WorldWideScience

Sample records for drilling dikes aspectos

  1. Important aspects of residue sampling in drilling dikes; Aspectos importantes para a amostragem de residuos em diques de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gilvan Ferreira da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1989-12-31

    This paper describes the importance of sampling in the evaluation of physical and chemical properties of residues found in drilling dikes, considering the later selection of treatment methods or discard of these residues. We present the fundamental concepts of applied statistics, which are essential to the elaboration of sampling plans, with views of obtaining exact and precise results. Other types of samples are also presented, as well as sampling equipment and methods for storage and preservation of the samples. As a conclusion, we the example of the implementation of a sampling plan. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustinus, P.G.E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Dikes, especially sea dikes, are coastal constructions build to avoid flooding. The risk of flooding is detrimental to the safety of people and economic, cultural, and ecological values. This aspect has been of great importance since people first thought about defending their dwellings against

  3. Dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustinus, P.G.E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Dikes, especially sea dikes, are coastal constructions build to avoid flooding. The risk of flooding is detrimental to the safety of people and economic, cultural, and ecological values. This aspect has been of great importance since people first thought about defending their dwellings against flood

  4. Overtopping resistant dike, Sandy dike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    An important element in the ComCoast concept is the overtopable sea defence (often a dike). In this concept the landward (inner) slope of the dike is adjusted in such a way that it can withstand higher overtopping rates. Two new concepts for covering the inner slope, sand cover and perforated mats,

  5. Sulfide composition and microthermometry of fluid inclusions in the leg 111 sheeted dike section of Ocean Drilling Program hole 504B, Costa Rica rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeps, D. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (West Germany)); Herzig, P.M. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-06-10

    Hole 504B of the Ocean Drilling Program is dedicated to the study of crustal structure and hydrothermal processes in 5.9-m.y.-old oceanic basement. Continuing the work of previous legs, hole 504B was extended 212.3 m to a total depth of 1,562.3 m below seafloor (bsf) during leg 111 in 1986. Quartz-sulfide veins occur at a depth of 1,369-1,388 m bsf in basalts of the sheeted dike complex. The ore minerals are predominantly pyrite, less chalcopyrite, rare Co-rich Cu-Fe-S phases, and a thiospinel (linnaeite/carrollite). Microprobe analyses yield a high Co content in zoned vein pyrites (>8 wt%) as well as in the Cu-Fe-S phases (>5 wt%). Up to 35.8 wt% CO was detected in the thiospinel. A Co/Ni ratio of > 100 distinguishes the vein pyrite from pyrite in the basaltic wall rock and from pyrite formed as an alteration product of olivine (Co/Ni < 5). The Co/Ni ratios correlate positively with Cu and negatively with As. Co-rich, nonstoichiometric Cu-Fe-S sulfides in chalcopyrite are interpreted as metastable phases which have been quenched at a high temperature and prohibited from exsolution of the stable products chalcopyrite and pyrite. Fluid inclusions in quartz from the quartz-sulfide veins are two-phase and vary from liquid- to vapor-dominated. Their salinities range from 4.2 to 7.2 wt% equivalent NaCl and average 5.5 wt%. Pressure (360 bars) corrected average filling temperatures vary from 271 to 408 C with a maximum of 486 C. This is consistent with calculated quartz formation temperatures for a single quartz separate (+4.2{per thousand} {delta}{sup 18}O) using oxygen isotope thermometry. The {delta}{sup 18}O value of the hydrothermal fluid was determined to be +1.7{per thousand}. The temperature data indicate fluid alteration of the sheeted dikes at about 350 to 500 C.

  6. Virtual Dike: multiscale simulation of dike stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a Virtual Dike simulation module developed as a part of a flood Early Warning System (EWS) for the UrbanFlood project. The UrbanFlood EWS is a distributed system that analyzes sensor data received in real-time from flood defenses (dikes, dams, etc.) and simulates dike stability, breaching

  7. Wide Green Dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon-Steensma, van Jantsje M.; Schelfhout, Harry A.

    2017-01-01

    The dual task of reinforcing the dikes along the Dutch coast and preparing for the effects of climate change have stimulated a search for innovative dike designs. Triggered by the presence of gently sloped grass-covered dikes that merge smoothly into the adjacent salt marshes along the German Wad

  8. Dike/Drift Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

  9. The Acadian Dikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Gregory R.; Yetman, Krista

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary unit that combines science and technology as a social-historical study on Arcadian dikes. Promotes an authentic task for assessment. Provides a student resource materials packet and activity sheet. (ASK)

  10. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.

  11. Saginaw Bay Restoration Assessment Dikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the output of a python script/ArcGIS model that identifes dikes as having a difference in elevation above a certain threshold. If the elevation...

  12. Clastic dike from Baga, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    analogous to igneous dikes in appearance and also in their field relationships. These are injections of mobilized sediment into fracture zones and bedding planes of sedimentary sequences and reported from widely scattered regions throughout the world...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2161 - Dikes, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dikes, general. 193.2161 Section 193.2161...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2161 Dikes, general. An outer wall of a component served by an impounding system may not be used as a dike unless the outer wall...

  14. DIKE FORMATION WITH SUBMERGED VANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umesh P.GUPTA; C.S.P.OJHA; Nayan SHARMA

    2006-01-01

    Submerged vanes are submerged foils constructed in a river at an angle of attack to induce horizontal circulation in the downstream flow. The initial height of vanes is 0.2 - 0.4 times the local water depth (d) at the design stage. Its length expressed as a multiple of the height to length ratio (H/L) normally is 0.25 to 0.5. With the use of a submerged vane in straight channels, dikes (heaps of sediment) were formed downstream. At an optimal angle of attack of 40o and at a Froude number of 0.25, the formation of the dike starts at some distance from the trailing edge of the rectangular and trapezoidal submerged vanes with a collar. A significant scour hole results at the trailing edge of a vane with a collar. A typical dike formed along the vane on the suction side with a symmetric bell-shaped profile. The dike formation phenomenon triggered by a vane close to the bank-line at a flow with a relatively higher Froude number, such as 0.25, does not seem to follow a straight alignment, but has a sort of curvilinear shape bent towards the suction side. The dike formation process for a flow with a smaller Froude number, such as 0.13, is observed to not be appreciable. With the same installation height of H, a vane without a collar was dislodged by the flow at a Froude number of 0.25, whereas it was stable at a Froude number of 0.13.

  15. FLOW PATTERNS AND DAMAGE OF DIKE OVERTOPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaiyuth CHINNARASRI; Tawatchai TINGSANCHALI; Sutat WEESAKUL; Somchai WONGWISES

    2003-01-01

    Damage of a dike may result in severe damage and suffering. To reduce downstream damage and loss of life, it is important to study the process of breaching of the damaged dike. It is not possible to understand the damage process without a clear understanding of the flow patterns encountered. In the present study, data obtained from nine experimental runs are analyzed. The flow patterns and progressive damage of dike overtopping are investigated. Two types of phenomena at the dike surface:erosion; and erosion and sliding, are observed during the overtopping event. Four stages of dike damage can be distinguished. The degradation rate of the dike crest is found to be dependent on the downstream slope of the dike. The degradation rate is higher when the downstream slope is steeper.

  16. Dikes under Pressure - Monitoring the Vulnerability of Dikes by Means of SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzahn, Philip; Seidel, Moritz; Ludwig, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Dikes are the main man made structures in flood protection systems for the protection of humans and economic values. Usually dikes are built with a sandy core and clay or concrete layer covering the core. Thus, dikes are prone to a vertical shrinkage due to soil physical processes such as reduction of pore space and gravity increasing the risk of a crevasse during floods. In addition, this vulnerability is amplified by a sea level rise due to climate change. To guarantee the stability of dikes, a labourer intensive program is carried out by national authorities monitoring the dikes by visual inspection. In the presented study, a quantitative approach is presented using SAR Interferometry for the monitoring of the stability of dikes from space. In particular, the vertical movement of dikes due to shrinkage is monitored using persistent scatterer interferometry. Therefore three different types of dikes have been investigated: a sea coast dike with a concrete cover, a sea coast dike with short grass cover and a smaller river dike with grass cover. All dikes are located in Germany. Results show the potential of the monitoring technique as well as spatial differences in the stability of dikes with subsidence rates in parts of a dike up to 7 mm/a.

  17. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF HISTORICAL DIKE FAILURE MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. NAGY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical evaluation of historical dike failure mechanism The failure mechanism of flood protection dikes includes physical (geotechnical, seepage processes leading to a dike breach. An awareness of the failure mechanism is required directly in dike stability calculations and indirectly for risk calculations. Statistics of historical data indicate among others the distribution and frequency of failure mechanisms associated with dikes. These data may be used in estimations of the expected likelihood of occurrence of non-quantifiable failure mechanisms. In addition to a comparative evaluation of statistics collected in several countries, this publication also presents data for the Carpathian Basin. One of the most important conclusions drawn from statistical information suggests that most dike breaches develop as a consequence of poor safety strategy

  18. Magma flow through elastic-walled dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.; Woods, A.W.; Boer, de A.

    2005-01-01

    A convection–diffusion model for the averaged flow of a viscous, incompressible magma through an elastic medium is considered. The magma flows through a dike from a magma reservoir to the Earth’s surface; only changes in dike width and velocity over large vertical length scales relative to the chara

  19. Western Lake Erie Restoration Assessment Dikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the output of a python script/ArcGIS model that identifes dikes as having a difference in elevation above a certain threshold. If the elevation...

  20. Connecting River Systems Restoration Assessment Dikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the output of a python script/ArcGIS model that identifes dikes as having a difference in elevation above a certain threshold. If the elevation...

  1. Volcanotectonic earthquakes induced by propagating dikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-04-01

    Volcanotectonic earthquakes are of high frequency and mostly generated by slip on faults. During chamber expansion/contraction earthquakes are distribution in the chamber roof. Following magma-chamber rupture and dike injection, however, earthquakes tend to concentrate around the dike and follow its propagation path, resulting in an earthquake swarm characterised by a number of earthquakes of similar magnitudes. I distinguish between two basic processes by which propagating dikes induce earthquakes. One is due to stress concentration in the process zone at the tip of the dike, the other relates to stresses induced in the walls and surrounding rocks on either side of the dike. As to the first process, some earthquakes generated at the dike tip are related to pure extension fracturing as the tip advances and the dike-path forms. Formation of pure extension fractures normally induces non-double couple earthquakes. There is also shear fracturing in the process zone, however, particularly normal faulting, which produces double-couple earthquakes. The second process relates primarily to slip on existing fractures in the host rock induced by the driving pressure of the propagating dike. Such pressures easily reach 5-20 MPa and induce compressive and shear stresses in the adjacent host rock, which already contains numerous fractures (mainly joints) of different attitudes. In piles of lava flows or sedimentary beds the original joints are primarily vertical and horizontal. Similarly, the contacts between the layers/beds are originally horizontal. As the layers/beds become buried, the joints and contacts become gradually tilted so that the joints and contacts become oblique to the horizontal compressive stress induced by a driving pressure of the (vertical) dike. Also, most of the hexagonal (or pentagonal) columnar joints in the lava flows are, from the beginning, oblique to an intrusive sheet of any attitude. Consequently, the joints and contacts function as potential shear

  2. Can a dike "feel" a free surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansino, S.; Taisne, B.

    2015-12-01

    This study uses analogue experiments to examine the various factors that could influence the dynamic or arrest of a dike prior to an eruption. Dike propagation has been well-studied from the perspective of analogue experiments and it has been shown how various competing forces interact (buoyancy, viscosity, elastic properties, fracture toughness,…). It has been observed that dikes experience acceleration as they approach a free surface, which theoretically is due to increasing stress intensity as distance to the free surface decreases. Other unrelated studies analysed the constant-volume propagation of low-surface-energy liquids (e.g. hydrophilic liquids) in a semi-infinite medium and found the propagation rate to decelerate, as liquid gradually transferred from the head region to the tail and buoyancy abated. In contrast, high-surface-energy fluids transfer negligible quantities of their volume into the tail region, essentially maintain their volume, and experience no such deceleration. This study focuses on the aforementioned factors influencing dike propagation, acceleration due to a free surface and deceleration due to head volume loss, to determine what their combined effect is on magma eruptability. As previous studies used hydrophobic liquids to investigate free-surface effects, and as magma is expected to have a low surface energy with the crust (they are both silicate), hydrophilic liquids (e.g. glucose syrup) are used in this study. Each experiment is arranged to have a free surface condition occupying half of the apparatus, and a no-slip condition occupying the other half, which allows for side-by-side comparison. The results are analysed to determine the minimum volume needed for a dike to erupt; failure to erupt implies that the dike would instead come to arrest in the crust.

  3. Structure - Riverine Flow Structure (Dike/Wingdam)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A natural or man-made flow (or sediment) control structure in a water course or water body such as a dike or weir. This feature should not be used to model a levee....

  4. IT lessons learnt from real time dike monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonder, M.R.; Waaij, B.D. van der

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch lowlands are protected by many kilometres of dikes. Currently these dikes are visually inspected on a regular basis. During heavy weather this frequency is raised, up to 24/7 in very extreme situations. After a dike failure at the Dutch town Wilnis in 2003, the question was raised whether

  5. Impacts of climate change on the principles of dike design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Dike design is a very traditional craft. Since many generations dikes have been constructed in our part of Europe. After each disaster the dike was rebuilt, and improved. The improvement was always based on the experiences of the previous flood. For example, for many years the design height of a dik

  6. Spectral analysis of dike-induced earthquakes in Afar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepp, Gabrielle; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Yun, Sang-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Shallow dike intrusions may be accompanied by fault slip above the dikes, a superposition which complicates seismic and geodetic data analyses. The diverse volcano-tectonic and low-frequency local earthquakes accompanying the 2005-2010 large-volume dike intrusions in the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo rift (Afar), some with fault displacements of up to 3 m at the surface, provide an opportunity to examine the relations among the earthquakes, dike intrusions, and surface ruptures. We apply the frequency index (FI) method to characterize the spectra of swarm earthquakes from six of the dikes. These earthquakes often have broad spectra with multiple peaks, making the usual peak frequency classification method unreliable. Our results show a general bimodal character with high FI earthquakes associated with deeper dikes (top > 3 km subsurface) and low FI earthquakes associated with shallow dikes, indicating that shallow dikes result in earthquakes with more low-frequency content and larger-amplitude surface waves. Low FI earthquakes are more common during dike emplacement, suggesting that interactions between the dike and faults may lead to lower FI. Taken together, likely source processes for low FI earthquakes are shallow hypocenters (<3 km) possibly with surface rupture, slow rupture velocities, and interactions with dike fluids. Strong site effects also heavily influence the earthquake spectral content. Additionally, our results suggest a continuum of spectral responses, implying either that impulsive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and the unusual, emergent earthquakes have similar source processes or that simple spectral analyses, such as FI, cannot distinguish different source processes.

  7. The Characterization of the Crush Zones in the Dike of Ultramafic Rock and Associated Gabbro with a Help of Magnetic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, S.; Iwamori, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Makino, M.; Okuma, S.; Miyakawa, A.; Nakatsuka, T.; Sasaki, T.; Yanagida, M.; Sugimori, T.; Kitao, H.; Asahi, N.; Shiomi, T.; Higashida, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The composite dike of the ultramafic rock and associated gabbro intruded in the shale and diabase in the upper of the Yakuno Ophiolite of the Paleozoic in the site of the Ohi nuclear power station of the KEPCO (the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.). The KEPCO has conducted several surveys such as tectonic landform interpretation, trench and drilling surveys, and crush zones in the dike were found by the trench survey. Detail observations with the X-ray CT images, thin sections and polished sections were conducted to study whether the crush zones were caused by fault activity or landslide along serpentinite metamorphosed from the ultramafic rock. The continuity of the crush zones was studied by an interpretation of the detail DEM and dense drillings which were conducted around the trench (25 drillings in about 25,000 square meters).As results of the study, we clarified that: The crush zones are classified into an inactive fault estimated to be sheared at the time of the intrusion of the dike and a slip surface of a shallow landslide. The fault is limited in the dike and does not extend into the shale or diabase. The shallow landslide resides along the distribution of the ultramafic rock remarkably metamorphosed to the serpentinite, which becomes unclear in deep underground. The distribution of the fault and landslide is enclosed in ultramafic rock of the dike which shows a high magnetic susceptibility. Therefore, a magnetic survey was conducted to clarify the distribution of the ultramafic rock within dozens of meters in depth. As the results of the survey, the areas of strong positive and negative magnetic anomalies corresponded to the distribution of the ultramafic rock confirmed by the trench and drilling surveys. The magnetic survey also revealed the shallow subsurface structures in such areas as shallow sea where the drilling was a few. The details about the magnetic survey and results of analyses are shown in Okuma et al. (2016, this meeting).

  8. Koolau dike complex, Oahu: intensity and origin of a sheeted-dike complex high in a Hawaiian volcanic edifice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, G.P.L.

    1986-04-01

    The dike complex in the eroded Koolau tholeiitic shield volcano is unique among described dike swarms for its coherence, high dike-injection intensity, relatively uniform and non-Gaussian 50% to 65% intensity level, and lack of dike divergence. Parts are like a sheeted-dike complex, though high in an intraplate volcanic edifice. A model is proposed in which highly mobile tholeiitic magma, having considerable freedom to move through the strongly disjointed volcano, seeks zones in which it is gravitationally most stable. These zones are marginal parts of the dike complex, separating lavas having a lower-than-magmatic bulk density from a > 50% dike complex having a higher-than-magmatic bulk density. This model also explains the strong propensity for the magma of Kilauea volcano to remain underground (in a gravitationally stable zone). Magma erupts only when it vesiculates sufficiently; often, when it has degassed, some of it promptly plunges back toward the stable zone again.

  9. Riserless drilling (managed pressure drilling)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ahsan

    2012-01-01

    There are several problems which an oil and gas industry is facing. These problems can be solved by riserless drilling method which comes under managed pressure drilling umbrella. The most important problem is increasing number of casing strings to complete a well and to control a well in limited pressure profile. A well model was developed and both conventional and riserless drilling approaches were applied to see how many casings will be needed to complete a same well with these approach...

  10. [Estimation of spur dike-affected fish habitat area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Shyan, Wu; Yan-Ru, Chen; Yi-Liang, Ge

    2012-04-01

    Based on the HEC-RAS and River 2D modes, and taking 5% change rate of weighted usable area (WUA) as the threshold to define the spur dike- affected area of target fish species Acrossocheilus paradoxus in Fazi River in Taiwan, this paper studied the affected area of the fish habitat by spur dike, and, in combining with the references about the installations of spur dikes in Taiwan in recent 10 years, analyzed the relative importance of related affecting factors such as dike height, dike length (water block rate), average slope gradient of river way, single or double spur dike, and flow discharge. In spite of the length of the dike, the affected area in downstream was farther, and was about 2-6 times as large as that in upstream. The ratio of the affected area in downstream / upstream decreased with increasing slope gradient, but increased with increasing dike length and flow discharge. When the discharge was approximate to 10 years return periods, the ratio of the affected area would be close to a constant of 2. Building double spur dike would produce a better WUA than building single spur dike.

  11. Drilling reorganizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  12. Monitoring of Huaihe DikeDeformation Caused by Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on a large number of data gathered through monitoring and surveying, this paper gives modifica-tion and calculation formulas of the movement and deformation of the dike slope. The variation of subsidence andhorizontal movement in the dike interior is analyzed. And from the geological condition of the dike, the interrela-tion between the subsidence, horizontal movement and the stratum structure and the basic laws are discussed.

  13. IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 Drill an Intact Section of Upper Oceanic Basement into Gabbros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Wilson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program’s (IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 successfully completed the first sampling of an intact section of upper oceanic crust, through lavas and the sheeted dikes into the uppermost gabbros. Hole 1256D, which was initiated on the Ocean Drilling Program’s (ODP Leg 206, now penetrates to >1500 mbsf and >1250 m sub-basement. The first gabbroic rocks were encountered at 1407 mbsf. Below this, the hole penetrates ~100 m into a complex zone of fractionated gabbros intruded into contact metamorphosed dikes.

  14. Cost optimal river dike design using probabilistic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischiniotis, K.; Kanning, W.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the optimization of river dikes using probabilistic methods. Its aim is to develop a generic method that automatically estimates the failure probabilities of many river dike cross-sections and gives the one with the least cost, taking into account the boundary conditions and

  15. Cost optimal river dike design using probabilistic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischiniotis, K.; Kanning, W.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the optimization of river dikes using probabilistic methods. Its aim is to develop a generic method that automatically estimates the failure probabilities of many river dike cross-sections and gives the one with the least cost, taking into account the boundary conditions and

  16. Dike orientations in the late jurassic independence dike swarm and implications for vertical-axis tectonic rotations in eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, R.F.; Hillhouse, J.W.; Howard, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the strikes of 3841 dikes in 47 domains in the 500-km-long Late Jurassic Independence dike swarm indicates a distribution that is skewed clockwise from the dominant northwest strike. Independence dike swarm azimuths tend to cluster near 325?? ?? 30??, consistent with initial subparallel intrusion along much of the swarm. Dike azimuths in a quarter of the domains vary widely from the dominant trend. In domains in the essentially unrotated Sierra Nevada block, mean dike azimuths range mostly between 300?? and 320??, with the exception of Mount Goddard (247??). Mean dike azimuths in domains in the Basin and Range Province in the Argus, Inyo, and White Mountains areas range from 291?? to 354?? the mean is 004?? in the El Paso Mountains. In the Mojave Desert, mean dike azimuths range from 318?? to 023??, and in the eastern Transverse Ranges, they range from 316?? to 051??. Restoration for late Cenozoic vertical-axis rotations, suggested by paleodeclinations determined from published studies from nearby Miocene and younger rocks, shifts dike azimuths into better agreement with azimuths measured in the tectonically stable Sierra Nevada. This confirms that vertical-axis tectonic rotations explain some of the dispersion in orientation, especially in the Mojave Desert and eastern Transverse Ranges, and that the dike orientations can be a useful if imperfect guide to tectonic rotations where paleomagnetic data do not exist. Large deviations from the main trend of the swarm may reflect (1) clockwise rotations for which there is no paleomagnetic evidence available, (2) dike intrusions of other ages, (3) crack filling at angles oblique or perpendicular to the main swarm, (4) pre-Miocene rotations, or (5) unrecognized domain boundaries between dike localities and sites with paleomagnetic determinations. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  17. A mechanical model for giant radiating dike swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakov, Alexander; Yarushina, Viktoriya; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2016-04-01

    The Large Igneous Provinces (LIP) is believed to form as results of plume-lithosphere interaction. A recognizable diagnostic feature of the LIP is a swarm of dikes (100 - 1000 km -long) radiating from a single or several focal regions. The models for formation of these dike swarms are mainly based on Venusian analogues (associated with coronae structures) since on Earth these paleo-structures are presumably less likely to preserve due to erosion and later tectonics. The existing explanation for the geometry of dikes (in horizontal plane) is based on assumption that in a far-field shear stress the dikes are normal to the least principal stress. A small overpressure related to the lithospheric magma reservoir is also assumed. However, this type of models implies several limitations: 1) the dike emplacement is considered as a purely elastic process, 2) all dikes are assumed to intrude simultaneously (no interaction with neighboring dikes). On the other hand, recent geophysical observations suggest that the dikes that apparently belong to the same magmatic event can intersect and can be affected by each other and local crustal heterogeneity. In this study, we attribute the geometry of dikes to irreversible plastic deformation including the path-dependence. We use finite-element elastoplastic simulations to predict the fracture pattern related to the plume-lithosphere interaction. The rheology is governed by a non-associated Mohr-Coulomb plastic flow law. The accuracy of the numerical results is benchmarked versus 2D plane strain analytical solutions for combined shear and internal pressure loads. We apply our model to the case of the High Arctic LIP. Here, the location of the dike intrusions is based on the interpretation of magnetic anomalies supported by geological and seismic data in the Barents Sea together with timing constraints using U-Pb isotopic ages. The developed model provides a framework for future high-resolution structural and geochronological studies to

  18. Living behind dikes: mimicking flooding experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalberg, Ruud; Midden, Cees J H

    2013-05-01

    Delta areas like the Netherlands are threatened by global climate change. Awareness is, however, rather low. Our research objective was to investigate whether coping responses to flooding risks could be enhanced in a virtual environment (VE). A laboratory experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to a simulated dike breach and consequent flooding of their virtual residence. We tested the hypothesis that an interactive 3D flood simulation facilitates coping responses compared to noninteractive film and slide simulations. Our results showed that information search, the motivation to evacuate, and the motivation to buy flood insurance increased after exposure to the 3D flood simulation compared to the film and slide simulations. Mediation analyses revealed that some of these presentation mode effects were mediated by a greater sense of being present in the VE. Implications to use high-end flood simulations in a VE to communicate real-world flooding risks and coping responses to threatened residents will be discussed.

  19. Tracking bubble evolution inside a silicic dike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Okumura, Satoshi; Arzilli, Fabio; Borrajo, Javier; Recio, Clemente; Ban, Masao; Gonzalo, Juan C.; Benítez, José M.; Douglas, Madison; Sasaki, Osamu; Franco, Piedad; Gómez-Barreiro, Juan; Carnicero, Asunción

    2016-10-01

    Pressure estimates from rapidly erupted crustal xenoliths constrain the depth of intrusion of the silicic lavas hosting them. This represents an opportunity for tracking magmatic bubble's evolution and quantifying the variation in bubble volume during rapid magma ascent through a volcanic dike just prior to eruption. The petrology, stable-isotope geochemistry and X-ray micro-tomography of dacites containing crustal xenoliths, erupted from a Neogene volcano in SE Spain, showed an increase in porosity from ~ 1.7 to 6.4% from ~ 19 to 13 km depth, at nearly constant groundmass and crystal volumes. This result provides additional constraints for experimental and numerical simulations of subvolcanic magma-crust degassing processes in silicic systems, and may allow the characterization of volcanic eruptive styles based on volatile content.

  20. Laser Drilling Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces laser drilling processes including modelling, quality assessment of drilled holes, and laser drilling applications. It provides insights into the laser drilling process and the relation among the drilling parameters pertinent to improved end product quality. This book is written for engineers and scientists working on laser machining, particularly laser drilling.

  1. Bucket drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezverkhiy, V.M.; Nabokov, I.M.; Podoksik, D.Z.; Sadovskiy, S.S.; Shanyukevich, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The bucket drill including a cylindrical housing with bottom, ground intake windows and cutting knives is hinged to the housing, the mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives including rods connected by the cutter knives, and drive shaft is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of drilling by automatic change in the angle of cutting depending on the strength of the drillable rock, the drill is equipped with elastic elements and cap with annular slits in which there are elastic elements. The mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives is equipped with levers hinged to the housing, pins with shaft and rocker arm. The rods are made with a slit and from one end are rigidly connected to the cutting knives, and from the other end to the levers by means of pins which are arranged in slits of the rod with the possibility of movement. The upper ends of the levers are installed with the possibility of movement in the pins whose shafts are arranged with the possibility of rotation in the rocker arm rigidly connected to the drive shaft. The drive shaft is equipped with cantilevers installed in the cap with the possibility of rotation and interaction with the elastic elements.

