WorldWideScience

Sample records for drip condition testing

  1. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J. C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L. A.; Wolf, S. F.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.

    1998-09-18

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO{sub 2}. With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO

  2. Drip and Mate Operations Acting in Test Tube Systems and Tissue-like P systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf; 10.4204/EPTCS.11.8

    2009-01-01

    The operations drip and mate considered in (mem)brane computing resemble the operations cut and recombination well known from DNA computing. We here consider sets of vesicles with multisets of objects on their outside membrane interacting by drip and mate in two different setups: in test tube systems, the vesicles may pass from one tube to another one provided they fulfill specific constraints; in tissue-like P systems, the vesicles are immediately passed to specified cells after having undergone a drip or mate operation. In both variants, computational completeness can be obtained, yet with different constraints for the drip and mate operations.

  3. Secondary salinization and evapotranspiration under mulched drip irrigation condition in Tarim River basin of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Heping

    2013-04-01

    The secondary salinization induced by irrigation has been presented as a crucial threat to agriculture all over the world, especially in semi-arid and arid regions. Mulched drip irrigation (MDI), as a new micro-irrigation approach incorporating surface drip irrigation method and film mulching technique, has been widely applied in water scarce regions including Tarim River basin of northwestern China. However, salts are likely to build up in the surface soil due to the deficient leaching water in such an irrigation condition. To explore this new kind of secondary salinization issue, the oasis eco-hydrology experimental research station were established in 2008 in a cotton field of Xinjiang, northwestern China. More than 40,000 soil samples were collected to monitor soil moisture and salinity condition within the 1.5 meter depth. The patterns of soil salinity distribution under MDI along the horizontal direction as well as vertical direction have been explored. The results did show that secondary salinization tends to occur in the experimental field under mulched drip irrigation, and winter flush could leach most soil salt in the root zone into groundwater and keep salt balance to mitigate the soil salinization. Meanwhile, soil salt always migrates with the soil water flux such as irrigation and groundwater recharge. Therefore the understanding of water balance is of great importance for estimating soil salinity accumulation, of which evapotranspiration (ET) is the key process, especially in the semi-arid and arid area. In our study, in order to quantify the relation between salinity balance and water balance, ET were derived from a range of measurement systems including eddy covariance, soil water budget (gravimetric methods, Hydra probe, TDT probe and groundwater table sensor, et al.), sap flow and portable photosynthetic system during cotton growing period. Our study is unique in its focus on ET scale issue ranging from leaf and plant scale to field. The up

  4. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections.

  5. A coupled model of soil water-heat-solute movement under the mulched drip irrigation condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Gao, L.; Hu, H.

    2010-12-01

    : The mulched drip irrigation (MDI), first developed in northwestern part of China (Xinjiang Province) in the cotton field in 1996, can obtain higher yield while at the lower cost of water consumption and thus becomes popular rapidly. However, it has the potential risk of salinizing the arable soil. Also, plastic film can alter the energy balance at the ground surface and invoke the regime shifting of soil heat transfer. It is, therefore, necessary to simulate the inter-related movement of water, heat, and dissolvable solute in the soil under the MDI condition for the purpose of sustainable agricultural production as well as of climate change issue. With the different boundary condition and irrigation rate, the transportation and distribution features of water-heat-salt under the MDI condition are significantly different from those under the other irrigation methods. The existing tools such as HYDRUS and VS2DH(T) could not set up the special boundary condition relevant to MDI, e.g., the moving ponded area. A new two-dimensional numerical model of Richard’s equation and Convection-Dispersion equations was developed which coupled soil water, solute, and heat together. For the homogenous and isotropic porous media, the soil water-heat-solute movement under the MDI condition is considered as 2D problem. The Richards and solute convection-diffusive equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) through spatial semi-discretization, and so do the corresponding boundary conditions. The resultant ODEs are solved using a state-of-the-art solver, CVODE developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The model is validated against the numerical examples as well as the field data. The results show the high numerical efficiency, the high simulation accuracy, and the flexibility of the model to mimic changing boundary conditions. Key words: numerical model, Richard’s equation, Convection-Diffusive equation, CVODE

  6. Design development and testing of a solar PV pump based drip system for orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.C.; Singh, A.K.; Ansari, S.; Vyas, S.K.; Dave, B.K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    A Solar Photovoltaic (PV) pump operated drip irrigation system has been designed and developed for growing orchards in arid region considering different design parameters like pumps size, water requirements, the diurnal variation in the pressure of the pump due to change in irradiance and pressure compensation in the drippers. The system comprising a PV pump with 900 W{sub p} PV array and 800 W dc motor-pump mono-block, microfilter, main and sub-mains and three open-able low-pressure compensating drippers on each plant was field tested. The emission uniformity was observed to be 92-94% with discharge of 3.8 l/h in the pressure range of 70-100 kPa provided by the pump and thus the system could irrigate some 1 ha area within 2 h. Based on the performance of the PV pump and the drip system, it was inferred that about 5 ha area of orchard could be covered. The projected benefit-cost ratio for growing pomegranate orchards with such a system was evaluated to be above 2 even with the costly PV pump and therefore the system was considered to be an appropriate technology for the development of arid region. (Author)

  7. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genes expression in biofilms cultured under static conditions and in a drip-flow apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Yannick D N; Deslandes, Vincent; Jacques, Mario

    2013-05-31

    analyses indicated that the formation of a biofilm under low-shear force requires a different sub-set of genes than a biofilm grown under static conditions. The drip-flow apparatus may represent the better in vitro model to investigate biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae.

  8. Sensing water from subsurface drip irrigation laterals: In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of soil water dynamics in the root zone under subsurface drip irrigated (SDI) is complicated by the three dimensional nature of water fluxes from drip emitters plus the fluxes, if any, of water from precipitation. In addition, soil water sensing systems may differ in their operating...

  9. Seasonal variations of cave conditions and drip water stable isotopes from a monitoring study of Raccoon Mountain Caverns, Tennessee, and its implications in interpreting speleothem record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, C. L.; Gordon, R. D.; Feng, W.; Allard, J.

    2015-12-01

    A two-year monitoring study at Raccoon Mountain Caverns near Chattanooga, Tennessee was carried out in an attempt to establish quantitative relationships between climate signals and drip water stable isotopes for interpreting speleothem paleoclimate records from the cave. Eight field trips were made from Jan. 2014 to Jun. 2015, during which cave meteorological conditions (RH, temperature and cave air CO2 concentration) and drip rate were measured for 5 sites inside the cave. 63 cave drip and pool water samples were collected and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18O and δD values). Cave air temperature varied throughout the study period, the temporal variations ranged at different sites from 2 to 8.4 °C (the greatest variation was observed at sites that are closer to the entrance or surface). These are significantly less than outside temperatures range of 24 °C, but more than observed in other monitored caves. Elevated cave-air CO2 concentration (3200 ppm) and slow drip rate during the summer indicated slowed or stalled growth of calcite. The overall range of δ18O values were -7.1‰ to -4.5‰. A δD vs δ18O diagram yields a slope of 6.1, which falls within the normal range of 6-8 for local Meteoric Water Line. The value is slightly above Global Meteoric Water Line, indicating lack of evaporative effect. Throughout the study period, the δ18O values varied from 0.6 ‰ at some sites to 1.9‰ at others. The largest changes were likely due to the close proximity of collection sites to the surface precipitation. Spatially, for samples collected at each cave trip, different sites displayed variations of δ18O values from 0‰ to 1.7‰. The difference could be attributed to different type of drip sites with varying types of flow paths rainwater takes to the drip sites. The significant seasonal shift of drip water δ18O values and growth conditions indicate importance of consideration of seasonality in interpreting speleothem δ18O record

  10. A comparison of methods for determining the cotton field evapotranspiration and its components under mulched drip irrigation conditions: photosynthesis system, sap flow, and eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-scale, multi-technique study was conducted to measure evapotranspiration and its components in a cotton field under mulched drip irrigation conditions in northwestern China. Three measurement techniques at different scales were used: photosynthesis system (leaf scale), sap flow (plant scale), and eddy covariance (field scale). The experiment was conducted from July to September 2012. For upscaling the evapotranspiration from the leaf to the plant scale, an approach that incorporated the canopy structure and the relationships between sunlit and shaded leaves was proposed. For upscaling the evapotranspiration from the plant to the field scale, an approach based on the transpiration per unit leaf area was adopted and modified to incorporate the temporal variability in the relationships between the leaf area and the stem diameter. At the plant scale, the estimate of the transpiration based on the photosynthesis system with upscaling is slightly higher (18%) than that obtained by sap flow. At the field scale, the estimate of the transpiration obtained by upscaling the estimate based on sap flow measurements is also systematically higher (10%) compared to that obtained through eddy covariance during the cotton open boll growth stage when soil evaporation can be neglected. Nevertheless, the results derived from these three distinct methods show reasonable consistency at the field scale, which indicates that the upscaling approaches are reasonable and valid. Based on the measurements and the upscaling approaches, the evapotranspiration components were analyzed under mulched drip irrigation. During the cotton flower and bolling stages in July and August, the evapotranspiration are 3.94 and 4.53 mm day-1, respectively. The proportion of transpiration to evapotranspiration reaches 87.1% before drip irrigation and 82.3% after irrigation. The high water use efficiency is principally due to the mulched film above the drip pipe, the low soil water content in the inter

  11. Effects of Drip System Uniformity and Irrigation Amount on Water and Salt Distributions in Soil Under Arid Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hong-jie; LI Jiu-sheng; LI Yan-feng

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of water and salt in soil were monitored in the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons of cotton to evaluate the salinity risk of soil under drip irrigation in arid environments for different management practices of drip system uniformity and irrigation amount. In the experiments, three Christiansen uniformity coefficients (CU) of approximately 65, 80, and 95%(referred to as low, medium, and high uniformity, respectively) and three irrigation amounts of 50, 75, and 100%of full irrigation were used. The distribution of the soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity (ECb) was monitored continuously with approximately equally spaced frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensors located along a dripline. Gravimetric samples of soil were collected regularly to determine the distribution of soil salinity. A great fluctuation in CU of water content and ECb at 60 cm depth was observed for the low uniformity treatment during the irrigation season, while a relatively stable variation pattern was observed for the high uniformity treatment. The ECb CU was substantially lower than the water content CU and its value was greatly related to the water content CU and the initial ECb CU. The spatial variation of seasonal mean soil water content and seasonal mean soil bulk electrical conductivity showed a high dependence on the variation pattern of emitter discharge rate along a dripline for the low and medium uniformity treatments. A greater irrigation amount produced a significantly lower soil salinity at the end of the irrigation season, while the influence of the system uniformity on the soil salinity was insignificant at a probability level of 0.1. In arid regions, the determination of the target drip irrigation system uniformity should consider the potential salinity risk of soil caused by nonuniform water application as the influence of the system uniformity on the distribution of the soil salinity was progressively strengthened during the growing season of crop.

  12. Blood drop size in passive dripping from weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaliuk, N; Jermy, M C; Morison, K; Stotesbury, T; Taylor, M C; Williams, E

    2013-05-10

    Passive dripping, the slow dripping of blood under gravity, is responsible for some bloodstains found at crime scenes, particularly drip trails left by a person moving through the scene. Previous work by other authors has established relationships, under ideal conditions, between the size of the stain, the number of spines and satellite stains, the roughness of the surface, the size of the blood droplet and the height from which it falls. To apply these relationships to infer the height of fall requires independent knowledge of the size of the droplet. This work aims to measure the size of droplets falling from objects representative of hand-held weapons. Pig blood was used, with density, surface tension and viscosity controlled to fall within the normal range for human blood. Distilled water was also tested as a reference. Drips were formed from stainless steel objects with different roughnesses including cylinders of diameter between 10 and 100 mm, and flat plates. Small radius objects including a knife and a wrench were also tested. High speed images of the falling drops were captured. The primary blood drop size ranged from 4.15±0.11 mm up to 6.15±0.15 mm (depending on the object), with the smaller values from sharper objects. The primary drop size correlated only weakly with surface roughness, over the roughness range studied. The number of accompanying droplets increased with the object size, but no significant correlation with surface texture was observed. Dripping of blood produced slightly smaller drops, with more accompanying droplets, than dripping water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of surface and subsurface drip irrigation regimes with saline water on yield and water use efficiency of potato in arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia El Mokh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on a sandy soil during spring of 2009 and autumn of 2010 in southern Tunisia for evaluating the effects of two drip irrigation methods and three irrigation regimes on soil moisture and salinity, yield and water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. The surface drip (SDI and subsurface drip (SSDI irrigation methods were used. Irrigation regimes consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI100, 60% (DI60 and 30% (DI30. FI100 was considered as full irrigation while DI60 and DI30 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Well water with an ECi of 7.0 dS/m was used for irrigation. Findings are globally consistent between the two experiments. Results show that soil moisture content and salinity were significantly affected by irrigation treatments and methods. Higher soil moisture content and lower soil salinity were maintained with SSDI than SDI for all irrigation treatments. For both irrigation methods, higher salinity and lower moisture content in the root zone are observed under DI60 and DI30 treatments compared to FI100. Potato yields were highest over two cropping periods for the SSDI method although no significant differences were observed with the SDI. Irrigation regimes resulted in significant difference in both irrigation methods on yield and its components. Yields were highest under FI100. Compared to FI100, considerable reductions in potato yields were observed under DI60 and DI30 deficit treatments resulting from a reduction in tubers number/m² and average tuber weight and size. Water use efficiency (WUE was found to vary significantly among irrigation methods and treatments and varied between 5.9 and 20.5 kg/m3. WUE of SSDI method had generally higher values than SDI. The lowest WUE values were observed for the FI100 treatment, while the highest values were obtained under DI30 treatment for both methods. SSDI method provides

  14. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource...... is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus...... for the drip irrigated okra crop was 269 mm compared to 379 mm for sprinkler. By adopting drip irrigation to okra, the seasonal crop water use could be reduced close to 30 %. From the results it is concluded that on rough textured sandy soil drip irrigation with frequent weekly fertigation resulted...

  15. Electronic route information panels (DRIPs).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Also in the Netherlands, the term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates whether there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination and how long they are. On certain locations DRIPS also give the estimated tr

  16. Drip Line Flushing with Chlorine May Not Be Effective in Reducing Bacterial Loads in Irrigation Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Mary Theresa; Marine, Sasha C; Everts, Kathryne L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-06-01

    Irrigation water distribution systems are used to supply water to produce crops, but the system may also provide a protected environment for the growth of human pathogens present in irrigation water. In this study, the effects of drip tape installation depth and sanitization on the microbial quality of irrigation groundwater were evaluated. Drip tape lines were installed on the soil surface or 5 or 10 cm below the soil surface. Water samples were collected from the irrigation source and the end of each drip line every 2 weeks over an 11-week period, and the levels of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, and enterococci were quantified. Half of the lines installed at each depth were flushed with sodium hypochlorite for 1 h during week 6 to achieve a residual of 10 ppm at the end of the line. There was a statistically significant (P = 0.01) effect of drip tape installation depth and sanitizer application on the recovery of E. coli, with increased levels measured at the 5-cm depth and in nonsanitized lines, although the levels were at the limit of detection, potentially confounding the results. There was no significant effect of drip tape depth on total coliforms, aerobic mesophiles, or enterococci. In contrast, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.01) in the recovery of total coliforms was recorded from the ends of lines that received chlorine. This may be indicative of shedding of cells owing to degradation of biofilms that formed on the inner walls of the lines. These findings emphasize the need to better understand conditions that may lead to corrosion and increases in bacterial loads inside drip lines during flushing. Recommendations to growers should suggest collecting groundwater samples for testing at the end of drip lines rather than at the source. Guidelines on flushing drip lines with chlorine may need to include water pH monitoring, a parameter that influences the corrosive properties of chlorine.

  17. Progress of research on the response of information of karst cave drip water to ground conditions%喀斯特洞穴滴水信息对地表环境响应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琦; 熊康宁; 吕小溪; 张乾柱; 付超凡

    2015-01-01

    By reviewing domestic and foreign research progress on the response of information of karst cave drip water to ground conditions,coupled with the research background of global climate change,karst envi-ronmental evolution and drip water's physical and chemical indicators,this paper divides the history of this research into three stages:initial stage,slow development stage and rapid growth stage.This paper also sys-tematically summarizes the research results and understandings of drip water's regular monitoring indicators, stable isotopes,major elements,trace elements,and so on.Meanwhile,it concluded the research progress of drip water's response to atmosphere,vegetation,soil and bedrock.It is suggested that the material re-source and the hydro-geochemical process of drip water should be explored,the research for drip's sensitivity to indicate environment should be enhanced,the environment response mechanism of drip's information should be deeply probed and comprehensive environment elements of cave systems should be monitored.It is also pointed out that the research on the rocky desertification by drip water's indicators remains relatively weak now,which should be the focused topic in the future.%通过系统回顾国内外喀斯特洞穴滴水信息对地表环境响应的研究进展,结合全球气候变化、喀斯特环境演变与滴水理化指标的研究发展背景,把该领域的研究发展历程划分为萌芽期、缓慢发展期和高速增长期3个阶段。对滴水常规监测指标、稳定同位素及常/微量元素等指标的研究成果与认识进行了系统归纳,并对滴水响应外界大气、地表植被、洞穴上覆土壤以及洞顶基岩等4方面的研究进展进行总结。认为应当探究滴水的物质来源及其水文地球化学过程,加强对滴水信息环境指示的敏感性研究,深入认识滴水信息的环境响应机制,对洞穴系统综合环境要素开展监测等,同时指出运用滴水

  18. Neutron drip transition in accreting and nonaccreting neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Chamel, N; Zdunik, J L; Haensel, P

    2015-01-01

    The neutron-drip transition in the dense matter constituting the interior of neutron stars generally refers to the appearance of unbound neutrons as the matter density reaches some threshold density $\\rho_\\textrm{drip}$. This transition has been mainly studied under the cold catalyzed matter hypothesis. However, this assumption is unrealistic for accreting neutron stars. After examining the physical processes that are thought to be allowed in both accreting and nonaccreting neutron stars, suitable conditions for the onset of neutron drip are derived and general analytical expressions for the neutron drip density and pressure are obtained. Moreover, we show that the neutron-drip transition occurs at lower density and pressure than those predicted within the mean-nucleus approximation. This transition is studied numerically for various initial composition of the ashes from X-ray bursts and superbursts using microscopic nuclear mass models.

  19. Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.; Cron, J.

    2000-03-29

    This design analysis has shown that, on a conceptual level, the emplacement of drip shields is feasible with current technology and equipment. A plan for drip shield emplacement was presented using a Drip Shield Transporter, a Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry, a locomotive, and a Drip Shield Gantry Carrier. The use of a Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry as an emplacement concept results in a system that is simple, reliable, and interfaces with the numerous other exising repository systems. Using the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System design as a basis for the drip shield emplacement concept proved to simplify the system by using existing equipment, such as the gantry carrier, locomotive, Electrical and Control systems, and many other systems, structures, and components. Restricted working envelopes for the Drip Shield Emplacement System require further consideration and must be addressed to show that the emplacement operations can be performed as the repository design evolves. Section 6.1 describes how the Drip Shield Emplacement System may use existing equipment. Depending on the length of time between the conclusion of waste emplacement and the commencement of drip shield emplacement, this equipment could include the locomotives, the gantry carrier, and the electrical, control, and rail systems. If the exisiting equipment is selected for use in the Drip Shield Emplacement System, then the length of time after the final stages of waste emplacement and start of drip shield emplacement may pose a concern for the life cycle of the system (e.g., reliability, maintainability, availability, etc.). Further investigation should be performed to consider the use of existing equipment for drip shield emplacement operations. Further investigation will also be needed regarding the interfaces and heat transfer and thermal effects aspects. The conceptual design also requires further design development. Although the findings of this analysis are accurate for the assumptions made

  20. Emitter clogging sensibility with increasing biofilm components under reclaimed water drip irrigation condition%再生水滴灌灌水器附生生物膜生长对堵塞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周博; 李云开; 裴旖婷; 杨培岭; 蒋银光

    2015-01-01

    Reclaimed water reused for agriculture has become one of the most effective ways to relieve water shortage and water pollution in China, especially on the North China Plain, and drip irrigation wasbelieved as the most appropriate way to use treated wastewater. Studies have verified that drip irrigation emitter clogging using reclaimed water was closely related to the formation and growing of biofilms those attached inside emitters. However, the exact effects of biofilms components’ increase on drip irrigation emitter clogging were not clear. Besides, the sensibility of emitter clogging degree to the increasing biofilms’ components as the system operated was also unknown. Based on these mentioned above, in this study, based on an on-site drip irrigation emitter clogging experiment using reclaimed water, which was conducted in the wastewater treatment plant, the emitters with seven different clogging degrees of 0, 20%, 35%, 50%, 65%, 80% and 100% were selected to reflect the growing process of biofilm, after the drip irrigation system accumulatively ran for 540 hours, and three kinds of key components (including Solid particles, Phospholipid fatty acids and Extracellular polymeric substances) of biofilms were tested, and then the sensitivity of emitter clogging degree to the increase of biofilms’ components during the whole operating was analyzed. The results showed that drip irrigation emitter clogging became more serious as biofilms’ components increased with the significant “S curve” relationship (R2> 0.92**, significant levela=0.01). Therefore, the sensitivity of emitter clogging degree to the increase of biofilms’ components showed obvious difference in different stages, with the variation trend of “sensitive - micro sensitive - extreme sensitive”. When emitter clogging degree was under 10%-15%, the biofilm growth would obviously enhance emitter clogging, while the formation of biofilms was mainly controlled by the adhesion and proliferation

  1. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource......, the main aim of our study was to explore the water sa ving potential of drip irrigation in order to save the shallow groundwater from over exploitation. A two season study (minor dry season, 2011 and major dry season, 2012) were carried out to determine the okra crop response to the following treatments: 1...... is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus...

  2. Application of drip irrigation technology for producing fruit of Salak ‘Gula Pasir’ (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir off season on dry land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Rai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Naturally, Salak Gula Pasir (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir is flowering every three months or four times a year, but only one or two flowering seasons that the flowers can develop into fruit. The condition causes Salak Gula Pasir is available in the market in a short period (only 2-3 months i.e. at the time of harvest (on-season from December to February. This seasonal nature of Salak Gula Pasir occurs because Salak Gula Pasir is planted on dry land where irrigation depends only on rainfall, and drought occurs when water is shortage so that the plant internal water content is low that causes a high failure development rate of flower to become fruit (fruit-set failure. This study was aimed to overcome the fruit-set failure by providing drip irrigation. Two treatments (with drip irrigation and without drip irrigation/control with sixteen replicates were tested at Salak Gula Pasir production centre (at Sibetan village, Bebandem District, of Karangasem Regency, Bali at two harvest seasons, i.e. Gadu (July and Sela II (October. The results showed that the plant provided with drip irrigation significantly yielded fruit-set percentage higher that that without drip irrigation, both in Gadu and Sela II seasons. The percentages of fruit-set in Gadu and Sela II seasons provided with drip irrigation were 75.30% and 93.13%, respectively, while those without drip irrigation were only 59.94% and 61.67%, respectively. The increase of fruit-set observed for drip irrigation treatment associated with the increase of leaf chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC of leaves, and leaf N, P, and K contents. The increase of fruit-set led to higher number of fruits and fruit weight per plant under drip irrigation than that without drip irrigation. Based on the results of this study, drip irrigation can be applied to produce Salak Gula Pasir planted out of season on dry land.

  3. Monitoring drip water isotope and element variability: A new device for automatic drip water collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Gilbert, M.-J.; Kwiecien, O.; Seifert, R.; Fleitmann, D.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding cave drip water elemental and stable isotope composition (δD and δ18O) are vital for interpreting climate proxy records derived from stalagmites as palaeoclimate archives. Delineating the temporal changes in drip water chemistry to climatic and environmental fluctuations (such as rainfall amount, degassing, bioactivity etc.) is even more important if calibration is attempted between climatic parameters and stalagmite proxy records. Monitoring of remote study sites has often been limited by the ability to regularly and manually collect drip water samples over an extended period of time. One important complication to be considered for stable isotope analysis is that sampling vials must be closed air-tight, in order to avoid post-sampling evaporation of the sampled water. To overcome these limitations we developed an automated and programmable sampling device that can collect 12 ml of drip water at pre-defined time intervals. A total of 49 samples can be collected in a turret over a period of up to one year. The device is powered by widely available C-cell batteries and works in cave environments with positive air temperature. The autosampler has been installed and tested in Waldheim Cave, Switzerland, where we collected water at 24h intervals. We present preliminary data for the winter period December 2011 to March 2012.

  4. Effect of hydraulic head and slope on water distribution uniformity of the IDE drip irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.; Reyes, Manuel R.; R. Yoder

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of the effect of topography and operating heads on the emission uniformity distribution in drip irrigation systems is important in water management and could serve as the basis for optimizing water-use efficiency and crop productivity. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of slope and hydraulic head on the water distribution uniformity of a low-cost drip irrigation system developed by International Development Enterprises (IDE). The drip system was tested for water dis...

  5. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua

    2004-09-07

    Hydrogen-induced cracking is characterized by the decreased ductility and fracture toughness of a material due to the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. Corrosion is the source of hydrogen generation. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, hydrogen-induced cracking may be a concern because the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this report is to analyze whether the drip shield will fail by hydrogen-induced cracking under repository conditions within 10,000 years after emplacement. Hydrogen-induced cracking is a scenario of premature failure of the drip shield. This report develops a realistic model to assess the form of hydrogen-induced cracking degradation of the drip shield under the hydrogen-induced cracking. The scope of this work covers the evaluation of hydrogen absorbed due to general corrosion and galvanic coupling to less noble metals (e.g., Stainless Steel Type 316 and carbon steels) under the repository conditions during the 10,000-year regulatory period after emplacement and whether the absorbed hydrogen content will exceed the critical hydrogen concentration value, above which the hydrogen-induced cracking is assumed to occur. This report also provides the basis for excluding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to hydrogen-induced cracking of the drip shield with particular emphasis on FEP 2.1.03.04.OB, hydride cracking of drip shields (DTN: M00407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). This report is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944]).

  6. Surface effects of Rayleigh-Taylor instability: Feedback between drip dynamics and crustal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Currie, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    For many continental plates, significant vertical motion of Earth's surface has occurred within the plate interior which can not be clearly linked to plate tectonic processes. For example, several craton areas exhibit anomalous basins, e.g., the Williston basin, Illinois basin and Michigan basin in North America. In orogenic belts, there are examples of local areas (~100 km wide) where the surface has undergone subsidence and then uplift of >1 km, such as the Arizaro basin (central Andes) and Wallowa Mountains (northeast Oregon). Given the near-circular shape of the surface deflection, it has been suggested that they may be related to gravitational foundering of dense lower lithosphere, i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor instability (or 'RT drip'). In order to investigate the surface effects of an RT drip, we use two methods: (1) 2D thermal-mechanical numerical models to study links between drip dynamics and crustal deformation and (2) a theoretical analysis of the crustal deformation induced by stresses from the RT drip. The numerical models consist of a continental lithosphere overlying a sublithospheric mantle. A high-density material is placed in the mantle lithosphere or lower crust to initiate a drip event, and a stress-free boundary condition allows the development of surface topography during model evolution. A reasonable range of crustal viscosity and thickness is tested to study the RT drip in different tectonic settings, from a cold craton to a hot orogen with thick crust. Four types of surface deflection are observed: (1) subsidence; (2) subsidence followed by uplift; (3) uplift; and (4) little deflection. When the crust is relatively strong or thin, the surface has a negative elevation, forming a basin. For a weak or thick crust, the RT drip induces crustal flow, leading to crustal thickening that can uplift the surface; an extremely weak crust decouples the surface and RT drip and the surface is unperturbed. Our theoretical analysis considers the surface

  7. Genotoxicological safety of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Hee Sub; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun [Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Hyuk [Dept. of Food Nutrion and Food Science, Woosong University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Although seafood cooking drips were the byproducts from the fishery industry it was known that the cooking drips had many nutrients and could be used as functional materials. Previously, the physiological properties of cooking drips were shown to be increased by a gamma irradiation. But, there was no report on the safe for the genotoxicity on the irradiation. In this study, the genotoxicity of the cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleni and Thunnus thynnus was evaluated by the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay) and the SOS chromotest. The results from all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest also indicated that the gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips did not show any mutagenicity. Therefore, this study indicated that gamma irradiation could be used for the hygiene, functional properties and processibility of seafood cooking drips.

  8. Evolution of the spherical cavity radius generated around a subsurface drip emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The emitter discharge in subsurface drip irrigation can be affected by soil properties. A positive pressure develops at the emitter outlet where a spherical cavity is assumed to form. In steady-state conditions, the pressure in the soil relates to soil hydraulic properties, the emitter discharge, and the cavity radius. This pressure in the soil is very sensitive to the cavity radius. In this paper, the development of the cavity around the emitter outlet was measured for various emitter discharges in laboratory tests carried out in containers with uniform loamy soils. A trend between soil pressure and emitter discharge was established that illustrates the performance of buried emitters in the field. Its application to the prediction of water distribution in subsurface drip irrigation units and its effect on the estimation of irrigation performance are also shown.

  9. Effect of drip and surface irrigation on yield, water- use-efficiency and economics of capsicum (c apsicum annum l. Grown under mulch and non mulch conditions in eastern coastal India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Paul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiments was conducted on the loamy sand soil at Bhubaneswar in eastern coastal of India for two years (2007-08 and 2008-09 to evaluate the yield, water-use-efficiency and economic feasibility of capsicum grown under drip and surface irrigation with non-mulch and black Linear Low Density Poly Ethylene (LLDPE plastic mulch. Actual evapotranspiration for capsicum crop was estimated using modified pan evaporation method. The net irrigation volume (V was determined after deducting the effective rainfall. Effect of three irrigation levels viz. VD, 0.8 VD and 0.6 VD (VD = full irrigation volume with drip in conjunction with LLDPE mulch and no mulch were studied on biometric and yield response of capsicum crop. The results of surface irrigation were compared with drip irrigation system under no mulch and in conjunction with LLDPE mulch. The study indicated better plant growth, more number of fruits per plant and enhancement in the yield under drip irrigation system with LLDPE mulch. The highest yield (28.7 t/ha was recorded under 100% net irrigation volume with drip irrigation (VD and plastic mulching as compared to other treatments. This system increased the yield and net seasonal income by 57 % and 54 % respectively as compared to conventional surface irrigation without mulch with a benefit cost ratio of 2.01. The benefit cost ratio was found to be the highest (2.44 for the treatment VD without mulch. Drip irrigation system could increase the yield by 28 % over surface irrigation even in the absence of mulch. Similarly, LLDPE mulch alone could increase the yield by 13 % even in the absence of drip irrigation system.

  10. 40 CFR 53.21 - Test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 § 53.21 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of the test analyzer shall...-balance type. This recorder shall have a chart width of at least 25 centimeters, chart speeds up to 10 cm..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 53.21 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of the test...

  11. Yield Response and Economics of Shallow Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  12. Technical and economical evaluation of tape drip and drip line irrigation systems in a strawberry greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra HOSSEINIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in a strawberry greenhouse to examine the technical and the economical evaluation of two drip irrigation systems including the tape and the drip line in the northern part of Iran. The result showed that all of the technical indices with tape were higher than drip line, and due to statistical analysis reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05. Yield and water productivity (WP with tape were higher than drip line (P < 0.05. Benefit per drop (BPD and net benefit per drop (NBPD with tape were higher than drip line. Net present value, internal rate of capital return and benefit to cost ratio in drip line were higher than tape. In general, regarding technical evaluation tape was better than drip line, besides according to the economical evaluation the drip ­lines were better than tape.

  13. Effects of Salt Angle Grass on Soil Salinity Under the Condition of Drip Irrigation within Salt Scope%盐角草对滴灌条件下积盐范围内盐分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆哈西

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The wel peak, deposited salt range and salt absorption ability of salt angle grass were determined, and absorption deposited salt was controlled within the scope. [Method] Taking Ph 7. 9 water as irrigation water, the change process of moist soil body was studied under the condition of different initial moisture content, soil bulk density and flow rate. [ Result] salt angle grass aborbed part of Na * and Cl-to inhibit the salinity- The total salt content within the soilt depth of 20 cm dropped 0. 12 g/kg. F Conclusion ] The research could provide ihe basis for the control of soil salinity of the fringe of the wetting front under the condition of drip irrigation.%[目的] 确定湿润峰、积盐范围及盐角草吸盐能力,控制积盐范围内盐分.[方法] 以pH 7.9的水作为灌溉水源,在不同土壤初始含水率、土壤容重及滴共流量的条件下研究土壤湿润体的变化过程.[结果] 盐角草吸走部分Na+、Cl-抑制盐分,积盐范围内土深20cm处的总含盐量降低了0.12 g/kg.[结论] 该研究可以为有效地控制滴灌条件下湿润锋边缘积累盐分提供依据.

  14. Tomato Root Response to Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUGE Yu-Ping; ZHANG Xu-Dong; ZHANG Yu-Long; LI Jun; YANG Li-Juan; HUANG Yi; LIU Ming-Da

    2004-01-01

    Four depth treatments of subsurface drip irrigation pipes were designated as 1) at 20,2) 30 and 3) 40 cm depths all with a drip-proof flumes underneath,and 4) at 30 cm without a drip-proof flume to investigate the responses of a tomato root system to different technical parameters of subsurface drip irrigation in a glass greenhouse,to evaluate tomato growth as affected by subsurface drip irrigation,and to develop an integrated subsurface drip irrigation method for optimal tomato yield and water use in a glass greenhouse. Tomato seedlings were planted above the subsurface drip irrigation pipe. Most of the tomato roots in treatment 1 were found in the top 0-20 cm soil depth with weak root activity but with yield and water use efficiency (WUE) significantly less (P ---- 0.05) than treatment 2; root activity and tomato yield were significantly higher (P = 0.05) with treatment 3 compared to treatment 1; and with treatment 2 the tomato roots and shoots grew harmoniously with root activity,nutrient uptake,tomato yield and WUE significantly higher (P= 0.05) or as high as the other treatments. These findings suggested that subsurface drip irrigation with pipes at 30 cm depth with a drip-proof flume placed underneath was best for tomato production in greenhouses. In addition,the irrigation interval should be about 7-8 days and the irrigation rate should be set to 225 m3 ha-1 per event.

  15. 膜下滴灌条件下玉米灌溉制度试验研究%Study on the Experiment of Corn Irrigation System under Film Drip Irrigation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚新; 王忠波; 张忠学; 李欢

    2016-01-01

    Regard Maize as experimental material and performance the experiment of irrigation system about corn field un-der the condition of drip irrigation under mulch, change its irrigation quota, irrigation times, then make different experi-mental processing, through observing rainfall, soil water content and analysis water consumption of maize by using water balance equation.Measuring production of mature maize and obtain a series of yield indexes, analysis the effect of irriga-tion system on yield indexes.through studying the yield, water consumption and irrigation water and get its water use effi-ciency, irrigation water productivity and comprehensive equity consideration so as to determine optimal irrigation system.%采用玉米作为试验材料,进行大田玉米的膜下滴灌灌溉制度试验研究,改变其灌溉定额、灌水次数,设置不同的试验处理,观测降雨量、土壤含水量,运用水量平衡方程分析玉米耗水量。对收获的玉米进行考种与测产,得到一系列产量指标;分析灌溉制度对产量指标的影响。通过分析产量、耗水量及灌溉水量,从而得到水分利用效率、灌溉水生产效率,综合考虑最终确定最优的灌溉制度。

  16. Cointegration rank testing under conditional heteroskedasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders Christian; Taylor, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the properties of the conventional Gaussian-based cointegrating rank tests of Johansen (1996, Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models) in the case where the vector of series under test is driven by globally stationary, conditionally heteroskedastic...

  17. Verkeersveiligheidseffecten van Dynamische Route Informatie Panelen (DRIP's).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is, also in the Netherlands, used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates if there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination, how long they are, and sometimes what the estimated journey time is. This is in

  18. Conditional Reliability Coefficients for Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicewander, W Alan

    2017-04-06

    The most widely used, general index of measurement precision for psychological and educational test scores is the reliability coefficient-a ratio of true variance for a test score to the true-plus-error variance of the score. In item response theory (IRT) models for test scores, the information function is the central, conditional index of measurement precision. In this inquiry, conditional reliability coefficients for a variety of score types are derived as simple transformations of information functions. It is shown, for example, that the conditional reliability coefficient for an ordinary, number-correct score, X, is equal to, ρ(X,X'|θ)=I(X,θ)/[I(X,θ)+1] Where: θ is a latent variable measured by an observed test score, X; p(X, X'|θ) is the conditional reliability of X at a fixed value of θ; and I(X, θ) is the score information function. This is a surprisingly simple relationship between the 2, basic indices of measurement precision from IRT and classical test theory (CTT). This relationship holds for item scores as well as test scores based on sums of item scores-and it holds for dichotomous as well as polytomous items, or a mix of both item types. Also, conditional reliabilities are derived for computerized adaptive test scores, and for θ-estimates used as alternatives to number correct scores. These conditional reliabilities are all related to information in a manner similar-or-identical to the 1 given above for the number-correct (NC) score. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Colitis amebiasis with symptom of occasional dripped anal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandono, Hadi

    2007-01-01

    Colitis amebiasis is usually characterized by bloody and mucous diarrhea, abdominal pain and anal discomfort. However, there is unusual manifestation of colitis amebiasis, such as occasional dripped anal bleeding, which sometimes spouted. Therefore, we often do not suspect such symptoms for colitis amebiasis. Laboratory examination includes complete laboratory test, coagulation and hematologic test, ICT TBC and colonoscopy. The pathology anatomy examination reveals positive results of trophozoites. Treatment by using metronidazole tablet provides good result for this disease.

  20. Sequential monitoring with conditional randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Plamadeala, Victoria; 10.1214/11-AOS941

    2012-01-01

    Sequential monitoring in clinical trials is often employed to allow for early stopping and other interim decisions, while maintaining the type I error rate. However, sequential monitoring is typically described only in the context of a population model. We describe a computational method to implement sequential monitoring in a randomization-based context. In particular, we discuss a new technique for the computation of approximate conditional tests following restricted randomization procedures and then apply this technique to approximate the joint distribution of sequentially computed conditional randomization tests. We also describe the computation of a randomization-based analog of the information fraction. We apply these techniques to a restricted randomization procedure, Efron's [Biometrika 58 (1971) 403--417] biased coin design. These techniques require derivation of certain conditional probabilities and conditional covariances of the randomization procedure. We employ combinatoric techniques to derive t...

  1. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  2. Influence of Flame Retardants on the Melt Dripping Behaviour of Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Matzen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt flow and dripping of the pyrolysing polymer melt can be both a benefit and a detriment during a fire. In several small-scale fire tests addressing the ignition of a defined specimen with a small ignition source, well-adjusted melt flow and dripping are usually beneficial to pass the test. The presence of flame retardants often changes the melt viscosity crucially. The influence of certain flame retardants on the dripping behaviour of four commercial polymers, poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT, polypropylene (PP, polypropylene modified with ethylene-propylene rubber (PP-EP and polyamide 6 (PA 6, is analysed based on an experimental monitoring of the mass loss due to melt dripping, drop size and drop temperature as a function of the furnace temperature applied to a rod-shaped specimen. Investigating the thermal transition (DSC, thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition, as well as the viscosity of the polymer and collected drops completes the investigation. Different mechanisms of the flame retardants are associated with their influence on the dripping behaviour in the UL 94 test. Reduction in decomposition temperature and changed viscosity play a major role. A flow limit in flame-retarded PBT, enhanced decomposition of flame-retarded PP and PP-EP and the promotion of dripping in PA 6 are the salient features discussed.

  3. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  4. What determines the calcium concentration of speleothem-forming drip waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andy; Flemons, Ingrid; Andersen, Martin S.; Coleborn, Katie; Treble, Pauline C.

    2016-08-01

    Cave drip water calcium ion concentration is a primary determinant of speleothem deposition and growth rate. The factors that determine drip water calcium ion concentrations are the soil and vadose zone CO2 concentrations, and the hydrogeochemical evolution of the water from soil to cave. Here, we use a systematic literature review of cave drip water calcium concentrations, combined with PHREEQC equilibrium modelling, to investigate the global relationship between calcium concentration and surface climate. Our results are discussed in the context of understanding the climatic and environmental controls on drip water calcium concentration, speleothem growth rates and proxies of past climate and environmental change. We use an empirical, global soil CO2 concentration-temperature relationship to derive PHREEQC modelled cave drip water calcium concentrations. The global mean modelled drip water calcium concentration is close to that observed, but it over-predicts at high and low temperatures, and significantly under-predicts at temperate conditions. We hypothesise that closed system hydrochemical evolution due to water saturation is an important control on carbonate dissolution at colder temperatures. Under warmer conditions, for example temperate climates with a dry and hot or warm summer, seasonally-limited water availability can lead to: microbial and root respiration; wildfire; and prior calcite precipitation, all of which limit drip water calcium concentrations. In temperate climates with no dry season, higher CO2 concentrations than modelled from soil values are necessary to explain the observed drip water calcium values, which we propose is from an additional source of CO2 from microbial activity and root respiration in the vadose zone during open system hydrochemical evolution.

  5. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    leaching without compromising profits. Four replicate plots of each treatment with varying predefined and model-based (Daisy and Aquacrop crop model) irrigation and N fertilization levels were used in the study. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment-I, treatments consisted of one drip......The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P...

  6. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  7. Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The

  8. Testing for conditional multiple marginal independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Christopher R; Loughin, Thomas M

    2002-03-01

    Survey respondents are often prompted to pick any number of responses from a set of possible responses. Categorical variables that summarize this kind of data are called pick any/c variables. Counts from surveys that contain a pick any/c variable along with a group variable (r levels) and stratification variable (q levels) can be marginally summarized into an r x c x q contingency table. A question that may naturally arise from this setup is to determine if the group and pick any/c variable are marginally independent given the stratification variable. A test for conditional multiple marginal independence (CMMI) can be used to answer this question. Since subjects may pick any number out of c possible responses, the Cochran (1954, Biometrics 10, 417-451) and Mantel and Haenszel (1959, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 22, 719-748) tests cannot be used directly because they assume that units in the contingency table are independent of each other. Therefore, new testing methods are developed. Cochran's test statistic is extended to r x 2 x q tables, and a modified version of this statistic is proposed to test CMMI. Its sampling distribution can be approximated through bootstrapping. Other CMMI testing methods discussed are bootstrap p-value combination methods and Bonferroni adjustments. Simulation findings suggest that the proposed bootstrap procedures and the Bonferroni adjustments consistently hold the correct size and provide power against various alternatives.

  9. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Iwata

    Full Text Available Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough.

  10. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Toshiyuki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Ikegami, Koji; Marumo, Satoshi; Tanabe, Naoya; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Kamei, Junzo; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough.

  11. Conditional statistical inference with multistage testing designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitser, Robert J; Maris, Gunter

    2015-03-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how statistical inference from multistage test designs can be made based on the conditional likelihood. Special attention is given to parameter estimation, as well as the evaluation of model fit. Two reasons are provided why the fit of simple measurement models is expected to be better in adaptive designs, compared to linear designs: more parameters are available for the same number of observations; and undesirable response behavior, like slipping and guessing, might be avoided owing to a better match between item difficulty and examinee proficiency. The results are illustrated with simulated data, as well as with real data.

  12. Chaotic rhythms of a dripping faucet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Leidecker, Henning; Cahalan, Gabriel D.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted which showed that a leaky faucet can offer valuable insights on predicting fluid flow. In this experiment, a flow control and drop detector were connected to the printer port of an IBM PC, which computed and saved the time intervals using a program for droptime compiled with Turbo C. It is noted that the time intervals change from periodic to doubly periodic as the flow rate is increased and then to various forms of chaos, interrupted by windows of periodicity. A number of two- and three-dimensional plots are displayed and discussed. Attention is focused on one of the simpler plots which is approximately parabolic, where each successive time interval is a quadratic function of the preceding interval, with a steepness which depends upon the flow rate. It is shown that a single past analog can predict a dripping faucet with reasonable accuracy 7-10 drops ahead. While such methods are more difficult to apply in higher-dimensional systems, this experiment aids in understanding how fluid flow may be predicted even under conditions of unstable flows caused by increase in velocity.

  13. ENSO-cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian; Hankin, Stuart; Roach, Regina; Markowska, Monika; McDonald, Janece

    2016-11-01

    Speleothems (cave deposits), used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O) variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE) Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform palaeorainfall reconstruction from

  14. Drip bloodstain appearance on inclined apparel fabrics: Effect of prior-laundering, fibre content and fabric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Therese C; Carr, Debra J; Taylor, Michael C; Kieser, Jules A; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of blood and fabrics is currently a 'hot topic', since the understanding and interpretation of these stains is still in its infancy. A recent simplified perpendicular impact experimental programme considering bloodstains generated on fabrics laid the foundations for understanding more complex scenarios. Blood rarely impacts apparel fabrics perpendicular; therefore a systematic study was conducted to characterise the appearance of drip stains on inclined fabrics. The final drip stain appearance for 45° and 15° impact angles on torso apparel fabrics (100% cotton plain woven, 100% polyester plain woven, a blend of polyester and cotton plain woven and 100% cotton single jersey knit) that had been laundered for six, 26 and 52 cycles prior to testing was investigated. The relationship between drop parameters (height and volume), angle and the stain characteristics (parent stain area, axis 1 and 2 and number of satellite stains) for each fabric was examined using analysis of variance. The appearance of the drip stains on these fabrics was distorted, in comparison to drip stains on hard-smooth surface. Examining the parent stain allowed for classification of stains occurring at an angle, however the same could not be said for the satellite stains produced. All of the dried stains visible on the surface of the fabric were larger than just after the impacting event, indicating within fabric spreading of blood due to capillary force (wicking). The cotton-containing fabrics spread the blood within the fabrics in all directions along the stain's circumference, while spreading within the polyester plain woven fabric occurred in only the weft (width of the fabric) and warp (length) directions. Laundering affected the formation of bloodstain on the blend plain woven fabric at both impact angles, although not all characteristics were significantly affected for the three impact conditions considered. The bloodstain characteristics varied due to the fibre content

  15. Development of a physiologically relevant dripping analytical method using simulated nasal mucus for nasal spray formulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Masiuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for nasal spray formulations have been elementary evaluating the dripping characteristics of a formulation and have not assessed the behavior of the nasal formulation in the presence of varying types of mucus depending on the indication or diseased state. This research investigated the effects of nasal mucus on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and focused on developing an improved in vitro analytical test method that is more physiologically relevant in characterizing nasal formulation dripping behavior. Method development was performed using simulated nasal mucus preparations for both healthy and diseased states as coatings for the dripping experiment representing a wide range of viscosity. Factors evaluated during development of this in vitro test method included amount of mucus, application of mucus, drying times, and compatibility of the mucus on a C18 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC substrate. The dripping behavior of nasal formulations containing a range of 1% Avicel to 3.5% Avicel was assessed by actuating the nasal spray on a perpendicular TLC plate coated with either healthy or diseased simulated nasal mucus. After actuation of the nasal spray, the dripping of the formulation on the coated TLC plate was measured after the plate was repositioned vertically. The method that was developed generated reproducible results on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and provided critical information about the compatibility of the formulation with the nasal mucus for different diseased states, aiding in nasal spray formulation development and physical characterization of the nasal spray.

  16. Development of a physiologically relevant dripping analytical method using simulated nasal mucus for nasal spray formulation analysis$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tina Masiuk n; Parul Kadakia; Zhenyu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for nasal spray formulations have been elementary evaluating the dripping char-acteristics of a formulation and have not assessed the behavior of the nasal formulation in the presence of varying types of mucus depending on the indication or diseased state. This research investigated the effects of nasal mucus on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and focused on developing an improved in vitro analytical test method that is more physiologically relevant in characterizing nasal formulation dripping behavior. Method development was performed using simulated nasal mucus preparations for both healthy and diseased states as coatings for the dripping experiment representing a wide range of viscosity. Factors evaluated during development of this in vitro test method included amount of mucus, application of mucus, drying times, and compatibility of the mucus on a C18 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) substrate. The dripping behavior of nasal formulations containing a range of 1%Avicel to 3.5%Avicel was assessed by actuating the nasal spray on a perpendicular TLC plate coated with either healthy or diseased simulated nasal mucus. After actuation of the nasal spray, the dripping of the formulation on the coated TLC plate was measured after the plate was repositioned vertically. The method that was developed generated reproducible results on the dripping behavior of nasal formula-tions and provided critical information about the compatibility of the formulation with the nasal mucus for different diseased states, aiding in nasal spray formulation development and physical characterization of the nasal spray.

