their families in Kashmir. Aim: To determine the relationship between the patients of primary malignant brain tumors and their occupation. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, case files along with death certificates of 432 patients of primary malignant brain tumors and 457 controls (non-tumor neurologic diseases), admitted for treatment simultaneously over a period of 4 years from Ja...

  3. Development and Application Prospects of Pneumatic Electrostatic Sprayer in Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan; Qi, Li-jun; Jia, Shou-xing; Zheng, Xuan; Meng, Xiang-jin; Tang, Zhi-hui; Shen, Cong-ju

    2012-01-01

    We firstly introduce existing situations of development of electrostatic spraying technology both at home and abroad. On the basis of such problems as serious drift, loss and deterioration of environment during orchard spraying in Xinjiang, we design and develop a new electrostatic sprayer which can effectively reduce the pesticide, improve the adhesion rate of pesticide in the target, and reduce pollution on human body and environment. Using electrostatic induction principle, this electrosta...

  4. Great tits (Parus major reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel M M Mols

    Full Text Available Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple orchard. We tested whether this reduction also occurs under practical conditions of Integrated Pest Management (IPM, as well as Organic Farming (OF, by setting up an area with nest boxes while leaving a comparable area as a control within 12 commercial orchards. We showed that in IPM orchards, but not in OF orchards, in the areas with breeding great tits, apples had 50% of the caterpillar damage of the control areas. Offering nest boxes to attract insectivorous passerines in orchards can thus lead to more limited pesticide use, thereby adding to the natural biological diversity in an agricultural landscape, while also being economically profitable to the fruit growers.

  5. Great tits (Parus major) reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mols, Christel M M; Visser, Marcel E

    2007-02-07

    Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple orchard. We tested whether this reduction also occurs under practical conditions of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), as well as Organic Farming (OF), by setting up an area with nest boxes while leaving a comparable area as a control within 12 commercial orchards. We showed that in IPM orchards, but not in OF orchards, in the areas with breeding great tits, apples had 50% of the caterpillar damage of the control areas. Offering nest boxes to attract insectivorous passerines in orchards can thus lead to more limited pesticide use, thereby adding to the natural biological diversity in an agricultural landscape, while also being economically profitable to the fruit growers.

  6. Nitrogen availability in an apple orchard with weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Weed management in apple orchards (Malus domestica can affect the leaching of nitrogen (N in soil. The study aimed to evaluate the potential leaching of N forms in soil of an apple orchard with different weed management treatments. The experiment was conducted in an apple orchard implanted in 2008. In October 2011, 80 plants were selected and the following treatments were implemented: no weed management (NM, desiccation of weeds on the tree row with herbicide use (DR and mechanical mowing of weeds on the tree row (MR. Yield was evaluated in the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 crop seasons. In May 2012 porous cup lysimeters were installed in the NM, DR and MR treatments. In the solution collected at 0.20m, NH4 +-N and NO3 --N were analyzed sixteen times and mineral N concentration was calculated. The highest concentrations of NO3 --N and mineral N occurred in soil solution with DR, which increases availability of the nutrient to apple trees, but also enhances the potential losses. Weed management and N flow in the solution did not affect apple yield.

  7. Phosphorus fractions in apple orchards in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phosphorus (P applications at dosages higher than the necessary may cause P buildup in the soil labile fractions and, consequently, pollution of water sources. This study aimed to assess accumulation of P fractions as well as the parameters of adsorption isotherms in soil profiles having a history of application of phosphate fertilizers and cultivated with apple trees. Soil samples were collected from an area with no history of cultivation and 2 apple orchards cultivated for 8 (P8 and 18 (P18 years, in the city of Urubici, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Soil samples were air dried, sieved in a 2-mm mesh, and subjected to chemical analyses (P adsorption besides P chemical fractionation. Applications of phosphate fertilizers to the orchards, particularly P18, increased the inorganic and organic concentrations of P in all fractions. The distribution of P in organic and inorganic forms in the planted soils was similar to the distribution observed for the native vegetation soil. The highest inorganic labile P fraction, the lowest maximum P adsorption capacity, and the highest equilibrium concentration values at P18 are indicators of a higher environmental pollution risk of the orchards soils compared to the native soil.

  8. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy. The performance of Surface Renewal (SR analysis for estimating sensible heat flux (H was analysed and evaluated in terms of correlation with H fluxes from the eddy covariance (EC method. Study revealed that the mean available energy (RN- G and latent heat flux (LE were of about 300 W m-2 and 237 W m-2, respectively, during dry periods and unstable-case atmospheric conditions. The estimated crop coefficient Kc values for the orchard crop averaged close to 0.80, which is considerably higher than previous FAO studies that found the value to be 0.65 for citrus with 70% of ground cover. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (LI PAR by the crop was measured and relationships between LAI and crop coefficient (Kc were established.

  9. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hočevar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  10. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  11. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  12. Chemical Composition of Apricot Pit Shells and Effect of Hot-Water Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B. Corbett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues, such as corn stover, wheat straw, and nut shells show promise as feedstocks for lignocellulosic biorefinery due to their relatively high polysaccharide content and low or no nutritional value for human consumption. Apricot pit shells (APS were studied in this work to assess their potential for use in a biorefinery. Hot water extraction (HWE; 160 °C, 2 h, proposed to remove easily accessible hemicelluloses, was performed to evaluate the susceptibility of APS to this mild pretreatment process. The chemical composition of APS before and after HWE (EAPS was analyzed by standard methods and 1H-NMR. A low yield of the remaining HW-extracted APS (~59% indicated that APS are highly susceptible to this pretreatment method. 1H-NMR analysis of EAPS revealed that ~77% of xylan present in raw APS was removed along with ~24% of lignin. The energy of combustion of APS was measured before and after HWE showing a slight increase due to HWE (1.61% increase. Near infrared radiation spectroscopy (NIRS, proposed as a quick non-invasive method of biomass analysis, was performed. NIRS corroborated results of traditional analysis and 1H-NMR. Determination of antioxidizing activity (AOA of APS extracts was also undertaken. AOA of organic APS extracts were shown to be more than 20 times higher than that of a synthetic antioxidizing agent.

  13. Stability of astaxanthin in yogurt used to simulate apricot color, under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cerezal Mezquita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate astaxanthin to yogurts with different fat content to match apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. color. The samples containing astaxanthin were stored at 5 ± 3 °C, and color stability and astaxanthin content were determined by colorimetry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, respectively. Yogurt samples were analyzed in triplicate every 24 hours for one week and subsequently every week for 3 more weeks There were no significant differences (p < 0.05 between astaxanthin concentration values at 0 and 28 days for both samples; therefore, it can be said that the fat content in the yogurt had not effect on the stability of pigment. The low dispersion of the data showed uniformity in the three chromaticity coordinates L*, a*, b* throughout the storage period for both types of yogurt. Values of ∆E ≥ 5.0 were not obtained at any time during storage, indicating high stability of the pigment.

  14. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evica MRATINIĆ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04, soluble solids content in ZO-1/03, titratable acidity in ZL-2/03, SS/TA ratio in ZL-1/03, and fruit mass and flesh/stone ratio in DL-1/1/04 genotype. The most number of genotypes have orange and deep orange skin and flesh colour, respectively, whereas sweet kernel taste was predominant in most genotypes. Regarding physical-mechanical properties, the superior fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter and surface area observed in DL-1/1/04 genotype, whereas the highest sphericity and surface area observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04 genotypes. Also, the series of genotypes evaluated have better chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties than Hungarian Best (control. Finally, information about these properties is very important for understanding the behaviour of the product during the postharvest operations.

  15. Kinetics of adsorption of dyes from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from waste apricot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Yunus

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbent (WA11Zn5) has been prepared from waste apricot by chemical activation with ZnCl 2 . Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by N 2 adsorption and DFT plus software. Adsorption of three dyes, namely, Methylene Blue (MB), Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV), onto activated carbon in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to contact time, temperature. The kinetics of adsorption of MB, MG and CV have been discussed using six kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the Elovich equation, the intraparticle diffusion model, the Bangham equation, the modified Freundlich equation. Kinetic parameters and correlation coefficients were determined. It was shown that the second-order kinetic equation could describe the adsorption kinetics for three dyes. The dyes uptake process was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at earlier stages (before 5 min) and by intraparticle diffusion at later stages (after 5 min). Thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG, ΔH and ΔS, have been calculated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient obtained at different temperatures and concentrations. The thermodynamics of dyes-WA11Zn5 system indicates endothermic process

  16. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  17. Phosphorus absorption (32P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, R.

    1983-01-01

    P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free 32 P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to 32 P injection. (orig.)

  18. Distribution Of 15N Fertilizer Added To Sandy Soil Under Drip Irrigation System As Affected By Irrigation Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; EL-GENDY, R.W.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL-DEGWY, S.M.; KASSAB, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron moisture meter and stable nitrogen isotope ( 15 N) were used to follow horizontal and vertical water movement and N-fertilizer added to soil before and after irrigation. The data indicated that soil moisture distribution and values of total hydraulic potential depend on soil moisture content. Characterization of nitrogen in soil for all sites around the emitter indicated spatial variability with different soil depths due to leaching and volatilization processes. Moreover, water movement and flow direction greatly were characterized by active evaporation depth which was 30 cm.

  19. Yields and Nutritional of Greenhouse Tomato in Response to Different Soil Aeration Volume at two depths of Subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Niu, Wenquan; Dyck, Miles; Wang, Jingwei; Zou, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 4 aeration levels (varied by injection of air to the soil through subsurface irrigation lines) at two subsurface irrigation line depths (15 and 40 cm) on plant growth, yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse tomato. In all experiments, fruit number, width and length, yield, vitamin C, lycopene and sugar/acid ratio of tomato markedly increased in response to the aeration treatments. Vitamin C, lycopene, and sugar/acid ratio increased by 41%, 2%, and 43%, respectively, in the 1.5 times standard aeration volume compared with the no-aeration treatment. An interaction between aeration level and depth of irrigation line was also observed with yield, fruit number, fruit length, vitamin C and sugar/acid ratio of greenhouse tomato increasing at each aeration level when irrigation lines were placed at 40 cm depth. However, when the irrigation lines were 15 cm deep, the trend of total fruit yields, fruit width, fruit length and sugar/acid ratio first increased and then decreased with increasing aeration level. Total soluble solids and titrable acid decreased with increasing aeration level both at 15 and 40 cm irrigation line placement. When all of the quality factors, yields and economic benefit are considered together, the combination of 40 cm line depth and “standard” aeration level was the optimum combination. PMID:27995970

  20. Use of the rice husk as an alternative substrate for growing media on green walls drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey Rivas-Sánchez, Yair; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán Cañas, José

    2017-04-01

    In the last years, we have been looking for alternatives to traditional growing mediums for green walls. Commercially available systems for green walls are commonly made with Sphagnum, rock wool or polymers that are unsustainable materials. In the design of the green wall, local components such as agricultural by-products should be considered more often. The objective of this research is to use alternative materials available in Andalusia that are suitable for use as a growing medium in green walls, using organic residues generated by agriculture as in this case the rice husk, compared to conventional and used materials as a growing media in green walls such as coconut fiber and rock wool. The physical-chemical characteristics of the water were analyzed through the collection of excess irrigation water, after passing through the prototypes of green walls, installed in the Rabanales Campus of the University of Córdoba between April and July 2016 and thus observe the feasibility of using rice husk as an alternative material. The 16 mm diameter irrigation pipes are at the top and middle of each module, with 12 adjustable drippers of 4 l / h for each module, 72 drippers in the whole experimental green wall prototype installed at every 15 centimeters of tube. Two different species of plant material (Lampranthus spectabilis) and (Lavandula stoechas), were selected, taking into account the solar exposition of the place of establishment of the prototype of the green wall and the easy acquisition of these plants in the region. Water samples were collected every day twice a day for 10 weeks of the experiment, taking a sample of the surplus runoff water from six green wall prototypes.PH 40 - pH - conductivity - TDS - temperature, CRISON. Differences in pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and total solids of the treatments were examined by ANOVA with the test of normality and homogeneity of variances. It was observed that the substrates used in the prototypes of the experiment with rock wool and coconut fiber had a significant influence on the water characteristics, while the effect of the rice husk substrate was minimal. These results confirm that the rice husk is a valid substitute for the conventional substrates used in green walls. The use of rice husk as a growing medium material can replace less sustainable substrates such as Sphagnum moss and other polymers.

  1. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

    OpenAIRE

    javad baghani; A. Alizadeh; H. Ansari; M. Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any researc...

  2. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Altaf, Muhammad; McCabe, Matthew; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Nisar; Moghadas, Davood; Weihermü ller, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using

  3. The Seductive Power of an Innovation: Enrolling Non-Conventional Actors in a Drip Irrigation Community in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouniche, Maya; Errahj, Mostafa; Kuper, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the motivations of non-conventional innovation actors to engage in innovation processes, how their involvement changed the technology and their own social-professional status, and to analyze their role in the diffusion of the innovation. Design/methodology/approach: We studied the innovation process of…

  4. Biophysical response of young pomegranate trees to surface and sub-surface drip irrigation and deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to recurring agricultural water shortages, many farmers are looking for crops that have both some degree of drought resistance and a higher economic value. Pomegranate has been identified as a crop with potential drought tolerance, and high economic values. To manage limited water effectively, i...

  5. The Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Management of Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guizhi

    A monitoring system based on wireless sensor network is established, aiming at the difficulty of information acquisition in the orchard on the hill at present. The temperature and humidity sensors are deployed around fruit trees to gather the real-time environmental parameters, and the wireless communication modules with self-organized form, which transmit the data to a remote central server, can realize the function of monitoring. By setting the parameters of data intelligent analysis judgment, the information on remote diagnosis and decision support can be timely and effectively feed back to users.

  6. Curve numbers for olive orchard catchments in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Yuan, Yongping; Licciardello, Feliciana; Gómez, Jose

    2014-05-01

    The Curve Number (CN) method (Soil Conservation Service, 1972) is widely applied around the world to estimate direct runoff and the corresponding hydrograph of a rainfall event. Its efficient and simple computation, its complete parameterization for different soils, uses and managements and its good performance justify its application. Nevertheless, apart from Romero et al. (2007) who calculated CN-values at the plot scale, there is little information on the model performance in olive orchards at the catchment scale. In this work, the CN-model has been applied in three small catchments in Spain ranging between 6 and 8 ha with different soil types (regosol, luvisol and vertisol), topography (mean slopes between 9-15%) and management practices (non-tillage with a spontaneous grass cover, minimum tillage, conventional tillage). A rainfall-runoff dataset of 6 years have been used to test the usefulness of model as well as the accuracy of its reference parameterization (CNs and of initial substraction, Ia). CN-values were adjusted, optimized and compared with reference values for orchard crops while the sensitivity of the goodness of fit to Ia was described for each catchment. Classical equations based on the use of CN-percentiles 50, 10 and 90 for determining the antecedent moisture content (AMC) provided very good results with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of efficiency equal to 0.73 and 0.81 in two of the catchments with an annual rainfall higher than 600 mm. The third one -with an annual rainfall lower than 400 mm and spontaneous grass cover- showed a different pattern where a multiple linear regression dependant on precipitation and temperature features, represented notably better the rainfall-runoff relationships. Although fractions of Ia on the storage (S) equal to 0.15 and 0.25 allowed to optimize the adjustments of CN, the usual reference of 0.20 is quite appropriate. Finally, significant deviations were observed on reference-CNs for sandy soils that should be

  7. Estimating Cone and Seed Production and Monitoring Pest Damage in Southern Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; H. David Muse; Thomas Miller; Helen T. Bhattacharyya

    1988-01-01

    Field sampling procedures and computer programs are described for monitoring seed production and pest damage in southern pine seed orchards. The system estimates total orchard yields of female strobili and seeds, quantifies pest damage, determines times of year when losses occur, and produces life tables for female strobili. An example is included to illustrate the...

  8. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  9. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Challenges of managing disease in tall orchard trees – pecan scab, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing disease in tall orchard trees presents unique issues not found in relatively shorter horticultural and agronomic crops, simply due to height. Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter] Seyran et al.) is used as an example of a major disease of one of the tallest orchard crops in ...

  11. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the

  12. Apple orchard pest control strategies affect bird communities in southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Ricci, Benoît; Agerberg, Julia; Lavigne, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Birds are regarded as appropriate biological indicators of how changes in agricultural practices affect the environment. They are also involved in the biocontrol of pests. In the present study, we provide an assessment of the impact of pest control strategies on bird communities in apple orchards in southeastern France. We compared the structure (abundance, species richness, and diversity) of breeding bird communities in 15 orchards under conventional or organic pest control over a three-year period (2003-2005). Pest control strategies and their evolution over time were characterized by analyzing farmers' treatment schedules. The landscape surrounding the orchards was characterized using a Geographic Information System. We observed 30 bird species overall. Bird abundance, species richness, and diversity were all affected by pest control strategies, and were highest in organic orchards and lowest in conventional orchards during the three study years. The pest control strategy affected insectivores more than granivores. We further observed a tendency for bird communities in integrated pest management orchards to change over time and become increasingly different from communities in organic orchards, which also corresponded to changes in treatment schedules. These findings indicate that within-orchard bird communities may respond quickly to changes in pesticide use and may, in turn, influence biocontrol of pests by birds. © 2010 SETAC.

  13. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, M.; Anwar, F.; Ashraf, M.; Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels) ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil) of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 degree centigrade 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 degree centigrade), 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil), 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell), 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O{sub 2}/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97%) followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%), palmitic (3.35-5.93%), linolenic (0.73-1.03%) and stearic (1.10-1.68%) acids. The contents of {alpha}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleo chemical applications. (Author) 55 refs.

  14. Integrating cellular automata, artificial neural network and fuzzy set theory to simulate threatened orchards: Application to Maragheh, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azari, M; Tayyebi, A; Helbich, M; Ahadnejad Reveshty, M

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization processes challenge the growth of orchards areas in many cities in Iran. In Maragheh orchards are crucial ecological, economical, and tourist sources. To explore orchards threatened by urban expansion, this study aims, first, to develop a new model by coupling cellular automata and

  15. [Service value assessment of orchard ecosystem: a case of Putian City of Fujian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wu, Duan-wang

    2011-09-01

    Based on the equivalent weight factor of China terrestrial ecosystem service value, and by using ecosystem service value assessment model, this paper evaluated the orchard ecosystem service value in Putian City. In 2002-2008, the orchard ecosystem service value in the City had an overall increasing trend, among which, the service value of gas regulation and water resource conservation had a fluctuation trend of decreased after an initial increase, and that of other functions increased rapidly in 2002-2006 and then developed mildly. The service value of regulation function was higher than that of direct use function, showing that only on the basis of preserving well the functions of ecosystem, could the orchard ecosystem be claimed and used. As most of the orchards in the City are on hills or mountains, the construction and ecological protection of the orchards are obviously disjointed, making the orchards become bare land or other land-use types, resulting in serious soil erosion and degradation, which not only destroyed the orchard ecology, but also gave negative effects on the production efficiency of agriculture. In the future construction of Putian orchards, it should implement comprehensive planning and management of mountain areas, water regions, farm lands, forest lands, and paths, reduce the orchard construction costs by taking advantage of high and new technologies in light of the local conditions and the demands of domestic and foreign markets, and promote the virtuous circle of ecosystem by comprehensive utilization of resources and regulation of biological interaction to make the structure of the orchard ecosystem approached to scientific and rational.