  2. Dike propagation energy balance from deformation modeling and seismic release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Alessandro; Aoki, Yosuke; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2017-06-01

    Magma is transported in the crust mainly by dike intrusions. In volcanic areas, dikes can ascend toward the free surface and also move by lateral propagation, eventually feeding flank eruptions. Understanding dike mechanics is a key to forecasting the expected propagation and associated hazard. Several studies have been conducted on dike mechanisms and propagation; however, a less in-depth investigated aspect is the relation between measured dike-induced deformation and the seismicity released during its propagation. We individuated a simple x that can be used as a proxy of the expected mechanical energy released by a propagating dike and is related to its average thickness. For several intrusions around the world (Afar, Japan, and Mount Etna), we correlate such mechanical energy to the seismic moment released by the induced earthquakes. We obtain an empirical law that quantifies the expected seismic energy released before arrest. The proposed approach may be helpful to predict the total seismic moment that will be released by an intrusion and thus to control the energy status during its propagation and the time of dike arrest.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryDike propagation is a dominant mechanism for magma ascent, transport, and eruptions. Besides being an intriguing physical process, it has critical hazard implications. After the magma intrusion starts, it is difficult to predict when and where a specific horizontal dike is going to halt and what its final length will be. In our study, we singled an equation that can be used as a proxy of the expected mechanical energy to be released by the opening dike. We related this expected energy to the seismic moment of several eruptive intrusions around the world (Afar region, Japanese volcanoes, and Mount Etna). The proposed novel approach is helpful to estimate the total seismic moment to be released, therefore allowing potentially predicting when the dike will end its propagation. The approach helps

  3. Interpreting inverse magnetic fabric in dikes from Eastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Urbani, Stefano; Porreca, Massimiliano; Acocella, Valerio; Kissel, Catherine; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Since the 70's magnetic fabric analysis has been used to infer magma emplacement in dikes. However, the interpretation of magmatic flow orientation in dikes is often complicated by the occurrence of anomalous (i.e. inverse) magnetic fabric. This latter may either reflect the presence of single-domain (SD) grains or result from peculiar orientation mechanisms of magnetic minerals in magmas of different viscosities. Tertiary dike swarms of extinct volcanic systems in Eastern Iceland represent the ideal case study to clarify the origin of anomalous magnetic fabric. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary study on dikes belonging to the Alftafjordur volcanic system (Eastern Iceland), including a: (1) structural field study in order to identify kinematic and thermal indicators of dikes; (2) anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis, to investigate the magnetic fabric and reconstruct the flow direction of 25 dikes; (3) first order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams and thermomagnetic properties of selected dikes to define the magnetic mineralogy; (4) petrofabric and image analyses at different microscopic scales to investigate the origin of the magnetic fabric and compare the AMS results with mineral texture. Our results show that half of the dikes show a well defined inverse magnetic fabrics (k max orthogonal to the dike margins) and anomalous high anisotropy degrees. Only 7 dikes have a normal magnetic fabric and other 6 dikes have an intermediate magnetic fabric. No clear prevalence of SD grains, which could explain the inverse magnetic fabric, was observed. On the contrary, petrofabric and thermomagnetic analysis reveal the presence of low Ti-content coarse magnetite and high Ti-content elongated magnetite grains as the main contributors to most of the observed magnetic fabrics. In particular, the orientation of the elongated high Ti-content magnetite grains, though usually scattered, is partly comparable with that of the maximum and

  4. Drilling in areas subject to environmental protection; A perfuracao em area de protecao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Ricardo Teixeira; Guimaraes, Antimio Santos [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. Tecnica; Santana, Manoel Messias de [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Regiao de Producao do Nordeste. Setor de Seguranca Industrial

    1989-12-31

    This paper presents the practices developed for pollution control in areas subject to environmental protection. This well drilling operation was carried out in the Municipality of Marechal Deodoro, in the State of Alagoas, in locality named Massagueira. We stress the preventive methods for liquid and solid effluent generation and the use of Closed Fluid System or Anti-Dike System. (author) 3 figs.

  5. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Wistrand, Glen L.

    1984-01-01

    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  6. Paleomagnetism of clastic dikes along the Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, S. A.; Elmore, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous clastic dikes occur within the Proterozoic basement along nearly 75km of the Front Range of Colorado. These dikes are composed predominately of well-rounded, non-metamorphosed quartz and are red in color due to the abundance of authigenic hematite. The Cambrian Sawatch sandstone is assumed by most studies to be the source of dike sediments due to its similar composition. Despite over a century of study, the origins, age, and emplacement mechanisms of these dikes remain enigmatic. A preliminary paleomagnetic study of the clastic dikes using standard demagnetization techniques indicates the presence of a complex multicomponent magnetization with at least three components. An easterly and moderately steep component residing in hematite was resolved from several dikes and corresponds to an early Cambrian pole position when compared to the apparent polar wander path of North America. An east-southeasterly and shallow magnetization, also residing in hematite, yields a pole of early Paleozoic age. The third component is northwesterly and steep down and is Mesozoic or Cenozoic in age. These results are similar to a previous paleomagnetic study (Kost, MS thesis, Univ. Colorado) in 1984 of different dikes which found poorly defined early and late Paleozoic, as well as Mesozoic-Cenozoic components. Many researchers suggest emplacement occurred during faulting that was associated with either the Ancestral Rockies uplift of the late Paleozoic or the Laramide orogeny of the late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic. The presence of magnetizations of Cambrian age, with subsequent younger remagnetizations, indicates that the emplacement of many of the dikes preceded both of these tectonic events.

  7. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Wistrand, Glen L.

    1984-01-01

    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF BED DEFORMATION IN DIKE BURST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The key point in the numerical simulation of breach growth and bed deformation process in a dike burst is the accurate computation of flow and sediment transport. A numerical model for horizontal 2-D non-uniform sediment was developed to simulate the bed deformation process in the dike burst. The first-order scheme was used in computation. Several simulated results were worked out to demonstrate the applicability of the numerical model.

  9. Design Methods for Geotextile Tubes Application in Dike Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yue; YAN Shu-wang; QIU Chang-lin; ZHENG Gang

    2008-01-01

    The technique of geotextile tubes used to construct dikes for land reclamation has been widely used. The tubes are usually filled with slurry of soil, such as sand, silt or clay. The tensile stress developed in the geotextile during filling the tube is the dominant factor for construction of a safe dike. The existing design methods are good for designing sausage shaped tubes and can not be directly applied for designing flat tubes, which are commonly used in dike construction. This paper presents a procedure that can determine the relationship among the tube size, the pumping pressure, the unit weight of the slurry, and the tensile stress developed in the geotextile during the tube filing. When the tubes are piling up to form the dike, the tubes in the bottom will sustain the load from the weight of the upper ones. A procedure is also developed to calculate the changes of the mechanical and geometrical behavior of the tubes under the load with a similar method. All these approaches have been programmed, which can help dike designers to select the suitable geotextile and determine the profile of the dike.

  10. Application of Geotextile Bag Dehydrated Soil to Dike Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱平; 闫澍旺; 刘润

    2004-01-01

    Using geotextile bag dehydrated soil to construct dikes for land reclamation to substitute conventional straw bags is an urgent need in Tianjin New Harbor, China. This paper introduces the method to build a dike for hydraulic filling. The soil for filling the geotextile bags was tested in wave trench; the stress developed during construction was calculated by establishing a numerical model and compared with the tensile strength of the geotextile; the stability and settlement of the dike were estimated by performing centrifuge tests. Through this study, the following information was obtained: 1) The cohesionless silt with plasticity index less than 10 is suitable for filling the geotextile bags. The geotextile bag dehydrated soil consolidated very quickly even under the action of wave force. 2) A numerical model was devised to find the limit injection height and to calculate the tensile stress developed in the geotextile bags when they were piled up to form the dike. The calculated stress was compared with the strength of the geotextile, showing that the design is reasonably safe. 3) Centrifuge test results show that the designed dike will be stable and the settlement of dike will be less than the design requirement.

  11. Costs of sea dikes - regressions and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Stephan; Rybski, Diego; Heidrich, Oliver; Dawson, Richard J.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2017-05-01

    Failure to consider the costs of adaptation strategies can be seen by decision makers as a barrier to implementing coastal protection measures. In order to validate adaptation strategies to sea-level rise in the form of coastal protection, a consistent and repeatable assessment of the costs is necessary. This paper significantly extends current knowledge on cost estimates by developing - and implementing using real coastal dike data - probabilistic functions of dike costs. Data from Canada and the Netherlands are analysed and related to published studies from the US, UK, and Vietnam in order to provide a reproducible estimate of typical sea dike costs and their uncertainty. We plot the costs divided by dike length as a function of height and test four different regression models. Our analysis shows that a linear function without intercept is sufficient to model the costs, i.e. fixed costs and higher-order contributions such as that due to the volume of core fill material are less significant. We also characterise the spread around the regression models which represents an uncertainty stemming from factors beyond dike length and height. Drawing an analogy with project cost overruns, we employ log-normal distributions and calculate that the range between 3x and x/3 contains 95 % of the data, where x represents the corresponding regression value. We compare our estimates with previously published unit costs for other countries. We note that the unit costs depend not only on the country and land use (urban/non-urban) of the sites where the dikes are being constructed but also on characteristics included in the costs, e.g. property acquisition, utility relocation, and project management. This paper gives decision makers an order of magnitude on the protection costs, which can help to remove potential barriers to developing adaptation strategies. Although the focus of this research is sea dikes, our approach is applicable and transferable to other adaptation measures.

  12. Drilling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevodin, Yu.M.; Kholosha, Ye.G.; Leshchenko, A.G.; Timchenko, A.I.

    1979-01-10

    The invention refers to units designed for extracting minerals by mechanical action on the face by a cutting tool. There is a known drills which includes a pulse device which contains a combustion chamber, cylinder, piston-percussion tool and cutting tool. The combustion chamber and the sub-piston cavity of the cylinder are connected by a channel in which there is a distributor. Its shortcoming is the fact that the pulse device does not guarantee the necessary motion of the actuating mechanism for its velocity and frequency of the shocks on the cutting tool. This reduces the efficiency of the operation and limits the area of application. The purpose of the proposed invention is to improve productivity of the device. This is achieved because the head of the drill is equipped with a 2-piston pulse device which contains 2-combustion chambers, 2 working cylinders, 2 piston percussion instruments, a rod with gas-conducting and connecting channels for interconnection of the sub-piston cavities and combustion chambers of both cylinders. The spent gases of one cylinder are used for closing the combustion chamber of the second cylinder.

  13. Aspectos sociales del emprendedor

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hoy en día es de vital importancia el papel de los emprendedores en la sociedad. Por lo que, es importante analizar los aspectos sociales que les rodean, los que influyen para tomar la decisión de crear una nueva empresa y adentrarse en el mundo del emprendimiento. A partir de esta realidad, se busca explicar, mediante un estudio bibliográfico de la literatura científica del emprendimiento, y más tarde con un análisis de datos obtenidos del GEM 2012, GEM 2013, y otros facilitados por el p...

  14. Aspectos quirales del grafeno

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Silva,H; J.L. López-Bonilla

    2011-01-01

    El grafeno, una alotropía del carbono, es un logro de los avances de la nanotecnología. Siendo una nanoestructura, este componente estructural del grafito posee propiedades que lo han convertido en un potencial sustituto del silicio en el diseño y fabricación de circuitos integrados. Este artículo resume sus orígenes, posibilidades teóricas, así como sus propiedades prácticas. Se presentan aspectos teóricos de quiralidad en el grafeno, específicamente una teoría quiral para el grafeno, vincul...

  15. Structural evolution of lamprophyric dikes in Lailai, northeastern coast of Taiwan, deduced from mesoscopic structures in dikes and country rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Cian-Siang; Huang, Wen-Jeng; Lo, Wei; Wang, Tzu-Bin; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Lamprophyric dikes are standing in right-stepping en echelon up to 2.3 meters high within the Oligocene Tatungshan formation on the Lai-Lai wave-cut platform in the northeastern coast of Taiwan. The marine platform composed mainly of argillite is the extension of Hsuehshan range, which has the tallest peak of 3,886 m high in Taiwan. The dikes formed at depth in the late Miocene of 9±1.1 Ma ago are exposed on the marine platform nowadays due to the exhumation and Penglai orogeny resulting from the collision of Eurasian plate and Philippine Sea plate, which began in Pleistocene of 5-6 Ma ago. In consequence, folds, faults, joints and other structures are associated with them. In this study, the distribution of the dikes and fractures were mapped by conducting accurate surveys with a total station theodolite and orthorectifying aerial images taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle in different elevations. Electrical resistivity exploration was performed to decipher the arrangement of the dikes underground and the characteristics of the faults. The associated mesoscopic structures were delineated by mapping at a scale of 1: 40 in the field. We infer that the dikes was formed at depth of approximately 2.4 kilometers according to the thickness of overlaying sedimentary rocks formed from late Oligocene to late Miocene. Thus, it excludes the possibility that fractures existed before the lamprophyric magma intruded into the country rocks. Our observations help restore the original status of the current 19 dike segments. We conclude that the lamprophyric magma forcedly and vertically intruded into the Oligocene rocks and the direction change of maximum principle stress at depth of 2.4 kilometers resulted in three or more right-stepping en-echelon dikes.

  16. Cooling of an igneous dike 20 yr after intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C. B.; Lichtner, P. C.; Conway, F. M.; Hill, B. E.; Ovsyannikov, A. A.; Federchenko, I.; Doubik, Yu.; Shapar, V. N.; Taran, Yu. A.

    1997-08-01

    The 1975 Tolbachik, Kamchatka, Russia, eruption resulted in the formation of three basaltic cinder cones. During this eruption, shallow dike injection into a nearby cinder cone, Cone 1004, caused deformation and slumping of the cone. In 1995, temperatures at 2 m depth, electromagnetic anomalies, and geologic units were mapped on the slump block. These data reveal details about the cooling rates of a shallow dike in the slump block, including (1) measured temperatures as much as 475 °C, (2) temperatures greater than 200 °C along a 160-m-long and 30-m-wide zone that trends oblique to bedding, (3) a low resistivity zone at 80 m depth that may delimit a larger intrusion beneath the shallow dike, (4) a dry zone extending 15 20 m from the axis of the thermal anomaly, and (5) a condensation zone beyond this dry-out zone, characterized by steaming ground and high convective heat flux. Analytic models indicate that the surprisingly high temperatures persist because of the low thermal diffusivity of the scoria into which the dike is injected, a direct result of the scoria's high porosity. Two-phase nonisothermal flow models suggest that the observed patterns of dry-out and condensation are expected for small volume fractions of water in the scoria (≤10%). Thus, field observations from Tolbachik provide a graphic example of the roles of rock thermophysical properties and water in the unsaturated zone on rates of dike cooling.

  17. Simulation of dike-break processes in the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Lin(梁林); NI; Jinren(倪晋仁); A.G.L.; Borthwick; B.D.; Rogers

    2002-01-01

    Although dike-break and dam-break processes have similar unsteady and discontinuous hydrodynamic characteristics, there are significant differences. In general, dam-break simulations focus on the flood discharge, whereas dike-break simulations are required to provide detailed information on the hydraulic and breach evolution processes, such as pit-scour and breach-expansion. In order to overcome the difficulties inherent in applying existing dam-break models to dike-breaks, this paper presents an integrated model that combines the shallow water, sediment transport, riverbed deformation and breach-expansion equations. A Godunov-type finite volume method is used for the flow simulation, based on a fixed quadtree grid system. The hydrodynamic aspects of the model are validated for an idealized rectangular dam break. A representative reach in the Yellow River is selected at a location where there is a significant risk of a dike-break, and full-scale topographic and hydrologic data are available. Typical dike-break processes are successfully simulated, with predicted hydraulic characteristics and terrain changes qualitatively in agreement with laboratory data. The modeling study is of practical importance for implementation of engineering countermeasures in the Yellow River, such as breach blocking and head wrapping.

  18. Mielopatias: aspectos diagnosticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spina -França

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available É feita reavaliação dos aspectos que levaram ao diagnóstico etiológico em 353 pacientes com mielopatia não-traumática e não-tumoral observados no decurso de 20 anos: siringomielia, 5 casos; vascular, 15 casos; carencial, 67 casos; infecciosa ou por infestação, 82 casos; pós-vacinação, pós-infecção ou pós-intoxicação, 31 casos; esclerose múltipla e neuromielite óptica, 20 casos; primária, 133 casos. Em função do diagnóstico são analisados os aspectos que podem contribuir aos conhecimentos sobre os mecanismos fisiopatológicos interessados na deflagração do acometimento medular no que tange às alterações imunobiológicas. Nesse sentido é considerado o papel da necrose, da desmielinização e da inflamação e o respectivo interrelacionamento.

  19. Summer oxygen depletion in a diked New England estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The diked and freshened Herring River estuary (Wellfleet, Massachusetts) experiences regular summer hypoxia and one- to three-week periods of main stream anoxia, often accompanied by fish kills. Stream hypoxia results from the temperature-dependent increase in oxygen demand of organic matter released by diked salt marsh deposits; periods of total anoxia are induced by heavy rains which increase the runoff of wetland organic matter. Historic reductions in tidal flushing have extended the low salinity region of the estuary normally characterized by high organic loads and minimal flushing. Recurrent main stream anoxia has depressed both migratory and resident aquatic fauna.

  20. Perturbation of regional ocean tides due to coastal dikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B. H.; Kim, K. O.; Lee, H. S.; Yuk, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    The tidal regime modeling system for ocean tides in the seas bordering the Korean Peninsula is designed to cover an area that is broad in scope and size, yet provide a high degree of resolution in coastal development areas, including the Saemangeum area in the eastern Yellow Sea and the Ariake Sea in Japan, where serious environmental problems have occurred after the completion of interior tidal dikes. With this simulation system, we have estimated the changes in tidal regime due to barriers at Saemangeum and Isahaya Bay in the Ariake Sea. Some results in terms of perturbations in tidal elevations due to the construction of coastal dikes are presented and discussed.

  1. Pandora and Dike in Hesiod’s Works and days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Olstein

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Pandora and Dike are negative and positive analogues integral as such to the most important themes of the poem. Pandora's myth explains why strife is deadly and must be rejected for accumulating Bios on the land. As punishment for Prometheus' attempts to trick Zeus, Pandora and her descendants eternally trick men who also cheat each other, neglecting productive work. The evils from Pandora's jar and the several ages of unjust men destroyed by Zeus represent respectively individual and generational mortality. Nevertheless, through Dike —harmonious work and Bios attained in the Just City, a new Golden Age— men may hope to recapture their immortality.

  2. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  3. 枞阳县唐山联圩堤防滑坡段工程地质与加固设计%Engineering Geology and Reinforcement Design of Tangshan Lianwei Dike Landslide Segment in Zongyang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文强

    2016-01-01

    修建于软基上的堤防堤基大多存在抗滑稳定问题,枞阳县唐山联圩堤防具有较好的代表性,采用钻探、室内试验手段,查明滑坡段堤防堤身、堤基工程地质条件,分析发生滑坡险情原因,并提出加固设计方案。%The foundation of dikes built in soft foundation often have problems in anti-sliding. Tangshan Lianwei Dike in Zongyang County is a representative. By means of drilling and laboratory test, the engineering geological condition of the dike body and foundation in the landslide segment is found out. The causes of landslide are analyzed and reinforcement design scheme is proposed.

  4. Follow the drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch-Roy, O. [Dando Drilling International (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The paper discusses modern drilling techniques with which Dando Drilling has been involved. It describes equipment supplied to opencast coal operations in Kalimantan, Borneo. These include polycrystalline diamond drill bits, flushing media, rig drilling controls and other specialised equipment. 3 photos.

  5. Graben Formation and Dike Arrest during the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir Dike Intrusion in Saudi Arabia: Insights from InSAR, Stress Calculations and Analog Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2016-03-04

    Detailed spatial and temporal accounts of propagating dikes from crustal deformation data, including their interplay with faulting, are rare, leaving many questions about how this interplay affects graben formation and the arrest of dikes unanswered. Here we use InSAR observations, stress calculations and analog experiments to investigate the interaction between an intruding dike and normal faulting during the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir dike intrusion in western Saudi Arabia. We generated five displacement maps from InSAR data to unravel the temporal evolution of deformation covering the majority of the intrusion. We find that the observed surface displacements can be modeled by a ~2-m-thick dike with an upper tip ~2 km below the surface on 16 May 2009, four weeks after the onset of seismic unrest. In the following three days, the dike propagated to within ~1 km of the surface with graben-bounding normal faulting dominating the near-field deformation. The volume of the dike doubled between mid-May and mid-June. We carried out analog experiments that indicate that the wedge-shaped graben grew outwards with the faulting style changing progressively from normal faulting to oblique. Coulomb failure stress change calculations show that the intruding dike caused two zones of shallow horizontal tension on both sides of the dike, producing two zones of fissuring and normal faulting at the surface. In return, the faulting provoked compression around the upper tip of the dike, holding back its vertical propagation.

  6. Graben formation and dike arrest during the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir dike intrusion in Saudi Arabia: Insights from InSAR, stress calculations and analog experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbin; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Corbi, Fabio; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    Detailed spatial and temporal accounts of propagating dikes from crustal deformation data, including their interplay with faulting, are rare, leaving many questions about how this interplay affects graben formation and the arrest of dikes unanswered. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations, stress calculations, and analog experiments to investigate the interaction between an intruding dike and normal faulting during the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir dike intrusion in western Saudi Arabia. We generated five displacement maps from InSAR data to unravel the temporal evolution of deformation covering the majority of the intrusion. We find that the observed surface displacements can be modeled by a ~2 m thick dike with an upper tip ~2 km below the surface on 16 May 2009, 4 weeks after the onset of seismic unrest. In the following three days, the dike propagated to within ~1 km of the surface with graben-bounding normal faulting dominating the near-field deformation. The volume of the dike doubled between mid-May and mid-June. We carried out analog experiments that indicate that the wedge-shaped graben grew outward with the faulting style changing progressively from normal faulting to oblique. Coulomb failure stress change calculations show that the intruding dike caused two zones of shallow horizontal tension on both sides of the dike, producing two zones of fissuring and normal faulting at the surface. In return, the faulting provoked compression around the upper tip of the dike, holding back its vertical propagation.

  7. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-retrievable tools and a drill-lock assembly, permitting bit and BHA changes, coring, electrical logging and even directional or horizontal drilling. Once the casing point is reached, the casing is cemented in place without tripping pipe.

  8. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed dike slopes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Luong, N.Q.; Verhagen, H.J.; Schiereck, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of various grassed slopes against wave overtopping has been appraised by means of the Wave Overtopping Simulator in situ for a couple of years in Viet Nam. Destructive test results show that a dike slope covered with grass could suffer a certain overtopping discharge not smaller than

  9. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed dike slopes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Luong, N.Q.; Verhagen, H.J.; Schiereck, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of various grassed slopes against wave overtopping has been appraised by means of the Wave Overtopping Simulator in situ for a couple of years in Viet Nam. Destructive test results show that a dike slope covered with grass could suffer a certain overtopping discharge not smaller than

  10. Scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by a buried vertical dike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Lurimar S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete and exact solution of the scattering of a TE mode frequency domain electromagnetic plane wave by a vertical dike under a conductive overburden has been established. An integral representation composed of one-sided Fourier transforms describes the scattered electric field components in each one of the five media: air, overburden, dike, and the country rocks on both sides of the dike. The determination of the terms of the series that represents the spectral components of the Fourier integrals requires the numerical inversion of a sparse matrix, and the method of successive approaches. The zero-order term of the series representation for the spectral components of the overburden, for given values of the electrical and geometrical parameters of the model, has been computed. This result allowed to determine an approximate value of the variation of the electric field on the top of the overburden in the direction perpendicular to the strike of the dike. The results demonstrate the efficiency of this forward electromagnetic modeling, and are fundamental for the interpretation of VLF and Magnetotelluric data.

  11. The Acadian Dikes: An Interdisciplinary Study of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Gregory; Yetman, Krista

    Technology has a unique place in the elementary classroom. It provides an unparalleled vehicle for integrating many traditional subject areas. It serves to break down curricular barriers while at the same time promoting situated learning. This paper describes the implementation of a unit that focuses on the technology of the dike systems. Dikes…

  12. Design of a pilot dike on Cat Hai Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, N.; Disco, M.; Kalf, P.; Kluwen, J.; Lin, C.H.; Van de Sande, S.

    2010-01-01

    Master project report. On behalf of, and in cooperation with the TU Delft and the MARD-CWRCT two dike designs are made for a pilot project on Cat Hai Island. Two different types of revetments are used, namely the Dutch block type revetment Basalton and the classic rip-rap revetment. The designs are

  13. Conceptual model for reinforced grass on inner dike slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing

  14. Design of a pilot dike on Cat Hai Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, N.; Disco, M.; Kalf, P.; Kluwen, J.; Lin, C.H.; Van de Sande, S.

    2010-01-01

    Master project report. On behalf of, and in cooperation with the TU Delft and the MARD-CWRCT two dike designs are made for a pilot project on Cat Hai Island. Two different types of revetments are used, namely the Dutch block type revetment Basalton and the classic rip-rap revetment. The designs are

  15. Strength of the landward slopes of sea dikes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Cat, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The landware slopes of sea dikes in the north of Vietnam are steep and solely constructed by soil covered with grass due to the budget constraints and also the out-of-date design guidelines.The resistance against erosion due to wave overtopping of several grass covered slopes were tested with the Wa

  16. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-01-01

    Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-re...

  17. Flood damage reduction by compartmentalization of a dike ring: comparing the effectiveness of three strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oost, J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Compartmentalization of dike ring areas is currently seen as one of the promising options for managing or reducing the risk of flooding. Recently, several studies on the effectiveness of subdividing dike ring areas by means of compartmentalization dikes were published. These studies show that the

  18. Research drilling in young silicic volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichelberger, J.C.

    1989-06-30

    Magmatic activity, and particularly silicic magmatic activity, is the fundamental process by which continental crust forms and evolves. The transport of magma from deep crustal reservoirs to the surface is a neglected but important aspect of magmatic phenomena. It encompasses problems of eruptive behavior, hydrothermal circulation, and ore deposition, and must be understood in order to properly interpret deeper processes. Drilling provides a means for determining the relationship of shallow intrusive processes to eruption processes at young volcanoes where eruptions are best understood. Drilling also provides a means for directly observing the processes of heat and mass transfer by which recently emplaced intrusions approach equilibrium with their new environment. Drilling in the Inyo Chain, a 600-year-old chain of volcanic vents in California, has shown the close relationship of silicic eruption to shallow dike emplacement, the control of eruptive style by shallow porous-flow degassing, the origin of obsidian by welding, the development of igneous zonation by viscosity segregation, and the character and size of conduits in relation to well-understood magmatic and phreatic eruptions. 36 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  20. Introduction to drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Malcom

    1989-12-01

    Terrestrial drilling technology is reviewed. The general requirements for a drilling system are given and conventional drilling techniques (rotary drag-bit, rotary roller-bit, percussive, rotary percussive) are described. Unconventional techniques for penetrating solids are outlined, including thermal drilling (spalling or melting), projectile penetration, high pressure liquid jets, explosive jets, erosion by projectile streams, and chemical penetration. Special attention is given to drilling in ice and frozen soils, performance data are given, including values for penetration rate and specific energy consumption. The principles, theory and equipment relating to each drilling technique are indicated by means of diagrams.

  1. Scour and flow field around a spur dike in a 90° bend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid FAZLI; Masoud GHODSIAN; Seyed Ali Akbar Salehi NEYSHABOURI

    2008-01-01

    Spur dike is an important element in river training that creates rapid variations in flow field,sediment transport and bed topography.The mechanism of flow and sediment transport in a channel bend is very complex,especially when a spur dike is constructed in a bend.Most of previous investigations on flow behavior and scour around spur dike were carried out in straight channels.In this paper results of experiments on flow field and scour around a spur dike in a 90 degree channel bend are presented.Sand with uniform grain size was used as the bed material.Experiments were conducted for different locations and different lengths of spur dikes at the bend with different values of discharge.The three dimensional flow fields around a spur dike were investigated.The maximum depth of scour was correlated to the Froude numbers,lengths and the locations of spur dike in the bend.

  2. The Hans Tausen drill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, excellent results from the GRIP and GISP2 deep drilling projects in Greenland opened up funding for continued ice-coring efforts in Antarctica (EPICA) and Greenland (NorthGRIP). The Glaciology Group of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, was assigned the task...... of providing drilling capability for these projects, as it had done for the GRIP project. The group decided to further simplify existing deep drill designs for better reliability and ease of handling. The drill design decided upon was successfully tested on Hans Tausen Ice Cap, Peary Land, Greenland, in 1995....... The 5.0 m long Hans Tausen (HT) drill was a prototype for the ~11 m long EPICA and NorthGRIP versions of the drill which were mechanically identical to the HT drill except for a much longer core barrel and chips chamber. These drills could deliver up to 4 m long ice cores after some design improvements...

  3. Prevention from Dike Failure by Emergency Flood Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppe Baerbel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of failure of a flood protection system must always be taken into account. During flooding events, appropriate interim protection systems must be at hand and ready to be deployed to support weak and overloaded structures. Usually sandbags, eventually in combination with fascines and geotextiles, are in use to defend endangered dike stretches in case of emergency. Sandbags offer highly flexible employment, however the enormous personal, material and time consuming efforts required for installation and dismantling are problematic. Therefore, more effective constructions for emergency flood control are needed. Within the research projects HWS-Mobile, DeichSCHUTZ, and DeichKADE different constructions based on the use of flexible membranes have been developed or are in development to ensure easy and effective countermeasures to secure dike stretches, which are in risk of breakage. Successful applications of the developed systems have taken place during the catastrophic flood event at the river Elbe in Northern Germany in 2013.