  17. WAPDEG Analysis of Waste Package and Drip shield Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2004-09-29

    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), an analysis of the degradation of the engineered barrier system (EBS) drip shields and waste packages at the Yucca Mountain repository is developed. The purpose of this activity is to provide the TSPA with inputs and methodologies used to evaluate waste package and drip shield degradation as a function of exposure time under exposure conditions anticipated in the repository. This analysis provides information useful to satisfy ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) requirements. Several features, events, and processes (FEPs) are also discussed (Section 6.2, Table 15). The previous revision of this report was prepared as a model report in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Due to changes in the role of this report since the site recommendation, it no longer contains model development. This revision is prepared as a scientific analysis in accordance with AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses'' and uses models previously validated in (1) ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]); (2) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169984]); and (3) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169845]). The integrated waste package degradation (IWPD) analysis presented in this report treats several implementation-related issues, such as defining the number and size of patches per waste package that undergo stress corrosion cracking; recasting the weld flaw analysis in a form as implemented in the Closure Weld Defects (CWD) software; and, general corrosion rate manipulations (e.g., change of

  18. Testing the Conditional Mean Function of Autoregressive Conditional Duration Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    be subject to censoring structures. In an empirical study based on financial transaction data we present an application of the model to estimate conditional asset price change probabilities. Evaluating the forecasting properties of the model, it is shown that the proposed approach is a promising competitor...... function. The dynamic properties of the model as well as an assessment of the estimation quality is investigated in a Monte Carlo study. It is illustrated that the model is a useful approach to estimate conditional failure probabilities based on (persistent) serial dependent duration data which might...

  19. Thermal stabilities of drops of burning thermoplastics under the UL 94 vertical test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jun

    2013-02-15

    The properties of polymer melts will strongly affect the fire hazard of the pool induced by polymer melt flow. In this study the thermal stabilities of eight thermoplastic polymers as well as their melting drops generated under the UL 94 vertical burning test conditions were investigated by thermogravimetric experiments. It was found that the kinetic compensation effect existed for the decomposition reactions of the polymers and their drops. For polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), high impact polystyrene (HIPS), poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS), polyamide 6 (PA6), polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE), the onset decomposition temperature and the two decomposition kinetic parameters (the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy) of the drop were less than those of the polymer. However, the onset decomposition temperature and the two kinetic parameters of PC's drop were greater than those of polycarbonate (PC). Interestingly, for polyethylenevinylacetate (EVA18) the drop hardly contained the vinyl acetate chain segments. Similarly, for the PMMA/LDPE blends and the PMMA/PP blends, when the volume fraction of PMMA was less than 50% the drop hardly contained PMMA, implying that the blend would not drip until PMMA burned away and its surface temperature approached the decomposition temperature of the continuous phase composed of LDPE or PP.

  20. Water and nitrogen requirements of subsurface drip irrigated pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface drip irrigation is a well-developed practice for both annual and perennial crops. The use of subsurface drip is a well-established practice in many annual row crops, e.g. tomatoes, strawberries, lettuce. However, the use of subsurface drip on perennial crops has been slow to develop. With th...

  1. Testing the Conditional Mean Function of Autoregressive Conditional Duration Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    be subject to censoring structures. In an empirical study based on financial transaction data we present an application of the model to estimate conditional asset price change probabilities. Evaluating the forecasting properties of the model, it is shown that the proposed approach is a promising competitor...

  2. Geochemical signal in drip waters and carbonates from three year monitoring of Drac Cave in Mallorca (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Isabel; Cisneros, Mercé; Torner, Judit; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Bladé, Ileana; Fornos, Joan

    2016-04-01

    In order to establish the potential connection between climatic conditions over Mallorca and the chemistry of speleothem growths, a still ongoing monitoring exercise is in development in Drac Cave in Mallorca (Spain) starting from April 2013. This location in the Western Mediterranean was selected to represent Mediterranean semi-arid climatic conditions within a wider monitoring plan covering a transect across the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, from the Catabric realm, across the Pyrenees and Iberian ranges until the Mediterranean, within the framework of the OPERA research project. Drip waters have been recovered at weakly resolution and carbonate precipitates represent seasonal periods. This monitoring is complemented with drip water and carbonate collection at seasonal scale in another cave close to Drac Cave. This second cave was selected in order to represent comparable climatic conditions but far of any human land-intervention since the Drac cave is partially located under an urban developed area, although drip water and carbonate collection is performed in a location bellow autochthonous forest. First results show that drip flow has a rather constant rate along the year even though the large contrast on rain availability. In contrast, chemical signal of the drip waters shows a rapid response (few days) to changes in rain patterns but of relatively small magnitude. Isotopes in the carbonate precipitates present a seasonal signal and trend that reflect changes in the drip water composition. This data set, although preliminary, will be discussed in the context of the changing meteorological conditions of the last three years.

  3. The effects of non-vacuum packaging systems on drip loss from chilled beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, S R; Durham, C J; Scott, S M; Devine, C E

    1998-07-01

    This study investigated drip loss in chilled beef (hot-boned m. longissimus lumborum (LL)) under conventional packaging systems, in which a vacuum is applied, and non-vacuum packaging systems. The use of vacuum during the packaging process (vacuum packaging, CO(2) atmosphere packaging) was associated with increased drip. Drip was lower in heat-shrunk vacuum packaging than in non-shrunk vacuum packaging. A slow vacuum onset had no effect on drip formation, or may have increased it. The extent of pressure reduction (vacuum; range 0-1 atm) did not significantly affect drip formation, although the standard vacuum pressure (0 atm) tended to cause more drip loss than higher pressures. The three non-vacuum anaerobic packaging systems tested were: flushed with carbon dioxide without the pressure being reduced below atmospheric (Flush), or the same system with no CO(2) flush but a proprietary oxygen absorber added (Scavenger), or a combination of both (Flush/Scavenger). Storage was at -1.5 °C for up to 20 weeks. The Flush and Flush/Scavenger systems had considerably lower drip loss than the CAP standard system (6.4%, 6.5%, and 9.1% respectively); the Scavenger system had the lowest drip loss (5.2%). Drip losses generally increased with storage period, irrespective of packaging system. All non-vacuum packaging systems except the Flush system had very low oxygen levels (<0.l% v v ). The Flush system had considerably higher levels of oxygen (0.9%) with associated browning of meat samples. All packaging systems gave a hygienic shelf-life of at least 16 weeks. At 16 weeks, microbial numbers were highest (5 × 10(6)) in the Scavenger system. The meat from all packaging systems was acceptable to taste panels even after 16 weeks of storage at -1.5 °C. There were no significant differences between any of the packaging systems for any of the sensory attributes tested. The packaging systems with the best all round performance were the Flush/Scavenger and the Scavenger systems

  4. 49 CFR 572.167 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test conditions and instrumentation. 572.167... Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.167 Test conditions and instrumentation. The test conditions and instrumentation are as specified in 49 CFR 572.127 (Subpart N). Pt. 572, Subpt. S,...

  5. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part II. geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Waters with low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) present a challenge to irrigation because they degrade soil structure and infiltration capacity. In the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, such low salinity (electrical conductivity, EC 2.1 mS cm-1) and high-SAR (54) waters are co-produced with coal-bed methane and some are used for subsurface drip irrigation(SDI). The SDI system studied mixes sulfuric acid with irrigation water and applies water year-round via drip tubing buried 92 cm deep. After six years of irrigation, SAR values between 0 and 30 cm depth (0.5-1.2) are only slightly increased over non-irrigated soils (0.1-0.5). Only 8-15% of added Na has accumulated above the drip tubing. Sodicity has increased in soil surrounding the drip tubing, and geochemical simulations show that two pathways can generate sodic conditions. In soil between 45-cm depth and the drip tubing, Na from the irrigation water accumulates as evapotranspiration concentrates solutes. SAR values >12, measured by 1:1 water-soil extracts, are caused by concentration of solutes by factors up to 13. Low-EC (-1) is caused by rain and snowmelt flushing the soil and displacing ions in soil solution. Soil below the drip tubing experiences lower solute concentration factors (1-1.65) due to excess irrigation water and also contains relatively abundant native gypsum (2.4 ± 1.7 wt.%). Geochemical simulations show gypsum dissolution decreases soil-water SAR to 14 and decreasing EC in soil water to 3.2 mS cm-1. Increased sodicity in the subsurface, rather than the surface, indicates that deep SDI can be a viable means of irrigating with sodic waters.

  6. Drip water electrical conductivity as an indicator of cave ventilation at the event scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew C; Wynn, Peter M; Barker, Philip A; Leng, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    The use of speleothems to reconstruct past climatic and environmental change through chemical proxies is becoming increasingly common. Speleothem chemistry is controlled by hydrological and atmospheric processes which vary over seasonal time scales. However, as many reconstructions using speleothem carbonate are now endeavouring to acquire information about precipitation and temperature dynamics at a scale that can capture short term hydrological events, our understanding of within cave processes must match this resolution. Monitoring within Cueva de Asiul (N. Spain) has identified rapid (hourly resolution) changes in drip water electrical conductivity (EC), which is regulated by the pCO2 in the cave air. Drip water EC is therefore controlled by different modes of cave ventilation. In Cueva de Asiul a combination of density differences, and external pressure changes control ventilation patterns. Density driven changes in cave ventilation occur on a diurnal scale at this site irrespective of season, driven by fluctuations in external temperature across the cave internal temperature threshold. As external temperatures drop below those within the cave low pCO2 external air enters the void, facilitating the deposition of speleothem carbonate and causing a reduction in measured drip water EC. Additionally, decreases in external pressure related to storm activity act as a secondary ventilation mechanism. Reductions in external air pressure cause a drop in cave air pressure, enhancing karst air draw down, increasing the pCO2 of the cave and therefore the EC measured within drip waters. EC thereby serves as a first order indicator of cave ventilation, regardless of changes in speleothem drip rates and karst hydrological conditions. High resolution monitoring of cave drip water electrical conductivity reveals the highly sensitive nature of ventilation dynamics within cave environments, and highlights the importance of this for understanding trace element incorporation into

  7. Collective properties of drip-line nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamoto, I. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden); Sagawa, H. [Univ. of Aizu, Fukushima (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Performing the spherical Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations with Skyrme interactions and, then, using RPA solved in the coordinate space with the Green`s function method, the authors have studied the effect of the unique shell structure as well as the very low particle threshold on collective modes in drip line nuclei. In this method a proper strength function in the continuum is obtained, though the spreading width of collective modes is not included. They have examined also one-particle resonant states in the obtained HF potential. Unperturbed particle-hole (p-h) response functions are carefully studied, which contain all basic information on the exotic behaviour of the RPA strength function in drip line nuclei.

  8. A test of conditional heteroscedasticity in time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 安鸿志

    1999-01-01

    A new test of conditional heteroscedasticity for time series is proposed. The new testing method is based on a goodness of fit type test statistics and a Cramer-von Mises type test statistic. The asymptotic properties of the new test statistic is establised. The results demonstrate that such a test is consistent.

  9. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; stationary test. 325.55... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Stationary Test § 325.55 Ambient conditions; stationary test. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone...

  10. 49 CFR 572.103 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test conditions and instrumentation. 572.103... Motion Headform § 572.103 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) Headform accelerometers shall have... 1988, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests,” Class 1000 (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100)....

  11. Hanford spent nuclear fuel hot conditioning system test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1997-09-16

    This document provides the test procedures for cold testing of the prototype Hot Conditioning System (HCS) at the 306E Facility. The primary objective of this testing is to confirm design choices and provide data for the detailed design package prior to procurement of the process equipment. The current scope of testing in this document includes a fabricability study of the HCS, equipment performance testing of the HCS components, heat-up and cool-down cycle simulation, and robotic arm testing.

  12. Applicability of slug interference tests under Hanford Site test conditions: Analytical assessment and field test evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    Slug interference testing may be a useful technique for characterizing the hydraulic properties of high conductivity formations where problems associated with disposal of contaminated ground water make pumping tests undesirable. The suitability of the slug interference method for characterizing the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site was evaluated in a two-phase investigation. The first phase consisted of an analytical assessment. Slug interference responses were predicted over the range of conditions expected for the aquifer. The effects of partial penetration, delayed-yield and aquifer anisotropy on expected test results were also evaluated and possible analytical corrections are presented. The field test evaluation was conducted at a site with two observation wells and a stress well. Results verified the analytical evaluation and gave reasonable values of hydraulic conductivity and storativity. Test design considerations that optimize the observed response are discussed.

  13. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua

    2004-09-16

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847]).

  14. Galactic Drips and How to Stop Them

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, W G

    1996-01-01

    The temperature of hot interstellar gas at large radii in elliptical galaxies can be lower than the mean galactic virial temperature. If so, a nonlinear cooling wave can form in the hot interstellar gas and propagate slowly toward the galactic core. If the cooling wave survives hydrodynamic instabilities, it can intermittently deposit cold gas within about 15 effective radii. For a bright elliptical the total mass deposited in this manner can approach 10^10 solar masses. The cold gas that drips out at large galactic radii may account for the young stellar populations and extended gas at $\\sim 10^4$ K observed in many ellipticals, features that are often attributed to galactic mergers. Galactic drips are expected in relatively isolated (field) ellipticals provided (i) the galactic stellar velocity ellipsoids are radially oriented at large galactic radii and (ii) the current Type Ia supernova rate is sufficiently small to be consistent with interstellar iron abundances found in recent X-ray studies. Galactic dr...

  15. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  16. 49 CFR 572.44 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Impact Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.44 Instrumentation and test conditions. (a) The test probe used... installed in the dummy are then processed with the software for the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter... joints of the test dummy are set at the force between 1-2 g's, which just supports the limbs' weight...

  17. DripFume: A Visual Basic Program For Simulating Distribution And Atmospheric Volatilization Of Soil Fumigants Applied Through Drip Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Windows-based graphical user interface program (DripFume) was developed in MS Visual Basic (VB) to utilize a two-dimensional multi-phase finite element pesticide transport model to simulate distribution and emission of volatile fumigant chemicals when applied through drip irrigation or shank injec...

  18. Solar-forced diurnal regulation of cave drip rates via phreatophyte evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleborn, Katie; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Baker, Andy; Navarre, Owen

    2016-11-01

    We present results of a detailed study of drip rate variations at 12 drip discharge sites in Glory Hole Cave, New South Wales, Australia. Our novel time series analysis, using the wavelet synchrosqueezed transform, reveals pronounced oscillations at daily and sub-daily frequencies occurring in 8 out of the 12 monitored sites. These oscillations were not spatially or temporally homogenous, with different drip sites exhibiting such behaviour at different times of year in different parts of the cave. We test several hypotheses for the cause of the oscillations, including variations in pressure gradients between karst and cave due to cave breathing effects or atmospheric and earth tides, variations in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in viscosity of water with daily temperature oscillations, and solar-driven daily cycles of vegetative (phreatophytic) transpiration. We conclude that the only hypothesis consistent with the data and hydrologic theory is that daily oscillations are caused by solar-driven pumping by phreatophytic trees which are abundant at the site. The daily oscillations are not continuous and occur sporadically in short bursts (2-14 days) throughout the year due to non-linear modification of the solar signal via complex karst architecture. This is the first indirect observation leading to the hypothesis of tree water use in cave drip water. It has important implications for karst hydrology in regards to developing a new protocol to determine the relative importance of trends in drip rate, such as diurnal oscillations, and how these trends change over timescales of weeks to years. This information can also be used to infer karst architecture. This study demonstrates the importance of vegetation on recharge dynamics, information that will inform both process-based karst models and empirical estimation approaches. Our findings support a growing body of research exploring the impact of trees on speleothem paleoclimate proxies.

  19. Memory Testing Under Different Stress Conditions: An Industrial Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Majhi, Ananta K; Gronthoud, Guido; Lousberg, Maurice; Eichenberger, Stefan; Bowen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effectiveness of various stress conditions (mainly voltage and frequency) on detecting the resistive shorts and open defects in deep sub-micron embedded memories in an industrial environment. Simulation studies on very-low voltage, high voltage and at-speed testing show the need of the stress conditions for high quality products; i.e., low defect-per-million (DPM) level, which is driving the semiconductor market today. The above test conditions have been validated to screen out bad devices on real silicon (a test-chip) built on CMOS 0.18 um technology. IFA (inductive fault analysis) based simulation technique leads to an efficient fault coverage and DPM estimator, which helps the customers upfront to make decisions on test algorithm implementations under different stress conditions in order to reduce the number of test escapes.

  20. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  1. Standardization of incubation conditions for hemolysis testing of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Blanton, John; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Hemolysis testing is the most common method to determine the hemocompatibility properties of biomaterials. There is however no consensus on the procedures of hemolysis testing due to insufficient comparative studies on the quality of the red blood cells used and the experimental conditions of testin

  2. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  3. 49 CFR 572.21 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Year-Old Child § 572.21 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a)(1) The test probe used for head and... a line connecting the longitudinal centerlines of the transfer pins in the side of the dummy head with the midsagittal plane of the dummy head. (1) The sensing elements of the Type C...

  4. A remote drip infusion monitoring system employing Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hikaru; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Maki, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a remote drip infusion monitoring system for use in hospitals. The system consists of several infusion monitoring devices and a central monitor. The infusion monitoring device employing a Bluetooth module can detect the drip infusion rate and an empty infusion solution bag, and then these data are sent to the central monitor placed at the nurses' station via the Bluetooth. The central monitor receives the data from several infusion monitoring devices and then displays graphically them. Therefore, the developed system can monitor intensively the drip infusion situation of the several patients at the nurses' station.

  5. A Lagrange Multiplier Test for Testing the Adequacy of the Constant Conditional Correlation GARCH Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Paul; Teräsvirta, Timo; Yin, Meiqun

    A Lagrange multiplier test for testing the parametric structure of a constant conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (CCC-GARCH) model is proposed. The test is based on decomposing the CCC-GARCH model multiplicatively into two components, one of which...

  6. Effects of testing conditions on conceptual survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a pre-test is often administered either at or near the beginning of a course, while a post-test can be given either at or near the end of a course. Also, in conducting such tests there often is no norm as to whether incentives should be offered to students. Because these variations can significantly affect test results, it is important to study and document their impact. We analyzed five years of data that were collected at The Ohio State University from over 2100 students, who took both the pre-test and post-test of the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism under various timings and incentives. We observed that the actual time frame for giving a test has a marked effect on the test results and that incentive granting also has a significant influence on test outcomes. These results suggest that one should carefully monitor and document the conditions under which tests are administered.

  7. A new test on the conditional capital asset pricing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia-fei; CAI Zong-wu; REN Yu

    2015-01-01

    Testing the validity of the conditional capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a puzzle in the finance literature. Lewellen and Nagel[14] find that the variation in betas and in the equity premium would have to be implausibly large to explain important asset-pricing anomalies. Unfortunately, they do not provide a rigorous test statistic. Based on a simulation study, the method proposed in Lewellen and Nagel[14] tends to reject the null too frequently. We develop a new test procedure and derive its limiting distribution under the null hypothesis. Also, we provide a Bootstrap approach to the testing procedure to gain a good finite sample performance. Both simulations and empirical studies show that our test is necessary for making correct inferences with the conditional CAPM.

  8. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil microbiological properties under ... Water shortage in most countries of the southern Mediterranean basin has led to the reuse of municipal wastewater for irrigation. ... Article Metrics.

  9. Application of sand and geotextile envelope in subsurface drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Subsurface drip irrigation is a technology used for better management of irrigation water. This ... for commercial vegetable production, with turbulent flow ... delivery system to carry the water to the field (Reich et al., 2009).

  10. Theoretical Basis and Application for Measuring Pork Loin Drip Loss Using Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alex; Abdullah, Badr; Muradov, Magomed; Korostynska, Olga; Al-Shamma’a, Ahmed; Bjarnadottir, Stefania Gudrun; Lunde, Kathrine; Alvseike, Ole

    2016-01-01

    During cutting and processing of meat, the loss of water is critical in determining both product quality and value. From the point of slaughter until packaging, water is lost due to the hanging, movement, handling, and cutting of the carcass, with every 1% of lost water having the potential to cost a large meat processing plant somewhere in the region of €50,000 per day. Currently the options for monitoring the loss of water from meat, or determining its drip loss, are limited to destructive tests which take 24–72 h to complete. This paper presents results from work which has led to the development of a novel microwave cavity sensor capable of providing an indication of drip loss within 6 min, while demonstrating good correlation with the well-known EZ-Driploss method (R2 = 0.896). PMID:26848661

  11. Theoretical Basis and Application for Measuring Pork Loin Drip Loss Using Microwave Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mason

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During cutting and processing of meat, the loss of water is critical in determining both product quality and value. From the point of slaughter until packaging, water is lost due to the hanging, movement, handling, and cutting of the carcass, with every 1% of lost water having the potential to cost a large meat processing plant somewhere in the region of €50,000 per day. Currently the options for monitoring the loss of water from meat, or determining its drip loss, are limited to destructive tests which take 24–72 h to complete. This paper presents results from work which has led to the development of a novel microwave cavity sensor capable of providing an indication of drip loss within 6 min, while demonstrating good correlation with the well-known EZ-Driploss method (R2 = 0.896.

  12. Conversion to drip irrigated agriculture may offset historic anthropogenic and wildfire contributions to sediment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A B; Pasternack, G B; Watson, E B; Goñi, M A; Hatten, J A; Warrick, J A

    2016-06-15

    This study is an investigation into the roles of wildfire and changing agricultural practices in controlling the inter-decadal scale trends of suspended sediment production from semi-arid mountainous rivers. In the test case, a decreasing trend in suspended sediment concentrations was found in the lower Salinas River, California between 1967 and 2011. Event to decadal scale patterns in sediment production in the Salinas River have been found to be largely controlled by antecedent hydrologic conditions. Decreasing suspended sediment concentrations over the last 15years of the record departed from those expected from climatic/hydrologic forcing. Sediment production from the mountainous headwaters of the central California Coast Ranges is known to be dominated by the interaction of wildfire and large rainfall/runoff events, including the Arroyo Seco, an ~700km(2) subbasin of the Salinas River. However, the decreasing trend in Salinas River suspended sediment concentrations run contrary to increases in the watershed's effective burn area over time. The sediment source area of the Salinas River is an order of magnitude larger than that of the Arroyo Seco, and includes a more complicated mosaic of land cover and land use. The departure from hydrologic forcings on suspended sediment concentration patterns was found to coincide with a rapid conversion of irrigation practices from sprinkler and furrow to subsurface drip irrigation. Changes in agricultural operations appear to have decreased sediment supply to the Salinas River over the late 20th to early 21st centuries, obscuring the influence of wildfire on suspended sediment production.

  13. Experimental tests of a gas fired adsorption air conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyelle, F.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F. [C.N.R.S.-L.I.M.S.I., Orsay Cedex (France); Canal, P.; Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de Francer Saint Denis La Plaine (France)

    1997-10-01

    Over recent years, there has been growing interest for air conditioning systems, for commercial and offices buildings, transport and residential houses. Gaz de France promote natural gas powered air conditioning systems through the installation of commercial absorption machines, producing chilled and/or hot water. These machines cover loads from 70 kW to 5 MW. Gaz de France`s purpose is to develop a small scale natural gas fueled air conditioning system for residential applications and small commercials (5-20 kW). In order to study the feasibility of a small scale adsorption machine, a prototype has been studied, designed, constructed and tested. (au) 11 refs.

  14. Test-specific control conditions for functional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Querim, Angie C; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Most functional analyses of problem behavior include a common condition (play or noncontingent reinforcement) as a control for both positive and negative reinforcement. However, test-specific conditions that control for each potential source of reinforcement may be beneficial occasionally. We compared responding during alone, ignore, play, and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) control conditions for individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by positive or negative reinforcement. Results showed that all of the conditions were effective controls for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement; however, the DRO condition was consistently ineffective as a control for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Implications for the design of functional analyses and future research are discussed.

  15. Technical Basis Document No. 6: Waste Package and Drip Shield Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Pasupathi, V; Nair, P; Gordon, G; McCright, D; Gdowski, G; Carroll, S; Steinborn, T; Summers, T; Wong, F; Rebak, R; Lian, T; Ilevbare, G; Lee, J; Hua, F; Payer, J

    2003-08-01

    The waste package and drip shield will experience a wide range of interactive environmental conditions and degradation modes that will determine the overall performance of the waste package and repository. The operable modes of degradation are determined by the temperature regime of operation (region), and are summarized here. Dry-Out Region (T {ge} 120 C; 50 to 400 Years): During the pre-closure period, the waste package will be kept dry by ventilation air. During the thermal pulse, heat generated by radioactive decay will eventually increase the temperature of the waste package, drip shield and drift wall to a level above the boiling point, where the probability of seepage into drifts will become insignificant. Further heating will push the waste package surface temperature above the deliquescence point of expected salt mixtures, thereby preventing the formation of deliquescence brines from dust deposits and humid air. Phase and time-temperature-transformation diagrams predicted for Alloy 22, and validated with experimental data, indicates no significant phase instabilities (LRO and TCP precipitation) at temperatures below 300 C for 10,000 years. Neither will dry oxidation at these elevated temperatures limit waste package life. After the peak temperature is reached, the waste package will begin to cool, eventually reaching a point where deliquescence brine formation may occur. However, corrosion testing of Alloy 22 underneath such films has shown no evidence of life-limiting localized corrosion. Transition Region (120 C {ge} T {ge} 100 C; 400 to 1,000 Years): During continued cooling, the temperature of the drift wall will drop to a level close to the boiling point of the seepage brine, thus permitting the onset of seepage. Corrosion in a concentrated, possibly aggressive, liquid-phase brine, evolved through evaporative concentration, is possible while in this region. However, based upon chemical divide theory, most ({ge} 99%) of the seepage water entering the

  16. Statistical tests of conditional independence between responses and/or response times on test items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Three plausible assumptions of conditional independence in a hierarchical model for responses and response times on test items are identified. For each of the assumptions, a Lagrange multiplier test of the null hypothesis of conditional independence against a parametric alternative is derived. The t

  17. IVVS actuating system compatibility test to ITER gamma radiation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Collibus, M. Ferri de; Florean, M.; Monti, C.; Mugnaini, G.; Neri, C.; Pillon, M.; Pollastrone, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Baccaro, S.; Piegari, A. [ENEA CR Casaccia, 301 Via Anguillarese, 00123 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Damiani, C.; Dubus, G. [Fusion For Energy c/Josep Pla, n° 2 Torres Diagonal Litoral, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA developed and tested a prototype of a laser In Vessel Viewing and ranging System (IVVS) for ITER. • One piezo-motor prototype has been tested on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility to verify its compatibility to ITER gamma radiation conditions. • After a total dose of more than 4 MGy the piezo-motor maintained almost the same working parameters monitored before test without any evident and significant degradation of functionality. • After the full gamma irradiation test, the same piezo-motor assembly will be tested with 14 MeV neutrons irradiation using ENEA FNG facility. -- Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is a fundamental remote handling equipment, which will be used to make a survey of the status of the blanket first wall and divertor plasma facing components. A design and testing activity is ongoing, in the framework of a Fusion for Energy (F4E) grant agreement, to make the IVVS probe design compatible with ITER operating conditions and in particular, but not only, with attention to neutrons and gammas fluxes and both space constraints and interfaces. The paper describes the testing activity performed on the customized piezoelectric motors and the main components of the actuating system of the IVVS probe with reference to ITER gamma radiation conditions. In particular the test is performed on the piezoelectric motor, optical encoder and small scale optical samples .The test is carried out on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility at ITER relevant gamma fields at rate of about 2.5 kGy/h and doses of 4 MGy. The paper reports in detail the setup arrangement of the test campaign in order to verify significant working capability of the IVVS actuating components and the results are shown in terms of functional performances and parameters. The overall test campaign on IVVS actuating system will be completed on other ENEA testing facilities in order to verify compatibility to Magnetic field, neutrons and thermal

  18. Recommendations on practice of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnitsky, D; Bouhassira, D; Drewes, A M; Fillingim, R B; Granot, M; Hansson, P; Landau, R; Marchand, S; Matre, D; Nilsen, K B; Stubhaug, A; Treede, R D; Wilder-Smith, O H G

    2015-07-01

    Protocols for testing conditioned pain modulation (CPM) vary between different labs/clinics. In order to promote research and clinical application of this tool, we summarize the recommendations of interested researchers consensus meeting regarding the practice of CPM and report of its results.

  19. Effects of water salinity and nitrogen rate on yield, WUE and NUE of cotton under drip irrigation with saline water conditions%灌溉水盐度和施氮量对棉花产量和水氮利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵伟; 侯振安; 冶军; 柳欣茹; 李始龙; 吴梦喆

    2013-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions,fresh water scarcity and salinity are the serious and chronic problem for agricultural production.The purposes of optimal water and nutrient management are to maximize water and fertilizer use efficiencies and crop production,and to minimize salt accumulation in root zone and groundwater pollution in these regions.In this study,field experiments were conducted to investigate effects of irrigation water salinity and N application rate on yield,water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of cotton under drip irrigation conditions.The experimental design was a 3 × 4 factorial with three water salinity levels (EC 0.35,4.61,and 8.04 dS/m; denoted as SF,SM and SH,respectively) and four N application rates (0,240,360,and 480 kg/ha; denoted as N0,N1,N2,and N3,respectively).Results show that the biomass,N uptake,and NUE of cotton are significantly affected by irrigation water salinity,N rate and their interactions and are decreased significantly by the saline water irrigation with the high salinity level (8.04 mS/cm).There are no significant differences for cotton N uptakes and NUEs between SM and SF treatments,while the biomass and yield of the SF treatment are higher than those of the SM treatment.The growth of cotton is promoted by the N fertilization and the biomass,N uptake,and yield are increased,while those effects are decreased with irrigation water salinity level increasing.Water drainage is increased and evapotranspiration is reduced significantly with the increase of irrigation water salinity level,while water drainage is decreased and evapotranspiration is increased significantly with the increase of nitrogen rate.The treatment of SM has the highest WUE,and the treatment of SH has the lowest WUE.WUEs of three water salinity treatments are increased with nitrogen application rate increasing.Therefore,saline water with EC value more than 8 dS/m is not suitable for drip irrigation,but short period saline water

  20. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  1. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: Part I. Water and solute movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Carleton R; Breit, George N; Healy, Richard W; Zupancic, John W; Hammack, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300–480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  2. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  3. Development of nanolubricant automotive air conditioning (AAC test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redhwan A.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanolubricant been introduced in compressor might improve the performance of automotive air conditioning system. Prior testing of the nanolubricant enhancement performance, an automotive air conditioning (AAC system test rig base on compact car has to be developed; therefore this paper presented the development process of AAC test rig. There are 15 thermocouples, 2 pressure gauges and power analyzer were assembled on the system in order to analyse its performance. The experiment was conducted with four different charged of refrigerant. The charging was based on initial weight charged. At each quantity of refrigerant charge, performance of the AAC system was evaluated by determining three important parameters which is cooling capacity, compressor work and coefficient of performance (COP. The maximum average COP is achieved at 900 RPM is 7.07. The average and maximum COP enhancement of 7.07 % and 13.34 % were achieved by applying SiO2 nanolubricant inside the compressor.

  4. On Test and Computer Anxiety: Test Performance under CAT and SAT Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Mark D.; Mzumara, Howard R.; Bublitz, Scott T.

    2001-01-01

    This study of undergraduates examined differences between computer adaptive testing (CAT) and self-adaptive testing (SAT), including feedback conditions and gender differences. Results of the Test Anxiety Inventory, Computer Anxiety Rating Scale, and a Student Attitude Questionnaire showed measurement efficiency is differentially affected by test…

  5. The Impact of Personality and Test Conditions on Mathematical Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Heather; Embretson, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Online and on-demand tests are increasingly used in assessment. Although the main focus has been cheating and test security (e.g., Selwyn, 2008) the cross-setting equivalence of scores as a function of contrasting test conditions is also an issue that warrants attention. In this study, the impact of environmental and cognitive distractions, as…

  6. Impact dynamics of porcine drip bloodstains on fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elisabeth M P; Dodds, Margaret; Taylor, Michael C; Li, Jingyao; Michielsen, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    As a passive blood drop impacts a hard surface, it is observed to collapse and spread laterally, then retract and settle. During the spreading phase, the edge of the drop may rise forming a crown extending into spines and breaking up into secondary drops. When a similar drop falls onto a textile surface these same processes may occur, but the process of blood wicking into the fabric complicates stain formation. These processes are described within for passive drip stains collected under controlled conditions using anticoagulated porcine blood. Three stages of this impact process were identified and could be separated into distinct time zones: (1) spreading (time t≤2.5ms) and (2) retraction (2.5≤t≤12ms) on the surface with potential splashing at the periphery, and (3) wicking (30ms ≤t≤30min) of the blood into the fabric. Although wetting and wicking may also occur for tplain-woven>cardboard. Conversely, the size of the satellite stains correlates with the amount of wicking in the fabric with the satellite stain size for plain-woven>jersey knit>cardboard.

  7. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  8. Design and test of wireless drip irrigation control in orchard with low-power%山地果园中低功耗无线滴灌控制装置设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳学军; 刘永鑫; 洪添胜; 徐兴; 王叶夫; 燕英伟; 全东平

    2014-01-01

    the irrigation system for further implementation of a central control strategy is becoming a hot topic in irrigation engineering. This paper is aimed at providing a low-cost and low-power wireless irrigation solution for small-scale orchard growers to realize automatic time-control irrigation. The system was composed of several nodes, each node of hardware consisted of a MSP430F2132 micro controller, a short range RF transceiver (CC1100, Texas Instrument), an RS-232 interface for long distance communication module, an LCD (liquid crystal display, JLX12865-0086PC) module, a 9 V Battery module, a valve driving circuit and a soil moisture sensor (Decagon EC-5 or other) interface. Time synchronization communication protocol was designed for system nodes;therefore, the whole system could enter the sleep mode when there was no irrigation task. Furthermore, the WOR (wake on radio) feature of the RF module also helped to reduce power consumption of the nodes when the nodes were woken up for synchronization. The system power consumption test was performed under 9 V battery voltage; the quiescent current consumption is 400 μA. While the WOR current consumption was 19 mA, the current consumption of the system was 439μA on average. Calculations also indicated that the charge of daily operating a pulse solenoid valve covers only a tiny portion in a whole node's daily charge. The battery discharge experiment in the conditioning of 100 mA const current revealed that the selected battery module could provide a charge of 400 mAh. In the test, output voltage dropped from 9 V to 5 V. According to the estimation, the system could run for at least 38 days without changing batteries. Communication tests in mountain orchards showed that the minimum packet loss rate when nodes were randomly distributed was 6.19%, the effective communication distance with 3 dBi antenna on each node reached 70m. The RSSI (received signal strength index) did not show a significant difference in the

  9. EPRI PWR Safety and Relief Valve Test Program: test condition justification report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosler, J.

    1982-12-01

    In response to NUREG 0737, Item II.D.1.A requirements, several safety and relief valve designs were tested by EPRI under PWR utility sponsorship. Justification that the inlet fluid conditions under which these valve designs were tested are representative of those expected in participating domestic PWR units during FSAR, Extended High Pressure Injection, and Cold Overpressurization events is presented.

  10. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99...

  11. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  12. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  13. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  14. Systematic Study of Shell Effect near Drip-lines

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, S K

    2004-01-01

    Variation of nuclear shell effects with nucleon numbers are evaluated using the modified Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula (BWM) and the measured atomic masses. The shell effects at magic neutron numbers N = 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126 and magic proton numbers Z = 8, 20, 28,50 and 82 are found to vary rapidly approaching the drip lines. The shell effect due to one magic number increases when it approaches another magic number. Thus, shell effects are not always negligible near the drip lines.

  15. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  16. DYNA3D Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions - Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zywicz, E

    2006-09-28

    Two verification problems were developed to test non-reflecting boundary segments in DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann, 1993). The problems simulate 1-D wave propagation in a semi-infinite rod using a finite length rod and non-reflecting boundary conditions. One problem examines pure pressure wave propagation, and the other problem explores pure shear wave propagation. In both problems the non-reflecting boundary segments yield results that differ only slightly (less than 6%) during a short duration from their corresponding theoretical solutions. The errors appear to be due to the inability to generate a true step-function compressive wave in the pressure wave propagation problem and due to segment integration inaccuracies in the shear wave propagation problem. These problems serve as verification problems and as regression test problems for DYNA3D.

  17. Assessing the use of 3H-3He dating to determine the subsurface transit time of cave drip waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Tobias; Wieser, Martin; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    2010-09-01

    (3)H-(3)He measurements constitute a well-established method for the determination of the residence time of young groundwater. However, this method has rarely been applied to karstified aquifers and in particular to drip water in caves, despite the importance of the information which may be obtained. Besides the determination of transfer times of climate signals from the atmosphere through the epikarst to speleothems as climate archives, (3)H-(3)He together with Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe data may also help to give new insights into the local hydrogeology, e.g. the possible existence of a perched aquifer above a cave. In order to check the applicability of (3)H-(3)He dating to cave drips, we collected drip water samples from three adjacent caves in northwestern Germany during several campaigns. The noble gas data were evaluated by inverse modelling to obtain recharge temperature and excess air, supporting the calculation of the tritiogenic (3)He and hence the (3)H-(3)He age. Although atmospheric noble gases were often found to be close to equilibrium with the cave atmosphere, several drip water samples yielded an elevated (3)He/(4)He ratio, providing evidence for the accumulation of (3)He from the decay of (3)H. No significant contribution of radiogenic (4)He was found, corresponding to the low residence times mostly in the range of one to three years. Despite complications during sampling, conditions of a perched aquifer could be confirmed by replicate samples at one drip site. Here, the excess air indicator ΔNe was about 10 %, comparable to typical values found in aquifers in mid-latitudes. The mean (3)H-(3)He age of 2.1 years at this site presumably refers to the residence time in the perched aquifer and is lower than the entire transit time of 3.4 years estimated from the tritium data.

  18. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  19. 40 CFR 265.441 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. 265.441 Section 265.441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 265.441 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a) For...

  20. 40 CFR 264.571 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. 264.571 Section 264.571 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.571 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a) For each existing...

  1. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Diego; Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Vallejo, Antonio

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH4(+) and NO3(-)) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N2O, CO2 and CH4) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N2O, NO, CH4 and CO2 were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N2O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (Pirrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (Pirrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N2O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO3(-)-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Arc Jet Facility Test Condition Predictions Using the ADSI Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Grant; Prabhu, Dinesh; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda

    2015-01-01

    The Aerothermal Design Space Interpolation (ADSI) tool is used to interpolate databases of previously computed computational fluid dynamic solutions for test articles in a NASA Ames arc jet facility. The arc jet databases are generated using an Navier-Stokes flow solver using previously determined best practices. The arc jet mass flow rates and arc currents used to discretize the database are chosen to span the operating conditions possible in the arc jet, and are based on previous arc jet experimental conditions where possible. The ADSI code is a database interpolation, manipulation, and examination tool that can be used to estimate the stagnation point pressure and heating rate for user-specified values of arc jet mass flow rate and arc current. The interpolation is performed in the other direction (predicting mass flow and current to achieve a desired stagnation point pressure and heating rate). ADSI is also used to generate 2-D response surfaces of stagnation point pressure and heating rate as a function of mass flow rate and arc current (or vice versa). Arc jet test data is used to assess the predictive capability of the ADSI code.

  3. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  4. Testing hot cell shielding in the fuel conditioning facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, J C; Klann, R T

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive shield test program for a hot cell complex, the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, has been completed with minimum radiation exposure to participants. The recently modified shielding design for two hot cells and their associated transfer paths for irradiated materials was analyzed and tested for attenuating gamma rays from mixed fission product sources. Testing was accomplished using 0.37 TBq (10 Ci) and 518 TBq (14,000 Ci) 60Co sources. Of specific concern were radiation levels around wall penetrations and the interface between transport casks and the cell floor. Detailed measurements were made for surfaces that bound the hot cells, a transfer tunnel between the two cells, and storage pits that extend below the floors of both cells. In addition to surface measurements, dose equivalent rates in adjacent corridors were determined when the larger source was exposed. Results indicate that with some administrative controls, the facility shields are adequate to meet the design criterion that limits annual dose to less than 10 mSv (1 rem) for facility workers.

  5. Nitrogen Effects on Onion Yield Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently irrigated and fertilized with high N rates to maximize yield. Converting from furrow-irrigated to drip-irrigated onion production may reduce N fertilizer needs, water inputs, and NO3-N leaching poten...

  6. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test... conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The goal of an air conditioning test facility is..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and...

  7. Joint inversion of multi-configuration electromagnetic induction measurements to estimate soil wetting patterns during surface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Khan Z.; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; McCabe, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, development of precise information on the soil wetting pattern is important to optimize drip irrigation system design for sustainable agricultural water management. Usually mathematical models are commonly used to describe infiltration from a point source to design and manage drip irrigation systems. The extent to which water migrates laterally and vertically away from the drip emitter depends on many factors, including dripper discharge rate, the frequency of water application, duration of drip emission, the soil hydraulic characteristics, initial conditions, evaporation, root water uptake and root distribution patterns. However, several simplified assumptions in the mathematical models affect their utility to provide useful design information. In this respect, non-invasive geophysical methods, i.e., low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems are becoming powerful tools to map spatial and temporal soil moisture patterns due to fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil water content and salinity. In this research, a new electromagnetic system, the CMD mini-Explorer, is used for soil characterization to measure the wetting patterns of drip irrigation systems using joint inversion of multi-configuration EMI measurements. Six transects of EMI measurements were carried out in a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water using a drip irrigation system. EMI reference data (ground-truths) were calculated using vertical soil electrical conductivity recorded in different trenches along one of the measurement transects. Reference data is used for calibration to minimize the instrumental shifts which often occur in EMI data. Global and local optimization algorithms are used sequentially, to minimize the misfit between the measured and modeled apparent electrical conductivity (δa) to reconstruct the vertical electrical conductivity profile. The electromagnetic forward model based on full solution of Maxwell

  8. Methodology of Testing Shot Blasting Machines in Industrial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Shot blasting machines are widely used for automated surface treatment and finishing of castings. In shot blasting processes the stream of shots is generated and shaped by blasting turbines, making up a kinetic and dynamic system comprising a separating rotor, an adapting sleeve and a propelling rotor provided with blades. The shot blasting performance- i.e. the quality of shot treated surfaces depends on the actual design and operational parameters of the unit whilst the values of relevant parameters are associated with the geometry of turbine components and the level of its integration with the separator system. The circulation of the blasting medium becomes the integrating factor of the process line, starting from the hopper, through the propeller turbine, casting treatment, separation of contaminated abrasive mixture, to its recycling and reuse.Inferior quality of the abrasive agent (shot and insufficient purity of the abrasive mixture are responsible for low effectiveness of shot blasting. However, most practitioners fail to fully recognise the importance of proper diagnostics of the shot blasting process in industrial conditions. The wearing of major machine components and of the blasting agent and quality of shot treated surfaces are often misinterpreted, hence the need to take into account all factors involved in the process within the frame of a comprehensive methodology.This paper is an attempt to formulate and apply the available testing methods to the engineering practice in industrial conditions.

  9. Water and nutrient productivity in melon crop by fertigation under subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping intensification and technical, economic and environmental issues require efficient application of production factors to maintain the soil productive capacity and produce good quality fruits and vegetables. The production factors, water and NPK nutrients, are the most frequent limiting factors to higher melon yields. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in a protected environment on the water and NPK nutrients productivity in melon cropped in two soil types: sandy loam and clay. The melon crop cultivated under environmental conditions with underground drip irrigation at 0.20m depth, with mulching on sandy loam soil increased water and N, P2O5 and K use efficiency.

  10. Biosolid Soil Application: Toxicity Tests under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintya Ap. Christofoletti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large volume of generated sewage sludge makes its disposal a problem. The usage of sludge in agriculture is highlighted by a number of advantages. However, heavy metals and other toxic compounds may exercise harmful effects to soil organisms. This study evaluated the possible toxic effects of a biosolid sample, under laboratory conditions, for 30 days, using diplopods Rhinocricus padbergi and plants Allium cepa (onion as test organisms. The data obtained demonstrated that the biosolid raw sample had genotoxic potential for Allium cepa root tip cells. In the diplopods exposed to biosolid sample, epithelium disorganization in the midgut and a reduction of the volume of the hepatic cells were observed after 7 days of exposure. After 30 days, the animals still showed a reduction of the volume of the hepatic cells, but in minor intensity. Allium cepa analysis showed genotoxicity, but this effect was reduced after 30 days of bioprocessing by diplopods. This study was important to know the effects as well as to determine how this waste could be applied concerning the soil living organisms and plants.

  11. Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Oriental Lilies with Drip and Foliar-applied Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, B B; Giraud, D; Radewald, J D; Anderson, C A; Darso, J

    1993-12-01

    Pratylenchus penetrans is a pest for producers of oriental lilies in northern California. Concern over groundwater contamination from 1,2-dichloropropane following shank injections of 1,3-dichloropropene-l,2-dichloropropane mixture and granular applications of aldicarb prompted testing for alternative methods of controlling P. penetrans. In field trials, nematicides applied by drip irrigation (ethoprop, fenamiphos, oxamyl, sodium tetrathiocarbonate, water extracts of marigold and vetch, and 1,3-D plus emulsifier) were tested with and without foliar applications of oxamyl. Nematode populations were reduced (P = 0.05) relative to controls in soil or roots on one or more sampling dates by all drip-applied nematicides except the plant extracts. On some sampling dates, additional reductions (P = 0.05) occurred as a result of three foliar applications of oxamyl. Foliar-applied oxamyl alone also reduced (P = 0.05) nematodes in soil or roots. Lily bulb weight was not affected (P = 0.05) by chemical treatments.

  12. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalos@upm.es [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Groenigen, Jan Willem van [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Vallejo, Antonio [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P < 0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P < 0.005) but increased CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N{sub 2}O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO{sub 3}{sup −}-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • The effect of fertigation management techniques on GHG and NO emissions was studied. • Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O by a factor of 2.4. • Daily irrigation reduced NO (42%) but increased CO

  13. Matching Vibration Testing to "Real-World" Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Albert D., Jr.; Keblaitis, A. V.

    1986-01-01

    Vibration spectrum of test machine adjusted to that observed in operation. Test specimen placed in test fixture and attached to shaker. Shaker initially operated at one-quarter full level of input spectrum to prevent overloading. Short vibration test run, and specimen response compared to control spectrum. Imput spectrum then adjusted until response resembles control spectrum.

  14. Strange Stars: Can Their Crust Reach the Neutron Drip Density?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Fu; Yong-Feng Huang

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic potential of electrons near the surface of static strange stars at zero temperature is studied within the frame of the MIT bag model. We find that for QCD parameters within rather wide ranges, if the nuclear crust on the strange star is at a density leading to neutron drip, then the electrostatic potential will be insufficient to establish an outwardly directed electric field, which is crucial for the survival of such a crust. If a minimum gap width of 200 fm is brought in as a more stringent constraint, then our calculations will completely rule out the possibility of such crusts. Therefore, our results argue against the existence of neutron-drip crusts in nature.

  15. Estimating soil wetting patterns for drip irrigation using genetic programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadianfard, S.; Sadraddini, A. A.; Nazemi, A. H.; Provenzano, G.; Kisi, O.