  16. Japanese apricot improves symptoms of gastrointestinal dysmotility associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekita, Takao; Kato, Jun; Enomoto, Shotaro; Yoshida, Takeichi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Hanamitsu, Toshiko; Inoue, Izumi; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moribata, Kosaku; Muraki, Yosuke; Shingaki, Naoki; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao

    2015-07-14

    To investigate the effects of Japanese apricot (JA) consumption on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related symptoms. Participants included individuals living in Minabe-cho, a well-known JA-growing region, who received specific medical check-ups by the local community health service in 2010. GERD-related symptoms were examined in 1303 Japanese individuals using a validated questionnaire, the Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD (FSSG), which consists of 7 questions associated with acid reflux symptoms and 5 questions asking about gastrointestinal dysmotility symptoms. Each question was answered using a 4-point scale, with higher scores indicating more severe GERD-related symptoms. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their intake of dried and pickled JA: daily intake (≥ 1 JA daily) (392 subjects) and none or occasional intake (reflux score did not differ between subjects with and without daily intake of JA (1.08 ± 1.90 vs 1.24 ± 2.11, P = 0.177). Subanalysis indicated that improvement in dysmotility by JA intake was specifically observed in non-elderly (1.24 ± 1.68 vs 1.62 ± 2.22, P = 0.005) and H. pylori-negative subjects (0.99 ± 1.58 vs 1.57 ± 2.06, P < 0.001). GERD patients (total FSSG score ≥ 8) were less frequently observed among subjects with daily intake of JA as compared to those without daily intake of JA (6.1% vs 9.7%, P = 0.040). Daily JA intake may improve digestive dysmotility symptoms, resulting in relief of GERD symptoms. The effect is more obvious in non-elderly and H. pylori-negative subjects.

  17. Optimization of parameters for enhanced oil recovery from enzyme treated wild apricot kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Mahatre R; Kumbhar, Baburao K; Singh, Anupama; Lohani, Umesh Chandra; Shahi, Navin C

    2012-08-01

    Present investigation was undertaken with the overall objective of optimizing the enzymatic parameters i.e. moisture content during hydrolysis, enzyme concentration, enzyme ratio and incubation period on wild apricot kernel processing for better oil extractability and increased oil recovery. Response surface methodology was adopted in the experimental design. A central composite rotatable design of four variables at five levels was chosen. The parameters and their range for the experiments were moisture content during hydrolysis (20-32%, w.b.), enzyme concentration (12-16% v/w of sample), combination of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme i.e. enzyme ratio (30:70-70:30) and incubation period (12-16 h). Aspergillus foetidus and Trichoderma viride was used for production of crude enzyme i.e. pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme respectively. A complete second order model for increased oil recovery as the function of enzymatic parameters fitted the data well. The best fit model for oil recovery was also developed. The effect of various parameters on increased oil recovery was determined at linear, quadric and interaction level. The increased oil recovery ranged from 0.14 to 2.53%. The corresponding conditions for maximum oil recovery were 23% (w.b.), 15 v/w of the sample, 60:40 (pectolytic:cellulolytic), 13 h. Results of the study indicated that incubation period during enzymatic hydrolysis is the most important factor affecting oil yield followed by enzyme ratio, moisture content and enzyme concentration in the decreasing order. Enzyme ratio, incubation period and moisture content had insignificant effect on oil recovery. Second order model for increased oil recovery as a function of enzymatic hydrolysis parameters predicted the data adequately.

  18. Characterization of Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus, A Novel Trichovirus Isolated from Stone Fruit Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, D; Marais, A; Svanella-Dumas, L; Dulucq, M J; Alioto, D; Ragozzino, A; Rodoni, B; Candresse, T

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT A trichovirus closely related to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) was detected in symptomatic apricot and Japanese plum from Italy. The Sus2 isolate of this agent cross-reacted with anti-ACLSV polyclonal reagents but was not detected by broad-specificity anti- ACLSV monoclonal antibodies. It had particles with typical trichovirus morphology but, contrary to ACLSV, was unable to infect Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor. The sequence of its genome (7,494 nucleotides [nt], missing only approximately 30 to 40 nt of the 5' terminal sequence) and the partial sequence of another isolate were determined. The new virus has a genomic organization similar to that of ACLSV, with three open reading frames coding for a replication-associated protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), a movement protein, and a capsid protein, respectively. However, it had only approximately 65 to 67% nucleotide identity with sequenced isolates of ACLSV. The differences in serology, host range, genome sequence, and phylogenetic reconstructions for all viral proteins support the idea that this agent should be considered a new virus, for which the name Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV) is proposed. APCLSV shows substantial sequence variability and has been recovered from various Prunus sources coming from seven countries, an indication that it is likely to have a wide geographical distribution.

  19. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of yellow sticky traps for monitoring the population of thrips (Thysanoptera) in a mango orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2011-08-01

    Populations of several thrips species were estimated using yellow sticky traps in an orchard planted with mango, Mangifera indica L. during the dry and wet seasons beginning in late 2008-2009 on Penang Island, Malaysia. To determine the efficacy of using sticky traps to monitor thrips populations, we compared weekly population estimates on yellow sticky traps with thrips population sizes that were determined (using a CO(2) method) directly from mango panicles. Dispersal distance and direction of thrips movement out of the orchard also were studied using yellow sticky traps placed at three distances from the edge of the orchard in four cardinal directions facing into the orchard. The number of thrips associated with the mango panicles was found to be correlated with the number of thrips collected using the sticky trap method. The number of thrips captured by the traps decreased with increasing distance from the mango orchard in all directions. Density of thrips leaving the orchard was related to the surrounding vegetation. Our results demonstrate that sticky traps have the potential to satisfactorily estimate thrips populations in mango orchards and thus they can be effectively employed as a useful tactic for sampling thrips.

  1. Organic, integrated and conventional management in apple orchards: effect on plant species composition, richness and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Lososová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the effect of conventional, integrated and organic management on differences in plant species composition, richness and diversity. The plants were studied in triads of orchards situated in three regions of the Czech Republic. Data about species occurrences were collected on 15 permanent plots in the tree rows and 15 plots between tree rows in each of the apple orchards during 2009. A total of 201 vascular plant species (127 native species, 65 archaeophytes, and 9 neophytes were found. Management type and also different regional conditions had a significant effect on plant species composition and on diversity parameters of orchard spontaneous vegetation. Species richness and species pool was significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the differently managed orchards. Management type had significant effect on proportions of archaeophytes, and also neophytes in apple orchards. The results showed that a change from conventional to integrated and organic management in apple orchards lead to higher plant species diversity and to changes in plant species composition.

  2. Maintenance of a living understory enhances soil carbon sequestration in subtropical orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Lin, Yongbiao; Lu, Hongfang; Ding, Mingmao; Tan, Yaowen; Xu, Shejin; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    Orchard understory represents an important component of the orchards, performing numerous functions related to soil quality, water relations and microclimate, but little attention has been paid on its effect on soil C sequestration. In the face of global climate change, fruit producers also require techniques that increase carbon (C) sequestration in a cost-effective manner. Here we present a case study to compare the effects of understory management (sod culture vs. clean tillage) on soil C sequestration in four subtropical orchards. The results of a 10-year study indicated that the maintenance of sod significantly enhanced the soil C stock in the top 1 m of orchard soils. Relative to clean tillage, sod culture increased annual soil C sequestration by 2.85 t C ha(-1), suggesting that understory management based on sod culture offers promising potential for soil carbon sequestration. Considering that China has the largest area of orchards in the world and that few of these orchards currently have sod understories, the establishment and maintenance of sod in orchards can help China increase C sequestration and greatly contribute to achieving CO2 reduction targets at a regional scale and potentially at a national scale.

  3. Application of reflectance colorimeter measurements and infrared spectroscopy methods to rapid and nondestructive evaluation of carotenoids content in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, David; Reich, Maryse; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Audergon, Jean-Marc

    2008-07-09

    The importance of carotenoid content in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is recognized not only because of the color that they impart but also because of their protective activity against human diseases. Current methods to assess carotenoid content are time-consuming, expensive, and destructive. In this work, the application of rapid and nondestructive methods such as colorimeter measurements and infrared spectroscopy has been evaluated for carotenoid determination in apricot. Forty apricot genotypes covering a wide range of peel and flesh colors have been analyzed. Color measurements on the skin and flesh ( L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, and a*/ b* ratio) as well as Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) on intact fruits and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) on ground flesh were correlated with the carotenoid content measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A high variability in color values and carotenoid content was observed. Partial least squares regression analyses between beta-carotene content and provitamin A activity and color measurements showed a high fit in peel, flesh, and edible apricot portion (R(2) ranged from 0.81 to 0.91) and low prediction error. Regression equations were developed for predicting carotenoid content by using color values, which appeared as a simple, rapid, reliable, and nondestructive method. However, FT-NIR and FT-MIR models showed very low R(2) values and very high prediction errors for carotenoid content.

  4. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  5. Drought effects on reproductive and growth characteristics in seed orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varol, T.; Ozel, H. B.; Bilir, N.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important environmental problems, and it is also known that this change will lead to negative effects such as drought and increase in global temperature. This change is also estimated to increase its episodic effects negatively on growth and reproduction of the forest trees. In order to estimate the episodic or continuous effects of the drought, it is necessary to carry out studies based on long-term data. One of these studies are the investigation to be carried out on seed orchards that are one of the most important seed resources in forestry. Within this context, in this study, we determined to the reproductive and growth responses of the clones to the drought that continued in the most drought season (2012) for 2 subsequent years along with 65-year climate data for Red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) and Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.). The relationships of SPEI values with seed characteristics and cone production were examined by using Spearman Correlation Analysis. According to the results obtained from this study, it was found that the severe drought was effected the reproductive characteristics of both of red pine and cedar. The effect of drought on the number of cone (r=-0.810, P=0.022) in red pine and on the number of 1-year-old cones (r=-0.40, P=0.027) and on cone moisture (r=-0.715, P=0.022) in cedar was quite evident. These results indicate that approximately 65% of the change in number of cone in Red Pine and approximately 51% of the change in moisture content of the cones in cedar can be explained with the drought. From the data, it is clear that the drought is effective on the cone yield and seed characteristics in seed orchards of both of Red Pine and Taurus Cedar species. (author)

  6. Using quantitative real-time PCR to detect chimeras in transgenic tobacco and apricot and to monitor their dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgos Lorenzo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The routine generation of transgenic plants involves analysis of transgene integration into the host genome by means of Southern blotting. However, this technique cannot distinguish between uniformly transformed tissues and the presence of a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic cells in the same tissue. On the other hand, the use of reporter genes often fails to accurately detect chimerical tissues because their expression can be affected by several factors, including gene silencing and plant development. So, new approaches based on the quantification of the amount of the transgene are needed urgently. Results We show here that chimeras are a very frequent phenomenon observed after regenerating transgenic plants. Spatial and temporal analyses of transformed tobacco and apricot plants with a quantitative, real-time PCR amplification of the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII transgene as well as of an internal control (β-actin, used to normalise the amount of target DNA at each reaction, allowed detection of chimeras at unexpected rates. The amount of the nptII transgene differed greatly along with the sub-cultivation period of these plants and was dependent on the localisation of the analysed leaves; being higher in roots and basal leaves, while in the apical leaves it remained at lower levels. These data demonstrate that, unlike the use of the gus marker gene, real-time PCR is a powerful tool for detection of chimeras. Although some authors have proposed a consistent, positive Southern analysis as an alternative methodology for monitoring the dissociation of chimeras, our data show that it does not provide enough proof of uniform transformation. In this work, however, real-time PCR was applied successfully to monitor the dissociation of chimeras in tobacco plants and apricot callus. Conclusions We have developed a rapid and reliable method to detect and estimate the level of chimeras in transgenic tobacco and apricot

  7. Alkalization of irrigated soils suitable for orchard growing in steppe Crimea and prospects for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    Data of large-scale soil surveys performed by the Ukrgiprosad Institute (Ukrainian Institute for Orchard Growing) in 1997-2013 on irrigated soils of steppe Crimea reserved for orchards on the area of about 3000 ha are discussed. It is shown that all the studied soils are subjected to alkalization with the presence of soda and with an increase in concentrations of sodium and magnesium bicarbonates up to the values toxic for fruit crops. The concentrations and occurrence frequencies of alkaline salts depend on the soil type, the presence of solonetzic features, the amount of carbonates, the particular depth in the soil profile, the subsoiling, and other factors. Within the studied area, some soils are unsuitable or partly suitable for orchard growing. To improve the soil conditions for orchard growing in the areas subjected to alkalization, alkaline salts should be neutralized to nontoxic level, and the soil alkalinity should be reduced using chemical reclamation methods.

  8. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  9. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  10. Patterns and Drivers of Scattered Tree Loss in Agricultural Landscapes: Orchard Meadows in Germany (1968-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin; Costa, Augusta; Schaich, Harald; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts. PMID:25932914

  11. A comparison of the nesting success of mourning doves and American robins in conventionally managed and organic orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluetsch, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to document more closely the effects of operational pesticide use on non-target avian species. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) nesting activity was monitored in three organic and three conventional orchards during two breeding seasons. Surveys were conducted to characterize the avian community within orchards under both management practices. Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides, known to be extremely toxic to birds, were repeatedly sprayed during the peaks in dove and robin breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 85.5% of the nests tested during routine spray operations. The threat of direct pesticide exposure to eggs, nestlings, and adult birds was considerable. Nest daily survival rates (DSRs) for both doves and robins, were significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards in 1991 and years combined (P < 0.05). Species diversity was significantly greater in the organic orchards (H = 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H = 1.79). Results suggest that repeated applications of pesticides, within the conventional orchards, directly or indirectly, affected the reproductive success of doves and robins, as well as influenced species diversity within the treated orchards. Organic orchards appear to provide more favorable nesting and foraging habitat for birds than conventional orchards.

  12. Science support for evaluating natural recovery of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish from Crab Orchard Lake, Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Hinck, Jo E.; Calfee, Robin D.; Linder, Greg L.; Little, Edward E.

    2018-05-11

    IntroductionCrab Orchard Lake in southern Illinois is one of the largest and most popular recreational lakes in the state. Construction of the nearly 7,000-acre reservoir in the late 1930s created employment opportunities through the Works Progress Administration, and the lake itself was intended to supply water, control flooding, and provide recreational opportunities for local communities (Stall, 1954). In 1942, the Department of War appropriated or purchased more than 20,000 acres of land around Crab Orchard Lake and constructed the Illinois Ordnance Plant, which manufactured bombs and anti-tank mines during World War II. After the war, an Act of Congress transferred the property to the U.S. Department of the Interior. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge was established on August 5, 1947, for the joint purposes of wildlife conservation, agriculture, recreation, and industry. Production of explosives continued, but new industries also moved onsite. More than 200 tenants have held leases with Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge and have operated a variety of manufacturing plants (electrical components, plated metal parts, ink, machined parts, painted products, and boats) on-site. Soils, water, and sediments in several areas of the refuge were contaminated with hazardous substances from handling and disposal methods that are no longer acceptable environmental practice (for example, direct discharge to surface water, use of unlined landfills).Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination at the refuge was identified in the 1970s, and a PCB-based fish-consumption advisory has been in effect since 1988 for Crab Orchard Lake. The present advisory covers common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); see Illinois Department of Public Health (2017). Some of the most contaminated areas of the refuge were actively remediated, and natural ecosystem recovery processes are expected to further reduce residual PCB concentrations in the lake. The U

  13. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  14. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  15. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  16. Physical mapping of a pollen modifier locus controlling self-incompatibility in apricot and synteny analysis within the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriaga, Elena; Molina, Laura; Badenes, María Luisa; Romero, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    S-locus products (S-RNase and F-box proteins) are essential for the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) specific recognition in Prunus. However, accumulated genetic evidence suggests that other S-locus unlinked factors are also required for GSI. For instance, GSI breakdown was associated with a pollen-part mutation unlinked to the S-locus in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. 'Canino'. Fine-mapping of this mutated modifier gene (M-locus) and the synteny analysis of the M-locus within the Rosaceae are here reported. A segregation distortion loci mapping strategy, based on a selectively genotyped population, was used to map the M-locus. In addition, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig was constructed for this region using overlapping oligonucleotides probes, and BAC-end sequences (BES) were blasted against Rosaceae genomes to perform micro-synteny analysis. The M-locus was mapped to the distal part of chr.3 flanked by two SSR markers within an interval of 1.8 cM corresponding to ~364 Kb in the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome. In the integrated genetic-physical map of this region, BES were mapped against the peach scaffold_3 and BACs were anchored to the apricot map. Micro-syntenic blocks were detected in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) LG17/9 and strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) FG6 chromosomes. The M-locus fine-scale mapping provides a solid basis for self-compatibility marker-assisted selection and for positional cloning of the underlying gene, a necessary goal to elucidate the pollen rejection mechanism in Prunus. In a wider context, the syntenic regions identified in peach, apple and strawberry might be useful to interpret GSI evolution in Rosaceae.

  17. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption of tartrazine azo-dye onto activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albroomi, H. I.; Elsayed, M. A.; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the potential of utilizing prepared activated carbon from apricot stones as an efficient adsorbent material for tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye removal in a batch and dynamic adsorption system. The results revealed that activated carbons with well-developed surface area (774 m2/g) and pore volume (1.26 cm3/g) can be manufactured from apricot stones by H3PO4 activation. In batch experiments, effects of the parameters such as initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye were studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum adsorption was found to be 76 mg/g at 100 mg/L of TZ. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium ( q e) increased from 22.6 to 76 mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentrations from 25 to 100 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (Δ G 0), enthalpy (Δ H 0) and entropy (Δ S 0) were determined and the positive value of (Δ H) 78.1 (K J mol-1) revealed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in the process temperature. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effect of selected operating parameters such as bed depth, flow rate and initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity was evaluated. Increase in bed height of adsorption columns leads to an extension of breakthrough point as well as the exhaustion time of adsorbent. However, the maximum adsorption capacities decrease with increases of flow rate. The breakthrough data fitted well to bed depth service time and Thomas models with high coefficient of determination, R 2 ≥ 94.

  18. The Effect of Nest Box Distribution on Sustainable Propagation of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Commercial Tart Cherry Orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, N. K.; Pitts-Singer, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    The blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria (Say), is a solitary bee that is an excellent pollinator of tree fruit orchards. Due to the annual rising costs of honey bee hive rentals, many orchardists are eager to develop management tools and practices to support O. lignaria as an alternative pollinator. Establishing O. lignaria pollination as a sustainable industry requires careful consideration of both bee and orchard management. Here, we test the effect of artificial nest box distribution on in-or...

  19. Diagnosis of directed pollination services in apple orchards in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joatan Machado da Rosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pollination services performed by Apis mellifera are essential for the high-quality apple production. The aim of this study was to obtain information about the pollination services used in the municipalities of Vacaria-RS e São Joaquim-SC, the main apple-producing regions in Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with apple growers and technicians responsible for the orchards during 2013 and 2015. The obtained information was: a cropping systems; b use of pollination services; c number of hives per hectare during flowering; d renting value of hives; e mortality of colonies; f agrochemicals used on flowering; g presence of native bees on flowering. In Vacaria and São Joaquim, respectively, 70% and 68.6% of the apple growers use the integrated apple production as their production model. The directed pollination is used by 100% and 90.0% of respondents respectively, from which, 80% and 47.1% opt for the hive rent. On average, three hives were used per hectare in both regions. The average cost is U$ 17.52 and U$ 17.74 per hive, respectively. During the flowering period, insecticides and fungicides are used by 100% and 97.2% of the apple growers. The highest mean percentage of mortality of colonies during flowering was reported in Vacaria, 11.8%. Native bees are often found in apple flowers. The development of management strategies for the conservation of domestic and wild pollinators is essential.

  20. Atmospheric fluoride levels in some Ontario peach orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drowley, W B; Rayner, A C; Jephcott, C M

    1963-10-01

    As a result of suture injury to peaches, a survey was taken to determine monthly atmospheric fluoride levels in the soft fruit-growing area of the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario. Although the injury was confined to a few orchards, it was found necessary to locate stations for fluoride sampling over a wide area. The limed-paper candle method was used for fluoride collection. Unwashed and washed peach leaves were analyzed for fluoride content. Fluoride was separated from all samples by the Willard-Winter distillation procedure and estimated colorimetrically. It was found that a general background level of atmospheric fluoride existed in the whole surveyed area and that the levels were highest in and near the area of peach injury. The fluoride content of peach leaves was also highest in this area. The coincidence of high fluoride levels and suture injury to peaches suggests that atmospheric fluoride was the causal agent. When lime sprays were applied to peach trees in the damaged area, a reduction in the incidence of suture injury was observed.