  4. Development of Maintenance Technology of Sea Dike Using Drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Donguk; Choi, Wonwoo; Lee, Joongu

    2017-04-01

    Due to the recent drone technology and mapmaking technology, orthomorphic image and digital surface model(DSM) are able to provide the possibility of their utilization about maintenance works of sea dike. Actually, because covering stones of sea dike have damaged from wave, periodic inspection is need manually. If drone is used to examine about it, management works would be effective. Therefore, we suggest new technology using drone image that damaged covering stone can be figured out. The point, elevation, area, volume, etc. of damaged stone can be measured and we plan to repair damaged stone easily. It is possible to monitor the area of the frequent happening of relaxation and dislocation of covering stones by the time series image shooting drone work.

  5. Joint Rescue Drill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ships gather for a joint rescue drill at the Waigaoqiao Dock in Shanghai on August 24.A large-scale rescue drill, combining maritime and air forces,was held as part of the ongoing World Maritime Rescue Conference 2011 in the city.During the drill,

  6. IMPACTS OF DIMENSION AND SLOPE OF SUBMERGED SPUR DIKES ON LOCAL SCOUR PROCESSES - AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxian FANG; Jueyi SUI; Ronald W.THRING; Hongya ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    In this experimental study, the impacts of the slope of the upstream face of submerged spur dikes on scour patterns in the vicinity of the submerged spur dike have been investigated. Associated hydraulic parameters for scour initiation have been studied. The dependence of the criteria for scour initiation and scour patterns on the dike dimensions such as the dike length and height has been assessed. It is found that the maximum depth of a scour hole is localized upstream of the spur dike end. The location of the maximum scouring depth, the end of the spur dike, and the spot with the maximum deposition are nearly aligned and form a line approximately parallel to the flume wall.Results show that the proper selection of a sloped upstream face of the spur dike can significantly reduce the maximum scour depth and scour volume in the vicinity of the submerged spur dike.Equations have been established to describe the dependence of the criteria for scour initiation and the maximum depth of the scour hole on the Froude number of the flow, the blockage of the cross section by the spur dikes, the slope of upstream face of the spur dike, and the grain size of the bed material.

  7. Buffered and unbuffered dike emplacement on Earth and Venus - Implications for magma reservoir size, depth, and rate of magma replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, E. A.; Head, J. W., III

    1993-01-01

    Models of the emplacement of lateral dikes from magma chambers under constant (buffered) driving pressure conditions and declining (unbuffered) driving pressure conditions indicate that the two pressure scenarios lead to distinctly different styles of dike emplacement. In the unbuffered case, the lengths and widths of laterally emplaced dikes will be severely limited and the dike lengths will be highly dependent on chamber size; this dependence suggests that average dike length can be used to infer the dimensions of the source magma reservoir. On Earth, the characteristics of many mafic-dike swarms suggest that they were emplaced in buffered conditions (e.g., the Mackenzie dike swarm in Canada and some dikes within the Scottish Tertiary). On Venus, the distinctive radial fractures and graben surrounding circular to oval features and edifices on many size scales and extending for hundreds to over a thousand km are candidates for dike emplacement in buffered conditions.

  8. Analysis of Overtopping Flow on Sea Dikes in Oblique and Short-Crested Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.;

    2013-01-01

    -empirical formulae for the estimation of flow depths and flow velocities across a dike. The results have been coupled to the actual erosion of the landward dike slope determined by full-scale 2D tests using the so-called “Overtopping Simulator”. This paper describes the results from 96 small-scale tests carried out...... directions on the dike, and the statistical distribution of individual flow parameters are needed to obtain more realistic estimates of dike erosion caused by wave overtopping....

  9. Dikes, joints, and faults in the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilshire, H.G.; Kirby, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of macroscopic fractures are recognized in upper-mantle and lower-crustal xenoliths in volcanic rocks from around the world: 1. (1) joints that are tensile fractures not occupied by crystallized magma products 2. (2) dikes that are tensile fractures occupied by mafic magmas crystallized to pyroxenites, gabbros or hydrous-mineral-rich rocks, 3. (3) faults that are unfilled shear fractures with surface markings indicative of shear displacement. In addition to intra-xenolith fractures, xenoliths commonly have polygonal or faceted shapes that represent fractures exploited during incorporation of the xenoliths into the host magma that brought them to the surface. The various types of fractures are considered to have formed in response to the pressures associated with magmatic fluids and to the ambient tectonic stress field. The presence of fracture sets and crosscutting relations indicate that both magma-filled and unfilled fractures can be contemporaneous and that the local stress field can change with time, leading to repeated episodes of fracture. These observations give insight into the nature of deep fracture processes and the importance of fluid-peridotite interactions in the mantle. We suggest that unfilled fractures were opened by volatile fluids exsolved from ascending magmas to the tops of growing dikes. These volatile fluids are important because they are of low viscosity and can rapidly transmit fluid pressure to dike and fault tips and because they lower the energy and tectonic stresses required to extend macroscopic cracks and to allow sliding on pre-existing fractures. Mantle seismicity at depths of 20-65 km beneath active volcanic centers in Hawaii corresponds to the depth interval where CO2-rich fluids are expected to be liberated from ascending basaltic magmas, suggesting that such fluids play an important role in facilitating earthquake instabilities in the presence of tectonic stresses. Other phenomena related to the fractures

  10. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E.; Gervais, I. [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y.; Pangarkar, S.; Stibbs, B. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P. [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E. [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T. [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H. [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  11. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  12. Establishing vegetated foreshores to increase dike safety along lake shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penning Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetated foreshores in front of existing dikes can contribute to the overall reduction of wave loads on the dike. In order to test this concept in large shallow lakes a field pilot was constructed along the Houtribdijk in Lake Markermeer (the Netherlands in 2014 to gain experience with construction, stability, maintenance and governance aspects. A large scale monitoring programme was set up to follow the hydrodynamic forcing, morphological changes and vegetation development on the pilot. The pilot is located on an exposed south-westerly direction, and experiences substantial wave impact. As a result the desired vegetation on the land-water interface has not been able to establish, but a rather dynamic sandy beach is currently the main feature along the waterline of the site. Higher up the slope planted reeds, and a mixture of willows has well established itself in the first growing season. The exposed position of the location makes that hardly any natural pioneer vegetation has settled, only in small sheltered areas some annuals were able to germinate and maintain themselves.

  13. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  14. Age dependent variation of magnetic fabric on dike swarms from Maio Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Mário; Madeira, José; Mata, João.; Represas, Patrícia

    2010-05-01

    Maio is one of the oldest and most eroded islands of Cape Verde Archipelago. It comprises three major geological units: (1) an old raised sea-floor sequence of MORB covered by Jurassic(?)-Cretaceous deep marine sediments; (2) an intrusive 'Central Igneous Complex' (CIC), forming a dome-like structure in the older rocks; and (3) a sequence of initially submarine, then subaerial, extrusive volcanic formations and sediments. Based on the trend distribution of 290 dikes, we performed magnetic sampling on 26 basic and one carbonatite dikes. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured to infer geometries of magmatic flow. Dikes were sampled in both chilled margins were larger shear acting on particles embedded in the magmatic flow is expected. Sampling involved 11 dikes (N=195) intruding MORB pillows from the Upper Jurassic 'Batalha Formation' (Bt fm); 6 dikes (N=95) intruding the Lower Cretaceous 'Carquejo Formation' (Cq fm), and 10 dikes (N=129) intruding the submarine sequence of the Neogene 'Casas Velhas Formation' (CV fm). The studied hypabissal rocks are usually porphyritic, with phenocrysts of clinopyroxene and/or olivine set on an aphanitic groundmass. Dikes intruding CV fm trend N-S to NE-SW and plunge to SW. In Bt fm, dikes make ≈ 99% of the outcrops, span all directions and include frequent low dip sills. Dikes intruding Cq fm are shallow (mostly parallel to the limestone strata), dip 30o- 40o to the E, and trend N-S to NE-SW. Bulk susceptibility of the 26 basic dikes presents an average value of k = 47 ± 26 (×10-3) SI. The carbonatite dike intruding Bt fm has lower susceptibility: k = 4.6 ± 1.2 (×10-3) SI. More than 80% of the dikes show normal and triaxial magnetic fabric. Anisotropy is usually low, with P' < 1.08, but in CV fm dikes the anisotropy is higher and grows (up to P' ≈ 1.5) towards the centre of the volcano. Dominant magnetic fabric in CV fm is planar but in dikes from Cq fm and Bt fm it varies between oblate and prolate

  15. The Causes and Mechanisms of Historical Dike Failures in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baars, S.; Van Kempen, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    In a historical perspective, flood protection in the past was not given high priority - plague and periods of famine and war took precedence. Poverty and a lack of knowledge made it difficult to create safer dikes. Dike engineering did improve in Napoleonic era due to the French Central Government,

  16. Root characteristics of some grass species on the sea dikes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2011, some grass-covered sea dikes were tested with the Wave Overtopping Simulator in the north of Viet Nam. Slope specifications and grass species of sea and estuary dikes were quantitatively observed and investigated. This report is concerned with expressing main characteristics

  17. Root characteristics of some grass species on the sea dikes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2011, some grass-covered sea dikes were tested with the Wave Overtopping Simulator in the north of Viet Nam. Slope specifications and grass species of sea and estuary dikes were quantitatively observed and investigated. This report is concerned with expressing main characteristics o

  18. Bioengineering in front of a river dike: Wave attenuation by vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude, de R.; Augustijn, D.C.M.; Wijnberg, K.M.; Dekker, F.; Vries, de M.B.; Suzuki, T.; Christodoulou, George C.; Stamou, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    Bioengineering is a novel way to reduce the application or dimensions of hard constructions. In the Dutch Noordwaard polder a vegetation field is proposed in front of a planned dike to damp waves such that the desired dike height can be reduced. To investigate the impact of vegetation on waves, the

  19. Application of sediment transport formulae to sand-dike breach erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Technical Advisory Committee on Water Defences in the Netherlands has decided to develop a mathematical model for breach erosion in dunes and dikes, with which it will be possible to predict the growth of the breach and the discharge rate through the breach in case of a dike-burst. An essential

  20. Optimal dike investments under uncertainty and learning about increasing water levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.; Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Water level extremes for seas and rivers are crucial to determine optimal dike heights. Future development in extremes under climate change is, however, uncertain. In this paper, we explore impacts of uncertainty and learning about increasing water levels on dike investment. We extend previous work

  1. The Causes and Mechanisms of Historical Dike Failures in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baars, S.; Van Kempen, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    In a historical perspective, flood protection in the past was not given high priority - plague and periods of famine and war took precedence. Poverty and a lack of knowledge made it difficult to create safer dikes. Dike engineering did improve in Napoleonic era due to the French Central Government,

  2. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash M Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  3. Distributed downhole drilling network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  4. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayaka S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  5. Advanced drilling systems study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  6. Modeling Earthen Dike Stability: Sensitivity Analysis and Automatic Calibration of Diffusivities Based on Live Sensor Data

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikova, N B; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes concept and implementation details of integrating a finite element module for dike stability analysis Virtual Dike into an early warning system for flood protection. The module operates in real-time mode and includes fluid and structural sub-models for simulation of porous flow through the dike and for dike stability analysis. Real-time measurements obtained from pore pressure sensors are fed into the simulation module, to be compared with simulated pore pressure dynamics. Implementation of the module has been performed for a real-world test case - an earthen levee protecting a sea-port in Groningen, the Netherlands. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of diffusivities have been performed for tidal fluctuations. An algorithm for automatic diffusivities calibration for a heterogeneous dike is proposed and studied. Analytical solutions describing tidal propagation in one-dimensional saturated aquifer are employed in the algorithm to generate initial estimates of diffusivities.

  7. Drilling and well technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milheim, K. [Mining University Leoben Institute for Drilling Technology, (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Over a billion dollars a year is lost by exploration and production companies drilling wells because of the lack of learn curve management (LMC) practices. This paper presents the importance of the LMC concept, what it is, why LMC has not yet been recognized as a major initiative for improving drilling cost performance. The paper discusses the different types of planning, problems with implementation of plans, the use and misuse of drilling results and data bases, and the lack of post analysis practices. The major point of the paper is to show the massive savings that can be achieved by valuing LMC, learning LMC and successfully implementing LMC. . 2 refs., 5 figs.

  8. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54912). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2011... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22,...

  9. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  10. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS AND NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF REDUCING SECONDARY FLOWS AROUND A SPUR DIKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelin TANG; Xiang DING; Zhicong CHEN; Wenlong WANG

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the flow patterns near Jiuling Hill in the approach navigation channel of the Three Gorges Project and to improve the navigation channel, a physical flume model was constructed with a non-submerged spur dike placed as a barrier. An approach of sucking a small amount of water from the upper flume at the convex side of the spur dike and spouting it out again into the lower flume at the downstream side of the spur dike, so-called "sucking-spouting" water method, was proposed to improve navigational conditions. The flows around the spur dike for this method are experimentally investigated, and are compared to those in the no "sucking-spouting"water case. Based on the rigid lid assumption and a Dynamic Smagorinsky Model, all the vortex flows around the spur dike are numerically simulated, and the data are analyzed systematically. By applying "sucking-spouting" method, the recirculation zone caused by the spur dike reduced greatly and the transverse velocity decreased. At the same time, the flow behind the spur dike is much more complex, and materials and momentum substantially exchange between the dead zone and the main flow because of spouting action. The finite volume method is used to discretize the governing equations together with a staggered grid system, where the second-order difference is applied for the diffusion terms and the source terms while the upwind difference QUICK is used for the convection terms. The computational results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Resource Priorities in Continental Drilling J. J. Hemley 12 Aspects of Continental Crustal Structure and Growth Scott Smithson 13 Deep-Drilling Targets...Time of Workshop Allen F. Agnew Library of Congress Clarence R. Allen California Institute of Technology Orson L. Anderson University of California at...Skinner Yale University Norman H. Sleep Northwestern University Laurence L. Sloss Northwestern University Scott B. Smithson University of Wyoming

  13. Structural control on basaltic dike and sill emplacement, Paiute Ridge mafic intrusion complex, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter Krogh, K.E.; Valentine, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Late Miocene basaltic sills and dikes in the Paiute Ridge area of southern nevada show evidence that their emplacement was structurally controlled. Basaltic dikes in this area formed by dilating pre-existing vertical to steeply E-dipping normal faults. Magma propagation along these faults must have required less energy than the creation of a self-propagated fracture at dike tips and the magma pressure must have been greater than the compressive stress perpendicular to the fault surface. N- to NE-trending en echelon dikes formed locally and are not obviously attached to the three main dikes in the area. The en echelon segments are probably pieces of deeper dikes, which are segmented perhaps as a result of a documented rotation of the regional stresses. Alternatively, changes in orientation of principal stresses in the vicinity of each en echelon dike could have resulted from local loads associated with paleotopographic highs or nearby structures. Sills locally branched off some dikes within 300 m of the paleosurface. These subhorizontal bodies occur consistently in the hanging wall block of the dike-injected faults, and intrude Tertiary tuffs near the Paleozoic-Tertiary contact. The authors suggest that the change in stresses near the earth`s surface, the material strength of the tuff and paleozoic rocks, and the Paleozoic bedding dip direction probably controlled the location of sill formation and direction of sill propagation. The two largest sills deflected the overlying tuffs to form lopoliths, indicating that the magma pressure exceeded vertical stresses at that location and that the shallow level and large size of the sills allowed interaction with the free (earth`s) surface. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Cooling rates and crystallization dynamics of shallow level pegmatite-aplite dikes, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Karen L.; Simmons, William B.; Falster, Alexander U.; Foord, Eugene E.

    1999-01-01

    Pegmatites of the Pala and Mesa Grande Pegmatite Districts, San Diego County, California are typically thin, sheet-like composite pegmatite-aplite dikes. Aplitic portions of many dikes display pronounced mineralogical layering referred to as "line rock," characterized by fine-grained, garnet-rich bands alternating with albite- and quartz-rich bands. Thermal modeling was performed for four dikes in San Diego County including the 1 m thick Himalaya dike, the 2 m thick Mission dike, the 8 m thick George Ashley dike, and the 25 m thick Stewart dike. Calculations were based on conductive cooling equations accounting for latent heat of crystallization, a melt emplacement temperature of 650 °C into 150 °C fractured, gabbroic country rock at a depth of 5 km, and an estimated 3 wt% initial H2O content in the melt. Cooling to -5 cm/s. Crystal size distribution (CSD) studies of garnet from layered aplites suggest growth rates of about 10-6 cm/s. These results indicate that the dikes cooled and crystallized rapidly, with variable nucleation rates but high overall crystal-growth rates. Initial high nucleation rates coincident with emplacement and strong undercooling can account for the millimeter-size aplite grains. Lower nucleation rates coupled with high growth rates can explain the decimeter-size minerals in the hanging walls, cores, and miarolitic cavities of the pegmatites. The presence of tourmaline and/or lepidolite throughout these dikes suggests that although the melts were initially H2O-undersaturated, high melt concentrations of incompatible (or fluxing) components such as B, F, and Li (±H2O), aided in the development of large pegmatitic crystals that grew rapidly in the short times suggested by the conductive cooling models.

  15. DIDRO Project – New means for surveying dikes and similar flood defense structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 36-month-long DIDRO project seeks to bring existing developments on remote sensing by drone on the scope of the project: dikes surveys as routine inspection or in relation to a flood crisis. Drone offers a new complementary means of surveying which can map broad areas efficiently while being more flexible and easier to operate than other airborne means. The system shall consist in a drone vector, in dedicated sensors (such as LiDAR, visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared optics, in data processing models with analytics specific to dikes surveying and finally in a GIS capitalizing all appropriate data to dikes managers.

  16. Structural variation of the feeder dikes of explosive eruptions in Miyakejima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geshi, Nobuo

    2013-04-01

    Explosive eruptions of basaltic volcanoes exhibit wide variation about its explosivity, from stable lava effusion, mild strombolian eruption, to plinian eruption. Complex behavior of magma within the conduit may control the style of eruption activities, and the structure of the conduit controls the behavior of the ascending magma through the conduit. Existence of external water (ground water) may also affect the explosivity of the eruption. In the caldera wall of Miyakejima, Japan, we can observe various type of the cross section of feeder dikes with its surface products. The new caldera wall exhibits the cross section of a basaltic stratovolcano with numerous feeder and non-feeder dikes. Some feeder dikes connect directly to the lava flow. Some feeder dikes connect to the base of scoria cone with 100- 200 meters across and several tens meters high. Size and internal structure of the scoria cone indicates the mild strombolian activity. Uppermost ten meters of these feeder dikes shows upward-flaring (widen the dike thickness to the surface), which infers the magmatic erosion of the dike wall by explosive activities. More explosive activities formed some diatremes. The depth of these diatreme reaches 100 meters from the original ground surface. Typically, these diatremes connect to very-flat scoria cone and wide-spread thick scoria-fall deposit, which indicates the explosive magmatic activities. The sizes of these flat scoria cones are comparable to that of the scoria cones which was built by sub-plinian eruption (e.g., Izu-Oshima 1986). Upward flaring structure of the diatreme indicates the effective mechanical erosion of the dike wall by the explosive activities. The caldera wall also exhibits some diatremes which formed by the phreatomagmatic eruptions (Suoana diatreme). The wider feeder dikes for lager diatreme suggests the higher magmatic overpressure for the explosive activities in comparison to the less-explosive feeder dikes. Comparison of the structures of

  17. Paramagnetism shielding in drilling fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    In drilling operations, drilling fluid containing magnetic materials is used when drilling a well. The materials can significantly shield the Earth’s magnetic field as measured by magnetic sensors inside the drilling strings. The magnetic property of the drilling fluid is one of the substantial error sources for the determination of magnetic azimuth for wellbores. Both the weight material, cuttings, clay and other formation material plus metal filings from the tubular wear m...

  18. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Artem Vladimirovich; Ryabchikov, Sergey Yakovlevich; Isaev, Evgeniy Dmitrievich; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling t...

  19. Application on drilling parameter monitor in drilling engineering monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu DIAO; Zhenbao LING; Wenjing LIANG

    2008-01-01

    The drilling parameter monitor is an important tool in drilling engineering applied to monitoring drilling process, carrying out scientific analysis and decision-making. Based on discussing the present development situation of the domestic and foreign drilling machine parameter monitors, the metering scheme for vehicle-loaded drilling parameter monitor was designed. By using detection system for MSP430 single-chip microcomputer (SCM) in combination with peripheral circuit such as sensors, the drilling-rig control system was obtained to detect, and for every parameter in real-time display in order to keep operating the drilling rig status. The experiment shows that the drilling parameter monitor reaches design requirements and can be applied to drilling engineering monitoring, which has characters such as simple structure, high credibility and low cost.

  20. Structural, Petrographic and Geochemical Characteristics of Mafic Dikes Intrusive in Metasedimentary Rocks of the Crixás Greenstone Belt, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Jost

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mafic dikes and stocks are a common feature in the Archean terrain of Goiás, Central Brazil, where they occur asswarms of 2.3 - 2.5 Ga within the granite-gneiss complexes (2.8 e 2.7 Ga, as well as intrusions related to the komatiite andbasalt flows of the greenstone belts lower stratigraphic units, but were unknown within the upper metasedimentary units.Detailed study of core sections from several drill-sites in the area of the Crixás greenstone belt gold deposits showed thatdike intrusion occurred after the main Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of the metasedimentary units,and literature data indicate that the magmatic zircons from the dikes yielded an age of 2,170 ± 17 Ma. Petrographic andgeochemical data show that they have the composition of epicratonic high-Ti diabases, which are similar to the largecontinental flood basalts of the Paraná Basin. The age of the intrusions may be correlated with the short time-interval of theRhyacian (2.20 to 2.17 Ga, during which successive localized episodes of mantle plume volcanism occurred on the Earth.

  1. MATLAB-based algorithm to estimate depths of isolated thin dike-like sources using higher-order horizontal derivatives of magnetic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-use open source computer algorithm (code) for estimating the depths of isolated single thin dike-like source bodies by using numerical second-, third-, and fourth-order horizontal derivatives computed from observed magnetic anomalies. The approach does not require a priori information and uses some filters of successive graticule spacings. The computed higher-order horizontal derivative datasets are used to solve nonlinear equations for depth determination. The solutions are independent from the magnetization and ambient field directions. The practical usability of the developed code, designed in MATLAB R2012b (MathWorks Inc.), was successfully examined using some synthetic simulations with and without noise. The algorithm was then used to estimate the depths of some ore bodies buried in different regions (USA, Sweden, and Canada). Real data tests clearly indicated that the obtained depths are in good agreement with those of previous studies and drilling information. Additionally, a state-of-the-art inversion scheme based on particle swarm optimization produced comparable results to those of the higher-order horizontal derivative analyses in both synthetic and real anomaly cases. Accordingly, the proposed code is verified to be useful in interpreting isolated single thin dike-like magnetized bodies and may be an alternative processing technique. The open source code can be easily modified and adapted to suit the benefits of other researchers.

  2. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Technology and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. G. Cai; X. N. Wang

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 What is Horizontal Directional Drilling? Horizontal Directional Drilling, accurately steered drilling, has become state -of- the -art drilling technique in the world. Specially- designed directionsteerable corebarrel and accurate direction measurement tool are available for the use together with wire line core drilling machine. That makes it feasible to extract cores and to measure the drill travel line &length while drilling in a curve.

  3. PROVISION OF DIKE SLOPE STABILITY FOR TERRITORY PROTECTION AGAINST GORYN RIVER FLOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Michnevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic conditions that cause the Goryn river floods have been described in the paper. The paper considers engineering solutions pertaining to prevention of catastrophic floodings by bifurcation of maximum river flow while constructing a watershed dike and creating a non-flood polder in the flood plain. The formulas have been developed for calculation of dike slope fixing by dumped riprap when the slopes are subjected to stream impact. The paper provides an analysis of existing dependences for calculation of riprap material size in order to protect slopes against waves. The possible ways for lower cost of fixation while using  waste tyres and also while constructing  small wave-suppressing dikes reinforced by dumped riprap and shrub vegetation along the main dike have been revealed in the paper.

  4. Large Eddy Simulations of Three-Dimensional Flows Around a Spur Dike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Large eddy simulations were used to model the three-dimensional flows around a non-submerged spur dike. Based on the rigid lid assumption, all these vortex flows around the spur dike, which probably affected the whole flow field, were numerically simulated and analyzed. The largest circulating flow region caused by the spur dike behind it was weak, which would naturally lead to sedimentation for silt-laden two-phase flows. Based on the Smagorinsky model, the finite volume method was used to discretize the Navier-Stokes equations, and the SIMPLEC algorithm was used to solve them. Meanwhile, these flows were investigated experimentally in a 0.5-m wide flume with a dike placed as a barrier. The computational results are in a fairly good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.

    2014-10-28

    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  6. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    L., Passarelli; E., Rivalta; A., Shuler

    2014-01-01

    As continental rifts evolve towards mid-ocean ridges, strain is accommodated by repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism. Discrete rifting episodes have been observed along two subaerial divergent plate boundaries, the Krafla segment of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone in Iceland and the Manda-Hararo segment of the Red Sea Rift in Ethiopia. In both cases, the initial and largest dike intrusion was followed by a series of smaller intrusions. By performing a statistical analysis of these rifting episodes, we demonstrate that dike intrusions obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, and the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law. Due to the effects of magma supply, the timing of secondary dike intrusions differs from that of the aftershocks. This work provides evidence of self-similarity in the rifting process. PMID:24469260

  7. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  8. Chinese Drilling Crews Active Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China Great Wall Drilling Company signed a US$5 million contract with Tunis Joint Venture Petroleum Company in late April for drilling five wells in the middle coastal area of Tunis. This is the first time Tunis has invited the tenders from foreign companies for a drilling project. The participants in the bidding include other 11 drilling companies from the United States, Australia, Croatia and other countries. The drilling operation is expected to start from June this year. Founded in 1995, Great Wall Drilling Company is a subsidiary of CNPC International Engineering Company. The drilling company is now operating more than 50 Chinesemade drilling rigs overseas and involved in the drilling projects in 15 countries and regions such as Sudan, Iran, Indonesia, Egypt, Canada, Kazakhstan,Venezuela and other countries. The Tunis project is the 15th one of the company.

  9. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications of Xiongshan diabasic dike swarm, northern Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任胜利; 李继亮; 周新华; 孙敏

    1997-01-01

    Sm/Nd isotopic age determination showed that Xiongshan dike swarm was at 585.7 Ma±30 Ma. The trace element geochemistry and Sr/Nd/Pb isotope geochemistry studies indicate that the dike swarm was products of back-arc basin spreading ridge and the magma originated from the depleted mantle region which was metasomatized by LTLE-rich liquids/melts derived from subduction slab.

  10. Geomorphic Expression of a Miocene Dike Complex, San Joaquin Hills, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, R. J.; Ta, L.; Williams, D.; Werner, A.; Bernardino, M.; Peterson, R.; McCormick, C.; Escobedo, D.; Nagy, B.

    2009-12-01

    Miocene transtension during development of the North American-Pacific plate boundary in southern California coincided with extensive magmatism and emplacement of a 15-16 Ma basaltic to andesitic dike and sill complex in the San Joaquin Hills, Orange County. Intrusions cut through and altered a thick Mesozoic to Cenozoic marine and nonmarine siliciclastic sedimentary succession. Hydrothermally altered sandstone within 20 meters of the contact are cemented with secondary microcrystalline quartz and illite, and locally with calcite. Cementation plus removal of iron oxides from redbeds rendered the altered sandstones more resistant to erosion than the highly weathered dikes or unaltered sedimentary strata. These Miocene dikes exert a profound influence on modern topography due to differential susceptibilities of the dikes and altered wall rock to chemical and physical weathering. At vegetated inland sites, where chemical weathering is important, plagioclase feldspar in dolerite intrusions alter to smectitic clays, and the dikes weather to recessive, brush-covered soils on valleys and slopes. In contrast, altered and hardened sedimentary wall rocks stand up in resistant relief. Many of the wall rocks form the high ridges of the uplifted and dissected San Joaquin Hills and control the geometry of drainages by forming resistant ledges that set local base level and by offsetting stream drainages. Differential erosion of the soft weathered mafic dikes and hard, resistant wall rocks produced a sharp contrast that forms most of the steepest slopes in the study area. Coastal exposures of andesitic dikes, where physical weathering dominates, display a contrary behavior. Igneous dikes are more resistant to wave erosion and form prominent headlands jutting out into the ocean, whereas sedimentary wall rocks are more easily eroded back to form flanking cliffs or sand-covered beaches.