    2012-07-01

    Drip irrigation is considered as one of the most efficient irrigation systems. Knowledge of the soil wetted perimeter arising from infiltration of water from drippers is important in the design and management of efficient irrigation systems. To this aim, numerical models can represent a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of the wetting pattern during irrigation, in order to explore drip irrigation management strategies, to set up the duration of irrigation, and finally to optimize water use efficiency. This paper examines the potential of genetic programming (GP) in simulating wetting patterns of drip irrigation. First by considering 12 different soil textures of USDA-SCS soil texture triangle, different emitter discharge and duration of irrigation, soil wetting patterns have been simulated by using HYDRUS 2D software. Then using the calculated values of depth and radius of wetting pattern as target outputs, two different GP models have been considered. Finally, the capability of GP for simulating wetting patterns was analyzed using some values of data set that were not used in training. Results showed that the GP method had good agreement with results of HYDRUS 2D software in the case of considering full set of operators with R{sup 2} of 0.99 and 0.99 and root mean squared error of 2.88 and 4.94 in estimation of radius and depth of wetting patterns, respectively. Also, field experimental results in a sandy loam soil with emitter discharge of 4 L h{sup -}1 showed reasonable agreement with GP results. As a conclusion, the results of the study demonstrate the usefulness of the GP method for estimating wetting patterns of drip irrigation. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Manifold learning approach for chaos in the dripping faucet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetani, Hiromichi; Soejima, Karin; Matsuoka, Rei; Parlitz, Ulrich; Hata, Hiroki

    2012-09-01

    Dripping water from a faucet is a typical example exhibiting rich nonlinear phenomena. For such a system, the time stamps at which water drops separate from the faucet can be directly observed in real experiments, and the time series of intervals τn between drop separations becomes a subject of analysis. Even if the mass mn of a drop at the onset of the nth separation, which is difficult to observe experimentally, exhibits perfectly deterministic dynamics, it may be difficult to obtain the same information about the underlying dynamics from the time series τn. This is because the return plot τn-1 vs. τn may become a multivalued relation (i.e., it doesn't represent a function describing deterministic dynamics). In this paper, we propose a method to construct a nonlinear coordinate which provides a "surrogate" of the internal state mn from the time series of τn. Here, a key of the proposed approach is to use isomap, which is a well-known method of manifold learning. We first apply it to the time series of τn generated from the numerical simulation of a phenomenological mass-spring model for the dripping faucet system. It is shown that a clear one-dimensional map is obtained by the proposed approach, whose characteristic quantities such as the Lyapunov exponent, the topological entropy, and the time correlation function coincide with the original dripping faucet system. Furthermore, we also analyze data obtained from real dripping faucet experiments, which also provide promising results.

  17. Precesion Agriculture for Drip Irrigation Using Microcontroller and GSM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Deepak Gupta* ,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation is now a common phenomenon gaining popularity especially in the states like Rajasthan where water scarcity is a day to day affair. For drip irrigation a small over head water tank in used which supply water to the drip system. Usually the geographic systems as well as the cost do not permit a bigger tank. This tank generally gets vacated and a farmer needs to be always attentive to refill the over head tank from his well or cannel by an electric pump, mostly this need arises in the night as the availability of power is not whole day. This involved a lot of risk and cost on the part of farmer. The simple and low cost gadget that has been work upon, not only control the starting and stopping of motor by sending a simple SMS through a GSM mobile but also gets the return SMS showing level of water in overhead tank. The application of the gadget is not only limited to the use for a farmer & but can be beneficial for any process industry in which level of a chemical or any liquid need to be crucially controlled and monitored from far end, may be even from the home of a supervisor with no constraints of time or place for controlling the operations.

  18. [Clinical study of astromicin administered by intravenous drip infusion against chronic complicated urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Takanashi, K; Nagakubo, I; Kiyosaki, H; Naide, Y

    1987-07-01

    Astromicin (ASTM) was administered by intravenous drip infusion (i.v.d.) to 22 patients with chronic complicated urinary tract infections and the clinical efficacy and safety of this drug were evaluated. The overall clinical efficacy rate obtained was 71.4% (excellent 6; moderate 9) of 21 evaluable cases by the UTI committee's criteria. Concerning the response on clinical isolates, the drug was highly effective especially against strains of Escherichia coli, indole positive Proteus and Serratia marcescens. It was not effective, however, against 2 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As for adverse reactions, there was one case which complained of headache on the 3rd day after starting treatment. In this case the drug administration was discontinued at the 5th day. The symptom disappeared within 24 hours without any treatment. No any other adverse reactions were noted. With regard to clinical test values for peripheral blood, liver and renal functions, no abnormality was observed in any of the cases treated with the drug. In conclusion, ASTM was found to be a highly effective and safe drug when administered by intravenous drip infusion in the treatment of chronic complicated urinary tract infections.

  19. Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Arcenegui, V.

    2012-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a key property for soil and water conservation, and a synthetic parameter to quantify the soil degradation. Aggregation is relevant in soils where vegetation cover is scarce (Cerdà, 1996). Most of the research carried out to determine the soil aggregate stability was done in forest soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011) and little is done on farms (Cerdà, 2000). The research have show the effect of vegetation cover on soil aggregate stability (Cerdà, 1998) but little is known when vegetation is scarce, rare or not found such it can be seeing in agriculture soils. Then, aggregation is the main factor to control the soil losses and to improve the water availability. Moreover, agriculture management can improve the soil aggregate characteristics and the first step in this direction should be to quantify the aggregate stability. There is no information about the aggregate stability of soils under citrus production, although the research did show that the soil losses in the farms with citrus plantations is very high (Cerdà et al., 2009), and that aggregation should play a key role as the soils are bare due to the widespread use of herbicides. From 2009 to 2011, samples were collected in summer and winter in a chemically managed farm in Montesa, Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Ten irrigated patches and ten non-irrigated patches were selected to compare the effect of the drip irrigation on the soil aggregate stability. The Ten Drop Impacts (TDI) and the Counting the number of drops (CND) tests were applied at 200 aggregates (10 samples x 10 aggregates x 2 sites) in winter and summer in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The results show that the irrigated patches had TDI values that ranged from 43 to 56 % and that the non-irrigated reached values of 41 to 54 %. The CND samples ranged from 29 to 38 drops in the non-irrigated patches to 32 to 42 drop-impacts in the irrigated soil patches. No trends were found from winter to summer during the three years time period

  20. A Conditional Exposure Control Method for Multidimensional Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Nering, Michael L.; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), ensuring the security of test items is a crucial practical consideration. A common approach to reducing item theft is to define maximum item exposure rates, i.e., to limit the proportion of examinees to whom a given item can be administered. Numerous methods for controlling exposure rates have been proposed…

  1. 49 CFR 572.189 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) The test probe for lateral shoulder, thorax without arm, abdomen, and pelvis impact tests is the... conforms to SA572-S69. (e) Load sensors for the abdomen conform to specifications of SA572-S75. (f) Load..., and abdomen impactor accelerations—Digitally filtered CFC 180; (5) Abdominal and pubic symphysis...

  2. 49 CFR 572.200 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mass moment of inertia of 3646 kg-cm2. (b) The test probe for the lateral abdomen impact test is the... moments—digitally filtered at CFC 600; (5) Pelvis, shoulder, thorax and abdomen impactor accelerations...) Shoulder, thorax, and abdomen deflection—digitally filtered CFC 600. (h) Mountings for the head,...

  3. Fatigue testing of materials under extremal conditions by acoustic method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranov, VM; Bibilashvili, YK; Karasevich, VA; Sarychev, GA

    2004-01-01

    Increasing fuel cycle time requires fatigue testing of the fuel clad materials for nuclear reactors. The standard high-temperature fatigue tests are complicated and tedious. Solving this task is facilitated by the proposed acoustic method, which ensures observation of the material damage dynamics, m

  4. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories.

  5. Co-integration Rank Testing under Conditional Heteroskedasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    null distributions of the rank statistics coincide with those derived by previous authors who assume either i.i.d. or (strict and covariance) stationary martingale difference innovations. We then propose wild bootstrap implementations of the co-integrating rank tests and demonstrate that the associated...... bootstrap rank statistics replicate the first-order asymptotic null distributions of the rank statistics. We show the same is also true of the corresponding rank tests based on the i.i.d. bootstrap of Swensen (2006). The wild bootstrap, however, has the important property that, unlike the i.i.d. bootstrap......, it preserves in the re-sampled data the pattern of heteroskedasticity present in the original shocks. Consistent with this, numerical evidence sug- gests that, relative to tests based on the asymptotic critical values or the i.i.d. bootstrap, the wild bootstrap rank tests perform very well in small samples un...

  6. [Present condition and problem of presymptomatic genetic testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukinaka, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    For neuromuscular disease the best diagnosis is by genetic testing. Genetic testing is very important, however, the influence which a positive result can have on a family is very considerable. It can affect the family's lifestyle a lot. For example presymptomatic and prenatal genetic testing may be necessary for the family's children when they become adults themselves. We did qualitative research with five people who received presymptomatic genetic testing because of a family member with familial amyloidic polyneropathy. Heredity problems had a big influence on their life and on family dynamics. In order to support hereditary disease patients and their families, it is important to make a system which all medical institutions can use to help them cooperate together and deal with the treatment of hereditary diseases.

  7. Testing of newly developed functional surfaces under pure sliding conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Mohaghegh, Kamran; Grønbæk, J.;

    2013-01-01

    The employment of surface texturing for improved tribological contacts has spread over the years. The possibilities of designing and manufacturing textured surfaces with predetermined geometries have multiplied as well as the need of performing experimental laboratory tests before applying...

  8. The effect of drip irrigation and drip fertigation on N2O and NO emissions, water saving and grain yields in a maize field in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mu, Yujing; Zhou, Yizhen; Zhang, Chenglong; Liu, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    N2O and NO emissions, the water usage and grain yields of a maize field in the North China Plain (NCP) under traditional flood irrigation, drip irrigation and drip fertigation were compared. With respect to the flood irrigation treatment, N2O emissions were reduced by 13.8% in the drip irrigation treatment and 7.7% in the drip fertigation treatment. NO emissions were reduced to 16.7% in the drip irrigation treatment but increased by 21.7% in the drip fertigation treatment. The molar ratios of NO/N2O within 2days after each fertilization event were evidently greater from the drip fertigation treatment than from the flood irrigation treatment, indicating that nitrification was more intensive in the drip fertigation treatment than in the treatment of flood irrigation. Compared with the flood irrigation treatment, evident increase of the maize yields in the drip irrigation treatment (28%) and the drip fertigation treatment (3.7%) were found. Although the drip fertigation treatment could evidently increase NO emission, the 40% water reduction in drip fertigation is of great importance for the sustainable development of agriculture in the NCP where water resources are extremely limited. To mitigate NO emissions from agricultural fields in the NCP with drip fertigation, the addition of a nitrification inhibitor combined with N or nitrate fertilizer was recommended.

  9. Strength and elastic properties of sandstone under different testing conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun-ping; WANG Si-jing; WANG En-zhi

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experimental program performed on Wuhan sandstones was presented under monotonic loading, partial cyclic loading during loading path and sine wave cyclic loading with different strain rates to compare uniaxial compression strength and elastic properties (elastic modulus and Poisson ratio) under different conditions and influence of pore fluid on them. When the loading strain rates are 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3/s, uniaxial compression strengths of dry sandstones are 82.3, 126.6 and 141.6 MPa,respectively, and that of water saturated sandstones are 70.5, 108.3 and 124.1 MPa, respectively. The above results show that the uniaxial compression strength increases with the increase of strain rate, however, variation of softening coefficient is insignificant.Under monotonic loading condition, tangent modulus increases with an increment of stress (strain) to a maximum value at a certain stress level, beyond which it starts to decline. Under the partial cyclic loading during loading path condition, unloading or reloading modulus is larger than loading modulus, and unloading and reloading moduli are almost constants with respect to stress level,especially unloading modulus. Under the sine wave cyclic loading condition, tangent modulus and Poisson ratio display asymmetric 'X' shape with various strain, and the average unloading modulus is larger than the average loading modulus.

  10. Eye Movement Analysis of Information Processing under Different Testing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Ronna F.

    1985-01-01

    Undergraduates were given complex figural analogies items, and eye movements were observed under three types of feedback: (1) elaborate feedback; (2) subjects verbalized their thinking and application of rules; and (3) no feedback. Both feedback conditions enhanced the rule-governed information processing during inductive reasoning. (Author/GDC)

  11. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles. For test vehicles selected under §§ 86.1822-01... be expected to influence emissions include, but are not limited to: air conditioning, power steering...) Except for air conditioning, where it is expected that 33 percent or less of a car line, within a test...

  12. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  13. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628550; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the

  15. Direct mass measurements beyond the proton drip-line

    CERN Document Server

    Rauth, C; Blaum, K; Block, M; Chaudhuri, A; Eliseev, S; Ferrer, R; Habs, D; Herfurth, F; Hessberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Kluge, H J; Maero, G; Martin, A; Marx, G; Mukherjee, M; Neumayr, J B; Plass, W R; Quint, W; Rahaman, S; Rodríguez, D; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Thirolf, P G; Vorobjev, G; Weber, C; Di, Z

    2007-01-01

    First on-line mass measurements were performed at the SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer. The masses of 18 neutron-deficient isotopes in the terbium-to-thulium region produced in fusion-evaporation reactions were determined with relative uncertainties of about $7\\cdot 10^{-8}$, nine of them for the first time. Four nuclides ($^{144, 145}$Ho and $^{147, 148}$Tm) were found to be proton-unbound. The implication of the results on the location of the proton drip-line is discussed by analyzing the one-proton separation energies.

  16. Magnetic Moment of Proton Drip-Line Nucleus (9)C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Tanigaki, M.; Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Mihara, M.; Onishi, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic moment of the proton drip-line nucleus C-9(I(sup (pi)) = 3/2, T(sub 1/2) = 126 ms) has been measured for the first time, using the beta-NMR detection technique with polarized radioactive beams. The measure value for the magnetic moment is 1mu(C-9)! = 1.3914 +/- 0.0005 (mu)N. The deduced spin expectation value of 1.44 is unusually larger than any other ones of even-odd nuclei.

  17. Thermal Performance Testing of Glass Microspheres under Cryogenic Vacuum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    A key element of space launch vehicles and systems is thermal insulation for cryogenic tanks and piping. Glass microspheres, or glass bubbles, represent an alternative insulation material for a number of applications. Composite materials and engineered thermal insulation systems are also being developed based on the use of glass bubbles as the main constituent material. Commonly used materials, such as spray-on foam insulation, or SOFI, for vehicle tanks and perlite powder for ground storage tanks, are targeted for replacement with the new-technology systems that use glass bubbles. Complete thermal characterization of the glass bubbles is the first step toward producing the engineering solutions required for the energy-efficient, low-maintenance cryogenic systems of the future. Thermal performance testing of the glass microsphere material was successfully completed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test measurements were made at the full temperature difference (typical boundary temperatures of 78 kelvin [K] and 293 K) and included the full cold-vacuum pressure range. The results are reported in apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and mean heat flux.

  18. Finite-temperature pairing re-entrance in the drip-line nucleus 48Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbas, Mohamed; Li, Jia Jie; Margueron, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Finite-temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory using Skyrme interactions and relativistic Hartree-Fock effective Lagrangians predicts 48Ni as being a possible candidate for the finite-temperature pairing re-entrance phenomenon. For this proton-drip-line nucleus, proton resonant states are expected to contribute substantially to pairing correlations and the two predicted critical temperatures are Tc 1˜0.08 -0.2 MeV and Tc 2˜0.7 -0.9 MeV. It is also shown that pairing re-entrance modifies the proton single-particle energies around the Fermi level, as well as occupation numbers and quasiparticle levels. The understanding of pairing re-entrance in 48Ni presently challenges our understanding of exotic matter under extreme conditions.

  19. Impact of Drip Irrigation Scheduling on Vegetative Parameters in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Under Unheated Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Alaoui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grafted Tomatoes were grown on a fine sandy soil using drip irrigation and plastic mulch to evaluate the effects of irrigation scheduling on water requirements and vegetative parameters under typical Massa greenhouses growing conditions. Capacitive sensors were used to automatically schedule irrigations. The result of this study shows that irrigation dose and frequency does not affect stem diameter in grafted tomato plant, no significant effect on leaves number has been observed. But irrigation scheduling have a large effect on root’s development, The root containers results indicated that a water stress equivalent to 50%ETc and 20% frequency can lead to deep root system; that makes possible to sustain a suitable vegetative canopy if doses and frequencies are well managed in a daily scale; It was possible save 50% of irrigation water.

  20. Effect of Drip Tape Placement Depth and Values of Applied Water on Yield and Water Productivity of Potato in Dehgolan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyneb Fathi Tilko

    2017-01-01

    levels (60, 80, 100 and 120 percent of the potato water requirement and drip tape placement depth (0, 5, 10 and 15 centimeters, respectively. At the end of the growing season, tuber yield of potato was measured. Measured data were analyzed using statistical software, R.Also, mean comparisons were done using Duncan's test. Results Discussion: The results showed that the effect of irrigation water and drip tape placement on yield and water productivity was significant (P= 0.01%. The maximum yield and water productivity of this crop were related to 120 and 60 percent of crop water requirement, respectively. The results also showed that drip tape placement depth equal 15 cm was the depth when using drip tape irrigation system in Dehgolan plain. Economic analysis of different treatments showed that irrigation water depth equal 120 percent of the potato water requirement has higher Benefit–cost ratio than other treatments, but the water produced related to it is minimized. Since the Dehgolan plain faced with an intense water deficit and groundwater level of this plain has lost, so maximizing the amount of water produced in Dehgolan plain is inevitable. The results showed that the applied irrigation water depth equal 60 percent of potato water requirement and installation of irrigation tape at a depth of 15 cm can be achieved highest irrigation water use efficiency of potato in Dehgolan plain. The result of this research indicated that tuber yield and water productivity of the potato crop under subsurface drip irrigation systems is higher than surface drip irrigation. The ability of subsurface drip irrigation in the improving of tuber yield could be attributed to the less water lost from the soil surface through evaporation. Subsurface drip irrigation allows maintenance of optimum soil moisture content in the root zone, which improved the water productivity. Conclusion: The results show that the maximum tuber yield of potato was related to 120 percent of the potato water

  1. Condition For Strain-Hardening In Ecc Uniaxial Test Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    and infinite sheets under uniaxial tension. The crack is assumed to be cohesive and the cohesive law applied takes into account fiber as well as mortar properties. It is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in various test specimen geometries is small, 20 m and also small...... compared to typical deformations at peak bridging stress. The requirement of a minimum complementary energy for the fiber bridging curve is found not to be relevant in the aim of controlling the crack opening during crack propagation....

  2. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security, solve wat

  3. Bricolage as innovation: opening the black box of Drip Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Kuper, M.

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of bricol

  4. Bricolage as innovation: opening the black box of drip irrigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Zwarteveen, M.; Kuper, M.

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of bricol

  5. Farmers’ Logics in Engaging With Projects Promoting Drip Irrigation Kits in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, Jonas; Venot, Jean Philippe; Zwarteveen, Margreet; Fraiture, de Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not

  6. Bricolage as innovation: opening the black box of Drip Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Kuper, M.

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of

  7. Hydrogeochemical processes as environmental indicators in drip water: Study of the Cueva del Agua (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Martos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Karst caves exhibit a wide range of hydrological and hydrochemical responses to infiltration events, due to their physical heterogeneity space and dynamic variability over time, and due to non-Gaussian inputs (rain and outputs (discharge. This paper reviews different approaches of studying seepage water in caves, in order to understand the infiltration regimen in the non-saturated zone of karst areas. As an illustration, we describe a four-year study of the active carbonate-water system the Cueva del Agua (Granada, southern Spain that automatically logs the discharge from a stalactite. The results indicate that: (1 the drip water regime is not seasonal, but is linked instead to slow infiltration. Sudden changes in drip water regime occur due to infiltration along preferential flow paths and the draining of water of supersaturated water from reserves in the microfissure and pore system; (2 the drip rate is not linear over time. When dripping is constant, barometric oscillation of the air is the principal factor causing a chaotic a drip flow regime. Over a short period of two to three days, a mean variation in air pressure inside the cave of 10 (±3.7 mbar causes a oscillation the drip rate of 0.5 (±0.2 mm/h. The increase air translates into an the relative thickness of the gaseous phase of the drip water at the cost of the aqueous phase, so leading to a reduction the drip rate from the stalactite.

  8. GROUNDWATER MONITORING: Statistical Methods for Testing Special Background Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Charissa J.

    2004-04-28

    This chapter illustrates application of a powerful intra-well testing method referred as the combined Shewhart-CUSUM control chart approach, which can detect abrupt and gradual changes in groundwater parameter concentrations. This method is broadly applicable to groundwater monitoring situations where there is no clearly defined upgradient well or wells, where spatial variability exists in parameter concentrations, or when groundwater flow rate is extremely slow. Procedures for determining the minimum time needed to acquire independent groundwater samples and useful transformations for obtaining normally distributed data are also provided. The control chart method will be insensitive to detect real changes if a preexisting trend is observed in the background data set. A method and a case study describing how a trend observed in a background data set can be removed using a transformation suggested by Gibbons (1994) are presented to illustrate treatment of a preexisting trend.

  9. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Smith, Travis [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  10. Acoustic conditions in open plan offices – Pilot test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mikulski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main source of noise in open plan office are conversations. Office work standards in such premises are attained by applying specific acoustic adaptation. This article presents the results of pilot tests and acoustic evaluation of open space rooms. Material and Methods: Acoustic properties of 6 open plan office rooms were the subject of the tests. Evaluation parameters, measurement methods and criterial values were adopted according to the following standards: PN-EN ISO 3382- 3:2012, PN-EN ISO 3382-2:2010, PN-B-02151-4:2015-06 and PN-B-02151-3:2015-10. Results: The reverberation time was 0.33– 0.55 s (maximum permissible value in offices – 0.6 s; the criterion was met, sound absorption coefficient in relation to 1 m2 of the room’s plan was 0.77–1.58 m2 (minimum permissible value – 1.1 m2; 2 out of 6 rooms met the criterion, distraction distance was 8.5–14 m (maximum permissible value – 5 m; none of the rooms met the criterion, A-weighted sound pressure level of speech at a distance of 4 m was 43.8–54.7 dB (maximum permissible value – 48 dB; 2 out of 6 rooms met the criterion, spatial decay rate of the speech was 1.8–6.3 dB (minimum permissible value – 7 dB; none of the rooms met the criterion. Conclusions: Standard acoustic treatment, containing sound absorbing suspended ceiling, sound absorbing materials on the walls, carpet flooring and sound absorbing workplace barriers, is not sufficient. These rooms require specific advanced acoustic solutions. Med Pr 2016;67(5:653–662

  11. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS 3: −8.5 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 kyr: −9.3 ± 0.1‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.5 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  12. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, MIS3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS3: −8.6 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 ka: −9.7 ± 0.2‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.6 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  13. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative air conditioning test simulations. (a) Upon petition from a manufacturer or upon the Agency's own initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any simulation...

  14. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  15. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on drip loss of bovine longissimus lumborum, psoas major and semitendinosus muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog-Meischke, M.J.; Smulders, F.J.M.; Houben, J.H.; Eikelenboom, G.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation (2150 1U/head/day) on drip loss and related quality traits of bovine M. longissimus lumborum, M. psoas major and M. semitendinosus was examined. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on drip loss seemed to depend on muscle studied. Drip loss of longi

  16. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  17. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test Program Used for Grade 9 Students under Different Reviewing Test Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunkrai, Naruemon; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Ketchatturat, Jatuphum

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the accurate prediction of comparing test information and evaluation result by multidimensional computerized adaptive scholastic aptitude test program used for grade 9 students under different reviewing test conditions. Grade 9 students of the Secondary Educational Service Area Office in the North-east of…

  18. Gowdy waves as a test-bed for constraint-preserving boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, C

    2010-01-01

    Gowdy waves, one of the standard 'apples with apples' tests, is proposed as a test-bed for constraint-preserving boundary conditions in the non-linear regime. As an illustration, energy-constraint preservation is separately tested in the Z4 framework. Both algebraic conditions, derived from energy estimates, and derivative conditions, deduced from the constraint-propagation system, are considered. The numerical errors at the boundary are of the same order than those at the interior points.

  19. Preparation of Magnesium Hydroxide and Nanofiber Polymer Composites to Reduce the Flammability and Melt Dripping Behaviour of Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Raza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale alumina fibers reduce the flammability and melt dripping behaviour of polymers. Magnesium hydroxide breaks the agglomerates by generating shear and iterative forces. Mixing was done with Brabender Plasticoder. The temperature and time of mixing greatly affects the mixing behaviour. At higher temperatures blow holes were observed. By increasing the mixing time agglomerates were broken to a greater extent. Different concentrations of nanofibers, Magnesium hydroxide and surface treatments are used to investigate the properties of polymer. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, optical microscopy and flame test was done to see the effect of different parameters on mixing and flame retardancy behaviour.

  20. 葡萄滴灌增产机理及滴灌制度探讨--以贺兰山东麓葡萄种植为例%Discussion on Yield-increasing Mechanism of Drip Irrigation and Drip Irrigation System for Grape-Taking Grape Growing in Helan Mountain East Foot Area as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙玉霞

    2014-01-01

    滴灌能改善葡萄园的生产条件,是葡萄增产增收的有效途径之一。以贺兰山东麓万亩葡萄长廊高效节水灌溉(滴灌、喷灌等微灌)方式实践,总结了滴灌对土壤、肥力、容重、孔隙率、葡萄生长发育、葡萄产量、浆果品质等的影响,同时对葡萄滴灌的灌溉制度进行了探讨。%The drip irrigation can improve the vineyard production conditions and is one of the effective ways to increase the production and income of the grape. The effects of the drip irrigation on the soil, fertility, bulk density, porosity, grape growth, grape yield, fruit quality and so on are summarized based on the practice of the efficient water-saving irrigation(drip irrigation and sprinkling irrigation, etc.) in the ten thousand mu grapes corridor of the Helan mountain east foot area. And the drip irrigation system for grape is discussed at same time.

  1. Hundreds of automatic drip counters reveal infiltration water discharge characteristics in Australian caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Coleborn, K.; Mahmud, K.; Markowska, M.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the timing and character of cave drip water discharge is crucial for our understanding of speleothem climate proxies. Since 2010, we have established a long-term, national monitoring program of drip water infiltration onto cave stalagmites using automated Stalagmate© loggers. Five karst regions, from semi-arid to sub-tropical climates, have been instrumented. Over 200 loggers (between 10 and 40 per cave) have collected data on the timing and amount of drip water infiltration, from sites of contrasting limestone geology. Here, we present results demonstrating the timing and characteristics of drip water discharge from 2010 to present. At the semi-arid Cathedral Cave, with a range of depths from 0-40 m, there is a decreasing frequency of recharge events with depth below ground surface. High-intensity, long-duration rainfall events are confirmed to be the primary driver of infiltration events at semi-arid sites, whereas annual rainfall amount is the primary driver at a Mediterranean climate site with high primary porosity. Inter-annual variability in the frequency and relative amount of drip water infiltration is compared to climate forcing variables such as the ENSO and surface temperature. Our cave observatory system helps improve our understanding of the drip water recharge process, drip-water related speleothem proxy records, and provides a baseline monitoring network for diffuse groundwater recharge during a period of climate change.

  2. Clustering and correlations at the neutron drip-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, N.A.; Marques, F.M

    2003-03-01

    Some recent experimental studies of clustering and correlations within very neutron-rich light nuclei are reviewed. In particular, the development of the novel probes of neutron-neutron interferometry and Dalitz-plot analyses is presented through the example of the dissociation of the two-neutron halo system {sup 14}Be. The utility of high-energy proton radiative capture is illustrated using a study of the {sup 6}He(p,{gamma}) reaction. A new approach to the production and detection of bound neutron clusters is also described, and the observation of events with the characteristics expected for tetraneutrons ({sup 4}n) liberated in the breakup of {sup 14}Be is discussed. The prospects for future work, including systems beyond the neutron drip-line, are briefly outlined. (authors)

  3. Exotic decay of hot rotating nuclei near proton drip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Ray, I.; Rahaman, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Garg, R.; Goyal, S.; Ganguly, S.; Kumar, S.; Mandal, S.; Mukherjee, B.; Mukherjee, P.; Muralithar, S.; Negi, D.; Saxena, M.; Selvakumar, K.; Singh, P.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2014-03-01

    Hot and rotating exotic 124Ce nucleus near proton drip line has been populated through fusion evaporation reaction of 32S and 92Mo. This exotic nucleus was de-excited by evaporating p, n, α and/or light nuclei etc and several exotic nuclei have been populated. The experimentally obtained relative population of those exotic nuclei have been compared with the statistical model calculation. Agreement between experimental and statistical model calculation have been observed for most of the evaporation channels. Huge enhancement in comparison to statistical model calculation have been observed fora few channels related to multiple proton evaporation which could not be explained by using default and modified input parameters in statistical calculation.

  4. Effect of Long-term Drip Fertigation on Root Growth of Lychee and Soil pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Through field experiment,we explore the impact of long-term drip fertigation on growth and distribution of lychee root and changes of soil pH in different layers of soil in lychee garden.The results show that drip fertigation can significantly promote the growth of lychee roots,and increase the contact area of root and soil;if it experiences six years of drip fertigation successively,the dry weight of root,root length and surface area of root in soil in drip fertigation area,will be 2.29 times,2.17 times and 2.25 times that in non-drip fertigation area,respectively.The lychee root is mainly distributed in 0-40 cm layer of soil,but there is conspicuous difference between drip fertigation area and non-drip fertigation area in terms of root distribution in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layer of soil.Drip fertigation is more favorable for the root to go deep inside the soil.Under long-term drip fertigation,the soil acidification in lychee garden is prominent,and in comparison with non-drip fertigation area,there is the greatest decline in soil pH in 10-20 cm layer of soil in drip fertigation area,reaching 1.47 units.

  5. β-delayed proton decays near the proton drip line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Shuwei; LI; Zhankui; XIE; Yuanxiang; HUANG; Wenxue; SH

    2005-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the experimental study on β-delayed proton decays near the proton drip line published by our group during the period of 1996―2004, namely the first observation of the β-delayed proton decays of 9 new nuclides in the rare-earth region and the new measurements of β-delayed proton decays of 5 nuclides in the mass (90 region near the N = Z line with the aid of the "p-γ" coincidence in combination with a He-jet tape transport system. In the meantime some important experimental technique details were supplemented. The experimental results, including the half-lives, spins, parities, deformations and production reaction cross sections for the 14 nuclei were summarized and compared with the current nuclear-model predictions, and then the following points were represented. (1) The experimental half-lives for 85Mo and 92Rh as well as the predicted "waiting point" nuclei 89Ru and 93Pd are 5―10 times longer than the theoretical predictions given by M(o)ller et al. using a macroscopic-microscopic model. It considerably influences the predictions of the abundances of the nuclides produced in the rp-process. (2) The current-model predictions are not consistent with the experimental assignments of the spins and parities for the proton drip-line nuclei 142Ho and 128Pm. However, the nuclear potential energy surface (PES) calculated by using a Woods- Saxon-Strutinsky method reproduced the experimental results. (3) The Alice code overestimated the production reaction cross sections of the studied 9 rare-earth nuclei by one order of magnitude or two, while HIVAP code overestimated them by one order of magnitude approximately.

  6. Symmetry energy effects on properties of neutron star crusts around the neutron drip density

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, S S; Zhang, Z W; Shen, H

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of the symmetry energy on the neutron drip density and properties of nuclei in neutron star crusts. The nonuniform matter around the neutron drip point is calculated using the Thomas--Fermi approximation with the relativistic mean-field model. The neutron drip density and the composition of the crust are found to be correlated with the symmetry energy and its slope. We compare the self-consistent Thomas--Fermi approximation with other treatments of surface and Coulomb energies, and find that these finite-size effects play an essential role in determining the equilibrium state at low density.

  7. The soil-water flow system beneath a cotton field in arid north-west China, serviced by mulched drip irrigation using brackish water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianwen; Jin, Menggui; Huang, Jinou; Yuan, Jingjing

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was carried out in southern Xinjiang, China, to reveal soil-water flow pattern beneath a combined plastic-mulch (film) and drip-irrigation system using brackish water. The soil-water flow system (SWFS) was characterized from soil surface to the water table based on observed spatio-temporal distribution of total soil-water potential, water content and electric conductivity. Root suction provided a strong inner sink. The results indicated that SWFS determined the soil salinity and moisture distribution. Drip-irrigation events could leach excess salts from the root zone and provide soil conditions with a tolerable salinity level that supports the growth of cotton. High-salinity strips were formed along the wetting front and at the bare soil surface. Hydrogeology conditions, irrigation regime, climate, plant growth and use of mulch would affect potential sources and sinks, boundary conditions and the size of the SWFS. At depth 0-60 cm, the soil salinity at the end of the irrigation season was 1.9 times that at the beginning. Beneath the mulch cover, the soil-water content in the `wide rows' zone (55 cm between the two rows with no drip line) was higher than that in the `narrow rows' zone (15 cm between the two rows with a drip line) due to the strong root-water uptake. The downward water flow below the divergent curved surface of zero flux before irrigation, and the water-table fluctuation with irrigation events, indicated that excessive irrigation occurred.

  8. Plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, André Luiz Barros de O.; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Yukitaka Pessinati Ohashi, Augusto; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Aparecida Creste Dias de Souza, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supply should be taken into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to attain high yield and to increase longevity of plants. In this context it is necessary to investigate responses of different varieties to water supply. The aim of this work was to evaluate the plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil in the 1st cane ratoon cycle. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars in the 1st cane ratoon cycle, from January (after the harvest of cane plant cycle) to October (harvest the 1st cane ratoon cycle). The plant spacing was 1.5 m between rows. Each cultivar was planted in an area of 0.4 hectares. The irrigation was done by a subsuperficial drip system with one drip line in each plant row installed at 0.25 m deep. During the 1st cane ratoon cycle the parameters were analysed on the 33rd, 123rd, 185th and 277th day. The analysed parameters were: plant yield (m), leaf area index (LAI) and yield (tons per hectare). According to the results from the second sampling (123rd day) the varieties IACSP95-5000 and IACSP94-2101 showed higher plant height when compared to the other varieties. However, from the third sampling (185th day) on the IACSP95-5000 variety grew considerably taller than the other varieties. The varieties SP79-1011and IACSP94-2101 presented lower values of LAI throughout the crop cycle when compared to other varieties. But on the

  9. "More drop per crop" when moving from gravitational to drip irrigated agriculture? Experiences from a North Moroccan case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, N.; Gaspart, F.; Vanclooster, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to save agricultural water, the famous FAO's "more crop per drop" has been taken literally in many arid or semi-arid places around the world and policies that aim improving "efficiencies" (irrigation efficiency…) have been implemented, often leading to the promotion of water saving technologies. In 1865, studying coal consumption, W.S. Jevons highlighted that improving coal use efficiency could, as a paradox, lead to higher global coal use. Many economists later extended this idea to resource saving technologies in general, showing that, due to the "rebound effect", the adoption of more efficient technologies, in terms of use of resources, could lead to a higher global consumption of this resource if this adoption didn't go with adjustment measures. Regarding these considerations, the emerging question is to which extent water saving technologies (i.e. that aim improving water related efficiencies) are appropriate to save water at large scale. Our study addresses this question through the analysis of the conversion from surface to drip irrigation in Triffa's irrigated perimeter (Morocco). We aim addressing this question using the detailed analysis of two data sets. First, available data were collected for every farm within the study area from the local administrations. Second, interviews were conducted with farmers to complete the dataset and to characterize their behavior. This allowed assessing water related efficiencies at farm scale. Subsequently, models were implemented to link efficiencies with general attributes and thereby identify the main drivers of water related efficiencies in the study area. Finally, these models were used to upscale farm-scale assessment to the perimeter scale. Our results show that, under current conditions, moving from surface to drip irrigation leads to higher global water withdrawal. However, the aforementioned "rebound effect" does not allow explaining the higher pressure because of contextual specificities. Deeper

  10. Prototype of a subsurface drip irrigation emitter: Manufacturing, hydraulic evaluation and experimental analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wanderley De Jesus; Rodrigues Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez, Raúl; Arriel Botrel, Tarlei; Duarte Coelho, Rubens

    2013-04-01

    Root and soil intrusion into the conventional emitters is one of the major disadvantages to obtain a good uniformity of water application in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). In the last years, there have been different approaches to reduce these problems such as the impregnation of emitters with herbicide, and the search for an emitter geometry impairing the intrusion of small roots. Within the last this study, has developed and evaluated an emitter model which geometry shows specific physical features to prevent emitter clogging. This work was developed at the Biosystems Engineering Department at ESALQ-USP/Brazil, and it is a part of a research in which an innovated emitteŕs model for SDI has been developed to prevent root and soil particles intrusion. An emitter with a mechanical-hydraulic mechanism (opening and closing the water outlet) for SDI was developed and manufactured using a mechanical lathe process. It was composed by a silicon elastic membrane a polyethylene tube and a Vnyl Polychloride membrane protector system. In this study the performance of the developed prototype was assessed in the laboratory and in the field conditions. In the laboratory, uniformity of water application was calculated by the water emission uniformity coefficient (CUE), and the manufacturer's coefficient of variation (CVm). In addition, variation in the membrane diameter submitted to internal pressures; head losses along the membrane, using the energy equation; and, precision and accuracy of the equation model, analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and by Willmott's concordance index (d) were also calculated with samples of the developed emitters. In the field, the emitters were installed in pots with and without sugar cane culture from October 2010 to January 2012. During this time, flow rate in 20 emitters were measured periodically, and the aspects of them about clogging at the end of the experiment. Emitters flow rates were measured quarterly to calculate

  11. Use of a furosemide drip does not improve earlier primary fascial closure in the open abdomen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Leland H; Patel, Mayur B; Dortch, Marcus J; Miller, Richard S; Gunter, Oliver L; Collier, Bryan R

    2012-01-01

    The furosemide drip (FD), in addition to improving volume overload respiratory failure, has been used to decrease fluid in attempts to decrease intra-abdominal and abdominal wall volumes to facilitate fascial closure...

  12. Charge Effects and Nanoparticle Pattern Formation in Electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip Printing of Colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Richner, Patrizia; Norris, David J; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-01-01

    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics, to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O(1 {\\mu}m) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by ...

  13. Technological quality and yield of sugarcane grown under nitrogen doses via subsurface drip fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa F. L. Rhein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study characterized the technological quality and yield of sugarcane cv. SP80-3280 under nitrogen doses via subsurface drip fertigation. Five treatments were established using N-fertilizer in the form of urea (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha-1, with four replicates, applied via subsurface drip fertigation. The technological quality (fiber% cane; Brix% juice; pol% juice, pol% cane; juice purity and total recoverable sugar - TRS, as well as yield of stalks and sugar were determined 381 days after the third harvest. The technological variables Brix%, pol% juice, purity% and TRS of sugarcane, cultivar SP80-3280, were altered by the application of nitrogen doses via subsurface drip fertigation, with significant reductions at the dose of 200 kg N ha-1. Stalk and sugar yields increased linearly with the increment in nitrogen doses applied through subsurface drip fertigation.

  14. Remote-Sensing-Based Evaluation of Relative Consumptive Use Between Flood- and Drip-Irrigated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Jordan, D. L.; Whittaker, A. T.; Allen, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Governments and water authorities are compelled to evaluate the impacts of agricultural irrigation on economic development and sustainability as water supply shortages continue to increase in many communities. One of the strategies commonly used to reduce such impacts is the conversion of traditional irrigation methods towards more water-efficient practices. As part of a larger effort by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission to understand the environmental and economic impact of converting from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, this study evaluates the water-saving effectiveness of drip irrigation in Deming, New Mexico, using a remote-sensing-based technique combined with ground data collection. The remote-sensing-based technique used relative temperature differences as a proxy for water use to show relative differences in crop consumptive use between flood- and drip-irrigated fields. Temperature analysis showed that, on average, drip-irrigated fields were cooler than flood-irrigated fields, indicating higher water use. The higher consumption of water by drip-irrigated fields was supported by a determination of evapotranspiration (ET) from all fields using the METRIC Landsat-based surface energy balance model. METRIC analysis yielded higher instantaneous ET for drip-irrigated fields when compared to flood-irrigated fields and confirmed that drip-irrigated fields consumed more water than flood-irrigated fields planted with the same crop. More water use generally results in more biomass and hence higher crop yield, and this too was confirmed by greater relative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the drip irrigated fields. Results from this study confirm previous estimates regarding the impacts of increased efficiency of drip irrigation on higher water consumption in the area (Ward and Pulido-Velazquez, 2008). The higher water consumption occurs with drip because, with the limited water supplies and regulated maximum limits on pumping amounts, the

  15. Drip irrigation: Will it increase yield in traditional vegetable production system?

    OpenAIRE

    Anas D Susila; T. Prasetyo

    2008-01-01

    In the rain-fed production system area, vegetables normally can be grown on wet season (>200 mm/month) between December - April. During dry season ( Drip irrigation systems have the highest potential water application efficiency of the irrigation system used in commercial vegetables production. Field studies have shown a significant decrease in irrigation requirements of tomatoes with the use of drip irrigation system and compared to sub-irrigation system. Marketable yield, fruit size, and fr...

  16. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases.......Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel test...... interpretation and a positive dependence in test specificity reduces the specificity of serial interpretation. We calculate conditional covariances as a measure of dependence between binary tests and show their relationship to kappa (a chance-corrected measure of test agreement). We use published data...

  17. Study on optimization method of test conditions for fatigue crack detection using lock-in vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qing-xu; Zhu, Jun-zhen; Feng, Fu-zhou; Xu, Chao; Sun, Ji-wei

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the lock-in vibrothermography (LVT) is utilized for defect detection. Specifically, for a metal plate with an artificial fatigue crack, the temperature rise of the defective area is used for analyzing the influence of different test conditions, i.e. engagement force, excitation intensity, and modulated frequency. The multivariate nonlinear and logistic regression models are employed to estimate the POD (probability of detection) and POA (probability of alarm) of fatigue crack, respectively. The resulting optimal selection of test conditions is presented. The study aims to provide an optimized selection method of the test conditions in the vibrothermography system with the enhanced detection ability.

  18. A New Rig for Testing Textured Surfaces in Pure Sliding Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; Mohaghegh, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    for cylinder liners. To prove the efficacy of a particular textured surface, it is paramount to perform experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions. In this paper, a new test rig simulating pure sliding conditions is presented, dubbed axial sliding test. It presents four major components: a rod......, a sleeve, a housing and a stripwound container. The rod and the sleeve are the two surfaces in relative sliding motion; the stripwound container maintains a constant, but adjustable normal pressure, and the housing serves as interface between the sleeve and the container. For carrying out the test, two......-turned rod against a mirror-polished sleeve. Qualitatively, the multifunctional surfaces improve the friction conditions, but a more structured test campaign is required. It is furthermore assessed the repeatability of the test device, in order to rely on the results obtained. Ten repetitions made...

  19. Deriving utility scores for co-morbid conditions: a test of the multiplicative model for combining individual condition scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Petit Christel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The co-morbidity of health conditions is becoming a significant health issue, particularly as populations age, and presents important methodological challenges for population health research. For example, the calculation of summary measures of population health (SMPH can be compromised if co-morbidity is not taken into account. One popular co-morbidity adjustment used in SMPH computations relies on a straightforward multiplicative combination of the severity weights for the individual conditions involved. While the convenience and simplicity of the multiplicative model are attractive, its appropriateness has yet to be formally tested. The primary objective of the current study was therefore to examine the empirical evidence in support of this approach. Methods The present study drew on information on the prevalence of chronic conditions and a utility-based measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL, namely the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3, available from Cycle 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS; 2000–01. Average HUI3 scores were computed for both single and co-morbid conditions, and were also purified by statistically removing the loss of functional health due to health problems other than the chronic conditions reported. The co-morbidity rule was specified as a multiplicative combination of the purified average observed HUI3 utility scores for the individual conditions involved, with the addition of a synergy coefficient s for capturing any interaction between the conditions not explained by the product of their utilities. The fit of the model to the purified average observed utilities for the co-morbid conditions was optimized using ordinary least squares regression to estimate s. Replicability of the results was assessed by applying the method to triple co-morbidities from the CCHS cycle 1.1 database, as well as to double and triple co-morbidities from cycle 2.1 of the CCHS (2003–04. Results

  20. [Simulation of soil water dynamics in triploid Populus tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ben-Ye; Jia, Li-Ming; Wang, Ye; Li, Guang-De

    2011-01-01

    Based on the observed data of triploid Populus tomentosa root distribution, a one-dimensional root water uptake model was proposed. Taking the root water uptake into account, the soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation was simulated by using HYDRUS model, and the results were validated with field experiment. Besides, the HYDRUS model was used to study the effects of various irrigation technique parameters on soil wetting patterns. The RMAE for the simulated soil water content by the end of irrigation and approximately 24 h later was 7.8% and 6.0%, and the RMSE was 0.036 and 0.026 cm3 x cm(-3), respectively, illustrating that the HYDRUS model performed well in simulating the short-term soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under drip irrigation, and the root water uptake model was reasonable. Comparing with 2 and 4 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and continuous irrigation, both the 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and the pulsed irrigation with water applied intermittently in 30 min periods could increase the volume of wetted soil and reduce deep percolation. It was concluded that the combination of 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and pulsed irrigation should be the first choice when applying drip irrigation to triploid P. tomentosa root zone at the experiment site.

  1. Effects of Soil Water Content on Cotton Root Growth and Distribution Under Mulched Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-tang; CHEN Hu; WANG Jing; MENG Xiao-bin; CHEN Fu-hong

    2009-01-01

    The relation between soil water content and the growth of cotton root was studied for the scheme of field water and cotton yield under mulched drip irrigation.Based on the field experiments,three treatments of soil water content were conducted with 90%θf,75%θf,and 60%θf (θf is field water capacity).Cotton roots and root-shoot ratio were studied with digging method,and the soil moisture was observed with TDR (time domain reflector),and cotton yield was measured.The results indicated that the growth of cotton root accorded with Logistic growth curve in the three treatments,the cotton root grew quickly and its weight was very high under 75%θf because of the suitable soil water condition,while grew slowly and its weight was lower under 90%θf due to water moisture beyond the suitable condition,and the root weight was in between under 60%θf.For the three water treatments,the cotton root weight decreased with soil depth,and decreased more significantly in deeper soil layer with the soil moisture increasing.And the ratio of cotton root weight in 0-30 cm soil layer to the total root weight was the highest under 75%θf.The cotton root system was distributed mainly in the soil of narrow row and wide row mulched with plastic film,and little in the soil outside plastic film.The weight of cotton root was the highest in the soil of narrow row or wide row mulched with plastic film under 75%θf.Root-shoot ratio decreased with the soil moisture increasing.The soil water content affected cotton yields,and cotton yield was the highest under 75%θf.The higher soil moisture level is unfavorable to the growth of cotton root system and yield of cotton under mulched drip irrigation.

  2. Evaluation of HIV testing recommendations in specialty guidelines for the management of HIV indicator conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lord, E; Stockdale, A J; Malek, R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: European guidelines recommend HIV testing for individuals presenting with indicator conditions (ICs) including AIDS-defining conditions (ADCs). The extent to which non-HIV specialty guidelines recommend HIV testing in ICs and ADCs is unknown. Our aim was to pilot a methodology in the UK......%). There was no association between recommendation to test and publication year (P = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of guidelines for ICs do not recommend testing. Clinicians managing ICs may be unaware of recommendations produced by HIV societies or the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among these patients. We...

  3. [Effects of water storage in deeper soil layers on the root growth, root distribution and economic yield of cotton in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Taking cotton cultivar Xinluzao 13 as test material, a soil column culture expenment was conducted to study the effects of water storage in deeper (> 60 cm) soil layer on the root growth and its relations with the aboveground growth of the cultivar in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch. Two levels of water storage in 60-120 cm soil layer were installed, i. e., well-watered and no watering, and for each, the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth period was controlled at two levels, i.e., 70% and 55% of field capacity. It was observed that the total root mass density of the cultivar and its root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer had significant positive correlations with the aboveground dry mass. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 70% of field capacity, the total root mass density under well-watered and no watering had less difference, but the root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer under well-watered condition increased, which enhanced the water consumption in deeper soil layer, increased the aboveground dry mass, and finally, led to an increased economic yield and higher water use efficiency. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 55% of field capacity and the deeper soil layer was well-watered, the root/shoot ratio and root length density in 40-120 cm soil layer and the root activity in 80-120 cm soil layer were higher, the water consumption in deeper soil layer increased, but it was still failed to adequately compensate for the negative effects of water deficit during growth season on the impaired growth of roots and aboveground parts, leading to a significant decrease in the economic yield, as compared with that at 70% of field capacity. Overall, sufficient water storage in deeper soil layer and a sustained soil moisture level of 65% -75% of field capacity during growth period could promote the

  4. An optimization model to design and manage subsurface drip irrigation system for alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelous, M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J. A.; Simunek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods for watering alfalfa plants. Lateral installation depth and distance, emitter discharge, and irrigation time and frequency of SDI, in addition to soil and climatic conditions affect alfalfa’s root water uptake and yield. Here we use a multi-objective optimization approach to find optimal SDI strategies. Our approach uses the AMALGAM evolutionary search method, in combination with the HYDRUS-2D unsaturated flow model to maximize water uptake by alfalfa’s plant roots, and minimize loss of irrigation and drainage water to the atmosphere or groundwater. We use a variety of different objective functions to analyze SDI. These criteria include the lateral installation depth and distance, the lateral discharge, irrigation duration, and irrigation frequency. Our framework includes explicit recognition of the soil moisture status during the simulation period to make sure that the top soil is dry for harvesting during the growing season. Initial results show a wide spectrum of optimized SDI strategies for different root distributions, soil textures and climate conditions. The developed tool should be useful in helping farmers optimize their irrigation strategy and design.