  1. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this study. The numerical model, previously calibrated on an olive orchard located in Sicily (Italy with a satisfactory reproduction of historical olive yield data, has been forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic weather generator and a downscaling procedure of an ensemble of climate model outputs. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of some General Circulation Models adopted in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessment report (4AR for future scenarios. The outcomes state that climatic forcings driving potential evapotranspiration compensate for each other, resulting in a slight increase of this water demand flux; moreover, the increase of CO2 concentration leads to a potential assimilation increase and, consequently, to an overall productivity increase in spite of the growth of water stress due to the rainfall reduction.

  2. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  3. Wildflower Plantings Do Not Compete With Neighboring Almond Orchards for Pollinator Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Ward, Kimiora L; Artz, Derek R; Boyle, Natalie K; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Williams, Neal M

    2017-06-01

    The engineering of flowering agricultural field borders has emerged as a research and policy priority to mitigate threats to pollinators. Studies have, however, rarely addressed the potential that flowering field borders might compete with neighboring crops for pollinator visits if they both are in bloom at the same time, despite this being a concern expressed by growers. We evaluated how wildflower plantings added to orchard borders in a large (512 ha) commercial almond orchard affected honey bee and wild bee visitation to orchard borders and the crop. The study was conducted over two consecutive seasons using three large (0.48 ha) wildflower plantings paired with control orchard borders in a highly simplified agricultural landscape in California. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and wild bee visitation to wildflower plots were at least an order of magnitude higher than to control plots, but increased honey bee visitation to wildflower plots did not lead to any detectable shifts in honey bee visitation to almond flowers in the neighboring orchard. Wild bees were rarely observed visiting almond flowers irrespective of border treatment, indicating a limited short-term potential for augmenting crop pollination using wild bees in highly simplified agricultural landscapes. Although further studies are warranted on bee visitation and crop yield from spatially independent orchards, this study indicates that growers can support bees with alternative forage in almond orchards without risking competition between the wildflower plantings and the crop. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Evaluation of Daily Evapotranspiration Over Orchards Using METRIC Approach and Landsat Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, R.; Jin, Y.; Daniele, Z.; Kandelous, M. M.; Kent, E. R.

    2016-12-01

    The pistachio and almond acreage in California has been rapidly growing in the past 10 years, raising concerns about competition for limited water resources in California. A robust and cost-effective mapping of crop water use, mostly evapotranspiration (ET), by orchards, is needed for improved farm-level irrigation management and regional water planning. METRIC™, a satellite-based surface energy balance approach, has been widely used to map field-scale crop ET, mostly over row crops. We here aim to apply METRIC with Landsat satellite observations over California's orchards and evaluate the ET estimates by comparing with field measurements in South San Joaquin Valley, California. Reference ET of grass (ETo) from California Irrigation Management Information system (CIMIS) stations was used to estimate daily ET of commercial almond and pistachio orchards. Our comparisons showed that METRIC-Landsat ET daily estimates agreed well with ET measured by the eddy covariance and surface renewal stations, with a RMSE of 1.25 and a correlation coefficient of 0.84 for the pistachio orchard. A slight high bias of satellite based ET estimates was found for both pistachio and almond orchards. We also found time series of NDVI was highly correlated with ET temporal dynamics within each field, but the correlation was reduced to 0.56 when all fields were pooled together. Net radiation, however, remained highly correlated with ET across all the fields. The METRIC ET was able to distinguish the differences in ET among salt- and non-salt affected pistachio orchards, e.g., mean daily ET during growing season in salt-affected orchards was lower than that of non-salt affected one by 0.87 mm/day. The remote sensing based ET estimate will support a variety of state and local interests in water use and management, for both planning and regulatory/compliance purposes, and provide the farmers observation-based guidance for site-specific and time-sensitive irrigation management.

  5. Population genetic diversity and structure analysis of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) revealed by ssr markers in the Tien-Shan mountains of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, X.; Ni, B.; Zheng, P.; Li, M.

    2018-01-01

    The simple sequence repeat markers were used to investigate the population genetic diversity and structure of 212 germplasm samples from 14 apricot (Prunus armeniaca) populations in the western of Tien-Shan Mountains, Sinkiang, China. The relatively high expected heterozygosity and Shannon's diversity index indicated the apricot populations maintained a high level of genetic diversity (He = 0.6109, I = 1.2208), with the population in Tuergen ditch of Xinyuan County having the highest genetic diversity index. A high level of intra-population genetic differentiation (91.51%) and a lower level of inter-population genetic differentiation were occurred, as well as a moderate but steady inter-population gene flow (Nm = 2.3735). The self-incompatible pattern, wide distribution, and long-distance pollen transmission via insects and gale are the main factors underlying the genetic variation structure. The UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic structure analysis showed that apricot germplasm could be divided into two or four groups, which was basically consistent with the geographic distribution pattern. The inter-population genetic distance and geographic distance showed a significant correlation (r = 0.2658, p<0.05). (author)

  6. Diversity of the Orchard Species in Iran: A Case Study of Khorasan Province

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    alireza koocheki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agrobiodiversity is an issue that has been considered for the last decade. There are few reports on diversity of orchard species in Iran and some available reports have not mentioned the relevant indices and analysis results. In the current study, based upon data collected from 29 provinces of Iran along with 23 counties of Khorasan provinces, a comprehensive analysis was made and different diversity indices such as Shanon- Weaver, Evenness index, Margalof richness index as well as two dominance indices including Sympson and Berger-Parker were calculated. The results indicated that Kerman, Fars and Khorasan provinces cover 40% of orchard areas in the country. Species richness in all provinces was relatively high but the evenness index was not so (average evenness for all provinces is 0.55. Therefore, in some provinces such as Boshehr and Kerman, species dominance is observed due to Date and Pistachio, respectively. Also, Stone fruits among Khorasan orchards provided the highest richness and diversity. The highest area of orchards in Khorasan are belonged to nuts including Pistachio, Almond, Walnut and Oleaster. Kashmar district has the highest orchards area in Khorasan province. According to the Shanon-Weaver index, the highest and lowest diversity were observed at Nahbandan- Birjand and Fariman counties. Results also indicated that the Berger-Parker dominance index is highest at Fariman and Shirvan districts of Khorasan because of apple and grape species dominance.

  7. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, K.; Takanashi, A.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r2 = 0.382, p<0.001). Bulk DNA was extracted from a tea orchard soil (pH 4.8; PNR, 0.078 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1) and subjected to PCR-aided clone library analyses targeting archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  8. Deep subsoiling of a subsurface-compacted typical hapludult under citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil management practices which increase the root depth penetration of citrus are important to the longevity and yield maintenance of this plant, especially in regions where long periods of drought are common, even in soil conventionally subsoiled to a depth of 30-40 cm, when the orchard was first established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of subsoiling on the physical and hydric properties of a Typical Hapludult and fruit yield in a 14-year-old citrus orchard located in Piracicaba, SP. The treatments consisted of: no-subsoiling (with no tilling of the soil after the orchard was planted; subsoiling on one side of the plant lines (SUB. 1; and subsoiling on both sides of the plant lines (SUB. 2. The subsoiling treatments were carried out 1.5 m from the plant lines and to a depth of 0.8 m. Soil samples were taken 120 days after this operation, at four depths, in order to determine physical and hydric properties. Fruit yield was evaluated 150 days after subsoiling. Subsoiling between the plant lines of an old established citrus orchard alters the physical and hydric properties of the soil, which is reflected in increased soil macroporosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and reduced soil bulk density, critical degree-of-compactness and penetration resistance. The improvements in the physical and hydric properties of the soil were related to an increase in fruit number and orchard yield.

  9. Bioaccessibility of Ba, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban garden and orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Meifang; McBride, Murray B.; Li, Kaiming

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of young children to toxic metals in urban environments is largely due to soil and dust ingestion. Soil particle size distribution and concentrations of toxic metals in different particle sizes are important risk factors in addition to bioaccessibility of these metals in the particles. Analysis of particle size distribution and metals concentrations for 13 soils, 12 sampled from urban gardens and 1 from orchard found that fine particles (<105 μm) comprised from 22 to 66% by weight of the tested soils, with Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn generally at higher concentrations in the finer particles. However, metal bioaccessibility was generally lower in finer particles, a trend most pronounced for Ba and Pb. Gastric was higher than gastrointestinal bioaccessibility for all metals except Cu. The lower bioaccessibility of Pb in urban garden soils compared to orchard soil is attributable to the higher organic matter content of the garden soils. - Highlights: • The bioaccessibility of metals in urban garden and orchard soils was measured. • Ba, Cu, Pb, Zn were concentrated in fine particles of the soils. • Bioaccessibilities of Ba and Pb were generally lower in fine particles of soils. • Pb bioaccessibility was generally lower in soils with higher organic matter content. • Pb bioaccessibility was lower in urban garden soils than in an orchard soil. - Pb and other trace metals (Ba, Cu, Zn) were concentrated in fine particles of urban and orchard soils, but the bioaccessibility of Ba and Pb was generally lower in finer particles.

  10. Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Mangan

    Full Text Available As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an economically important insect pest (codling moth (Cydia pomonella and negatively through fruit damage. We conducted transect surveys, observed bird frugivory and assessed bird and insect damage with an exclosure experiment in small organic farms in western Colorado. We found that organic apple orchards in this region provide habitat for a large number of both human-adapted and human-sensitive species and that the species in orchards were relatively similar to adjacent hedgerow habitats. Habitat use did not vary as a function of orchard characteristics, and apple damage by both birds and C. pomonella was consistent within and across apple blocks that varied in size. A small subset of bird species was observed foraging on apples yet the effect of birds as agents of fruit damage appeared rather minor and birds did not reduce C. pomonella damage. Our results demonstrate that organic apple orchards have the potential to provide habitat for diverse bird communities, including species typically sensitive to human activities, with little apparent effect on production.

  11. The effects of cultural practice methods on fruit orchard rehabilitation after flooding crisis in Songkhla province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaweerawan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To rehabilitate the fruit orchards exposed to flooding crisis that occurred in year 2000 in Songkhla province, an investigation of the effects of cultural practice methods was done in the farmers’ orchards at 2 experimental sites (at Tumbol Kho Hong and Tumbol Kuan Lang, Amphur Hat Yai. The first site, at Tumbol Kho Hong, was mixed cropping (durian, longkong and mangosteen. The second site, at Tumbol Kuan Lang, was a monocrop of pummelo orchard. The experiment was comprised a stratified sampling method with 3 treatments: 1 control, 2 fertilization (15-15-15, 8-24-24 and 13-13-21 and soil improvement with humic acid (S and 3 foliar application (glucose was applied with 16-12-0+micronutrients+extracted seaweed and 7-13-34+12.5Zn+extracted seaweed+Ca-B spraying with fertilization and soil improvement (F+S. The results from the both experimental sites showed that the F+S treatment exhibited the best result. This promoted the plant growth and yield of fruit trees. In addition, the other orchards surrounding the experimental sites were surveyed. It was noticeable that fruit trees grown in raising-beds could recover and exhibit normal fruit bearing. This pointed out that the impact of flooding on fruit orchards would be possibly alleviated by a drainage system.

  12. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and

  13. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tracer-based investigations of water exchanges between soil and trees in natural forested catchments are receiving relevant attention in modern ecohydrology. However, the interactions between tree water use and the hydrological cycle in agricultural environments are still poorly understood. In this work, we use stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) and electric conductivity as tracers to improve our understanding of the functional interrelations between water generating surface runoff and recharging groundwater, and water taken up by apple trees (Malus domestica, cv. 'Pinova') in an Alpine valley in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. From April to October 2015 we monitored two orchards approximately of the same size (roughly 400 m2) and soil texture (silt loam) located in a flat area at different distance from the Adige/Etsch River (50 m vs. 450 m). We have addressed the following questions: i) at which soil depth do apple trees take up water? ii) do apple trees take up water from shallow groundwater? iii) are there differences in the isotopic composition of the water fluxes between the two sites? Samples for isotopic analysis were taken approximately fortnightly from the river, two groundwater wells close to each field, mobile soil water (from suction cups at 25 cm and 50 cm), open area precipitation, throughfall, irrigation and sap (through a portable pressure bomb). Tightly-bound soil water was also cryogenically extracted from samples taken every 10 cm from 60 cm-long soil cores taken at three locations for each field on one occasion in mid-summer. Ancillary measurements were electrical conductivity of all water sources except for sap. In addition to meteorological and discharge data, soil moisture was continuously measured at 10 cm and 50 cm in three locations, and sap flow on three trees, for each field. Preliminary results show that two water pools with distinct isotopic signature exist: i) river water, groundwater and irrigation water show values relatively

  14. The effect of mulching on water consumption, yield and some parameters in apple orchards grafted onto dwarf rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk KÜÇÜKYUMUK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of different mulch materials on plant water consumption, yield, fruit quality, vegetative growth, and weed control and soil temperature of Braeburn apple variety grafted onto M9 rootstock in Eğirdir Fruit Growing Research Station in 2010-2011. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications. Three different treatments were determined as two different mulch materials (white fabric, black plastic covering and control (without any mulching. Irrigation water was applied by using drip irrigation system in 7 days intervals. Amount of irrigation water to be applied in the each irrigation was determined as water amount needed for raising the soil moisture to the field capacity in 0-60 cm soil depth. As a result, substantial water saving has been provided from both of the mulch materials (%< 22-28 in comparison with the control treatment. The yield results showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05 among the treatments only in the second year. The highest red colour density value, which is an important criterion in apple marketing, was obtained from mulching with white fabric for both years. It was determined that mulch applications with these two materials were positive effects on vegetative growth and they were very effective on weed control. Soil temperature measured in the treatment used white fabric was found 1-2°C lower in comparison with control treatment, while it was found 3-4°C lower in comparison with the black plastic covering.

  15. The use of straw in vineyards and orchards to reduce soil and water losses in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; García-Díaz, Andrés; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project). J. Rodrigo-Comino, was awarded with a scholar grant (FPU) by Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte de España (Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, Spain). References Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, Ó., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., Orenes, F.G., Ritsema, C.J. 2016. Use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency-high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Research 54, 154-165. Keesstra, S., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., Jordán, A., Cerdà, A. 2016. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Science of the Total Environment 551-552, 357-366. Mwango, S.B., B.M. Msanya, P. . Mtakwa, D.N. Kimaro, J. Deckers, and J. Poesen. 2016. Effectiveness of Mulching Under Miraba in Controlling Soil Erosion, Fertility Restoration and Crop Yield in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1266-1275. doi:10.1002/ldr.2332. Novara, A., Gristina, l., Saladino, S.S., Santoto, S., Cerdà, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 140-147. García-Díaz, A., Allas, R.B., Gristina, L., Cerdà, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A. 2016. Carbon input threshold for soil carbon budget optimization in eroding vineyards. Geoderma 271, 144-149. Prosdocimi M., Burguet M., Di Prima S., Sofia G., Terol E., Rodrigo Comino, J., Cerdà A., Tarolli P. 2017. Rainfall simulation and Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry for the analysis of soil water erosion in Mediterranean vineyards. Science of the Total Environment 574, 204-215. Prosdocimi, M., Cerdà, A., Tarolli, P. 2016a. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards: A review. Catena 141, 1

  16. Tourist orchards: an opportunity for sustainable development tourism in Romanian traditional fruit growing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albu, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian traditional fruit growing areas are spaces that, given the transition from a centralized economy to a market economy, have accumulated multiple dysfunctions, whose solving requires the identification of viable solutions, matching local potential and preserving traditional specificity at the same time. The article analyzes how the tourist orchard model, developed successfully in China could be implemented in Romanian traditional fruit growing areas. Also the evolution of the Chinese tourist orchard is presented, highlighting the stages of its development and paying special attention to the current stage that witnesses the solid consolidation of the extant niche of tourist orchards, as part of the Chinese tourism. This consolidation has led to several large metropolitan areas (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in China standing out on the international market.

  17. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  18. Effects of capacity constraints on the motion pattern of an autonomous orchard sprayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, D.D.; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner

    Orchard farming operations are very promising for automated systems implementation due to the semi-controlled environment that they are executed. Researches on autonomous orchard vehicles have been madden from many research teams the last years. Although, there is a lot of work that has been done...... which computes the routes that the vehicle has to follow as well as the optimal locations of the facilities in order to minimize the total operation's time. An autonomous tractor was used as the test platform. For the off-line testing of the planned operations as well as for the evaluation...... concerning the navigation of these vehicles, there is a lack of efficient mission planning for the operations that they execute. In this paper, orchard operations with capacity restrictions, such us spraying operation, are studied. For this kind of operations, a combinatorial optimization method is used...

  19. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I. J.; Santos, C.; Testi, L.; Fereres, E.

    2012-11-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm “Alameda del Obispo” in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ETc). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of the construction of the weighing lysimeter is provided in detail, including considerations relative to system resolution and wind effects on the measurements. Finally, some preliminary results of the evaporation and transpiration of young almond trees are presented demonstrating that lysimetry in orchards provides accurate ETc values needed to determine irrigation water requirements. (Author) 72 refs.

  20. Study and identification of dominant Rodents of orchards and farms in West Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khalilaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 34 individuals (24♂♂10♀♀ were collected from apple orchards, alfalfa fields of Urmia, Salmas, Khoy, Makoo, Miyandoab, Shahindej and Tekab of West Azerbaijan. Different methods as live traps, snap traps and hand were used to collect samples. Morphology, skull and karyotype of live specimens were used for identification of species. Some samples got taxidermy as Museum samples. All samples were belonged to Microtus. Among 53 world species, two species M. arvalis and M. socialis are hazardous in orchards and alfalfa fields of West Azerbaijan province. Two species of Microtus were collected from Salmas and Tekab. Those were new records for this region that are in the process of identification. Ellobius and Mus musculus is the other damaging genera in the orchards and the fields near the mountains and fields.

  1. A review of apple anthracnose canker biology and management in cider apple orchards in the Maritime Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...

  2. Proximity to Woodland and Landscape Structure Drive Pollinator Visitation in Apple Orchard Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes of farms and adjacent areas are known to influence abundance of various arthropods such as pollinators in commercial agricultural ecosystems. In this context, we examined the effect of heterogeneous landscapes surrounding and including commercial apple orchards on pollinator visitation and foraging distance during bloom period from 2011 to 2013 in Pennsylvania. Our results showed that the frequency of feral honeybees and solitary bee visits within an apple orchard depends on the proximity of the orchard to an unmanaged habitat (primarily comprised of forest. At the landscape scale, we found that the Mean Proximity Index, the Largest Patch Index and the Number of Patches positively correlated with the visitation rate of dominant bee taxa (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees visiting apple flowers at low spatial scales (up to 500 m around the orchards. The Mean Proximity Index at 500 m was related to bee visitation patterns, especially for solitary bees and A. mellifera. Bees in all our study sites preferred to forage in areas with large homogenous patches up to 500 m around an apple orchard. This effect can be attributed to the mass flowering of apples that formed the largest proportion of the 500 m spatial scale. The Number of Patches at 250 m spatial scale was positively correlated with bee visitation, especially Bombus spp., probably because these areas had more habitats and more resources required by these bees. We conclude that retaining unmanaged habitats closer to commercial apple orchards will maintain biodiversity within the landscapes and insure pollination services to apples.

  3. A monitoring study to assess the acute mortality effects of indoxacarb on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in flowering apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Dinter, A.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the indoxacarb 300 g kg-1 WG, Steward 30WDGTM, on the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in apple orchards, a monitoring study was conducted in Dutch apple orchards in April/May 2004. Before apple flowering began, two honey bee colonies were placed in each orchard to investigate

  4. Genetic Diversity of Acacia mangium Seed Orchard in Wonogiri Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVI YUSKIANTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important in tree improvement programs. To evaluate levels of genetic diversity of first generation Acacia mangium seedling seed orchard in Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia, three populations from each region of Papua New Guinea (PNG and Queensland, Australia (QLD were selected and analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. Statistical analysis showed that PNG populations have higher number of detected alleles and level of genetic diversity than QLD populations. This study provides a basic information about the genetic background of the populations used in the development of an A. mangium seed orchard in Indonesia.