  11. Computer monitors drilling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    Computer systems that can monitor over 40 drilling variables, display them graphically, record and transmit the information have been developed separately by two French companies. The systems, Vigigraphic and Visufora, involve the linking of a master computer with various surface and downhole sensors to measure the data on a real-time (as experienced) basis and compute the information. Vigigraphic is able to produce graphic displays grouped on four screens - drilling, tripping, geological and mud data. It computes at least 200 variables from the sensor readings, and it can store over 100 variables. Visufora allows the operator to group the drilling variables as desired. It can monitor and analyze surface and downhole parameters. The system can be linked with MWD tools. Twenty channels of input are assigned to surface values and the remaining 20 channels can be used to monitor downhole instrumentation.

  12. Effects of axially variable diking rates on faulting at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaochuan; Choi, Eunseo

    2017-01-01

    Magma supply for dike injection can be highly variable within a segment of a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge but the tectonic impact of this variability is not fully understood. Here, we use three-dimensional numerical models to quantify the effects of variable diking rates on the faulting mode at a 20 km-long slow spreading ridge segment. In addition to end-member faulting modes in which long-lived detachment faults or short-lived normal faults form along the whole segment, we newly identify a transitional mode in which a detachment and a short-lived normal fault form simultaneously but in respective domains separated by a transfer fault. Different faulting modes can be better correlated with the average dike intrusion rate, rather than the highest or lowest rate along the segment. Along-axis stress coupling tends to homogenize fault offset along the segment, inhibiting the domination of a particular faulting mode associated with an extreme local diking rate. This homogenizing effect explains why detachment faults can sometimes form even in the regions previously considered as unfavorable. Our results further suggest that a long (>15 km) and continuous detachment, partially overlain by younger faults, can create an oceanic core complex when faults weaken fast and diking rate is low. When faults weaken slow and diking rate is moderate, however, faulting occurs in the transitional mode, producing a detachment over only a part of the segment length.

  13. The stress state near Spanish Peaks, colorado determined from a dike pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, O.H.; Pollard, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    The radial pattern of syenite and syenodiorite dikes of the Spanish Peaks region is analysed using theories of elasticity and dike emplacement. The three basic components of Ode??'s model for the dike pattern (a pressurized, circular hole; a rigid, planar boundary; and uniform regional stresses) are adopted, but modified to free the regional stresses from the constraint of being orthogonal to the rigid boundary. Dike areal density, the White Peaks intrusion, the strike of the upturned Mesozoic strata, and the contact between these strata and the intensely folded and faulted Paleozoic rocks are used to brient the rigid boundary along a north-south line. The line of dike terminations locates the rigid boundary about 8 km west of West Peak. The location of a circular plug, Goemmer Butte, is chosen as a point of isotropic stress. A map correlating the location of isotropic stress points with regional stress parameters is derived from the theory and used to determine a regional stress orientation (N82E) and a normalized stress magnitude. The stress trajectory map constructed using these parameters mimics the dike pattern exceptionally well. The model indicates that the regional principal stress difference was less than 0.05 times the driving pressure in the West Peak intrusion. The regional stress difference probably did not exced 5 MN/m2. ?? 1977 Birkha??user Verlag.

  14. Probabilistic Assessment of Wave Overtopping of Nampo Dike in the West Coast of Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIE Lu-wen; CHOI Byung-ho; XIE Shi-leng

    2008-01-01

    The Nampo dike, which is located at the west coast of Korea, was destroyed by wave overtopping during the storms on 30 August and 17 September in 1989. In this paper, is performed the probabilistic assessment of wave overtopping of Nampo dike by use of Owen model, Van der Meer & Janssen model and Hedges & Reis model for wave overtopping of seawall. Based on the available tidal and wave data for storm surges in 1989, the risk assessment of wave overtopping of the Nampo dike has been carried out by both Level II and Level III reliability methods. The calculated results show the general agreement of failure probability between the two methods. By utilizing the rehabilitated cross section of Nampo dike, the failure probability of wave overtopping for the Nampo dike after rehabilitation will be rapidly reduced to that of initial design at crest level of 9.0 m with the improved slope from 1:2 to 1:4 at seaside. Since the sea level may only rise 1.0 m in the next few decades, the failure probability of Nampo dike will be still in the safe range.

  15. Study on Spacing Threshold of Nonsubmerged Spur Dikes with Alternate Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the spacing threshold of nonsubmerged spur dikes with alternate layout to classify the impact scale of spur dikes. A mathematical model was built based on standard k-ε model, finite volume method (FVM, and rigid lid assumption and was verified by experimental data. According to dimensional analysis, three indices, that is, Fr (Froude number, B/b (channel width to dike length, and B/h (channel width to water depth, were identified as the influencing factors on the spacing threshold, based on which fifteen sets of conditions were simulated. The calculation results indicate that B/h is the most influencing parameter on Sc/b (spacing threshold to dike length, followed by B/b and Fr. A dimensionless empirical formula of spacing threshold is fitted by multivariate regression. The results of four sets of additional conditions illustrate that the generalization of empirical formula is satisfactory and the precision of interpolation is higher than that of extrapolation. Furthermore, the spacing threshold of alternate spur dikes is generally smaller than ipsilateral spur dikes.

  16. The Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  17. Drilling comparison in "warm ice" and drill design comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, L.; Motoyama, H.; Wilhelms, F.

    2007-01-01

    at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few......For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice-water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been...... achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of 'warm ice' under high pressure. After excellent progress...

  18. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  19. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  20. Drill on Android

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    HES-SO DRILLER est une application de drill disponible sur Cyberlearn qui permet aux utilisateurs d’effectuer des quizz relatifs à la programmation. Le principe étant que les professeurs créent leurs quizz et les étudiants puissent y jouer. Les scores obtenus sont comptabilisés et comparés sur Facebook. Ce projet a pour but d’analyser cette application et de l’adapter afin de l’utiliser sur un client mobile Android sous le nom de Drill on Android.

  1. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma enhancing transient plate separations. However, the role of diking on a longer term (> 102 years) and its influence on the structure and the evolution of a divergent plate boundary is still poorly investigated. Here we use field surveys along the oceanic Icelandic and continental Ethiopian plate boundaries, along five eruptive fissures and four rift segments. Field observations have also been integrated with analogue and numerical models of dike emplacement to better understand the effect of dike emplacement at depth and at the surface. Our results show that the dike-fed eruptive fissures are systematically associated with graben structures formed by inward dipping normal faults having throws up to 10 m and commonly propagating downward. Moreover, rift segments (i.e. mature rift zones), despite any asymmetry and repetition, are characterized by the same features as the eruptive fissures, the only difference lying in the larger size (higher fault throws, up to 40 m, and wider deformation zones). Analogue and numerical models of dike intrusion confirm that all the structural features observed along the rift segments may be dike-induced; these features include downward propagating normal faults bordering graben structures, contraction at the base of the hanging walls of the faults and upward propagating faults. Simple calculations based on the deeper structure of the eroded rift segments in eastern and western Iceland also suggest that all the fault slip in the active rift segments may result from diking. These results suggest that the overall deformation pattern of eruptive fissures and rift segments may be explained only by dike emplacement. In a magmatic rift, the regional tectonic stress may rarely be high enough to be

  2. Deep Drilling Technology of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Rongfu

    1995-01-01

    @@ Since the drilling of well Songji-6 by the drilling crew No. 32139 in Daqing in 1963,there havebeen some 1600 over 4 000 m deep wells completed till 1993, among which two are above 7 000 m in depth.

  3. Intelligent Detection of Drill Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. I.; Chen, W. Y.; Anatharaman, K. S.

    1998-11-01

    Backpropagation neural networks (BPNs) were used for on-line detection of drill wear. The neural network consisted of three layers: input, hidden, and output. The input vector comprised drill size, feed rate, spindle speed, and eight features obtained by processing the thrust and torque signals. The output was the drill wear state which either usable or failure. Drilling experiments with various drill sizes, feed rates and spindle speeds were carried out. The learning process was performed effectively by utilising backpropagation with smoothing and an activation function slope. The on-line detection of drill wear states using BPNs achieved 100% reliability even when the drill size, feed rate and spindle speed were changed. In other words, the developed on-line drill wear detection systems have very high robustness and hence can be used in very complex production environments, such as flexible manufacturing systems.

  4. Smart sensor-based geospatial architecture for dike monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herle, S.; Becker, R.; Blankenbach, J.

    2016-04-01

    Artificial hydraulic structures like dams or dikes used for water level regulations or flood prevention are continuously under the influence of the weather and variable river regimes. Thus, ongoing monitoring and simulation is crucial in order to determine the inner condition. Potentially life-threatening situations, in extreme case a failure, must be counteracted by all available means. Nowadays flood warning systems rely exclusively on water level forecast without considering the state of the structure itself. Area-covering continuous knowledge of the inner state including time dependent changes increases the capability of recognizing and locating vulnerable spots for early treatment. In case of a predicted breach, advance warning time for alerting affected citizens can be extended. Our approach is composed of smart sensors integrated in a service-oriented geospatial architecture to monitor and simulate artificial hydraulic structures continuously. The sensors observe the inner state of the construction like the soil moisture or the stress and deformation over time but also various external influences like water levels or wind speed. They are interconnected in distributed network architecture by a so-called sensor bus system based on lightweight protocols like Message Queue Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN). These sensor data streams are transferred into an OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) data structure providing high-level geo web services to end users. Bundled with 3rd party geo web services (WMS etc.) powerful processing and simulation tools can be invoked using the Web Processing Service (WPS) standard. Results will be visualized in a geoportal allowing user access to all information.

  5. Steerable shaft drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigott, C.P. (Pigott Shaft Drilling Ltd., Preston (UK))

    1990-03-01

    The paper outlines the techniques of steerable shaft drilling and gives brief details of the various machines currently available to carry out this task. It summarizes the many potential benefits of using this method, which could lead to more mines having multiple shafts, each serving a specific purpose. 8 figs.

  6. Aspectos moleculares da anemia falciforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiza Neto Gentil Claudino de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo abordaram-se vários aspectos relacionados à natureza molecular da anemia falciforme, desordem hematológica de caráter hereditário que acomete expressivo número de indivíduos em várias regiões do mundo. As pesquisas realizadas em torno desta patologia da hemácia, ao longo de quase um século, a partir de 1910, cooperaram para a criação de um novo e importante segmento da ciência, denominado biologia molecular. A descoberta dos polimorfismos da mutação (GAT->GTG no gene que codifica a cadeia beta da hemoglobina, originando diferentes haplótipos da doença, permitiu um melhor e mais amplo conhecimento em torno da heterogeneidade clínica nos pacientes falcêmicos. Analisando a hemoglobina na sua estrutura normal e mutante, sua produção e evolução, pode-se ter um entendimento mais completo da fisiopatologia desta doença e da sua complexidade clínica.

  7. 70193-Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants in the Vadose Zonde at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J Murray; Anderson L. Ward; John L. Wilson

    2004-04-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that clastic dikes could form a preferential flow path through the vadose zone to the water table at the Hanford Site. Clastic dikes are subvertical structures that form within sedimentary sequences after deposition and cut across the original sedimentary layers. They are common throughout the Hanford Site, often occurring in organized polygonal networks. In the initial phase of the project, we analyzed the large-scale geometry of the clastic dikes and developed an algorithm for simulating their spatial distribution. This result will be useful in providing maps of the potential distribution of clastic dikes in areas where they are not exposed at the surface (e.g., where covered by windblown sand or construction of facilities like tank farms at the surface). In addition to the study of the large-scale distribution of the dikes, a major focus of the project was on field, laboratory, and modeling studies of the hydrogeological properties of the clastic dikes and the effect that they have on transport of water through the vadose zone. These studies were performed at two field locations at the Hanford Site. We performed an extensive series of field and laboratory measurements of a large number of samples from the clastic dikes, linked with infrared (IR) and visual imagery of the clastic dikes and surrounding matrix. We developed a series of correlations from the sample data that allowed us to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the dike and matrix at an extremely high resolution (approximately 1 mm). The resulting grids, each of which measured several meters on a side and included nearly four million grid nodes, were used to study the distribution of moisture between the clastic dike and surrounding matrix, as well as the relative velocities that moisture would have through the clastic dike and matrix for a number of different recharge scenarios. Results show the development of complex flow networks

  8. Petrologic Consequences of the Magmatic Death of a Continental Arc: Vanda Dike Swarm, Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpp, K. S.; Christensen, B. C.; Geist, D. J.; Garcia, M. O.

    2005-12-01

    The Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, are notable for the presence of the Vanda dikes, prominent NE-trending swarms that crosscut a sequence of granitoid plutons. These older plutons are regional in extent and comprise 3 Cambro-Ordovician groups, including: a) calc-alkaline granitoids formed at an active plate margin during the Ross Orogeny (c. 505 Ma); b) adakitic granitoids, likely marking the conclusion of Ross Orogeny subduction-related activity (c. 490 Ma); and c) younger monzonitic plutons, probably generated in an intraplate extensional setting (Cox et al., 2000). The Vanda dikes crosscut the younger plutons, possibly between c. 490 and 477 Ma (Allibone et al., 1993; Encarnacion and Grunow, 1996). Dikes from the east wall of Bull Pass and the south wall of the Wright Valley range from 0.5-25 m wide with nearly vertical dips, are usually several km long, and, in the center of the swarms, occur with a frequency of ~18 dikes/km. Most have chilled margins and are surrounded by brittle fractures, indicative of shallow intrusion into cold country rock. Dike compositions are bimodal, most defining a trend at the boundary between the high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series in SiO2-K2O space; some Wright Valley dikes have slightly lower K2O and are calc-alkaline. Granite porphyry dikes are relatively homogeneous (69-73 wt.% SiO2), whereas the mafic dikes exhibit a wider range of compositions (49-57 wt.% SiO2). The felsic and mafic dikes have distinct trace element abundances but similar normalized distribution patterns, including fractionated heavy rare earth elements and negative Eu and high field-strength element anomalies. Average Sr/Y ratios of both the felsic and mafic dikes cluster around 20, well below a typical adakite signature. Major and trace element variations suggest that the felsic dikes may be differentiates of the mafic magmas. Field relations further indicate that the felsic lavas may represent, on average, a later phase of dike

  9. 45130-Drilling Crew First Enter into the International Drilling Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zhixian; Drilling

    1995-01-01

    @@ 45130-Drilling Crew subordinate to the Fourth Drilling Company of Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau, won the two bids of risk exploration drilling projects, respectively for China Ltd. Co. of New Zealand Petroleum Exploration Company worked in the Dongtinghu Basin in 1992 and Amoco Orient Oil Co.worked in the Fuyang area, Anhui Province in November of 1993.According to the two contracts that have been signed, the two drilling wells were successfully completed,all drilling parameters are in accordance with the requirements of both contracts.

  10. Understanding the link between circumferential dikes and eruptive fissures around calderas based on numerical and analog models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, Fabio; Rivalta, Eleonora; Pinel, Virginie; Maccaferri, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Active calderas are seldom associated with circumferential eruptive fissures, but eroded magmatic complexes reveal widespread circumferential dikes. This suggests that, while the conditions to emplace circumferential dikes are easily met, mechanisms must prevent them from reaching the surface. We explain this discrepancy with experiments of air injection into gelatin shaped as a volcano with caldera. Analog dikes show variable deflection, depending on the competition between overpressure, Pe, and topographic unloading, Pl; when Pl/Pe = 4.8-5.3, the dikes propagate orthogonal to the least compressive stress. Due to the unloading, they become circumferential and stall below the caldera rim; buoyancy is fundamental for the further rise and circumferential fissure development. Numerical models quantitatively constrain the stress orientation within the gelatin, explaining the observed circumferential dikes. Our results explain how dikes propagate below the rim of felsic and mafic calderas, but only in the latter they are prone to feed circumferential fissures.

  11. Morphological Changes Along a Dike Landside Slope Sampled by 4d High Resolution Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Huertaa, Mónica; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Ponsioen, Luc; van Damme, Myron

    2016-06-01

    Emergence of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology provides new tools for geomorphologic studies improving spatial and temporal resolution of data sampling hydrogeological instability phenomena. Specifically, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) collects high resolution 3D point clouds allowing more accurate monitoring of erosion rates and processes, and thus, quantify the geomorphologic change on vertical landforms like dike landside slopes. Even so, TLS captures observations rapidly and automatically but unselectively. In this research, we demonstrate the potential of TLS for morphological change detection, profile creation and time series analysis in an emergency simulation for characterizing and monitoring slope movements in a dike. The experiment was performed near Schellebelle (Belgium) in November 2015, using a Leica Scan Station C10. Wave overtopping and overflow over a dike were simulated whereby the loading conditions were incrementally increased and 14 successful scans were performed. The aim of the present study is to analyse short-term morphological dynamic processes and the spatial distribution of erosion and deposition areas along a dike landside slope. As a result, we are able to quantify the eroded material coming from the impact on the terrain induced by wave overtopping which caused the dike failure in a few minutes in normal storm scenarios (Q = 25 l/s/m) as 1.24 m3. As this shows that the amount of erosion is measurable using close range techniques; the amount and rate of erosion could be monitored to predict dike collapse in emergency situation. The results confirm the feasibility of the proposed methodology, providing scalability to a comprehensive analysis over a large extension of a dike (tens of meters).

  12. Geochemistry of Deccan Traps Dikes: Insights Into the Evolution of a Flood Basalt Feeder System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J. J.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Hooper, P. R.; Sheth, H. C.; Ray, R.

    2007-12-01

    Three large dike swarms are exposed in the 500,000 km2 Deccan Traps of India: the dominantly N-S trending West Coast swarm, the ENE-WSW trending Narmada-Tapi swarm in the northern Deccan, and the Nasik-Pune swarm in the central western Deccan. Dikes of the Nasik-Pune swarm show no strongly preferred trend. This swarm is commonly postulated (e.g., Hooper, Nature, 349, 246, 1990) to be the principal locus of feeders for the lava pile, and the lack of a preferred trend taken as evidence that the flood volcanism was not accompanied by significant rifting-related lithospheric extension. Our combined major and trace element and Pb-Nd-Sr isotope data reveal that dikes with signatures matching those of the three major lava formations in the upper part of the lava pile (Poladpur, Ambenali, and Mahabaleshwar formations) are abundant in the coastal and Nasik-Pune swarms. As a group, these dikes have no preferred trend. Dikes with similarities to formations lower in the lava stratigraphy (i.e., the Igatpuri, Jawhar, and Bushe formations) are present but rare in these two swarms. However, many dikes with strong affinities to the lower and middle lava formations (e.g., Igatpuri, Jawhar, Bushe, and Thakurvadi formations) are present in the Narmada-Tapi swarm. These dikes have geometries indicative of N-S extension. We infer that rifting did not drive emplacement of the upper lava formations, but was occurring in the Narmada-Tapi region during the earlier phases of volcanism. Thus, N-S rifting cannot be ruled out as a trigger mechanism for the massive melting event. In contrast, our data provide no evidence that E-W extension along the coast triggered the event.

  13. FY 79 Lava Lake Drilling Program: results of drilling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, R.R.; Striker, R.P.; Curlee, R.M.

    1979-12-01

    A drilling program was conducted in December 1978 and January and February 1979 to continue the characterization of the solid and liquid rock components of the Kilauea Iki lava lake. Six holes were drilled from the surface and two previously drilled holes were reentered and deepened for the purposes of measuring downhole temperature profiles, recovering samples of solid, plastic, and molten rock, measuring crust permeability, and determining the performance of conventional and special drilling techniques. Conventional HQ-size (3.78 inches diameter) core drilling equipment using water for cooling and cuttings removal was used to successfully drill during initial entry into 1052/sup 0/C formations. Conventional drilling in reentering flow-back rock was less reliable. The specially designed water jet-augmented drag bit or water jet-augmented core bit was needed to drill reliably into the plastic flow-back rock and through liquid rock veins. This document contains the drill performance data which were recorded during drilling in the crust and the plastic and molten rock zones using both conventional and special drilling procedures and equipment.

  14. Method of drilling with magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A method of drilling a bore hole into a stratum, wherein via the drill hole drilling fluid is introduced and fed to the drill head. In order to avoid dilution or leak-off of the drilling fluid the same is in accordance with the invention a magnetorheological drilling fluid, and when an undesirable p

  15. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  16. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  17. Modelling erosion development during wave overtopping of an asphalt road covered dike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomers Anouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave overtopping initiates erosion of dikes, thereby compromising the safety against flooding. Structures integrated in a grass covered dike may decrease the resistance against erosion. In this study, CFD modelling is used to assess the effect of an asphalt road on top of the dike crest on the initiation of erosion due to wave overtopping. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved via a k-ε turbulence model. Two wave overtopping experiments are used for validating the hydrodynamics and the coupled hydrodynamic-erosion model. The amount of scour caused by overtopping waves is predicted by combining the shear stresses from the CFD model with an erosion model including grass erosion. Both the hydrodynamics and scour depths show good agreement with the measurements. Results show that a dike profile with a road on top of the crest is more vulnerable to erosion development than a bare grass covered dike profile. This is caused by a combination of the smoother asphalt section and the damaged berms at the transitions of the asphalt with the grass cover.

  18. Experiments and Numerical Simulations of Dike Erosion due to a Wave Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Evangelista

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dike erosion is a crucial issue in coastal and fluvial flood risk management. These defense structures appear vulnerable to extreme hydrological events, whose potential occurrence risk seems to be recently increased due to climate change. Their design and reinforcement is, however, a complex task, and although numerical models are very powerful nowadays, real processes cannot be accurately predicted; therefore, physical models constitute a useful tool to investigate different features under controlled conditions. This paper presents some laboratory experimental results of erosion of a sand dike produced by the impact of a dam break wave. Experiments have been conducted in the Water Engineering Laboratory at the University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy, in a rectangular channel: here, the sudden opening of a gate forming the reservoir generates the wave impacting the dike, made in turn of two different, almost uniform sands. The physical evidence proves that the erosion process is strongly unsteady and significantly different from a gradual overtopping and highlights the importance of apparent cohesion for the fine sand dike. The experimental results have also been compared against the ones obtained through the numerical integration of a two-phase model, which shows the reasonable predictive capability of the temporal free surface and dike profile evolution.

  19. Pattern and origin of spherulites in a rhyolite dike swarm,northeastern Cheongsong, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Koo Hwang; Chang Oh Choo

    2006-01-01

    Several NNW-trending Cretaceous rhyolite dikes in the northeastern Cheongsong area of southern Korea contain spherulitic fabrics and are locally quarried as an ornamental stone. The dikes, part of the Cheongsong dike swarm, contain a variety of spherulites which are characterized by radial array of acicular intergrowths from fibrous quartz and alkali feldspars. They are classified as some simple, multiple and compound spherulite types from flower-like patterns, and the types are different each other in spatial distribution within the dikes. The various radial fabrics suggest that they crystallized under the different cooling mechanisms and processes in rapidly cooling dikes. Spheroids lacking a flower-like pattern may be precipitated after compositional segregation in a supercooled magma. Simple acicular spherulites could be crystallized by devitrification of true glass which cooled rapidly below the transformation temperature, whereas layered multiple spherulites could result from a crystallization of supercooled magma at relatively rapid cooling rates above the transformation temperature. Acicular multiple spherulites could be produced from a combination of the above three mechanisms operating at slower cooling rates.

  20. Experiments and numerical simulations on transport of dissolved pollutants around spur dike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping CHEN; Jun-cheng JIANG

    2010-01-01

    The flow field around a spur dike has three-dimensional characteristics.In order to analyze the influence of the flow field on pollutant transport,based on a compressive volume of fluid(VOF)scheme,the three-dimensional transient compressive pollutant transport model(CPTM)and the cubic equation(CE)bounded differencing scheme were developed.For the calibration and validation of CPTM,laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume with a non-submerged spur dike.The spur dike was angled at 60°,90°,and 120° from the upstream direction.The simulation results agreed with the experimental results.The simulations and experiments showed that the distribution of pollutant concentration was determined by circumfluence and the main flow.Concentration decay in the circumfluence zone was slower than that in the main flow.Downstream of the spur dike,the concentration fluctuation became intensive with the increase of spur dike angle.

  1. The use of GPR attributes to map a weak zone in a river dike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcak, Henryk; Golebiowski, Tomislaw

    2014-02-01

    Dike leakage can be the result of a rupture and the formation of loose zones which are not able to stand the water pressure during flooding. Loose zones are significantly more saturated when it rains and floods than the undamaged portion of the dike. Due to the increased water in loose zones, their electrical properties are changed, particularly dielectric permittivity. As a result, these zones have a different ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave reflection coefficient and are a source of wave diffraction. The interpretation of GPR measurements carried out on a leaking dike during a flood event in Poland is presented in this paper. The GPR attributes, such as an instantaneous phase, envelope, instantaneous frequency averaged over time and traces, have been analysed in the paper the interpretative tools. Also, the averaged spectrum (spectrum calculated from averaged traces) and moving spectrum (averaged spectrum calculated in windows moving along the traces), as well as the phase spectrum, of recorded GPR data were analysed as indicators of the existence of the deterioration of parts of the dike. As shown in the paper, the use of GPR signals attributes and spectra in the interpretation of field measurements can increase the available information about the structure of the dike by highlighting some of the physical properties of its construction.

  2. Fissure eruptions at Mount Vesuvius (Italy): Insights on the shallow propagation of dikes at volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Valerio; Porreca, Massimiliano; Neri, Marco; Mattei, Massimo; Funiciello, Renato

    2006-08-01

    Fissure eruptions may provide important information on the shallow propagation of dikes at volcanoes. Somma-Vesuvius (Italy) consists of the active Vesuvius cone, bordered to the north by the remnants of the older Somma edifice. Historical chronicles are considered to define the development of the 37 fissure eruptions between A.D. 1631 and 1944. The 1631 fissure, which reopened the magmatic conduit, migrated upward and was the only one triggered by the subvertical propagation of a dike. The other 25 fissure eruptions migrated downward, when the conduit was open, through the lateral propagation of radial dikes. We suggest two scenarios for the development of the fissures. When the summit conduit is closed, the fissures are fed by vertically propagating dikes. When the summit conduit is open, the fissures are fed by laterally propagating dikes along the volcano slopes. Consistent behaviors are found at other composite volcanoes, suggesting a general application to our model, independent of the tectonic setting and composition of magma. At Vesuvius, the historical data set and our scenarios are used to predict the consequences of the emplacement of fissures after the opening of the conduit. The results suggest that, even though the probability of opening of vents within the inhabited south and west slopes is negligible, the possibility that these are reached by a lava flow remains significant.

  3. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  4. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  5. Offset drilling obligations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J. [Kanuka Thuringer, Regina, SK (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    A review of the `offset well` clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Telescopic drilling rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, I.L.; Berezov, S.I.; Gavrilov, G.A.; Goykhman, Ya.A.; Makushkin, D.O.; Rachev, M.P.; Voynich, L.K.

    1981-09-07

    The telescopic drilling rod includes an inner section of the rod, in whose center cable has been passed and is attached a bearing assembly connecting it to the winch, outer section of rod along which there is pipeline connecting the working cavity formed by the inner section of rod and the housing, installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, with cavity formed by framework of the guide swivel and end piece and connected to the hydraulic system of the machine by pipeline, as well as clamping elements. In order to drill wells to a depth greater than the length of the outer sectrion of the rod, the latter jointly with the inner section of rod is lowered into the extreme lower position until swivel rests on the feed mechanism. With further slipping of cable and the absence of pressure in the hydraulic system, clamping elements do not have an effect on the inner section of rod. It has the opportunity to freely move along the outer section of rod downwards to the face. When pressure is supplied on pipeline into cavity and further through pipeline into working cavity, the inner section of rod is clamped with feed of the outer section in the process of drilling, both sections move jointly. Because of the link between working cavity of sleeve installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, and the hydraulic system of the machine through the swivel cavity, it is possible to fix the drilling rod in any mutual axial position of the section.

  7. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  8. Risk Analysis and Assessment of Overtopping Concerning Sea Dikes in the Case of Storm Surge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉萍; 黄桂玲; 陈正寿; 梁丙臣; 刘桂林

    2014-01-01

    Risk-analysis-and-assessment-relating-coastal-structures-has-been-one-of-the-hot-topics-in-the-area-of-coastal-protection-recently.-In-this-paper,-from-three-aspects-of-joint-return-period-of-multiple-loads,-dike-failure-rate-and-dike-continuous-risk-prevention-respectively,-three-new-risk-analysis-methods-concerning-overtopping-of-sea-dikes-are-developed.-It-is-worth-noting-that-the-factors-of-storm-surge-which-leads-to-overtopping-are-also-considered-in-the-three-methods.-In-order-to-verify-and-estimate-the-effectiveness-and-reliability-of-the-newly-developed-methods,-quantified-mutual-information-is-adopted.-By-means-of-case-testing,-it-can-be-found-that-different-prior-variables-might-be-selected-dividedly,-according-to-the-requirement-of-special-engineering-application-or-the-dominance-of-loads.-Based-on-the-selection-of-prior-variables,-the-correlating-risk-analysis-method-can-be-successfully-applied-to-practical-engineering.