  5. Model test study of evaporation mechanism of sand under constant atmospheric condition

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yu Jun; Ding, Wenqi; SONG, Weikang

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation mechanism of Fontainebleau sand using a large-scale model chamber is studied. First, the evaporation test on a layer of water above sand surface is performed under various atmospheric conditions, validating the performance of the chamber and the calculation method of actual evaporation rate by comparing the calculated and measured cumulative evaporations. Second,the evaporation test on sand without water layer is conducted under constant atmospheric condition. Both the evoluti...

  6. Simulation of Salinity Distribution in Soil Under Drip Irrigation Tape with Saline Water Using SWAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The to be limited available water amount from one side and to be increased needs of world population from the other side have caused increase of cultivation for products. For this reason, employing new irrigation ways and using new water resources like using the uncommon water (salty water, water drainage are two main strategies for regulating water shortage conditions. On the other side, accumulation of salts on the soil surface in dry regions having low rainfall and much evaporation, i.e. an avoidable case. As doing experiment for determining moisture distribution form demands needs a lot of time and conducting desert experiments are costly, stimulator models are suitable alternatives in answering the problem concerning moving and saltiness distribution. Materials and Methods: In this research, simulation of soil saltiness under drip irrigation was done by the SWAP model and potency of the above model was done in comparison with evaluated relevant results. SWAP model was performed based on measured data in a corn field equipped with drip irrigation system in the farming year 1391-92 in the number one research field in the engineering faculty of water science, ShahidChamran university of Ahvaz and hydraulic parameters of soil obtained from RETC . Statistical model in the form of a random full base plan with four attendants for irrigating water saltiness including salinity S1 (Karoon River water with salinity 3 ds/m as a control treatment, S2 (S1 +0/5, S3 (S1 +1 and S4 (S1 +1/5 dS/m, in 3 repetition and in 3 intervals of 10 cm emitter, 20 cm emitters on the stack, at a depth of 0-90 cm (instead of each 30 cm from soil surface and intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days after modeling cultiviation was done. The cultivation way was done handheld in plots including four rows of 3 m in distance of 75 cm rows and with denseness of 80 bushes in a hectar. Drip irrigation system was of type strip with space of 20 cm pores. Results and Discussion

  7. Response of broccoli to soil water tension under drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeu Felix Tangune

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of different soil water tensions on the production of broccoli cultivated in a protected environment under drip irrigation in order to establish criteria for the adequate management of irrigation. A completely randomized block design was used, comprising six treatments and four replicates. The treatments included six soil water tensions (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 kPa. Soil water tension was monitored with granular matrix sensors installed at depths of 0.2 m (decision sensors and 0.4 m (seepage control sensors. Total and marketable fresh weight of broccoli heads, average diameter of marketable heads, height of marketable heads, and total and marketable yield were greatest when the soil water tension at a depth of 0.2 m was 15 kPa, at which the mean values of the evaluated variables were 0.84 kg, 0.76 kg, 20.5 cm, 11.7 cm; 26.5 t ha?1, and 23.7 t ha?1, respectively. Treatments did not significantly affect efficiency of water use or height of marketable heads.

  8. Spectroscopy of $^{28}$Na: shell evolution toward the drip line

    CERN Document Server

    Lepailleur, A; Mutschler, A; Sorlin, O; Bader, V; Bancroft, C; Barofsky, D; Bastin, B; Baugher, T; Bazin, D; Bildstein, V; Borcea, C; Borcea, R; Brown, B A; Caceres, L; Gade, A; Gaudefroy, L; Grévy, S; Grinyer, G F; Iwasaki, H; Khan, E; Kröll, T; Langer, C; Lemasson, A; Llidoo, O; Lloyd, J; Negoita, F; Santos, F de Oliveira; Perdikakis, G; Recchia, F; Redpath, T; Roger, T; Rotaru, F; Saenz, S; Saint-Laurent, M -G; Smalley, D; Sohler, D; Stanoiu, M; Stroberg, S R; Thomas, J C; Vandebrouck, M; Weisshaar, D; Westerberg, A

    2015-01-01

    Excited states in $^{28}$Na have been studied using the $\\beta$-decay of implanted $^{28}$Ne ions at GANIL/LISE as well as the in-beam $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy at the NSCL/S800 facility. New states of positive (J$^{\\pi}$=3,4$^+$) and negative (J$^{\\pi}$=1-5$^-$) parity are proposed. The former arise from the coupling between 0d$\\_{5/2}$ protons and a 0d$\\_{3/2}$ neutron, while the latter are due to couplings with 1p$\\_{3/2}$ or 0f$\\_{7/2}$ neutrons. While the relative energies between the J$^{\\pi}$=1-4$^+$ states are well reproduced with the USDA interaction in the N=17 isotones, a progressive shift in the ground state binding energy (by about 500 keV) is observed between $^{26}$F and $^{30}$Al. This points to a possible change in the proton-neutron 0d$\\_{5/2}$-0d$\\_{3/2}$ effective interaction when moving from stability to the drip line. The presence of J$^{\\pi}$=1-4$^-$ negative parity states around 1.5 MeV as well as of a candidate for a J$^{\\pi}$=5$^-$ state around 2.5 MeV give further support to the col...

  9. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; K. Mon

    2003-06-24

    The recommended waste package (WP) design is described in BSC (2001a). The design includes a double-wall WP underneath a protective drip shield (DS) (BSC 2003a). The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation (DOX), general corrosion (GC) and localized corrosion (LC) of the DS plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. The DS design also includes structural supports fabricated from Ti Grade 24. Degradation of Ti Grade 24 is not considered in this report. The DS provides protection for the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. This Model Report (MR) serves as a feed to the Integrated Waste Package Degradation Model (IWPD) analyses, and was developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (BSC 2002a). The models contained in this report serve as a basis to determine whether or not the performance requirements for the DS can be met.

  10. $\\beta$-delayed proton decays near the proton drip line

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, S W; Huang, W X; Li, Z K; Pan Qiang Yan; Shu, N C; Wang, K; Wang, X D; Xie, Y X; Xing, Y B; Xu, F R; Yu, Y; 10.1103/PhysRevC.71.054318

    2005-01-01

    We briefly reviewed and summarized the experimental study on beta - delayed proton decays published by our group over the last 8 years, namely the experimental observation of beta -delayed proton decays of nine new nuclides in the rare-earth region near the proton drip line and five nuclides in the mass 90 region with N approximately=Z by utilizing the p- gamma coincidence technique in combination with a He-jet tape transport system. In addition, important technical details of the experiments were provided. The experimental results were compared to the theoretical predictions of some nuclear models, resulting in the following conclusions. (1) The experimental half- lives for /sup 85/Mo, /sup 92/Rh, as well as the predicted "waiting point" nuclei /sup 89/Ru and /sup 93/Pd were 5-10 times longer than the macroscopic-microscopic model predictions of Moller et al. At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 66,131(1997). These data considerably influenced the predictions of the mass abundances of the nuclides produced in the rp p...

  11. Influence of test conditions and exposure duration on the result of ecotoxicological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj

    Chemicals are used extensively and are part of many aspects of human life and society. They are useful and necessary for many purposes, but may also cause adverse effects on natural organisms if they are released to the environment during and after use. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a risk....../8/EC) or the Plant Protection Products Directive (EC 1107/2009). In addition to such risk assessment directives, the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) has been adopted with the objective to protect and improve the quality of European waters and aquatic habitats. This requires, among other things...... be calculated from results of ecotoxicological tests performed according to internationally approved guidelines, such as from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) or International Standardization Organisation (ISO). Such guidelines were originally developed to enable classification...

  12. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    These criterion-referenced test (CRT) items for air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration are keyed to the Missouri Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Competency Profile. The items are designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System and Vocational Administrative Management System. For word processing and…

  13. Are specific testing protocols required for organic onion varieties? Analysis of onion variety testing under conventional and organic growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Osman, A.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Struik, P.C.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic growers need information on variety performance under their growing conditions. A 4-year onion variety research project was carried out to investigate whether setting up a variety testing system combining conventional and organic variety trials is feasible and efficient rather than organizin

  14. Validity Inferences under High-Stakes Conditions: A Response from Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathryn; McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Those who work in second- and foreign-language testing often find Koretz's concern for validity inferences under high-stakes (VIHS) conditions both welcome and familiar. While the focus of the article is more narrowly on the potential for two instructional responses to test-based accountability, "reallocation" and "coaching,"…

  15. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring During GRC Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Veers, P.; Keller, J.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-10-01

    This report will present the wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring (CM) research conducted under the phase 1 and phase 2 Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) tests. The rationale and approach for this drivetrain CM research, investigated CM systems, test configuration and results, and a discussion on challenges in wind turbine drivetrain CM and future research and development areas, will be presented.

  16. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2017-08-28

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  17. Validity Inferences under High-Stakes Conditions: A Response from Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathryn; McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Those who work in second- and foreign-language testing often find Koretz's concern for validity inferences under high-stakes (VIHS) conditions both welcome and familiar. While the focus of the article is more narrowly on the potential for two instructional responses to test-based accountability, "reallocation" and "coaching,"…

  18. Acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna under different test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Huggins, Krista; Selck, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    The acute toxicity of monodispersed 6 nm and Daphnia magna was assessed using 48 h immobilization tests. CuSO4 was used as a reference. Four different exposure conditions were tested, to study whether the toxicity of the nanoparticle...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  20. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  1. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493.1403 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  2. Root system stabilization of sugarcane fertigated by subsurface drip using a minirhizotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andre Luiz; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    To improve the efficiency of water use in irrigation practices and to provide information for modeling the knowledge of plants root system becomes necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies about the root system of sugarcane were performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system, which enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the time required for stabilization of the root system growth of sugarcane cultivar IACSP-5000 around the access tube in which images were captured. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The fertigation was applied by a subsurface drip system.. The soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution were monitored through solution extractor. Two access tubes with 1.05 m length were used, with 7 days difference between installations. The images were captured at 110, 128, 136, 143 and 151 days after harvest cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon), with the Root Scanner CI-600 ™ and were analyzed the number of roots and root length in each layer in different depths in the soil profile by software RootSnap! ™. The results show that the highest rates of increase in the number and length of roots were observed in the first 27 days. Absolute growth rates of up to 81 mm day-1 and 38 mm day-1 were presented in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer respectively. The number of roots stabilized from 27 days after installation of the tube, while

  3. Robust testing for normality of error terms with presence of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Střelec, Luboš; Stehlík, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Normality of the error terms in regression models is one of the basic assumptions in the applied regression analysis. Therefore, testing for normality of the error terms constitutes one of the most important steps of regression model verification and validation. Failure to assess non-normality of the error terms may lead to incorrect results of usual statistical inference techniques such as t-test or F-test. Within the applied regression analysis there is a frequent problem of the presence of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedasticity of the error terms. Under both autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity, the usual OLS estimators are still unbiased, linear and asymptotically normally distributed, however, no longer have the minimum variance property among all linear unbiased estimators. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and discuss normality testing of the error terms with presence of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedasticity. To explore the power of selected classical tests and robust tests for normality, we perform simulation study.

  4. [The investigation of nickel dissolution from nitinol under different extraction conditions in biological tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiantao; He, Xueying; Li, Jian; Tang, Juli; Huang, Yongfu

    2013-03-01

    The dissolution of nickel from nitinol alloy under different extraction conditions was investigated when biological tests of nitinol medical devices were carried out. It discussed the equivalence of these extraction conditions and found the best extraction conditions. In the experiment, two brands of nitinol were chosen and extracted under different extraction conditions according to GB/T 16886-12. Plasma emission spectrometer was used to analyse the concentration of nickel in extract liquid. The results show that there is no equivalence among these extraction conditions for nitinol materials. And it is suggested that (37 +/- 1) degree C, (72 +/- 2) h could be used as normal extraction condition and (70 +/- 2) degrees C, (24 +/- 2) h as accelerated extraction condition.

  5. Development and psychometric properties of a health knowledge test on six chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Paul; Detel, Sibylle; Ernsting, Clemens; Oedekoven, Monika; Kuhlmey, Adelheid

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a health knowledge test on common chronic conditions in the general population. Operationalization based on a facet design led to 108 knowledge items on six conditions: cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal system conditions, depression, and chronic pain. We refined the items (qualitative study 1; N=20) and selected the items by applying a mixed Rasch model (study 2; N=861). The psychometric properties (Study 3; N=4144) of the remaining 24 items were tested using exploratory (split sample N=2110) and confirmatory factor analyses (split sample N=2034). 108 items were refined within study 1, 24 of which were selected in study 2. In study 3, a general health knowledge factor was confirmed based on six subscales on specific conditions. Convergent validity was confirmed by the overlap of health knowledge with education and perceived health knowledge. The development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of a health knowledge test on six common conditions will improve future research on health knowledge. Chronic conditions present a challenge; assessing the level of health knowledge is the first step to prevent and to cope with these conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. TEST AND CHARACTERIZATION FOR THE INCOMPRESSIBLE HYPERELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CONDITIONED RUBBERS UNDER MODERATE FINITE DEFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaYong; LiWei; XiaYuanming

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the automated grid method is applied to test for the mechanical properties of conditioned rubbers under the moderate finite deformation (not exceeding 100%).More accurate stress-strain curves of conditioned rubber specimens under different conditioned strains are obtained. Test results show differences between these curves. Based on an analysis of the classical constitutive models, a new modified eight-chain model is proposed, which take saccount of both the locking stretch of chains and the interaction effect in the network. Fitting test data shows that the modified model well characterizes the incompressible hyperelastic mechanical behavior of conditioned rubbers under the moderate finite deformation as well as under the large deformation.

  7. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  8. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in section 1861(ll)(3) of the Act. (iii) Diagnostic psychological testing services when— (A... Procedural Terminology published by the American Medical Association. (3) Levels of supervision. Except where... consideration current rules and regulations on patient confidentiality. (4) Automatic denial and manual...

  9. Wetting Patterns and Nitrate Distributions in Layered-Textural Soils Under Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiu-sheng; JI Hong-yan; LI Bei; LIU Yu-chun

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted in different sequence and thickness of the soil layers to investigate the effects of layered-textural soils on wetting patterns and water and nitrate distributions from a surface point source under various combinations of application rate and applied volume. Three layered soils, including a sandy-over-sandy loam (SL), a sandy loam-over-sandy (LS), and a sandy loam-sandy-sandy loam (LSL), and two uniform soils (a uniform sandy loam and a uniform sandy soil) were tested. In the experiments, the application rate was varied from 0.69 to 3.86 L h-1 and the applied volume from 5.7 to 12.1 L. The experimental results demonstrated that the wetting patterns and water and nitrate distributions were greatly affected by the sequence and thickness of soil layers as well as the application rate and volume applied. An interface existing in the layered soils, whether a fine-over-coarse or a coarse-over-fine, had a common feature of limiting downward water movement and of increasing horizontal water movement. For the fine-over-coarse layered soils of LS and LSL, water and nitrate were uniformly distributed at a given depth in the top layer soil. For a coarse-over-fine layered soil of SL, however, water accumulated in the sublayer soil underneath the interface and a zone of lower nitrate concentration was observed. The effect of application rate on water distribution pattern was dependent upon soil layering. A minor influence of application rate on water distribution for the fine-over-coarse layered soils (LS and LSL) than for the uniform soils was found. To obtain a greater wetted depth through selecting the emitters having a smaller application rate, which is a common method in the system design for a uniform soil, may not be necessarily applied for the layered soils.Measurements of nitrate distribution showed that nitrate accumulated toward the boundary of the wetted volume for both the uniform and the layered soils. This suggests the

  10. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  11. Infiltration from a surface point source and drip irrigation: 1. The midpoint soil water pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, P.; Vauclin, M.; Vachaud, G.; Clothier, B. E.

    1997-08-01

    Bresler [1978] proposed a procedure for drip irrigation design which is focused on the midpoint soil water pressure hc. We present a practical field test of this approach in order to evaluate the validity of the underlying assumptions. The simulated hc values were obtained from Raats' [1971] steady state theory for 32 points in the field where the hydraulic conductivity parameters Ks and αwere measured. The hc values were measured at the same locations during microirrigation of a maize crop. Measured hc's appear to be lower than the simulated ones, especially late in the season. The measured spatial variability in hc appeared to be higher than the simulated ones. This could well have been caused by root uptake activity, which is not considered in the analysis, as well as by the large but typical drippers spacing of d = 1.00 m. Thus the tensiometers could have been beyond the practical limit of wetting. Consequences for design and management are important. For design, even if a high hc value is chosen, there is no real guarantee that the wetting would be effective at the midpoint. For irrigation management, tensiometer placement too far from the dripper would lead to overirrigation, so for a large dripper spacing d, the midpoint placement is not judicious.

  12. Societal Conditions and the Gender Difference in Well-Being: Testing a Three-Stage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Li, Chen; Diener, Edward F

    2017-03-01

    Findings from a meta-analysis on gender differences in self-esteem (Zuckerman et al., 2016) suggest that the relation between the degree to which societal conditions are favorable to women and gender difference in self-esteem might be quadratic; when conditions improve, women's self-esteem (relative to that of men) trends downward but when conditions continue to improve, women's self-esteem begins to trend upward. Testing whether these relations generalize to subjective well-being, the present study found a quadratic relation between improving societal conditions and the gender difference in life satisfaction and positive affect (women are lower than men when societal conditions are moderately favorable compared to when they are at their worst and at their best); the relation was linear for negative emotion (women report more negative emotions than men when societal conditions are better). Directions for future research that will address potential explanations for these results are proposed.

  13. Mechanisms of Subsurface Drip Irrigation-Mediated Suppression of Lettuce Drop Caused by Sclerotinia minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A A; Liu, L; Reidy, B; Davis, R M; Subbarao, K V

    1998-03-01

    ABSTRACT Subsurface drip irrigation and associated mandatory minimum tillage practices significantly reduced the incidence of lettuce drop (Sclerotinia minor) and the severity of corky root on lettuce compared with furrow irrigation and conventional tillage. Three possible mechanisms for the drip irrigation-mediated disease suppression were examined in this study: qualitative and quantitative differences in the soil microflora under furrow and subsurface drip irrigation; their antagonism and potential bio-control effects on S. minor; and the physical distribution of soil moisture and temperature relative to the two irrigation methods. To determine if the suppressive effects under subsurface drip irrigation were related to changes in soil microflora, soils were assayed for actinomycetes, bacteria, and fungi during the spring and fall seasons. The effects of the irrigation methods on microbial populations were nearly identical during both seasons. In the spring season, the total number of fungal colonies recovered on potato dextrose agar amended with rose Bengal generally was greater in soils under drip irrigation than under furrow irrigation, but no such differences were observed during the fall. Numbers of actinomycetes and bacteria were not significantly different between irrigation methods during either season. No interaction between sampling time and irrigation methods was observed for any of the microbial populations during both seasons. Thus, the significant effect of sampling time observed for actinomycete and bacterial populations during the spring was most likely not caused by the irrigation treatments. There were also no qualitative differences in the three groups of soil microflora between the irrigation treatments. Even though some fungal, actinomycete, and bacterial isolates suppressed mycelial growth of S. minor in in vitro assays, the isolates came from both subsurface drip- and furrow-irrigated soils. In in planta assays, selected isolates failed to

  14. Molten thermoplastic dripping behavior induced by flame spread over wire insulation under overload currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Qixing; Tu, Ran; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yongming

    2016-12-15

    The dripping behavior of the molten thermoplastic insulation of copper wire, induced by flame spread under overload currents, was investigated for a better understanding of energized electrical wire fires. Three types of sample wire, with the same polyethylene insulation thickness and different core diameters, were used in this study. First, overload current effects on the transient one-dimensional wire temperature profile were predicted using simplified theoretical analysis; the heating process and equilibrium temperature were obtained. Second, experiments on the melting characteristics were conducted in a laboratory environment, including drop formation and frequency, falling speed, and combustion on the steel base. Third, a relationship between molten mass loss and volume variation was proposed to evaluate the dripping time and frequency. A strong current was a prerequisite for the wire dripping behavior and the averaged dripping frequency was found to be proportional to the square of the current based on the theoretical and experimental results. Finally, the influence of dripping behavior on the flame propagation along the energized electrical wire was discussed. The flame width, bright flame height and flame spreading velocity presented different behaviors.

  15. Conditional Frequentist Test on Normal Mean Parameter and its application in entomological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. G. Brighenti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional tests the value of type I error (α is fixed, on the other hand, in the conditional frequentist test we propose a partition of the region of rejection and acceptance so that the probability of error presented is dependent on the distance of observed data in relation to the border of the critical region. This error probability is the Conditional Error Probability (CEP, which may be of type I or II. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the conditional frequentist test under the Normal Mean parameter and apply it to entomological data. The test was evaluated via simulation, from developed routine in R software. In each simulated case obtained the likelihood ratio, the critical value and the PEC’s for the Normal distribution. It was concluded that the highest values of PEC were obtained with the more the sample mean value approaching the critical point of the test. This occurs regardless of the decision of the test to accept or reject the null hypothesis. The increase of the sample size causes the reduction of the conditional probability of error. In the application to real data from the average lifetime of bees exposed to different temperatures, it was found that the average lifetime of bees maintained at a temperature of 20°C was found to be similar at a temperature of 15°C with conditional error very small (CEP II equal to 0.54%. For temperatures of 30°C and 35°C the hypothesis was rejected with PEC I equal to 28.35% and 47.53%, respectively. Thus the conditional errors in decision making were very high.

  16. Markov chain order estimation with parametric significance tests of conditional mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Papapetrou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Besides the different approaches suggested in the literature, accurate estimation of the order of a Markov chain from a given symbol sequence is an open issue, especially when the order is moderately large. Here, parametric significance tests of conditional mutual information (CMI) of increasing order $m$, $I_c(m)$, on a symbol sequence are conducted for increasing orders $m$ in order to estimate the true order $L$ of the underlying Markov chain. CMI of order $m$ is the mutual information of two variables in the Markov chain being $m$ time steps apart, conditioning on the intermediate variables of the chain. The null distribution of CMI is approximated with a normal and gamma distribution deriving analytic expressions of their parameters, and a gamma distribution deriving its parameters from the mean and variance of the normal distribution. The accuracy of order estimation is assessed with the three parametric tests, and the parametric tests are compared to the randomization significance test and other known ...

  17. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  18. Standard full-scale chamber test conditions for examination of mineral wool products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhl, H.D. [Glasuld, Vamdrup (Denmark); Husemoen, T. [Rockwool International A/S, Hedehusene (Denmark); Lindqvist, H. [Gullfiber AB, Billisholm (Sweden); Nordh, I. [Partek Insulation AB, Skoevde (Sweden); Trappmann, J. [Gruenzweig und Hartmann AG, Ladenburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Eurima, the European Insulation Manufacturers` Association, has carried through a project on standardisation of a full-scale chamber method for regulation purposes by simulation of building site fibre emission from mineral wool products during installation. For some years five Eurima member companies have worked with individual full-scale chamber measurements, using different chamber sizes and installation procedures. Due to different test conditions, the previous test results obtained are not comparable and thus form an unreliable basis for determination of a standard method. The chamber size and several other parameters seem to influence the fibre concentration. During the project in question all relevant parameters, which are considered to have a measurable impact on the fibre concentration, have been examined, and suitable standard test conditions have been defined according to the test results. (orig.)

  19. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, P.G. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  20. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  1. Leaching of human pathogens in repacked soil lysimeters and contamination of potato tubers under subsurface drip irrigation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Anita; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    to groundwater. However, viruses may leach to groundwater and represent a health risk as for some viruses only few virus particles are needed to cause human disease. The bacterial pathogens and the phage 28B were found on the potato samples harvested just after the application of microbial tracers was terminated......The risk for contamination of potatoes and groundwater through subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water was explored in 30 large-scale lysimeters containing repacked coarse sand and sandy loam soils. The human pathogens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O...... loam soil. The added bacterial pathogens were not found in any leachate samples during the entire study period of 212 days. Under the study conditions with repacked soil, limited macropores and low water velocity, bacterial pathogens seemed to be retained in the soil matrix and died-off before leaching...

  2. In-core materials testing under LWR conditions in the Halden reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.J.; Hauso, E.; Hoegberg, N.W.; Karlsen, T.M.; McGrath, M.A. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The Halden boiling water reactor (HBWR) has been in operation since 1958. It is a test reactor with a maximum power of 18 MW and is cooled and moderated by boiling heavy water, with a normal operating temperature of 230 C and a pressure of 34 bar. In the past 15 years increasing emphasis has been placed on materials testing, both of in-core structural materials and fuel claddings. These tests require representative light water reactor (LWR) conditions, which are achieved by housing the test rigs in pressure flasks that are positioned in fuel channels in the reactor and connected to dedicated water loops, in which boiling water reactor (BWR) or pressurised water reactor (PWR) conditions are simulated. Understanding of the in-core behaviour of fuel or reactor materials can be greatly improved by on-line measurements during power operation. The Halden Project has performed in-pile measurements for a period of over 35 years, beginning with fuel temperature measurements using thermocouples and use of differential transformers for measurement of fuel pellet or cladding dimensional changes and internal rod pressure. Experience gained over this period has been applied to on-line instrumentation for use in materials tests. This paper gives details of the systems used at Halden for materials testing under LWR conditions. The techniques used to provide on-line data are described and illustrative results are presented. (authors)

  3. Comparison of lettuce diseases and yield under subsurface drip and furrow irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, K V; Hubbard, J C; Schulbach, K F

    1997-08-01

    ABSTRACT Subsurface drip and furrow irrigation were compared on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cvs. Salinas and Misty Day for yield and incidence and severity of three important diseases of lettuce in the Salinas Valley, CA. Experiments were conducted between 1993 and 1995 during the spring and fall seasons. The diseases examined included lettuce drop (Sclerotinia minor), downy mildew (Bremia lactucae), and corky root (Rhizomonas suberifaciens). Replicated plots of subsurface drip and furrow irrigation were arranged in a randomized complete-block design. All plants were inoculated with S. minor at the initiation of the experiment during the 1993 spring season. Plots were not inoculated for downy mildew and corky root during any season nor were the plots reinoculated with S. minor. During each season, all plots were sprinkler irrigated until thinning, and subsequently, the irrigation treatments were begun. The furrow plots were irrigated once per week, and the drip plots received water twice per week. The distribution of soil moisture at two soil depths (0 to 5 and 6 to 15 cm) at 5, 10, and 15 cm distance on either side of the bed center in two diagonal directions was significantly lower in drip-irrigated compared with furrow-irrigated plots. Plots were evaluated for lettuce drop incidence and downy mildew incidence and severity at weekly intervals until harvest. Corky root severity and yield components were determined at maturity. Lettuce drop incidence and corky root severity were significantly lower and yields were higher in plots under subsurface drip irrigation compared with furrow irrigation, regardless of the cultivar, except during the 1994 fall season. Incidence and severity of downy mildew were not significantly different between the two irrigation methods throughout the study. The differential microclimates created by the two irrigation treatments did not affect downy mildew infection, presumably because the mesoclimate is usually favorable in the Salinas

  4. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  5. Non-conditioned tests on mice to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of substances extracted from plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rejón-Orantes, José del Carmen; Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas; Placer Perdomo, Diana; Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas; Roldán, Gabriel; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    2010-01-01

    In the last year the Laboratory of Experimental Pharmacobiology at the Medicine Faculty of the Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas UNACH has been setting up several non-conditioned tests for the study of anxiety in animal models.In this work a literature review updates the knowledge of useful tests in the assessment of anxiety. These tests are used in the research of plant extracts based on ethnobotanical findings of traditional medicine of Chiapas, which have been developed with modest financial...

  6. By-Pass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By-Pass diodes are a key design feature of solar arrays and system design must be robust against local heating, especially with implementation of larger solar cells. By-Pass diode testing was performed to aid thermal model development for use in future array designs that utilize larger cell sizes that result in higher string currents. Testing was performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon provided by SSL. Test conditions were vacuum with cold array backside using discrete by-pass diode current steps of 0.25 A ranging from 0 A to 2.0 A.

  7. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rahman, O. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sheehy, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pietz, J. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Ackeret, M. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Yeckel, C. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Miller, R. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dobrin, E. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Thompson, K. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  8. Long life testing of spare Mariner Venus '67 hardware. [power conditioning electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The faultless performance of the Mariner Venus '67 Power Conditioning Electronics (PCE) throughout six years of continuous operation in a simulated space environment is reported. Weekly functional tests supplemented by daily monitoring verified that the PCE equipment can perform to its intended functions for at least six years without apparent performance degradation. Performance throughout the test period was very stable, there are no circuit or redundancy improvements to be considered. When the equipment was examined after the test was completed, there was no evidence of any physical damage nor any difficulty in disconnecting the wiring connectors.

  9. Discussions On Worst-Case Test Condition For Single Event Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the failure characteristics of single- event burnout (SEB) on power MOSFETs based on analyzing the quasi-stationary avalanche simulation curves. The analyses show the worst-case test condition for SEB would be using the ion that has the highest mass that would result in the highest transient current due to charge deposition and displacement damage. The analyses also show it is possible to build power MOSFETs that will not exhibit SEB even when tested with the heaviest ion, which have been verified by heavy ion test data on SEB sensitive and SEB immune devices.

  10. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERIZATIONS OF TORTUOUS FLOW IN PATH DRIP IRRIGATION EMITTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-kai; YANG Pei-ling; REN Shu-mei; XU Ting-wu

    2006-01-01

    At present, the tortuous emitter has the most advanced performances in drip irrigation. But the theories and methods for designing its flow path have been strictly confidential and the researches on the function of practical guidance have seldom been published. Seven types of most representative tortuous emitting-pipes currently used in agricultural irrigation regions of China were chosen for investigating the geometric parameters of the flow path by means of combining high-precision microscope and AutoCAD technology. By the measurement platform developed by the authors for hydraulic performances of emitters, the free discharge rates from the 7 types of emitters were measured at 9 pressure levels of 1.5 m, 3.0 m, 5.0 m, 7.0 m, 9.0 m, 10.0 m, 11.0 m, 13.0 m and 15.0 m. Then the discharge-pressure relationship, manufacturing variation coefficient, average velocity on the cross-section of flow path and the critical Reynolds number for the flow regime transformation within the paths were analyzed in detail. The results show that both pressure-ascending work pattern and pressure-descending work pattern have some impacts on the discharge rates of tortuous emitters, but the impact level is not significant. The target pressure could be approached by repetitive applications of the two work patterns during pressure regulation. The operation under low pressures has some impacts on the hydraulic performances of emitters, but the impact level is also not significant. The classical model of the discharge-pressure relationship is suitable for the pressure range of 1.5 m -15.0 m. The Reynolds number for fluids within the 7 types of tortuous emitters ranges from =105 to =930. The critical Reynolds number for the flow regime transformation is smaller than that for the routine dimension flow path. The variation coefficient of emitter discharge rates is slightly fluctuating around a certain value within the whole pressure range.

  11. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abalos, D.; Sanchez-Martin, L.; Garcia-Torres, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Vallejo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-fi

  12. User's manual and technical description of the intelligent rain-gauge `DRIP1'; software version 1.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Lopez Fernandez, M.

    1995-01-01

    DRIP1 is an instrument for measuring and storing rainfall, air pressure and temperature data, which can be retrieved using a portable PC. DRIP1 can be used stand-alone or can be integrated in a measuring network thus allowing the measuring frequency of other network devices to depend on rainfall sig

  13. Asymptotic power of the integrated conditional moment test against global and large local alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploberger, W.; Bierens, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we study further the asymptotic power properties of the integrated conditional moment (ICM) test of Bierens (1982) and Bierens and Ploberger (1994). First, we establish the relation between consistency against global alternatives and nontrivial local power, using the concept of

  14. Density-dependent effects on physical condition and reproduction in North American elk: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley M. Stewart; R. Terry Bowyer; Brian L. Dick; Bruce K. Johnson; John G. Kie

    2005-01-01

    Density dependence plays a key role in life-history characteristics and population ecology of large, herbivorous mammals. We designed a manipulative experiment to test hypotheses relating effects of density-dependent mechanisms on physical condition and fecundity of North American elk (Cervus elaphus) by creating populations at low and high density...

  15. Instrumentation for Ground-Based Testing in Simulated Space and Planetary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Jacob; Horodetsky, Sergey; Issoupov, Vitali

    This paper is an overview of instrumentation developed and created by ITL Inc. for simulated testing and performance evaluation of spacecraft materials, structures, mechanisms, assemblies and components in different space and planetary environments. The LEO Space Environment Simulator allows simulation of the synergistic effect of ultra-high vacuum conditions, 5 eV neutral atomic oxygen beams, Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) and Near-Ultraviolet (NUV) radiation, and temperature conditions. The simulated space environmental conditions can be controlled in-situ using a quadruple mass-spectrometer, Time-of-Flight technique, as well as Quartz Crystal Microbalance sensors. The new NUV System is capable of delivering an NUV power intensity of up to 10 Equivalent Suns. The design of the system uses horizontal orientation of the 5 kW Mercury lamp, focusing of NUV radiation is achieved due to a parabolic reflector. To address the Lunar/Martian surface environments, the Planetary Environmental Simulator/Test Facility has been developed and built to allow for physical evaluation of the effects of the Lunar/Martian dust environments in conjunction with other factors (ultra-high vacuum or planetary atmospheric conditions, VUV/NUV radiation, thermal cycling, and darkness). The ASTM E 595/ASTM E 1559 Outgassing Test Facility provides the means for the outgassing test of materials with the objective to select materials with low outgassing properties for spacecraft use and allows to determine the following outgassing parameters: Total Mass Loss, Collected Volatile Condensable Materials, and Water Vapor Regained.

  16. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493.1441 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  17. Neural bases of falsification in conditional proposition testing: evidence from an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jimei; Zhang, Meng; Jou, Jerwen; Wu, Xin; Li, Wei; Qiu, Jiang

    2012-08-01

    The ability of testing the validity of a conditional statement is important in our everyday life. However, the brain mechanisms underlying this process, especially falsification process which is important in daily life, but especially crucial to scientific reasoning and research is not as yet completely clear. Therefore, in the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural bases of the falsification process in testing the validity of a conditional statement as used in Wason's (1966) selection task. Our fMRI results showed that: (1) compared with the baseline condition, both Falsification (by using Modus Ponens, and Modus Tollens) and Non-Falsification conditions (affirming the consequent, and denying the antecedent) activated the left frontal areas (BA44/45, or BA6), and basal ganglia, the areas previously found in the rule-guided conditional reasoning operations; the parietal area (BA40, BA7) for recruiting cognitive resources to represent and maintain the different evidential information in working memory. (2) The left middle frontal gyrus (BA9) and cerebellum were shown to be activated in the contrast of Falsification condition versus Non-Falsification condition and in the contrast of MT versus Non-Falsification condition. These results indicated that the left middle frontal gyrus (BA9) might be the key brain region involved in the falsification process of conditional statement for which abstracting and integrating logical relationships, and inhibiting the distraction of the irrelevant information were the essential processes. Moreover, the cerebellum was found to be responsible for constructing an internal working model. In addition, our brain imaging results might support the dual-process theory of reasoning.

  18. A FAMILY OF SUMMARY CHI SQUARE TESTS FOR COMPARING SURVIVAL RATES RATHER THAN CONDITIONAL PROBABILITIES DYING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective This paper propses a family of summary chi square tests for comparing survival rates at all points of time between two groups. Methods They are respectively derived from the Peto et al. expression for the log rank test, the Mantel-Haenszel expression for the log rank test, and the generalized Wilcoxon test by means of using the homogenetic effective sample size in place of the number at risk and using the corresponding numerator of the conditional probability surviving in place of the death number. Results After such derivations they become clearer in clinical significance, more powerful, and free from the assumption of proportional hazard. Conclusion These tests can be employed in analyzing the clinical data of cancer. A worked example illustrates the methodology.

  19. Design of a Test Loop for Performance Testing of Steam Turbines Under a Variety of Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrette, Jonathan

    The steam turbine is one of the most widely used energy conversion devices in the world, providing shaft power for electricity production, chemical processing, and HVAC systems. There are new opportunities in growing renewable and combined cycle applications. End-users are asking for energy efficiency improvements that require manufacturers to renew their experimentally verified design methods. A structured design approach was carried out along three integrated research thrusts. The first two thrusts, Turbine Performance Prediction and Measurement Planning, were carried out with the aim of supporting the theoretical modeling required for the third thrust, System Modeling. The primary use of the steam turbine test loop will be to improve performance prediction techniques. Thus the primary focus of the first thrust was to describe empirical loss correlations found in the literature. For the second thrust, a preliminary review of measurement codes and standards was carried out to determine their impact on overall test loop design. For the third thrust, quasi-steady theoretical models were derived from first principles for the turbine, condenser, pump, boiler, and pipe components using control volume analyses. The theoretical models were implemented in a new open source simulation environment that carries out the calculation process over a range of up-to three turbine model inputs. A parametric study was undertaken with the goal of defining preliminary design specifications for the test loop components. The test loop was simulated across a wide range of steady states for three different turbine blade configurations, each at three different values of the blade row enthalpy-loss coefficient. The parametric study demonstrates full coverage of possible turbine operating conditions. The results of the simulations were analyzed to narrow the required operating range of the test loop to a series of turbine test paths. The final operational envelope yielded a set of test loop

  20. Outcome of the ‘Drip-and-Ship’ Paradigm among Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of a Statewide Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan I. Qureshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘drip-and-ship’ paradigm denotes a treatment regimen in patients in whom intravenous (IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA is initiated at the emergency department (ED of a community hospital, followed by transfer within 24 h to a comprehensive stroke center. Although the drip-and-ship paradigm has the potential to increase the number of patients who receive IV rt-PA, comparative outcomes have not been assessed at a population-based level. Methods: Statewide estimates of thrombolysis, associated in-hospital outcomes, and hospitalization charges were obtained from 2008–2009 Minnesota Hospital Association data for all patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Patients who were assigned the drip-and-ship code [International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM V45.88] were classified under the drip-and-ship paradigm. Patients who underwent thrombolysis (ICD-9-CM code 99.10 without drip-and-ship code were classified as primary ED arrival. Patient outcomes were analyzed after stratification into patients treated with IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival or drip-and-ship paradigm. Results: Of the 21,024 admissions, 602 (2.86% received IV rt-PA either through primary ED arrival (n = 473 or the drip-and-ship paradigm (n = 129. IV rt-PA was administered in 30 hospitals, of which 13 hospitals used the drip-and-ship paradigm; the number of patients treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm varied from 1 to 40 between the 13 hospitals. The rates of secondary intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage were higher in patients treated with IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival compared with those treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm (8.5 vs. 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.038. The in-hospital mortality rate was similar among ischemic stroke patients receiving IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival or the drip-and-ship paradigm (5.9 vs. 7.0%, respectively. The mean hospital

  1. Testing of the functional garments with microencapsulated phase-change material in simulated high temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dalibor B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic Phase Change Material (PCM possesses the ability to absorb and release large quantity of latent heat during a phase change process over a certain temperature range. This paper presents results related to thermo-physiological efficiency of special underwear with organic PCM integrated in textile through microencapsulation process. The efficiency of PCM underwear was tested through physiological examinations in simulated high-temperature conditions, where test-subjects were voluntarily exposed to heat stress tests wearing NBC protective suit with PCM underwear (option "THERM" and without it (option "NoTHERM". It can be concluded that wearing a PCM textile clothes under NBC protective suit, during physical activity in high-tempearture conditions, reduces sweating and alleviates heat stress manifested by increased core and skin temperature and heart rate values. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34034

  2. Role of Breathing Conditions During Exercise Testing on Training Prescription in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Bergamin, Marco; Weiss, Gertraud; Ermolao, Andrea; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated whether different breathing conditions during exercise testing will influence measures of exercise capacity commonly used for training prescription in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec = 45.6 [9.4]%) performed three maximal exercise tests within 8 days, but at least 48 hrs apart. Subjects were thereby breathing either room air through a tightly fitting face mask like during any cardiopulmonary exercise test (MASK), room air without mask (No-MASK), or 10 l/min of oxygen via nasal cannula (No-MASK + O2). Cycling protocols were identical for all tests (start = 20 watts, increment = 10 males/5 females watts/min). Maximal work rate (90.4 [33.8], 100.3 [34.8], 107.4 [35.9] watts, P MASK when compared with No-MASK and No-MASK + O2, respectively, whereas maximal heart rate did not differ significantly. Submaximal exertion (Borg rating of perceived exertion = 12-14) was perceived at lower intensity (P = 0.008), but higher heart rate (P = 0.005) when MASK was compared with No-MASK and No-MASK + O2. Different breathing conditions during exercise testing resulted in an 18.8% difference in maximal work rate, likely causing underdosing or overdosing of exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Face masks reduced whereas supplemental oxygen increased patients' exercise capacity. For accurate prescription of exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, breathing conditions during testing should closely match training conditions.

  3. Evaluation of Human and Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Models under Spaceflight Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Jacob P.; Untaroiu, Costin; Somers. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to develop occupant protection standards for future multipurpose crew vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has looked to evaluate the test device for human occupant restraint with the modification kit (THOR-K) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) in relevant impact test scenarios. With the allowance and support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NASA has performed a series of sled impact tests on the latest developed THOR-K ATD. These tests were performed to match test conditions from human volunteer data previously collected by the U.S. Air Force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the THOR-K finite element (FE) model and the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) FE model with respect to the tests performed. These models were evaluated in spinal and frontal impacts against kinematic and kinetic data recorded in ATD and human testing. Methods: The FE simulations were developed based on recorded pretest ATD/human position and sled acceleration pulses measured during testing. Predicted responses by both human and ATD models were compared to test data recorded under the same impact conditions. The kinematic responses of the models were quantitatively evaluated using the ISO-metric curve rating system. In addition, ATD injury criteria and human stress/strain data were calculated to evaluate the risk of injury predicted by the ATD and human model, respectively. Results: Preliminary results show well-correlated response between both FE models and their physical counterparts. In addition, predicted ATD injury criteria and human model stress/strain values are shown to positively relate. Kinematic comparison between human and ATD models indicates promising biofidelic response, although a slightly stiffer response is observed within the ATD. Conclusion: As a compliment to ATD testing, numerical simulation provides efficient means to assess vehicle safety throughout the design process and further improve the

  4. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  5. Modeling and HIL Simulation of Flight Conditions Simulating Control System for the Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Shen, Li; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-12-01

    Simulated altitude test is an essential exploring, debugging, verification and validation means during the development of aero-engine. Free-jet engine test can simulate actual working conditions of aero-engine more realistically than direct-connect engine test but with relatively lower cost compared to propulsion wind tunnel test, thus becoming an important developing area of simulated altitude test technology. The Flight Conditions Simulating Control System (FCSCS) is of great importance to the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) but the development of that is a huge challenge. Aiming at improving the design efficiency and reducing risks during the development of FCSCS for ATFs, a Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system was designed and the mathematical models of key components such as the pressure stabilizing chamber, free-jet nozzle, control valve and aero-engine were built in this paper. Moreover, some HIL simulation experiments were carried out. The results show that the HIL simulation system designed and established in this paper is reasonable and effective, which can be used to adjust control parameters conveniently and assess the software and hardware in the control system immediately.

  6. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  7. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  8. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests

  9. Conditioning geostatistical simulations of a bedrock fluvial aquifer using single well pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, A.; Bentley, L. R.; Hayashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geostatistical simulation is a powerful tool to explore the uncertainty associated with heterogeneity in groundwater and reservoir studies. Nonetheless, conditioning simulations merely with lithological information does not utilize all of the available information and so some workers additionally condition simulations with flow data. In this study, we introduce an approach to condition geostatistical simulations of the Paskapoo Formation, which is a paleo-fluvial system consisting of sandstone channels embedded in mudstone. The conditioning data consist of two-hour single well pumping tests extracted from the public water well database in Alberta, Canada. In this approach, lithologic models of an entire watershed are simulated and conditioned with hard lithological data using transition probability geostatistics (TPROGS). Then, a segment of the simulation around a pumping well was used to populate a flow model (FEFLOW) with either sand or mudstone. The values of the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage of sand and mudstone were then adjusted to minimize the difference between simulated and actual pumping test data using the parameter estimation program PEST. If the simulated data do not adequately match the measured data, the lithologic model is updated by locally deforming the lithology distribution using the probability perturbation method (PPM) and the model parameters are again updated with PEST. This procedure is repeated until the simulated and measured data agree within a pre-determined tolerance. The procedure is repeated for each pumping well that has pumping test data. The method constrains the lithological simulations and provides estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage that are consistent with the pumping test data. Eventually, the simulations will be combined in watershed scale groundwater models.

  10. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  11. Evaluation of three semi-empirical approaches to estimate the net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael López-Olivari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of actual evapotranspiration (ETα models requires an appropriate parameterization of the available energy, where the net radiation (Rn is the most important component. Thus, a study was carried out to calibrate and evaluate three semi-empirical approaches to estimate net radiation (Rn over a drip-irrigated olive (Olea europaea L. 'Arbequina' orchard during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons. The orchard was planted in 2005 at high density in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The evaluated models were calculated using the balance between long and short wave radiation. To achieve this objective it was assumed that Ts = Tα for Model 1, Ts = Tv for Model 2 and Ts = Tr for Model 3 (Ts is surface temperature; Tα is air temperature; and Tv is temperature inside of the tree canopy; Tr is radiometric temperature. For the three models, the Brutsaert's empirical coefficient (Φ was calibrated using incoming long wave radiation equation with the database of 2009/2010 season. Thus, the calibration indicated that Φ was equal to 1.75. Using the database from 2010/2011 season, the validation indicated that the three models were able to predict the Rn at a 30-min interval with errors lower than 6%, root mean square error (RMSE between 26 and 39 W m-2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 20 and 31 W m-2. On daily time intervals, validation indicated that models presented errors, RMSE and MAE between 2% and 3%, 1.22-1.54 and 1.04-1.35 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. The three R„-Models would be evaluated and used in others Mediterranean conditions according to the availability of data to estimate net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard planted at high density.

  12. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven. The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site. This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  14. Comparison of diagnostic tests in distinct well-defined conditions related to dry eye disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Alves

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study compares signs, symptoms and predictive tools used to diagnose dry eye disease (DED and ocular surface disorders in six systemic well-defined and non-overlapping diseases. It is well known that these tests are problematic because of a lack of agreement between them in identifying these conditions. Accordingly, we provide here a comparative clinical profile analysis of these different diseases. METHODS: A spontaneous and continuous sample of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS (n=27, graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD (n=28, Graves orbitopathy (n=28, facial palsy (n=8, diabetes mellitus without proliferative retinopathy (n=14 and glaucoma who chronically received topical drugs preserved with benzalkonium chloride (n=20 were enrolled. Evaluation consisted of a comprehensive protocol encompassing: (1 structured questionnaire - Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI; (2 tear osmolarity (TearLab Osmolarity System - Ocusense; (3 tear film break-up time (TBUT; (4 fluorescein and lissamine green staining; (5 Schirmer test and (6 severity grading. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty five patients (aged 48.8 years-old ± 14.1, male:female ratio=0.4 were enrolled in the study, along with 24 age and gender matched controls. Higher scores on DED tests were obtained in Sjögren Syndrome (P<0.05, except for tear film osmolarity that was higher in diabetics (P<0.001 and fluorescein staining, that was higher in facial palsy (P<0.001. TFBUT and OSDI correlated better with other tests. The best combination of diagnostic tests for DED was OSDI, TBUT and Schirmer test (sensitivity 100%, specificity 95% and accuracy 99.3%. CONCLUSIONS: DED diagnostic test results present a broad range of variability among different conditions. Vital stainings and TBUT correlated best with one another whereas the best test combination to detect DED was: OSDI/TBUT/Schirmer.