  5. Bidirectional reflectance effects derived from ASAS imagery of a pecan orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staenz, Karl; Gauthier, Robert P.; Teillet, Phil M.; Williams, Daniel J.

    1993-09-01

    Bidirectional reflectance factors (BRF) for a pecan orchard have been studied using Advanced Solid-State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) data acquired in the solar principal plane at altitudes of 2300 m and 5300 m above ground. In particular, the angular dependency of the BRF of different targets such as sunlit and shaded portions of the pecan tree, orchard floor, and soil (road) have been studied for viewing directions between -45 degrees and +45 degrees. The results indicate in general an increasing reflectance from the forward scattering direction to the backscattering direction. In addition, an increase in pixel size has significant effects on the surface BRFs.

  6. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  7. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez-Sarmiento

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida” were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain, during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010. The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc and ii RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest. Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years, whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  8. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Sarmiento, F.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.; Alcobendas, R.; Alarcón, J.J.; Mounzer, O.; Nicolas, E.

    2016-01-01

    Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida”) were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain), during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010). The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i) control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc) and ii) RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a) 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b) 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c) 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest). Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years), whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  9. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Sarmiento, F.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.; Alcobendas, R.; Alarcón, J.J.; Mounzer, O.; Nicolas, E.

    2016-07-01

    Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida”) were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain), during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010). The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i) control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc) and ii) RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a) 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b) 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c) 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest). Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years), whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  10. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significa...

  11. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmiao Yin

    Full Text Available Apple replant disease (ARD is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC. We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30-60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0-30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard.

  12. Leaf Potential Productivity at Different Canopy Levels in Densely-planted and Intermediately-thinned Apple Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying SUN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most apple orchards in the apple production districts in China were densely planted with vigorous rootstocks during the 1980s. These orchards have suffered micro-environmental deterioration and loss of fruit quality because of the closed canopy. Modification of the densely-planted orchards is a priority in current apple production. Intermediate thinning is a basic technique used to transform densely-planted apple orchards in China. Our goal was to provide theoretical basis for studying the effect of thinning on the efficiency of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, fruit quality, and yield. We measured leaf area, solar radiation, and leaf air exchange at different tree canopy levels and by fitting relevant photosynthetic models, vertical distribution characteristics of leaf photosynthetic potentials and PAR were analyzed in various levels within canopies in densely-planted and intermediately-thinned orchards. Intermediate thinning significantly improved the radiant environment inside the canopies. PAR distribution within the canopies in the intermediately-thinned orchard was better distributed than in the densely-planted orchards. The invalid space under 30.0% of relative photosynthetically active radiation (PARr was nearly zero in the intermediately-thinned orchard; but minimum PARr was 17.0% and the space under 0.30 of the relative height of the canopy was invalid for photosynthesis in the densely-planted orchard. The leaf photosynthetic efficiency in the intermediately-thinned orchard was improved. Photosynthetic rates (Pn at the middle and bottom levels of the canopy, respectively, were increased by 7.80% and 10.20% in the intermediately-thinned orchard. Leaf development, which influences photosynthetic potential, was closely related to the surrounding micro-environment, especially light. Leaf photosynthetic potentials were correlated with leaf nitrogen content (Nl and specific leaf weight (Ml at various levels of canopies. Compared

  13. Process-based allometry describes the influence of management on orchard tree aboveground architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary T. Brym

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated allometric relationships in length, diameter, and mass of branches for two variably managed orchard tree species (tart cherry, Prunus cerasus; apple, Malus spp.. The empirically estimated allometric exponents (a of the orchard trees were described in the context of two processed-based allometry models that make predictions for a: the West, Brown and Enquist fractal branching model (WBE and the recently introduced Flow Similarity model (FS. These allometric models make predictions about relationships in plant morphology (e.g., branch mass, diameter, length, volume, surface area based on constraints imposed on plant growth by physical and physiological processes. We compared our empirical estimates of a to the model predictions to interpret the physiological implications of pruning and management in orchard systems. Our study found strong allometric relationships among the species and individuals studied with limited agreement with the expectations of either model. The 8/3-power law prediction of the mass ∼ diameter relationship by the WBE, indicative of biomechanical limitations, was marginally supported by this study. Length-including allometric relationships deviated from predictions of both models, but shift toward the expectation of flow similarity. In this way, managed orchard trees deviated from strict adherence to the idealized expectations of the models, but still fall within the range of model expectations in many cases despite intensive management.

  14. Extractability and bioavailability of Pb and As in historically contaminated orchard soil: Effects of compost amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Margaret; Tai, Yiping; Zhuang, Ping; McBride, Murray B.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of Pb and As in an historically contaminated orchard soil, after amendment with compost and aging in the field, was determined by single-step chemical extraction with 1.0 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.8, sequential extraction using the modified BCR test, and a redworm bioassay in the laboratory. The efficiency of soil Pb extraction by ammonium acetate was greater at higher total soil Pb but was reduced by compost amendment. Conversely, the extraction efficiency of total soil As increased with compost amendment, but was not sensitive to total soil As. The redworm bioassay indicated Pb (but not As) bioavailability to be reduced by soil amendment with compost, a result consistent with the ammonium acetate extraction test but not reflected in modified BCR test. Electron microprobe studies of the orchard soil revealed Pb and As to be spatially associated in discrete particles along with phosphorus and iron. -- Highlights: ► Soil Pb and As in an old orchard were concentrated in discrete particles. ► Compost amendment of contaminated soil reduced Pb bioavailability. ► Compost amendment of contaminated soil did not reduce As bioavailability. ► Ammonium acetate extraction test reflected bioavailability of soil Pb and As. -- Remediating metal-contaminated orchard soils with compost reduced lead bioavailability but had little effect on arsenic

  15. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K; Yamada, T; Hiraishi, A; Takanashi, A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO 2 - -Ng -1 h -1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r 2 0.382, p 2 - -Ng -1 h -1 ) and subjected to PCR-aided clone library analyses targeting archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  16. Involvement of Dactylonectria and Ilyonectria spp. in tree decline affecting multigeneration apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the etiology of typical replant disease symptom development, including growth reduction and leaf chlorosis, that was limited to specific foci within three multi-generation apple orchards that overall demonstrated optimal growth and good quality standard production. In bioassays c...

  17. DETECTION OF POLLEN FLOW IN THE SEEDLING SEED ORCHARD OF Acacia mangium USING DNA MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Yuskianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen pattern dispersal in seedling seed orchard (SSO is an essential part of a tree-improvement program. Two SSOs of Acacia mangium in South Kalimantan and South Sumatra that represent similar resources in different environments were used in this study.  Genotypes of all trees and seeds from a subset of 10 mother trees in each orchard were determined for 12 microsatellite loci, and parentage analysis was carried out. The results shows that the pollen dispersal pattern in both SSOs decrease with distance from mother tree. Patterns of pollen dispersal, dispersal distance and cumulative frequency of pollen dispersal distance were similar in both SSOs. Random pollen dispersal were found in both SSOs. About 80% of all crosses were found within a 40-m distance range with the most frequent pollination distance between mother tree and male male parents was 0-10 m. No self-pollinated seed was detected. Application of all these aspects found in this study such as random pollen dispersal and the effective pollen dispersal distance can be useful for establishing seedling seed orchard, clonal seed orchard and in other tree improvement activities of A. mangium.

  18. Nutrient Losses by Runoff and Sediment from the Taluses of Orchard Terraces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran Zuazo, V.H.; Martinez Ray, A.; Aguilar Ruiz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The nutrient fluxes of nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus and potassium in runoff and sediments were evaluated over a two-year period (1999¿2000) on the taluses of terraces, in a zone of intense subtropical orchard cultivation (SE Spain). The erosion plots were located on a terrace of 214% (65°) slope,

  19. A method for assessing frost damage risk in sweet cherry orchards of South Patagonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Ridder, de N.; Peri, P.L.; Keulen, van H.

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of frost damage risk is important in planning the development of new orchard areas and for decision-making on design and installation of frost control systems. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive method to quantify frost damage risk in different sweet cherry

  20. How seed orchard culture affects seed quality: experience with the southern pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have influenced significantly the quality of southern pine seeds produced when compared to collections from native stands. Seed orchard management practices such as fertilization can increase seed size and reduce seed dormancy. These result in the need for less complex pregermination treatments. Repeated cone collections from the same clones...

  1. Pest management in Douglas-fir seed orchards: a microcomputer decision method

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Hoy; Michael I. Haverty

    1988-01-01

    The computer program described provides a Douglas-fir seed orchard manager (user) with a quantitative method for making insect pest management decisions on a desk-top computer. The decision system uses site-specific information such as estimates of seed crop size, insect attack rates, insecticide efficacy and application costs, weather, and crop value. At sites where...

  2. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  3. The genetic and economic effect of preliminary culling in the seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1977-01-01

    The genetic and economic effects of two stages of truncation selection in a white spruce seedling orchard were investigated by computer simulation. Genetic effects were computed by assuming a bivariate distribution of juvenile and mature traits and volume was used as the selection criterion. Seed production was assumed to rise in a linear fashion to maturity and then...

  4. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, T C; Hogmire, H W

    2005-02-01

    Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards.

  5. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  6. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach orchards in Mexico state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben Damian Elias Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Dionicio Alvarado Rosales; Mee-Sook Kim; Anna E. Case; Sara M. Ashiglar; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio A. Guzman Plazola

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico and the USDA Forest Service - RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory has begun this year (2011) to assess which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México state, Mexico. We are employing a DNA-based...

  7. Estimating water use of mature pecan orchards: A six stage crop growth curve approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ibraimo, NA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available previous study in New Mexico, revealed that a six stage crop coefficient curve should be considered for pecans, together with higher mid-season crop coefficient (K(subc)) values for mature orchards. More accurate estimates of monthly ET for mature pecan...

  8. Localization in orchards using Extended Kalman Filter for sensor-fusion - A FroboMind component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Jensen, Kjeld; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    Using the detected trees seen in gure 4(b) a localised SLAM map of the surroundings area, can be created an used to determine the localisation of the tractor. This kind of sensor-fusion is used, to keep the amount of prior information about outlay of the orchard to a minimum, so it can be used...

  9. Spray deposition and spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Stallinga, H.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the latest data on spray drift in orchard spraying in the Netherlands, and measurements of surface water quality parameters show that the current legislation and measures are insufficient to protect the surface water. To meet the national and European objectives regarding surface

  10. Influence of white plastic and water replacement rates on pomegranate orchard phenology, fruit yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. In 2013, a pomegranate orchard, established in 2010 with a density of 558 trees/ha, was irrigated at water replacement rates of 35, 50 and 100% based on rainfall, tree water r...

  11. Pedo-Climatic Risks Over Făllticeni City Related Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitariu Vasile

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through this study, “Pedo-climatic risks over Fălticeni city related orchards”, we intend to conduct a study that highlights the way that a number of parameters such as climate and soil, through their evolution, may be considered a risk factor for orchards nearby Fălticeni city.

  12. Sources of Neofabraea spp. and Cadophora spp. in Dutch apple and pear orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Wenneker, M.; Haas, de B.H.; Anbergen, R.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.

    2015-01-01

    Post-harvest diseases of apple and pear result in significant economic losses during long storage. Pathogens causing quiescent infections in the orchard leading to late post-harvest losses in The Netherlands are Neofabraea alba (Lenticel spot disease), N. perennans (Bull eye rot), Neonectria

  13. Great Tits (Parus major) reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, C.M.M.; Visser, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple

  14. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Peisley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests or negatively (e.g., crop damage to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella larvae (a major pest in apple crops. We found that: (1 excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2 bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples; and (3 when trading off the potential benefits (biological control with costs (bird damage to apples, birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  15. Survey of Trojan fir seed orchard in Edremit-Gurgendag Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abies nordmanniana ssp. Equitrojani, with a limited distribution in Northwestern Anatolia (Kazdaglari Mountain ranges), is one of the four Abies taxa naturally grown in Turkey. Regeneration problems are caused when establishing seed orchards for this important conifer. Seed and cone pests are the main problems ...

  16. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa W. Alexander; Keith E. Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score from 304 to 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and to place clones into early, intermediate, and late phenology classes. Although the absolute number of clones in each phenological class...

  17. Evaluation of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed kernel as a potential feedstock for the production of liquid bio-fuels and activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is presented as a source for biodiesel, bio-oil and activated carbon. • Methylic and ethylic esters of apricot seed kernel oil conformed to ASTM (D6751) standards. • High yield (43.66% w/w) of bio-oil was produced by pyrolysis of de-oiled seed kernel. • High quality of activated carbon was obtained from the biochar. - Abstract: Production of liquid bio-fuels (biodiesel and bio-oil) as well as activated carbon from one non-edible feedstock, apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed kernel was the main objective of the present research work. The oil was extracted from apricot seed kernel with a yield of 49.44% w/w of kernels. Potassium hydroxide-catalyzed transesterification of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed kernel oil with methanol and ethanol was then applied to produce methylic and ethylic, respectively. Properties of the obtained biodiesels were evaluated and found conformed to ASTM D 6751 limits. The apricot de-oiled seed kernel was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch reactor for bio-oil production. The effect of the pyrolysis temperatures (350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C), pyrolysis time (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min) and feed particles size (0.25, 0.40, 0.59 and 0.84 mm) on the bio-oil yield was investigated. The maximum production of bio-oil (43.66% w/w) was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 450 °C, 60 min pyrolysis time and a feed particles size of 0.25 mm. The bio-oil obtained under the optimal conditions was characterized by the elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and column chromatography. The FTIR analysis of the produced bio-fuel indicated that it composes mainly of alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids and amines. Properties of the resulting bio-oil were analyzed in terms of calorific value, density, flash point, pH, acid value, pour point and refractive index. The properties were close to those of petroleum fractions and comparable to those of other bio-oils published in literature. Referring to

  18. Detecting moisture status of pecan orchards and the potential of remotely-sensed surface reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Yahia Abdelrahman

    Demand for New Mexico's limited water resources coupled with periodic drought has increased the need to schedule irrigation of pecan orchards based on tree water status. The overall goal of this research was to develop advanced tree water status sensing techniques to optimize irrigation scheduling of pecan orchards. To achieve this goal, I conducted three studies in the La Mancha and Leyendecker orchards, both mature pecan orchards located in the Mesilla Valley, New Mexico. In the first study, I screened leaf-level physiological changes that occurred during cyclic irrigation to determine parameters that best represented changes in plant moisture status. Then, I linked plant physiological changes to remotely-sensed surface reflectance data derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). In the second study, I assessed the impact of water deficits that developed during the flood irrigation dry-down cycles on photosynthesis (A) and gas exchange and established preliminary water deficit thresholds of midday stem water potential (Psi smd) critical to A and gas exchange of pecans. In a third study, I investigated whether hyperspectral data obtained from a handheld spectroradiometer and multispectral remotely-sensed data derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) could detect moisture status in pecans during cyclic flood irrigations. I conducted the first study simultaneously in both orchards. Leaf-level physiological responses and remotely-sensed surface reflectance data were collected from trees that were either well watered or in water deficit. Midday stem water potential was the best leaf-level physiological response to detect moisture status in pecans. Multiple linear regression between Psismd and vegetation indices revealed a significant relationship (R 2 = 0.54) in both orchards. Accordingly, I concluded that remotely-sensed multispectral data form Landsat TMETM+ holds promise for detecting the moisture

  19. Genetic gain from present and future seed orchards and clone mixes; Genetiska vinster i nuvarande och framtida froeplantager och klonblandningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosvall, O; Jansson, Gunnar; Andersson, Bengt; Ericsson, Tore; Karlsson, Bo; Sonesson, Johan; Stener, L.G.

    2001-10-01

    This report is intended to be the basis for decisions concerning establishment of the third cycle of seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta, Picea abies and Betula pendula in Sweden. First genetic gain is presented for existing seed orchards and clone mixes for vegetative propagation and the additional improvement possible by genetic thinning. Then the potential additional gain is given for the two coming cycles of seed orchards and clone mixes and the point in time when this can bee realised for each seed zone. The calculations were based on genetic parameters summarised from hundreds of genetic tests throughout Sweden. The gain refers to the genetic level of the unimproved source populations and assumes ideal functioning of seed orchards and clone mixes e.g. no background pollination. A simplification is that the gain is presented as if only one character were considered, per hectare production, although in reality an index of many traits is used, including also e.g. survival, stem quality. For Scots pine in harsh areas gain in survival is also given. In general the genetic gain of existing seed orchards is 10-25%, while it can reach 20-25% in all third cycle orchards. The feasible gain from thinning is 2-3%. That is half of the theoretical gain, which can be attained only in the most closely spaced orchards. The next step of improvement will reach 35% for orchard establishment in the period 2015-2020, in some cases already in 2010. Clone mix gains are of the same magnitude as seed orchards, but can be realised in commercial planting stock with less delay. All production populations gain predictions took into account sufficient genetic variability.

  20. Native insect pollinators in Apple orchards under different management practices in the Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ahmad Ganie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now clear that over use of pesticides and intensive management of orchards can lead to drastic declines in apple pollinator abundance and crop failures. During the period of study a grower’s survey was conducted to know about knowledge of farmers on native insect pollinators, pollinator management practices, their perceptions of the importance and utility of native pollinators, and their attitudes regarding pesticide application. Despite of having significant knowledge of managed pollination, only few farmers (2% adopted supplementary methods of pollination (renting honey bee colonies, hand pollination etc.. In Pulwama, 60% of farmers had knowledge about native insect pollinators and 40% did not have any idea of native pollinators and in case of Shopian, the figures were fifty-fifty i.e. 50% had knowledge about native insect pollinators and 50% were unaware. During the period of investigation, native insect pollinators were sampled from different apple orchards under different management systems in early spring during apple flowering. A total of 17 species of insect pollinators belonging to 11 families and 3 orders_ Hymenoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera registered their occurrence at all the studied apple orchards of the Kashmir Valley. At all the study sites i.e. apple orchards under different management systems, family Halictidae and Empididae registered their presence as dominant groups. The % family contribution of the former at different orchard types decreased with increase in the intensity of the management system and the % family contribution of the later however, showed a direct relationship with the management system found, i.e. the more intense the system, the more abundant was the group. Other groups in general did not show any greater differences in abundances at different sites studied.

  1. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi, E-mail: mausumi_mukhopadhyay@yahoo.com [S.V. National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2013-01-15

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1 Prime -diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2 Prime -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. varieties from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 °C, 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 °C, 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil, 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell, 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O2/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97% followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%, palmitic (3.35-5.93%, linolenic (0.73-1.03% and stearic (1.10-1.68% acids. The contents of α-, γ-, and δ-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleochemical applications.Se han analizado las características físico-químicas de aceites de semillas de frutos de cuatro variedades diferentes de albaricoque, Halmas, Nari, Travet y Charmagzi (Prunus armeniaca L.. La producción de aceites de las semillas de albaricoque (hueso osciló entre 32,23-42,51%, mientras que las proteínas, fibra y cenizas dieron valores de 13,21-20,90%, 5,13-9,81% y 2,11-3,89%, respectivamente. Los aceites extraídos presentaron valores promedio de índice de yodo, de 96,4-106,3 (g de I/100 g de aceite; densidades a 24 °C de 0,87-0,93 mg/mL, índices de refracción (40

  3. Searching for a manageable pollinator for Acerola orchards: the solitary oil-collecting bee Centris analis (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Reisla; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-02-01

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC; Malpighiaceae) is an important fruit crop in Brazil. Among its pollinators, Centris (Heterocentris) analis (F.) stands out due to its abundance at flowers and prompt acceptance of trap-nests. For the first time, we propose the commercial use of Centris bees as orchard pollinators. To develop protocols for rearing and management of these bees, we analyzed trap-nest acceptance, brood-cell construction, and larval diet in Acerola orchards. Although Centris species, in general, use numerous pollen host plants, females of C. analis showed remarkable flower fidelity to Acerola for pollen supply when nesting in the orchard. Such fidelity was previously expected only for floral oil collection. The ease of acceptance of trap-nests by females of C. analis, their prolonged yearly activity period, multivoltine life history, and high pollinator efficiency characterize C. analis as an excellent potentially manageable pollinator in Acerola orchards.