  9. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL MODELLING OF SUBMERGED DIKE ALIGNMENT IN CURVED ESTUARINE CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jin-hai; LIU Ying-qi; YAN Yi-xin; ZHU Yu-liang

    2005-01-01

    Submerged dikes were frequently built in curved estuarine channels to improve navigational conditions. A three-dimensional numerical model of tidal motions was developed to simulate flows through the submerged dike alignment in curved estuarine reach of complex bathymetry on the basis of satisfactory calibrations. Through the analysis of the morphological characteristics of the curved channel of the Huangpu River mouth in the Yangtze River Delta, a submerged dike alignment project was examined. The effect of the navigation channel improvement project and its influence on the flow regimes, the navigational conditions, the flood control and the operating conditions of harbours within the adjacent water area were evaluated, and the technical feasibility of the navigation channel improvement scheme was demonstrated.

  10. Impact of lime treated soils performance on design of earthfill dikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerincx Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays soil treatment with lime in civil engineering is widespread in many countries on all continents, within several construction fields. The interest of the hydraulic works community regarding this technique is currently growing. It has been indeed shown during the last decade that appropriate treatment technologies provide lime treated soils with high level properties such as excellent homogeneity, low permeability, internal and external erosion resistance and mechanical stability. Those have been shown in laboratory and for some properties with full scale experiments. The so conferred soil properties can lead to innovative earthfill dams and dikes designs by addressing some of the typical designer’s problems, such as stability, watertightness, internal erosion, surface protection and flood control. However, lime treated soil external erosion resistance is still to be quantified in the field for proper designing and dimensioning of lime treated soil external erosion protection or spillways. With this purpose, an experimental earthfill dike has been built along the river Vidourle (France in July 2015, in the frame of the French R&D program “DigueELITE”. This 50 m long and 3,5 m high dike is made of lime treated silt and is provided with sensors (succion, water content and temperature and piezometer in order to be monitored. It will also be tested against surface erosion. The final objective of this R&D program is to provide guidelines for designing innovative overflow resistant earthfill dikes. This article describes the performance reached by lime treated soils and associated design requirements and application; the experimental dike construction and lessons learned; the monitoring program; the dike design perspectives opened by soil treatment.

  11. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Dike Safety and Flood Risk in the Vidaa River System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Larsen, J.;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the flood risk and dike safety in the Vidaa River system, a cross-border catchment located in the southern part of Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany, is analysed. The river discharges to the Wadden Sea through a tidal sluice, and extreme water level conditions......, and increases in storm surge levels of up to 0.8 m in 2100 are estimated. The changes in extreme catchment run-off and sea water level have a significant effect on the flood risk in the river system. While most parts today have a low risk of dike overtopping with annual exceedance probabilities of 0.1 % or less...

  12. Variations of the state of stress and dike propagation at Fernandina volcano, Galápagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnardi, M.; Amelung, F.

    2012-04-01

    Fernandina volcano forms the youngest and westernmost island of the Galapagos Archipelago, a group of volcanic islands located near the equator and 1000 km west of Ecuador. Twenty-five eruptions in the last two hundred years make Fernandina the most active volcano in the archipelago and one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Most eruptions occur along fissures fed by dikes that propagate from the central magmatic system and from reservoirs centered under the summit caldera. Eruptive fissures in the subaerial portion of the volcano form two distinct sets: (1) arcuate or circumferential fissures characterize the upper portion of the volcano around the caldera while (2) radial fissures are present on the lower flanks. The subaerial portion of the volcano lacks of well-developed rift zones, while the submarine part of Fernandina shows three rifting zones that extend from the western side of the island. Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements of the surface displacement at Fernandina acquired from 1992 to 2010, and in particular the ones spanning the last three eruptions (1995 - radial, 2005 - circumferential and 2009 - radial) we infer the geometry of the shallow magmatic system and of the dikes that fed these eruptions. A shallow dipping radial dike on the southwestern flank has been inferred by Jónnson et al. (1999) for the 1995 eruption. This event shows a pattern of deformation strikingly similar to the one associated with the April 2009 eruption for which we infer a similar geometry. Co-eruptive deformation for the 2005 event has been modeled by Chadwick et al. (2010) using three planar dikes, connected along hinge lines, in the attempt to simulate a curve-concave shell, steeply dipping toward the caldera at the surface and more gently dipping at depth. Dike propagation in a volcano is not a random process but it is controlled by the orientation of the principal stresses, with the dike orthogonal to the least compressive stress

  13. Case studies of extended model-based flood forecasting: prediction of dike strength and flood impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuparu, Dana; Bachmann, Daniel; Bogaard, Tom; Twigt, Daniel; Verkade, Jan; de Bruijn, Karin; de Leeuw, Annemargreet

    2017-04-01

    Flood forecasts, warning and emergency response are important components in flood risk management. Most flood forecasting systems use models to translate weather predictions to forecasted discharges or water levels. However, this information is often not sufficient for real time decisions. A sound understanding of the reliability of embankments and flood dynamics is needed to react timely and reduce the negative effects of the flood. Where are the weak points in the dike system? When, how much and where the water will flow? When and where is the greatest impact expected? Model-based flood impact forecasting tries to answer these questions by adding new dimensions to the existing forecasting systems by providing forecasted information about: (a) the dike strength during the event (reliability), (b) the flood extent in case of an overflow or a dike failure (flood spread) and (c) the assets at risk (impacts). This work presents three study-cases in which such a set-up is applied. Special features are highlighted. Forecasting of dike strength. The first study-case focusses on the forecast of dike strength in the Netherlands for the river Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn and IJssel. A so-called reliability transformation is used to translate the predicted water levels at selected dike sections into failure probabilities during a flood event. The reliability of a dike section is defined by fragility curves - a summary of the dike strength conditional to the water level. The reliability information enhances the emergency management and inspections of embankments. Ensemble forecasting. The second study-case shows the setup of a flood impact forecasting system in Dumfries, Scotland. The existing forecasting system is extended with a 2D flood spreading model in combination with the Delft-FIAT impact model. Ensemble forecasts are used to make use of the uncertainty in the precipitation forecasts, which is useful to quantify the certainty of a forecasted flood event. From global

  14. The genetic relationship between mafic dike swarms and plutonic reservoirs in the mesozoic of central chile (30°-33°45'S): insights from AMS and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creixell, Christian; Parada, Miguel Ángel; Morata, Diego; Roperch, Pierrick; Arriagada, César

    2009-02-01

    Five mafic dike swarms between 30° and 33°45'S were studied for their geochemical signature and kinematics of magma flow directions by means of AMS data. In the Coastal Range of central Chile (33°-33°45'S), Middle Jurassic dike swarms (Concón and Cartagena dike swarms, CMDS and CrMDS, respectively) and an Early Cretaceous dike swarm (El Tabo Dike Swarm, ETDS) display the presence of dikes of geochemically enriched (high-Ti) and depleted (low-Ti) basaltic composition. These dikes show geochemical patterns that are different from the composition of mafic enclaves of the Middle Jurassic Papudo-Quintero Complex, and this suggests that the dikes were injected from reservoirs not related to the plutonic complex. The mantle source appears to be a depleted mantle for Jurassic dikes and a heterogeneous-enriched lithospheric mantle for Cretaceous dikes. In the ETDS, vertical and gently plunging magma flow vectors were estimated for enriched and depleted dikes, respectively, which suggest, together with variations in dike thickness, that reservoirs were located at different depths for each dike family. In the Elqui Dike Swarm (EDS) and Limarí Mafic Dike Swarm (LMDS), geochemical patterns are similar to those of the mafic enclaves of the Middle Jurassic plutons. In the LMDS, east to west magma flow vectors are coherent with injection from neighbouring pluton located to the east. In the EDS, some dikes show geochemical and magma flow patterns supporting the same hypothesis. Accordingly, dikes do not necessarily come from deep reservoir; they may propagate in the upper crust from coeval shallow pluton chamber.

  15. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Tasak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  16. Stalled eruption or dike intrusion at Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5

  17. Drilling successful from ROV Ventana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakes, Debra S.; McFarlane, James A. R.; Holloway, G. Leon; Greene, H. Gary

    Cores of granite and deformed sediment from the walls of Monterey Canyon were successfully recovered from December 30 to 31, 1992, by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Ventana using a small-diameter, double-barrel drill with a diamond bit. This HSTR (Holloway-Stakes-Tengdin-Rajcula) drill was developed to drill cores horizontally from sulfide/sulfate walls of active black smokers. The drill was first successfully used by the submersible Alvin in October 1991 to drill into massive sulfide chimneys, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Eos, June 30, 1992, p. 273), and it was subsequently used with equal success on the chalcopyrite-rich chimneys from 21°N and 9°N on the East Pacific Rise. The recent December dives, however, marked the first time that drilling has ever been attempted from the smaller ROV and the first time coring into the harder igneous rock substrate has been attempted.

  18. An innovative drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J.; Dickinson, E.; Dickinson, W.; Dykstra, H.

    1991-05-01

    The principal project objectives were the following: To demonstrate the capability of the Ultrashort Radius Radial System to drill and complete multiple horizontal radials in a heavy oil formation which had a production history of thermal operations. To study the effects that horizontal radials have on steam placement at specific elevations and on reducing gravity override. To demonstrate that horizontal radials could be utilized for cyclic production, i.e. for purposes of oil production as well as for steam injection. Each of these objectives was successfully achieved in the project. Early production results indicate that radials positively influenced cyclic performance. This report documents those results. 15 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Physical-Property Measurements on Core samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, David A.; Watt, Janet T.; Casteel, John; Logsdon, Grant

    2009-01-01

    From May to June 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and measured physical properties on 36 core samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 1 (DB-1) and 46 samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 2 (DB-2) along the west side of Blue Mountain about 40 km west of Winnemucca, Nev. These data were collected as part of an effort to determine the geophysical setting of the Blue Mountain geothermal prospect as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of geothermal systems throughout the Great Basin. The physical properties of these rocks and other rock types in the area create a distinguishable pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies that can be used to infer their subsurface geologic structure. Drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 were spudded in alluvium on the western flank of Blue Mountain in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and are about 1 km apart. Drill-hole DB-1 is at a ground elevation of 1,325 m and was drilled to a depth of 672 m and drill-hole DB-2 is at a ground elevation of 1,392 m and was drilled to a depth of 1522 m. Diameter of the core samples is 6.4 cm. These drill holes penetrate Jurassic and Triassic metasedimentary rocks predominantly consisting of argillite, mudstone, and sandstone; Tertiary diorite and gabbro; and younger Tertiary felsic dikes.

  20. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  1. Recent R&D in Drilling Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zuchen; Huang Zhiqian

    1997-01-01

    @@ Situation for Drilling Equipment Technical performance of drilling equipment and perfection of supporting systems hold the key to drilling safety, technical procedure development and drilling cost. In the end of the 1980s, the stituation for drilling equipment was not optimistic in China because of poor technical performance, low-level supporting system and scarcity of electric-driven rigs.

  2. Aspectos que interfieren en la movilidad estudiantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Ramírez-Ordoñez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los aspectos que interfieren en la realización de movilidad estudiantil. Materiales y Métodos: Esta investigación es cuantitativa de tipo descriptivo transversal por conveniencia, constituida por 243 estudiantes que hacen parte de un programa de enfermería en una institución de educación superior X, de los cuales se entrevistaron a 237. Para la recolección de la información se diseñó un cuestionario donde se evalúa el aspecto económico, académico y familiar y su interferencia con el programa de movilidad de la institución. Para su estructuración se realizó revisión bibliográfica, evaluación de expertos, alfa de cronbach y prueba piloto. Resultados: El aspecto económico ocupa el primer lugar en interferir en la movilidad estudiantil con un 73%, es importante resaltar que la población encuestada pertenece al estrato 2 por lo tanto cuentan con pocos recursos. El segundo lugar fue para el aspecto académico con un 63.45% y en menor dimensión el aspecto familiar con 26%; el 77% manifiesta tener un interés por participar del programa de movilidad, de los cuales el 43.78% prefiere el nivel internacional, el 29,79 % nacional y ambas opciones el 25,95%. Conclusiones: Al relacionar los aspectos económicos, académicos y familiares con el total de la población se encontró que solo el 12% de los estudiantes cumplen la totalidad de estos requisitos y pueden participar de la movilidad estudiantil.

  3. Overtopping on Grass Covered Dikes: Resistance and Failure of the Inner Slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    A large part of the Vietnamese population is living close to the coast. The sea is an essential source for supporting lives. Coastal flooding, on the other hand, threatens the people, land and infrastructures every year. Some hundreds years ago, the first sea dikes were built in Thai Binh and Nam D

  4. Overtopping Flow Impact on a Vertical Wall on a Dike Crest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Hofland, B.; Altomare, C.; Uijttewaal, J.S.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the impact process and mechanism of overtopping flow on a vertical wall on a dike crest are investigated by means of a series of physical model tests. A double-peaked force was recognized in a time series of an overtoping flow. Four stages were summarized for the whole overtopping flow

  5. Overtopping on Grass Covered Dikes: Resistance and Failure of the Inner Slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    A large part of the Vietnamese population is living close to the coast. The sea is an essential source for supporting lives. Coastal flooding, on the other hand, threatens the people, land and infrastructures every year. Some hundreds years ago, the first sea dikes were built in Thai Binh and Nam

  6. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : 1978 BLHP Contract Pool 1 Dike Repair & Ditch Improvement Photographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a series of Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge photographs of the 1979 Dike Repair and Ditch Improvement project, as part of the BLHP $140,346 contract (JO-A3)....

  7. The Weakest Link: Spatial Variability in the Piping Failure Mechanism of Dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanning, W.

    2012-01-01

    Piping is an important failure mechanism of flood defense structures. A dike fails due to piping when a head difference causes first the uplift of an inland blanket layer, and subsequently soil erosion due to a ground water flow. Spatial variability of subsoil parameters causes the probability of pi

  8. `Anomalous' magnetic fabrics of dikes in the stable single domain/superparamagnetic threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Carles; Beamud, Elisabet; Garcés, Miguel; Ort, Michael H.

    2016-02-01

    `Anomalous' magnetic fabrics in dikes that appear to indicate flow into the wall confound many workers. Here, we present extensive magnetic data on five dikes from Tenerife, Canary Islands, and use these to interpret the causes of the anomalous fabrics. Comparison of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anhysteretic magnetization (AARM) results show that, in some cases, the anomalous fabrics are caused by single-domain grains, which produce AMS fabrics perpendicular to the grain elongation, whereas AARM fabrics are parallel. To check this, hysteresis experiments were used to characterize the domain state. These show most are mixtures of pseudo-single-domain or single-domain plus multi-domain particles, but many have wasp-waisted hysteresis loops, likely indicating mixed populations of stable single-domain and superparamagnetic grains. First-order reversal curves were used to better characterize this and show mixtures of stable single-domain and superparamagnetic grains dominate the magnetic signal. Magnetic particles at the stable single-domain/superparamagnetic threshold are unstable at timespans relevant to the analytical techniques, so they produce complicated results. This suggests that anomalous AMS fabrics in dikes cannot simply be attributed to elongated stable single-domain particles and that mixtures of the different grain types can produce hybrid fabrics, in which the fabrics are neither perpendicular or parallel to the dike plane, that are difficult to interpret without extensive magnetic analysis.

  9. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  10. 3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river.

  11. Is the outcrop topology of dolerite dikes of the Precambrian Singhbhum Craton fractal?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nibir Mandal; Atin Kumar Mitra; Santanu Misra; Chandan Chakraborty

    2006-12-01

    In the Precambrian Singhbhum Craton of eastern India, newer dolerite dikes occur profusely with varying outcrop lengths. We have analysed the nature of their length-size and orientation distributions in relation to the theory of fractals. Two orientational sets of dikes (NW–SE and NE–SW) are present. Both the sets show strongly non-power-law size distributions, as reflected in nonlinear variations in logarithmic space. We analyzed thousands of data, revealing that polynomial functions with a degree of 3 to 4 are the best representatives of the non-linear variations. Orientation analysis shows that the degree of dispersions from the mean trend tends to decrease with increasing dike length. The length-size distributions were studied by simulating fractures in physical models. Experimental fractures also show a non-power-law distribution, which grossly conforms to those of the dolerite dikes. This type of complex size distributions results from the combined effects of nucleation, propagation and coalescence of fractures.

  12. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Mafic Dikes from Hainan Island and Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jianjin; HU Ruizhong; LIU Shen; XIE Guiqing

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the major and trace element compositions, as well as Sr, Nd isotopic compositions and K-Ar age data in mafic dikes from Hainan Island, China, have been analyzed. Whole-rock K-Ar dating yielded a magmatic duration of 61-98 Ma for mafic dikes. Mafic dikes have a very high concentration of incompatible elements, for example, Ba, Rb, Sr, K, rare earth elements, and especially light rare earth elements (LREE), and negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, and Ti in the normalized trace element patterns. The initial ~(87)Sr/~(86)Sr ratios and εSr(t) of the mafic dikes are 0.70634-0.71193 and +27.7 to +112.2, respectively. In the ~(87)Sr/~(86)Sr versus εNd(t) diagram, the Hainan Island mafic dikes plot between fields for depleted mantle and enriched mantle type 2. All these characteristics show that the mantle (source region) of mafic dikes in this area experienced metasomatism by fluids relatively enriched in LREE and large ion lithophile elements. The genesis of Hainan Island mafic dikes is explained as a result of the mixing of asthenospheric mantle with lithospheric mantle that experienced metasomatism by the subduction of the Pacific Plate. This is different from the Hainan Island Cenozoic basaits mainly derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, and possibly, minor metasomatised lithospheric mantle. This study suggests that the Mesozoic and Cenozoic lithospheric revolutions in Hainan Island can be divided into three stages: (1) the compression orogenesis stage before 98 Ma. The dominant factor during this stage is the subduction of the ancient Pacific Plate beneath this area. The lithospheric mantle changed into enriched mantle type 2 by metasomatism; (2) the thinning and extension stage during 61-98 Ma. The dominant factor during this stage is that the asthenospheric mantle invaded and corroded the lithospheric mantle; and (3) the large-scale thinning and extension stage after 61 Ma. The large-scale asthenospheric upwelling results in the strong

  13. Stress Field and Dike Propagation within a Partially Submerged Volcanic Edifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, S.; Taisne, B.; Manga, M.; Pasquet, E.; Limare, A.; Bhat, H.

    2013-12-01

    In order to better understand dike propagation within and flank collapse on volcanic islands, we performed a set of analogue laboratory experiments. We created conic edifices of gelatin and measured their deformation under their own weight whilst we varied the level to which they were partially submerged. In most experiments the lower part of the edifice was submerged in water while the upper part was surrounded by air, but in some cases oil was used as the fluid surrounding the upper part of the edifice in order to change density differences. The gelatin was typically made of a sugar (or glycerol) solution so that it was approximately 10-30% denser than water, and its strength was varied by using different gelatin concentrations. The strain field was visualized from the birefringence pattern created by placing the gelatin between sheets of polarising film with the directions crossed. One first order feature of the strain field is an approximately elliptical shaped extensional region, centered below the summit and at approximately sea-level. The second feature is a region of strong sub-horizontal shear in the lower most part of the edifice, close to the lower, rigid no-slip boundary. We also observed the behaviour of dikes injected into the base of the edifice from below: these dikes were filled with water or salt solution so that they had variable amounts of positive buoyancy with respect to the edifice. If all, or a very large fraction, of the edifice was submerged, the dike typically propagated vertically and erupted at the summit. If the edifice was only partially submerged, however, the dikes typically switched from dominantly vertical to horizontal propagation and erupted on the flanks of the edifice, very often at sea level.

  14. Great Progress of Drilling Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kexiang

    1994-01-01

    @@ A great progress has been made in drilling technology in China from 1986 to 1990 by popularizing research achievements and emphasizing high economic efficiency of exploration and development, high quality of drilling engineering, high drilling rate and formation damage prevention.

  15. Advances in core drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, G.

    Some notable technical advances in drill design were reported at the meeting, held in Canada August 30-September 1, 1982, at the University of Calgary. Chief amongst these was a battery powered, computer assisted electromechanical core drill which has recently been used by the Danes in Greenland to continuously core to the base of the ice sheet at 2038 m. This is the deepest coring operation so far on the Greenland ice sheet. (The record for deep glacier drilling is held by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory for the continuous coring through 2164 m of ice to bedrock at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in 1968). In early 1982, a current Soviet core drilling operation was reported to be at a depth of 2000 m at Vostok station, Antarctica, where the total ice thickness is about 4000 m; the goal of core drilling the entire ice thickness there could be achieved before the end of 1983.

  16. DRILL BITS FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Macini

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of the correct drill bit application in horizontal wells. Afler the analysis of the peculiarities of horizontal wells and drainholes drilling techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the application of both roller cone and fixed cutters drill bits have been discussed. Also, a review of the potential specific featuries useful for a correct drill bit selection in horizontal small diameter holes has been highlighted. Drill bits for these special applications, whose importance is quickly increasing nowadays, should be characterised by a design capable to deliver a good penetration rate low WOB, and, at the same time, be able to withstand high RPM without premature cutting structure failure and undergauge. Formation properties will also determine the cutting structure type and the eventual specific features for additional gauge and shoulder protection.

  17. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  18. Automatic evaluation of drilling fluid properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is structured in two main parts. First part covers the fundamental role of drilling fluid in the drilling process. It provides a description of the mud circulating system for conventional drilling operations, outlines the basic composition of drilling fluids, and describes the main functions and properties of drilling fluids. Furthermore it describes the current testing procedures and equipment and illustrates how testing is used in the evaluation of drilling fluid ...

  19. Dual gradient drilling - simulations during connection operations

    OpenAIRE

    Time, André

    2014-01-01

    As oilfields are ageing and depleting, operators are forced to start searching for oil in more hostile environments. These new environments can introduce new drilling challenges. Prospects like ultra deep water reservoirs and depleted offshore reservoirs are difficult to drill with conventional drilling. This has lead the industry to developing the Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) system. DGD is an unconventional drilling method and it is classified as a Managed Pressure Drilling ...

  20. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  1. Evolution of dike opening during the March 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta; Orr, Tim R.; Yun, Sang-Ho; Fielding, Eric; Liu, Zhen; Tanaka, Akiko; Szeliga, Walter; Hensley, Scott; Owen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The 5–9 March 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption along the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, followed months of pronounced inflation at Kīlauea summit. We examine dike opening during and after the eruption using a comprehensive interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data set in combination with continuous GPS data. We solve for distributed dike displacements using a whole Kīlauea model with dilating rift zones and possibly a deep décollement. Modeled surface dike opening increased from nearly 1.5 m to over 2.8 m from the first day to the end of the eruption, in agreement with field observations of surface fracturing. Surface dike opening ceased following the eruption, but subsurface opening in the dike continued into May 2011. Dike volumes increased from 15, to 16, to 21 million cubic meters (MCM) after the first day, eruption end, and 2 months following, respectively. Dike shape is distinctive, with a main limb plunging from the surface to 2–3 km depth in the up-rift direction toward Kīlauea's summit, and a lesser projection extending in the down-rift direction toward Pu`u `Ō`ō at 2 km depth. Volume losses beneath Kīlauea summit (1.7 MCM) and Pu`u `Ō`ō (5.6 MCM) crater, relative to dike plus erupted volume (18.3 MCM), yield a dike to source volume ratio of 2.5 that is in the range expected for compressible magma without requiring additional sources. Inflation of Kīlauea's summit in the months before the March 2011 eruption suggests that the Kamoamoa eruption resulted from overpressure of the volcano's magmatic system.

  2. A laser profilometry technique for monitoring fluvial dike breaching in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewals, Benjamin; Rifai, Ismail; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Violeau, Damien; Pirotton, Michel; El kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal

    2017-04-01

    A challenging aspect for experimental modelling of fluvial dike breaching is the continuous monitoring of the transient breach geometry. In dam breaching cases induced by flow overtopping over the whole breach crest (plane erosion), a side view through a glass wall is sufficient to monitor the breach formation. This approach can be extended for 3D dam breach tests (spatial erosion) if the glass wall is located along the breach centreline. In contrast, using a side view does not apply for monitoring fluvial dike breaching, because the breach is not symmetric in this case. We present a non-intrusive, high resolution technique to record the breach development in experimental models of fluvial dikes by means of a laser profilometry (Rifai et al. 2016). Most methods used for monitoring dam and dike breaching involve the projection of a pattern (fringes, grid) on the dam or dike body and the analysis of its deformation on images recorded during the breaching (e.g., Pickert et al. 2011, Frank and Hager 2014). A major limitation of these methods stems from reflection on the water surface, particularly in the vicinity of the breach where the free surface is irregular and rippled. This issue was addressed by Spinewine et al. (2004), who used a single laser sheet so that reflections on the water surface were strongly limited and did not hamper the accurate processing of each image. We have developed a similar laser profilometry technique tailored for laboratory experiments on fluvial dike breaching. The setup is simple and relatively low cost. It consists of a digital video camera (resolution of 1920 × 1080 pixels at 60 frames per second) and a swiping red diode 30 mW laser that enables the projection of a laser sheet over the dike body. The 2D image coordinates of each deformed laser profile incident on the dike are transformed into 3D object coordinates using the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) algorithm. All 3D object coordinates computed over a swiping cycle of the

  3. Secondary mineralization and hydrothermal alteration in the Reydarfjordur drill core, eastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehegan, James M.; Robinson, Paul T.; Delaney, John R.

    1982-08-01

    Deep crustal drilling in eastern Iceland has allowed study of a fossil hydrothermal system at a constructive plate margin. The drilled sequence consists of partly to completely altered subaerial lava flows, basaltic dikes, and minor clastic material. Alteration and secondary mineralization are most intense in the flow top breccias where water/rock ratios are presumed to have been the highest. In the upper portion of the cored sequence (to a depth of about 1200 m) alteration is characterized by the deposition of clay minerals ± calcite ± quartz ± laumontite into open spaces such as vugs and vesicles. Low-temperature zeolites, such as stilbite, epistilbite, mordenite, and heulandite, are also present but are restricted to the upper 500 m of the drill core. Below 1200 m, alteration is characterized by the dissolution and replacement of both primary minerals and earlier authigenic minerals, followed by partial filling of dissolution cavities. Early mineral assemblages consist of epidote ± quartz ± prehnite ± chlorite ± albite, and a later superimposed assemblage consists of calcite + laumontite ± anhydrite. Authigenic sphene, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pumpellyite, actinolite, and wairakite also occur sporadically in the cored sequence. Secondary mineral assemblages and temperature measurements of fluid inclusions suggest a maximum temperature of alteration of about 300°C. Fluid inclusion compositions indicate that the geothermal fluid was meteoric water with very low salinities and high calcium activities. Iron activities and oxygen fugacities were highest in the deeper portions of the systems. The mineral paragenesis suggests that the fluid composition, temperature, and PCO2 varied significantly with time. The thermal energy for the geothermal system was probably derived from a high-level magma chamber associated with nearby Thingmuli volcano. Local contact metamorphism, indicated by the formation of garnet, occurred during late stage emplacement of dikes into

  4. Wave run-up of a possible Anak-Krakatau tsunami on planned and optimized Jakarta Sea Dike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badriana, M. R.; Bachtiar, H.; Adytia, D.; Sembiring, L.; Andonowati, van Groesen, E.

    2017-07-01

    The infrastructural plans in the Jakarta Bay to reduce risks of flooding in Jakarta city comprise a large Sea Dike that encloses a retention lake. Part of the planned dike has the shape of the iconic Garuda bird. This paper shows that if in the future an explosion of Anak Krakatau will occur with strength 1/4th of the original Karkatau 1883 explosion, wave crests of 11m and troughs of 6m may collide against the bird's head. As an alternative example, a more optimized design of the dike is constructed that reduces the maximal wave effects considerably.

  5. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  6. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  7. Dike Intrusion Process of 2000 Miyakejima - Kozujima Event estimated from GPS measurements in Kozujima - Niijima Islands, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.; Nakao, S.; Kato, T.; Tabei, T.; Kimata, F.; Fujii, N.