  15. Vehicle-Level Oxygen/Methane Propulsion System Hotfire Testing at Thermal Vacuum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, Robert L.; Melcher, J. C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Desai, Pooja; Werlink, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    A prototype integrated liquid oxygen/liquid methane propulsion system was hot-fire tested at a variety of simulated altitude and thermal conditions in the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station In-Space Propulsion Thermal Vacuum Chamber (formerly B2). This test campaign served two purposes: 1) Characterize the performance of the Plum Brook facility in vacuum accumulator mode and 2) Collect the unique data set of an integrated LOX/Methane propulsion system operating in high altitude and thermal vacuum environments (a first). Data from this propulsion system prototype could inform the design of future spacecraft in-space propulsion systems, including landers. The test vehicle for this campaign was the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), which was constructed for this project using assets from the former Morpheus Project rebuilt and outfitted with additional new hardware. The ICPTA utilizes one 2,800 lbf main engine, two 28 lbf and two 7 lbf reaction control engines mounted in two pods, four 48-inch propellant tanks (two each for liquid oxygen and liquid methane), and a cold helium system for propellant tank pressurization. Several hundred sensors on the ICPTA and many more in the test cell collected data to characterize the operation of the vehicle and facility. Multiple notable experiments were performed during this test campaign, many for the first time, including pressure-fed cryogenic reaction control system characterization over a wide range of conditions, coil-on-plug ignition system demonstration at the vehicle level, integrated main engine/RCS operation, and a non-intrusive propellant mass gauging system. The test data includes water-hammer and thermal heat leak data critical to validating models for use in future vehicle design activities. This successful test campaign demonstrated the performance of the updated Plum Brook In-Space Propulsion thermal vacuum chamber and incrementally advanced the state of LOX/Methane propulsion

  16. Prenatal Testing for Adult-Onset Conditions: the Position of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercher, Laura; Uhlmann, Wendy R; Hoffman, Erin P; Gustafson, Shanna; Chen, Kelly M

    2016-12-01

    Advances in genetic testing and the availability of such testing in pregnancy allows prospective parents to test their future child for adult-onset conditions. This ability raises several complex ethical issues. Prospective parents have reproductive rights to obtain information about their fetus. This information may or may not alter pregnancy management. These rights can be in conflict with the rights of the future individual, who will be denied the right to elect or decline testing. This paper highlights the complexity of these issues, details discussions that went into the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Public Policy Task Force's development of the Prenatal testing for Adult-Onset Conditions position statement adopted in November 2014, and cites relevant literature on this topic through December 2015. Issues addressed include parental rights and autonomy, rights of the future child, the right not to know, possible adverse effects on childhood and the need for genetic counseling. This paper will serve as a reference to genetic counselors and healthcare professionals when faced with this situation in clinical practice.

  17. Effects of common chronic medical conditions on psychometric tests used to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Poulsen, L; Rasmussen, C K

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic medical conditions are accompanied by cognitive disturbances but these have only to a very limited extent been psychometrically quantified. An exception is liver cirrhosis where hepatic encephalopathy is an inherent risk and mild forms are diagnosed by psychometric tests. The preferred....../15, p psychometrically measurable cognitive deficits, whereas those with ESRF or DMII had not. This adds to the understanding of the clinical consequences of chronic heart- and lung disease, and implies...... that the psychometric tests should be interpreted with great caution in cirrhosis patients with heart- or lung comorbidity....

  18. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-01-01

    storage conditions. Methods. Petrolatum samples of methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (2-HPA), cinnamal and eugenol in patch test concentrations were stored in three different test chambers (IQ chamber™, IQ Ultimate™, and Van der Bend® transport...... during storage in the refrigerator. For these two chamber systems, the contact allergen concentration dropped below the stability limit in the following order: MMA, cinnamal, 2-HPA, eugenol, and 2-HEMA. In the Van der Bend® transport container, the contact allergens exhibited acceptable stability under...

  19. Numerical ductile tearing simulation of circumferential cracked pipe tests under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ji Soo; Ryu, Ho Wan; Kim, Yun Jae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents a numerical method to simulate ductile tearing in cracked components under high strain rates using finite element damage analysis. The strain rate dependence on tensile properties and multiaxial fracture strain is characterized by the model developed by Johnson and Cook. The damage model is then defined based on the ductility exhaustion concept using the strain rate dependent multiaxial fracture strain concept. The proposed model is applied to simulate previously published three cracked pipe bending test results under two different test speed conditions. Simulated results show overall good agreement with experimental results.

  20. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  1. Effect of plastic tarps over raised-beds and potassium thiosulfate in furrows on chloropicrin emissions from drip fumigated fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; McDonald, Jason A; Ajwa, Husein; Shem-Tov, Shachar; Sullivan, David A

    2008-06-01

    Plastic tarps are commonly used in raised bed strawberry production to minimize emissions of preplant soil fumigants and are left in place throughout the growing season as part of the standard cultural practices. Soil amendments with chemicals such as thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) can reduce fumigant emissions. A field study was conducted near Santa Maria, CA to determine the effects of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) over raised-beds and applying potassium thiosulfate (KTS) in furrows on reducing chloropicrin (CP) emissions from a strawberry field. Four fields (or treatments) were tested with 224 kg ha(-1) CP drip-applied threecm under the soil surface. The CP flux from bed tops and furrows and gas-phase concentrations under the tarps were monitored for five d. The CP emission flux and concentration under tarp were highest immediately following application. Diurnal temperature change affected CP concentration and emission fluxes (higher values during the day and lower at night). Slightly higher CP cumulative emission occurred using LDPE tarp (19%) compared to VIF (17%). Normalized flux (CP emission flux from the beds divided by CP concentration under the tarp) being estimated from field measurement was slightly higher for LDPE than VIF indicating different tarp permeability in the field. Because of extremely low emissions from the furrows (emission loss), KTS application to furrow treatments did not show further emission reductions than non-KTS treatments. This indicates that emission reduction should focus on the tarp above raised-beds when fumigant was drip-applied near bed-surface.

  2. Testing the Non-Parametric Conditional CAPM in the Brazilian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reed Bergmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze if the variations of returns and systematic risks from Brazilian portfolios could be explained by the nonparametric conditional Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM by Wang (2002. There are four informational variables available to the investors: (i the Brazilian industrial production level; (ii the broad money supply M4; (iii the inflation represented by the Índice de Preços ao Consumidor Amplo (IPCA; and (iv the real-dollar exchange rate, obtained by PTAX dollar quotation.This study comprised the shares listed in the BOVESPA throughout January 2002 to December 2009. The test methodology developed by Wang (2002 and retorted to the Mexican context by Castillo-Spíndola (2006 was used. The observed results indicate that the nonparametric conditional model is relevant in explaining the portfolios’ returns of the sample considered for two among the four tested variables, M4 and PTAX dollar at 5% level of significance.

  3. Effect of Drainage Conditions on Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges that occur when performing Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) in silty soil due to changes in drainage conditions. In this paper, CPT results from various papers and researchers are collected and interpreted. Results from cone penetrations tests with various...... penetration rates is analysed, and it is shown how the changes in drainage condition, caused by the change in penetration rate, affects the plot in the soil classification charts. In addition, the effect on changes in penetration rate is compared for clay and silt, respectively, where the silty soil is more...... susceptible towards change in penetration rate. A normalized penetration rate is implemented in order to compare various cone resistance results, and hence investigate the changes from undrained to partially drained and from partially drained to fully drained....

  4. Parents' Attitudes toward Genetic Testing of Children for Health Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Qishan; McGill, Brittany C; Quinn, Veronica F; Tucker, Katherine M; Mizrahi, David; Farkas Patenaude, Andrea; Warby, Meera; Cohn, Richard J; Wakefield, Claire E

    2017-02-07

    This review assessed parents' attitudes toward childhood genetic testing for health conditions, with a focus on perceived advantages and disadvantages. We also evaluated the factors that influence parents' attitudes toward childhood genetic testing. We searched Medline, Medline In-Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts and CINAHL. We screened 945 abstracts and identified 21 studies representing the views of 3934 parents. Parents reported largely positive attitudes toward childhood genetic testing across different genetic tests with varying medical utility. Parents perceived a range of advantages and disadvantages of childhood genetic testing. Childhood genetic testing was viewed by most as beneficial. Parents' education level, genetic status, sex and socio-demographic status were associated with reported attitudes. This yielded some conflicting findings, indicating the need for further research. Genetic counseling remains essential to support this population in making well-informed decisions. Targeted interventions tailored to specific families with different socio-demographic characteristics may be useful. Further research on the long-term impact of childhood genetic testing on families is warranted.

  5. Standard test method for conducting friction tests of piston ring and cylinder liner materials under lubricated conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for conducting laboratory bench-scale friction tests of materials, coatings, and surface treatments intended for use in piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel or spark-ignition engines. The goal of this procedure is to provide a means for preliminary, cost-effective screening or evaluation of candidate ring and liner materials. A reciprocating sliding arrangement is used to simulate the contact that occurs between a piston ring and its mating liner near the top-dead-center position in the cylinder where liquid lubrication is least effective, and most wear is known to occur. Special attention is paid to specimen alignment, running-in, and lubricant condition. 1.2 This test method does not purport to simulate all aspects of a fired engine’s operating environment, but is intended to serve as a means for preliminary screening for assessing the frictional characteristics of candidate piston ring and liner material combinations in the presence of fluids that behave as u...

  6. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems

  7. Applying insecticides through drip irrigation to reduce wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) feeding damage in sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Amber E; Kennedy, George G; Abney, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    A 2 year field study was conducted at multiple locations to determine whether insecticides or an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, applied through drip irrigation in sweet potato reduced wireworm damage when compared with the non-treated check and/or insecticides applied conventionally. Wireworm damage was low in 2012, and there were no differences in the proportion of roots damaged or the severity of damage between treatments. In 2013, a preplant-incorporated (PPI) application of chlorpyrifos followed by either bifenthrin, imidacloprid, clothianidin, or oxamyl injected through drip irrigation significantly reduced the proportion of wireworm damage as well as the severity of wireworm damage when compared with the non-treated check. The incidence and severity of wireworm damage in these treatments did not differ significantly from those in the conventional management practice. The PPI application of chlorpyrifos followed by either cyantraniliprole or S. carpocapsae injected through drip irrigation was not significantly different from the non-treated check in the proportion of wireworm damage; however, both treatments reduced the severity of wireworm damage compared with the non-treated check. Applying insecticides through drip irrigation provides an alternative to conventionally applied insecticides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Performing the success of an innovation: the case of smallholder drip irrigation in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.; Venot, J.P.J.N.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, smallholder drip irrigation has gained almost unanimous popularity as an effective tool to achieve the combined goals of sustainable water use, food security and poverty alleviation in the developing world. Based on a study in Sub-Saharan Africa, this article shows that this

  9. low cost constant low cost constant – head drip irrigation emitter for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    5 DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION, FED. ... produced a mean discharge and emission uniformity (Eu) of 1.60l/hr. and 74 % respectively; while the calibrated ... Keywords: Drip Irrigation; Food security, Climate change; Adaptation and Cost. 1. .... The meteorological data obtained from the.

  10. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-09-11

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies.

  11. Experimental study on flowing burning behaviors of a pool fire with dripping of melted thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiyuan; Tu, Ran; Wang, Nan; Ma, Xin; Jiang, Xi

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this work is to quantitatively investigate the dripping-burning and flowing fire of thermoplastics. A new experimental setup is developed with a heating vessel and a T-trough. Hot thermoplastic liquids are generated in the vessel by electric heating. N2 gas is continuously injected into the vessel to avoid a sudden ignition of fuel in it. The detailed flowing burning behaviors of pool fire in the T-trough are analyzed through the measurements of the mass, heat flux and temperatures etc. The experimental results suggest that a continuous dripping of melted thermoplastic liquids in a nearly constant mass rate can be successfully made in the new setup. It also shows that the mass dripping rate of melted PS liquid is smaller than PP and PE since its large viscosity. In addition, the flame spread velocities of hot liquids of PS in the T-trough are also smaller than that of PP and PE because of its large viscosity. The mass burning rate of the PP and PE pool fire in T-trough are smaller than PS. Finally, considering the heating, melting, dripping and flowing burning behaviors of these polymers, it is suggested that the fire hazard of PE and PP are obviously higher than PS for their faster flowing burning.

  12. Synthesize Neutron-Drip-Line-Nuclides with Free-Neutron Bose-Einstein Condensates Experimentally

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2014-01-01

    We first show a possible way to create a new type of matter, free-neutron Bose-Einstein condensate by the ultracold free-neutron-pair Bose-Einstein condensation and then determine the neutron drip line experimentally. The Bose-Einstein condensation of bosonic and fermionic atoms in atomic gases was performed experimentally and predicted theoretically early. Neutrons are similar to fermionic atoms. We found free neutrons could be cooled to ultracold neutrons with very low energy by other colder neutral atoms which are cooled by the laser. These neutrons form neutron pairs with spin zero, and then ultracold neutron-pairs form Bose-Einstein condensate. Our results demonstrate how these condensates can react with accelerated ion beams at different energy to synthesize very neutron-rich nuclides near, on or/and beyond the neutron drip line, to determine the neutron drip line and whether there are long-life nuclide or isomer islands beyond the neutron drip line experimentally. Otherwise, these experimental results ...

  13. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure for its total water content. The stalagmites' water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Low δ18Ocalcite values are thereby accompanied by low water yields and vice versa. Based on the paleoclimatic interpretation of the δ18Ocalcite records, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. High drip water supply caused by high precipitation rates supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleoclimate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated precipitation rates.

  14. Cotton, tomato, corn, and onion production with subsurface drip irrigation – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The usage of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) has increased by 89% in the USA during the last ten years according to USDA NASS estimates and over 93% of the SDI land area is located in just ten states. Combining public entity and private industry perceptions of SDI in these ten states, the major cro...

  15. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMI

  16. The effects of three techniques that change the wetting patterns over subsurface drip-irrigated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnesr, M.N.; Alazba, A.A.

    2015-07-01

    Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods) that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE) of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%); the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10%) and the WUE (~14%), but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability. (Author)

  17. Using latent class analysis to estimate the test characteristics of the γ-interferon test, the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test and a multiplex immunoassay under Irish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Tracy A.; Duignan, Anthony; Whelan, Clare;

    2011-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to improving the existing diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis (single intradermal comparative tuberculin test [SICTT] and ¿-interferon assay [¿-IFN]) and to develop new tests. Previously, the diagnostic characteristics (sensitivity, specificity) have been...... estimated in populations with defined infection status. However, these approaches can be problematic as there may be few herds in Ireland where freedom from infection is guaranteed. We used latent class models to estimate the diagnostic characteristics of existing (SICTT and ¿-IFN) and new (multiplex...... immunoassay [Enferplex-TB]) diagnostic tests under Irish field conditions where true disease status was unknown. The study population consisted of herds recruited in areas with no known TB problems (2197 animals) and herds experiencing a confirmed TB breakdown (2740 animals). A Bayesian model was developed...

  18. Heterogeneity in a Low-Permeability Formation or Non-Ideal Testing Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S.; Deeds, N. E.; Pickens, J. F.; Distinguin, M.; Delay, J.

    2005-12-01

    Hydraulic testing in packer-isolated wellbore intervals in low-permeability formations is often complicated by non-ideal conditions such as thermal expansion of fluid in the test interval, packer squeeze and borehole closure. Such processes lead to fluid accumulation and pressurization within the wellbore during shut-in, and can exert significant effects on the measured borehole pressure response. Unless these conditions are taken into account during test interpretation, it is possible to make inappropriate conclusions regarding formation heterogeneity (e.g., lateral permeability variations) and/or static pressure levels. We have developed a lumped parameter modeling approach by treating the combined effect of these processes as the equivalent of an additional volume of fluid accumulating within the test interval (in addition to the nominal test-interval volume at the time of shut-in). We postulate that the rate of fluid accumulation can be treated in a simple manner as a constant value for the duration of the test. Thus, the fluid accumulation problem can be recast as the equivalent of a constant injection rate into the packed-off volume within the borehole. We show how this surrogate injection rate can be estimated from the measured pressure data by exploiting the analogy between the pressure response during borehole storage dominated conditions and that of a line-source well with an exponentially varying flow rate. Shut-in test sequences (i.e., shut-in period prior to initiation of a pressure pulse test and shut-in period(s) during pulse test(s)) can then be analyzed as effective constant-rate injection periods. The methodology is demonstrated using data from a recent series of hydraulic tests conducted in support of site characterization activities by ANDRA, the French radioactive waste management agency. In many of these tests, the measured pressure response was fitted to a 2-zone radially composite system model. Although the fit was visually excellent, static

  19. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  20. IMAGE Project: Results of Laboratory Tests on Tracers for Supercritical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvoll, Øyvind; Opsahl Viig, Sissel; Nardini, Isabella; Muller, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    The use of tracers is a well-established technique for monitoring dynamic behaviour of water and gas through a reservoir. In geothermal reservoirs special challenges are encountered due to high temperatures and pressures. In this work, tracer candidates for monitoring water at supercritical conditions (temperature > 374°C, pressure ca 218 bar), are tested in laboratory experiments. Testing of tracers at supercritical water conditions requires experimental set-ups which tolerate harsh conditions with respect to high temperature and pressure. In addition stringent HES (health, environment and safety) factors have to be taken into consideration when designing and performing the experiments. The setup constructed in this project consists of a pressure vessel, high pressure pump, instrumentation for pressure and temperature control and instrumentation required for accurate sampling of tracers. In order to achieve accurate results, a special focus has been paid to the development of the tracer sampling technique. Perfluorinated cyclic hydrocarbons (PFCs) have been selected as tracer candidates. This group of compounds is today commonly used as gas tracers in oil reservoirs. According to the literature they are stable at temperatures up to 400°C. To start with, five PFCs have been tested for thermal stability in static experiments at 375°C and 108 bar in the experimental setup described above. The tracer candidates will be further tested for several months at the relevant conditions. Preliminary results indicate that some of the PFC compounds show stability after three months. However, in order to arrive at conclusive results, the experiments have to be repeated over a longer period and paying special attention to more accurate sampling procedures.

  1. A Novel Approach for Dynamic Testing of Total Hip Dislocation under Physiological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Sven; Kluess, Daniel; Kaehler, Michael; Grawe, Robert; Rachholz, Roman; Souffrant, Robert; Zierath, János; Bader, Rainer; Woernle, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Constant high rates of dislocation-related complications of total hip replacements (THRs) show that contributing factors like implant position and design, soft tissue condition and dynamics of physiological motions have not yet been fully understood. As in vivo measurements of excessive motions are not possible due to ethical objections, a comprehensive approach is proposed which is capable of testing THR stability under dynamic, reproducible and physiological conditions. The approach is based on a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation where a robotic physical setup interacts with a computational musculoskeletal model based on inverse dynamics. A major objective of this work was the validation of the HiL test system against in vivo data derived from patients with instrumented THRs. Moreover, the impact of certain test conditions, such as joint lubrication, implant position, load level in terms of body mass and removal of muscle structures, was evaluated within several HiL simulations. The outcomes for a normal sitting down and standing up maneuver revealed good agreement in trend and magnitude compared with in vivo measured hip joint forces. For a deep maneuver with femoral adduction, lubrication was shown to cause less friction torques than under dry conditions. Similarly, it could be demonstrated that less cup anteversion and inclination lead to earlier impingement in flexion motion including pelvic tilt for selected combinations of cup and stem positions. Reducing body mass did not influence impingement-free range of motion and dislocation behavior; however, higher resisting torques were observed under higher loads. Muscle removal emulating a posterior surgical approach indicated alterations in THR loading and the instability process in contrast to a reference case with intact musculature. Based on the presented data, it can be concluded that the HiL test system is able to reproduce comparable joint dynamics as present in THR patients.

  2. A Novel Approach for Dynamic Testing of Total Hip Dislocation under Physiological Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Herrmann

    Full Text Available Constant high rates of dislocation-related complications of total hip replacements (THRs show that contributing factors like implant position and design, soft tissue condition and dynamics of physiological motions have not yet been fully understood. As in vivo measurements of excessive motions are not possible due to ethical objections, a comprehensive approach is proposed which is capable of testing THR stability under dynamic, reproducible and physiological conditions. The approach is based on a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL simulation where a robotic physical setup interacts with a computational musculoskeletal model based on inverse dynamics. A major objective of this work was the validation of the HiL test system against in vivo data derived from patients with instrumented THRs. Moreover, the impact of certain test conditions, such as joint lubrication, implant position, load level in terms of body mass and removal of muscle structures, was evaluated within several HiL simulations. The outcomes for a normal sitting down and standing up maneuver revealed good agreement in trend and magnitude compared with in vivo measured hip joint forces. For a deep maneuver with femoral adduction, lubrication was shown to cause less friction torques than under dry conditions. Similarly, it could be demonstrated that less cup anteversion and inclination lead to earlier impingement in flexion motion including pelvic tilt for selected combinations of cup and stem positions. Reducing body mass did not influence impingement-free range of motion and dislocation behavior; however, higher resisting torques were observed under higher loads. Muscle removal emulating a posterior surgical approach indicated alterations in THR loading and the instability process in contrast to a reference case with intact musculature. Based on the presented data, it can be concluded that the HiL test system is able to reproduce comparable joint dynamics as present in THR patients.

  3. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-08

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Patient empowerment in long-term conditions: development and preliminary testing of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Nicola; Bower, Peter; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Whalley, Diane; Protheroe, Joanne

    2013-07-08

    Patient empowerment is viewed by policy makers and health care practitioners as a mechanism to help patients with long-term conditions better manage their health and achieve better outcomes. However, assessing the role of empowerment is dependent on effective measures of empowerment. Although many measures of empowerment exist, no measure has been developed specifically for patients with long-term conditions in the primary care setting. This study presents preliminary data on the development and validation of such a measure. We conducted two empirical studies. Study one was an interview study to understand empowerment from the perspective of patients living with long-term conditions. Qualitative analysis identified dimensions of empowerment, and the qualitative data were used to generate items relating to these dimensions. Study two was a cross-sectional postal study involving patients with different types of long-term conditions recruited from general practices. The survey was conducted to test and validate our new measure of empowerment. Factor analysis and regression were performed to test scale structure, internal consistency and construct validity. Sixteen predominately elderly patients with different types of long-term conditions described empowerment in terms of 5 dimensions (identity, knowledge and understanding, personal control, personal decision-making, and enabling other patients). One hundred and ninety seven survey responses were received from mainly older white females, with relatively low levels of formal education, with the majority retired from paid work. Almost half of the sample reported cardiovascular, joint or diabetes long-term conditions. Factor analysis identified a three factor solution (positive attitude and sense of control, knowledge and confidence in decision making and enabling others), although the structure lacked clarity. A total empowerment score across all items showed acceptable levels of internal consistency and relationships

  5. High burnup effects on fuel behaviour under accident conditions: the tests CABRI REP-Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Franz; Papin, Joelle

    A large, performance based, knowledge and experience in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour is available for nominal operation conditions. The database is continuously completed and precursor assembly irradiations are performed for testing of new materials and innovative designs. This procedure produces data and arguments to extend licencing limits in the permanent research for economic competitiveness. A similar effort must be devoted to the establishment of a database for fuel behaviour under off-normal and accident conditions. In particular, special attention must be given to the so-called design-basis-accident (DBA) conditions. Safety criteria are formulated for these situations and must be respected without consideration of the occurrence probability and the risk associated to the accident situation. The introduction of MOX fuel into the cores of light water reactors and the steadily increasing goal burnup of the fuel call for research work, both experimental and analytical, in the field of fuel response to DBA conditions. In 1992, a significant programme step, CABRI REP-Na, has been launched by the French Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (IPSN) in the field of the reactivity initiated accident (RIA). After performing the nine experiments of the initial test matrix it can be concluded that important new findings have been evidenced. High burnup clad corrosion and the associated degradation of the mechanical properties of the ZIRCALOY4 clad is one of the key phenomena of the fuel behaviour under accident conditions. Equally important is the evidence that transient, dynamic fission gas effects resulting from the close to adiabatic heating introduces a new explosive loading mechanism which may lead to clad rupture under RIA conditions, especially in the case of heterogeneous MOX fuel.

  6. Optimized solar-wind-powered drip irrigation for farming in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carolina M.

    The two billion people produce 80% of all food consumed in the developing world and 1.3 billion lack access to electricity. Agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% worldwide by 2050 and to achieve this about 50% more primary energy has to be made available by 2035. Energy-smart agri-food systems can improve productivity in the food sector, reduce energy poverty in rural areas and contribute to achieving food security and sustainable development. Agriculture can help reduce poverty for 75% of the world's poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The costs associated with irrigation pumping are directly affected by energy prices and have a strong impact on farmer income. Solar-wind (SW) drip irrigation (DI) is a sustainable method to meet these challenges. This dissertation shows with onsite data the low cost of SW pumping technologies correlating the water consumption (evapotranspiration) and the water production (SW pumping). The author designed, installed, and collected operating data from the six SWDI systems in Peru and in the Tohono O'odham Nation in AZ. The author developed, tested, and a simplified model for solar engineers to size SWDI systems. The author developed a business concept to scale up the SWDI technology. The outcome was a simplified design approach for a DI system powered by low cost SW pumping systems optimized based on the logged on site data. The optimization showed that the SWDI system is an income generating technology and that by increasing the crop production per unit area, it allowed small farmers to pay for the system. The efficient system resulted in increased yields, sometimes three to four fold. The system is a model for smallholder agriculture in developing countries and can increase nutrition and greater incomes for the world's poor.

  7. Quasi-steady state conditions in heterogeneous aquifers during pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yuanyuan; Yeh, Tian-Chyi J.; Shi, Liangsheng; Huang, Shao-Yang; Wang, Wenke; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2017-08-01

    Classical Thiem's well hydraulic theory, other aquifer test analyses, and flow modeling efforts often assume the existence of ;quasi-steady; state conditions. That is, while drawdowns due to pumping continue to grow, the hydraulic gradient in the vicinity of the pumping well does not change significantly. These conditions have built upon two-dimensional and equivalent homogeneous conceptual models, but few field data have been available to affirm the existence of these conditions. Moreover, effects of heterogeneity and three-dimensional flow on this quasi-steady state concept have not been thoroughly investigated and discussed before. In this study, we first present a quantitative definition of quasi-steady state (or steady-shape conditions) and steady state conditions based on the analytical solution of two- or three-dimensional flow induced by pumping in unbounded, homogeneous aquifers. Afterward, we use a stochastic analysis to investigate the influence of heterogeneity on the quasi-steady state concept in heterogeneous aquifers. The results of the analysis indicate that the time to reach an approximate quasi-steady state in a heterogeneous aquifer could be quite different from that estimated based on a homogeneous model. We find that heterogeneity of aquifer properties, especially hydraulic conductivity, impedes the development of the quasi-steady state condition before the flow reaching steady state. Finally, 280 drawdown-time data from the hydraulic tomographic survey conducted at a field site corroborate our finding that the quasi-steady state condition likely would not take place in heterogeneous aquifers unless pumping tests last a long period. Research significance (1) Approximate quasi-steady and steady state conditions are defined for two- or three-dimensional flow induced by pumping in unbounded, equivalent homogeneous aquifers. (2) Analysis demonstrates effects of boundary condition, well screen interval, and heterogeneity of parameters on the

  8. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  9. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  10. FEPs Screening of Processes and Issues in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2004-10-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to drip shield and waste package modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Thirty-three FEPs associated with the waste package and drip shield performance have been identified (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). A screening decision, either ''included'' or ''excluded,'' has been assigned to each FEP, with the technical bases for screening decisions, as required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs analyses in this report address issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the drip shield and waste package over the post closure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For included FEPs, this report summarizes the disposition of the FEP in TSPA-LA. For excluded FEPs, this report provides the technical bases for the screening arguments for exclusion from TSPA-LA. The analyses are for the TSPA-LA base-case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]), where a drip shield is placed over the waste package without backfill over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP includes one or more specific issues, collectively described by a FEP name and description. The FEP description encompasses a single feature, event, or process, or a few closely related or coupled processes, provided the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs were assigned to associated Project reports, so the screening decisions reside with the relevant subject-matter experts.

  11. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  12. Optimization of Process Conditions of Monascus Seed Koji by Orthogonal Test Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of single-factor test, we conducted optimization study on the three major factors (material moisture content, cultivation time, temperature that affect the production of purebred Monascus spores through orthogonal trial. The results show that, in the trial-level range, moisture content of materials and cultivation time have larger effect on the test results, while the cultivation temperature has little effect. The optimum conditions in preparation of purebred Monascus seed koji are: 60% moisture content of materials, 5 d cultivation time, 35°C cultivation temperature, 0.1 mL inoculation, 10 g filling and 0.2% lactic acid. To verify this test scheme, ultimately the number of spores produced by Monascus is 3.35×107/g.

  13. Correlations between psychological tests and physiological responses during fear conditioning and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Karen G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety disorders are characterized by specific emotions, thoughts and physiological responses. Little is known, however, about the relationship between psychological/personality indices of anxiety responses to fear stimuli. Methods We studied this relationship in healthy subjects by comparing scores on psychological and personality questionnaires with results of an experimental fear conditioning paradigm using a visual conditioned stimulus (CS. We measured skin conductance response (SCR during habituation, conditioning, and extinction; subsequently testing for recall and renewal of fear 24 hours later. Results We found that multiple regression models explained 45% of the variance during conditioning to the CS+, and 24% of the variance during renewal of fear to the CS+. Factors that explained conditioning included lower levels of conscientiousness, increased baseline reactivity (SCL, and response to the shock (UCR. Low levels of extraversion correlated with greater renewal. No model could be found to explain extinction learning or extinction recall to the CS+. Conclusions The lack of correlation of fear extinction with personality and neuropsychological indices suggests that extinction may be less determined by trait variables and cognitive state, and may depend more on the subject’s current emotional state. The negative correlation between fear renewal and extraversion suggests that this personality characteristic may protect against post-treatment relapse of symptoms of anxiety disorders.

  14. The Effect of Water Stress on Yield of New Cotton Variety-Sepid (Gossipiumhirsutum L. in Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    borhan sohrabi

    2017-03-01

    test recommendations. At this stage, for combating weeds, herbicide trifluralin (2.5 liters per hectare was used. Planting new varieties of cotton - Sepid was in the first decade of May. Each plot consists of 8 lines which was ten meters. After evaporation of 50 mm from Class A evaporation pan, irrigation is done. Irrigation tapes were placed just alternate between planting rows. Water consumption was measured using a volumetric water meter. To measure the product, cotton-seed of four rows of each plot were harvested. Yield components were measured in the same four rows. Product wastaken in October and early November during two harvesting. Results and Discussion: Cotton as thermophilic plants, especially in humid areas, is strongly influenced by farm management. Among the controllable factors, irrigation management had very effective role in the balance between vegetative and reproductive growth. In other words, water stress control in cotton fields is essential for economic output. Through advanced techniques, drip irrigation despite high initial cost, will be the first choice. Because in addition to irrigation efficiency, with earliness management, mechanization harvesting is done better. According to the analysis of variance, the effect of different amounts of water on the total yield was significant at the level of one percent. The lack of statistical significant differences between treatments in terms of total yield of I100 and I70, the second treatment due to a 30% saving in water consumption and earliness as the best in the normal condition. One of the parameters that are usually affected by irrigation management is earliness. Average comparison shows in term of earliness, three treatments of I70، I40 and I0 in group A and treatment I100 are in the latter group. Thus, from this aspect I70 can be recommended. In terms of water use efficiency I40 and I70 with 1.44 and 1.17 kg per cubic meter had the highest WUE, respectively. Conclusions: The results shown that

  15. Drip Irrigation Conditions within the Scope of Mixed Deposited Salt Resistant to Salt Grass and the Changing Trend of Salt%滴灌条件下积盐范围内混种耐盐草及盐分变化趋势的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆哈西; 赛尔江·乌尔曼别克

    2011-01-01

    以pH=7.9的水作为灌溉水源,土壤含水率、土壤密度及滴头流量不同的条件下,对土壤湿润体的变化过程进行试验,确定湿润峰及积盐范围,在积盐范围内混种盐角草和猪毛菜。测定土壤酸碱度及易溶盐离子总量的减少量,并积盐范围内混种的盐角草和猪毛菜与普通土壤中栽培的盐角草和猪毛菜的盐含量进行对比。结果表明,盐角草吸走部分Na+、Cl-离子,猪毛菜吸走土壤中的CO32-、SO42-离子,积盐范围内土深20cm处总含盐量降低了0.26g/kg。%pH=7.9 to the water as irrigation water,soil moisture,soil bulk density and drops under the condition of different head flow,moist soil body of the change process,determine the wet peak and deposited salt,salt in product range within the scope of mixed salt grass and Salsola collina pall.Angle Measuring soil ph and soluble salt ions decrease of total amount deposited salt,and within the scope of mixed salt grass and Salsola collina pall.and Angle of the cultivation common soil salt Angle grass and Salsola collina pall the salt content of the dishes were compared.The results show that,salt Angle grass attract part,making Na+ and CI-ions,Salsola collina pall salt inhibit drain on the soil of CO2-3 and SO2-4 ions,deposited salt-within 20 cm deep soil in salt content at reduced total 0.26 g/kg.

  16. 3D shoulder kinematics for static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Allard, Paul; Godbout, Véronique; Begon, Mickael

    2015-09-18

    Shoulder motion analysis provides clinicians with references of normal joint rotations. Shoulder joints orientations assessment is often based on series of static positions, while clinicians perform either passive or active tests and exercises mostly in dynamic. These conditions of motion could modify joint coordination and lead to discrepancies with the established references. Hence, the objective was to evaluate the influence of static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions on shoulder joints orientations. Twenty asymptomatic subjects setup with 45 markers on the upper limb and trunk were tracked by an optoelectronic system. Static positions (30°, 60°, 90° and 120° of thoracohumeral elevation) and dynamic motion both in active condition and passively mobilised by an examiner were executed. Three-dimensional sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joint angles (12 in total) representing the distal segment orientation relative to the proximal segment orientation were estimated using a shoulder kinematical chain model. Separate four-way repeated measures ANOVA were applied on the 12 joint angles with factors of static vs dynamic, passive vs active, thoracohumeral elevation angle (30°, 60°, 90° and 120°) and plane of elevation (frontal and sagittal). Scapulothoracic lateral rotation progressed more during arm elevation in static than in dynamic gaining 4.2° more, and also in passive than in active by 6.6°. Glenohumeral elevation increased more during arm elevation in active than in passive by 4.4°. Shoulder joints orientations are affected by the testing conditions, which should be taken into consideration for data acquisition, inter-study comparison or clinical applications.

  17. Development of an In-Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network Test Bed for Structural Condition Monitoring - 12156

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, Kristine E.; Ferguson, Blythe A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has established an In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Sensor Network Test Bed, a unique, small scale, configurable environment, for the assessment of prospective sensors on actual ISD system material, at minimal cost. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently implementing permanent entombment of contaminated, large nuclear structures via ISD. The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. Validation of ISD system performance models and verification of actual system conditions can be achieved through the development a system of sensors to monitor the materials and condition of the structure. The ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed to addresses the DOE-Environmental Management Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building at the Savannah River Site. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring, strain gauges for crack growth monitoring, tilt-meters for settlement monitoring, and a communication system for data collection. Baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment. The Sensor Network Test Bed at SRNL uses COTS sensors on concrete blocks from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building to measure conditions expected to occur in ISD structures. Knowledge and lessons learned gained from installation, testing, and monitoring of the equipment will be applied to sensor installation in a meso-scale test bed at FIU and in future ISD structures. The initial data collected from the sensors

  18. Boundary conditions for convergent radial tracer tests and effect of well bore mixing volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; David Logan, J.

    Convergent radial flow tracer tests have a complex spatial nonaxial transport structure caused by the flow in the vicinity of the injection well and its finite mixing volume. The formulation of the boundary value problem, and especially the treatment of the boundary conditions at the injection well, is nontrivial. Hodgkinson and Lever [1983], Moench [1989, 1991], and Welty and Gelhar [1994] have developed different models and methods for the analysis of breakthrough curves in the extraction well. To extend interpretation techniques to breakthrough curves in the zone between injection and extraction wells, an analysis of conventional transport models is given, and improved boundary conditions are formulated for a convergent radial tracer test problem. The formulation of the boundary conditions is based upon a more detailed analysis of the kinematic flow structure and tracer mass balance in the neighborhood of the injection well. Two practical applications of revised boundary conditions for field data analysis are given. First, the note explains anomalous high well bore mixing volumes of injection wells found by Cady et al. [1993] and allows one to establish the role of mixing versus other processes (retardation, matrix diffusion, etc.). Second, it is shown that the improper use of Moench's [1989] model can produce bias in the characteristics of breakthrough curves in the extraction well under conditions that involve a significant mixing factor in the injection well. A numerical example indicates an error in peak concentrations on a breakthrough curve by as much as 70% and in peak arrival time by 10% for Peclet numbers Pe=102. The effect becomes slightly less significant for Pe=1.

  19. INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.D. Oliver; J.C. Dinsmoor; S.J. Goldstein; I. Reyes; R. De La Garza

    2005-07-11

    Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown ({approx}15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge

  20. Unconditioned and conditioned anxiogenic effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55,940 in the social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genn, Rachel F; Tucci, Sonia; Marco, Eva M; Viveros, M Paz; File, Sandra E

    2004-03-01

    In spite of the addictive properties of cannabinoids, under certain circumstances, they can evoke strong anxiogenic and aversive responses in humans and in animal tests of anxiety. Effects of different doses of CP 55,940 (10, 20, and 40 microg/kg) were tested in the low-light, familiar (LF) apparatus test condition of the social interaction test. The 40-microg/kg dose of CP 55,940 significantly decreased the time spent in social interaction, indicating an anxiogenic effect. This dose also had an independent effect of reducing locomotor activity. In rats tested undrugged 24 h after testing with 40 microg/kg, there was a significant anxiogenic effect, indicating conditioned anxiety. The group of rats injected with 40 microg/kg immediately after the social interaction test showed an unexpected significant anxiolytic effect when tested undrugged 24 h later. In an additional experiment, rats were tested in the high-light, familiar (HF) apparatus test condition after 10 or 40 microg/kg, and only those that were tested after 40 microg/kg showed an anxiogenic effect on the test day and a conditioned anxiogenic effect when tested undrugged 24 h later. Once again, those injected with 40 microg/kg after the social interaction test displayed an anxiolytic effect when tested undrugged 24 h later. We provide the first evidence for unconditioned and conditioned anxiogenic-like responses to a cannabinoid agonist in the social interaction test.

  1. Elevated serum CA 19-9 at screening tests: underlying conditions and role of abdominopelvic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yang [University of Louisville, Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging Research Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bundang CHA Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate underlying conditions of patients with elevated CA 19-9 at screening tests and to evaluate diagnostic performance of abdominopelvic CT. One hundred and thirteen patients with elevated CA 19-9 (>37 U/ml) who underwent abdominopelvic CT in a screening program were selected. Underlying conditions were determined by reviewing all available data and follow-up records. Patients were categorized into malignancy, benign, and normal/non-related disease groups. Their mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity of CT for detecting underlying conditions of elevated CA 19-9 was analysed. Seventeen patients (17/113, 15 %) had 17 elevated CA 19-9-related malignancies, and 55 patients (55/113, 48.7 %) had 70 benign diseases. Mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml in the malignancy group were significantly higher than in the two other groups. CT detected all except one malignant lesion with a detection sensitivity of 94.1 % (16/17). Of 70 CA 19-9-related benign diseases, CT detected 34 benign diseases (48.6 %) providing an alternative diagnosis for elevated CA 19-9. Abdominopelvic CT is not only useful in detecting malignancies, but can also diagnose alternative benign causes of elevated CA 19-9 in asymptomatic screening tests. (orig.)

  2. Cavitation behavior observed in three monoleaflet mechanical heart valves under accelerated testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Liu, Jia-Shing; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien; Hwang, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated testing provides a substantial amount of data on mechanical heart valve durability in a short period of time, but such conditions may not accurately reflect in vivo performance. Cavitation, which occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when local flow field pressure decreases below vapor pressure, is thought to play a role in valve damage under accelerated conditions. The underlying flow dynamics and mechanisms behind cavitation bubble formation are poorly understood. Under physiologic conditions, random perivalvular cavitation is difficult to capture. We applied accelerated testing at a pulse rate of 600 bpm and transvalvular pressure of 120 mm Hg, with synchronized videographs and high-frequency pressure measurements, to study cavitation of the Medtronic Hall Standard (MHS), Medtronic Hall D-16 (MHD), and Omni Carbon (OC) valves. Results showed cavitation bubbles between 340 and 360 micros after leaflet/housing impact of the MHS, MHD, and OC valves, intensified by significant leaflet rebound. Squeeze flow, Venturi, and water hammer effects each contributed to cavitation, depending on valve design.

  3. Square baler field test under different sugar cane crop residue conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Arthur Miola de; Ripoli, Tomaz Caetano Cannavan; Gadanha Junior, Casimiro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: ammello@esalq.usp.br; Ripoli, Marco Lorezzo Cunali [John Deere, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The energy demand increase of the country allows the sugar cane business sector to be a major player in production and commercialization areas of electric energy using cogeneration powered by bagasse and sugar cane residues. The objective of the study was to evaluate some of the performance parameters of an Express 5040 baler, brand Nogueira, used to collect residues. The tests were conducted in a sugar cane mechanized harvest area. The baler was submitted to three different conditions of residues windrowing: 'in natura', under single and double raking operations. For all treatments soil sampling analyzes were done to find out ground homogeneity conditions were the test took place. The simple raking operation offered better conditions for the machine: Effective Capacity of 8.21 t.{sup h}-{sup 1} and 0.88 ha.h{sup -1}; average bale weight of 22.33 kg (SD=3.58, CV=16.01 %); costs of 7.45 R$.t{sup -1} of baled residue; 0.17 R$.fardo{sup -1} and 69.47 R$.ha{sup -1}. (author)

  4. SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

  5. First test results of a high-speed beam conditions monitor for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the design and first test results of the high- speed beam conditions monitor (BCM) for the ATLAS experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). The goal of the BCM is to monitor instantaneous rates of collision and background and detect signs of beam instabilities. The detector is based on polycrystalline chemical-vapor-deposition (pCVD) diamond as active sensor material. We have chosen this detector material for its proven radiation hardness and fast signal properties. For the readout of the diamonds we developed front-end readout electronics based on high-bandwidth RF amplifiers. The signal response of the amplifier has been optimized for the ionization current signal of pCVD diamond in order to achieve a signal risetime of test results which were obtained on prototype assemblies in source tests and test beam. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of such a detector system for the ATLAS BCM. The tests yield BCM signals w...

  6. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  7. Test Outline for Flutter Analysis of Rectangular Panels in Rarefied Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Fred A.

    1996-01-01

    Jet plume impingement forces acting on large flexible space structures may precipitate dynamically unstable behavior during space flights. Typical operating conditions in space involve rarefied gas flow regimes which are intrinsically distinct from continuum gas flow and are normally modeled using the kinetic theory of gas flow. Docking and undocking operations of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Mir space laboratory represent a scenario in which the stability boundaries of solar panels may be of interest. Extensive literature review of research work on the dynamic stability of rectangular panels in rarefied gas flow conditions indicated the lack of published reports dealing with this phenomenon. A recently completed preliminary study for NASA JSC dealing with the mathematical analysis of the stability of two-degree-of-freedom elastically supported rigid panels under the effect of rarefied gas flow was reviewed. A test plan outline is prepared for the purpose of conducting a series of experiments on four rectangular rigid test articles in a vacuum chamber under the effect of continuous and pulsating Nitrogen jet plumes. The purpose of the test plan is to gather enough data related to a number of key parameters to allow the validation of the two-degree-of-freedom mathematical model. The hardware required careful design to select a very lightweight material while satisfying rigidity and frequency requirements within the constraints of the test environment. The data to be obtained from the vacuum chamber tests can be compared with the predicted behavior of the theoretical two-degree-of-freedom model. Using the data obtained in this study, further research can identify the limitations of the mathematical model. In addition modifications to the mathematical model can be made, if warranted, to accurately predict the behavior of rigid panels under rarefied gas flow regimes.

  8. 水氮运筹对膜下滴灌棉花光合特性及产量形成的影响%Effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the leaf photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宏海; 张宏芝; 陶先萍; 张亚黎; 张旺锋

    2013-01-01

    Taking different genotype cotton varieties as test materials, a soil column culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Under the management mode W4N2, i. e. , pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering in combining with basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) , actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ (ΦPSⅡ) ,adn photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) at full-flowering stage all decreased significantly, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was inhibited, as compared with those under common drip irrigation. From full-flowering stage to boll-opening stage, the chlorophyll content, gs,, Pn, ΦPSⅡ , and qP increased with increasing water and nitrogen supply, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was enhanced by compensation, which benefited the translocation and distribution of photosynthates to seed cotton. Under the fertilization mode of basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the seed cotton yield of Xinluzaol3 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + common drip irrigation (W3) , but that of Xinluzao43 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering (W4 ) . It was concluded that under the condition of pre-sowing irrigation, to appropriately decrease the water and nitrogen supply before full-flowering stage and increase the water and nitrogen supply at middle and late growth stages could extend the active photosynthesis duration and promote the photosynthates allocation to reproductive organ, which would fully exploit the yield-increasing potential of cotton with

  9. Effect of conditioned pain modulation on trigeminal somatosensory function evaluated by quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Yuka; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Svensson, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically investigate the effect of craniofacially evoked conditioned pain modulation on somatosensory function using a quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol applied to the trigeminal area in healthy humans. Pressure pain evoked by a mechanical compressive device was applied as conditioning stimulus (CS) in the craniofacial region, with a pain intensity of 5 on a visual analogue scale (VAS: 0-10 cm) (painful session) or with VAS score of 0 (control session). A full QST battery of 13 parameters was performed as test stimuli on the dominant-side cheek. The individual QST data from 11 men and 12 women were transformed into z scores, and the QST data and z scores were tested using analyses of variance. Analyses of variance of pressure pain threshold (PPT) data (log-transformed values and z scores) indicated significant session (P ≤ .003) and time (P painful session were associated with significantly higher log-transformed PPT values and significantly lower z scores compared with the control session at the time point during CS (hypoalgesia) (P pain inhibitory mechanisms.

  10. Psychophysical testing of spatial and temporal dimensions of endogenous analgesia: conditioned pain modulation and offset analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigman, Liat; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

    2013-08-01

    The endogenous analgesia (EA) system is psychophysically evaluated using various paradigms, including conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia (OA) testing, respectively, the spatial and temporal filtering processes of noxious information. Though both paradigms assess the function of the EA system, it is still unknown whether they reflect the same aspects of EA and consequently whether they provide additive or equivalent data. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (15 males) underwent 5 trials of different stimulation conditions in random order including: (1) the classic OA three-temperature stimulus train ('OA'); (2) a three-temperature stimulus train as control for the OA ('OAcon'); (3) a constant temperature stimulus ('constant'); (4) the classic parallel CPM ('CPM'); and (5) a combination of OA and CPM ('OA + CPM'). We found that in males, the pain reduction during the OA + CPM condition was greater than during the OA (P = 0.003) and CPM (P = 0.07) conditions. Furthermore, a correlation was found between OA and CPM (r = 0.62, P = 0.01) at the time of maximum OA effect. The additive effect found suggests that the two paradigms represent at least partially different aspects of EA. The moderate association between the CPM and OA magnitudes indicates, on the other hand, some commonality of their underlying mechanisms.

  11. Hypnosis enhances recall memory: a test of forced and non-forced conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligstein, D; Barabasz, A; Barabasz, M; Trevisan, M S; Warner, D

    1998-04-01

    Visual memory recall in hypnosis was investigated. To address criterion shift problems in previous studies, both forced and non-forced recall procedures were used. Previous methodological weaknesses with regard to hypnotizability and hypnotic depth were also addressed. Over 300 volunteers were screened for hypnotizability using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (Shor & Orne, 1962). Final high and low hypnotizability groups were selected using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Participants in each hypnotizability group were randomly assigned to either forced or non-forced recall conditions and to hypnosis or waking conditions. Participants were shown 60 slides of line drawings and then tested immediately in 3 recall periods. Analysis of variance results showed that those exposed to hypnosis and to a forced recall procedure were significantly more confident of their responses to correct items than those exposed to a non-forced recall procedure or a waking condition. Participants exposed to hypnosis and forced recall procedures recalled more correct items than those exposed to a waking condition. The findings support the hypermnesic effects of hypnosis when participants are required to provide a fixed number of responses.