  4. Potassium as an index of fruit content in baby food products. Part I. Banana-containing and apricot-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R A; Theuer, R C

    1991-01-01

    Percentage ingredient labeling has been proposed for baby foods. We determined whether or not the potassium content of baby foods could be used to verify the quantity of fruit when the characterizing ingredients were apricots or bananas, fruits rich in potassium. Official values for potassium in fruit (USDA Handbook No. 8-9) did not agree well with actual analyses. The potassium levels of products of known composition were accurately predicted from analyses of the actual ingredients used to make the foods. For banana-containing monofruit products of variable or unknown composition, potassium analysis led to fruit level estimates consistent with either the known composition or the label declaration. For products of unknown composition made with apricot concentrate, however, potassium analysis led to fruit level estimates lower than the probable fruit content. The quantity of fruit in baby foods made with potassium-rich fruits can be estimated from the potassium content if the potassium value for the fruit is representative of the actual ingredients used to make the product. If potassium analysis is to be used to verify compliance with percentage ingredient labeling, there must be statutory specification of the single-strength fruit level for fruit reconstituted from concentrate.

  5. Comparison of the genetic determinism of two key phenological traits, flowering and maturity dates, in three Prunus species: peach, apricot and sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlewanger, E; Quero-García, J; Le Dantec, L; Lambert, P; Ruiz, D; Dondini, L; Illa, E; Quilot-Turion, B; Audergon, J-M; Tartarini, S; Letourmy, P; Arús, P

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigates the genetic determinism of flowering and maturity dates, two traits highly affected by global climate change. Flowering and maturity dates were evaluated on five progenies from three Prunus species, peach, apricot and sweet cherry, during 3-8 years. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection was performed separately for each year and also by integrating data from all years together. High heritability estimates were obtained for flowering and maturity dates. Several QTLs for flowering and maturity dates were highly stable, detected each year of evaluation, suggesting that they were not affected by climatic variations. For flowering date, major QTLs were detected on linkage groups (LG) 4 for apricot and sweet cherry and on LG6 for peach. QTLs were identified on LG2, LG3, LG4 and LG7 for the three species. For maturity date, a major QTL was detected on LG4 in the three species. Using the peach genome sequence data, candidate genes underlying the major QTLs on LG4 and LG6 were investigated and key genes were identified. Our results provide a basis for the identification of genes involved in flowering and maturity dates that could be used to develop cultivar ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions.

  6. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  7. A Southwide Rate Test of Azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for Cone and Seed Insect Control In Loblolly Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Mangini; L.R. Barber; R.S. Cameron; G.L. DeBarr; G.R. Hodge; J.B. Jett; W.L. Lowe; J.L. McConnell; J. Nord; J.W. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    A southwide efficiency test of reduced rates of azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for control of seed and cone insects in loblolly pine seed orchards was conducted in 1992. In each of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed orchards, an untreated (no protection) check and two of five possible rates of Guthion® (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 lb ai/ac/...

  8. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes, and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J. C.; Leskey, T. C.; Walgenbach, J. F.; Klingeman, W. E.; Kain, D. P.; Zhang, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 ± 644 and 3095 ± 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, excee...

  9. Using multilevel systematic sampling to study apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and its variability at the orchard scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    sample of ‘Granny Smith’ (Malus x domestica cv. ‘Granny Smith’) apples obtained from a 17 ha orchard based on a final sample of 74 fruit. Estimates of fruit marketable yield and fruit size distribution agreed well with packing house records. The estimated marketable yield was 356.6 ± 89.2 t compared...... recommended sample sizes to accurately describe the distribution of various quality variables of apples at the orchard scale....

  10. Incidence and phylogenetic analyses of Armillaria spp. associated with root disease in peach orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. D. Elias-Roman; R. A. Guzman-Plazola; N. B. Klopfenstein; D. Alvarado-Rosales; G. Calderon-Zavala; J. A. Mora-Aguilera; M.-S. Kim; R. Garcia-Espinosa

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] tree mortality attributed to Armillaria root disease was assessed from 2009 to 2011 in 15 orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Incidence increased gradually every year of assessment, reaching average values of 9.7, 15.3 and 20.3% tree mortality and 23.2, 24.7 and 28.3% disease-impacted area of the orchards during 2009...

  11. In situ net N mineralisation and nitrification under organic and conventionally managed olive oil orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Hinojosa, M. B.; García-Ruiz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil orchard occupies a great percentage of the cropland in southern Spain. Thus, changes in nitrogen (N) fertilization might have a great effect on N dynamics at least at regional scale, which should be investigated for a sustainable N fertilization program. In situ net N mineralization (NM......) and nitrification (NN) were investigated during a year in comparable organic (OR) and conventional (CV) olive oil orchards of two locations differing their N input. Soil samples were collected in two soil positions (under and between trees canopy) and both buried-bags and soil core techniques were used to quantify...... soil TN. Soil TN and PMN explained together a 50 % of the variability in soil N availability, which suggests that these two variables are good predictors of the potential of a soil to provide available N. The highest rates of soil N availability were found in spring, when olive tree demand for N...

  12. SEPERATION OF COST AND EXPENDITURES IN ORCHARDS AND THE ADVANTAGES OF COST ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Deran

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategic importance of agriculture sector has been increased by the recent developments in economics as well as changes in climate and accordingly the capital flow to the sector has increased. Today, it is well known that owners of large capitals have been invested on orchards. In the world and Turkey, international companies run many orchards in different countries at the same time. Many of these companies’ shares operated in stock exchange markets. In this context of these developments, the importance of agriculture accounting for agriculture and especially cost agriculture for agriculture has been increased. Furthermore, this importance is expected to increase in accordance with the process of world markets and Turkey’s accession process to European Union. In this study, cost and expenditure which are the main concepts of agricultural cost accounting and their advantages will be discussed.

  13. Pesticide residues in orange fruit from citrus orchards in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Alcantar-Rosales, Victor Manuel; Alonso-Segura, Diana; Heras-Ramírez, Maria; Elizarragaz-De La Rosa, Dalau; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia; Gaspar-Ramirez, Octavio

    2017-09-01

    Some international organisations established maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food to protect human health. Mexico lacks regulations in this matter, affecting national and international trade from agroindustry. The aim of this study was to diagnose pesticide residues in oranges from Nuevo Leon, México, in citrus orchards. In May 2014, 100 orange fruit samples were taken randomly from orchards and subjected to analysis for 93 pesticides at residual level by GC/QQQ-MS and LCQ-TOF-MS. Results showed the presence of 15 pesticide residues in the samples. The comparison of the residual levels of pesticides found in orange samples among the MRLs allowed by USA, EU and Japanese regulations demonstrated that all samples were below MRLs issued by USA and Japan. Some orange samples were above MRLs issued by the EU. This provides a basis to establish strategies in order to satisfy International Standards to protect human health and encourage Food Safety in Mexico.

  14. Soil erosion as a consequence of wildfires on recently abandoned citrus orchards in eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Cerdà

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a natural factor in the evolution of Earth ecosystems. Due to land abandonment wildfire are widespread in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, which contribute to increase the soil erosion rates. Fire is also found in recently abandoned citrus orchards due to the quick vegetation recovery and the dry biomass found after 2 years of abandonment. Rainfall simulation experiments (1 hour at 45 mm h-1 in a plot of 0.25 m2 show that although land abandonment on irrigated citrus orchards reduces the soil losses to very low values, the fire increase runoff and soil erosion. Water and soil losses are much lower in the fire-affected plots than on the cultivated ones due to the use of herbicides.

  15. Outcrossing rates in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of Pinus peuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhelev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mating system parameters were studied in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of the Balkan endemic, Pinus peuce Griseb. bymeans of isozyme gene markers. The results indicate that the multilocus estimates of the outcrossing rates are low relative to otherwidespread conifers but concord to these reported for other pine species with limited area of distribution. No significant differenceswere detected between the natural stand and the seed orchard estimates. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were within the range0.77-0.79, while mean single-locus estimates were lower (0.69-0.73. The results indicate that at least 20% of the progeny of Pinus peuceis due to self-fertilization. Possible reasons for the results observed and the implications for tree breeding and gene conservation are discussed.

  16. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  17. Fault-tolerant 3D Mapping with Application to an Orchard Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus; Blanke, Mogens; Rusu, Radu Bogan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a geometric reasoning method for dealing with noise as well as faults present in 3D depth maps. These maps are acquired using stereo-vision sensors, but our framework makes no assumption about the origin of the underlying data. The method is based on observations made on ...... of comprehensive 3D maps for an agricultural robot operating in an orchard....

  18. Combining Stochastic Automata and Classication Techniques for Supervision and Safe Orchard Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Cost drivers in commercial orchards are time-consuming tasks as the drive through rows for spraying, cutting grass or collecting fruit. An automated tractor can be an answer to enhance production efficiency. For this to be acceptable by public and authorities, safety and reliability are crucial...... estimate relying only on laser perception. Results demonstrate the feasibility of implementation in an autonomous tractor that use diagnosis and active fault-tolerant control to enhance availability and safety...

  19. THE PRODUCTION COSTS OF CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC APPLE ORCHARDS IN THE VENETO REGION (ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    CIMPAN Oana; BEGALLI Diego; CODURRI Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In times of crisis people are thinking how to make the best choice to be more profitable. Both the manufacturers and the consumers must choose the best solutions for them and their businesses. Making a choice between organic and conventional methods in times of crisis is even more difficult considering production costs and consumption patterns. What is the composition of production costs for an apple orchard, how they can be divided into homogeneous categories and why to choose green are the ...

  20. Interactions between leaf macro, micronutrients and soil properties in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoulakis, Prodromos; Chatzissavvidis, Christos; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis; Pontikis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between: (i) leaf dry matter macronutrients, micronutrients and soil chemical properties, (ii) leaf macro- and micronutrients, (iii) soil macro- and micronutrients and (iv) soil chemical properties, and soil micro- and macronutrients in 50 pistachio orchards were investigated in leaves and soils by means of regression analysis. Most of the soils were deficient in plant-available P, Zn, Mn, Fe, and B, while they were excessively supplied with Cu. Leaf analysis showed that most...

  1. The Inventory of Phytoseiid Mite on Apple Orchards in Durrës, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    AURELA SUPARAKU; ARIS HUQI; NATASHA HAKA (DURAJ)

    2014-01-01

    A survey to determine the presence and abundance of phytoseiid mite on apple orchards has been conducted in Durres (Shena-Vlash), Albania. Leaf samples were taken from five apple varieties: Pink Lady, Golden, Starking, Fuji, Gala and the phytoseiid were then extracted. As the result of the survey, two species belonging to the Phytoseiidae family were identified: Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) and Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten). Amblyseius andersoni was found in all apple varieties analyzed in thi...

  2. Geostatistical interpolation of available copper in orchard soil as influenced by planting duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuancheng; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the spatial distribution of available copper (A-Cu) in orchard soils is important in agriculture and environmental management. However, data on the distribution of A-Cu in orchard soils is usually highly variable and severely skewed due to the continuous input of fungicides. In this study, ordinary kriging combined with planting duration (OK_PD) is proposed as a method for improving the interpolation of soil A-Cu. Four normal distribution transformation methods, namely, the Box-Cox, Johnson, rank order, and normal score methods, were utilized prior to interpolation. A total of 317 soil samples were collected in the orchards of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula. Moreover, 1472 orchards were investigated to obtain a map of planting duration using Voronoi tessellations. The soil A-Cu content ranged from 0.09 to 106.05 with a mean of 18.10 mg kg -1 , reflecting the high availability of Cu in the soils. Soil A-Cu concentrations exhibited a moderate spatial dependency and increased significantly with increasing planting duration. All the normal transformation methods successfully decreased the skewness and kurtosis of the soil A-Cu and the associated residuals, and also computed more robust variograms. OK_PD could generate better spatial prediction accuracy than ordinary kriging (OK) for all transformation methods tested, and it also provided a more detailed map of soil A-Cu. Normal score transformation produced satisfactory accuracy and showed an advantage in ameliorating smoothing effect derived from the interpolation methods. Thus, normal score transformation prior to kriging combined with planting duration (NSOK_PD) is recommended for the interpolation of soil A-Cu in this area.

  3. Forested landscapes promote richness and abundance of native bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in Wisconsin apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J C; Wolf, A T; Ascher, J S

    2011-06-01

    Wild bees provide vital pollination services for many native and agricultural plant species, yet the landscape conditions needed to support wild bee populations are not well understood or appreciated. We assessed the influence of landscape composition on bee abundance and species richness in apple (Malus spp.) orchards of northeastern Wisconsin during the spring flowering period. A diverse community of bee species occurs in these apple orchards, dominated by wild bees in the families Andrenidae and Halictidae and the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Proportion of forest area in the surrounding landscape was a significant positive predictor of wild bee abundance in orchards, with strongest effects at a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) buffer distance of 1,000 m or greater. Forest area also was positively associated with species richness, showing strongest effects at a buffer distance of 2,000 m. Nonagricultural developed land (homes, lawns, etcetera) was significantly negatively associated with species richness at buffer distances >750 m and wild bee abundance in bowl traps at all distances. Other landscape variables statistically associated with species richness or abundance of wild bees included proportion area of pasture (positive) and proportion area of roads (negative). Forest area was not associated with honey bee abundance at any buffer distance. These results provide clear evidence that the landscape surrounding apple orchards, especially the proportion of forest area, affects richness and abundance of wild bees during the spring flowering period and should be a part of sustainable land management strategies in agro-ecosystems of northeastern Wisconsin and other apple growing regions.

  4. Does Passive Sampling Accurately Reflect the Bee (Apoidea: Anthophila) Communities Pollinating Apple and Sour Cherry Orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason; Joshi, Neelendra K; Wilson, Julianna K; Rothwell, Nikki L; Powers, Karen; Haas, Mike; Gut, Larry; Biddinger, David J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-06-01

    During bloom of spring orchard crops, bees are the primary providers of pollination service. Monitoring these insects for research projects is often done by timed observations or by direct aerial netting, but there has been increasing interest in blue vane traps as an efficient passive approach to collecting bees. Over multiple spring seasons in Michigan and Pennsylvania, orchards were monitored for wild bees using timed netting from crop flowers and blue vane traps. This revealed a distinctly different community of wild bees captured using the two methods, suggesting that blue vane traps can complement but cannot replace direct aerial netting. The bee community in blue vane traps was generally composed of nonpollinating species, which can be of interest for broader biodiversity studies. In particular, blue vane traps caught Eucera atriventris (Smith), Eucera hamata (Bradley), Bombus fervidus (F.), and Agapostemon virescens (F.) that were never collected from the orchard crop flowers during the study period. Captures of bee species in nets was generally stable across the 3 yr, whereas we observed significant declines in the abundance of Lasioglossum pilosum (Smith) and Eucera spp. trapped using blue vane traps during the project, suggesting local overtrapping of reproductive individuals. We conclude that blue vane traps are a useful tool for expanding insights into bee communities within orchard crop systems, but they should be used with great caution to avoid local extirpation of these important insects. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Energy consumption in the management of avocado orchards in Michoacán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya, Carlos A.; Burgos, Ana Laura

    2015-01-01

    Efficient fossil energy consumption in agricultural systems is a prerequisite for sustainable agricultural production. Fossil energy consumption (EC) in avocado orchard production in Michoacán, Mexico was analyzed. Process analysis was used to estimate both direct and indirect energy required for the various agricultural operations. Data on fuel and inputs used in production were obtained from structured questionnaires completed by 455 growers. Average annual EC was 28,880 MJ∙ha-1, but the da...

  6. Are biodiversity indices of spontaneous grass covers in olive orchards good indicators of soil degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, E. V.; Arroyo, C.; Lora, A.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Gómez, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous grass covers are an inexpensive soil erosion control measure in olive orchards. Olive farmers allow grass to grow on sloping terrain to comply with the basic environmental standards derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, to date there are very few studies assessing the environmental quality and extent of such covers. In this study, we described and compared the biodiversity indicators associated to herbaceous vegetation in two contrasting olive orchards in order to evaluate its relevance and quality. In addition, biodiversity patterns and their relationships with environmental factors such as soil type and properties, precipitation, topography and soil management were analyzed. Different grass cover biodiversity indices were evaluated in two olive orchard catchments under conventional tillage and no tillage with grass cover, during 3 hydrological years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples ha-1) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shannon's and Pielou's indices. Sorensen's index obtained in the two olive orchard catchments showed notable differences in composition, probably linked with the different site conditions. The catchment with the best site conditions (deeper soil and higher precipitation), with average annual soil losses over 10 t ha-1 and a more intense management, presented the highest biodiversity indices. In absolute terms, the diversity indices were reasonably high in both catchments, despite the fact that agricultural activity usually severely limits the landscape and the variety of species. Finally, a significantly higher content of organic matter in the first 10 cm of soil was found in the catchment with the worst site conditions, average annual soil losses of 2 t ha-1 and the least intense management. Therefore, the biodiversity indicators associated to weeds were not found to be

  7. Short communication. Harvest time in hedgerow Arbequina olive orchards in areas with early frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, P.; Sanchez-Gimeno, A. C.; Benito, M.; Oria, R.; Lasa, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The shortening of harvest time attained in hedgerow olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards represents an advantage for the adoption of this cropping system in areas that are prone to suffer frost during the harvest period. To establish an optimal harvesting window, we carried out a study of the fruit ripening process on a hedgerow orchard of Arbequina olive trees, located in Zaragoza (Spain). From 2007 to 2009, oil accumulation on the fruit (% of dry weight) and oil yield (grams of oil per 100 fruits) were monitored, from early September to late November. Over the three years both variables peaked around November 15th, indicating that Arbequina reached full ripening earlier than has been reported previously for this variety. In two of the three seasons the orchard suffered several frosts during November. Long term climatic data from this area indicated that the risk of early frosts (< -2 degree centigrade) increases as November progresses with a high risk after November 20{sup t}h. In conclusion, the optimal harvesting period for Arbequina in this area should not extend beyond November 20{sup t}h. A rapid harvesting before this date is advisable to avoid the risk of damage caused by early frost in Zaragoza. Hedgerow planting provides an additional advantage in frost-prone areas, because mechanization of operations permits a short harvest period, easier to fit into the optimal harvesting window. (Author) 20 refs.

  8. Several New Aspects of the Foraging Behavior of Osmia cornifrons in an Apple Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Matsumoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the foraging behavior of Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski, which is a useful pollinator in apple orchards consisting of only one kind of commercial cultivars such as “Fuji”, and of different types of pollinizers, such as the red petal type, “Maypole” or “Makamik”. It was confirmed that, in terms of the number of foraging flowers per day, visiting flowers during low temperatures, strong wind, and reduced sunshine in an apple orchard, O. cornifrons were superior to honeybees. We indicated that O. cornifrons seemed to use both petals and anthers as foraging indicator, and that not only female, but also males contributed to apple pollination and fertilization by the pollen grains attached to them from visiting flowers, including those at the balloon stage. It was confirmed that O. cornifrons acts as a useful pollinator in an apple orchard consisting of one kind of cultivar with pollinizers planted not more than 10 m from commercial cultivars.

  9. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Qiu, J W; Wang, X W; Zhong, Y; Lan, C Y; Shu, W S

    2006-09-01

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents.

  10. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.T. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qiu, J.W. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, X.W. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhong, Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Lan, C.Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: ls04@zsu.edu.cn; Shu, W.S. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: ls53@zsu.edu.cn

    2006-09-15

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans.