    2003-12-01

    Kozujima - Niijima Islands of Izu Volcano Islands are located about 180 km southeast of Tokyo, Japan. Although the last volcano eruptions in Kozujima and Niijima volcanoes are recorded more than 1000 year before, the ground deformation of 2-3 cm is detected at Kozujima - Niijima Islands by GPS measurements since 1996. On June 26, 2000, earthquake swarm and large ground deformation more than 20 cm are observed at Miyakejima volcano located 40 km east-southeastward of Kozu Island, and volcano eruption are continued since July 7. Remarkable earthquake swarm including five earthquakes more than M5 is stretching to Kozushima Island from Miyakejima Island. From the rapid ground deformation detected by continuous GPS measurements at Miyakejima Island on June 26, magma intrusion models of two or three dikes are discussed in the south and west part of Miyakejima volcano by Irwan et al.(2003) and Ueda et al.(2003). They also estimate dike intrusions are propagated from southern part of Miyakejima volcano to western part, and finally dike intrusion is stretching to 20 km distance toward Kozujima Island. From the ground deformation detected by GPS daily solution of Nation-wide dense GPS network (GEONET), some dike intrusion models are discussed. Ito et al.(2002) estimate the huge dike intrusion with length of about 20 km and volume of 1 km3 in the sea area between the Miyake Island and Kozu Island. (And) Nishimura et al.(2001) introduce not only dike but also aseismic creep source to explain the deformation in Shikinejima. Yamaoka et al.(2002) discuss the dike and spherical deflation source under the dike, because of no evidence supported large aseismic creep. They indicate a dike and spherical deflation source model is as good as dike and creep source model. In case of dike and creep, magma supply is only from the chamber under the Miyakejima volcano. In dike and spherical deflation source model, magma supply is from under Miyakejima volcano and under the dike. Furuya et al

  8. Experimental study on scour and flow field in a scour hole around a T-shape spur dike in a 90° bend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud GHODSIAN; Mohammad VAGHEFI

    2009-01-01

    In this paper results of experimental study on scour and flow field around a T-shape spur dike in a 90 degree channel bend are presented. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory channel to measure the variations of bed topography under a clear water condition. The three dimensional flow field was measured by an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter in a scour hole due to a T-shape spur dike. It was found that by increasing the Froude number and length of spur dike the amount of scour increases.Increasing the wing length of spur dike decreases the scour, The amount of scour at the upstream of spur dike is much more as compare to that at the downstream of spur dike. By increasing the wing length of spur dike the zone of flow separation expands. As a result the sizes of vortex increase.Details of flow field are also addressed in the paper.

  9. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  10. From optimal to practical safety standards for dike-ring areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijgenraam, C J J

    2007-01-01

    After the flood disaster in 1953 in the southwestern part of the Netherlands, Van Dantzig tried to solve the economic decision problem concerning the optimal height of dikes. His solution has a fixed probability of flooding after each investment. However, when there is economic growth, not the probability of flooding but the expected yearly loss by flooding is the key variable in the real optimal safety strategy. Under some conditions, it is optimal to keep this expected loss within a constant interval. Therefore, when the potential damage increases by economic growth, the flooding probability has to decline in the course of time in order to keep the expected loss between the fixed boundaries. The purpose of the paper is to show the implications of the optimal solution in case there are differences between costs and benefits among dike-ring areas. Further, the paper focuses on the translation of the theoretical results into new legal standards that can work well in practice.

  11. Geochronology and Nd and Pb isotope characteristics of gabbro dikes in the Luobusha ophiolite, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We report a combined internal and whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron age, and Nd and Pb isotopic data for gabbro dikes of the Luobusha ophiolite in Tibet. The Sm-Nd isochron of data for two whole rocks and plagioclase and clinopyroxene separates from one of the rocks yields a Middle Jurassic age of (177±31) Ma (with an initial εNd(t) = +8),which provides a significant bound on the time of formation of the Luobusha ophiolite. The Nd and Pb isotopic characteristics of the dike indicate an Indian-Ocean-type isotopic affinity, and we conclude that the Luobusha ophiolite formed in an oceanic setting during the Middle Jurassic.``

  12. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  13. Drilling Damage in Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel P. Durão

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced laminates have widened their use from aerospace to domestic appliances, and new possibilities for their usage emerge almost daily. In many of the possible applications, the laminates need to be drilled for assembly purposes. It is known that a drilling process that reduces the drill thrust force can decrease the risk of delamination. In this work, damage assessment methods based on data extracted from radiographic images are compared and correlated with mechanical test results—bearing test and delamination onset test—and analytical models. The results demonstrate the importance of an adequate selection of drilling tools and machining parameters to extend the life cycle of these laminates as a consequence of enhanced reliability.

  14. Horizontal drilling activity in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.

    1997-04-01

    An update of horizontal well drilling in Manitoba was provided. Manitoba`s productive formations are: (1) the Bakken Formation, (2) the Lodgepole Formation, (3) the Mission Canyon Formation, (4) the Amaranth Formation, and (5) the Melita Formation. A total of 28 exploratory wells and 29 development wells, including 11 horizontal wells were drilled in 1996. The 11 horizontal wells accounted for 30 per cent of the drilling meterage. The leading drillers for horizontal wells in Manitoba are Tundra Oil and Gas, Chevron, Anderson and HCO. Production from horizontal wells in 1996 totaled 310 cubic meter per day. To date, no horizontal wells have been drilled in the Bakken Formation. The least successful horizontal well application has been in the Lodgepole Formation. A summary of horizontal well production was provided for each Formation. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  15. Unit for cleaning drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosh, M.M.; Dera, Ya.I.; Fesenko, M.M.; Makedonov, N.I.; Surkov, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    A design is proposed for a unit for cleaning drilling muds which includes a settling tank with input sleeve and a sleeve of the purified mud and hydrocyclones. In order to improve the effectiveness of the degree of purification, the unit is equipped with an ejector and sludge filter arranged under the settling tank in the form of a grid installed in the upper part of the settling tank and connected to the sleeve of purified mud, while the inlet sleeve is arranged tangentially. The proposed unit can operate during drilling with the use of muds on water and carbon bases. As a result of its use, the degree of purification of the drilling mud reaches 30-35%; there is an increase in mechanical drilling rate, the service life of the sand-separator and the silt separators and decrease in wear of the pump equipment.

  16. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  17. K-Ar Geochronology of Mesozoic Mafic Dikes in Shandong Province, Eastern China:Implications for Crustal Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shen; HU Ruizhong; ZHAO Junhong; FENG Caixia

    2004-01-01

    Based on K-Ar isotope analyses, Mesozoic mafic (and alkali ultramafic) dikes from western and eastern Shandong Province, China, are dated at 88.2±1.70 Ma to 169.5±3.7 Ma with the majority of ages ranging from 90 Ma to 140 Ma. The emplacement of the dikes suggests a major Yanshanian (Cretaceous) crustal extension in Shandong province.Together with other available age data, this study suggests four periods of crustal extension at about 80 Ma, 100 Ma, 120 Ma and 140 Ma, respectively. Besides the effect of collapse of the Yanshanian orogenic belt on the emplacement of the mafic dikes in Shandong in the Cretaceous, the mantle plume and the extensive left-lateral advection and extension of the Tanlu fault also have controlled the crustal extension and the emplacement of the mafic dikes in eastern Shandong and western Shandong, respectively.

  18. RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  19. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Environmental Guidelines for Dike Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    oak ( Quercus alba) 12.5 7.0 Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) 12.5 7.0 Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) 12.5 7.0 _ * Norway pine (Pinus resinosa...Rier• inc al the¢’.. -.elW~~;. W .- W W.V-W W dikes~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~’ are subered none spreve o ot sd kes Sme’’.. • -. Increase in width due to

  20. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1980-12-01

    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  1. Development of CNPC's Drilling Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qingli; Qin Wengui; Zheng Yi

    2011-01-01

    @@ With further exploration and development of oil and gas fields both at home and abroad, complicated geological conditions, poor quality of reserves and abominable working environment, drilling business, the largest of upstream petroleum industry in terms of total investment and scale, is facing new challenges.China National Petroleum Corporation (hereinafter referred to as CNPC) is in urgent need of transforming development patterns of drilling, so as to enhance competitiveness, improve production efficiency, and increase economic profits.

  2. Drilling of bone: a robust automatic method for the detection of drill bit break-through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, F R; Bouazza-Marouf, K

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to devise a robust detection method for drill bit break-through when drilling into long bones using an automated drilling system that is associated with mechatronic assisted surgery. This investigation looks into the effects of system compliance and inherent drilling force fluctuation on the profiles of drilling force, drilling force, drilling between successive samples and drill bit rotational speed. It is shown that these effects have significant influences on the bone drilling related profiles and thus on the detection of drill bit break-through. A robust method, based on a Kalman filter, has been proposed. Using a modified Kalman filter, it is possible to convert the profiles of drilling force difference between successive samples and/or the drill bit rotational speed into easily recognizable and more consistent profiles, allowing a robust and repeatable detection of drill bit break-through.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SECONDARY FLOWS AND SEDIMENTATIONS BEHIND A SPUR DIKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xue-lin; DING Xiang; CHEN Zhi-cong

    2007-01-01

    For a physical model of the approach navigation channel of Three Gorges Project(TGP), flow patterns around a non-submerged spur dike placed as a mountain in a long rectangular glass flume were experimentally investigated with and without "sucking-spouting" water respectively. Based on rigid lid assumption and Dynamic Smagorinsky Model, all these vortex flows around the spur dike were numerically simulated and analyzed, which probably affect the whole flow field and then probably lead to sedimentations for silt-laden two-phase flows. Meanwhile, silt-laden flows were also investigated experimentally. Both the secondary flow region and the silt sedimentations downstream of the spur dike decrease greatly with "sucking-spouting" water compared to those ones without "sucking-spouting" water. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) was used to discretize the governing equations together with a staggered grid system, where the second order difference is employed for the diffusion terms and the source terms while the upwind difference QUICK is used for the convection terms. The computational results are all in fairly good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Uncertainty assessment of a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch design codes for the dikes with retaining walls rely on Finite Element Analysis (FEM in combination with partial safety factors. However, this can lead to conservative designs. For this reason, in this study, a reliability analysis is carried out with FEM calculations aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of reliability analysis for a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall modelled in the 2D FEM, Plaxis. Sensitivity and reliability analyses were carried out and enabled by coupling the uncertainty package, OpenTURNS and Plaxis. The most relevant (ultimate limit states concern the anchor, the sheet pile wall, the soil body failure (global instability and finally the system. The case was used to investigate the applicability of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM and Directional Sampling (DS to analysing these limit states. The final goal is to estimate the probability of failure and identify the most important soil properties that affect the behaviour of each component and the system as a whole. The results of this research can be used to assess and optimize the current design procedure for dikes with retaining walls.

  5. Stability of the Guiding Dike in Yangtze Estuary Under the Wave Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; LIU Run; FAN Qi-jin; XIE Shi-leng

    2005-01-01

    During the construction of the guiding dike in the Yangtze Estuary, some of the caisson structures sank into the soil for 1~5 m or slid about 20 m away from the original place when a strong storm attacked this area. Dynamic triaxial tests were carried out to simulate the behavior of foundation soils under wave loading. The test results show that the excessive settlement and lateral movement of the caissons are due to the weakening of the soft clay strength during the strong storm. The test results also show that the ability of the soft clay to resist the wave force will be greatly increased when the soft soil samples are suitably improved. Based on the test results, an improvement method combining vertical drains with surcharge loading was proposed to strengthen the foundation soil. On the improved soil foundation, the dike has been reconstructed and undergone several strong storms without any damage. A finite element approach has been developed for analyzing the settlement and stability of the dike under the action of strong storm.

  6. A model, describing the influence of water management alternatives on dike stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J. W. M.; Vastenburg, E.; Roelofsen, F. J.

    2015-11-01

    The awareness is rising that economic effects of Land Subsidence are high. Nevertheless, quantifying these economic losses is difficult and, as far as known, not yet done in a sophisticated way. Also, to be able to decide about future strategies, for example to avoid or decrease subsidence, it is necessary to know the financial consequences of measures and possible solutions. As a first step to quantify these economic effects, a MODFLOW-SCR (coupled MODFLOW-Settlements model) is coupled with the model DAM. Based on the local stratigraphy, the shape and composition of the existing dike or levee, the level of the surface water and the surface level, macro-stability of the dike is calculated and - if the dike does not meet the required stability - adaptions are proposed. The model enables to separate effects that are caused by sea-level rise and the effects of subsidence. Coupling the DAM model with an economic model to calculate costs of these adaptions is under construction.

  7. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Oliver, M.S.; Gray, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    The cost-sharing contract between the US Department of Energy and Smith International provides the funding to further develop this concept into two complete steerable percussion air drilling system prototypes, each integrated with a navigation tool (wireline steering tool), a bend sub, stabilizing devices, and to conduct laboratory and field testing necessary to prepare the system for commercial realization. Such a system would make available for the first time the ability to penetrate earthen formations by the percussion method, using compressed air as the drilling fluid, and at the same time allow the directional control and steering of the drill bit. While the drill string is not rotating (slide mode), one can orient to build angle in the desired direction at a predictable rate. This build rate can be in the range of 1--20 degrees per one hundred feet and proceeds until the desired inclination or direction has been obtained. The drill pipe is then set in rotation, nullifying the effect of the bend angle, and causes the assembly to drill straight. The sliding procedure can be repeated as often as corrections for hole`s inclination or direction are needed.

  8. Biological effects of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranford, P. J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    An argument is made for the point of view that economic realities require that a sustainable fishery must co-exist with the offshore petroleum industry, and therefore to sustain the fishery comprehensive studies are needed to identify and minimize the impact of operational drilling wastes on fishery resources. Moreover, laboratory and field studies indicate that operational drilling platforms impact on fisheries at great distances, therefore studies should not be limited to the immediate vicinity of drilling sites. Studies on long-term exposure of resident organisms to low level contaminants and the chronic lethal and sublethal biological effects of production drilling wastes must be conducted under environmentally relevant conditions to ensure the validity of the results. Studies at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography on sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) shows them to be highly sensitive to impacts from drilling wastes. Results of these studies, integrated with toxicity data and information on the distribution and transport of drilling wastes have been used by regulatory agencies and industrial interests to develop scientifically sound and justifiable regulations. They also led to the development of practical, sensitive and cost-effective technologies that use resident resource species to detect environmental impacts at offshore production sites. 1 fig.

  9. Contamination Control for Scientific Drilling Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, J

    2017-01-01

    Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. As contamination cannot be avoided, it has to be tracked to identify those parts of the drill core that were not infiltrated by the drill fluid. This is done by the addition of tracer compounds. A great variety of tracers is available, and the choice depends on many factors. This review will first explain the basic principles of drilling before presenting the most common tracers and discussing their strengths and weaknesses. The final part of this review presents a number of key questions that have to be addressed in order to find the right tracer for a particular drilling operation.

  10. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transversal. Población y muestra: 30 adolescentes embarazadas asistentes al Programa, el muestreo por conveniencia. Se utilizó la encuesta y la observación directa, previa autorización del Director de la empresa. Resultados: Caracterización de la población: predominó la edad de 15 a 19 años (adolescencia tardía, uniones libres, baja escolaridad debido a la deserción escolar, ingreso económico menor al salario mínimo legal vigente. Aspectos Biológicos: la menarquía a temprana edad (9 a 14 años, y en ella la mitad de los embarazos. La mayoría de los segundos embarazos terminaron en parto, la minoría en cesárea y aborto. La captación para los controles prenatales fue tardía, algunas no cumplieron con las citas programadas. Aspectos Psicológicos: inestabilidad con la pareja al enterarse del embarazo, tuvieron soporte familiar moral y económico, abandonaron sus estudios y presentaron malestares como estrés, depresión y tristeza. Aspectos Sociales: predominó la convivencia con la familia extensa. Hubo aceptación en el colegio y en los amigos. Discusión y Conclusiones: Se plantean estrategias para disminuir estos aspectos: elaboración de una cartilla sobre “Cuidado de la adolescente embarazada”, creación de espacios de reflexión, jornadas lúdicas educativas, entre otros. (Rev Cuid 2012; 3(3:385-93.Palabras clave: Embarazo en Adolescencia, Bienestar Materno, Atención Prenatal. (Fuente: De

  11. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  12. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  13. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  14. Advancement on Drilling Technology in Petroleum Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Akpedeye, Kelvin Uruemu

    2011-01-01

    Since the birth of petroleum business, in the mid-19th century, cable tool and rotary drilling have been the only two techniques applied in the drilling phase till date. Although the rotary drilling technique has proved very successful, applying laser technology in this drilling; which is a newer technology that is already at hand, has the potential of displacing both techniques from operation. Cable tool drilling is the first of these techniques. Hole boring is achieved by repeatedly lif...

  15. Dike Strength Analysis on a Regional Scale Based On a Stochastic Subsoil Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelewijn, A. R.; Vastenburg, E. W.

    2013-12-01

    About two-third of the Netherlands is protected against flooding by dikes and levees. The subsoil can be characterized by fluvial and marine sediments. Maintaining the safety of these dikes and levees is of vital importance. Insufficient safety is not permissible, but excessive safety would imply a waste of money and other resources. Therefore safety assessments are carried out on a regular basis. Over the past decades, a practice has grown to calculate a limited number of cross-sections, roughly one every 500 to 1000 meters. For this purpose, a representative cross-section is selected as an estimate of the most vulnerable surface geometry and the subsoil conditions determined from boreholes and cone penetration tests, for which slope stability and piping analyses are carried out. This is a time-consuming procedure which is not only expensive, but also neglects geological knowledge. A method to incorporate geological knowledge of an area, including updating on the basis of additional investigations, has been described in Koelewijn et al. [2011]. In addition, various groups have worked to incorporate geotechnical stability models and detailed Lidar-measurements of the surface into a more efficient and rational calculation process [Knoeff et al. 2011, Lam et al. 2013, van den Ham & Mastbergen, 2013]. Combining this experience with the 3D subsoil model opens possibilities for cost-effective additional soil investigations for those locations where ruling out unfavorable conditions really influences the decisions to be made regarding rejection and improvement, see the figure for examples of different subsoil profiles along a dike. The resulting system has been applied for semi-automated calculations of dikes in various parts of the Netherlands, totalling over 4000 km by now, and a part of the Mississippi levee system. [van den Ham & Mastbergen, 2013] G.A. van den Ham & D.R. Mastbergen, A semi-probabilistic assessment method for flow slides. AGU Fall meeting, 2013

  16. Sedimentation and contamination patterns of dike systems along the Rhône River (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seignemartin, Gabrielle; Tena, Alvaro; Piégay, Hervé; Roux, Gwenaelle; Winiarski, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Humans have historically modified the Rhône River, especially in the last centuries. In the 19th century, the river was systematically embanked for flood protection purposes, and works continued along the 20th century with dike system engineering work for navigation. The Rhône was canalised and its historical course by-passed by a series of hydroelectric dams. Besides, industrial activity polluted the river. For example, high levels of PCB's were attributed to the inputs of the heavily industrialized zone downstream from Lyon. During floods, these contaminants, associated with the suspended sediment, were trapped by the engineering works and the floodplain. Currently, a master plan to reactivate the river dynamics in the alluvial margins by removing the groyne-fields and dikes in the by-passed sections is being implemented. Within this context, this work aims to assess historical dynamics of sediment and associated contaminants in the floodplain (e.g. trace metal elements), notably in the dike system, in order to evaluate the contamination risk related to bank protection removal. With this objective, a transversal methodology has been applied coupling GIS diachronic analysis (old maps, bathymetric data, Orthophotos, LIDAR, etc.) to understand the historical floodplain evolution, sediment survey to obtain sediment thickness (metal rod and Ground Penetrating Radar), and sediment sampling (manual auger and core sampling) to obtain the metal element concentrations (X-Ray Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). By this way, metal element patterns were defined and used as contamination tracing indicators to apprehend the contamination history but also as geochemical background indicators to define the sediment source influence. We found that sediment temporal patterns are directly related with the by-pass construction year. Spatially, fine sediment deposition predominates in the dike systems, being lower in the floodplain already disconnected in

  17. Environmental and eelgrass response to dike removal: Nisqually River Delta (2010–14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Renee K.

    2016-10-03

    Restoration of tidal flows to formerly diked marshland can alter land-to-sea fluxes and patterns of accumulation of terrestrial sediment and organic matter, and these tidal flows can also affect existing nearshore habitats. Dikes were removed from 308 hectares (ha) of the Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge on the Nisqually River Delta in south Puget Sound, Washington, in fall 2009 to improve habitat for wildlife, such as juvenile salmon. Ecologically important intertidal and subtidal eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds grow on the north and west margins of the delta. The goal of this study was to understand long-term changes in eelgrass habitat and their relation to dike removal. Sediment and eelgrass properties were monitored annually in May from 2010 to 2014 at two sites on the west side of the Nisqually River Delta along McAllister Creek, a spring-fed creek near two restored tidal channels. In May 2014, the mean canopy height of eelgrass was the same as in previous years in an 8-ha bed extending to the Nisqually River Delta front, but mean canopy height was 20 percent lower in a 0.3-ha eelgrass bed closer to the restored marsh when compared to mean canopy height of eelgrass in May 2010, 6 months after dike removal was completed. Over 5 years, the amount of eelgrass leaf area per square meter (m2) in the 8-ha bed increased slightly, and surface-sediment grain size became finer. In contrast, in the 0.3-ha bed, eelgrass leaf area per m2 decreased by 45 percent, and surface sediment coarsened. Other potential stressors, including sediment pore water reduction-oxidation potential (redox) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration in the eelgrass rhizosphere, or root zone, were below levels that negatively affect eelgrass growth and therefore did not appear to be environmental stressors on plants. Eelgrass biomass partitioning, though less favorable in the 8-ha eelgrass bed compared to the 0.3-ha one, was well above the critical above-ground to below-ground biomass ratio of

  18. Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-11-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  19. Drilling Force and Temperature of Bone under Dry and Physiological Drilling Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Linlin; WANG Chengyong; JIANG Min; HE Huiyu; SONG Yuexian; CHEN Hanyuan; SHEN Jingnan; ZHANG Jiayong

    2014-01-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  20. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  1. DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

    2008-06-01

    We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site.

  2. Contenedores: Aspectos tecnicos, biologicos y economicos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten. Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    La elección del contenedor es una de las consideraciones más importantes al establecer un nuevo vivero o empezar a producir una especie nueva. El tipo y tamaño de contenedor no sólo determina la cantidad de agua y nutrientes minerales que están disponibles para el crecimiento de una planta, sino que también afecta otros aspectos operativos del vivero, como el tamaño de...

  3. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  4. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  5. Aspectos éticos de la obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    de Santiago Martín, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    El sobrepeso y la obesidad se están convirtiendo en uno de los problemas de salud de mayor preocupación, convirtiéndose en los últimos años en una verdadera pandemia mundial. Los objetivos de esta revisión bibliográfica son analizar los aspectos éticos de la obesidad, desde el punto de vista de la familia y la sociedad, las buenas prácticas sanitarias, los principios bioéticos y de los derechos del paciente obeso. Para realizar este trabajo de investigación se accedieron a las bases de ...

  6. An evaluation of the relative quality of dike pools for benthic macroinvertebrates in the Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, B.C.; Allert, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A habitat-based aquatic macroinvertebrate study was initiated in the Lower Missouri River to evaluate relative quality and biological condition of dike pool habitats. Water-quality and sediment-quality parameters and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure were measured from depositional substrates at 18 sites. Sediment porewater was analysed for ammonia, sulphide, pH and oxidation-reduction potential. Whole sediments were analysed for particle-size distribution, organic carbon and contaminants. Field water-quality parameters were measured at subsurface and at the sediment-water interface. Pool area adjacent and downstream from each dike was estimated from aerial photography. Macroinvertebrate biotic condition scores were determined by integrating the following indicator response metrics: % of Ephemeroptera (mayflies), % of Oligochaeta worms, Shannon Diversity Index and total taxa richness. Regression models were developed for predicting macroinvertebrate scores based on individual water-quality and sediment-quality variables and a water/sediment-quality score that integrated all variables. Macroinvertebrate scores generated significant determination coefficients with dike pool area (R2=0.56), oxidation–reduction potential (R2=0.81) and water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.71). Dissolved oxygen saturation, oxidation-reduction potential and total ammonia in sediment porewater were most important in explaining variation in macroinvertebrate scores. The best two-variable regression models included dike pool size + the water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.84) and dike pool size + oxidation-reduction potential (R2=0.93). Results indicate that dike pool size and chemistry of sediments and overlying water can be used to evaluate dike pool quality and identify environmental conditions necessary for optimizing diversity and productivity of important aquatic macroinvertebrates. A combination of these variables could be utilized for measuring the success of habitat enhancement

  7. Rapid dike intrusion into Sakurajima volcano on August 15, 2015, as detected by multi-parameter ground deformation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kohei; Iguchi, Masato; Tameguri, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    We present observations of ground deformation at Sakurajima in August 2015 and model the deformation using a combination of GNSS, tilt and strain data in order to interpret a rapid deformation event on August 15, 2015. The pattern of horizontal displacement during the period from August 14 to 16, 2015, shows a WNW-ESE extension, which suggests the opening of a dike. Using a genetic algorithm, we obtained the position, dip, strike length, width and opening of a dislocation source based on the combined data. A nearly vertical dike with a NNE-SSW strike was found at a depth of 1.0 km below sea level beneath the Showa crater. The length and width are 2.3 and 0.6 km, respectively, and a dike opening of 1.97 m yields a volume increase of 2.7 × 106 m3. 887 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes beside the dike suggest that the rapid opening of the dike caused an accumulation of strain in the surrounding rocks, and the VT earthquakes were generated to release this strain. Half of the total amount of deformation was concentrated between 10:27 and 11:54 on August 15. It is estimated that the magma intrusion rate was 1 × 106 m3/h during this period. This is 200 times larger than the magma intrusion rate prior to one of the biggest eruptions at the summit crater of Minami-dake on July 24, 2012, and 2200 times larger than the average magma intrusion rate during the period from October 2011 to March 2012. The previous Mogi-type ground deformation is considered to be a process of magma accumulation in preexisting spherical reservoirs. Conversely, the August 2015 event was a dike intrusion and occurred in a different location to the preexisting reservoirs. The direction of the opening of the dike coincides with the T-axes and direction of faults creating a graben structure.

  8. Dike construction on the north bank of the La Grande 1 project; Construction de la dique nord de l`amenagement La Grande 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massiera, M. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada); Levay, J. [Societe d`Energie de la Baie James, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1995-08-01

    Sensitive marine clay, delta and river sand, and silt deposits necessitated the construction of a 2444 m long dike on the northern bank of the La Grande 1 (LG-1) power station in northern Quebec. Geological conditions at the LG-1 site and various stages of construction of the dike were described. Emphasis was placed on the construction techniques and foundation treatment. The dike was constructed with side berms in a depression to ensure stability. 14 figs.

  9. Number & operations task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are problems involving place value, fractions, addition, subtraction and using money. The combined task & drill sheets offer spac

  10. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... green tubes suitable for drill pipe), without regard to the specific chemistry of the steel (i.e... general application, consult the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, part 201, subparts A... hearing and make oral presentations should attend a prehearing conference to be held at 9:30 a.m....

  11. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  12. Drilling Systems for Extraterrestrial Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Brennan, M.; Briggs, G.; Cooper, G.; Davis, K.; Dolgin, B.; Glaser, D.; Glass, B.; Gorevan, S.; Guerrero, J.; McKay, C.; Paulsen, G.; Stanley, S.; Stoker, C.

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  13. Flow dynamics in mid-Jurassic dikes and sills of the Ferrar large igneous province and implications for long-distance magma transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Giulia M.; Muirhead, James D.; Long, Sylvan M.; Zanella, Elena; White, James D. L.

    2016-06-01

    Magma flow paths in sill-fed dikes of the Ferrar large igneous province (LIP), contrast with those predicted by classic models of dike transport in LIPs and magmatic rift settings. We examine anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) flow paths in dike networks at Terra Cotta Mountain and Mt. Gran, which intruded at paleodepths of ~ 2.5 and ~ 1.5 km. These intrusions (up to 30 m thick) exhibit irregular, interconnected dike-sill geometries and adjoin larger sills (~ 200-300 m thick) at different stratigraphic levels. Both shallowly dipping and sub-vertical magma flow components are interpreted from AMS measurements across individual intrusions, and often match macroscopic flow indicators and variations in dike attitudes. Flow paths suggest that intrusive patterns and magma flow directions depended on varying stress concentrations and rotations during dike and sill propagation, whereas a regional extensional tectonic control was negligible or absent. Unlike giant dike swarms in LIPs elsewhere (e.g., 1270 Ma MacKenzie LIP), dikes of the Ferrar LIP show no regionally consistent vertical or lateral flow patterns, suggesting these intrusion were not responsible for long-distance transport in the province. In the absence of regionally significant, colinear dike swarms, or observed intrusions at crustal depths ≥ 4 km, we suggest that long distance magma transport occurred in sills within Beacon Supergroup sedimentary rocks. This interpretation is consistent with existing geochemical data and thermal constraints, which support lateral magma flow for ~ 3,500 km across the Gondwana supercontinent before freezing.