  12. Measurement of basic thermal-hydraulic characteristics under the test facility and reactor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduard A Boltenko; Victor P Sharov [Elektrogorsk Research and Engineering Center, EREC, Bezimyannaja Street, 6, Elektrogorsk, Moscow Region, 142530 (Russian Federation); Dmitriy E Boltenko [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation IPPE, Bondarenko Square, Obhinsk, Kaluga Region, 249020 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The nuclear power of Russia is based on the reactors of two types: water-water - WWER and uranium - graphite channel RBMK. The nuclear power development is possible with performance of the basic condition - level of nuclear power plants (NPP) safety should satisfy the rigid requirements. The calculated proof of NPPs safety made by means of thermal-hydraulic codes of improved estimation, verified on experimental data is the characteristic of this level. The data for code verification can be obtained at the integral facilities simulating a circulation circuit of NPP with the basic units and intended for investigation of circuit behaviour in transient and accident conditions. For verification of mathematical models in transient and accident conditions, development of physically reasonable methods for definition of the various characteristics of two-phase flow the experimental data, as the integrated characteristics of a flow, and data on the local characteristics and structure of a flow is necessary. For safety assurance of NPP it is necessary to monitor and determine the basic thermalhydraulic characteristics of reactor facility (RF). It is possible to refer coolant flow-rate, core input and output water temperature, heat-power. The description of the EREC works in the field completion and adaptation of certain methods with reference to measurements in dynamic modes of test facility conditions and development of methods for measurements of basic thermal-hydraulic characteristics of reactor facilities is presented in the paper. (authors)

  13. Soil water and salt movement and spatial distribution of fine alfalfa roots under drip irrigation%滴灌苜蓿田间土壤水盐及苜蓿细根的空间分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁为华; 任爱天; 杨洁晶; 于磊; 马春晖; 张前兵

    2014-01-01

    of dead fine roots changed more smoothly in the drip irrigation treatment (ranged from 93 to 101 g/m2) than in the flood irrigation treatment(ranged from 96 to 125 g/m2), but the biomass of dead fine roots in drip irrigation was fluctuated from 72 to 102 g/m2 after 18th July. Biomasses of live and dead fine roots both changed continuously because of rapid turnover of fine roots, first increasing (growth), then decreasing (death and decomposition), and then increasing again (regrowth) . The results indicated that drip irrigation provide suitable soil condition for alfalfa growth by redistribution of soil water and salt, and the model of the wide-narrow row plantation with a distance of 15 cm+30 cm+15 cm between rows and drip irrigation is the optimal cultivation pattern of alfalfa.

  14. Evaluation of the migration of chemicals from baby bottles under standardised and duration testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; Van Hoeck, Els; Negreira, Noelia; Quirynen, Laurent; Van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    After the prohibition of bisphenol-A-containing polycarbonate baby bottles in the European Union (EU), alternative materials, such as polypropylene, polyethersulphone, Tritan™ copolyester, etc., have appeared on the market. Based on an initial screening and in vitro toxicity assessment, the most toxic migrating compounds were selected to be monitored and quantified using validated GC- and LC-QqQ-MS methods. The effect of several 'real-life-use conditions', such as microwave, sterilisation and dishwasher, on the migration of different contaminants was evaluated by means of duration tests. These results were compared with a reference treatment (filling five times with pre-heated simulant at 40°C) and with the legal EU 'repetitive-use conditions' (three migrations, 2 h at 70°C). Analysis of the third migration step of the EU repetitive-use conditions (which has to comply with the EU legislative migration limits) showed that several non-authorised compounds were observed in some baby bottles exceeding 10 µg kg(-1). However, all authorised compounds were detected well below their respective specific migration limits (SMLs). The reference experiment confirmed the migration of some of the compounds previously detected in the EU repetitive-use experiment, though at lower concentrations. Analysis of extracts from the microwave and dishwasher experiments showed a reduction in the migration during the duration tests. In general, the concentrations found were low and comparable with the reference experiment. Similar observations were made for the two sterilisation types: steam and cooking sterilisation. However, steam sterilisation seems to be more recommended for daily use of baby bottles, since it resulted in a lower release of substances afterwards. Repeated use of baby bottles under 'real-life' conditions showed no increase in the migration of investigated compounds and, after some time, the migration of these compounds even became negligible.

  15. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo;

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  16. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  17. Ant Colony Algorithm and Optimization of Test Conditions in Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁亚平; 吴庆生; 苏庆德

    2003-01-01

    The research for the new algorithm is in the forward position and an issue of general interest in chemometrics all along.A novel chemometrics method,Chemical Ant Colony Algorithm,has first been developed.In this paper,the basic principle,theevaluation function,and the parameter choice were discussed.This method has been successfully applied to the fitting of nonlinear multivariate function and the optimization of test conditions in chrome-azure-S-Al spctrophotometric system.The sum of residual square of the results is 0.0009,which has reached a good convergence result.

  18. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serianni, G., E-mail: gianluigi.serianni@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell’Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained.

  19. Wind tunnel testing of the DeepWind demonstrator in design and tilted operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistia, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.

    2016-01-01

    ) configuration. The velocity field in the wake of the rotor was also fully characterized by means of an instrumented traversing system, to investigate the flow distribution downstream of the test section. Special care is taken in the description of the experimental set-up and of the measured data, so......The DeepWind Project aims at investigating the feasibility of a new floating vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) concept, whose purpose is to exploit wind resources at deep-water offshore sites. The results of an extensive experimental campaign on the DeepWind reduced scale demonstrator are here...... was installed on a high precision test bench, whose axis was suitable to be inclined up to 15° with respect to the design (i.e. upright) operating condition. The experiments were performed at the large scale, high speed wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy), using a “free jet” (open channel...

  20. Effect of Susceptibility Testing Conditions on the In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of ETX0914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbe, Robert A; Huband, Michael D; deJonge, Boudewijn L M; Bradford, Patricia A

    2017-02-01

    The effect of various conditions including pH, inoculum, temperature, atmosphere, divalent cations, and several body fluids on the in vitro activity of the novel antibacterial spiropyrimidinetrione ETX0914 in standard susceptibility tests was investigated against several species. None of the parameters investigated affected the activity of ETX0914, with the exception of pH. Whereas the MIC values for ETX0914 with S. aureus, E. faecalis, and E. coli did not change when the pH of the growth medium was varied from 5 to 8, they did increase at least 8-fold at pH values above 8. This loss of activity can be attributed to the deprotonation of the molecule at elevated pH. The data suggest that routine susceptibility testing with ETX0914 should result in reproducible MIC values.

  1. Bypass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon Under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Tests were performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon whose purpose was to determine margin available for bypass diodes integrated with new, large multi-junction solar cells that are manufactured from a 4-inch wafer. The tests were performed under high vacuum with coupon back side thermal conditions of both cold and ambient. The bypass diodes were subjected to a sequence of increasing discrete current steps from 0 Amp to 2.0 Amp in steps of 0.25 Amp. At each current step, a temperature measurement was obtained via remote viewing by an infrared camera. This paper discusses the experimental methodology, experiment results, and the thermal model.

  2. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad baghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any research done on the use of saline and brackish waters is statistically significant. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of different water salinity and water management on some of the agronomic traits of late summer melon with drip irrigation, an experiment with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions was conducted in a randomized complete block design, in Torogh station, Mashhad. The irrigation treatments were: 1- fresh water from planting to harvesting, 2- water (3 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 3- water (6 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 4- water (6 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 5-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting, 6-water (3 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 7-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting. Row spacing and plant spacing were 3 m and 60 cm, respectively and the pipe type had 6 liters per hour per unit of meters in the drip irrigation system. Finally, the amount of salinity water, number of male and female flowers, number of seed germination, dry leaves' weight, leaf area, chlorophyll (with SPAD etc. were measured and all data were analyzed by using MSTAT-C software and all averages of data, were compared by using the Duncan test. Results and Discussion The results of analysis of data showed the following: Number of seeds germination: Salinity in water irrigation had no significant effects on the number of seed germination. However, there was the most number of seed

  3. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  4. Learning Classification Models of Cognitive Conditions from Subtle Behaviors in the Digital Clock Drawing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souillard-Mandar, William; Davis, Randall; Rudin, Cynthia; Au, Rhoda; Libon, David J.; Swenson, Rodney; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Penney, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test – a simple pencil and paper test – has been used for more than 50 years as a screening tool to differentiate normal individuals from those with cognitive impairment, and has proven useful in helping to diagnose cognitive dysfunction associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other dementias and conditions. We have been administering the test using a digitizing ballpoint pen that reports its position with considerable spatial and temporal precision, making available far more detailed data about the subject’s performance. Using pen stroke data from these drawings categorized by our software, we designed and computed a large collection of features, then explored the tradeoffs in performance and interpretability in classifiers built using a number of different subsets of these features and a variety of different machine learning techniques. We used traditional machine learning methods to build prediction models that achieve high accuracy. We operationalized widely used manual scoring systems so that we could use them as benchmarks for our models. We worked with clinicians to define guidelines for model interpretability, and constructed sparse linear models and rule lists designed to be as easy to use as scoring systems currently used by clinicians, but more accurate. While our models will require additional testing for validation, they offer the possibility of substantial improvement in detecting cognitive impairment earlier than currently possible, a development with considerable potential impact in practice. PMID:27057085

  5. Direct Shear Tests of Sandstone Under Constant Normal Tensile Stress Condition Using a Simple Auxiliary Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Duofeng; Huang, Da

    2017-06-01

    Tension-shear failure is a typical failure mode in the rock masses in unloading zones induced by excavation or river incision, etc., such as in excavation-disturbed zone of deep underground caverns and superficial rocks of high steep slopes. However, almost all the current shear failure criteria for rock are usually derived on the basis of compression-shear failure. This paper proposes a simple device for use with a servo-controlled compression-shear testing machine to conduct the tension-shear tests of cuboid rock specimens, to test the direct shear behavior of sandstone under different constant normal tensile stress conditions ( σ = -1, -1.5, -2, -2.5 and -3 MPa) as well as the uniaxial tension behavior. Generally, the fracture surface roughness decreases and the proportion of comminution areas in fracture surface increases as the change of stress state from tension to tension-shear and to compression-shear. Stepped fracture is a primary fracture pattern in the tension-shear tests. The shear stiffness, shear deformation and normal deformation (except the normal deformation for σ = -1 MPa) decrease during shearing, while the total normal deformation containing the pre-shearing portion increases as the normal tensile stress level (| σ|) goes up. Shear strength is more sensitive to the normal tensile stress than to the normal compressive stress, and the power function failure criterion (or Mohr envelope form of Hoek-Brown criterion) is examined to be the optimal criterion for the tested sandstone in the full region of tested normal stress in this study.

  6. Determination of Constant Parameters of Copper as Power-Law Hardening Material at Different Test Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowser Md. A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a technique has been developed to determine constant parameters of copper as a power-law hardening material by tensile test approach. A work-hardening process is used to describe the increase of the stress level necessary to continue plastic deformation. A computer program is used to show the variation of the stress-strain relation for different values of stress hardening exponent, n and power-law hardening constant, α . Due to its close tolerances, excellent corrosion resistance and high material strength, in this analysis copper (Cu has been selected as the material. As a power-law hardening material, Cu has been used to compute stress hardening exponent, n and power-law hardening constant, α from tensile test experiment without heat treatment and after heat treatment. A wealth of information about mechanical behavior of a material can be determined by conducting a simple tensile test in which a cylindrical specimen of a uniform cross-section is pulled until it ruptures or fractures into separate pieces. The original cross sectional area and gauge length are measured prior to conducting the test and the applied load and gauge deformation are continuously measured throughout the test. Based on the initial geometry of the sample, the engineering stress-strain behavior (stress-strain curve can be easily generated from which numerous mechanical properties, such as the yield strength and elastic modulus, can be determined. A universal testing machine is utilized to apply the load in a continuously increasing (ramp manner according to ASTM specifications. Finally, theoretical results are compared with these obtained from experiments where the nature of curves is found similar to each other. It is observed that there is a significant change of the value of n obtained with and without heat treatment it means the value of n should be determined for the heat treated condition of copper material for their applications in engineering

  7. Corn Growth as Affected by Plastic Cover Under Drip Irrigation Condition in the Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXUE-FENG; U.SHANI

    1994-01-01

    Plastic cover,as a method to minimize soil water evaporation and improve water use efficiency,was used for corn during the whole growing period in a desert area.Field Studies were conducted to determine the effect of plastic covering nmanagement on corn growth and rooting pattern and its relationship with changes in climate.Four treatments.0) bared soil without cover,1) covering one side of the crop,2) covering both sides of the crop,and 3) covering the surface totally,were established on a sandy loam soil.Results showed that treatment 0 was significantly different from others and revealed that plastic covering was not always good to corn growht.Improper usage of plastic cover might weaken root development and thereafter lower the total yield of the crop.Suitable practices cvombining different methods discussed could not only improve water use efficiency but also increase the crop yield.

  8. In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions with subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long term weighing lysimeter records may have utility for assessment of climate changes occurring during the period of record. They typically enclose a depth of soil that exceeds the root zone of vegetation normally grown on them and have drainagy systems so that more or less natural hydrologic flux...

  9. Conceptual design of a thermalhydraulic loop for multiple test geometries at supercritical conditions named Supercritical Phenomena Experimental Test Apparatus (SPETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenariwo, Adepoju

    The efficiency of nuclear reactors can be improved by increasing the operating pressure of current nuclear reactors. Current CANDU-type nuclear reactors use heavy water as coolant at an outlet pressure of up to 11.5 MPa. Conceptual SuperCritical Water Reactors (SCWRs) will operate at a higher coolant outlet pressure of 25 MPa. Supercritical water technology has been used in advanced coal plants and its application proves promising to be employed in nuclear reactors. To better understand how supercritical water technology can be applied in nuclear power plants, supercritical water loops are used to study the heat transfer phenomena as it applies to CANDU-type reactors. A conceptual design of a loop known as the Supercritical Phenomena Experimental Apparatus (SPETA) has been done. This loop has been designed to fit in a 9 m by 2 m by 2.8 m enclosure that will be installed at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology Energy Research Laboratory. The loop include components to safely start up and shut down various test sections, produce a heat source to the test section, and to remove reject heat. It is expected that loop will be able to investigate the behaviour of supercritical water in various geometries including bare tubes, annulus tubes, and multi-element-type bundles. The experimental geometries are designed to match the fluid properties of Canadian SCWR fuel channel designs so that they are representative of a practical application of supercritical water technology in nuclear plants. This loop will investigate various test section orientations which are the horizontal, vertical, and inclined to investigate buoyancy effects. Frictional pressure drop effects and satisfactory methods of estimating hydraulic resistances in supercritical fluid shall also be estimated with the loop. Operating limits for SPETA have been established to be able to capture the important heat transfer phenomena at supercritical conditions. Heat balance and flow calculations have

  10. 滴灌灌溉方式对木薯生长性状影响分析%Analysis of effects of drip irrigation on cassava growth properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗强; 莫凡; 廖婷

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effects of drip irrigation on growth properties of cassava, five kinds of drip irrigation modes were designed for field tests. The results of test demonstrate that different irrigation water consumption have considerable effects on the growth properties of cassava in different growth periods, proper irrigation renders obvious increase of plant height, stem diameter and number of green leaves.%为了探讨滴灌灌溉方式对木薯生长性状的影响,设置了5个不同的滴灌灌溉处理方式进行田间试验,结果表明:不同灌水量对木薯不同生育阶段的生长性状影响明显,适当的灌水对木薯的株高生长、茎粗变大、绿叶数增加有明显的促进作用.

  11. MODIS BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE DATA ASSIMILATION UNDER CLOUDY CONDITIONS: METHODS AND IDEAL TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei-yu; WAN Qi-lin; ZHANG Chen-zhong; CHEN Zi-tong; HUANG Yan-yan

    2010-01-01

    Clouds have important effects on the infrared radiances transmission in that the inclusion of cloud effects in data assimilation can not only improve the quality of the assimilated atmospheric parameters greatly, but also minimize the initial error of cloud parameters by adjusting part of the infrared radiances data. On the basis of the Grapes-3D-var (Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction Enhanced System), cloud liquid water, cloud ice water and cloud cover are added as the governing variables in the assimilation. Under the conditions of clear sky, partly cloudy cover and totally cloudy cover, the brightness temperature of 16 MODIS channels are assimilated respectively in ideal tests. Results show that when the simulated background brightness temperatures are lower than the observation, the analyzed field will increase the simulated brightness temperature by increasing its temperature and reducing its moisture, cloud liquid water, cloud ice water, and cloud cover. The simulated brightness temperature can be reduced if adjustment is made in the contrary direction. The adjustment of the temperature and specific humidity under the clear sky conditions conforms well to the design of MODIS channels, but it is weakened for levels under cloud layers. The ideal tests demonstrate that by simultaneously adding both cloud parameters and atmospheric parameters as governing variables during the assimilation of infrared radiances, both the cloud parameters and atmospheric parameters can be adjusted using the observed infrared radiances and conventional meteorological elements to make full use of the infrared observations.

  12. Performance of balance impaired elders on three balance tests under two visual conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Burgess, Ruth; Weber, Mark; Greenwald, Neva

    2006-01-01

    This study compared differences in balance measures among elderly adults with different degrees of balance impairments under different visual conditions. This study was conducted on 89 adults (> 60 years) with balance impairments. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on the initial Tinetti score: low risk of fall (LRF, n=29), moderate risk of fall (MRF, n=30) and high risk of fall (HRF, n=30). Three balance measures-Tinetti, Timed-up and Go (TUG), and Functional Reach-were tested with 2 different visual conditions: eyes open with normal vision (EONV) and eyes open with blurred vision (EOBV). All data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Subjects with EOBV had significantly decreased Tinetti (P scores and increased TUG (P scores regardless of fall group. Subjects in the LRF group performed better in all 3 tests than those in MRF (P Tinetti (P scores. However, there was no significant interaction between vision and risk of falls in Functional Reach (P > .05) scores. Blurred vision significantly altered all 3 balance measure scores in all risk groups. However, blurred vision had a greater influence on Tinetti and TUG scores than Functional Reach scores in subjects with higher risk of falls.

  13. The influence of the curing conditions of concrete on durability after freeze-thaw accelerated testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Assadi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work relates the curing conditions of concrete with the damage caused by rapid freeze-thaw cycles (ASTM C 666. The “potential” durability of concrete after testing is also studied. In countries with a continental climate, the curing of concrete in summer is performed under high-temperature and low-humidity conditions, and during the winter the concrete undergoes freezing and thawing. This paper shows the experimental results of the behaviour of concrete specimens cured under climatic summer conditions and then subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. Curing of the specimens includes conditions of good and bad practice in relation to wetting and protection of the concrete. Mechanical properties, cement hydration, volume and pore sizes, oxygen permeability, chloride diffusion and water penetration under pressure tests of the concrete are assessed. These tests were performed before and after the application of the freeze-thaw cycles. Statistical analysis of the correlation among variables is also included.Este trabajo relaciona las condiciones de curado del hormigón con los daños causados por ciclos hielo-deshielo (ASTM C 666. Estudia la durabilidad “potencial” del hormigón dañado por este ensayo. En países con clima continental, el curado del hormigón en verano se realiza con alta temperatura y baja humedad, y durante el invierno sufre condiciones de hielo-deshielo. Se presentan los resultados experimentales de probetas de hormigón curadas bajo condiciones climáticas del verano y luego sometidas a ciclos hielo-deshielo. El curado de las probetas incluye condiciones de buenas y malas prácticas en relación con el curado del hormigón. Se miden las propiedades mecánicas, grado de hidratación, volumen de poros y distribución de tamaños, permeabilidad al oxígeno, penetración de agua bajo presión y coeficiente de difusión de cloruros antes y después de la aplicación de los ciclos de hielo-deshielo. Se incluye un estudio estad

  14. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Andrea D; Yih, Erika T; McCoy, Daniel F; Lopresti, Edmund F; McCue, Michael P; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills.

  15. Equilibrium conditions of spinning test particles in Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlik, Z; Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kovar, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    Equilibrium conditions and spin dynamics of spinning test particles are discussed in the stationary and axially symmetric Kerr-de Sitter black-hole or naked-singularity spacetimes. The general equilibrium conditions are established, but due to their great complexity, the detailed discussion of the equilibrium conditions and spin dynamics is presented only in the simple and most relevant cases of equilibrium positions in the equatorial plane and on the symmetry axis of the spacetimes. It is shown that due to the combined effect of the rotation of the source and the cosmic repulsion the equilibrium is spin dependent in contrast to the spherically symmetric spacetimes. In the equatorial plane, it is possible at the so-called static radius, where the gravitational attraction is balanced by the cosmic repulsion, for the spinless particles as well as for spinning particles with arbitrarily large azimuthal-oriented spin or at any radius outside the ergosphere with a specifically given spin orthogonal to the equatori...

  16. Effects of boundary conditions on thermomechanical calculations: Spent fuel test - climax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1982-10-01

    The effects of varying certain boundary conditions on the results of finite-element calculations were studied in relation to the Spent Fuel Test - Climax. The study employed a thermomechanical model with the ADINA structural analysis. Nodal temperature histories were generated with the compatible ADINAT heat flow codes. The boundary conditions studied included: (1) The effect of boundary loading on three progressively larger meshes. (2) Plane strain vs plane stress conditions. (3) The effect of isothermal boundaries on a small mesh and on a significantly larger mesh. The results showed that different mesh sizes had an insignificant effect on isothermal boundaries up to 5 y, while on the smallest and largest mesh, the maximum temperature difference in the mesh was <1{sup 0}C. In the corresponding ADINA calculation, these different mesh sizes produce insignificant changes in the stress field and displacements in the region of interest near the heat sources and excavations. On the other hand, plane stress produces horizontal and vertical stress differences approx. 9% higher than does plane strain.

  17. The transfer of seasonal isotopic variability between precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Baker, Andy; Tan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    This study presents new stable isotope data for precipitation (δ18Op) and drip water (δ18Od) from eight cave sites in the monsoon regions of China (MRC), with monthly to bi-monthly sampling intervals from May-2011 to April-2014, to investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on δ18Op and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites. The monthly δ18Op values show negative correlation with surface air temperature at all the cave sites except Shihua Cave, which is opposite to that expected from the temperature effect. In addition, although the monthly δ18Op values are negatively correlated with precipitation at all the cave sites, only three sites are significant at the 95% level. These indicate that, due to the various vapor sources, a large portion of variability in δ18Op in the MRC cannot be explained simply by either temperature or precipitation alone. All the thirty-four drip sites are classified into three types based on the δ18Od variability. About 82% of them are static drips with little discernable variation in δ18Od through the whole study period, but the drip rates of these drips are not necessary constant. Their discharge modes are site-specific and the oxygen isotopic composition of the stalagmites growing from them may record the average of multi-year climatic signals, which are modulated by the seasonality of recharge and potential effects of evaporation, and in some cases infiltration from large rainfall events. About 12% of the thirty-four drip sites are seasonal drips, although the amplitude of δ18Od is narrower than that of δ18Op, the monthly response of δ18Od to coeval precipitation is not completely damped, and some of them follow the seasonal trend of δ18Op very well. These drips may be mainly recharged by present-day precipitation, mixing with some stored water. Thus, the stalagmites growing under them may record portions of the seasonal climatic signals embedded in δ18Op. About 6% of the thirty-four drip sites

  18. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = -66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment.

  19. Laboratory Test Methods to Determine the Degradation of Plastics in Marine Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = −66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment. PMID:22737147

  20. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eTosin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain. However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation. Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone, to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = -66% in 2 years when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain, and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88% when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain. This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment.

  1. Effect of hydraulic head and slope on water distribution uniformity of a low-cost drip irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.; Reyes, Manuel R.; R. Yoder

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record Assessment of the effect of topography and operating heads on the emission uniformity distribution in drip irrigation systems is important in irrigation water management and could serve as basis for optimizing water use efficiency and crop productivity. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of hydraulic head and slope on the water distribution uniformity of a low-cost drip irrigation system developed by the International Development Enterprises (IDE), a non...

  2. Gas migration in KBS-3 buffer bentonite. Sensitivity of test parameters to experimental boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, J.F.; Horseman, S.T. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    In the current Swedish repository design concept, hydrogen gas can be generated inside a waste canister by anaerobic corrosion of the ferrous metal liner. If the gas generation rate exceeds the diffusion rate of gas molecules in the buffer porewater, gas will accumulate in the void-space of a canister until its pressure becomes large enough for it to enter the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase. Three long tenn gas injection tests have been performed on cylinders of pre-compacted MX80 bentonite. Two of these tests were undertaken using a custom-designed constant volume and radial flow (CVRF) apparatus. Gas was injected at a centrally located porous filter installed in the clay before hydration. Arrangements were made for gas to flow to three independently monitored sink-filter arrays mounted around the specimen. Axial and radial total stresses and internal porewater pressures were continuously monitored. Breakthrough and peak gas pressures were substantially larger than the sum of the swelling pressure and the external porewater. The third test was performed. using an apparatus which radially constrains the specimen during gas flow. Observed sensitivity of the breakthrough and peak gas pressures to the test boundary conditions suggests that gas entry must be accompanied by dilation of the bentonite fabric. In other words, there is a tendency for the volume of the specimen to increase during this process. The experimental evidence is consistent with the flow of gas along a relatively small number of crack-like pathways which propagate through the clay as gas pressure increases. Gas entry and breakthrough under constant volume boundary conditions causes a substantial increase in the total stress and the internal porewater pressure. It is possible to determine the point at which gas enters the clay by monitoring changes in these parameters. Localisation of gas flow within multiple pathways results, in nonuniform discharge rates at the sinks. When gas injection

  3. Soil-Column Test on Aniline Degradation in Riverbank Filtration under Denitrification Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yaoguo; Wang Hui; Zhang Wencun; Sun Weijian

    2005-01-01

    Drinking water is at risk from aniline pollution and thus aniline degradation and its mechanism have received much attention. In this paper, a soil column, including sediments and aquifer media, was collected from the Weihe riverbed and its bank, and used to research the characteristics of aniline degradation in the riverbank filtration process under denitrification conditions. The results indicate that all aniline could be degraded by the habituated indigenous microbes, and even mostly mineralized under denitrification conditions, but with a long lag phase. Some aniline degradation must involve deamination, while the majority undergoes covalent binding with humic substances to form complexes, and the complexes are easily degraded and even mineralized. During the degradation no intermediates were harmful to denitrifiers. Therefore, under denitrifaction conditions, aniline is degraded in RBF, and up to now aniline has not been monitored in the groundwater along the polluted river. During the 153 d testing process, the nitrate-nitrogen concentration was about 23.0 mg/L, and aniline concentrations were 40, 80 or 400 mg/L at 0-74 d, 75-105 d and 106-153 d respectively in infiltrating water. Indigenous microbes pass a lag period of 37 d, and grow on aniline as the source of carbon in the RBF under denitrification conditions. Aniline concentration in leachate was lower than the detected limits, so its removal rate was 100 %. Total organic carbon (TOC) removal rates were 97.99 %, 91.39 % and 75.30 % for 40, 80 and 400 mg/L aniline concentrations respectively, based on TOC monitored in infiltrating water and leachate.

  4. Durability testing of an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite designed for the conditioning of 129I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Antoine; Grandjean, Agnes; Laurencin, Danielle; Jollivet, Patrick; Rossignol, Sylvie; Campayo, Lionel

    2017-02-01

    The safe management of iodine coming from spent nuclear fuels by storage in deep geological repositories requires durable materials. For this purpose, we have recently developed an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA-CaI). In the present article, the chemical durability of this material is assessed as a function of leaching media and apatite stoichiometry. First, the maximum rate for iodine release was determined in unsaturated conditions leading to a congruent dissolution of HA-CaI. In these conditions, the forward rate was equal to 2 × 10-2 g m-2 d-1 at 50 °C independently of apatite stoichiometry. During this regime, dissolution was controlled by surface reaction and diffusion phenomena. When concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in solution increased, the system became saturated towards non-substituted hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and the rate of iodine release consecutively decreased. Consequently, tests were carried out to determine the behaviour of HA-CaI in such experimental conditions (saturated conditions), which were thought to be time-prevalent given the half-life of 129I (15.7 million years). During this regime, also called residual regime, iodine was released in the solution at a constant rate without being trapped in a secondary phase. The residual rate at 50 °C on the basis of iodine release was of 10-4 g m-2 d-1 in an initially deionized water, and it fell by one order of magnitude (r = 10-5 g m-2 d-1) in a clay-equilibrated groundwater (hereafter called Callovo-oxfordian (COx) groundwater). This singular behaviour was ascribed to the presence of calcium in COx water. These preliminary results on the chemical durability of HA-CaI suggest that this material is a viable candidate as repository iodine waste form.

  5. The Effect of Water Saving and Production Increment by Drip Irrigation Schedules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yuan-feng; LUO Jin-yao; MENG Ge

    2004-01-01

    Drip irrigation system can achieve high uniformity. When the system is designed for uniformity coefficient equal or more than 70%, the water application in the field can be expressed as a normal distribution and further simplified to a linear distribution. This paper will describe the irrigation scheduling parameters, percent of deficit, application efficiency and coefficient of variation by simple mathematical model. Using this effective model and the irrigation application, the total yield affected by the total water application for different uniformity of irrigation application can be determined. More over, this paper uses the cost of water, price of yield, uniformity of the drip irrigation system, crop response to water application and environmental concerns of pollution and contamination to determine the optimal irrigation schedule. A case study shows that the optimal irrigation schedule can achieve the effect of water saving and production increment compared with the conventional irrigation schedule in which the whole field is fully irrigated.

  6. Incorporation of Uncertainty and Variability of Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation in WAPDEG Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Helton

    2000-04-19

    This presentation investigates the incorporation of uncertainty and variability of drip shield and waste package degradation in analyses with the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) program (CRWMS M&O 1998). This plan was developed in accordance with Development Plan TDP-EBS-MD-000020 (CRWMS M&O 1999a). Topics considered include (1) the nature of uncertainty and variability (Section 6.1), (2) incorporation of variability and uncertainty into analyses involving individual patches, waste packages, groups of waste packages, and the entire repository (Section 6.2), (3) computational strategies (Section 6.3), (4) incorporation of multiple waste package layers (i.e., drip shield, Alloy 22, and stainless steel) into an analysis (Section 6.4), (5) uncertainty in the characterization of variability (Section 6.5), and (6) Gaussian variance partitioning (Section 6.6). The presentation ends with a brief concluding discussion (Section 7).

  7. Crop growth and two dimensional modeling of soil water transport in drip irrigated potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Mollerup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    Drip irrigation can be an effective way to improve water and nitrogen use efficiency in soil and hence to reduce the environmental pollution. In the EU project SAFIR ( http://www.safir4eu.org/ ) a potato experiment was carried out in lysimeters on three different soil types: coarse sand, loamy sand...... and sandy loam. An automatic roof was used to exclude the lysimeters from natural precipitation. The potatoes were drip irrigated following different strategies: Fully irrigated (FI), deficit irrigation (65% FI), and partial root zone drying (PRD). Gas exchange measurements were carried as well as sampling...... of abscisic acid (ABA). Model outputs from the mechanistic simulation model Daisy, in SAFIR developed to include 2D soil processes and gas exchange processes based on Ball et al. and Farquhar were compared with measured crop dynamics, final DM yield and volumetric water content in the soil measured by TDR...

  8. Continuum and Symmetry-Conserving Effects in Drip-line Nuclei Using Finite-range Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, N

    2007-01-01

    We report the first calculations of nuclear properties near the drip-lines using the spherical Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory with a finite-range force supplemented by continuum and particle number projection effects. Calculations were carried out in a basis made of the eigenstates of a Woods-Saxon potential computed in a box, thereby garanteeing that continuum effects were properly taken into account. Projection of the self-consistent solutions on good particle number was carried out after variation, and an approximation of the variation after projection result was used. We give the position of the drip-lines and examine neutron densities in neutron-rich nuclei. We discuss the sensitivity of nuclear observables upon continuum and particle-number restoration effects.

  9. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano–Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the food needs of Africa’s growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano–Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies. PMID:20080616

  10. Charge effects and nanoparticle pattern formation in electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip printing of colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richner, Patrizia; Kress, Stephan J. P.; Norris, David J.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-03-01

    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite the demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by the dried nanoparticle patterns (footprints) on the substrate. We show that droplets of alternating charge can be spatially separated when applying an ac field to the nozzle. The nanoparticles within a droplet are distributed asymmetrically under the influence of the auxiliary lateral electric field, indicating that they are the main carriers. We also show that the ligand length of the nanoparticles in the colloid affects their mobility after deposition (in the sessile droplet state).Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and

  11. Proton rich nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line in the Relativistic Mean Field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Meng, J

    2003-01-01

    The Relativistic Mean Field theory is applied to the analysis of ground-state properties of deformed proton-rich odd-Z nuclei in the region $55\\le Z \\le 73$ >. The model uses the TMA and NL3 effective interactions in the mean-field Lagrangian, and describes pairing correlations by the density-independent delta-function interaction. The model predicts the location of the proton drip line, the ground-state quadrupole deformation, one-proton separation energy at and beyond the proton drip line, the deformed single-particle orbital occupied by the odd valence proton and the corresponding spectroscopic factor. The results are in good agreement with the available experimental data except for some odd-odd nuclei in which the proton-neutron pairing may become important and are close to those of Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model.

  12. An assessment of Hyalella azteca burrowing activity under laboratory sediment toxicity testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Lorne E; Liber, Karsten

    2010-09-01

    Burrowing of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca was evaluated under laboratory conditions similar to those recommended for standard sediment toxicity testing in Canada (EPS 1/RM/33; Environment Canada, 1997) and the United States (EPA/600/R-99/064; US EPA, 2000). Sediment type, time of day (light versus dark), size of animal, and the presence or absence of food were varied to assess their effects on burrowing activity. Hyalella azteca were found to burrow rapidly in fine, organic-rich sediments, but were slower to burrow in a sandy sediment. There was no increase in the number of animals occupying the sediment surface of a fine, organic-rich sediment after 4h of darkness compared to the previous 4h of light. Over a 9- to 10-d duration, a higher percentage of animals occupied the surface of the sandy sediment. The addition of food promoted burrowing in sandy sediment, as did using smaller animals. Overall, longer-duration tests involving older animals and coarse sediments may require formal observation to confirm burrowing and ensure adequate sediment exposure. The addition of food during a test may promote the burrowing of larger animals in coarse sediments, but may not be necessary in field-collected sediments that are not excessively sandy.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSOR NETWORK TEST BED FOR ISD MATERIALS AND STRUCUTRAL CONDITION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-07-06

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  14. Effects of alternate drip irrigation and superabsorbent polymers on growth and water use of young coffee tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Li, Fusheng; Yang, Qiliang; Wang, Xinle

    2016-07-01

    To obtain optimal irrigation management for young coffee tree, the effects of alternate drip irrigation (ADI) and superabsorbent polymers on physiology, growth, dry mass accumulation and water use on one-year old Coffea arabica L. tree were investigated. This experiment had three drip irrigation methods, i.e., conventional drip irrigation (CDI), alternate drip irrigation (ADI) and fixed drip irrigation (FDI), and two levels of superabsorbent polymers, i.e., no superabsorbent polymers (NSAP) and added superabsorbent polymers (SAP). Compared to CDI, ADI saved irrigation water by 32.1% and increased water use efficiency (WUE) by 29.9%. SAP increased root-shoot ratio, total dry mass and WUE by 20.3, 24.9 and 33.0%, respectively, when compared to NSAP. Compared to CDI with NSAP treatment, ADI with SAP treatment increased total dry mass by 13.8% and saved irrigation water by 34.4%, thus increased WUE by 73.4%, and it increased root activity, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves by 162.4, 38.0 and 8.5%, but reduced the contents of proline and malondialdehyde in leaves by 7.2 and 9.7%, respectively. Thus, alternate drip irrigation with superabsorbent polymers increased the growth and WUE of young Coffea arabica L. tree and was optimal irrigation management for young coffee tree.

  15. Micro push-pull tests under unsaturated conditions: A new technique to investigate rhizosphere processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Kajsa; Nowack, Bernd; Schroth, Martin Herbert; Schulin, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    The rhizosphere differs in many aspects from the bulk soil. The growth of roots or uptake of water by plants alters directly the physical properties of the rhizosphere. Root activities such as absorption, respiration or exudation can change many chemical properties in the rhizosphere. The aim of this study is to develop a new micro technique that allows studying rhizosphere processes at microscopic scale in-situ. Our goal is to combine the technique of micro-suction cups with that of push-pull tests, creating a miniaturized system that is applicable to study not only concentrations but also reactions and exudation rates in the rhizosphere under conditions as undisturbed as possible. Push-pull tests have been used extensively on a larger scale for the investigation of chemical, physical and biological pollutant transport and transformation processes in aquifers. In a push-pull test, a solution containing reactive and non-reactive tracers is injected into a porous medium. After a defined time the test-solution/soilwater mixture is then extracted back from the same location. At first, we developed and validated a micro push-pull test procedure that works under saturated conditions in sand-filled boxes. It was possible to inject about 250 µl solution and extract 850 µl solution at a low and constant injection/extraction rate. The data were analyzed and successfully modeled considering advection, dispersion and molecular diffusion. Tracer concentrations of the extracted solution could be very well predicted without using any adjustable parameters. Molecular diffusion was found to play a significant role in determining the shape of the extraction curve. In a subsequent experiment using this technique, it was possible to quantify the degradation rate of citrate injected into a water-saturated, sand-filled box inoculated with denitrifying bacteria. The new technique thus proved to be an adequate tool to observe local biodegradation processes in situ. Now, we are

  16. Recent Studies of Proton Drip-Line Nuclei Using the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.W.; Batchelder, J.C.; Ninov, V.; Gregorich, K.E.; Toth, K.S.; Bingham, C.R.; Piechaczek, A.; Xu, X.J.; Powell, J.; Joosten, R.; Cerny, J.

    1999-10-07

    The Berkeley Gas-filled Separator provides new research opportunities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's X-Inch Cyclotron. The use of this apparatus for the study of proton drip-line nuclides is discussed. Preliminary results of {sup 78}Kr bombardments of {sup 102}Pd targets at mid-target energies of 360, 375 and 385 MeV are presented. Improvements planned partially as a result of this measurement are also discussed.

  17. Parametric effects on glass reaction in the unsaturated test method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodland, A.B.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1991-12-01

    The Unsaturated Test Method has been applied to study glass reaction under conditions that may be present at the potential Yucca Mountain site, currently under evaluation for storage of reprocessed high-level nuclear waste. The results from five separate sets of parametric experiments are presented wherein test parameters ranging from water contact volume to sensitization of metal in contact with the glass were examined. The most significant effect was observed when the volume of water, as controlled by the water inject volume and interval period, was such to allow exfoliation of reacted glass to occur. The extent of reaction was also influenced to a lesser extent by the degree of sensitization of the 304L stainless steel. For each experiment, the release of cations from the glass and alteration of the glass were examined. The major alteration product is a smectite clay that forms both from precipitation from solution and from in-situ alteration of the glass itself. It is this clay that undergoes exfoliation as water drips from the glass. A comparison is made between the results of the parametric experiments with those of static leach tests. In the static tests the rates of release become progressively reduced through 39 weeks while, in contrast, they remain relatively constant in the parametric experiments for at least 300 weeks. This differing behavior may be attributable to the dripping water environment where fresh water is periodically added and where evaporation can occur.

  18. Oxygen and carbon isotopic characteristics of rainwater,drip water and present speleothems in a cave in Guilin area,and their environmental meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬[1; 袁道先[2; 覃嘉铭[3; 林玉石[4; 张美良[5

    2000-01-01

    The studies of the oxgen and carbon isotopes of the rainwater in Guilin area, the drip water and the present carbonate deposit in Panlong cave of Guilin show that: (i) as to the general characteristics of the oxygen isotopes of the rainwater within a year and between years, the δ18O values decrease with an increase of air temperature and the rainfall, and the correlation betweenδ18O values and the mean monthly air temperature is much better than that between δ18O values and the rainfall, and the δ18O values of the rainwater during the summer monsoon are much smaller than those during winter monsoon; (ii) δ18O values of the drip water have a quite good correlation with the δ18O values of the rainwater in the same period; (iii) when the conditions are appropriate, δ13C can be used as an environmental proxy, that is, the smaller δ13C of speleothems is, the larger the proportion of C3 plants is and the more plentiful the rainfall is. On the contrary, C4 plants may be prevailing or the environment ma

  19. Oxygen and carbon isotopic characteristics of rainwater, drip water and present speleothems in a cave in Guilin area, and their environmental meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The studies of the oxgen and carbon isotopes of the rainwater in Guilin area, the drip water and the present carbonate deposit in Panlong cave of Guilin show that: (i) as to the general characteristics of the oxygen isotopes of the rainwater within a year and between years, the δ18O values decrease with an increase of air temperature and the rainfall, and the correlation between δ18O values and the mean monthly air temperature is much better than that between δ18O values and the rainfall, and the δ18O values of the rainwater during the summer monsoon are much smaller than those during winter monsoon; (ii) δ18O values of the drip water have a quite good correlation with the δ18O values of the rainwater in the same period; (iii) when the conditions are appropriate, δ13C can be used as an environmental proxy, that is, the smaller δ13C of speleothems is, the larger the proportion of C3 plants is and the more plentiful the rainfall is. On the contrary, C4 plants may be prevailing or the environment may be a stony desert caused by climate changes or human activity.

  20. Modal Testing and Analysis of Structures Under Operational Conditions: Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, L.; van der Auweraer, H.

    1999-03-01

    Experimental identification of structural dynamics models is usually based on the modal analysis approach. In the classical modal parameter estimation approach, the baseline data which are processed are frequency response functions measured under laboratory conditions. However, in many applications, the real operating conditions may differ significantly from those applied during the modal test. Hence, the need arises to identify a modal model in operational conditions. This issue is even more complicated by the fact that in most cases, only response data are measurable while the actual loading conditions are unknown. Therefore, the system identification process will need to base itself on output-only data. In the last decade, the problem of output-only modal analysis has typically been approached by applying a peak-picking technique to the auto- and cross-powers of the measured responses, resulting in operational deflection shapes and approximate estimates for the resonance frequencies. These shapes were then compared to or even decomposed into the laboratory modal results. Over the past years, several modal parameter estimation techniques have been proposed and studied for modal parameter extraction from output-only data. They include autoregressive moving averaging models, natural excitation technique (NExT) and stochastic subspace methods. In this paper, the capabilities and limitations of the NExT technique and two subspace techniques, referred to as the balanced realization and the canonical variate analysis, are evaluated for its applicability to industrial cases. The theory of the methods is briefly outlined. Subsequently, the performance of the methods is critically evaluated and compared for three industrial cases: the modal characterisation of the rear suspension system of a family car during road tests in order to understand a booming noise problem, flight flutter analysis of a commercial aircraft and the identification of the modes of a three

  1. Efficacy of benzydamine hydrochloride dripping at endotracheal tube cuff for prevention of postoperative sore throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmaanrat, Sasikaan; Chokkijchai, Kedsirin; Chanchayanon, Thavat

    2013-10-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a frequent consequence following ETT intubation, which may negatively affect the postoperative course and patient satisfaction. Benzydamine hydrochloride is a topically-applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The authors evaluated the analgesic effect of benzydamine hydrochloride dripping on the ETT cuff on POST. Eighty-six patients participated in this randomized controlled trial. They were assigned into either the benzydamine hydrochloride or the control group. The whole ETT cuff was dripped either with 3 ml (4.5 mg) of benzydamine hydrochloride or nothing five minutes prior to anesthesia induction. The incidence and severity of POST at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours postoperatively were assessed. The potential adverse effects of benzydamine hydrochloride (throat numbness throat burning sensation, dry mouth, and thirst) were also evaluated. Twenty-five patients (58.14%) in each group had POST (p-value = 1). The severity of POST (calculated from affected patients) in both groups at different time points was not significantly different. Patients in the benzydamine hydrochloride group did not have a higher incidence of adverse effects. We found that dripping benzydamine hydrochloride on the ETT cuff neither reduced the incidence of POST nor increased the incidence of adverse effects in comparison with no intervention.

  2. Effect of fabric mounting method and backing material on bloodstain patterns of drip stains on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J Y M; Michielsen, S

    2016-05-01

    Textiles may provide valuable bloodstain evidence to help piece together events or activities at violent crime scenes. However, in spite of over 75 years of research, there are still difficulties encountered in many cases in the interpretation and identification of bloodstains on textiles. In this study, we dripped porcine blood onto three types of fabric (plain woven, single jersey knit, and denim) that are supported in four different ways (hard, taut, loose, and semi-hard, i.e., fabric laid on denim). These four mounting methods represent different ways in which a textile may be present when blood from a violent act lands on it. This study investigates how the fabric mounting method and backing material affect the appearance of drip stains on textiles. We found that bloodstain patterns formed on fabric lying flat on a hard surface were very different from when the same fabric was suspended loosely. We also found that bloodstains formed on the technical back of single jersey knit were vastly different from those on the technical face. Interestingly, some drip stains showed blood passing through the textile and leaving a stain behind it that resembled insect stains. By observing, recording, and describing how a blood stained textile is found or presented at the scene, the analyst may be able to better understand bloodstains and bloodstain patterns on textiles, which could be useful to confirm or refute a witness's account of how blood came to be where it was found after a bloodshed event.

  3. Role of phospholipase A2 in the induction of drip loss in porcine muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Kristian A; Young, Jette F; Theil, Peter

    2007-01-01

    different breeds of pigs with variations in drip loss revealed no clear correlation between drip loss level and iPLA2-VIA expression. Together, these data indicate that during the post-mortem period, iPLA2-VIA expression and activity is increased at the muscle fiber membranes. PLA2 activity may affect......The role of phospholipase A2 in the induction of drip loss from pig muscle has been investigated. In samples from porcine M. longissimus dorsi, total PLA2 activity as well as mRNA and protein levels of the group VIA iPLA2 (iPLA2-VIA) increased during the initial 4 h post-mortem period....... Morphological studies of porcine muscle showed that at 4 h post-mortem, gaps had formed between muscle fibers and that the sarcolemma membrane borders appeared blurred. At the same time iPLA2-VIA protein levels were increased inside muscle fibers and at the sarcolemma. iPLA2-VIA mRNA abundance in samples from...

  4. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  5. Analytical Methodology Used To Assess/Refine Observatory Thermal Vacuum Test Conditions For the Landsat 8 Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantano, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop Silver Spring, MD NCTS 21070-15 The Landsat 8 Data Continuity Mission, which is part of the United States Geologic Survey (USGS), launched February 11, 2013. A Landsat environmental test requirement mandated that test conditions bound worst-case flight thermal environments. This paper describes a rigorous analytical methodology applied to assess refine proposed thermal vacuum test conditions and the issues encountered attempting to satisfy this requirement.

  6. Degradation testing and failure analysis of DC film capacitors under high humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Metallized polypropylene film capacitors are widely used for high-voltage DC-link applications in power electronic converters. They generally have better reliability performance compared to aluminum electrolytic capacitors under electro-thermal stresses within specifications. However......, the degradation of the film capacitors is a concern in applications exposed to high humidity environments. This paper investigates the degradation of a type of plastic-boxed metallized DC film capacitors under different humidity conditions based on a total of 8700 h of accelerated testing and also post failure...... of interest is also presented. The study enables a better understanding of the humidity-related failure mechanisms and reliability performance of DC film capacitors for power electronics applications....

  7. Wave-particle resonance condition test for ion-kinetic waves in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Y. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria). Space Research Inst.; Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik; Marsch, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik; Perschke, C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik; Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Glassmeier, K.H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Goettingen (Germany); Motschmann, U. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Planetenforschung; Comisel, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Conditions for the Landau and cyclotron resonances are tested for 543 waves (identified as local peaks in the energy spectra) in the magnetic field fluctuations of the solar wind measured by the Cluster spacecraft on a tetrahedral scale of 100 km. The resonance parameters are evaluated using the frequencies in the plasma rest frame, the parallel components of the wavevectors, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the ion thermal speed. The observed waves show a character of the sideband waves associated with the ion Bernstein mode, and are in a weak agreement with the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance in spite of the ionkinetic scales. The electron cyclotron resonance is likely taking place in solar wind turbulence near 1AU (astronomical unit).