  11. A Computational Model for Path Loss in Wireless Sensor Networks in Orchard Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristos T. Anastassiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A computational model for radio wave propagation through tree orchards is presented. Trees are modeled as collections of branches, geometrically approximated by cylinders, whose dimensions are determined on the basis of measurements in a cherry orchard. Tree canopies are modeled as dielectric spheres of appropriate size. A single row of trees was modeled by creating copies of a representative tree model positioned on top of a rectangular, lossy dielectric slab that simulated the ground. The complete scattering model, including soil and trees, enhanced by periodicity conditions corresponding to the array, was characterized via a commercial computational software tool for simulating the wave propagation by means of the Finite Element Method. The attenuation of the simulated signal was compared to measurements taken in the cherry orchard, using two ZigBee receiver-transmitter modules. Near the top of the tree canopies (at 3 m, the predicted attenuation was close to the measured one—just slightly underestimated. However, at 1.5 m the solver underestimated the measured attenuation significantly, especially when leaves were present and, as distances grew longer. This suggests that the effects of scattering from neighboring tree rows need to be incorporated into the model. However, complex geometries result in ill conditioned linear systems that affect the solver’s convergence.

  12. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.T.; Qiu, J.W.; Wang, X.W.; Zhong, Y.; Lan, C.Y.; Shu, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans

  13. Reproductive potential of a vole pest (Arvicola scherman) in Spanish apple orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoano, A.; Miñarro, M.; Ventura, J.

    2016-07-01

    Fossorial water voles, Arvicola scherman, feed on tree roots causing important damages in European apple orchards. Since the intensity of crop damage produced by rodents ultimately depends on their inherent capacity to increase their population, the main goal of this study was to determine the reproductive potential of the subspecies A. scherman cantabriae in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain), where voles breed over the whole year. Our results were compared with those reported for the subspecies A. scherman monticola from the Spanish Pyrenees (where reproduction ceases in winter). Sexual characteristics, body condition, relative age class and number of embryos were recorded from 422 females caught in apple orchards along two years. We found pregnant females all along the year, which were able to produce a high number of litters per year (7.30) although litter size was relatively moderate (first year: 3.87 embryos/female; second year: 3.63 embryos/females). The potential number of pups per female and year (first year: 28.25; second year: 26.50) was substantially higher than that reported for Pyrenean voles, what is probably related with differences in the length of the breeding season and in life histories between subspecies. In our population, the number of implanted embryos correlated positively with the body condition of the mother. Our results reveal that management efforts should not be seasonal as they used to be so far and invite to explore the physiological consequences of management practices.

  14. Evaluation of Different Irrigation Methods for an Apple Orchard Using an Aerial Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke M. Bulanon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular monitoring and assessment of crops is one of the keys to optimal crop production. This research presents the development of a monitoring system called the Crop Monitoring and Assessment Platform (C-MAP. The C-MAP is composed of an image acquisition unit which is an off-the-shelf unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV equipped with a multispectral camera (near-infrared, green, blue, and an image processing and analysis component. The experimental apple orchard at the Parma Research and Extension Center of the University of Idaho was used as the target for monitoring and evaluation. Five experimental rows of the orchard were randomly treated with five different irrigation methods. An image processing algorithm to detect individual trees was developed to facilitate the analysis of the rows and it was able to detect over 90% of the trees. The image analysis of the experimental rows was based on vegetation indices and results showed that there was a significant difference in the Enhanced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ENDVI among the five different irrigation methods. This demonstrates that the C-MAP has very good potential as a monitoring tool for orchard management.

  15. The impact of olive leaves, mosses and the burrowing of wild boars on soil erosion in olive orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Brevik, Eric C.; Pulido, Manuel; Maestre, Fermando T.; Taguas, Tani; Novara, Agata; Keesstra, Saskia; Cammeraat, Erik; Parras-Alcantara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    negligible. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n_ 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Cerdà, A. (1996). Seasonal variability of infiltration rates under contrasting slope conditions in southeast spain. Geoderma, 69(3-4), 217-232. Cerdà, A., & Doerr, S. H. (2005). Influence of vegetation recovery on soil hydrology and erodibility following fire: An 11-year investigation. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 14(4), 423-437. doi:10.1071/WF05044 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., . . . Ritsema, C. J. (2016). Use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in eastern spain under low frequency-high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Research, 54(2), 154-165. doi:10.1071/SR15092 Giménez-Morera, A., Ruiz Sinoga, J. D., & Cerdà, A. (2010). The impact of cotton geotextiles on soil and water losses from mediterranean rainfed agricultural land. Land Degradation and Development, 21(2), 210-217. doi:10.1002/ldr.971 Keesstra, S., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E. C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., . . . Cerdà, A. (2016). Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Science of the Total Environment, 551-552, 357-366. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182 Mwango, S. B., Msanya, B. M., Mtakwa, P. W., Kimaro, D. N., Deckers, J., & Poesen, J. (2016). Effectiveness OF mulching under miraba in controlling soil erosion, fertility restoration and crop yield in the usambara mountains, tanzania. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 1266-1275. doi:10.1002/ldr.2332 Nawaz, A., Farooq, M., Lal, R., Rehman, A., Hussain, T., & Nadeem, A. (2016). Influence of sesbania brown manuring and rice residue mulch on soil health, weeds and

  16. Relationships between spur- and orchard-level fruit bearing in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Sergio; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel; DeJong, Theodore M

    2011-12-01

    Almond is often considered to be a moderately alternate-bearing species but historical yield data typically do not exhibit clear patterns of alternate bearing at the orchard level, while research has indicated that spurs (the main fruit bearing unit in almond trees) rarely produce fruit in two subsequent years. The objective of the present work was to analyze the bearing behavior of almond trees at both the orchard level and the individual spur level over multiple years to explain this apparent paradox. The 10-year yield patterns of three almond cultivars grown at three different sites within California were analyzed for tendencies of alternate bearing at the orchard level. At the individual spur level, data on spur viability, and number of flowers and fruits per spur were collected on 2400 individually tagged spurs that were observed over 6 years to characterize bearing at that level. At the orchard level one cultivar (Nonpareil) did exhibit a tendency for alternate bearing at one site (Kern) but other cultivars and sites did not. The orchard and the individual trees in which the spur population study was conducted showed tendencies for alternate bearing but the spur population did not. Only a relatively small percentage of the total tagged spur population bore fruit in any given year and therefore while individual fruiting spurs exhibited a high level of non-bearing after fruiting the previous year the spurs that did produce fruit in any year generally did not constitute enough of the total spur population to exhibit alternate bearing at the whole population level. Our results suggest that annual bearing fluctuations in almond are probably mainly due to year-to-year variations of parameters affecting fruit set and that high rates of fruit set in a given year may involve a larger-than-normal percentage of a spur population in fruit bearing. This would limit the size of the spur population available for flowering in the subsequent year and could cause alternate

  17. Effects of different on-farm management on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop cultivated in semiarid environments under subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2016-04-01

    In Tunisia the amount of water for irrigated agriculture is higher than about 80% of the total resource.The increasing population and the rising food demand, associated to the negative effects of climate change,make it crucial to adopt strategies aiming to improve water use efficiency (WUE). Moreover, the absence of an effective public policy for water management amplifies the imbalance between water supply and its demand. Despite improved irrigation technologies can enhance the efficiency of water distribution systems, to achieve environmental goals it is also necessaryto identify on-farm management strategies accounting for actual crop water requirement. The main objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm managementstrategies (irrigation scheduling and planting date) on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop (Solanumtuberosum L.) irrigated with a subsurface drip system, under the semi-arid climate of central Tunisia. Experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2012, 2014 and 2015) at the High Agronomic Institute of ChottMariem in Sousse, by considering different planting dates and irrigation depths, the latter scheduled according to the climate observed during the season. All the considered treatments received the same pesticide and fertilizer management. Experiments evidenced that the climatic variability characterizing the examined seasons (photoperiod, solar radiation and average temperature) affects considerably the crop phenological stages, and the late sowing shortens the crop cycle.It has also been demonstrated that Leaf Area Index (LAI) and crop yield resulted relatively higher for those treatments receiving larger amounts of seasonal water. Crop yield varied between 16.3 t/ha and 39.1 t/ha, with a trend linearly related to the ratio between the seasonal amount of water supplied (Irrigation, I and Precipitation, P) and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETm). The maximum crop yield was in particular obtained for a value of this ratio equal to 1.45. Moreover, when increasing the seasonal pluviometric deficit (P-ETm) and therefore the irrigation depth (I), standard deviations of crop yield tended to decrease, as a consequence ofthe more uniform soil water content in the root zone. In terms of agronomic water use efficiency (AWUE),differences among the investigated treatments varied in a quite narrow range,due to thecombined effects of seasonal precipitation and atmospheric water demand on irrigation depths and crop yield.On the other hand, when considering irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), more relevant differences between treatments were observed,being the higher values of IWUEgenerally associated to the lower irrigation depths. However, to define the best irrigation management strategy it is necessary, from one side, to consider the availability of water and from the other, to perform aneconomic analysis accounting for the cost of water and the related benefits achievable by the farmer.

  18. Yield and quality responses of drip-irrigated spinach to different irrigation quantities in a semi-arid region with a high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin KUSLU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different irrigation quantities on the growth, marketable yield, crop quality (antioxidant activity, mineral and total phenolic content and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE of spinach grown in a semi-arid region of high altitude (1795 m a.s.l. was determined. Plants were irrigated with three different irrigation quantities which determined considering 100 (I1, 85 (I2 and 70% (I3 of the evaporation obtained from a Class A pan. Irrigation quantities in the I1, I2 and I3 treatments as two years average were 290, 264.3 and 238.6 mm, respectively. The I1 treatment provided the highest growth, marketable yield (28.06 t*ha-1 and IWUE (9.7 kg*m-3. However, mineral and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the leaves of spinach were significantly higher under lower water application conditions. The I2 treatment resulted with the highest antioxidant activity and content of N, K, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu and total phenolics. As a result of the study, I1 treatment in spinach production could be suitable for water sufficient regions due to higher yield and IWUE. However, I2 treatment may be more appropriate for water scarce semi-arid regions of high altitude for obtaining higher minerals and antioxidant activity.

  19. Fate of plant protection products in soilless cultivations after drip irrigation: measured vs. modelled concentrations : Interpretation of the 2014 experiment with the Substance Emission Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden AMA; Hoogsteen MJJ; Boesten JJTA; van Os EA; Wipfler EL; MIL; LGW

    2017-01-01

    The Greenhouse Emission Model has recently been adopted as a model package for assessing emissions to and concentrations in groundwater and surface water after use of plant protection products in greenhouse crops. Stakeholders advised that the model be tested against experimental data. In

  20. Resistance to Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is associated with down-regulation of two MATHd genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriaga, Elena; Romero, Carlos; Blanca, Jose Miguel; Badenes, Maria Luisa

    2018-01-27

    Plum pox virus (PPV), causing Sharka disease, is one of the main limiting factors for Prunus production worldwide. In apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) the major PPV resistance locus (PPVres), comprising ~ 196 kb, has been mapped to the upper part of linkage group 1. Within the PPVres, 68 genomic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance were identified within 23 predicted transcripts according to peach genome annotation. Taking into account the predicted functions inferred from sequence homology, some members of a cluster of meprin and TRAF-C homology domain (MATHd)-containing genes were pointed as PPV resistance candidate genes. Here, we have characterized the global apricot transcriptome response to PPV-D infection identifying six PPVres locus genes (ParP-1 to ParP-6) differentially expressed in resistant/susceptible cultivars. Two of them (ParP-3 and ParP-4), that encode MATHd proteins, appear clearly down-regulated in resistant cultivars, as confirmed by qRT-PCR. Concurrently, variant calling was performed using whole-genome sequencing data of 24 apricot cultivars (10 PPV-resistant and 14 PPV-susceptible) and 2 wild relatives (PPV-susceptible). ParP-3 and ParP-4, named as Prunus armeniaca PPVres MATHd-containing genes (ParPMC), are the only 2 genes having allelic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance. ParPMC1 has 1 nsSNP, while ParPMC2 has 15 variants, including a 5-bp deletion within the second exon that produces a frameshift mutation. ParPMC1 and ParPMC2 are adjacent and highly homologous (87.5% identity) suggesting they are paralogs originated from a tandem duplication. Cultivars carrying the ParPMC2 resistant (mutated) allele show lack of expression in both ParPMC2 and especially ParPMC1. Accordingly, we hypothesize that ParPMC2 is a pseudogene that mediates down-regulation of its functional paralog ParPMC1 by silencing. As a whole, results strongly support ParPMC1 and/or ParPMC2 as host susceptibility genes required for PPV infection which

  1. Stability in and correlation between factors influencing genetic quality of seed lots in seed orchard of Pinus tabuliformis Carr. over a 12-year span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Coniferous seed orchards require a long period from initial seed harvest to stable seed production. Differential reproductive success and asynchrony are among the main factors for orchard crops year-to-year variation in terms of parental gametic contribution and ultimately the genetic gain. It is fundamental in both making predictions about the genetic composition of the seed crop and decisions about orchard roguing and improved seed orchard establishment. In this paper, a primary Chinese pine seed orchard with 49 clones is investigated for stability, variation and correlation analysis of factors which influence genetic quality of the seed lots from initial seed harvest to the stable seed production over a 12 years span. Results indicated that the reproductive synchrony index of pollen shedding has shown to be higher than that of the strobili receptivity, and both can be drastically influenced by the ambient climate factors. Reproductive synchrony index of the clones has certain relative stability and it could be used as an indication of the seed orchard status during maturity stage; clones in the studied orchard have shown extreme differences in terms of the gametic and genetic contribution to the seed crop at the orchard's early production phase specifically when they severe as either female or male parents. Those differences are closely related to clonal sex tendency at the time of orchard's initial reproduction. Clonal gamete contribution as male and female parent often has a negative correlation. Clone utilization as pollen, seed or both pollen and seed donors should consider the role it would play in the seed crop; due to numerous factors influencing on the mating system in seed orchards, clonal genetic contribution as male parent is uncertain, and it has major influence on the genetic composition in the seed orchard during the initial reproductive and seed production phase.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina transplanted in apple orchards with different pesticide management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzia, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.mazzia@univ-avignon.f [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine St Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 France (France); Capowiez, Yvan [INRA, UR 1115 ' Plante et Systemes Horticoles' , Domaine St Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 France (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Koehler, Heinz-R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, Institute for Evolution and Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, Institute for Evolution and Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Blumenstrasse 13, D-72108 Rottenburg (Germany); Rault, Magali [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine St Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 France (France)

    2011-01-15

    Apple orchards are highly manipulated crops in which large amounts of pesticides are used. Some of these pesticides lack target specificity and can cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. In order to evaluate the environmental risk of these products, the use of transplanted sentinel organisms avoids side-effects from past events and facilitate comparison of multiple sites in a short time. We released specimens of the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in each 5 of two kinds of apple orchards with either conventional or organic management strategies plus in a single abandoned orchard. After one month, individuals were retrieved in order to measure acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Mean values of AChE activity were significantly reduced in all conventional apple orchards compared to the others. Results show that the measurement of biomarkers such as AChE inhibition in transplated X. derbentina could be useful in the environmental risk assessment of post-authorized pesticides. - Snails as sentinel species to evaluate insecticide impacts in apple orchards.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina transplanted in apple orchards with different pesticide management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzia, Christophe; Capowiez, Yvan; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C.; Koehler, Heinz-R.; Triebskorn, Rita; Rault, Magali

    2011-01-01

    Apple orchards are highly manipulated crops in which large amounts of pesticides are used. Some of these pesticides lack target specificity and can cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. In order to evaluate the environmental risk of these products, the use of transplanted sentinel organisms avoids side-effects from past events and facilitate comparison of multiple sites in a short time. We released specimens of the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in each 5 of two kinds of apple orchards with either conventional or organic management strategies plus in a single abandoned orchard. After one month, individuals were retrieved in order to measure acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Mean values of AChE activity were significantly reduced in all conventional apple orchards compared to the others. Results show that the measurement of biomarkers such as AChE inhibition in transplated X. derbentina could be useful in the environmental risk assessment of post-authorized pesticides. - Snails as sentinel species to evaluate insecticide impacts in apple orchards.

  4. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  5. Exposure of free-flying birds to anticholinesterase insecticides in two conventionally managed fruit orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    Conventionally managed orchards receive extensive applications of anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides throughout the growing season. Because many avian species make use of these environments for nesting and foraging, they may receive substantial exposure to anti-ChEs. The model used to assess avian risk in these environments is highly simplified, and indicator species used in risk studies may misrepresent the risk of the species in the field. A better understanding of avian risk is needed, and should begin with a closer examination o# their exposure in these environments. Exposure of free-flying birds was examined in two conventional orchards during the nesting seasons of 1999 and 2000. Our goal was to demonstrate the influences of species and chemical differences on the exposure we observed. Plasma ChE activity and ChE reactivation were used to identify exposure in multiple species following anti-ChE applications (applied singly and in mixtures). Chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis), and American robins (Turdus migratorius) demonstrated significant ChE activity depression in 1999 (p 0.005), and only chipping sparrows demonstrated significant depression in 2000 (p = 0.0002). These three species demonstrated the highest proportion of exposed individuals among all species examined in both years. Because many chemicals were simultaneously present in each orchard, chemical influences on the exposure we observed could not be discerned. This work does demonstrate, however, that avian species differ significantly in their exposure, and that chipping sparrows demonstrated the greatest exposure among the species analyzed. These results underscore the need for multiple species studies and for choosing indicator species on a biologically relevant basis.

  6. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  7. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L. and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Biddinger

    Full Text Available The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae. The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG, λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II, dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC, phosmet (Imidan 70W, and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F. At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards.

  8. Potential Dermal Exposure to Flonicamid and Risk Assessment of Applicators During Treatment in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei-Ai; Yu, Aili; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-01-01

    Exposure and risk assessments of flonicamid for applicators were performed in apple orchards in Korea. Fifteen experiments were done with two experienced applicators under typical field conditions using a speed sprayer. In this study, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and dermal patches were used to monitor potential dermal exposure to flonicamid, and personal air samplers with XAD-2 resin and glass fiber filter were used to monitor potential inhalation exposure. The analytical methods were validated for the limit of detection, limit of quantitation, reproducibility, linearity of the calibration curve, and recovery of flonicamid from various exposure matrices. The results were encouraging and acceptable for an exposure study. The applicability of XAD-2 resin was evaluated via a trapping efficiency and breakthrough test. During the mixing/loading, the average total dermal exposure was 22.6 μg of flonicamid, corresponding to 4.5×10(-5)% of the prepared amount. For the spraying, the potential dermal exposure was 9.32 mg, and the ratio to applied amount was 1.9 × 10(-2%). The primary exposed body parts were the thigh (2.90 mg), upper arm (1.75 mg), and lower leg (1.66 mg). By comparison, absorbable quantity of exposure was small, only 1.62 μg (3.2×10(-6)%). The margin of safety (MOS) were calculated for risk assessment, in all sets of trials, MOS > 1, indicating the exposure level of flonicamid was considered to be safe in apple orchards. Although this was a limited study, it provided a good estimate of flonicamid exposure for orchard applicators.

  9. Geologic map of the Orchard 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Slate, Janet L.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    The Orchard 7.5' quadrangle is located along the South Platte River corridor on the semi-arid plains of eastern Colorado, and contains surficial deposits that record alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes that have operated through environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Front Range, has played a major role in shaping the geology of the quadrangle, which is situated downstream of where the last of the major headwater tributaries (St. Vrain, Big Thompson, and Cache la Poudre) join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing alluvium deposition and terrace formation in the Orchard quadrangle. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks, unglaciated tributaries originating east of the Front Range also have played a major role by periodically delivering large volumes of sediment to the river during flood events, which may have temporarily dammed the river. Eolian sand deposits of the Greeley (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of drought. With the onset of irrigation during historic times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow, and sandy braided river with highly seasonal discharge to a much narrower, deeper river with braided-meandering transition morphology and more uniform discharge. Along this reach, the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, which, although buried by alluvial deposits in Orchard quadrangle, is locally exposed downstream along the South Platte River bluff near the Bijou Creek confluence, in some of the larger draws, and along Wildcat Creek.