  14. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  15. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  16. Hydraulic properties of a model dike from coupled Bayesian and multi-criteria hydrogeophysical inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, J. A.; Rings, J.; Vrugt, J. A.; Sorg, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2010-01-01

    SummaryCoupled hydrogeophysical inversion aims to improve the use of geophysical data for hydrological model parameterization. Several numerical studies have illustrated the feasibility and advantages of a coupled approach. However, there is still a lack of studies that apply the coupled inversion approach to actual field data. In this paper, we test the feasibility of coupled hydrogeophysical inversion for determining the hydraulic properties of a model dike using measurements of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). Our analysis uses a two-dimensional (2D) finite element hydrological model (HYDRUS-2D) coupled to a 2.5D finite element electrical resistivity code (CRMOD), and includes explicit recognition of parameter uncertainty by using a Bayesian and multiple criteria framework with the DREAM and AMALGAM population based search algorithms. To benchmark our inversion results, soil hydraulic properties determined from ERT data are compared with those separately obtained from detailed in situ soil water content measurements using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). Our most important results are as follows. (1) TDR and ERT data theoretically contain sufficient information to resolve most of the soil hydraulic properties, (2) the DREAM-derived posterior distributions of the hydraulic parameters are quite similar when estimated separately using TDR and ERT measurements for model calibration, (3) among all parameters, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the dike material is best constrained, (4) the saturation exponent of the petrophysical model is well defined, and matches independently measured values, (5) measured ERT data sufficiently constrain model predictions of water table dynamics within the model dike. This finding demonstrates an innate ability of ERT data to provide accurate hydrogeophysical parameterizations for flooding events, which is of particular relevance to dike management, and (6) the AMALGAM-derived Pareto front demonstrates trade-off in the

  17. Dike, ius o la libertad irrealizada. Sobre la abstracción del derecho en Hegel

    OpenAIRE

    Maureira, M. (Max)

    2015-01-01

    Hegel prácticamente no habla del derecho romano, sino del derecho abstracto: ¿por qué, pese a conocerlo, no lo menciona como tal? Aclararlo exige volver a lo que mienta el griego dike y el latino ius. Recién a partir de esto se advierte cómo es que, sobre esta base, y sobre lo que abre Kant, al convertir la libertad en principio supremo, Hegel construye su propia concepción del derecho, asentada en su comprensión del espíritu. When Hegel speaks about law in abstract, he hardly mentions Rom...

  18. A distributed fiber optic sensor system for dike monitoring using Brillouin optical frequency domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöther, Nils; Wosniok, Aleksander; Krebber, Katerina; Thiele, Elke

    2008-03-01

    We report on the development of a complete system for spatially resolved detection of critical soil displacement in river embankments. The system uses Brillouin frequency domain analysis (BOFDA) for distributed measurement of strain in silica optical fibers. Our development consists of the measurement unit, an adequate coating for the optical fibers and a technique to integrate the coated optical fibers into geotextiles as they are commonly used in dike construction. We present several laboratory and field tests that prove the capability of the system to detect areas of soil displacement as small as 2 meters. These are the first tests of truly distributed strain measurements on optical fibers embedded into geosynthetics.

  19. Intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust facilitated by magma pulsing and dike-diapir interactions: Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenrong; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Paterson, Scott

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a 2-D thermomechanical modeling study of intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust to explore the roles of multiple pulsing and dike-diapir interactions in the presence of visco-elasto-plastic rheology. Multiple pulsing is simulated by replenishing source regions with new pulses of magma at a certain temporal frequency. Parameterized "pseudo-dike zones" above magma pulses are included. Simulation results show that both diking and pulsing are crucial factors facilitating the magma ascent and emplacement. Multiple pulses keep the magmatic system from freezing and facilitate the initiation of pseudo-dike zones, which in turn heat the host rock roof, lower its viscosity, and create pathways for later ascending pulses of magma. Without diking, magma cannot penetrate the highly viscous upper crust. Without multiple pulsing, a single magma body solidifies quickly and it cannot ascent over a long distance. Our results shed light on the incremental growth of magma chambers, recycling of continental crust, and evolution of a continental arc such as the Sierra Nevada arc in California.

  20. HIGH THROUGHPUT DRILLING OF TITANIUM ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; SHIH Albert Jau-Min

    2007-01-01

    The experiments of high throughput drilling of Ti-6Al-4V at 183 m/min cutting speed and 156 mm3/s material removal rate using a 4 mm diameter WC-Co spiral point drill are conducted. At this material removal rate, it took only 0.57 s to drill a hole in a 6.35 mm thick Ti plate. Supplying the cutting fluid via through-the-drill holes and the balance of cutting speed and feed have proven to be critical for drill life. An inverse heat transfer model is developed to predict the heat flux and the drill temperature distribution in drilling. A three-dimensional finite element modeling of drilling is conducted to predict the thrust force and torque. Experimental result demonstrates that, using proper machining process parameters, tool geometry, and fine-grained WC-Co tool material, the high throughput machining of Ti alloy is technically feasible.

  1. CNPC Exports Drilling Equipment to United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Petroleum Machinery Plant(BPM) of CNPC and Rowan Drilling Company Inc, one of the most powerful drilling service and driller manufacturing companies in the United States signed a petroleum equipment contract on December 9 in Beijing.

  2. Progress Made in Drilling Workers Training Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guozheng; Zhao Zhangbin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Great Wall Drilling Workers Training Centre in North China Petroleum Workers College is specialized in training oil drilling technicians for China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), who will undertake the international contract and recontract.

  3. Zhongyuan Offers Drilling Service for Microbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhiyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ No. 1 Drilling Company of Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau and US-based Microbes Inc.signed a drilling engineering contract for six wells in Jilin Oil Field worth more than 11 million yuan in mid-October 2001.

  4. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  5. Pregnancy following laparoscopy ovarian drilling for clomiphene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She achieved pregnancy following Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling at the Assisted ... Conception following ovarian drilling. Omokanye .... advocated as this will drastically reduce the time to achieve ... laparoscopic laser diathermy in polycystic.

  6. Drilling azimuth gamma embedded design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded drilling azimuth gamma design, the use of radioactive measuring principle embedded gamma measurement while drilling a short section analysis. Monte Carlo method, in response to the density of horizontal well logging numerical simulation of 16 orientation, the orientation of horizontal well analysed, calliper, bed boundary location, space, different formation density, formation thickness, and other factors inclined strata dip the impact by simulating 137Cs sources under different formation conditions of the gamma distribution, to determine the orientation of drilling density tool can detect window size and space, draw depth of the logging methods. The data 360° azimuth imaging, image processing method to obtain graph, display density of the formation, dip and strata thickness and other parameters, the logging methods obtain real-time geo-steering. To establish a theoretical basis for the orientation density logging while drilling method implementation and application of numerical simulation in-depth study of the MWD azimuth and density log response factors of horizontal wells.

  7. Phonetics drills in oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    Phonetics teaching is one of the important parts of English teaching .To improve the students’ pronunciation in oral English ,the paper indicates the relation between English phonetics and oral English, the problems of speech sounds, and the methods of phonetic drills.

  8. Phonetics drills in oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    Phonetics teaching is one of the important parts of English teaching.To improve the students’pronunciation in oral English,the paper indicates the relation between English phonetics and oral English,the problems of speech sounds,and the methods of phonetic drills.

  9. Facility for testing ice drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Delahunty, Chris; Goodge, John W.; Severinghaus, Jeffery P.

    2017-05-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) is designed for subsurface scientific investigations in Antarctica. Its objectives are to drill rapidly through ice, to core samples of the transition zone and bedrock, and to leave behind a borehole observatory. These objectives required the engineering and fabrication of an entirely new drilling system that included a modified mining-style coring rig, a unique fluid circulation system, a rod skid, a power unit, and a workshop with areas for the storage of supplies and consumables. An important milestone in fabrication of the RAID was the construction of a North American Test (NAT) facility where we were able to test drilling and fluid processing functions in an environment that is as close as possible to that expected in Antarctica. Our criteria for site selection was that the area should be cold during the winter months, be located in an area of low heat flow, and be at relatively high elevation. We selected a site for the facility near Bear Lake, Utah, USA. The general design of the NAT well (NAT-1) started with a 27.3 cm (10.75 in.) outer casing cemented in a 152 m deep hole. Within that casing, we hung a 14 cm (5.5 in.) casing string, and, within that casing, a column of ice was formed. The annulus between the 14 and 27.3 cm casings provided the path for circulation of a refrigerant. After in-depth study, we chose to use liquid CO2 to cool the hole. In order to minimize the likelihood of the casing splitting due to the volume increase associated with freezing water, the hole was first cooled and then ice was formed in increments from the bottom upward. First, ice cubes were placed in the inner liner and then water was added. Using this method, a column of ice was incrementally prepared for drilling tests. The drilling tests successfully demonstrated the functioning of the RAID system. Reproducing such a facility for testing of other ice drilling systems could be advantageous to other research programs in the future.

  10. Jet Drilling and Optimizing Parameter Drilling Technology in Shengli Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yue; Peng Junsheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ In Shengli oilfield, remarkable achievements have been obtained in research and tests on the technologies of jet drilling and optimizing parameter drilling, extensive applications of the technologies have greatly improved drilling speed and sharply decreased drilling time and costs, thus achieving excellent social and economic benefits.

  11. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  12. Direction of drilling wells. Wiercenie otworow kierunkowych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, L.

    1980-01-01

    In the example of the most widespread drilling of vertical wells, an examination is made of the mining-geological and technical-technological reasons and methods for evaluating the amount of their twisting. Methods are presented for stabilizing the drilling shaft, features of drilling vertical wells by turbodrills and groups of wells for freezing rocks. Characteristics are presented for the features of directional drilling, model profiles of directed wells, drilling of wells with assigned deviation of the face from the vertical axis. Possibilities are indicated for controlling the trajectory of movement of the face of the well with the rotary method of drilling, in particular, with the use of a deviating wedge, cement plug, etc., methods of drilling inclined wells on cased and uncased sections. Features are examined of creating and controlling the inclination of a well with the use of turbodrills of different design, technology of drilling and casing of multiple-face wells, drilling of a fan of wells from one position of the drilling unit, for example, with unfavorable relief of the earth's surface and drilling of offshore wells by using floating drilling units.

  13. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  14. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71... drilling. In accordance with an approved exploration plan or development and production plan, a lease may be maintained in force by directional wells drilled under the leased area from surface locations...

  15. Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

  16. China Drills Its First "Earth Hole"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qingwen

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 4, 2001, drilling of Kezuan-1 Well, the first continental scientific exploration well in China, was officially kicked off in Donghai County,Jiangsu Province. About 1000 people including high-ranking governmental officials and famous experts attended the drilling ceremony. Vice Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Wan Guoquan pressed the button to start drilling of the exploration well.

  17. ASPECTOS MORFO-FISIOLÓGICOS DA CEBOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da cebola Allium cepa L. ocupa lugar de importância entre as hortaliças cultivadas no Brasil. Em termos de valor da produção, é superada apenas pelo tomate e a batata e, em algumas regiões de São Paulo, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina representa a principal atividade econômica. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar aspectos morfo-fisiológicos importantes em cebola que variam conforme as condições climáticas. Apesar de existir um conhecimento satisfatório, o aprimoramento e desenvolvimento tecnológicos são fundamentais para aumentar a produtividade e normalizar o abastecimento do produto.

  18. LABORATORIO DE HORMONAS: ASPECTOS PRÁCTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René E. Díaz T., DR.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas de laboratorio de análisis hormonales han experimentado grandes progresos en las últimas décadas, actualmente se pueden realizar determinaciones hormonales con gran precisión y automatización, sin embargo, existen muchos elementos que es necesario tener en consideración al momento de interpretar un examen hormonal. El elegir el examen adecuado para la condición que estamos estudiando, el conocer sus limitaciones y potenciales falsos positivos y negativos es parte del conocimiento que es fundamental tener como clínicos. En este artículo se pretende entregar una breve revisión de las principales determinaciones hormonales, orientado a aspectos que puedan ser de utilidad al médico no especialista en su práctica clínica.

  19. El destierro paraguayo: aspectos transnacionales y generacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una contribución al estudio del destierro paraguayo, en el marco del creciente interés académico por los estudios de exilio. Como tal, traza los parámetros históricos de uno de los casos menos estudiados de exilio masivo en el siglo xx en las Américas y analiza el caso de Rafael Barrett (1876-1910, una figura importante de las letras paraguayas, su hijo y nietos. Al examinar el caso de la familia Barrett -en la que se identifican tres generaciones forzadas a desplazarse del lugar natural donde pretendían residir y al cual deseaban retornar- el artículo sugiere la relevancia de investigar los aspectos generacionales y transnacionales de la experiencia exiliar en las Américas.

  20. Aspectos y normas de accesibilidad web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Armando Riaño Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa la diferencia y relación que existe entre los términos de accesibilidad y usabilidad en contextos de software y páginas web. Además con base en la definición de accesibilidad web hace una revisión de las normas y estándares que existen y que son mantenidas por el consorcio internacional W3C con su iniciativa “Web Accessibility Inititive”, con el objetivo de garantizar la accesibilidad a los sitios web por cualquier persona usuario independiente de su estado de discapacidad. Finalmente se enumeran aspectos a tener en cuenta al momento de publicar contenidos en la web y algunas herramientas de validación en línea que permiten validar el cumplimiento de normas de accesibilidad de los sitios web.

  1. Identification of Five Stages of Dike Swarms in the Shanxi-Hebei-Inner Mongolia Border Area and Its Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Ji'an; ZHAI Mingguo; ZHANG L(u)qiao; LI Daming

    2004-01-01

    Dike swarms are generally ascribed to intrusion of mantle-source magma result from extension. Basic dike swarms around the Shanxi-Hebei-Inner Mogolia borders in the northern peripheral area of the North China Craton can be divided into five age groups according to isotopic dating: 1800-1700 Ma, 800-700 Ma, 230 Ma, 140-120 Ma, and 50-40 Ma. Geological, petrological and isotope geochemical features of the five groups is investigated in order to explore the variation of the mantle material composition in the concerned area with time. And the various extensional activities reflected by the five groups of dike swarms are compared with some important tectonic events within the North China Craton as well as around the world during the same period.

  2. Reinforcement of Soft Foundation with Geotextile and Observation for Sea Dike Project of Zhapu Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章香雅; 郑祖祯

    2003-01-01

    The design method of reinforcement of soft foundation with geotextile for the sea dike of the Zhapu Port is discussed in this paper. The prototype behaviours such as pore water pressure, settlement and so on were observed. The degree of consolidation is found out from observed pore water pressure and observed settlement respectively, then the strength increment of soil is calculated and compared with that obtained from vane shear tests. For the use of observed pore water pressure, the consolidation coefficient of soil is deduced approximately with a method named experimental exponential interpolation. The degree of consolidation of the ground is deduced theoretically from the dissipation of pore water pressure. Besides, the logarithmic curve and hyperbola are used to fit the observed time-settlement curve, and the degree of consolidation of soil is obtained according to the definition of the consolidation degree. After preliminary verification with observed prototype data, the method to reinforce the low dike with geotextile is considered to be simple and rational, and it can also reduce the construction cost.

  3. Abundance and distribution of ultramafic microbreccia in Moses Rock Dike: Quantitative application of AIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, John F.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    Moses Rock dike is a Tertiary diatreme containing serpentinized ultramafic microbreccia (SUM). Field evidence indicates the SUM was emplaced first followed by breccias derived from the Permian strata exposed in the walls of the diatreme and finally by complex breccias containing basement and mantle derived rocks. SUM is found primarily dispersed throughout the matrix of the diatreme. Moses Rock dike was examined with Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) to map the distribution and excess of SUM in the matrix and to better understand the nature of the eruption which formed this explosive volcanic feature. AIS data was calibrated by dividing the suite of AIS data by data from an internal standard area and then multiplying this relative reflectance data by the absolute bidirectional reflectance of a selected sample from the standard area which was measured in the lab. From the calibrated AIS data the minerals serpentine, gypsum, and illite as well as desert varnish and the lithologies SUM and other sandstones were identified. SUM distribution and abundance in the matrix of the diatreme were examined in detail and two distinct styles of SUM dispersion were observed. The two styles are discussed in detail.

  4. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  5. Estimation of Flow Resistance Due to Embankments and Spur Dikes during Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Flow resistance is a key factor in predicting the river conveyance capacity and associated water levels. In addition to bed resistance, the obstacles (embankments, spur dikes etc. in the flood plain of a river contribute to the flow resistance. In particular the elevated parts are expected to play an important role. The objective of this study is to develop and parameterize an analytical model for the form drag due to such obstacles. An experimental study was carried out for validation purposes of the developed analytical model. The prototype weir-like structure (in the form of an embankment was modeled as a weir with various leeside slopes. Measurements for energy head losses were carried out for a range of discharges and downstream water levels covering submerged flow conditions. The energy head loss due to submerged dikes was modeled as an expansion loss form drag. The analytical form drag model was estimated using a one-dimensional momentum conservation equation which accounts for the energy loss associated with a deceleration of the flow in the leeside region of the sudden expansion. The predicted losses from the analytical model agreed well with the experimental results. The minor deviations observed could be attributed to downstream slope effects and non- uniform velocity distribution in expansion zone (recirculation region of an embankment.

  6. The Importance of Hydraulic Structures for Society: Quay Walls and Dikes in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gijt J.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since mankind exists, men have undertaken engineering activities to make their life more pleasant and secure. However this has not been an easy task, especially in the past. The knowledge of mathematics and physics to describe engineering problems became available only since 1400-1500. Nevertheless, great achievements have been made by man before that time, e.g. the pyramids in Egypt, the first sluice in China, the Borobudur temple in Indonesia, and the design and building activities of the Inca’s in South America. To illustrate this development, also the world economy, world ecology will be shortly mentioned. The structures that are briefly discussed in this paper are: soil and concrete dams for generating electricity, reservoirs for irrigation and drinking water, dikes, sluices, inland and sea, tunnels, and quay walls. This paper presents an overview of hydraulic structures in general with the emphasis on quay walls and dikes in the Netherlands. Examples of these structures will be discussed illustrating present state of the art and also with a view to the future. Conclusions and recommendations are given to enhance the knowledge of hydraulic structures.

  7. Aspectos da pesquisa sobre tipologia textual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Travaglia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo chama a atenção dos pesquisadores sobre tipologiatextual, na área da Linguística Textual, sobre aspectos que sãoimportantes para que estas pesquisas gerem conclusões egeneralizações mais confiáveis. Os pontos comentados são: a anecessidade de uma teoria tipológica geral de textos que inclusivedetermine se as categorias de texto são todas da mesma natureza. Oautor propõe uma teoria geral; b a necessidade de estudos maishorizontalizados ou amplos que estabeleçam campos de pesquisa ede estudos mais verticalizados, que aprofundam o conhecimentode pontos específicos; c os aspectos metodológicos para superarproblemas no levantamento das categorias de texto existentes emuma sociedade e cultura, em suas diversas comunidades discursivase esferas de ação social; d a questão dos parâmetros e critérios paraconsiderar uma categoria de texto como sendo uma categoria e seela é de determinada natureza; e a questão dos critérios e parâmetrospara a caracterização das categorias de texto; f a necessidade deestudar as diversas relações de diferentes tipos que podem ocorrerentre as categorias de texto (de diferentes naturezas, tanto em suacomposição quanto em seu funcionamento sociodiscursivo; e g aatenção que merece a questão teminológica.

  8. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Artem Vladimirovich; Isaev, Evgeniy Dmitrievich; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the surve...

  9. REDUCTION OF AN ADVERSE IMPACT DURING WELL DRILLING BY MEANS OF DRILLING WASTE USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov; Igor Konstantinovich Suprun

    2017-01-01

    The problem of drilling waste utilisation is assumed to be resolved through the implementation of the complex of environment protection production engineering measures. This includes, firstly, the usage in the process of well drilling of drilling mud on the basis of water-soluble biodegradable polymers and a four-stage drilling mud refining system. Secondly, the usage of the well site construction with trenching for allocation of expressed bore mud and a temporary ground tank for drilling was...

  10. REDUCTION OF AN ADVERSE IMPACT DURING WELL DRILLING BY MEANS OF DRILLING WASTE USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of drilling waste utilisation is assumed to be resolved through the implementation of the complex of environment protection production engineering measures. This includes, firstly, the usage in the process of well drilling of drilling mud on the basis of water-soluble biodegradable polymers and a four-stage drilling mud refining system. Secondly, the usage of the well site construction with trenching for allocation of expressed bore mud and a temporary ground tank for drilling waste water.

  11. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a

  12. THE UNITED METHOD FOR THE CALCULATION OF SEEPAGE CONTROL BY ADOPTING WEIGHTING SOIL LAYER ON THE BACK SIDE OF DIKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Constructing a weighting soil layer at the downstream toe of dike on layered ground is an effective measure to prevent the foundation from blowout failures. In this paper, a series of differential equations describing the seepage flow in layered dike foundation were established, and a united method combining analytic method with one-dimensional finite difference method was proposed for solving the equations. The case study shows that the results calculated by the united method are considerably identical to the computational results of Finite Element Method (FEM), and the united method is very simple and easy compared to the FEM.

  13. Improved Hardfacing for Drill Bits and Drilling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Albert; Sreshta, Harry; Qiu, Bao He

    2011-01-01

    New flame spray hardfacing, DSH (DuraShell® Steel Hardfacing, US patent pending), was developed to improve thermal conductivity, abrasion wear, and erosion resistance for subterranean drilling application. The materials consisted of spherical cast WC/W2C and Ni-Si-B alloy powders. The hardfacing compositions were tailored for various processes such as flame spray and laser cladding. Typically, the hardfacing comprised hard tungsten carbide particles being uniformly distributed in a tough Ni-alloy matrix. The hardness of WC/W2C exceeded 2300 Hv.3 and that of Ni-alloy matrix varied from about 400 to 700 Hv.3. High- and low-stress abrasion resistances of these hardfacing materials were characterized and compared to the conventional hard coatings of cast WC/W2C and Ni-Cr-Si-B-Fe. The increase in thermal, wear, and erosion resistances of the hardfacing improved the durability of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) steel body bit and drilling tools and their cost-effective performance. Several case studies of DSH hardfacings on drill bits were described.

  14. Approximately-Balanced Drilling in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Bairu; Zheng Xiuhua; Li Guoqing; Tian Tuo

    2004-01-01

    The Daqing oilfield is a multilayered heterogeneous oil field where the pressure are different in the same vertical profile causing many troubles to the adjustment well drillings. The approximately-balanced drilling technique has been developed and proved to be efficient and successful in Daqing oilfield. This paper discusses the application of approximately-balanced drilling technique under the condition of multilayered pressure in Daqing oilfield, including the prediction of formation pressure, the pressure discharge technique for the drilling well and the control of the density of drilling fluid.

  15. Long hole waterjet drilling for gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Stockwell; M. Gledhill; S. Hildebrand; S. Adam; Tim Meyer [CMTE (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. The objective of this project is to develop and trial a new drilling method for the accurate and efficient installation of long inseam boreholes (>1000 metres). This involves the integration of pure water-jet drilling technology (i.e. not water-jet assisted rotary drilling) developed by CMTE with conventional directional drilling technology. The system was similar to conventional directional drilling methods, but instead of relying on a down-hole-motor (DHM) rotating a mechanical drill bit for cutting, high pressure water-jets were used. The testing of the system did not achieve the full objectives set down in the project plan. A borehole greater than 1000 metres was not achieved. The first trial site had coal that was weathered, oxidized and dry. These conditions significantly affected the ability of the drilling tool to stay 'in-seam'. Due to the poor conditions at the first trial, many experimental objectives were forwarded to the second field trial. In the second trial drilling difficulties were experienced, this was due to the interaction between the confinement of the borehole and the dimensions of the down hole drilling assembly. This ultimately reduced the productivity of the system and the distance that could be drilled within the specified trial periods. Testing in the first field trial did not show any indication that the system would have this difficulty.

  16. Modeling and experimentation of bone drilling forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuEun; Gozen, B Arda; Ozdoganlar, O Burak

    2012-04-05

    Prediction and control of bone drilling forces are critical to the success of many orthopaedic operations. Uncontrolled and large forces can cause drill-bit breakage, drill breakthrough, excessive heat generation, and mechanical damage to the bone. This paper presents a mechanistic model for prediction of thrust forces and torques experienced during bone drilling. The model incorporates the radially varying drill-bit geometry and cutting conditions analytically, while capturing the material and friction properties empirically through a specific energy formulation. The forces from the chisel edge are modeled by considering the indentation process that occurs in the vicinity of the drill-bit axis. A procedure is outlined to calibrate the specific energies, where only a small number of calibration experiments are required for a wide range of drilling conditions and drill-bit geometry. The calibration parameters for the cortical portions of bovine tibia are identified through drilling tests. Subsequently, a series of validation tests are conducted under different feed rates and spindle speeds. The thrust forces and torques were observed to vary considerably between bones from different animals. The forces from the model were seen to match well with those from the experimentation within the inherent variations from the bone characteristics. The model can be used to select favorable drilling conditions, to assist in robotic surgeries, and to design optimal orthopaedic drill bits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FY 1983 Funding for ocean drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Proposed funding for scientific ocean drilling within the National Science Foundation (NSF) in fiscal 1983 totals $14 million, $6 million less than the current fiscal 1982 plan and about half of the original FY 1982 budget request of $26 million. However, there is more to these numbers than simple subtraction: Additional funding for scientific ocean drilling programs is on hold while decisions are being made about a future drilling program called Advanced Ocean Drilling (AOD).With the demise of the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP) when industry withdrew its support (Eos, October 20, 1981, p. 705) and with the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) long ago scheduled to end in fiscal 1983, the future for scientific ocean drilling within NSF was uncertain. To steer ocean drilling toward scientific objectives for the decade, the Conference on Scientific Ocean Drilling (COSOD) (Eos, December 22, 1981, p. 1197) examined four ocean drilling options and decided that the Glomar Explorer, converted to the current capabilities of the DSDP mainstay Glomar Challenger (i.e., without riser and well-control technologies), would meet scientific objectives through the decade. In December, the National Research Council's Committee on Ocean Margin Drilling came to the identical conclusion in its interim report. Both of these decisions were based solely on scientific merit and did not consider costs.

  18. Heliportable drilling in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argue, F. [Academy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Korach, D. [Nabors Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Read, M. [Nabors Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The access season for conventional ice roads has been reduced. Therefore, efficient drilling programs are required for a short winter drilling, and long wells are not able to compete in one season. Heliportable drilling provides non-ice access. This presentation outlined the merits of heliportable drilling in the twenty-first century. Conventional heliportable drilling was discussed and several images of current and past heliportable drilling rigs were presented. New technologies were also illustrated and discussed, with particular reference to the Mi26T enabler, a Russian super heavy lift helicopter, leased to Airborne Energy Solutions. Operating data for the Mi26T was also presented and the heli-drill system was explained. Several twenty-first century heli-rigs were also illustrated and described, including rig 119H, rig 103AC, rig 106E, rig 99AC, and rig 105E. Last, the presentation identified the next steps for heli-rigs. tabs., figs.

  19. Natural foreshores as an alternative to traditional dike re-enforcements: a field pilot in the large shallow lake Markermeer, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, W.E.; Steetzel, H.J.; Santen, van R.; Fiselier, J.; Lange, de H.J.; Vuik, V.; Ouwerkerk, S.; Thiel de Vries, van J.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural foreshores are shallow zones and beaches with a gradual slope and a (near-)natural vegetation that can be used
    as an additional protection against flooding by reducing the wave attack on existing dikes, or can even completely
    replace an existing dike system. In order to test the

  20. Aspectos neurológicos da Pelagra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Marques

    1944-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudadas as várias questões gerais da Pelagra, nomeadamente os aspectos clínicos e etiopatogênicos. As formas clássicas se traduzem por manifestações intensificadas na época de maior insolação e evidenciadas por desordens da pele, do aparelho digestivo e sistema nervoso. Lembra o autor que, não obstante se deva ter em primeira conta esses aspectos do mal, na prática não se podem descuidar os oligossintomáticos, frustos e larvados. Com referência a tais formas, acredita ser de grande importância salientar os exemplares em que se não encontram sintomas cutâneos e configuram a "Pelagra sine Pelagra". A seguir, procura mostrar a freqüência dos aspectos neurológicos e psiquiátricos da condição e afirma que, se não se descrevem mais amiúde, é porque os médicos que se ocupam da Pelagra, descuidam de esmiuçar a existência de sinais e sintomas nervosos e mentais muito sutis que com freqüência passam despercebidos. Também recorda que os aspectos neurológicos da Pelagra não se encontram mais vezes, porque, via de regra, só se diagnostica a doença quando as lesões cutâneas são evidentes; de hábito deixam-se de lado os exemplares de "Pelagra Sine Pelagra", os de tradução clínica destituída de eritema ou outros fenômenos dermatológicos. Baseado na sua experiência, diz que as manifestações nervosas e mentais da Pelagra são em muito maior número do que é de supor-se. Para documentar essa afirmação, recorda a observação que tem feito em mais de uma oportunidade e os casos publicados pelos autores brasileiros; nem só os registados especialmente do ponto de vista neurológico mas, também, aqueles em que se não deu particular apreço a esse aspecto e em que a simples leitura das observações evidencia fenômenos neuro-psiquiátricos muito caraterísticos. Os quatro exemplares relatados no trabalho, foram colhidos do Serviço de Clínica Neurológica do Hospital Getúlio Vargas. Dois deles

  1. Downhole drilling motors: technical review. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.; McDonald, W.J.; Nixon, J.D.; Matson, L.W.