  8. Reproduction of Cubaris murina (Crustacea: Isopoda under laboratory conditions and its use in ecotoxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC. Niemeyer

    Full Text Available Reproduction of the isopod Cubaris murina was studied in the laboratory in order to observe the offspring number per brood, the number and duration of the incubation periods, and the influence of repeated mating on number of young per brood. An experiment was conducted with two different groups: female/male pairs and females that were isolated after mating. No significant difference was found between the two reproductive female groups for the mean number of young per brood (x = 25 and the duration of the incubation periods (x = 17 days. One mating was enough for at least five broods, with no reduction in brood size. There was no significant difference between the number of adult males and females. Low-density cultures had a significantly higher growth rate compared to high-density cultures. Furthermore, the experimental results for optimization isopod culture conditions for terrestrial ecotoxicity testing are reported.

  9. Wave-particle resonance condition test for ion-kinetic waves in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y.; Marsch, E.; Perschke, C.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.; Comişel, H.

    2016-04-01

    Conditions for the Landau and cyclotron resonances are tested for 543 waves (identified as local peaks in the energy spectra) in the magnetic field fluctuations of the solar wind measured by the Cluster spacecraft on a tetrahedral scale of 100 km. The resonance parameters are evaluated using the frequencies in the plasma rest frame, the parallel components of the wavevectors, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the ion thermal speed. The observed waves show a character of the sideband waves associated with the ion Bernstein mode, and are in a weak agreement with the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance in spite of the ion-kinetic scales. The electron cyclotron resonance is likely taking place in solar wind turbulence near 1 AU (astronomical unit).

  10. Thermal comfort conditions in the NBS/DoE direct gain passive solar test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. T.

    1982-12-01

    The thermal comfort conditions in a direct gain cell of passive solar test facility were analyzed. It was found that the daytime operative temperature as measured by the black globe temperature sensors in an area near the large south glazing exceeded the upper boundary of the ASHRAE comfort envelope by a large amount in a clear day during both the thermal transition month of October and the cold winter month of January. The reflected solar radiation from the interior surfaces and the snow covered ground plays a significant role on the measured black globe temperature and should be included in the computation of the mean radiant temperature for a space with large glazed areas.

  11. Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Gussev, Maxim N [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today s nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. . Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of IASCC are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure to irradiation, stress, and corrosive environment for all core internal components. The objective of this effort within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program is to evaluate the response and mechanisms of IASCC in austenitic stainless steels with single variable experiments. A series of high-value irradiated specimens has been acquired from the past international research programs, providing a valuable opportunity to examine the mechanisms of IASCC. This batch of irradiated specimens has been received and inventoried. In addition, visual examination and sample cleaning has been completed. Microhardness testing has been performed on these specimens. All samples show evidence of hardening, as expected, although the degree of hardening has saturated and no trend with dose is observed. Further, the change in hardening can be converted to changes in mechanical properties. The calculated yield stress is consistent with previous data from light water reactor conditions. In addition, some evidence of changes in deformation mode was identified via examination of the microhardness indents. This analysis may provide further insights into the deformation mode under larger scale tests. Finally, swelling analysis was performed using immersion density methods. Most alloys showed some evidence of swelling, consistent with the expected trends for this class of alloy. The Hf-doped alloy showed densification rather than swelling. This observation may be

  12. Conditioning polymers in today's shampoo formulations - efficacy, mechanism and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hössel, P; Dieing, R; Nörenberg, R; Pfau, A; Sander, R

    2000-02-01

    Today's shampoo formulations are beyond the stage of pure cleansing of the hair. Additional benefits are expected, e.g. conditioning, smoothing of the hair surface, improvement of combability and lather creaminess. Cationic polymers play an important role in providing many of those features. Therefore, within the last few years their use in shampoos has increased greatly. In the only last two decades, shampoo designation has gradually changed from '2-in-1' to '3-in-1' and then to 'multifunctional', as at present. The consumer demands products which live up to their promises. Modern shampoos contain a wide variety of ingredients such as co-surfactants, vitamins and pro-vitamins, protein derivatives, silicones, natural-based plant extracts and other 'active ingredients', but there is still a need for conditioning polymers. The specific objective of this study is to assess the conditioning efficacy of cationic polymers and to investigate their mechanisms in a shampoo system. The investigations were carried out on formulations that contained sodium lauryl ether sulphate and different cationic polymers, e.g. Polyquaternium 7, 10, 11, cationic guar gum and Luviquat Care (Polyquaternium 44), a new branched copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and quaternized vinylimidazolium salts (QVI). We used test methods relevant to the applications in question, such as combing force measurements, the feel of the hair and the creaminess of the lather, to assess the efficacy. Atomic force microscopy and electrokinetics (streaming potential) were used to detect polymer residues on treated hair. All the polymers under investigation improved the overall performance of the shampoo formulations. This was demonstrated by means of combing force measurements, sensorial tests and analytical methods, namely zeta potential measurement and atomic force microscopy. Polyquaternium 44 exhibited the best conditioning properties on wet hair without sacrificing removability or absence of build-up. The

  13. Testing of a Hydrogen Diffusion Flame Array Injector at Gas Turbine Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Nathan T.; Sidwell, Todd G.; Strakey, Peter A.

    2013-07-03

    High-hydrogen gas turbines enable integration of carbon sequestration into coal-gasifying power plants, though NO{sub x} emissions are often high. This work explores nitrogen dilution of hydrogen diffusion flames to reduce thermal NO{sub x} emissions and avoid problems with premixing hydrogen at gas turbine pressures and temperatures. The burner design includes an array of high-velocity coaxial fuel and air injectors, which balances stability and ignition performance, combustor pressure drop, and flame residence time. Testing of this array injector at representative gas turbine conditions (16 atm and 1750 K firing temperature) yields 4.4 ppmv NO{sub x} at 15% O{sub 2} equivalent. NO{sub x} emissions are proportional to flame residence times, though these deviate from expected scaling due to active combustor cooling and merged flame behavior. The results demonstrate that nitrogen dilution in combination with high velocities can provide low NO{sub x} hydrogen combustion at gas turbine conditions, with significant potential for further NO{sub x} reductions via suggested design changes.

  14. Testing of a Hydrogen Diffusion Flame Array Injector at Gas Turbine Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Nathan T.; Sidwell, Todd G.; Strakey, Peter A.

    2013-07-03

    High-hydrogen gas turbines enable integration of carbon sequestration into coal-gasifying power plants, though NO{sub x} emissions are often high. This work explores nitrogen dilution of hydrogen diffusion flames to reduce thermal NO{sub x} emissions and avoid problems with premixing hydrogen at gas turbine pressures and temperatures. The burner design includes an array of high-velocity coaxial fuel and air injectors, which balances stability and ignition performance, combustor pressure drop, and flame residence time. Testing of this array injector at representative gas turbine conditions (16 atm and 1750 K firing temperature) yields 4.4 ppmv NO{sub x} at 15% O{sub 2} equivalent. NO{sub x} emissions are proportional to flame residence times, though these deviate from expected scaling due to active combustor cooling and merged flame behavior. The results demonstrate that nitrogen dilution in combination with high velocities can provide low NO{sub x} hydrogen combustion at gas turbine conditions, with significant potential for further NO{sub x} reductions via suggested design changes.

  15. Testing ZigBee Motes for Monitoring Refrigerated Vegetable Transportation under Real Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ruiz-Garcia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control and monitoring of perishable goods during transportation and delivery services is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, transport decision makers and consumers. The major challenge is to ensure a continuous ‘cold chain’ from producer to consumer in order to guaranty prime condition of goods. In this framework, the suitability of ZigBee protocol for monitoring refrigerated transportation has been proposed by several authors. However, up to date there was not any experimental work performed under real conditions. Thus, the main objective of our experiment was to test wireless sensor motes based in the ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 protocol during a real shipment. The experiment was conducted in a refrigerated truck traveling through two countries (Spain and France which means a journey of 1,051 kilometers. The paper illustrates the great potential of this type of motes, providing information about several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, door openings and truck stops. Psychrometric charts have also been developed for improving the knowledge about water loss and condensation on the product during shipments.

  16. Effects of stress conditions on rheological properties of granular soil in large triaxial rheology laboratory tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓斌; 张家生; 刘宝琛; 唐孟雄

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the rheological properties of red stone granular soil,a series of rheological experiments were executed on large tri-axial rheological apparatus.Under 100,200 and 300 kPa confining stress conditions,the rheological tests were carried out.These experiment results showed that the stress conditions,especially the stress level were the critical influencing factors of the rheological deformation properties.Under the low stress level(S=0.1),the granular soil showed the elastic properties,and there was no obvious rheological deformation.Under the middle stress level(0.20.8) creep curves showed the non-linear viscous plastic rheological properties.Especially,under the stress level of S=1.0,the accelerated rheological phase of creep curves occurred at early time with a trend of failure.The stress level had obvious effects on the final rheological deformation of the soil sample,and the final rheological deformation increments nonlinearly increased with stress level.The final rheological deformation increment and step was little under low stress level,while it became large under high stress level,which showed the nonlinearly rheological properties of the granular soil.The confining pressure also had direct effects on final rheological deformation,and the final rheological deformation linearly increased with confining pressure increments.

  17. Test facility and the available inlet flow condition to transonic radial diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayami, Hiroshi; Senoo, Yasutoshi; Nakashima, Koji; Kawaguchi, Nobumasa

    1987-12-28

    In order to stabilize the characteristics combined with diffuser(DF) and expand the flow rate range, a transonic centrifugal impeller(B rotor) with backward blade angle of 40deg was made trially. Single characteristic was tested for five rotating speed equal to or less than 19,000 rpm with freon R12. The flow rate range from choke to inducer(ID) stalling for B rotor is 17% of choke flow rate which is comaratively wider than 11% of conventional impeller(R rotor) with forward blade angle. When the flow field of impeller exit, that is, DF inlet is considered, the maximum value of inlet flow angle in a constant rotating speed corresponds to choke condition or maximum flow rate and minimum value corresponds to operating condition of critical flow rate resulting ID spalling speed. Inflow Mach number to DF changes mainly for the impeller rotating speed. It is possible to pursue the experimental work on diffusers in the range of 21deg(max) to 11.6deg(min) inflow angle and up to 1.31 Mach number using the present facility. (9 figs, 4 refs)

  18. Active personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: tests in laboratory conditions and in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairand, I; Bordy, J-M; Daures, J; Debroas, J; Denozière, M; Donadille, L; Ginjaume, M; Itié, C; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Lebacq, A-L; Martin, P; Struelens, L; Sans-Mercé, M; Tosic, M; Vanhavere, F

    2011-03-01

    The work package 3 of the ORAMED project, Collaborative Project (2008-11) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme, is focused on the optimisation of the use of active personal dosemeters (APDs) in interventional radiology and cardiology (IR/IC). Indeed, a lack of appropriate APD devices is identified for these specific fields. Few devices can detect low-energy X rays (20-100 keV), and none of them are specifically designed for working in pulsed radiation fields. The work presented in this paper consists in studying the behaviour of some selected APDs deemed suitable for application in IR/IC. For this purpose, measurements under laboratory conditions, both with continuous and pulsed X-ray beams, and tests in real conditions on site in different European hospitals were performed. This study highlights the limitations of APDs for this application and the need of improving the APD technology so as to fulfil all needs in the IR/IC field.

  19. Testing ZigBee motes for monitoring refrigerated vegetable transportation under real conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio; Lunadei, Loredana

    2010-01-01

    Quality control and monitoring of perishable goods during transportation and delivery services is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, transport decision makers and consumers. The major challenge is to ensure a continuous 'cold chain' from producer to consumer in order to guaranty prime condition of goods. In this framework, the suitability of ZigBee protocol for monitoring refrigerated transportation has been proposed by several authors. However, up to date there was not any experimental work performed under real conditions. Thus, the main objective of our experiment was to test wireless sensor motes based in the ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 protocol during a real shipment. The experiment was conducted in a refrigerated truck traveling through two countries (Spain and France) which means a journey of 1,051 kilometers. The paper illustrates the great potential of this type of motes, providing information about several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, door openings and truck stops. Psychrometric charts have also been developed for improving the knowledge about water loss and condensation on the product during shipments.

  20. A 3D-psoriatic skin model for dermatological testing: The impact of culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Duque-Fernandez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate representation of the human tissue environment during a preclinical screen can result in inaccurate predictions of compound effects. Consequently, pharmaceutical investigators are searching for preclinical models that closely resemble original tissue for predicting clinical outcomes.The current research aims to compare the impact of using serum-free medium instead of complete culture medium during the last step of psoriatic skin substitute reconstruction. Skin substitutes were produced according to the self-assembly approach.Serum-free conditions have no negative impact on the reconstruction of healthy or psoriatic skin substitutes presented in this study regarding their macroscopic or histological appearances. ATR-FTIR results showed no significant differences in the CH2 bands between psoriatic substitutes cultured with or without serum, thus suggesting that serum deprivation did not have a negative impact on the lipid organization of their stratum corneum. Serum deprivation could even lead to a better organization of healthy skin substitute lipids. Percutaneous analyses demonstrated that psoriatic substitutes cultured in serum-free conditions showed a higher permeability to hydrocortisone compared to controls, while no significant differences in benzoic acid and caffeine penetration profiles were observed.Results obtained with this 3D-psoriatic skin substitute demonstrate the potential and versatility of the model. It could offer good prediction of drug related toxicities at preclinical stages performed in order to avoid unexpected and costly findings in the clinic.Together, these findings offer a new approach for one of the most important challenges of the 21st century, namely, prediction of drug toxicity.•Impact of serum-free conditions during psoriatic skin substitutes reconstruction.•Lipids disorganization of healthy and psoriatic skin substitutes.•Permeation profiles of healthy skin substitutes.•Permeation profiles of

  1. Incidência de murcha-bacteriana em tomate para processamento industrial sob irrigação por gotejamento e aspersão Incidence of bacterial wilt on processing tomato under drip and sprinkle irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Marouelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília (DF, com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência de murcha-bacteriana em tomateiro para processamento industrial irrigado por gotejamento e por aspersão, cultivado em solo naturalmente infestado com a raça 1, biovar I de Ralstonia solanacearum, nas condições edafoclimáticas do Cerrado brasileiro. Para gotejamento foram também avaliados os regimes hídricos com turnos de rega de 0,5; 1; 2; 4 e 8 dias. A irrigação por gotejamento favoreceu significativamente a ocorrência da doença, apresentando em média, aos 65 dias após o transplante de mudas, 42,5% de plantas com sintoma contra 5% de casos ocorridos na irrigação por aspersão. A incidência da doença no gotejamento não foi afetada (p>0,05 pelo regime hídrico adotado.A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasilia, Brazil, with the objective of assessing the incidence of bacterial wilt on processing tomatoes irrigated by drip and sprinkle systems, under soil and climate conditions of the Brazilian "Cerrado". The trial was performed in a field naturally infested with race 1, biovar I of Ralstonia solanacearum. Different irrigation frequencies (0.5; 1; 2; 4; and 8 days were further evaluated for drip irrigation. Disease incidence was significantly higher when the crop was drip irrigated, with an average of 42.5% of wilted plants in comparison with 5.0% incidence for sprinkle irrigation, 65 days after transplanting. Frequencies of drip irrigation did not affect (p>0.05 bacterial wilt incidence.

  2. Behaviour of layered sandstone under Brazilian test conditions:Layer orientation and shape effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbass Tavallali; André Vervoort

    2013-01-01

    The experimental study in this paper focuses on the effects of the layer orientation and sample shape on failure strength and fracture pattern of samples tested under Brazilian test conditions (i.e. diametrical loading of cylindrical discs) for one particular layered sandstone which is from Modave in the south of Belgium. The variations of the strength in combination with the failure patterns are examined as a function of the inclination angle between the layer plane and the loading direction. The experimental, results clearly show that the induced fracture patterns are a combination of tensile and/or shear fractures. In shape effect experiments the layer thickness and the number of layer boundaries are investigated. Different blocks of Modave sandstone are used to prepare samples. The layer thickness is different among the various blocks, but the layer thickness in each studied rock block can be considered to be constant;hence, the number of layer boundaries changes according to the sample diameter for samples of the same block. The experimental study shows that the layer thickness plays a more important role than the number of layer boundaries per sample.

  3. Conditions necessary for capillary hysteresis in porous media: Tests of grain size and surface tension influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Olson, Keith R.; Wan, Jiamin

    2004-05-01

    Hysteresis in the relation between water saturation and matric potential is generally regarded as a basic aspect of unsaturated porous media. However, the nature of an upper length scale limit for saturation hysteresis has not been previously addressed. Since hysteresis depends on whether or not capillary rise occurs at the grain scale, this criterion was used to predict required combinations of grain size, surface tension, fluid-fluid density differences, and acceleration in monodisperse systems. The Haines number (Ha), composed of the aforementioned variables, is proposed as a dimensionless number useful for separating hysteretic (Ha 15) behavior. Vanishing of hysteresis was predicted to occur for grain sizes greater than 10.4 ± 0.5 mm, for water-air systems under the acceleration of ordinary gravity, based on Miller-Miller scaling and Haines' original model for hysteresis. Disappearance of hysteresis was tested through measurements of drainage and wetting curves of sands and gravels and occurs between grain sizes of 10 and 14 mm (standard conditions). The influence of surface tension was tested through measurements of moisture retention in 7 mm gravel, without and with a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS)). The ordinary water system (Ha = 7) exhibited hysteresis, while the SDBS system (Ha = 18) did not. The experiments completed in this study indicate that hysteresis in moisture retention relations has an upper limit at Ha = 16 ± 2 and show that hysteresis is not a fundamental feature of unsaturated porous media.

  4. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery.

  5. Using Speech Recall in Hearing Aid Fitting and Outcome Evaluation Under Ecological Test Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rosenbom, Tove; Ågren, Jessica; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning

    2016-01-01

    In adaptive Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) tests used in the audiological clinic, speech is presented at signal to noise ratios (SNRs) that are lower than those generally encountered in real-life communication situations. At higher, ecologically valid SNRs, however, SRTs are insensitive to changes in hearing aid signal processing that may be of benefit to listeners who are hard of hearing. Previous studies conducted in Swedish using the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall test (SWIR) have indicated that at such SNRs, the ability to recall spoken words may be a more informative measure. In the present study, a Danish version of SWIR, known as the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall Test in a New Language (SWIRL) was introduced and evaluated in two experiments. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the Swedish results demonstrating benefit from noise reduction signal processing for hearing aid wearers could be replicated in 25 Danish participants with mild to moderate symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. The objective of experiment 2 was to compare direct-drive and skin-drive transmission in 16 Danish users of bone-anchored hearing aids with conductive hearing loss or mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing loss. In experiment 1, performance on SWIRL improved when hearing aid noise reduction was used, replicating the Swedish results and generalizing them across languages. In experiment 2, performance on SWIRL was better for direct-drive compared with skin-drive transmission conditions. These findings indicate that spoken word recall can be used to identify benefits from hearing aid signal processing at ecologically valid, positive SNRs where SRTs are insensitive.

  6. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  7. Effect of specimen size and loading conditions on indirect tensile test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona, S.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties inherent in the direct measurement of concrete tensile strength, experimental methods have been devised to determine this property indirectly. One such method, the splitting or indirect tensile test, also known as the Brazilian test, is widely used for its convenience and applicability to freshly moulded cubic and cylindrical specimens, as well as to hardened concrete core samples.Nevertheless, the strength values obtained with this method have been observed to differ with specimen size. Moreover, the strength values calculated with the formula proposed in the existing standards fail to reflect real test conditions and actually overestimate tensile strength.The experimental results reported in this article show that if the test set up is modified slightly and the equation for calculating strength is adjusted, consistent strength values are obtained, regardless of specimen size, in the range of diameters studied (45 - 294 mm.Debido a la dificultad que existe para caracterizar la resistencia a tracción del hormigón por medio del ensayo de tracción directa, se han validado métodos experimentales indirectos para determinar esa propiedad. Uno de esos métodos, el ensayo de tracción indirecta o ensayo Brasileño, se usa ampliamente por su facilidad de ejecución, por la posibilidad de determinarse sobre probetas cúbicas o cilíndricas moldeadas con hormigón fresco y porque también se pueden ensayar testigos de hormigón endurecido.No obstante, cuando se analizan detenidamente los resultados obtenidos con probetas de distintos tamaños, se observa que la resistencia depende del tamaño de la probeta. Por otra parte, los valores de la resistencia calculados con la expresión propuesta por las normas técnicas vigentes no reflejan las condiciones reales de ejecución del ensayo, sobreestimando la resistencia a la tracción del material.A partir de los resultados experimentales presentados en este artículo se observa que

  8. Tracking solutes and water from subsurface drip irrigation application of coalbed methane–produced waters, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Mark A. [U.S. Geological Survey. Reston, VA (United States); Bern, Carleton R. [U.S. Geological Survey. Denver, CO (United States); Healy, Richard W. [U.S. Geological Survey. Denver, CO (United States); Sams, James I. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Zupancic, John W. [BeneTerra LLC. Sheridan, WY (United States); Schroeder, Karl T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-09-01

    One method to beneficially use water produced from coalbed methane (CBM) extraction is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) of croplands. In SDI systems, treated CBM water (injectate) is supplied to the soil at depth, with the purpose of preventing the buildup of detrimental salts near the surface. The technology is expanding within the Powder River Basin, but little research has been published on its environmental impacts. This article reports on initial results from tracking water and solutes from the injected CBM-produced waters at an SDI system in Johnson County, Wyoming. In the first year of SDI operation, soil moisture significantly increased in the SDI areas, but well water levels increased only modestly, suggesting that most of the water added was stored in the vadose zone or lost to evapotranspiration. The injectate has lower concentrations of most inorganic constituents relative to ambient groundwater at the site but exhibits a high sodium adsorption ratio. Changes in groundwater chemistry during the same period of SDI operation were small; the increase in groundwater-specific conductance relative to pre-SDI conditions was observed in a single well. Conversely, groundwater samples collected beneath another SDI field showed decreased concentrations of several constituents since the SDI operation. Groundwater-specific conductance at the 12 other wells showed no significant changes. Major controls on and compositional variability of groundwater, surface water, and soil water chemistry are discussed in detail. Findings from this research provide an understanding of water and salt dynamics associated with SDI systems using CBM-produced water.

  9. Influence of Drip Irrigation Quota on Film Maize Growth,Yield and Water use Efficiency%不同灌水定额对覆膜滴灌玉米生长、产量及水分利用效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗迪汉; 王勇; 宇宙

    2015-01-01

    To explore suitable drip irrigation quota of corn in Chifeng area and water saving effect ,a field test was conducted in the demonstration base in Nanpingfang village ,Dangpudi town ,Songshan District ,Chifeng city .The test set up four levels of irrigation water ,namely 180(GGDE1) ,240(GGDE2) ,300(GGDE3) and 360(GGDE4) m3/hm2 .The influence of different drip irrigation quota on the growth condition of corn ,corn yield and water use efficiency (WUE) was studied .The relation between water con‐sumption and maize yield ,marginal yield and water use efficiency was analyzed .The results showed that under the irrigation quota of 300 m3/hm2 ,corn plant height and leaf area showed better than other irrigation treatment in the corn seedling stage and filling stage ;for the treatment of drip irrigation under film ,corn yield increased with the increase of irrigation water first and then decrease ;the yield components ,such as spike weight ,row grains ,increased with the increase of irrigation quota ;the regularity of spike length and spike rows was not strong ;the differences between different treatments was not significant ;both maize yield and water use effi‐ciency had a quadratic parabola relationship with maize water consumption ;water consumption in the whole stages of 400 .83~449 . 63 mm was the main research area to determine the drip irrigation quota .%为了探索适宜于赤峰地区滴灌玉米的灌水定额,在赤峰市松山区当铺地乡南平房村示范基地进行了大田试验,试验设置4个灌水定额水平,分别为180(GGDE1)、240(GGDE2)、300(GGDE3)、360(GGDE4) m3/hm2,研究了不同灌水定额对覆膜滴灌玉米生长状况、玉米产量和水分利用效率W UE的影响,分析了玉米耗水量与产量、边际产量、玉米水分利用效率之间的关系。结果表明:灌水定额300 m3/hm2的处理玉米的株高、叶面积在玉米苗期、灌浆期表现出比其他灌水定额处理好;膜

  10. Design, development and test of the gearbox condition monitoring system using sound signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2016-09-01

    format and MATLAB R2014a software used for data processing. Data processing: Signal processing method in the frequency domain is used in order to reveal the defects. Fast Fourier Transform: Fast Fourier Transform FFT for application in electronic equipment specially analyzers have great importance. In this condition, sampling number is chosen exponentially as 2N which decreases the calculation volume significantly. Determination of defect kind of gearwheel using frequency spectrum analysis: In mentioned gearwheel, errors were generated synthetically. Defect kind of these errors was generated in separate gearwheels in order to investigate the defects more precisely and a gearwheel was considered as control gearwheel. Despite of this, the sound of all of the gearwheels in correct condition was stored. Results and Discussion Comparison of processed acoustic signals from gearwheels of gearbox in two correct and incorrect conditions was indicative of gearwheel involvement, frequency, their harmony and the changes resulted from defects. Gearwheel defect detection tests showed that at the speeds of 1496, 1050 and 749 rpm, investigated defects are recognizable with a comparison of the frequency spectrum of obtained signals in correct and incorrect conditions and according to the involvement frequency of gearwheel, its harmony and sided spectrum. Results of the frequency spectrum of signal analysis in speed of 1496 rpm pinion showed the defect of one tooth fracture in involvement frequency of gearwheels by 489, 350 and 249 Hz respectively which became apparent with a mentioned frequency domain increment. A worn tooth defect in a gearwheel was completely determinable as sided bands with equal distance around gearwheel involvement frequency in the signal frequency determination of the speeds of 1496 and 105 rpm pinion, but became a bit harder in less speeds. Investigation of frequency spectrum of acoustic signal resulted from gearwheel, is indicative of the ability of this method

  11. Design, development and test of the gearbox condition monitoring system using sound signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2016-09-01

    format and MATLAB R2014a software used for data processing. Data processing: Signal processing method in the frequency domain is used in order to reveal the defects. Fast Fourier Transform: Fast Fourier Transform FFT for application in electronic equipment specially analyzers have great importance. In this condition, sampling number is chosen exponentially as 2N which decreases the calculation volume significantly. Determination of defect kind of gearwheel using frequency spectrum analysis: In mentioned gearwheel, errors were generated synthetically. Defect kind of these errors was generated in separate gearwheels in order to investigate the defects more precisely and a gearwheel was considered as control gearwheel. Despite of this, the sound of all of the gearwheels in correct condition was stored. Results and Discussion Comparison of processed acoustic signals from gearwheels of gearbox in two correct and incorrect conditions was indicative of gearwheel involvement, frequency, their harmony and the changes resulted from defects. Gearwheel defect detection tests showed that at the speeds of 1496, 1050 and 749 rpm, investigated defects are recognizable with a comparison of the frequency spectrum of obtained signals in correct and incorrect conditions and according to the involvement frequency of gearwheel, its harmony and sided spectrum. Results of the frequency spectrum of signal analysis in speed of 1496 rpm pinion showed the defect of one tooth fracture in involvement frequency of gearwheels by 489, 350 and 249 Hz respectively which became apparent with a mentioned frequency domain increment. A worn tooth defect in a gearwheel was completely determinable as sided bands with equal distance around gearwheel involvement frequency in the signal frequency determination of the speeds of 1496 and 105 rpm pinion, but became a bit harder in less speeds. Investigation of frequency spectrum of acoustic signal resulted from gearwheel, is indicative of the ability of this method

  12. Maturity of judgement in decision making for predictive testing for nontreatable adult-onset neurogenetic conditions: a case against predictive testing of minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, F H

    2006-11-01

    International guidelines developed to minimize harm from predictive testing for adult-onset, nontreatable neurogenetic conditions such as Huntington disease (HD) state that such testing should not be available to minors. Some authors have proposed that predictive testing for these conditions should be available to minors at the request of parents and/or of younger adolescents themselves. They highlight the lack of empirical evidence that predictive testing of minors causes harm and suggest that refusing to test minors may be detrimental. The current study focuses on the context of predictive test requests by adolescents younger than 18 years, and presents arguments and evidence that the risk of potential harm from testing such young people is sufficiently high to justify continued caution in this area. A study based on a model of psychosocial maturity found that the 3 factors involved in maturity of judgement in decision making - responsibility, temperance and perspective - continue to develop into late adolescence. There is also evidence that the prefrontal areas of the brain, which are involved in executive functions such as decision making, are not fully developed until early adulthood. Combined with evidence of adverse long-term effects, from research with adults who have undergone predictive testing, these findings constitute grounds for retaining a minimum age of 18 years for predictive testing for nontreatable conditions. Further research on assessment of maturity will assist with reaching a consensus on this issue.

  13. Comprehensive Drug Testing of Patient-derived Conditionally Reprogrammed Cells from Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Khalid; Rahkama, Vesa; Eldfors, Samuli; Bychkov, Dmitry; Mpindi, John Patrick; Yadav, Bhagwan; Paavolainen, Lassi; Aittokallio, Tero; Heckman, Caroline; Wennerberg, Krister; Peehl, Donna M; Horvath, Peter; Mirtti, Tuomas; Rannikko, Antti; Kallioniemi, Olli; Östling, Päivi; Af Hällström, Taija M

    2017-03-01

    Technology development to enable the culture of human prostate cancer (PCa) progenitor cells is required for the identification of new, potentially curative therapies for PCa. We established and characterized patient-derived conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs) to assess their biological properties and to apply these to test the efficacies of drugs. CRCs were established from seven patient samples with disease ranging from primary PCa to advanced castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). The CRCs were characterized by genomic, transcriptomic, protein expression, and drug profiling. The phenotypic quantification of the CRCs was done based on immunostaining followed by image analysis with Advanced Cell Classifier using Random Forest supervised machine learning. Copy number aberrations (CNAs) were called from whole-exome sequencing and transcriptomics using in-house pipelines. Dose-response measurements were used to generate multiparameter drug sensitivity scores using R-statistical language. We generated six benign CRC cultures which all had an androgen receptor-negative, basal/transit-amplifying phenotype with few CNAs. In three-dimensional cell culture, these cells could re-express the androgen receptor. The CRCs from a CRPC patient (HUB.5) displayed multiple CNAs, many of which were shared with the parental tumor. We carried out high-throughput drug-response studies with 306 emerging and clinical cancer drugs. Using the benign CRCs as controls, we identified the Bcl-2 family inhibitor navitoclax as the most potent cancer-specific drug for the CRCs from a CRPC patient. Other drug efficacies included taxanes, mepacrine, and retinoids. Comprehensive cancer pharmacopeia-wide drug testing of CRCs from a CRPC patient highlighted both known and novel drug sensitivities in PCa, including navitoclax, which is currently being tested in clinical trials of CRPC. We describe an approach to generate patient-derived cancer cells from advanced prostate cancer and apply such cells to

  14. Testing of a low cooled ceramic nozzle vane under transient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilzer, M.; Gutmann, C.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1999-04-01

    At the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, University of Karlsruhe (ITS), a design technology has been introduced to reduce the mechanically and especially the thermally induced stresses in ceramic components. The concept is based on a three-layered construction (outer ceramic shell, heat insulating layer, and metallic core) and an optimization of the thicknesses of the single layers, in order to obtain a homogeneous temperature distribution in the ceramic structure. The optimization is performed by finite element analyses in combination with failure probability calculations. This methodology has been applied to increase the reliability of a first stage Sintered Silicon Carbide (SSiC) ceramic nozzle vane of a stationary gas turbine (70 MW/1400 C). As a result is was found that the mechanically and thermally induced loads have been reduced considerably and do not exceed 100 MPa, thus achieving adequate life based upon failure probability calculations. Even in a trip situation (fuel cutoff), when the highest loads do occur, the calculations demonstrate a significantly reduced failure probability. The results of the finite element analyses were verified by simulating the typical operating conditions after fuel cutoff in a test rig.

  15. Testing fungus impregnated cloths for the control of adult Aedes aegypti under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Pereira, César R; Samuels, Richard I

    2013-09-08

    Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated. When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818 + 10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818 + 0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar. The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti.

  16. Neuronal mechanisms for pain-induced aversion behavioral studies using a conditioned place aversion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Masabumi

    2009-01-01

    Pain consists of sensory discriminative and negative affective components. Although the neural systems responsible for the sensory component of pain have been studied extensively, the neural basis of the affective component is not well understood. Recently, behavioral studies using conditioned place aversion (CPA) tests have successfully elucidated the neural circuits and mechanisms underlying the negative affective component of pain. Excitotoxic lesions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), central amygdaloid nucleus, basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA), or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) suppressed intraplantar formalin-induced aversive responses. Glutamatergic transmission within the ACC and BLA via NMDA receptors was shown to play a critical role in the affective component of pain. In the BNST, especially its ventral part, noradrenergic transmission via beta-adrenergic receptors was demonstrated as important for pain-induced aversion. Because persistent pain is frequently associated with psychological and emotional dysfunction, studies of the neural circuits and the molecular mechanisms involved in the affective component of pain may have considerable clinical importance in the treatment of chronic pain.

  17. Manufacturing and testing in reactor relevant conditions of brazed plasma facing components of the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisio, M. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy); Branca, V. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy); Marco, M. Di [FN s.p.a., ss 35 bis dei Giovi km 15, I-15062 Bosco Marengo (Albania) (Italy); Federici, A. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy); Grattarola, M. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: grattarola@ansaldo.it; Gualco, G. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy); Guarnone, P. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy); Luconi, U. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy); Merola, M. [EFDA, Boltzmanstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ozzano, C. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy); Pasquale, G. [FN s.p.a., ss 35 bis dei Giovi km 15, I-15062 Bosco Marengo (AL) (Italy); Poggi, P. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy); Rizzo, S. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy); Varone, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche s.p.a., C.so Perrone 25, I-16152 Genova (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    A fabrication route based on brazing technology has been developed for the realization of the high heat flux components for the ITER vertical target and Dome-Liner. The divertor vertical target is armoured with carbon fiber reinforced carbon and tungsten in the lower straight part and in the upper curved part, respectively. The armour material is joined to heat sinks made of precipitation hardened copper-chromium-zirconium alloy. The plasma facing units of the dome component are based on a tungsten flat tile design with hypervapotron cooling. An innovative brazing technique based on the addition of carbon fibers to the active brazing alloy, developed by Ansaldo Ricerche for applications in the field of the energy production, has been used for the carbon fiber composite to copper joint to reduce residual stresses. The tungsten-copper joint has been realized by direct casting. A proper brazing thermal cycle has been studied to guarantee the required mechanical properties of the precipitation hardened alloy after brazing. The fabrication route of plasma facing components for the ITER vertical target and dome based on the brazing technology has been proved by means of thermal fatigue tests performed on mock-ups in reactor relevant conditions.

  18. Parapatric genetic introgression and phenotypic assimilation: testing conditions for introgression between Hercules beetles (Dynastes, Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Pan

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and consequences of genetic introgression between species have been intensively debated. I used Hercules beetles as examples to test for conditions that may be associated with the occurrence of introgression. RADseq data were used to reconstruct the species tree and history of introgression between Hercules beetles. Image data from museum specimens were used to investigate the phenotypic similarity of two adaptive traits between species from two distinct climatic realms (Nearctic vs. Neotropical). Genetic introgression was identified between Hercules beetles living in geographic proximity (parapatric). Phylogenetic relatedness and phenotypic similarity did not predict nor preclude genetic introgression between species. Phenotypic assimilation in body coloration was evident between distantly related Hercules beetles codistributed in Central America, where directional introgression was also statistically supported from the putative donor to receiver lineages. The number of introgressed loci was significantly higher between species with than without phenotypic similarity. I discuss the implications of recent studies on adaptive genetic introgression by providing supporting evidence from the Hercules beetle system.

  19. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  20. MODEL TESTS OF HYDRAULIC FLOW CONDITIONS IN THE VEGETATION BUILD-UP FISHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tymiński

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our engineering activity aiming at keeping ecological corridors in rivers are a difficult and complex issue that requires specialist knowledge in many disciplines. One of the installations for ensuring ecological continuum river are fishways, particularly their “near-natural” designs. They resemble mountain streams and creeks. Natural materials, such as wood, vegetation, gravel, stones and rocks are used for their construction. Design of hydraulic fishways based solely on the criteria of maximum speed vmax and parameter of unitary energy of water E, it does not give complete information about the effectiveness of these devices. In order to produce the optimal flow conditions for ichthyofauna, very useful are spatial structure research of hydraulic parameters, such as disorders of flow velocity field or distributions of the turbulence number Tu. The article presents an example of such a study, which the authors carried out on the model seminatural fishway in the water laboratory in Institute of Environmental Engineering in Wrocław. The results were used to assess the accuracy of the functioning of the fishway. The tested combination of “vegetated baffles” and “pools” in the fishway model was found to be optimal for the ichthyofauna. Vegetation build-up in fishways is an interesting and proecological alternative for “heavy” technical build-up.

  1. Positive reinforcing effect of neurotensin microinjection into the ventral pallidum in conditioned place preference test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollmann, Tamás; Péczely, László; László, Kristóf; Kovács, Anita; Gálosi, Rita; Berente, Eszter; Karádi, Zoltán; Lénárd, László

    2015-02-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is innervated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and it has a key role in motivation, reward, and memory processes. Neurotensin (NT) is an important neuromodulator which has been shown to modulate reinforcement in the ventral tegmental area, in the ventral mesencephalic region and in the central nucleus of amygdala. Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) has already been detected in the VP in abundance, but its role in rewarding and reinforcing processes is not fully understood yet. In our present experiments, the effects of NT on positive reinforcement were investigated in the VP. In conditioned place preference (CPP) test, male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 100 ng or 250 ng NT in the volume of 0.4 μl. In other groups of animals, 35 ng NTR1 antagonist SR 48692 was applied by itself, or microinjected 15 min before 100 ng NT treatment. One hundred ng dose of NT induced CPP, whereas animals injected with 250 ng NT did not exhibit significant differences from the vehicle group. Antagonist pretreatment inhibited the effect of NT, while the antagonist applied by itself had no effect. Our results show that NT injected into the VP is involved in positive reinforcement. This effect is specific to NTR1 receptors because the development of CPP can be prevented by specific antagonist.

  2. 26 CFR 1.28-1 - Credit for clinical testing expenses for certain drugs for rare diseases or conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... muscular dystrophies; Huntington's disease, a hereditary chorea; myoclonus; Tourette's syndrome; and... drugs for rare diseases or conditions. 1.28-1 Section 1.28-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... clinical testing expenses for certain drugs for rare diseases or conditions. (a) General rule. Section 28...

  3. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. Al-Ghobari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  4. Validity and Fairness Implications of Varying Time Conditions on a Diagnostic Test of Academic English Writing Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Ute; Elder, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A number of scholars have questioned the practice of assessing academic writing in the context of a one-off language test, claiming that the time restrictions imposed in the test environment, when compared to the writing conditions typical at university, may prevent learners from displaying the kinds of writing skills required in academic…

  5. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stecher, Dave [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  6. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  7. Effects of drip irrigation on migration and distribution of heavy metals in soil profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Dong, Yunshe; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Jing; Xue, Yuan; Guo, Shufang

    2016-02-01

    Drip irrigation systems have been widely applied in semiarid and arid regions of China. However, little is known about the migration of heavy metals in cultivated soil under drip irrigation. Therefore, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil were determined. The mean contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in surface soil subjected to irrigation with low and high amounts of water (W1 and W2) were 0.11, 117.50, 37.51, 13.53, 78.10, and 38.41 mg/kg and 0.20, 94.45, 29.71, 22.48, 63.00, and 36.62 mg/kg, respectively. Metal concentrations in deep soil varied slightly between W1 and W2. Among different distances from the dropper, the metal levels in surface soil varied widely, while they varied slightly in deep soil. The Igeo (geo-accumulation index) values indicated that the soil was usually contaminated by Cr, Cu, and Cd. Under W1, Cd and Cu usually accumulated in surface soil near the dropper, while the other metals leached into subsurface soil. Moreover, the metals generally accumulated in soil away from the dropper. However, significant leaching of metals to the subsurface and deep soil was observed near the dropper under W2. Away from the dropper, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb usually accumulated in surface and deep soil. This suggested that heavy metals generally migrated to the soil away from the dropper when subjected to lower amounts of irrigation, while metals usually moved to surface soil and deep soil under high irrigation amounts. These findings indicate that drip irrigation greatly affected the distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil, with irrigation with lower amounts of irrigation water significantly affecting the horizontal migration of heavy metals and higher amounts influencing the vertical movement of heavy metals.

  8. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  9. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  10. Simulation of water and nitrogen dynamics as affected by drip fertigation strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-jun; LI Jiu-sheng; ZHAO Bing-qiang; LI Yan-ting

    2015-01-01

    The aim of drip fertigation is synchronising the application of water and nutrients with crop requirements, and maintaining the proper concentration and distribution of nutrient and water in the soil. The wetting patterns and nutrient distributions under drip fertigation have been proved to be closely related to the fertigation strategies. In order to ifnd out the critical factors that affect the nutrient distribution under different drip fertigaiton strategies, a computer simulation model HYDRUS2D/3D was used to simulate the water and nitrate distribution for various fertigation strategies from a surface point source. Simulation results were compared with the observed ones from our previous studies. A 15° wedge-shaped plexiglass container was used in our experiment to represent one-twenty-fourth of the complete cylinder. The height of container is 40 cm, and the radius is 41 cm. The ammonium nitrate solution was added through a no. 7 needle connected to a Mariotte tube with a lfexible hose. The soil water content, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were measured. The comparison of simulated and observed data demonstrated that the model performed reliably. The numerical analysis for various fertigation strategies from a surface point source showed that: (1) The total amount of irrigation water, the concentration of the fertilizer solution and the amount of pure water used to lfush the pipeline after fertilizer solution application are the three critical factors inlfu-encing the distribution of water and fertilizer nitrogen in the soil. (2) The fresh water irrigation duration prior to fertigation has no obvious effect on nitrate distribution. The longer lfushing time period after fertigation resulted in nitrate accumulation closer to the wetting front. From the point of avoiding the possibility of nitrate loss from the root zone, we recommended that the lfushing time period should be as shorter as possible. (3) For a given amount of fertilizer, higher

  11. [Analgesia in labor with continuous--drip venous perfusion of ketamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoletti, P L; Ciucci, N

    1981-04-01

    A personal opinion on the way analgesia should be piloted in labour is expressed and reference is made to personal results with continuous venous drip perfusion of ketamin with a SIC P77 infusional pump in 110 cases. The data from the series are described and particular attention is given to the behaviour of the drug with respect to uterine dynamics and the incidence of instrumental intervention. Stress is laid on the considerable benefits offered by the method, including reduction of the labour period and good maternal and foetal tolerance.

  12. Effects of drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Jin, M.; He, Y.; Zhou, J.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    To study the influence of different irrigation system for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields, field experiments at key irrigation experiment station of water resources management division in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China were set up consist of different irrigation ratio (5250, 4500, 3750, 3000m3/hm2), different irrigation times (24, 12 and 8 times) and different rotation irrigation modes. The results show that: with the larger irrigation ratio, the cotton growth and yields was also better, and the significant influence on cotton growth and yields for irrigation ratio is between 3750-4500 m3/hm2. When the irrigation ratio is smaller (3000m3/hm2), cotton growth and yields for irrigation times of 8 times are higher, When the irrigation ratio is bigger (4500m3/hm2), cotton growth for irrigation times of 12 times are better and its cotton yields are higher correspondingly. According to the growth of cotton, yields and water productivity, the suitable irrigation system of cotton is the irrigation ratio of 4500-3750 m3/ hm2 and the irrigation times of 18 times for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water. For different rotation drip irrigation experiments with saline water and fresh water, the cotton yields and irrigation water productivity is higher under the disposal of SF (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with saline water irrigation and then 6 times with fresh water irrigation) compared to FS (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with fresh water and then 6 times with saline water) and SSFA (rotation irrigation with twice saline water and once fresh water) compared to SFA (alternative irrigation with saline water and fresh water). Compared to the different alternate irrigation experiments, the cotton yields and water productivity for pure saline water irrigation is higher. In addition, the trend is the larger the irrigation ratio and the higher the yields. It maybe dues to the low

  13. The Effect of Comprehensive Application Technology Drip Irrigation System on the Growth of Sugarcane%滴灌系统综合应用技术对甘蔗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀林; 杨秀英; 黄景剑; 唐运飞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]增加甘蔗滴灌系统的利用途径,提高甘蔗产量和种蔗效益.[方法]通过与传统滴灌方法对比,了解滴灌系统综合应用技术的使用效果.[结果]应用滴灌系统综合技术的“灌水+灌肥+灌药”处理,能提早甘蔗出苗,提高出苗率,促进甘蔗生长,有较多的有效茎和较重的单茎重,进甘蔗成熟;促进宿根蔗甘蔗芽的萌发,增加宿根蔗的有效茎.使新植蔗的产量和糖分分别比对照高35.9%和0.32%;宿根蔗的产量和糖分分别比对照高36.0%和0.27%.[结论]滴灌系统综合应用技术可以大幅度提高旱地甘蔗的产量和蔗糖分.%[Objective] The aim was to increase the utilization of sugarcane drip irrigation system,improve the yield and sugarcane planted benefits. [ Method] Compared with the traditional drip method of testing,the use effect of comprehensive application drip irrigation system was explored. [Results] The results showed that the application of drip irrigation systems comprehensive technology,"irrigation + fertilizer + irri gation irrigation medicine" treatment increased emergence rate,and promoted the growth of sugar cane all,there were more effective stems and heavy single stem weight, and promoted the maturity of sugarcane; promoted sugar cane ratoon sugarcane bud germination, increased the effec tive ratoon sugarcane stalk. Thus,the new plant would enable the output of sugarcane and sugar, 35.9% and 0.32% higher than the control, respectively; the ratoon cane yield and sugar content 36.0% and 0.27% higher than the control,respectively. [Conclusion] The comprehensive application of technology drip irrigation system could significantly improve the yield of Sugarcane and sugar content.

  14. Heavy-Ion Radiation Impact on a 4Mb FRAM under Different Test Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, V.; Tsiligiannis, G.; Zadeh, A.; Javanainen, A.; Virtanen, A.; Puchner, H.; Saigne, F.; Wrobel, F.; Dilillo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of heavy-ions on commercial Ferroelectric Memories (FRAMs) is analyzed. The influence of different test modes (static and dynamic) on this memory is investigated. Static test results show that the memory is prone to temporary effects occurring in the peripheral circuitry. Dynamic tests results show a high sensitivity of this memory to heavy-ions.

  15. Monitoring stanja kroz testove analize ulja / Condition monitoring through oil analysis tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten R. Perić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani testovi analize ulja koji se koriste za procenu njegovog stanja. Predočeni su zahtevi koje testovi moraju da zadovolje, a odnose se na stanja tehničkih sredstava, stanja nečistoća i stanja maziva. Pokazano je da posebnu pažnju treba obratiti na pojavu i trend promene broja metalnih čestica u ulju. Takođe, razmatrani su znaci koji upućuju na promenu viskoznosti, povećanje oksidacije i trošenje aditiva. Razmatrano je stanje nečistoća u ulju, gde je posebna pažnja posvećena brojnosti čestica, sadržaju vode i metalnih nečistoća. Pokazano je da je neophodno koristiti program za analizu motornih ulja, koji osigurava nekoliko prednosti: smanjenje neplaniranog vremena otkaza vozila, poboljšanje pouzdanosti vozila, što je korisno pri organizovanju efikasnog plana održavanja, zatim produženje radnog veka motora, optimiziranje intervala zamene ulja i smanjenje troškova održavanja vozila. Prikazani su i rezultati eksperimentalnih istraživanja fizičko-hemijskih karakteristika uzorkovanih ulja iz motora vozila Mercedes OM 345 koja su bila u eksploataciji. Realizovanim ispitivanjima konstatovano je da dolazi do promena fizičko-hemijskih karakteristika ulja za podmazivanje u motoru vozila, koje su u direktnoj zavisnosti od stanja svih elemenata tribomehaničkog sistema motora, odnosno u zavisnosti od njihovih funkcionalnih karakteristika. / The paper presents the tests in the oil analysis, used for the assessment of oil condition, as well as the requirements to be fulfilled by the tests, regarding the state of technical equipment, impurities and lubricants. Special attention should be paid to the occurrence of metal particles in oil and the tendency in the change of their number. The signs that point to changes in viscosity, oxidation increase and additive wear are also considered. The state of impurities in oil was discussed, with a particular focus on the number of particles, water content and metal impurities

  16. Quantizing Analysis and Processing of Test Conditions for Infantry Grenade Ignition Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Yong-hai; ZHANG Bing; SUN Guo-ji

    2005-01-01

    A rule of how the ignition probability or invalidation probability of infantry grenade varies with the projectile quantity is presented based on the statistical analysis. The statistical induction, quantizing analysis and data processing in the infantry grenade type approval test are completed, and we obtain how various test factors in the research item affect the test results(invalidation probability), i.e., quantized data. The acquisition of these quantized data provides theory basis and data auspice for further reasonable filtration of all test factors and the optimization of test scheme.