  10. The weed composition in an orchard as a result of long-term foliar herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The weed composition and the dominance of individual species occurring in an orchard were assessed at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland, during the first 10 years after orchard establishment. ‘Ligol’ apple trees were planted in the spring of 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. Foliar herbicides were applied in 1 m wide tree rows twice or three times per each vegetation period. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. Ten years of maintenance of herbicide fallow contributed to a change in the weed composition in the orchard. It changed as a result of different responses of the most important weed species to the foliar herbicides. Total suppression of Elymus repens was observed in the first year after planting the trees. Convolvulus arvensis, Cirsium arvense, and other perennial weeds, completely disappeared in the succeeding periods. The maintenance of herbicide fallow did not affect the abundance of Taraxacum officinale. The percentage of the soil surface covered by Trifolium repens and Epilobium adenocaulon, perennial weeds with considerable tolerance to post-emergence herbicides, increased during the fruit-bearing period of the trees. The abundance of these weeds was significantly reduced only in the rows with the stronger growing trees on the semi-dwarf P 2 rootstock. Stellaria media was the dominant annual weed. Senecio vulgaris, Poa annua, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Lamium spp. were also frequently observed. A significant increase in the abundance of annual and perennial weeds was found in the tree rows as a result of improved water availability after a period of high precipitation.

  11. Spray pesticide applications in Mediterranean citrus orchards: Canopy deposition and off-target losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcerá, Cruz; Moltó, Enrique; Chueca, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    Only a portion of the water volume sprayed is deposited on the target when applying plant protection products with air-assisted axial-fan airblast sprayers in high growing crops. A fraction of the off-target losses deposits on the ground, but droplets also drift away from the site. This work aimed at assessing the spray distribution to different compartments (tree canopy, ground and air) during pesticide applications in a Mediterranean citrus orchard. Standard cone nozzles (Teejet D3 DC35) and venturi drift reducing nozzles (Albuz TVI 80 03) were compared. Applications were performed with a conventional air-assisted sprayer, with a spray volume of around 3000lha -1 in a Navel orange orchard. Brilliant Sulfoflavine (BSF) was used as a tracer. Results showed that only around 46% of the applied spray was deposited on the target trees and around 4% of the spray was deposited on adjacent trees from adjoining rows independently of the nozzle type. Applications with standard nozzles produced more potential airborne spray drift (23%) than those with the drift reducing nozzles (17%) but fewer direct losses to the ground (22% vs. 27%). Indirect losses (sedimenting spray drift) to the ground of adjacent paths were around 7-9% in both cases. The important data set of spray distribution in the different compartments around sprayed orchard (air, ground, vegetation) generated in this work is highly useful as input source of exposure to take into account for the risk assessment in Mediterranean citrus scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clonal Variations in Flower Production at the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.subsp. pallasiana Seed Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ERTEKİN, Korhan TUNÇTANER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for three years (2002-2004 in a black pine seed orchard established with 30 clonesoriginating from the forest of Yenice-Bakraz in Bartın, 1990. During the research, the variations between theclones in the seed orchard were determined based on the number of male and female flowers. According to theresults, the average values of flower production in three years at seed orchard showed considerable variations. Itwas determined that the number of the male and female flowers were 817,2 and 99,3 respectively. 62% ofaverage number of male flowers and 49% of female flowers were produced by 10 clones in 3 years. It was alsodetermined that the amount of the flowers for the clones showed significant differences within the years.

  13. Water distribution in an orchard irrigated by perforated distributors in stony ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroix, M.; Marcesse, J.; Normand, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of new irrigation techniques the Compagnie Nationale d'Amenagement du Bas-Rhone et du Languedoc (B.Rh.L.) has developed a process of localized irrigation by perforated distributors. Conditions were defined for the optimum use of this process, especially the distribution of water in the ground. The study was carried out in a peach orchard in stony ground. The neutronic method was used to measure the soil moisture content. Because of the heterogeneous stone size distribution it was necessary for the specific humidity determination to take into account the dry apparent density. This parameter was measured by gammametry [fr

  14. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Meng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon’s index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds’ Simpson, Shannon–Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests’ weight and scarab beetle’s population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m−2 (0–20 cm soil. The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output–input ratio had

  15. Management of agricultural area in preindustrial economies. The case of olive orchards in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Infante Amate

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades it has been developed a specialized literature on the study of particular features of preindustrial agricultures. This paper, in base to such research line, analyzes the case of olive orchards in southern Spain, which today represent the largest tree concentration in Europe, right in the previous moment to its great expansion (mid 18th Century. We seek to understand the geography of its spreading, its low expansion before industrialization and the why only few territories on Andalusia appeared like premature focus of specialization.

  16. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Li, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Li, Yong; Li, Caihong; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Guo, Liyue; Cheng, Da; Muminov, Mahmud A; Liang, Xiaotian; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM) model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon's index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds' Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests' weight and scarab beetle's population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m(-2) (0-20 cm soil). The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output-input ratio had been achieved in the OM. Our

  17. Diversity and flight activity of Staphylinidae in a citrus orchard of the Catania Plain (Sicily)

    OpenAIRE

    Adorno, Antonio Salvatore Maria

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the diversity and flight activity of Staphylinidae in a citrus orchard of the Catania Plain (Sicily) using different sampling methods (car-net, window traps and pit-fall traps). The study looks at the complex of flying rove beetles with the aim of defining preliminarily the faunistic and zoogeographical structure of this family in the study area. A second aim of the study is to investigate, using window-traps and pit-fall traps, the spatial distribution ...

  18. Spatial distribution of parasitism on Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae in citrus orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Jahnke

    Full Text Available Many species of microhymenopterous parasitoids have been registered on Phyllocnistis citrella, the citrus leafminer. The present study aimed to identify the spatial distribution pattern of the native and introduced parasitoids of P. citrella in two citrus orchards in Montenegro, RS. The new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees in each orchard were inspected at the bottom (0-1.5 m and top (1.5-2.5 m stratum and had their position relative to the quadrants (North, South, East and West registered at every 15 days from July/2002 to June/2003. The leaves with pupae were collected and kept isolated until the emergence of parasitoids or of the leaf miner; so, the sampling was biased towards parasitoids that emerge in the host pupal phase. The horizontal spatial distribution was evaluated testing the fitness of data to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. In Montenegrina, there was no significant difference in the number of parasitoids and in the mean number of pupae found in the top and bottom strata (χ2 = 0.66; df = 1; P > 0.05 (χ2 = 0.27; df =1; P > 0.05, respectively. In relation to the quadrants, the highest average numbers of the leafminer pupae and of parasitoids were registered at the East quadrant (χ2 = 11.81; df = 3; P < 0.05, (χ2 = 10.36; df = 3; P < 0.05. In the Murcott orchard, a higher number of parasitoids was found at the top stratum (63.5% (χ2 = 7.24; df =1 P < 0.05, the same occurring with the average number of P. citrella pupae (62.9% (χ2 = 6.66; df = 1; P < 0.05. The highest number of parasitoids and of miners was registered at the North quadrant (χ2 = 19. 29; df = 3; P < 0.05, (χ2 = 4.39; df = 3; P < 0.05. In both orchards, there was no difference between the numbers of shoots either relative to the strata as well as to the quadrants. As the number of shoots did not varied much relative to the quadrants, it is possible that the higher number of miners and parasitoids in the East and West quadrants would be

  19. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Pino, Christian; Martinez, Dominique M.; Rana, Komal; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-20

    Prior to the acquisition of land by the U.S. Department of War in February 1943 and the creation of the Hanford Site, the land along the Columbia River was home to over 1000 people. Farming and orchard operations by both homesteaders and commercial organizations were prevalent. Orchard activities and the associated application of lead arsenate pesticide ceased in 1943, when residents were moved from the Hanford Site at the beginning of the Manhattan Project. Today, the residues from historical application of lead arsenate pesticide persist in some locations on the Hanford Site. In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology established the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The pre-Hanford orchard lands identified as the 100-OL-1 OU are located south of the Columbia River and east of the present-day Vernita Bridge, and extend southeast to the former Hanford townsite. The discontinuous orchard lands within 100-OL-1 OU are approximately 20 km2 (5000 ac). A pilot study was conducted to support the approval of the remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 OU. This pilot study evaluated the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of lead arsenate pesticide residues in the OU. The objectives of the pilot study included evaluating a field portable XRF analyzer as the analytical method for decision making, estimating the nature and extent of lead and arsenic in surface soils in four decision units, evaluating the results for the purpose of optimizing the sampling approach implemented in the remedial investigation, and collecting information to improve the cost estimate and planning the cultural resources review for sampling activities in the remedial investigation. Based on

  20. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Alexander; Keith Woeste

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial...

  1. Semiochemicals to monitor insect pests – future opportunities for an effective host plant volatile blend to attract navel orangeworm in pistachio orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) has been a major insect pest of California tree nut orchards for the past five decades. In particular, almond and pistachio orchards suffer major annual economic damage due to both physical and associated fungal damage caused by navel orangeworm larvae. Un...

  2. Preliminary evidence that copper inhibits the degradation of DDT to DDE in pip and stonefruit orchard soils in the Auckland region, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaw, S.K.; Palmer, G.; Kim, N.D.; Wilkins, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Studies in New Zealand orchard soils indicate that elevated Cu concentrations have reduced the ability of the indigenous soil microbial community to degrade DDT to DDE. - Orchards (n=13) were sampled as part of a larger survey investigating agrichemical residues (pesticides and trace elements) in cropping soils in the Auckland region, New Zealand. ΣDDT concentrations in orchard soils ranged from -1 . DDT (o,p'- and p,p'-) comprised at least 40% of the ΣDDT residues in 67% of orchards in which DDT residues were detected. There was a highly significant negative correlation (-0.924, P -1 ) and the ratio of DDE:DDT (0.4-5.2) in pip and stonefruit orchard soils. In further investigations involving five pip and stone fruit orchard sites and one grazing paddock it was found that soil respiration and the ratio of soil microbial carbon to soil carbon (%C mic /Org-C) in orchard soils decreased with increasing copper concentration. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that elevated soil copper concentrations in pip and stone fruit orchard soils in the Auckland region may have reduced the ability of the indigenous soil microbial community to degrade DDT to DDE

  3. Mass release of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae can reduce damage by the apple codling moth Cydia pomonella in organic orchards under pheromone disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Herz, Annette; Korsgaard, Maren

    2017-01-01

    of the two species were evaluated for mass-release to control C. pomonella in two commercial organic apple orchards, one in 2012 and one in 2013, using a complete randomized block design. Pheromone disruption was used in both orchards, making the study one of the first to evaluate Trichogramma release under...

  4. Updates on Water Use of Pistachio Orchards Grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California on Saline Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Daniele; Marino, Giulia; Whiting, Michael; Sanden, Blake; Ferguson, Louise; Lampinen, Bruce; Kent, Eric; Snyder, Richard; Grattan, Stephen; Little, Cayle

    2017-04-01

    Pistachio acreage is rapidly expanding in California thanks to its economic profitability and capacity to grow and produce in salt-affected soils. Our team at University of California is updating information on actual water use (ET) of mature pistachio orchards grown on saline soils under micro-irrigation methods. Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa) and Crop Coefficients (Ka) were determined for the 2015 and 2016 crop seasons on four pistachio orchards grown in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) on grounds with increasing levels of soil-water salinity, using the residual of energy balance method with a combination of eddy covariance and surface renewal equipment. Tree canopy cover, light interception, and plant water status across the orchards were also measured and evaluated. Our preliminary results show that salinity strongly affects the tree water use, resulting in 10-30% less ET for medium to high salt-affected soils. Salinity also showed a strong effect on tree water status and light interception, as suggested by values of the Midday Stem Water Potential (ΨSWP) around 10 to 15-bar lower in salt-affected than in the control orchard, and by the intercepted Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) decreasing from 75% in the control orchard to 25% in the severely salt affected grounds. The crop coefficient values we observed in this study are lower than those commonly used for irrigation scheduling in the SJV, suggesting that pistachio growers could better tailor irrigation management to the actual site-specific orchard conditions (e.g. canopy features and soil-water salinity) if they are provided updated information. Improved irrigation practices could likely lead to significant water savings and thus improve the resource-efficiency and competitiveness of pistachio production in the SJV. Keywords: Pistacia vera L., salinity, stem water potential, surface renewal, canopy cover.

  5. Evaluation of Bee Diversity within Different Sweet Cherry Orchards in the Sultandaği Reservoir (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güler Yasemin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many varieties of sweet cherry are self-incompatible. Therefore, sweet cherry orchards require a huge population of pollinator bees to carry out an adequate amount of pollen transfer between the different varieties. Our study was conducted to evaluate the differences in the richness and diversity of these pollinators within very closely located sweet cherry orchards, and to understand the underlying effects causing these differences. The study was conducted in the Sultandağı Reservoir (Turkey which covers the towns of Sultandağı (Afyonkarahisar and Akşehir (Konya. In order to avoid a sampling bias, Malaise traps were used to collect bee samples. Sampling collections were repeated for three years; from 2007 to 2009, between April and May. The traps were set in the bud-swell period and lifted in the green-fruit period. Climatic data were taken from meteorology stations near the orchards. Vegetation in the surrounding areas was also inspected. The composition of pollinator bee species was determined and compared between orchards. In total, 83 bee species and 38 plant species were recorded. It was found that Halictidae is the most abundant and richest group among the pollinator bees. The effects of the quantity of the Malaise traps on bee sampling success were also tested. It was found that one trap per 325 trees is enough for an adequate sampling. Apart from the annual fluctuations of bee richness in the orchards, general differences in the bee diversity among orchards might be affected by the surrounding vegetation and especially from different agricultural practices such as tilling the ground.

  6. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards with variable amounts of soil-available phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Iwase, Koji; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg(-1), showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P soil-available P (P fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment.

  7. Measuring and modelling the water use of fruit tree orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing competition among the various sectors of the South African economy for limited water resources, and irrigated agriculture is estimated to use approximately 60% of available surface water (NWRS2, 2012). With a 90% dependence on irrigation... ?Cripps Pink? (?Pink Lady?) apple (Malus domestica) orchard in the Koue Bokkeveld region near Ceres (S33? 12? 03.57?; E19? 20? 15.06?), and an eight- year old ?Alpine? nectarine (Prunus persica) orchard near Wolseley (S33? 25? 0.59? and E19? 14? 44...

  8. Development and evaluation of a targeted orchard sprayer using machine vision technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In conventional methods of spraying in orchards, the amount of pesticide sprayed, is not targeted. The pesticide consumption data indicates that the application rate of pesticide in greenhouses and orchards is more than required. Less than 30% of pesticide sprayed actually reaches nursery canopies while the rest are lost and wasted. Nowadays, variable rate spray applicators using intelligent control systems can greatly reduce pesticide use and off-target contamination of environment in nurseries and orchards. In this research a prototype orchard sprayer based on machine vision technology was developed and evaluated. This sprayer performs real-time spraying based on the tree canopy structure and its greenness extent which improves the efficiency of spraying operation in orchards. Materials and Methods The equipment used in this study comprised of three main parts generally: 1- Mechanical Equipment 2- Data collection and image processing system 3- Electronic control system Two booms were designed to support the spray nozzles and to provide flexibility in directing the spray nozzles to the target. The boom comprised two parts, the vertical part and inclined part. The vertical part of the boom was used to spray one side of the trees during forward movement of the tractor and inclined part of the boom was designed to spray the upper half of the tree canopy. Three nozzles were considered on each boom. On the vertical part of the boom, two nozzles were placed, whereas one other nozzle was mounted on the inclined part of the boom. To achieve different tree heights, the vertical part of the boom was able to slide up and down. Labview (version 2011 was used for real time image processing. Images were captured through RGB cameras mounted on a horizontal bar attached on top of the tractor to take images separately for each side of the sprayer. Images were captured from the top of the canopies looking downward. The triggering signal for

  9. Cover crops impact on excess rainfall and soil erosion rates in orchards and potato fields, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Roey; Gil, Eshel

    2015-04-01

    Bare soil and high drainage densities are common characteristics of intensive agriculture land. The couplings of these characteristics lead to high runoff and eroded soil volumes leaving the field or the orchard via the local drainage system into the fluvial system. This process increase flood risk due to massive deposition of the coarse fraction of the eroded soil and therefore reduces channel capacity to discharge the increase volumes of concentrated runoff. As a result drainage basin authorities are forced to invest large amount of money in maintaining and enlarging the drainage network. However this approach is un-sustainable. On the other hand, implementing cover crops (CC) and modification to current agricultural practices over the contributing area of the watershed seems to have more benefits and provide sustainable solution. A multi-disciplinary approach applied in commercial potatoes fields and orchards that utilize the benefit of CC shows great success as means of soil and water conservation and weed disinfestation without reduction in the yield, its quality or its profitability. The results indicate that it is possible to grow potatoes and citrus trees under CC with no reduction in yield or nutrient uptake, with more than 95% reduction in soil loss and more than 60% in runoff volumes and peak discharges.

  10. Nitrogen replenishment using variable rate application technique in a small hand-harvested pear orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsanidou, A.; Nanos, G.D.; Fountas, S.; Baras, J.; Castrignano, A.; Gemtos, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Precision agriculture is a management approach for sustainable agriculture. It can be applied even in small fields. It aims to optimize inputs, improve profits, and reduce adverse environmental impacts. In this study, a series of measurements were conducted over three growing seasons to assess variability in a 0.55 ha pear orchard located in central Greece. Soil ECa was measured using EM38 sensor, while soil samples were taken from a grid 17 × 8 m and analysed for texture, pH, P, K, Mg, CaCO3, and organic matter content. Data analysis indicated that most of the nutrients were at sufficient levels. Soil and yield maps showed considerable variability while fruit quality presented small variations across the orchard. Yield fluctuations were observed, possibly due to climatic conditions. Prescription maps were developed for nitrogen variable rate application (VRA) for two years based on the replacement of the nutrients removed by the crop. VRA application resulted in 56% and 50% reduction of N fertiliser compared to uniform application.

  11. Nitrogen replenishment using variable rate application technique in a small hand-harvested pear orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsanidou, A.; Nanos, G.D.; Fountas, S.; Baras, J.; Castrignano, A.; Gemtos, T.A.

    2017-07-01

    Precision agriculture is a management approach for sustainable agriculture. It can be applied even in small fields. It aims to optimize inputs, improve profits, and reduce adverse environmental impacts. In this study, a series of measurements were conducted over three growing seasons to assess variability in a 0.55 ha pear orchard located in central Greece. Soil ECa was measured using EM38 sensor, while soil samples were taken from a grid 17 × 8 m and analysed for texture, pH, P, K, Mg, CaCO3, and organic matter content. Data analysis indicated that most of the nutrients were at sufficient levels. Soil and yield maps showed considerable variability while fruit quality presented small variations across the orchard. Yield fluctuations were observed, possibly due to climatic conditions. Prescription maps were developed for nitrogen variable rate application (VRA) for two years based on the replacement of the nutrients removed by the crop. VRA application resulted in 56% and 50% reduction of N fertiliser compared to uniform application.

  12. AGROECOSYSTEMS OF FAMILIAR ORCHARDS AT SUBTROPICAL MEXICAN HIGHLANDS. A SYSTEMIC VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gastón Gutiérrez Cedillo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to evaluate the traditional knowledge applied at agroecosystems of familiar orchards in San Nicolas, at southwest of the State of Mexico, in the Subtropical Central Highlands of Mexico generated by the Balsas River Depression; the selection of properties and informers was by means of intention. Were analyzed fourteen systems between march 2011 and april 2012.  Was elaborated the geographic, phyto geographic and agro ecological characterizations; the geographic characterization included physical, biotic and socio cultural aspects, mean by photo interpretation, localization through global positional systems, analysis of social statistics, in field observation about cultural outlines and elaboration of digital cartography. Related to phyto geographic characterization, was realized a floristically inventory, that included from de approach of Ethnobotanics the management and functionality of vegetal resources employed at the familiar orchards agroecosystems, based on the local inhabitants traditional knowledge; were realized collections of wild and cultivated botanical specimens. The agro ecological characterization was elaborated mean by in field work and interviews realized to the terrains owners, the obtained information was processed by means of data bases. The theoretical basis of the study was sustained on Agroecology, Cultural Ecology and Ethno botanical. These allows to evaluate the ecological importance, and to determinate the cultural and socioeconomic impacts of the familiar agroecosystems from a systemic point of view.

  13. Results of the radiological survey at 90 Orchard Place Maywood, New Jersey (MJ023)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 233 Th, derived from the MCW site. The surveys typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 90 Orchard Place, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ023), was conducted during 1987. While some radiological measurements taken at 90 Orchard Place were slightly greater than typical background levels encountered in the northern New Jersey area, no radionuclide concentrations nor radiation levels exceeded the applicable federal criteria. Based on the survey data it is recommended that this site be eliminated from consideration for inclusion in the DOE remedial action program. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Breeding biology of the European Blackbird Turdus merula in orange orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zeraoula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During two successive years (2013–2014, we studied the breeding ecology of the European Blackbird Turdus merula in Guelma province, north-east of Algeria. The study was carried out in orange orchards of the region. We investigated nest placement in the orange trees and determined the factors of reproductive failure at this study area. Nests were placed at low height (mean ± SD = 1.42 ± 0.04 m and located near the trunk (mean ± SD = 0.61 ± 0.04 m. The breeding season occurred between mid-May and mid-June and the peak of egg laying took place during the first half of May. The mean clutch size was 2.96 ± 0.05, density of breeding pairs was 0.83 ± 0.30 p/ha. The breeding success reported in the present study was higher than that recorded in other studies. Predation was the leading cause of nest failure of the population under investigation. The present study shows that the orange orchards appear to be the preferred breeding area for Blackbird population.

  15. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  16. Trap Height Affects Capture of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Pecan Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E

    2017-04-01

    There is scarce information regarding the vertical stratification of predaceous Coccinellidae in tall trees. Although numerous studies have been done in orchards and forests, very few studies have assessed the occurrence of predaceous Coccinellidae high in tree canopies. The objective of this study was to examine the abundance of Coccinellidae at different heights in mature pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, orchards with tall trees. From spring through late fall during 2013 and 2014, yellow pyramidal Tedders traps were suspended in the pecan canopy at 6.1 and 12.2 m, in addition to being placed on the ground (0 m). The exotic species Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata accounted for a high percentage of trap capture during this study. Except for Olla v-nigrum, low numbers of native species (Hippodamia convergens, Coleomegilla maculata, Cycloneda munda, Scymnus spp., and Hyperaspis spp.) were captured. However, significantly more were captured in ground traps rather than in canopy traps with the exception of O. v-nigrum. Similar to most native species, significantly more C. septempunctata were captured in ground traps than canopy traps. This contrasts sharply with H. axyridis captured similarly at all trap heights. The ability to exploit resources across vertical strata, unlike many intraguild predators, may be an underestimated factor helping to explain the invasiveness of H. axyridis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in orchards of cultivated pecan (Carya illinoinensis; Juglandaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Gregory; Brenneman, Timothy; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2011-10-01

    Carya illinoinensis (pecan) belongs to the Juglandaceae (walnut family) and is a major economic nut crop in the southern USA. Although evidence suggests that some species in the Juglandaceae are ectomycorrhizal, investigations on their ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts are quite limited. Here we assessed the ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in cultivated orchards of C. illinoinensis. Five pecan orchards in southern Georgia, USA, were studied, three of which were known to fruit the native edible truffle species Tuber lyonii. We sequenced rDNA from single ectomycorrhizal root tips sampled from a total of 50 individual trees. Mycorrhizae were identified by ITS and LSU rDNA sequence-based methods. Forty-four distinct ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected. Sequestrate taxa including Tuber and Scleroderma were particularly abundant. The two most abundant sequence types belonged to T. lyonii (17%) and an undescribed Tuber species (~20%). Because of our interest in the ecology of T. lyonii, we also conducted greenhouse studies to determine whether this species would colonize and form ectomycorrhizae on roots of pecan, oak, or pine species endemic to the region. T. lyonii ectomycorrhizae were formed on pecan and oak seedlings, but not pine, when these were inoculated with spores. That oak and pecan seedling roots were receptive to truffle spores indicates that spore slurry inoculation could be a suitable method for commercial use and that, ecologically, T. lyonii may function as a pioneer ectomycorrhizal species for these hosts. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  18. The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils from apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marjańska-Cichoń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in orchard soil and arable soil were evaluated using an "insect bait method". Soil samples taken in autumn and spring from sward, herbicides fallow and arable soil were baited with Galleria mellonella larvae. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize Brown et Smith were isolated from three species of orchards soil and adjacent arable soil. Infection levels of G. mellonella larvae were depended from species of soil . M. anisoopliae caused most frequent infections of bait insects in light loamy sand and P. fumosoroseus in alluvial silt and coarse sand. B. bassiana was dominated in alluvial silt. It was established that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana infected more larvae in autumn than in spring. In case of P. fumosoroseus an opposite tendency was observed. Generaly in arable soil and sward number of infected larvae was higher than other stands. In case of light loamy sand more infections of G. mellonella larvae were found in samples from herbicides fallow. Irrespective of soil type B. bassiana was the dominated species isolated from herbicides fallow, M. anisopliae from sward and P. fumosoroseus - from arable soil.

  19. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, A. M.; Magno, R.; Casacchia, T.; Curci, M.; Baronti, S.; Miglietta, F.; Crecchio, C.; Xiloyannis, C.; Sofo, A.

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization). Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities. PMID:24348166

  20. The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Laura; Park, Mia; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years. We used species rarefaction analyses to test for the completeness of sampling and the relationship between species richness and sampling effort, orchard size, and percent agriculture in the surrounding landscape. We performed more than 190 h of sampling, collecting 11,219 specimens representing 104 species. Despite the sampling intensity, we captured wild bees did not appear to be a factor, as we found no correlation between honeybee and wild bee abundance. Our study shows that the pollinator fauna of agroecosystems can be diverse and challenging to thoroughly sample. We demonstrate that there is high temporal variation in community composition and that sites vary widely in the sampling effort required to fully describe their diversity. In order to maximize pollination services provided by wild bee species, we must first accurately estimate species richness. For researchers interested in providing this estimate, we recommend multiyear studies and rarefaction analyses to quantify the gap between observed and expected species richness. PMID:26380684

  1. Nitrogen replenishment using variable rate application technique in a small hand-harvested pear orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vatsanidou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is a management approach for sustainable agriculture. It can be applied even in small fields. It aims to optimize inputs, improve profits, and reduce adverse environmental impacts. In this study, a series of measurements were conducted over three growing seasons to assess variability in a 0.55 ha pear orchard located in central Greece. Soil ECa was measured using EM38 sensor, while soil samples were taken from a grid 17 × 8 m and analysed for texture, pH, P, K, Mg, CaCO3, and organic matter content. Data analysis indicated that most of the nutrients were at sufficient levels. Soil and yield maps showed considerable variability while fruit quality presented small variations across the orchard. Yield fluctuations were observed, possibly due to climatic conditions. Prescription maps were developed for nitrogen variable rate application (VRA for two years based on the replacement of the nutrients removed by the crop. VRA application resulted in 56% and 50% reduction of N fertiliser compared to uniform application.

  2. INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION BETWEEN NATIVE AND EXOTIC FRUIT FLY PARASITOIDSIN MIXED ORCHARDS IN MACEIO, ALAGOAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAKELINE MARIA DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of the release and establishment of the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and its interspecific competitive relationship with native fruit fly parasitoids in organic and conventional orchards in Maceio, State of Alagoas, Brazil. The exotic parasitoids were reared in the Radio - Entomology Laboratory of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, and released (112,350 individuals between five and eight days old in orchards from June 8 to July12, 2013.Fruit samples were collected randomly every week during one year to assess the D. longicaudata recaptured from plants and fallen fruits on the ground, which were taken to the Entomology Laboratory of the CECA - UFAL, classified and individually placed in plastic containers, containing a layer of 1 cm of sand for pupation of the host larvae. The pupae, obtained after 10 days, were placed in Petri dishes with a layer of sand until the emergence of adults, which were then kept in plastic microtubes, containing ethanol 70%. The release of exotic parasitoids did not displace native species. The same species were found before and after the release in both cultures: Doryctobracon areolatus , Asobara anastrephae , Utetes anastrephae and Opius bellus (Braconidae, Aganaspis pelleranoi (Figitidae and individuals of the Pteromalidae family. One year after the last release, 44 individuals of the exotic parasitoid were found, showing its establishment in the studied areas.

  3. Simple and Rapid Quantification of Total Carotenoids in Lyophilized Apricots (Prunus armeniaca L. by Means of Reflectance Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitta Ficzek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS and reflectance colorimetry are suggested as new tools for the analysis of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricot powders. The data obtained by these two techniques from seven apricot cultivars were compared to those acquired by spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Best correlations were found between the total carotenoid (TC content (obtained by VIS spectrophotometry: 1.2–3.4 mg per 100 g of fresh mass and colorimetric index a* (a* represents the redness of the investigated sample, as well as either argon-ion laser- or xenon-lamp-based PAS. In all three cases linear correlations were comparable. However, according to the sensitivity and precision data, expressed via limit of detection (LOD and measurement repeatability, the Xe-lamp-based PAS is a preferred approach, followed by colorimetric index a* and Ar-ion laser PAS. Both PAS methods exhibit practically the same Pearson's correlation coefficient (R=0.987 and R=0.991 values. Nevertheless, residual sum of squares (RSS and residual standard deviation of the linear regression (sy/x differ markedly. For Xe-lamp-based PAS these parameters were much lower than in the case of Ar-ion laser PAS. Likewise, analysis imprecision amounted to relative standard deviation (RSD of 1–3 % for Xe-lamp PAS and 2–6 % for Ar-ion laser PAS. On the other hand, as expected, the calibration sensitivity achieved for the PAS signal induced by an Ar-ion laser at 481 nm was substantially higher than that of a Xe-lamp at 470 nm. Nevertheless, according to much lower sy/x, the corresponding LOD for Xe-lamp PAS was still two times lower than that of Ar-ion-based laser PAS (0.59 vs. 1.10 mg per 100 g. Unlike this, Ar-ion laser PAS showed more favourable instrumental precision and standard error of the weighed mean when compared to the Xe-lamp PAS (0.1–0.6 and 0.1–0.3 % vs. 0.5–8.0 and 0.4–1.7 %, respectively. As far as colorimetric indices are

  4. Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) abundance and seasonal flight activity in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and woodlands in five eastern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, J C; Leskey, T C; Walgenbach, J F; Klingeman, W E; Kain, D P; Zhang, A

    2009-06-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 +/- 644 and 3095 +/- 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, exceeding captures at urban sites by 16 and 13 times and at woodland sites by 210 and 206 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Mean total captures at urban sites exceeded those in woodland habitats by 13 and 16 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The mean duration (wk) of the flight period did not differ significantly between apple orchards (22.6 +/- 0.6 SE) and urban sites (20.3 +/- 1.2 SE). The onset of flight was somewhat later in New York (around early June) than further south (around early to mid-May), but moth captures continued into October in all states. Captures in apple orchards and at urban sites with higher populations were essentially continuous throughout the flight period, with substantial weekly fluctuations, and tended to show a bimodal pattern with peaks from late May through mid-July and from late August through mid-September. Captures at woodland sites tended to occur predominantly from mid-May through about mid-June and were very sporadic thereafter.

  5. Degree-day model for timing insecticide applications to control Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in loblolly pine seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Gary L. DeBarr; Julie C. Weatherby; Larry R. Barber; C. Wayne Berisford

    2002-01-01

    Because Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) is a key pest in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceac), seed orchards in the southeastern United States, improved timing of insecticide applications would be valuable for its control. To time two fenvalerate (Pydrin® 2.4 EC) applications we tested four variations of a degree day model that...

  6. Five methods to interpret field measurements of energy fluxes over a micro-sprinkler-irrigated mango orchard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De C. Teixeira, A.H.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Energy balance measurements were carried out in a mango orchard during two growing seasons in the semi-arid region of Brazil. The actual evapotranspiration (ET) was acquired by eddy correlation (EC) and Bowen ratio energy balance (BR) techniques. The daily energy balance closure in the EC

  7. Heavy metals in apple orchard soils and fruits and their health risks in Liaodong Peninsula, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Cheng, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in soils and fruits and their possible human health risk in apple orchards of Liaodong Peninsula-a well-known fruit-producing area of China. The soil pollution index (PI) and health risk assessment methods (daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI)) were employed to explore the soil pollution levels and the potential health hazards of heavy metals in fruits. The results showed that all orchard soils were with low PI values (PI ≤1) for Cd and Zn, while 2.78 and 5.56% of the soil samples exceeded the allowable levels of Cr and Cu for orchard soil, respectively. The Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations for the apple flesh samples were all lower than the national maximum permissible concentrations. While 6.34% of apple peel samples for Cd, 76.5% of apple peel samples and 65.6% of apple flesh samples for Cr, and 28.1% of apple peel samples for Zn exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. Furthermore, both the DIM and the HRI values for all the apple flesh samples were within the safe limits, indicating that no health risk was found for heavy metals in the fruits of the study area. In order to protect the consumers from fruits that might cause health risks, results from this study suggested that the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be conducted for the orchards of Liaodong Peninsula.

  8. Compaction of loamy soils due to tractor traffic in vineyards and orchards and its effect on infiltration in southern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck, van S.J.E.; Asch, van T.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Viticulture and fruit culture in Mediterranean areas demand frequent tractor traffic in vineyards and orchards for tillage and for the application of herbicides and pesticides, resulting in soil compaction. The aim of this study was to investigate theextent of soil compaction and its effect on

  9. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Allen, Herbert E.

    2014-01-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods

  10. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  11. Interspecific hybridization and inbreeding effect in seed from a Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clonal orchard in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campinhos Eduardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We used allozyme markers to estimate the amount of natural hybridization between Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla in a 7.4-hectare commercial hybrid-seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This orchard was planted in 1982 using a honeycomb design, with each hexagonal plot containing one E. grandis tree surrounded by six E. urophylla trees. There were 267 replicated hexagonal plots in the orchard. Seeds were harvested from the E. grandis clone only. The multilocus outcrossing rate estimated for the E. grandis clone averaged 70.2%, ranging from 33.0 to 99.0% among individual trees. Contaminant pollination, inferred from progeny genotypes containing alleles not present in the seven parental clones, accounted for 14.4% of the hybrid seed. Contaminant pollen was attributed to neighboring eucalyptus stands isolated from the orchard by a 400-m wide belt of native forest. Inbred and hybrid progenies were identified by their allozyme genotypes and transplanted to the field. Field growth of inbred progeny was 30% lower than that of hybrid plants at two and three years of age.

  12. Environmental impact of introducing plant covers in the taluses of orchard terraces: implications for erosion and agricultural runoff control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Pleguezuelo, C.R.; Duran Zuazo, V.H.; Francia Martinez, J.R.; Martin Peinado, F.J.; Graaff, de J.; Muriel Fernandez, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    South-eastern Spain, and in particular the coastal areas of Granada and Malaga, feature a large area under subtropical crops, with orchards established on terraces built along the slopes of the mountainous areas. The climate, characterized by periodically heavy rainfall, variable in space and time,

  13. Energetic Materials Effects on Essential Soil Processes: Decomposition of Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Litter in Soil Contaminated with Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    availabilities of their respective food sources (bacteria and fungi ), were also unaffected-or-increasing in soil with CL-20 treatments. This is...ENERGETIC MATERIALS EFFECTS ON ESSENTIAL SOIL PROCESSES: DECOMPOSITION OF ORCHARD...GRASS (DACTYLIS GLOMERATA) LITTER IN SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH ENERGETIC MATERIALS ECBC-TR-1199 Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini

  14. Association of Xylella fastidiosa with Yield Loss and Altered Fruit Quality in a Naturally Infected Rabbiteye Blueberry Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a number of plants in the southeastern United States, including southern highbush blueberry, but little was known concerning its potential impact in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum). In a naturally infected orchard in Louisiana, mean yields of X. fastidi...

  15. Impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna living in bird nests built in nestboxes in pear and apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lise; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Lavigne, Claire; Galès, Mathieu; Buronfosse, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Pesticide applications have a strong impact on biodiversity in agroecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna of Parus major nests built within nestboxes installed in orchards. Unlike many studied groups, these arthropod communities are not in direct contact with pesticide sprays (on account of their being sheltered by nestboxes) and are also unable to move away from the treated area. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence and the taxonomic and ecological diversities of arthropodofauna sampled in the nests and assessed the extent to which the whole and nest-specific arthropodofauna were affected by pest control strategies. Sixteen different insect and arachnid Primary Taxonomic Groups (PTGs, order level or below) were found in nests. The best represented PTGs (≥10% occurrence in years 2007 and 2008) were Psocoptera (Insecta, detritivorous/saprophagous), detritivorous/saprophagous Astigmata (Acari) and hematophagous Mesostigmata (Acari). Pest control strategies had a large impact on the prevalence of arthropods in nests, with higher proportions of nests hosting arthropods in organic orchards than in conventional orchards and with intermediate proportions in nests in Integrated Pest Management orchards. In contrast, pest control strategies had no significant effect on the composition of the arthropod communities when only nests hosting nidicolous arthropods were considered.

  16. Water availability in almond orchards on marl soils in southeast Spain: The role of evaporation and runoff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerkerk, A.; van Wesemael, B.; Cammeraat, E.

    2008-01-01

    Clean sweeping (i.e., frequent and shallow tillage in orchards) is a common practice in semi-arid areas. A potential drawback in dry areas is that the tree roots cannot access the water in the plough layer. Our objective was to quantify the loss of water by evaporation and the loss or gain by

  17. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  18. Distribution and incidence of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus VCG in tree crop orchards in California: a strategy for identifying potential antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify predominant isolates for potential use as biocontrol agents, Aspergillus flavus isolates collected soils of almond, pistachio and fig orchard in the Central Valley of California were tested for their membership to 16 atoxigenic vegetative compatibility groups(VCGs), including YV36, the V...

  19. Fragmented habitats of traditional fruit orchards are important for dead wood-dependent beetles associated with open canopy deciduous woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The conservation of traditional fruit orchards might be considered to be a fashion, and many people might find it difficult to accept that these artificial habitats can be significant for overall biodiversity. The main aim of this study was to identify possible roles of traditional fruit orchards for dead wood-dependent (saproxylic) beetles. The study was performed in the Central European landscape in the Czech Republic, which was historically covered by lowland sparse deciduous woodlands. Window traps were used to catch saproxylic beetles in 25 traditional fruit orchards. The species richness, as one of the best indicators of biodiversity, was positively driven by very high canopy openness and the rising proportion of deciduous woodlands in the matrix of the surrounding landscape. Due to the disappearance of natural and semi-natural habitats (i.e., sparse deciduous woodlands) of saproxylic beetles, orchards might complement the functions of suitable habitat fragments as the last biotic islands in the matrix of the cultural Central European landscape.

  20. Influence of Nest Box Color and Release Sites on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Reproductive Success in a Commercial Almond Orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Allan, Matthew J; Wardell, Gordon I; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2014-12-01

    Intensively managed, commercial orchards offer resources for managed solitary bees within agricultural landscapes and provide a means to study bee dispersal patterns, spatial movement, nest establishment, and reproduction. In 2012, we studied the impact of 1) the color of nest boxes covaried with four nest box density treatments and 2) the number of bee release sites covaried with two nest box density treatments on the reproductive success of Osmia lignaria Say in a California almond orchard pollinated by a mixture of O. lignaria and Apis mellifera L. Nest box color influenced the number of nests, total cells, and cells with male and female brood. More nests and cells were produced in light blue nest boxes than in orange or yellow nest boxes. The covariate nest box density also had a significant effect on brood production. The number of release sites did not affect O. lignaria nesting and reproduction, but the number of cavities in nest boxes influenced reproduction. Overall, the color of nest boxes and their distribution, but not the number of release sites, can greatly affect O. lignaria nest establishment and reproductive success in a commercial almond orchard. The ability to locate nesting sites in a homogenous, large orchard landscape may also be facilitated by the higher frequency of nest boxes with low numbers of cavities, and by the ability to detect certain nest box colors that best contrast with the blooming trees. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.