  17. RNA-seq analysis reveals new candidate genes for drip loss in a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bojiang; Liu, Kaiqing; Weng, Qiannan; Li, Pinghua; Wei, Wei; Li, Qifa; Chen, Jie; Huang, Ruihua; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-04-01

    Drip loss, one of the most important meat quality traits, is characterized by low heritability. To date, the genetic factors affecting the drip loss trait have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify critical candidate genes affecting drip loss. First, we generated a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire commercial pig population and obtained phenotypic values for the drip loss trait. Furthermore, we constructed two RNA libraries from pooled samples of longissimus dorsi muscles with the highest (H group) and lowest (L group) drip loss and identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these extreme phenotypes using RNA-seq technology. In total, 25 883 genes were detected in the H and L group libraries, and none was specifically expressed in only one library. Comparative analysis of gene expression levels found that 150 genes were differentially expressed, of which 127 were upregulated and 23 were downregulated in the H group relative to the L group. In addition, 68 drip loss quantitative trait loci (QTL) overlapping with 63 DEGs were identified, and these QTL were distributed mainly on chromosomes 1, 2, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the triadin (TRDN) gene, which is involved in muscle contraction and fat deposition, and the myostatin (MSTN) gene, which has a role in muscle growth, were localized to more than two drip loss QTL, suggesting that both are critical candidate genes responsible for drip loss.

  18. 广西赤红壤甘蔗田间滴灌带合理布设参数确定%Determination of drip tapes layout parameters for irrigation of sugarcane in latosolic red soil in Guangxi Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯; 蔡德所; 潘伟; 郭晋川

    2015-01-01

    parameters of drip tapes for irrigation in latosolic red soil of sugarcane fields based on project cost, project management and operation patterns, and water demand of sugarcane crop in different growth stages. To address the above objectives, representative latosolic red soil sample was collected from sugarcane field in Guangxi. First, a laboratory experiment of water movement with surface drip irrigation was performed in soil columns under irrigation conditions with different emitter discharge rates and emitter spacing (30 cmvs. 1.38 L/h, 40 cmvs.2.20 L/h, and 50 cmvs.2.80 L/h, respectively). Changes in the surface ponding radius, wetted surface radius and vertical wetted depth were monitored during the experiment. Then, the main parameters for model building were from the physical properties of the soil and the results of the experiment. A model of soil water movement under double-point source of drip irrigation was built using HYDRUS-3D. Next, the effects of emitter spacing and emitter discharge rate on irrigation uniformity were analyzed using the HYDRUS-3D model. Appropriate parameters ranges for drip irrigation were determined based on the results of model analysis. Further, irrigation uniformity, project cost, project management and operation, and water demand of sugarcane crop at different growth stages were taken into consideration to determine appropriate design parameters of drip tapes for irrigation in latosolic red soil of sugarcane fields in Guangxi. The results showed that: 1) The simulation results of the Hydrus-3D model of soil water movement were reliable as compared with the experimental data, indicating the reliability of the model used for the following study; 2) Emitter spacing was the primary factor affecting irrigation uniformity; at the emitter discharge rate of 1.38 L/h, drip tapes with the emitter spacing of 30 cm yielded higher irrigation uniformity, compared with the larger emitter spacing (40 or 50 cm); 3) At the same emitter spacing

  19. Reasoning with Conditionals: A Test of Formal Models of Four Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The four dominant theories of reasoning from conditionals are translated into formal models: The theory of mental models (Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2002). Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. "Psychological Review," 109, 646-678), the suppositional theory (Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. E. (2004). "If."…

  20. Single-well injection-withdrawal tests (SWIW). Literature review and scoping calculations for homogeneous crystalline bedrock conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordqvist, Rune; Gustafsson, Erik [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    This report describes a literature review and scoping calculations carried out in order to test the feasibility of using SWIW (Single Well Injection Withdrawal) tracer experiments for expected hydraulic conditions in Swedish bedrock. The motivation for using SWIW tests in the site investigation programme is that extensive cross-hole tracer tests may not be possible and that such SWIW tests are more or less the only available single-hole tracer test method. The scoping calculations are aimed at establishing conditions under which SWIW tests should be feasible, by studying experimental attributes such as expected bedrock properties (transmissivity, porosity, etc), ambient hydraulic gradients, duration of various experimental phases, hydraulic injection pressure and parameter identification possibilities. Particular emphasis has been placed on the use of the dilution probe as an experimental device for SWIW, although the scoping results also should be considered applicable to any experimental equipment approach. The results from the scoping calculations indicate that SWIW tests using the dilution probe are feasible under the required experimental and site requirements for the forthcoming site investigations programme. The characteristic flow reversibility feature inherent in SWIW tests causes some differences compared with cross-hole tracer tests. Advective parameters (i.e. mobile porosity, dispersivity) are generally more difficult to identify/estimate and the same may also be said about equilibrium sorption. Time-dependent processes, on the other hand, generally benefit from the flow reversibility, in principle even in the presence of heterogeneity. However, it may not always be possible to identify time-dependent processes, such as matrix diffusion, for expected conditions in Swedish bedrock. Experimental aims may be allowed to vary depending on the specific conditions (transmissivity, hydraulic gradient, etc.) in the tested borehole section.

  1. Kinetic parameter determination of roasted and unroasted argan oil oxidation under Rancimat test conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaanoun, I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the Kinetic parameter determination of edible argan oil (coldpressed from roasted argan kernels and cosmetic argan oil (cold-pressed from unroasted argan kernels under the Rancimat test conditions. The physicochemical parameters of edible and cosmetic argan oil immediately after preparation and after accelerated oxidation test Rancimat at different temperatures 90 °C, 100 °C, 110 °C, 120 °C, 130 °C and 140 °C were determined and compared. The natural logarithms of the kinetic rate constant (kvalue varied linearly with respect to temperature. An increasing rate of oxidation could be observed as temperature increased. On the basis of the Arrhenius equation and the activated complex theory, frequency factors A, activation energies Ea, Q10 numbers, activation enthalpies ΔH, and activation entropies ΔS for oxidative stability of the vegetable oils were calculated. The accelerated oxidation and Kinetic parameters have shown that edible argan oil can be stored much better than cosmetic oil.En presente estudio se determinaron los parámetros cinéticosde aceites de argán comestible (prensado en frío a partir de granos tostados de argán y cosmético (prensado en frío a partir de granos de argán sin tostar bajo las condiciones del método Rancimat. Se determinó y comparó los parámetros físico-químicos de aceites de argán comestible y cosmético inmediatamente después de la preparación y después de la oxidación acelerada mediante Rancimat a temperaturas de 90 °C, 100 °C, 110 °C, 120 °C, 130 °C y 140 °C Los logaritmos naturales de la constante de velocidad cinética (valor k variaron linealmente con respecto a la temperatura. Se pudo observar un valor creciente de la oxidación conel aumento de la temperatura. Se calculó para la estabilidad oxidativa de los aceites vegetalesy sobre la base de la ecuación de Arrhenius y la teoría del complejo activado, la frecuencia de los factores A, energ

  2. Conditional and Unconditional Tests (and Sample Size Based on Multiple Comparisons for Stratified 2 × 2 Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martín Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mantel-Haenszel test is the most frequent asymptotic test used for analyzing stratified 2 × 2 tables. Its exact alternative is the test of Birch, which has recently been reconsidered by Jung. Both tests have a conditional origin: Pearson’s chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test, respectively. But both tests have the same drawback that the result of global test (the stratified test may not be compatible with the result of individual tests (the test for each stratum. In this paper, we propose to carry out the global test using a multiple comparisons method (MC method which does not have this disadvantage. By refining the method (MCB method an alternative to the Mantel-Haenszel and Birch tests may be obtained. The new MC and MCB methods have the advantage that they may be applied from an unconditional view, a methodology which until now has not been applied to this problem. We also propose some sample size calculation methods.

  3. Effects of Glazing, Packaging and Phosphate Treatments on Drip Loss in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792) During Frozen Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Turan; Kaya, Yalçın; ERKOYUNCU, İbrahim

    2003-01-01

    Fresh rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792) were frozen with different pre-freezing treatments in an air blast freezer (-35oC) and stored at -25oC for 12 months. The treatments were done using 10% sodium polyphosphate and 3% sodium metaphosphate with 4% NaCl solutions and glazing + packaging to prevent drip loss in the frozen fish. The effect of glazing + packaging treatment on drip loss during frozen storage was significant (p0.05). In other words, neither phosphate usage nor glazing ...

  4. Sample Size Determination Within the Scope of Conditional Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Special Focus on Testing the Rasch Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxler, Clemens; Alexandrowicz, Rainer W

    2015-12-01

    This paper refers to the exponential family of probability distributions and the conditional maximum likelihood (CML) theory. It is concerned with the determination of the sample size for three groups of tests of linear hypotheses, known as the fundamental trinity of Wald, score, and likelihood ratio tests. The main practical purpose refers to the special case of tests of the class of Rasch models. The theoretical background is discussed and the formal framework for sample size calculations is provided, given a predetermined deviation from the model to be tested and the probabilities of the errors of the first and second kinds.

  5. Hydrologic and geochemical dynamics of vadose zone recharge in a mantled karst aquifer: Results of monitoring drip waters in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Alexander, E. Calvin; Jameson, Roy A.; Alexander, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Caves provide direct access to flows through the vadose zone that recharge karst aquifers. Although many recent studies have documented the highly dynamic processes associated with vadose zone flows in karst settings, few have been conducted in mantled karst settings, such as that of southeastern Minnesota. Here we present some results of a long-term program of cave drip monitoring conducted within Mystery Cave, Minnesota. In this study, two perennial ceiling drip sites were monitored between 1997 and 2001. The sites were located about 90 m (300 ft) apart along the same cave passage approximately 18 m (60 ft) below the surface; 7 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft) of loess and 12 m (40 ft) of flat-lying carbonate bedrock strata overlie the cave. Records of drip rate, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were obtained at 15 minute intervals, and supplemented with periodic sampling for major ion chemistry and water stable isotopes. Patterns in flow and geochemistry emerged at each of the two drip sites that were repeated year after year. Although one site responded relatively quickly (within 2-7 hours) to surface recharge events while the other responded more slowly (within 2-5 days), thresholds of antecedent moisture needed to be overcome in order to produce a discharge response at both sites. The greatest amount of flow was observed at both sites during the spring snowmelt period. Rainfall events less than 10 mm (0.4 in) during the summer months generally did not produce a drip discharge response, yet rapid drip responses were observed following intense storm events after periods of prolonged rainfall. The chemical data from both sites indicate that reservoirs of vadose zone water with distinct chemical signatures mixed during recharge events, and drip chemistry returned to a baseline composition during low flow periods. A reservoir with elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations impacts the slow-response drip site with each recharge event, but does not similarly

  6. Biofilm structure and its influence on clogging in drip irrigation emitters distributing reclaimed wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Dazhuang; BAI Zhihui; Mike Rowan; GU Likun; Ren Shumei; YANG Peiling

    2009-01-01

    Using reclaimed wastewater for crop irrigation is a practical alternative to discharge wastewater treatment plant effluents into surface waters.However,biofouling has been identified as a major contributor to emitter clogging in drip irrigation systems distributing reclaimed wastewater.Little is known about the biofilm structure and its influence on clogging in the drip emitter flow path.This study was first to investigate the microbial characteristics of mature biofilms present in the emitters and the effect of flow path structures on the biofilm microbial communities.The analysis of biofilm matrix structure using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that particles in the matrix of the biofilm coupled extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and formed sediment in the emitter flow path.Analysis of biofilm mass including protein,polysaccharide and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) showed that emitter flow path style influenced biofilm community structure and diversity.The correlations of biofilm biomass and discharge reduction after 360 h irrigation were computed and suggest that PFLAs provide the best correlation coefficient.Comparatively,the emitter with the unsymmetrical dentate structure and shorter flow path (Emitter C) had the best anti-clogging capability.By optimizing the dentate structure,the internal flow pattern within the flow path could be enhanced as an important method to control the biofilm within emitter flow path.This study established electron microscope techniques and biochemical microbial analysis methods that may provide a framework for future emitter biofilm studies.

  7. The Potential Contribution of Subsurface Drip Irrigation to Water-Saving Agriculture in the Western USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T L Thompson; PANG Huan-cheng; LI Yu-yi

    2009-01-01

    Water shortages within the western USA are resulting in the adoption of water-saving agricultural practices within this region. Among the many possible methods for saving water in agriculture, the adoption of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) provides a potential solution to the problem of low water use efficiency. Other advantages of SDI include reduced NO3 leaching compared to surface irrigation, higher yields, a dry soil surface for improved weed control, better crop health, and harvest flexibility for many specialty crops. The use of SDI also allows the virtual elimination of crop water stress, the ability to apply water and nutrients to the most active part of the root zone, protection of drip lines from damage due to cultivation and tillage, and the ability to irrigate with wastewater while preventing human contact. Yet, SDI is used only on a minority of cropland in the arid western USA. Reasons for the limited adoption of SDI include the high initial capital investment required, the need for intensive management, and the urbanization that is rapidly consuming farmland in parts of the western USA. The contributions of SDI to increasing yield, quality, and water use efficiency have been demonstrated. The two major barriers to SDI sustainability in arid regions are economics (i.e., paying for the SDI system), including the high cost of installation; and salt accumulation, which requires periodic leaching, specialized tillage methods, or transplanting of seedlings rather than direct-seeding. We will review advances in irrigation management with SDI.

  8. Sustainable domestic effluent reuse via Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI): alfalfa as a perennial model crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazumba, Shija; Gillerman, Leonid; DeMalach, Yoel; Oron, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Scarcity of fresh high-quality water has heightened the importance of wastewater reuse primarily in dry regions together with improving its efficient use by implementing the Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI) method. Sustainable effluent reuse combines soil and plant aspects, along with the maintainability of the application system. In this study, field experiments were conducted for two years on the commercial farm of Revivim and Mashabay-Sade farm (RMF) southeast of the City of Beer-Sheva, Israel. The purpose was to examine the response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as a perennial model crop to secondary domestic effluent application by means of a SDI system as compared with conventional overhead sprinkler irrigation. Emitters were installed at different depths and spacing. Similar amounts of effluent were applied to all plots during the experimental period. The results indicated that in all SDI treatments, the alfalfa yields were 11% to 25% higher than the ones obtained under sprinkler irrigated plots, besides the one in which the drip laterals were 200 cm apart. The average Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was better in all SDI treatments in comparison with the sprinkler irrigated plots. An economic assessment reveals the dependence of the net profit on the emitters' installation geometry, combined with the return for alfalfa in the market.

  9. Pygmy dipole mode in deformed neutron-rich Mg isotopes close to the drip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichi

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the microscopic structure of the low-lying isovector-dipole excitation mode in neutron-rich Mg36,38,40 close to the drip line by means of the deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation employing the Skyrme and the local pairing energy-density functionals. It is found that the low-lying bump structure above the neutron emission-threshold energy develops when the drip line is approached, and that the isovector dipole strength at ExThomas-Reiche-Kuhn dipole sum rule in Mg40. We obtained the collective dipole modes at around 8-10 MeV in Mg isotopes, that consist of many two-quasiparticle excitations of the neutron. The transition density clearly shows an oscillation of the neutron skin against the isoscalar core. We found significant coupling effects between the dipole and octupole excitation modes due to the nuclear deformation. It is also found that the responses for the compressional dipole and isoscalar octupole excitations are much enhanced in the lower energy region.

  10. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  11. Sorption of pathogens during sub-surface drip irrigation with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Laillach; Gillerman Gillerman, Leonid; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Oron, Gideon

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity continues to be one of the major threats to human survival in many regions worldwide, such as Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the State of California in the US. Due to a mixture of factors such as population growth, reduction in water resources availability and higher demand for high quality waters in these regions these countries face water shortage issues that stem from overuse, extensive extraction of groundwater, and frequent drought events. In addition, there are increases in environmental and health awareness that have led to intensive efforts in the treatment and reuse of nonconventional water sources, mainly wastewater and greywater. One approach to water shortages issues is to use wastewater as means to close the gap between supply and demand. However, the need to treat wastewater and to disinfect it forces additional economic burden on the users, primarily for agricultural irrigation. A possible solution might be to use the soil as a sorbent for the contained pathogens. Under sub-surface drip irrigation, not allowing the wastewater to reach the soil surface, the pathogens will remain in the soil. It was as well shown in field experiments that the opening size of roots will not allow pathogens to penetrate into the plants. Additional advantages such as water saving, protection of the pipe systems and others are also important. Field experiments in commercial fields just emphasize the main advantages of sub-surface drip irrigation.

  12. The effect of drip irrigation on the yield and quality of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Veverka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the assessment of the influence of drip irrigation on the quality and yield of apples of the species Golden Delicious/M9 and Gala/M9 in the locality Velké Němčice performed by the Institute of Horticultural Machinery ZF MENDELU in Brno.The experiment is based in the orchard of the company Sady Velké Němčice, s. r. o. The assessed varieties are Golden Delicious and Gala planted in 2003 with the spacing 3.5 × 1.1 m. The experiment is performed in four rows. In every row four 50 meters long experimental sections are marked. Each section is irrigated in a different way. The irrigated sections are fitted with driplines (supplied by NETAFIM CZECH, s. r. o. with different drip-flow rates: 1.6 l/hour (sections labelled “REDUCED”, 2.3 l/hour (“STANDARD”, and 3.5 l/hour (“INCREASED”. Pipes without drippers are installed in the control sections without irrigation (“CONTROL”. The sequence of the sections in the adjacent rows varies to increase the objectivity of the measurement. During the four-year monitoring a positive influence on the quality and yield of apples has been detected.

  13. Distribution of the root system of peach palm under drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Silva Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of technologies has resulted in increased productivity and the more rational management of peach palm, with irrigation being an important tool for certain regions. Thus, studies leading to proper crop management are extremely important, such as the estimate of the effective depth of the root system, which is indispensable for proper irrigation management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths, as applied by drip irrigation, on the distribution of the root system of peach palm. This experiment was conducted in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo State, Brazil, with drip irrigation, with the two systems (flow of 0.0023 m3 h-1 consisting of four irrigation treatments corresponding to 0, 50, 100 and 150% of Class ‘A’ pan evaporation. After five years, an analysis of the Bactris gasipaes root system was performed at a distance of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 meters from the trunk, collecting sampling at two depths (0.0 to 0.3 m and 0.3 to 0.6 m via the auger method (volumetric analysis. We concluded that the effective depth of the root system used for irrigation management should be a maximum of 0.3 meters.

  14. Attentional and visual demands for sprint performance in non-fatigued and fatigued conditions: reliability of a repeated sprint test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diercks Ron L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical performance measures are widely used to assess physical function, providing information about physiological and biomechanical aspects of motor performance. However they do not provide insight into the attentional and visual demands for motor performance. A figure-of-eight sprint test was therefore developed to measure the attentional and visual demands for repeated-sprint performance. The aims of the study were: 1 to assess test-retest reliability of the figure-of-eight sprint test, and 2 to study the attentional and visual demands for sprint performance in a non-fatigued and fatigued condition. Methods Twenty-seven healthy athletes were included in the study. To determine test-retest reliability, a subgroup of 19 athletes performed the figure-of-eight sprint test twice. The figure-of-eight sprint test consisted of nine 30-second sprints. The sprint test consisted of three test parts: sprinting without any restriction, with an attention-demanding task, and with restricted vision. Increases in sprint times with the attention-demanding task or restricted vision are reflective of the attentional and visual demands for sprinting. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and mean difference between test and retest with 95% confidence limits (CL were used to assess test-retest reliability. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used for comparisons between the sprint times and fatigue measurements of the test parts in both a non-fatigued and fatigued condition. Results The figure-of-eight sprint test showed good test-retest reliability, with ICCs ranging from 0.75 to 0.94 (95% CL: 0.40-0.98. Zero lay within the 95% CL of the mean differences, indicating that no bias existed between sprint performance at test and retest. Sprint times during the test parts with attention-demanding task (P = 0.01 and restricted vision (P Conclusions High ICCs and the absence of systematic variation indicate good test-retest reliability of the figure

  15. Determination of aerodynamic damping of twin cables in wet conditions through passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mads Beedholm; Mattiello, E.; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2013-01-01

    Moderate amplitude cable vibrations continue to be reported on the cable-stayed Øresund Bridge, despite the presence of helical fillets and dampers. The vibrations are particularly notable in wet conditions, which would suggest a form of rain-wind induced vibrations (RWIV). A statistical...... operational modal analysis of the monitored vibrations revealed, in certain conditions and for specific wind velocities, the presence of negative aerodynamic damping.To investigate the observed aerodynamic damping of the twin cable arrangement further, a series of 1:2.3 scale passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests...... was performed at the DTU/FORCETechnology ClimaticWind Tunnel facility in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Tests were performed for both dry and wet conditions, with and without helical fillets. The specific relative cable-wind angle tested was identified as critical from the aforementioned full-scale monitoring...

  16. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Dave [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the Building America team, IBACOS, sought to determine cost-effective, energy-efficient solutions for heating and cooling houses. To this end, the team performed field testing in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California, to evaluate three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. These included a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  17. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D.; Poerschke, A.

    2014-02-01

    Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems -- a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms -- were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  18. The influence of implicit motives on implicit instrumental conditioning: Testing a principle focusing on the power motive

    OpenAIRE

    Köllner, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis tested a principle according to which implicit motives influence implicit instrumental conditioning processes. Analyzing results from four studies I investigated possible scaling effects of implicit motives, motivational dispositions working outside of conscious awareness that select, energize and orient behavior, on implicit instrumental conditioning processes in a sequence learning paradigm. I focused on the power motive (n Power), the capacity to experience having impact on oth...

  19. Comparison of gait parameters across three attentional loading conditions during timed up and go test in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Haidzir; Justine, Maria; Ting, Goh Hui; Latiff, Lydia Abd

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of attentional loading on performance of turning during walking in individuals with stroke. The authors used a cross-sectional experimental design to compare gait parameters in stroke survivors across 3 attentional loading conditions (single, dual-motor, and dual-cognitive conditions) during a Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Data were collected from 20 stroke survivors (12 males, 8 females; mean age, 60.5 ± 10.6 years). We compared the number of steps and time measured during the TUG test under 3 attentional loading conditions and 2 turning directions (nonparetic and paretic sides). We further divided the TUG test into straight walking and turning phases. The number of steps and the time taken during TUG test increased significantly from single- to dual-task conditions (dual motor and dual cognitive). However, there were no significant differences in gait parameters between turning toward the nonparetic and paretic sides. These findings suggested that gait performance was compromised during dual-task conditions for individuals with stroke. Attentional loading may be incorporated into routine gait assessment and rehabilitation to ensure a successful recovery.

  20. 75 FR 50853 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., Section 3.19 of Civil Air Regulation (CAR) part 3 required service testing of all airplanes type....'' Amendment 3-4 to CAR part 3 became effective January 15, 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in... include-- (1) For aircraft incorporating turbine engines of a type not previously used in a type...

  1. Getting to grips with poor comprehenders: stability of group membership across test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Hanne Trebbien; Oakhill, Jane V.; Elbro, Carsten

    Reliable identification of poor comprehenders is difficult because reading comprehension tests do not measure the same thing (Keenan et al., 2014). In addition to different contents, differences in how the same test is administered may also cause instability of the definition of poor comprehenders....

  2. Getting to grips with poor comprehenders: stability of group membership across test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Hanne Trebbien; Oakhill, Jane V.; Elbro, Carsten

    Reliable identification of poor comprehenders is difficult because reading comprehension tests do not measure the same thing (Keenan et al., 2014). In addition to different contents, differences in how the same test is administered may also cause instability of the definition of poor comprehenders....

  3. Feasibility and Effectiveness of Indicator Condition-Guided Testing for HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, A.K.; Raben, D.; Reekie, J.

    2013-01-01

    was performed. From October 2009- February 2011, individuals, not known to be HIV positive, presenting with one of the ID were offered an HIV test; additional information was collected on previous HIV testing behaviour and recent medical history. A total of 3588 individuals from 16 centres were included. Sixty...

  4. Equipment for testing automotive lead/acid batteries under SAE J240a conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J. A.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Battery cycling equipment has been designed and constructed to test lead/acid batteries according to the American Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE) J240a Standard. This life test simulates automotive service where the battery operates in a voltage-regulated charging system. The CSIRO design uses a master/slave concept to reduce both construction time and cost.

  5. Determination of aerodynamic damping of twin cables in wet conditions through passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mads Beedholm; Mattiello, E.; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2013-01-01

    was performed at the DTU/FORCETechnology ClimaticWind Tunnel facility in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Tests were performed for both dry and wet conditions, with and without helical fillets. The specific relative cable-wind angle tested was identified as critical from the aforementioned full-scale monitoring...... operational modal analysis of the monitored vibrations revealed, in certain conditions and for specific wind velocities, the presence of negative aerodynamic damping.To investigate the observed aerodynamic damping of the twin cable arrangement further, a series of 1:2.3 scale passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests...... passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests showed the effect of the helical fillets in preventing the occurrence of negative aerodynamic damping, contrary to the plain cables. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK....

  6. Comparison of exercise tests in French trotters under training track, racetrack and treadmill conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroucé, A; Geffroy, O; Barrey, E; Auvinet, B; Rose, R J

    1999-07-01

    Standardised exercise tests were performed at 2 different tracks and on an uninclined treadmill during the same week to determine the influence of exercise surface on different measured variables such as heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume, stride frequency, stride length, gait symmetry and regularity and on different derived physiological variables such as the speed at a HR of 200 beats/min (V200), the speed at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l (V4), the speed at a maximal HR (VHRmax). Five French Trotters, age 3 years, in training for 3 months prior to the test, performed 3 exercise tests on a training track (Test 1), a racetrack (Test 2) and an uninclined treadmill (Test 3). Test 1 utilised 3 steps each of 3 min at speeds of 490, 560 and 630 m/min. Tests 2 and 3 utilised the same speeds and a fourth step in which the horse was accelerated for 30 s to speed approaching maximal. No significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for the physiological and locomotor variables between the 2 tracks. In contrast, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) for these variables between the tracks and the treadmill, horses showing lower heart rate and blood lactate response, reduced stride frequency and increased stride length and regularity on the uninclined treadmill. We concluded that this standardised exercise test was repeatable on various tracks even when the surface and geometry vary. In contrast, both physiological and locomotor variables were different when comparing the tracks with the uninclined treadmill.

  7. Investigation of a CTS solar cell test patch under simulated geomagnetic substorm charging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogus, K. P.

    1977-01-01

    The CTS solar array technology experiment which consists of a solar cell test patch on the Kapton-substrate solar array and the appertaining electronics unit has been operating in geostationary orbit for nearly 1 year without any malfunction although it is expected to be strongly influenced by charging effects on the array surface. The results of a post-launch test program show that the experiment would not survive a discharge due to electrostatic charging in the test patch area. In a simulated substorm, environment discharges were obtained only below a temperature threshold of about 30 C. With solar illumination, this threshold is reduced below 0 C.

  8. Pedestrian headform testing: inferring performance at impact speeds and for headform masses not tested, and estimating average performance in a range of real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, T Paul; Anderson, Robert W G; Searson, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Tests are routinely conducted where instrumented headforms are projected at the fronts of cars to assess pedestrian safety. Better information would be obtained by accounting for performance over the range of expected impact conditions in the field. Moreover, methods will be required to integrate the assessment of secondary safety performance with primary safety systems that reduce the speeds of impacts. Thus, we discuss how to estimate performance over a range of impact conditions from performance in one test and how this information can be combined with information on the probability of different impact speeds to provide a balanced assessment of pedestrian safety. Theoretical consideration is given to 2 distinct aspects to impact safety performance: the test impact severity (measured by the head injury criterion, HIC) at a speed at which a structure does not bottom out and the speed at which bottoming out occurs. Further considerations are given to an injury risk function, the distribution of impact speeds likely in the field, and the effect of primary safety systems on impact speeds. These are used to calculate curves that estimate injuriousness for combinations of test HIC, bottoming out speed, and alternative distributions of impact speeds. The injuriousness of a structure that may be struck by the head of a pedestrian depends not only on the result of the impact test but also the bottoming out speed and the distribution of impact speeds. Example calculations indicate that the relationship between the test HIC and injuriousness extends over a larger range than is presently used by the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP), that bottoming out at speeds only slightly higher than the test speed can significantly increase the injuriousness of an impact location and that effective primary safety systems that reduce impact speeds significantly modify the relationship between the test HIC and injuriousness. Present testing regimes do not take fully into

  9. Can testing of six individual muscles represent a screening approach to upper limb neuropathic conditions?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    ... is reliable and that the outcome reflects symptoms. Since this approach may appear complicated and time consuming, this study deals with the value of an examination limited to manual testing of only six muscles...

  10. Optimal Budget Spending for Software Testing under the Condition of Nonlinear Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩用明; 吴相林; 岳超源

    2003-01-01

    Software testing is a very important phase of the software development process. It is a very difficult job for a software manager to allocate optimally the financial budget to a software project during testing. In this paper the problem of optimal allocation of the software testing cost is studied. There exist several models focused on the development of software costs measuring the number of software errors remaining in the software during testing. The purpose of this paper is to use these models to formulate the optimization problems of resource allocation: Minimization of the total number of software errors remaining in the system. On the assumption that a software project consists of some independent modules, the presented approach extends previous work by defining new goal functions and extending the primary assumption and precondition.

  11. Effects of Accelerated Exposure Testing (AET) Conditions on Performance Degradation of Solar Cells and Encapsulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, S. H.; Pern, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes the results from several accelerated exposure tests (AET) studies. Causes responsible for the photothermal instability of the encapsulated Si solar cells appear to be multiple and complex.

  12. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  13. Tracking solutes and water from subsurface drip irrigation application of coalbed methane-produced waters, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, M.A.; Bern, C.R.; Healy, R.W.; Sams, J.I.; Zupancic, J.W.; Schroeder, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    One method to beneficially use water produced from coalbed methane (CBM) extraction is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) of croplands. In SDI systems, treated CBMwater (injectate) is supplied to the soil at depth, with the purpose of preventing the buildup of detrimental salts near the surface. The technology is expanding within the Powder River Basin, but little research has been published on its environmental impacts. This article reports on initial results from tracking water and solutes from the injected CBM-produced waters at an SDI system in Johnson County, Wyoming. In the first year of SDI operation, soil moisture significantly increased in the SDI areas, but well water levels increased only modestly, suggesting that most of the water added was stored in the vadose zone or lost to evapotranspiration. The injectate has lower concentrations of most inorganic constituents relative to ambient groundwater at the site but exhibits a high sodium adsorption ratio. Changes in groundwater chemistry during the same period of SDI operation were small; the increase in groundwater-specific conductance relative to pre-SDI conditions was observed in a single well. Conversely, groundwater samples collected beneath another SDI field showed decreased concentrations of several constituents since the SDI operation.Groundwater-specific conductance at the 12 other wells showed no significant changes. Major controls on and compositional variability of groundwater, surface water, and soil water chemistry are discussed in detail. Findings from this research provide an understanding of water and salt dynamics associated with SDI systems using CBM-produced water. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  14. Seasonal variations of {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: minami@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kato, Tomomi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Horikawa, Keiji [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Toyama University, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem {sup 14}C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric {sup 14}C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of {sup 14}C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem {sup 14}C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO{sub 2}. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different {sup 14}C concentrations and δ{sup 13}C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO{sub 2}, and flow paths. Further, the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The {sup 14}C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: {sup 14}C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in {sup 14}C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using {sup 14}C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  15. Testing facility for hydrogen storage materials designed to simulate application based conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerwaal, R.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; Haije, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    For the daily use of hydrogen storage materials, not only their intrinsic storage properties are important, but also equally important is the performance under practical conditions. Besides the techniques already available for the fundamental characterization of storage materials, there is a growing

  16. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  17. On the Sampling Interpretation of Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Tests in the Context of Conditional Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, E.

    1998-01-01

    The sampling interpretation of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests is discussed in the context of conditional maximum likelihood estimation. Three different interpretations are discussed, and it is shown that confidence intervals constructed from the asymptotic distribution under the third sampling scheme discussed are valid for the first…

  18. Statistical Testing of Optimality Conditions in Multiresponse Simulation-Based Optimization (Replaced by Discussion Paper 2007-45)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, B.W.M.; Del Castillo, E.; Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper derives a novel procedure for testing the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) first-order optimality conditions in models with multiple random responses.Such models arise in simulation-based optimization with multivariate outputs.This paper focuses on expensive simulations, which have small sample

  19. Foam Core Particleboards with Intumescent FRT Veneer: Cone Calorimeter Testing With Varying Adhesives, Surface Layer Thicknesses, and Processing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Johannes Welling; Ali Shalbafan

    2014-01-01

    Intumescent FRT Veneers adhered to the surface of foam core particleboard to provide adequate fire protection were evaluated by means of cone calorimeter tests (ASTM E1354). The foam core particleboards were prepared with variations in surface layer treatment, adhesives, surface layer thicknesses, and processing conditions. Ignitability, heat release rate profile, peak...

  20. 40 CFR 201.23 - Test site, weather conditions and background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such that the locomotive or train radiates sound into a free field over the ground plane. This condition may be considered fulfilled if the test site consists of an open space free of large, sound... rail upon which the locomotive or train is located shall be visible (line of sight) from a position 1.2...

  1. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures § 86.162-00 Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2. The alternative air conditioning test procedures AC1 and AC2 are approved by the Administrator... requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and meet the requirements of § 86.163-00. Air conditioning tests...

  2. The impact of meteorological conditions on patch test results with 12 standard series allergens (fragrances, biocides, topical ingredients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Kränke, B; Schnuch, A; Gefeller, O; Pfahlberg, A

    2008-04-01

    Fluctuating irritability of the skin induced by low ambient temperature and humidity may compromise the reproducibility of patch testing. To assess the impact of temperature and absolute humidity at the time of patch testing on the occurrence of irritant or doubtful (IR/?), weak positive (+) and (strong) positive (++/+++) reactions, respectively, among 12 allergens included in the German Standard Series. Analysis of clinical data collected in the surveillance network IVDK (http://www.ivdk.org) between January 1993 and December 2001 (n = 73 691 patients) combined with meteorological data obtained by the national services in Germany and Austria. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk associated with temperature, absolute humidity and vapour pressure, respectively, adjusted for sex, age, atopic dermatitis and duration of patch test application. For low temperature and humidity, a relevant increase of IR/? reaction frequency was observed in the cases of paraben mix and (chloro-) methylisothiazolinone. Both IR/? and + reactions were significantly increased with respect to the allergens fragrance mix, oil of turpentine, methyldibromo glutaronitrile + phenoxyethanol and particularly formaldehyde, while ++/+++ reactions were hardly affected by weather conditions. The observed increase of IR/? reactions may be due to epidermal barrier function impairment. The impact of dry/cold weather on + reactions in terms of possibly false-positive reactions is restricted to few allergens. In the case of + reactions of unknown relevance, a re-test under warm conditions or verification tests such as the repeated open application test or the provocative use test may be recommendable.

  3. 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions following simulated drip irrigation to raised beds under plastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D J; Luo, L; Xuan, R; Yates, S R

    2010-08-01

    Using laboratory soil chambers a nonscaled representation of an agricultural raised bed was constructed. For a sandy loam soil, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) were applied at 5 cm depth with an excess of water (simulated drip irrigation). Application was made under both high density polyethylene (HDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) covering the soil bed (the furrow was left uncovered). Soil gas distribution of the fumigants, together with emissions into the headspace above the bed, sidewall and furrow were determined over time. Total emissions from the HDPE treatment were cis 1,3-D 28%, trans 1,3-D 24%, and CP 8%. Due to its lower permeability, the values for VIF were 13%, 7%, and 1.5%, respectively. With HDPE, the majority (86-93%) of the emissions occurred from the bed, while for VIF the majority (92-99%) of the emissions was from the furrow. Compared to a range of literature values for shank injection, the use of drip application appears to offer a benefit in reducing 1,3-D and CP emissions. However, the most meaningful comparison is with our previous data for simulated shank injection where the same soil was covered (completely) with the same plastic films (1). In this comparison, only 1,3-D emissions under HDPE were lower with drip application; 1,3-D emissions under VIF and CP emissions under both films were greater with the drip application.

  4. Radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and divinylbenzene onto polyethylene terephthalate fabrics for improving anti-dripping performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Guoliang; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Shi, Meiwu; Zhai, Maolin

    2016-10-01

    A new kind of anti-dripping polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric was successfully prepared by simultaneous gamma radiation-induced grafting polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) onto the surface of PET fabrics. The grafting yield (GY) and anti-dripping effect were optimized by changing the total absorbed dose, dose rate, concentration and the feed ratio of GMA and DVB. The grafting yield increased with the increase of absorbed dose and GMA monomer concentration, and decreased with the dose rate. It is confirmed that PET fabrics had been modified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The tensile strength and elongation at break of modified PET fabrics were improved compared with original PET fabrics. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of modified PET fabrics with the GY of 23-25% was 21.5, which was similar to that of unmodified PET fabrics. However, the anti-dripping performance of PET fabrics was improved remarkably after radiation modification due to the crosslinking of the sidechains grafted on the PET surface. This anti-dripping fabric may be promising for fire protective clothing.

  5. Can subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) be a competitive irrigation system in the Great Plains region for commodity crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as with all microirrigation systems is typically only used on crops with greater value. In the U.S. Great Plains region, the typical irrigated crops are the cereal and oil seed crops and cotton. These crops have less economic revenue than typical microirrigated cro...

  6. Characteristics of the Drip-and-Ship Paradigm for Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Man-Seok; Lee, Ji Sung; Park, Tai Hwan; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Lee, Kyung Bok; Kim, Jae Guk; Lee, Soo Joo; Lee, Jun; Choi, Kang-Ho; Kim, Joon-Tae; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Oh, Mi Sun; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Chul; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Nah, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Dong-Eog; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Song, Sook-Keun; Choi, Jay Chol

    2016-11-01

    Data on the drip-and-ship paradigm in Korea are limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the use of the drip-and-ship paradigm and the time delays and outcomes associated with the paradigm in Korea. We used data from the Clinical Research Center for Stroke-5 registry between January 2011 and March 2014. Among patients treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), the use of the drip-and-ship paradigm was evaluated, and time delays and functional outcomes at 3 months were compared between patients treated with the paradigm and those treated directly at visits. Among 1843 patients who met the eligibility criteria, 244 patients (13.2%) were treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm. Subsequent endovascular recanalization therapy was used in 509 patients (27.6%). The median time from symptom onset to groin puncture was greater in patients treated with the paradigm than in those treated directly at visits (305 versus 200 minutes, P paradigm than in those directly treated at visits (odds ratio [OR] 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-3.08; P paradigm was used in less than 15% of all patients treated with tPA. The use of the paradigm might cause an increase in the onset-to-groin puncture time. Additionally, clinical outcomes might be worse in patients treated with the paradigm than in those treated directly at visits. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Likelihood Ratio Test of Common Factors under Non-Ideal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo espacial de Durbin ocupa una posición interesante en econometría espacial. Es la forma reducida de un modelo de corte transversal con dependencia en los errores y puede ser utilizado como ecuación de anidación en un enfoque más general de selección de modelos. En concreto, a partir de esta ecuación puede obtenerse el Ratio de Verosimilitudes conocido como test de Factores Comunes (LRCOM. Como se muestra en Mur y Angulo (2006, este test tiene buenas propiedades si el modelo está correctamente especificado. Sin embargo, por lo que sabemos, no hay referencias en la literatura sobre el comportamiento de este test bajo condiciones no ideales. En concreto, estudiamos el comportamiento del test en los casos de heterocedasticidad, no normalidad, endogeneidad, matrices de contactos densas y no-linealidad. Nuestros resultados ofrecen una visión positiva del test de Factores Comunes que parece una técnica útil en el instrumental propio de la econometría espacial contemporánea.

  8. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu2O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu2(OH3Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl− was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss, degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet.

  9. Field Measurements of Perceived Air Quality in the Test-Bed for Innovative Climate Conditioning Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Kabrhel, Michal

    , relative humidity and CO2 concentration. Results showed that the mean sensory pollution load in the tested offices was 0.09±0.02 olf/m2 (mean±SEM). This refers to a low-polluting building according to CEN Report CR 1752. The acceptability of the air quality was worst in unoccupied offices ventilated at 20...... m3/h. Application of DCV decreased the CO2 concentration, but did not result in statistically significant improvement of the perceived air quality. It was not possible to quantify the influence on the sensory pollution load of particular technologies tested as part of the Clear-up. However......Field measurements of perceived air quality were conducted in an experimental test bed for innovative building technologies situated at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The technologies included photocatalytically active paint, vacuum porous insulation and wall plaster containing phase...

  10. Generalization of learning from picture books to novel test conditions by 18- and 24-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Dooley, Megan

    2007-11-01

    Researchers know little about whether very young children can recognize objects originally introduced to them in a picture book when they encounter similar looking objects in various real-world contexts. The present studies used an imitation procedure to explore young children's ability to generalize a novel action sequence from a picture book to novel test conditions. The authors found that 18-month-olds imitated the action sequence from a book only when the conditions at testing matched those at encoding; altering the test stimuli or context disrupted imitation (Experiment 1A). In contrast, the 24-month-olds imitated the action sequence with changes to both the test context and stimuli (Experiment 1B). Moreover, although the 24-month-olds exhibited deferred imitation with no changes to the test conditions, they did not defer imitation with changes to the context and stimuli (Experiment 2). Two factors may account for the pattern of results: age-related changes in children's ability to utilize novel retrieval cues as well as their emerging ability to understand the representational nature of pictures.

  11. Testing and modeling of diffusion bonded prototype optical windows under ITER conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Flemish Inst. for Technological Research, Mol (Belgium); Van Oost, G. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium); Degrieck, J.; De Baere, I. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium); Gusarov, A. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Mol (Belgium); Gubbels, F. [TNO, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Massaut, V. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Mol (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    Glass-metal joints are a part of ITER optical diagnostics windows. These joints must be leak tight for the safety (presence of tritium in ITER) and to preserve the vacuum. They must also withstand the ITER environment: temperatures up to 220 deg.C and fast neutron fluxes of {approx}3.10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}.s. At the moment, little information is available about glass-metal joints suitable for ITER. Therefore, we performed mechanical and thermal tests on some prototypes of an aluminium diffusion bonded optical window. Finite element modeling with Abaqus code was used to understand the experimental results. The prototypes were helium leaking probably due to very tiny cracks in the interaction layer between the steel and the aluminium. However, they were all able to withstand a thermal cycling test up to 200 deg. C; no damage could be seen after the tests by visual inspection. The prototypes successfully passed push-out test with a 500 N load. During the destructive push-out tests the prototypes broke at a 6-12 kN load between the aluminium layer and the steel or the glass, depending on the surface quality of the glass. The microanalysis of the joints has also been performed. The finite element modeling of the push-out tests is in a reasonable agreement with the experiments. According to the model, the highest thermal stress is created in the aluminium layer. Thus, the aluminium joint seems to be the weakest part of the prototypes. If this layer is improved, it will probably make the prototype helium leak tight and as such, a good ITER window candidate. (authors)

  12. Status of drugs-of-abuse testing in urine under blind conditions: an AACC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, C S; Battaglia, D J; White, R M

    1989-05-01

    We report results of a blind study designed to determine the accuracy of drugs-of-abuse testing in urine as done in 31 laboratories across the United States. The drugs studied were amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine. These laboratories confirmed all positive drug results with a different analytical method. Ten urine samples were sent to each laboratory, which resulted in 1486 trials. There were no false-positive results. The overall accuracy rate was 97%. Our study demonstrates that urine drug testing can be accurate when performed by qualified staff, using up-to-date screening and confirmation methods, appropriate quality-assurance measures, and a chain of custody.

  13. Conditional probability based significance tests for sequential patterns in multi-neuronal spike trains

    CERN Document Server

    Sastry, P S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of detecting statistically significant sequential patterns in multi-neuronal spike trains. These patterns are characterized by an ordered sequences of spikes from different neurons with specific delays between spikes. We have previously proposed a data mining scheme to efficiently discover such patterns which are frequent in the sense that the count of non-overlapping occurrences of the pattern in the data stream is above a threshold. Here we propose a method to determine the statistical significance of these repeating patterns and to set the thresholds automatically. The novelty of our approach is that we use a compound null hypothesis that includes not only models of independent neurons but also models where neurons have weak dependencies. The strength of interaction among the neurons is represented in terms of certain pair-wise conditional probabilities. We specify our null hypothesis by putting an upper bound on all such conditional probabilities. We construct a proba...

  14. Pre-Analytical Conditions in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing of Cell-Free Fetal RHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Jakobsen, Tanja Roien; Rieneck, Klaus;

    2013-01-01

    D positive fetus. Prophylaxis reduces the risk of immunization that may lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn. The reliability of predicting the fetal RhD type depends on pre-analytical factors and assay sensitivity. We evaluated the testing setup in the Capital Region of Denmark, based...

  15. Dy-IP characterization and its application for experimental neutron radiography tests under realistic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Iida, Kazuhiro; Mori, Noriaki; Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Vontobel, Peter; Estermann, Mirko

    2005-04-01

    Imaging plates containing Dy for neutron radiography have been designed, fabricated and tested experimentally. Using the imaging plates combined with the developed NR system and the honeycomb collimator, quantitative neutron radiograph, which is free from scattered neutron and γ-ray, has been obtained. Application has been conducted for the post-irradiation examination for the nuclear fuel pin.

  16. 76 FR 69545 - Conditions and Requirements for Relying on Component Part Testing or Certification, or Another...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... supply chain to include the manufacturers of the subcomponents used in component parts. (Response 6... design or manufacturing process, including the sourcing of component parts. The final rule on ``Testing... finished product on the finished product certifier. Another commenter liked the strong chain of custody and...

  17. Problem-Solving Test: Conditional Gene Targeting Using the Cre/loxP Recombination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberényi, József

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: gene targeting, knock-out mutation, bacteriophage, complementary base-pairing, homologous recombination, deletion, transgenic organisms, promoter, polyadenylation element, transgene, DNA replication, RNA polymerase, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, restriction endonuclease, polymerase chain…

  18. Reconsolidation in a human fear conditioning study: a test of extinction as updating mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Soeter, M.

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation seems to be a promising approach to dampen the expression of fear memory. Recently, we demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by a pharmacological manipulation specifically targeted the emotional expression of memory (i.e., startle response). Here we test in a human

  19. Statistical Testing of Optimality Conditions in Multiresponse Simulation-based Optimization (Revision of 2005-81)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, B.W.M.; Del Castillo, E.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies simulation-based optimization with multiple outputs. It assumes that the simulation model has one random objective function and must satisfy given constraints on the other random outputs. It presents a statistical procedure for test- ing whether a specific input combination

  20. Statistical Testing of Optimality Conditions in Multiresponse Simulation-based Optimization (Revision of 2005-81)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, B.W.M.; Del Castillo, E.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies simulation-based optimization with multiple outputs. It assumes that the simulation model has one random objective function and must satisfy given constraints on the other random outputs. It presents a statistical procedure for test- ing whether a specific input combination (propo