    1977-08-01

    Dyna-Drills and turbodrills are used primarily for directional drilling where it is critical that the drillpipe not be rotated. These tools are not widely used for straight-hole drilling because of problems with bearing failures, low power outputs, low bit pressures, and high rotary speeds. The high rotary speeds produce bit bearing failures in 10 to 15 h, compared to 100 to 200 h life at lower rotary speeds. The technology now exists to develop reliable high-torque motors which will operate roller bits at speeds of 150 to 250 RPM and diamond bits at speeds of 400 to 800 RPM for periods of 100 to 200 hours. Sealed bearing assemblies which allow the bearings to operate in lubricant are being developed. These improved bearings allow bits to operate at the high bit weights needed for optimum drilling. Improved drilling motors can reduce drilling costs to significantly increase the number of wells drilled per drilling rig per year. Now, this is increasingly important because of the drilling rig shortage developing in this country. At least ten companies are working on the development of improved drilling motors and it is likely that several of these new motors will become commercially available within the next 2 to 3 years. Several companies are working on the development of improved high speed roller bits for use on drilling motors. The development of these high speed bits should significantly increase the use of drilling motors since bit bearing failures are a major problem when drilling with motors. The development of reliable, high-speed STRATAPAX bits should also increase motor useage since these bits drilling most effectively at rotary speeds of 300 to 500 RPM.

  2. Reducing temperature elevation of robotic bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Arne; Wandel, Jasmin; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    This research work aims at reducing temperature elevation of bone drilling. An extensive experimental study was conducted which focused on the investigation of three main measures to reduce the temperature elevation as used in industry: irrigation, interval drilling and drill bit designs. Different external irrigation rates (0 ml/min, 15 ml/min, 30 ml/min), continuously drilled interval lengths (2 mm, 1 mm, 0.5 mm) as well as two drill bit designs were tested. A custom single flute drill bit was designed with a higher rake angle and smaller chisel edge to generate less heat compared to a standard surgical drill bit. A new experimental setup was developed to measure drilling forces and torques as well as the 2D temperature field at any depth using a high resolution thermal camera. The results show that external irrigation is a main factor to reduce temperature elevation due not primarily to its effect on cooling but rather due to the prevention of drill bit clogging. During drilling, the build up of bone material in the drill bit flutes result in excessive temperatures due to an increase in thrust forces and torques. Drilling in intervals allows the removal of bone chips and cleaning of flutes when the drill bit is extracted as well as cooling of the bone in-between intervals which limits the accumulation of heat. However, reducing the length of the drilled interval was found only to be beneficial for temperature reduction using the newly designed drill bit due to the improved cutting geometry. To evaluate possible tissue damage caused by the generated heat increase, cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM43) were calculated and it was found that the combination of small interval length (0.5 mm), high irrigation rate (30 ml/min) and the newly designed drill bit was the only parameter combination which allowed drilling below the time-thermal threshold for tissue damage. In conclusion, an optimized drilling method has been found which might also enable drilling in more

  3. Device for purifying drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, V.T.; Dorosh, M.M.; Khariv, I.Yu.; Makedonov, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device is proposed for purifying drilling mud which includes a dynamic filter made in the form of a spiral-shaped tube with input and output sleeves, and a container for purified solution with outlet sleeve. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify the design, the spiral-shaped tube is perforated from the inside and is installed in the container for the purified solution.

  4. Modeling of Drilling Forces Based on Twist Drill Point Angles Using Multigene Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong-Il Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model was developed for predicting the influence of the drill point angles on the cutting forces in drilling with the twist drills, which was used to optimize those angles for reducing drilling forces. The approach was based on multigene genetic programming, for the training data, the grinding tests of twist drill were firstly conducted for the different drill point angles in Biglide parallel machine, and then drilling tests were performed on carbon fiber reinforced plastics using the grinded drills. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was verified through comparing with published data. It was found that the proposed model agreed well with the experimental data and was useful for improving the performance of twist drill.

  5. Coping with the uncertainties in the climate change adaptation of river dikes using risk-aversion economic optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Maskey, S.

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee a safe flood defence in a changing environment, the adaptation to climate change needs to be considered in the design of river dikes. However, the large uncertainty in the projections of future climate leads to varied estimations of future flood probability. How to cope with the uncerta

  6. Coping with the uncertainties in the climate change adaptation of river dikes using risk-aversion economic optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Maskey, S.

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee a safe flood defence in a changing environment, the adaptation to climate change needs to be considered in the design of river dikes. However, the large uncertainty in the projections of future climate leads to varied estimations of future flood probability. How to cope with the

  7. Evidence of Gondwana early rifting process recorded by Resende-Ilha Grande Dike Swarm, southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Eliane; Heilbron, Monica; de Morisson Valeriano, Claudio; de Almeida, Julio César Horta; Szatmari, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Continental flood basalts and dike swarm have been related to continental breakup process through geological time. The Resende - Ilha Grande Dike swarm (RIGDS) located in the southeast Brazil, is related the Gondwana breakup and composed of dikes/sills intruded in Precambrian gneiss. The dikes have three distinguish orientations: NNW more inland; NS-NNE in the central segment and NE orientation in the coast line, consistent with Precambrian structural lineaments. The swarm comprises high-TiO2 tholeiitic basalts divided into three suites based on REE and Sr and Nd isotope data. The Resende and Volta Redonda suites present higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.7077 and 0.7065, while Angra dos Reis suite presents values of 0.7066 to 0.7057. Geochemical and isotopic data support the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) as the main source for the high-TiO2 basalts. The suites heterogeneities are explained by different compositions of SCLM in accreted Precambrian terranes and/or different degree of partial melting and fractional. 40Ar/39Ar data indicate age interval between ca. 156 to 144 Ma for the swarm, older than the average for Gondwana breakup (ca. 130-120 Ma). The age interval places the RIGDS between the Karoo magmatism (181-178 Ma) and the Paraná-Etendeka magmatism (133-134 Ma) and indicates that extensional process affected the supercontinent prior the break-up.

  8. Manma—Fluid Transition and the Genesis of Pegmatite Dike No.3,Altay,Xinjiang,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢焕章; 王中刚; 等

    1997-01-01

    The physico-chemical conditions under which the pegmatite dyke No.3 was formed were discussed in the light of fluid-melt inclusion evidence.Our results lend support to the fractionation of hydrothermal solutions from magma,For the pegmatite dike No.3,the magmaderived hydrothermal solutions are dominated by NaCl+CO2+H2O.

  9. A Method for Determination of in Run-Up Front Velocities on Dikes in Oblique and Short-Crested Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a physical model test study to improve description of run-up events on dikes in oblique long and short-crested waves in terms of flow depth, flow velocities and overtopping. The paper focus on the flow velocities and a new method is proposed for determining flow velocities...

  10. Toxicologia do tolueno: aspectos relacionados ao abuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia M.K. Forster

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O tolueno está presente em muitos produtos de uso doméstico e industrial e é o principal solvente envolvido no abuso de substâncias e na exposição ocupacional. O problema mais grave no estudo de patologias relacionadas ao tolueno é que este está geralmente associado, em suas preparações comerciais, a outras substâncias. O potencial tóxico do tolueno foi abordado nos seguintes aspectos: parâmetros farmacológicos; características físico-químicas; exposição; estudos clínicos; diagnóstico; pesquisa experimental; tolerância e dependência; efeitos agudos e crônicos; neurotoxicidade; teratogenicidade; doenças psiquiátricas; carcinogenicidade e tratamento. Conclui-se ser de grande importância e urgência que se realizem estudos clínicos com amostras maiores para definição mais precisa das conseqüências do uso crônico

  11. Toxicologia do tolueno: aspectos relacionados ao abuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Letícia M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available O tolueno está presente em muitos produtos de uso doméstico e industrial e é o principal solvente envolvido no abuso de substâncias e na exposição ocupacional. O problema mais grave no estudo de patologias relacionadas ao tolueno é que este está geralmente associado, em suas preparações comerciais, a outras substâncias. O potencial tóxico do tolueno foi abordado nos seguintes aspectos: parâmetros farmacológicos; características físico-químicas; exposição; estudos clínicos; diagnóstico; pesquisa experimental; tolerância e dependência; efeitos agudos e crônicos; neurotoxicidade; teratogenicidade; doenças psiquiátricas; carcinogenicidade e tratamento. Conclui-se ser de grande importância e urgência que se realizem estudos clínicos com amostras maiores para definição mais precisa das conseqüências do uso crônico

  12. Automatic detection of reservoir influx in conventional drilling, managed pressure drilling and dual gradient drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Sigmund

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir influxes, or kicks, are well control incidents with the potential of severe consequences to health, safety and the environment, as well as economics. Although the main focus will always be to prevent such incidents from happening, drilling crew will also need to be able to spot reservoir influx as quickly as possible. This thesis presents a method for automated detection of reservoir influx or losses based on simulations of the surface circulation system. Theoretical background...

  13. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  14. Uav Application in Coastal Environment, Example of the Oleron Island for Dunes and Dikes Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, B.; Pouget, F.

    2015-08-01

    The recent evolutions in civil UAV ease of use led the University of La Rochelle to conduct an UAV program around its own potential costal application. An application program involving La Rochelle University and the District of Oleron Island began in January 2015 and lasted through July of 2015. The aims were to choose 9 study areas and survey them during the winter season. The studies concerned surveying the dikes and coastal sand dunes of Oleron Island. During each flight, an action sport camera fixed on the UAV's brushless gimbal took a series of 150 pictures. After processing the photographs and using a 3D reconstruction plugin via Photoscan, we were able to export high-resolution ortho-imagery, DSM and 3D models. After applying GIS treatment to these images, volumetric evolutions between flights were revealed through a DDVM (Difference of Digital volumetric Model), in order to study sand movements on coastal sand dunes.

  15. UAV APPLICATION IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENT, EXAMPLE OF THE OLERON ISLAND FOR DUNES AND DIKES SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guillot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent evolutions in civil UAV ease of use led the University of La Rochelle to conduct an UAV program around its own potential costal application. An application program involving La Rochelle University and the District of Oleron Island began in January 2015 and lasted through July of 2015. The aims were to choose 9 study areas and survey them during the winter season. The studies concerned surveying the dikes and coastal sand dunes of Oleron Island. During each flight, an action sport camera fixed on the UAV’s brushless gimbal took a series of 150 pictures. After processing the photographs and using a 3D reconstruction plugin via Photoscan, we were able to export high-resolution ortho-imagery, DSM and 3D models. After applying GIS treatment to these images, volumetric evolutions between flights were revealed through a DDVM (Difference of Digital volumetric Model, in order to study sand movements on coastal sand dunes.

  16. Subcircular conduits and dikes offshore the Somma-Vesuvius volcano revealed by magnetic and seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, V.; Passaro, S.; Fedi, M.; Marino, C.; Tamburrino, S.; Ventura, G.

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed new magnetic, bathymetric, and seismic data acquired in the offshore sector of Somma-Vesuvius volcano (Italy). We detected a group of high-intensity, short wavelength magnetic anomalies corresponding to partly buried volcanic dome-like structures located by seismic data. The magnetic anomalies are aligned along a NW-SE strike that is the preferential orientation of an eruptive fracture of the pre-19 ka activity of Vesuvius. Three cones emplaced before the Last Glacial Maximum, whereas a fourth one emplaced after 19 ka suggesting a rejuvenation of the eruptive system offshore the volcano in historical times. We also identified a NE-SW elongated magnetic anomaly consistent with a dike-like body associated to an on-land tectonic structure that was active in recent times at Vesuvius. A delta-like area with diffuse low-intensity magnetic anomalies reflects the seaward fronts of lava flows that entered the sea mainly during the Middle Ages.

  17. [Energy value evaluation of dike-pond agro-ecological engineering modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Peng, Shaolin; Lan, Shengfang; Chen, Feipeng

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, energy value analysis and new energy index for sustainable development (EISD) were used to evaluate three different dike-pond agro-ecological engineering modes in Sanshui city of Pearl River Delta in system and subsystem levels. The result showed that mode III was the best in its sustainable development ability. The EISD of mode III was 58.3% and 29.7% higher than that of modes I and II. With a higher economic benefit and higher environmental loading, the planting subsystem had the lowest sustainability. Although the economic benefit of stock raising subsystem was not high, its indirect benefit was higher. With a higher economic benefit and a lower environmental loading, fishing subsystem had the highest sustainability.

  18. Monogenetic volcanoes fed by interconnected dikes and sills in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, James D.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Re, Giuseppe; White, James D. L.; Ort, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Although monogenetic volcanic fields pose hazards to major cities worldwide, their shallow magma feeders (volcanic field, Arizona, to shed light on the nature of its magma feeder system. Shallow exposures reveal a transition zone between intrusion and eruption within 350 m of the syn-eruptive surface. Using a combination of field- and satellite-based observations, we have identified three types of shallow magma systems: (1) dike-dominated, (2) sill-dominated, and (3) interconnected dike-sill networks. Analysis of vent alignments using the pyroclastic massifs and other eruptive centers (e.g., maar-diatremes) shows a NW-SE trend, parallel to that of dikes in the region. We therefore infer that dikes fed many of the eruptions. Dikes are also observed in places transforming to transgressive (ramping) sills. Estimates of the observable volume of dikes (maximum volume of 1.90 × 106 m3) and sills (minimum volume of 8.47 × 105 m3) in this study reveal that sills at Hopi Buttes make up at least 30 % of the shallow intruded volume (∼2.75 × 106 m3 total) within 350 m of the paeosurface. We have also identified saucer-shaped sills, which are not traditionally associated with monogenetic volcanic fields. Our study demonstrates that shallow feeders in monogenetic fields can form geometrically complex networks, particularly those intruding poorly consolidated sedimentary rocks. We conclude that the Hopi Buttes eruptions were primarily fed by NW-SE-striking dikes. However, saucer-shaped sills also played an important role in modulating eruptions by transporting magma toward and away from eruptive conduits. Sill development could have been accompanied by surface uplifts on the order of decimeters. We infer that the characteristic feeder systems described here for the Hopi Buttes may underlie monogenetic fields elsewhere, particularly where magma intersects shallow, and often weak, sedimentary rocks. Results from this study support growing evidence of the

  19. Melt evolution in felsic dikes inferred from the composition of gahnite in two new occurrences, Pala Chief and Elizabeth R composite dikes, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Adriana; Yonts, Jason A.; Wise, Michael A.

    2016-06-01

    We report the occurrence and composition of gahnite ([Zn,Fe,Mg,Mn]Al2O4) in aplites of the Pala Chief and Elizabeth R layered pegmatite-aplite dikes, Pala District, California, and the significance for felsic melt evolution. The aplite is characterized by alternating bands of white, fine-grained plagioclase + quartz + muscovite +/- black tourmaline and thin laminations defined by concentrations of reddish-brown garnet ("line rock"). Accessory gahnite occurs as extremely fine-grained (50-250 μm) green to bluish-green crystals. Gahnite compositions in both occurrences are similar and defined by end-member ranges Ghn83.5-90.9Hc8.7-15Spl0-1.4. Zinc contents in gahnite are high (36.7-39.5 wt.% ZnO for Pala Chief, 37.2-40.2 wt.% ZnO for Elizabeth R), the MgO and MnO contents are negligible (< 0.7 wt.%), and Fe is the main substitution present (< 6.9 wt.% FeO). Gahnite is chemically zoned and characterized by higher Zn (< 2 wt.% ZnO) and lower Fe, Mg, and Mn contents in rims compared to cores, which shows the substitution mechanism, and reflects fast growth during melt evolution via fractional crystallization followed by fast cooling. Compositional variations are greater within individual crystals than among crystals and between laminations, which indicate a homogeneous melt at the aplite scale. Compared with the composition of gahnite from pegmatites worldwide, the studied gahnite reflects a moderate degree of melt evolution. This study confirms the incompatible character of Zn in evolving pegmatite-aplite melts and shows the usefulness of gahnite as a petrogenetic indicator. Because gahnite is a resistant mineral, surficial findings of gahnite with very low Mg contents and Zn contents similar or higher than those measured here may indicate a source of granitic pegmatite-aplite.

  20. Aspectos Bioéticos de los Cuidados Paliativos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Artavia, Allan

    2012-01-01

    El presente ensayo busca dar a conocer los principales aspectos bioéticos relacionados con los cuidados paliativos. Con este fin,primeramente se hace un recorrido por la significancia de los conceptos, para luego analizar algunos aspectos relacionados con con la ética delos cuidados paliativos tales como el tratamiento apropiado, la nutrición e hidratación, y la posición frente a la eutanasia. Posteriormente discute algunos aspectos relacionados con la muerte digna y con el morir como acto hu...

  1. Transformando diseños orientados a aspectos en código orientado a aspectos

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelahad, Corina; Riesco, Daniel Eduardo; Baigorria, Lorena; Montejano, Germán Antonio

    2011-01-01

    La ingeniería de Software sigue en constante evolución, y con ella se van introduciendo nuevos conceptos los cuales logran obtener una programación de más alto nivel. La Programación Orientada a Objetos (POO) ha sido uno de los avances más importantes en ha tenido la ingeniería de software. Sin embargo existen aspectos que entrecruzan y atraviesan todo el sistema (crosscutting concern) y que no pueden ser totalmente separados con esta técnica. En consecuencia, nace la Programación Orientada a...

  2. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.

    2015-10-22

    The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.

  3. Geochronology and geochemistry of the high Mg dioritic dikes in Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Geochemical features, petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hua-Yong; Hollings, Pete; Cao, Ming-Jian; Fang, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Lu, Wan-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages of high Mg dioritic dikes in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China indicate that they were emplaced in the Early Carboniferous at 353-348 Ma. The dikes consist of medium-grained plagioclase and hornblende with minor clinopyroxene and trace quartz. They are characterized by intermediate SiO2 (60-62 wt.%), low TiO2 (0.63-0.71 wt.%), relatively high Al2O3 (15.1-15.8 wt.%) and MgO contents (3.45-4.15 wt.%) with Mg# generally higher than 56 (56-59). The geochemistry of the high Mg diorites suggest they were formed by similar magmatic processes to sanukitoid high Mg Andesites such as those of the Setouchi volcanic belt, Japan. Zircons from the high Mg dioritic dikes have εHf(t) values of -6.8 to +14.5. The dominantly positive values suggest a juvenile source, whereas the small number of negative values suggests mature components were also incorporated into the source. Similarly, the positive εNd(t) values (0 to +2.2) are interpreted to reflect a juvenile source whereas the negative values of (-5.2 to 0) suggest participation of old crustal rocks in the petrogenesis of the diorites. The variable εHf(t) and εNd(t) values suggest that the mature material was assimilated during magma ascent rather than in the mantle wedge which would result in more uniform values. Mass balance calculations suggest that the dioritic dikes were derived from sources composed of approximately 97% juvenile mantle-derived material and 3% sediment. Petrographic, elemental, and isotopic evidence suggest that the dioritic dikes were generated by partial melting of depleted mantle that migrated into the shallow crust where it assimilated older sedimentary rocks of the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group.

  4. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of Early Cretaceous Mafic Dikes in Northern Jiangxi Province, SE China and Their Geodynamic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guiqing; HU Ruizhong; MAO Jingwen; LI Ruiling; CAO Jinjian; JIANG Guohao; QI Liang

    2005-01-01

    The development of Early Cretaceous mafic dikes in northern and southern Jiangxi allows an understanding of the geodynamic setting and characteristics of the mantle in southeast China in the Cretaceous. Geological and geochemical characteristics for the mafic dikes from the Wushan copper deposit and No. 640 uranium deposit are given in order to constrain the nature of source mantle, genesis and tectonic implications. According to the mineral composition,the mafic dikes in northern Jiangxi can be divided into spessartite and olive odinite types, which belong to slightly potassium-rich calc-alkaline lamprophyre characterized by enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), large depletion in high strength field elements (HSFE) and with negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, as well as 87Sr/86Sr ratios varying from 0.7055 to 0.7095 and 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying from 0.5119 to 0.5122.All features indicate that the magma responsible for the mafic dikes was derived mainly from metasomatic lithosphere mantle related to dehydration and/or upper crust melting during subduction. Differences in geochemical characteristics between the mafic dikes in northern Jiangxi and the Dajishan area, southern Jiangxi were also studied and they are attributed to differences in regional lithosphefic mantle components and/or magma emplacement depth. Combining geological and geochemical characteristics with regional geological history, we argue that southeast China was dominated by an extensional tectonic setting in the Early Cretaceous, and the nature of the mantle source area was related to enrichment induced by asthenosphere upwelling and infiltration of upper crust-derived fluids responding to Pacific Plate subduction.

  5. An Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic pole from Ponta Grossa dikes (Brazil): Implications for the South American Mesozoic apparent polar wander path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeu Raposo, Maria Irene; Ernesto, Marcia

    1995-10-01

    Paleomagnetic results from the Early Cretaceous Ponta Grossa dike swarm are reported. These dikes crosscut sediments and basement rocks associated with the Ponta Grossa Arch, a tectonic feature in the eastern border of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Paraná Basin. These dikes are vertical or subvertical and trend mainly NW and NE. Samples from 127 dikes were submitted to both alternating field and thermal demagnetizations; 121 of them yielded characteristic directions interpreted as original thermal remanent magnetizations. Both normal and reversed polarities as well as intermediate directions (6 dikes) are recorded. The paleomagnetic pole is located at 30.3°E, 82.4°S (N=115; α95=2.0° k=43.8). This pole along with the available paleomagnetic poles for the Paraná Basin volcanics (Serra Geral Formation), recalculated in this paper in the light of reported 40Ar/39Ar ages describe an apparent polar wander path segment corresponding to a clockwise rotation (~6.9°) of the South American plate. This movement is compatible with the initial phase of the South Atlantic opening with rifting progressing from south to north. However, the calculated plate velocity is higher than the predicted velocities reported so far based on oceanic floor magnetic anomalies. The new data reported in this paper allowed the calculation of a mean Early Cretaceous pole (60.3°E, 83.8°S N=7, α95=2.9°) which can be discriminated from the Middle-Late Jurassic (191.3°E, 86.2°S N=3, α95=7.8°) and Late Cretaceous (346.5°E, 84.1°S N=5, α95=4.9°) mean poles for South America, indicating a more complex movement of the continent than the simple east-west drift generally proposed.

  6. The role of diffusion-controlled oscillatory nucleation in the formation of line rock in pegmatite-aplite dikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, K.L.; Falster, A.U.; Simmons, W.B.; Foord, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    The George Ashley Block (GAB), located in the Pala Pegmatite District, San Diego County, California, is a composite pegmatite-aplite dike of 8 m thickness displaying striking mineralogical layering in the aphte portion of the dike, referred to as line rock. Rhythmic layering is characterized by garnet-rich bands alternating with albite-quartz-muscovite-rich bands. Cumulus textures are notably absent from the layered portion of the dike. Elongated quartz, megacrysts are oriented perpendicular to the garnet-rich layers and poikilitically include garnet, albite, and muscovite. Calculated crystal-free magma viscosity with 3% H2O is 106.2 Pa s and the calculated settling velocity for garnet is 0??51 cm/year. Conductive cooling calculations based on emplacement of a 650??C dike into 150?? C fractured gabbroic country rock at 1??5 kbar, and accounting for latent heat of crystallization, demonstrate that the line rock portion of the dike cools to 550?? C in about 1 year. Crystal size distribution studies also suggest very rapid nucleation and crystallization. Diffusion-controlled gel crystallization experiments yield textures virtually identical to those observed in the layered aplite, including rhythmic banding, colloform layering, and band discontinuities. Thus, observed textures and calculated magmatic parameters suggest that mineralogical layering in the GAB results from an in situ diffusion-controlled process of oscillatory nucleation and crystallization. We propose that any event that promotes strong undercooling has the potential to initiate rapid heterogeneous nucleation and oscillatory crystal growth, leading to the development of a layer of excluded components in front of the crystallization front, and the formation of line rock.

  7. New optimized drill pipe size for deep-water, extended reach and ultra-deep drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, Michael J.; Delgado, Ivanni [Grant Prideco, Inc., Hoston, TX (United States); Falcao, Jose Luiz; Sato, Ademar Takashi [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moura, Carlos Amsler [Comercial Perfuradora Delba Baiana Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new drill pipe size, 5-7/8 in. OD, represents enabling technology for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD), deep water and other deep well applications. Most world-class ERD and deep water wells have traditionally been drilled with 5-1/2 in. drill pipe or a combination of 6-5/8 in. and 5-1/2 in. drill pipe. The hydraulic performance of 5-1/2 in. drill pipe can be a major limitation in substantial ERD and deep water wells resulting in poor cuttings removal, slower penetration rates, diminished control over well trajectory and more tendency for drill pipe sticking. The 5-7/8 in. drill pipe provides a significant improvement in hydraulic efficiency compared to 5-1/2 in. drill pipe and does not suffer from the disadvantages associated with use of 6-5/8 in. drill pipe. It represents a drill pipe assembly that is optimized dimensionally and on a performance basis for casing and bit programs that are commonly used for ERD, deep water and ultra-deep wells. The paper discusses the engineering philosophy behind 5-7/8 in. drill pipe, the design challenges associated with development of the product and reviews the features and capabilities of the second-generation double-shoulder connection. The paper provides drilling case history information on significant projects where the pipe has been used and details results achieved with the pipe. (author)

  8. The Need for Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Susan E.; deMenocal, Peter B.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Saffer, Demian

    2011-03-01

    Mark Twain once said, “I was seldom able to see an opportunity until it had ceased to be one.” The scientific community could soon miss an opportunity in ocean drilling. A recent article in Eos by D. K. Smith et al. (Ocean drilling: Forty years of international collaboration, Eos, 91(43), 393-394, 2010) summarized the history of scientific ocean drilling and presented an overview of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) as it currently operates. IODP will end in 2013, and an ambitious science plan is being developed to launch a new drilling program. Some people have asked, Given the program's past successes, why do we need more scientific ocean drilling?

  9. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  10. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  11. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  12. Reliability-Growth of Triplex Drilling Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yu; ZhaoZhong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction to triplex pump The triplex pump widely used in oilfields is composed of power end assembly, fluid end assembly, piston-liner spraying system, lubrication system and charging system.The pump delivers mud into oil well. Through nozzles of drilling bit, the mud inside the drilling shaft comes to the annular space between drilling shaft and casing string and then returns to surface.

  13. Data analytics for drilling operational states classifications

    OpenAIRE

    Veres, Galina; Sabeur, Zoheir

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides benchmarks for the identification of best performance classifiers for the detection of operational states in industrial drilling operations. Multiple scenarios for the detection of the operational states are tested on a rig with various drilling wells. Drilling data are extremely challenging due to their non-linear and stochastic natures, notwithstanding the embedded noise in them and unbalancing. Nevertheless, there is a possibility to deploy robust classifiers to overcom...

  14. General Considerations for Drill System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    meltwater can bu absorbed and refrozen in the adjacent snow. A similar principle has been suggested for disposal of melted rock produced by thermal...This last item can become very serious if the drill is immersed in meltwater . Ileat losses at the drill head are not easy to estimate in simple...Phlslberth, K. (in pr is) The thermal probe deep drilling method by E016 in 1968 at Station jul-Joaet. Central Greenland , Proceedings of icr Core

  15. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  16. Approved Applications for Permit to Drill - Not Drilled: As of Sept. 30, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of applications for permit to drill (APDs) by state that had not been drilled as of Sept. 30, 2011. Oil and gas operators may...

  17. IMPACT OF DRILLING WASTE ON HYDROBIONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to determine and make an analysis of the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and other metals in the waste drilling: drill cuttings (DC and mud (DM, collected in the area of drilling, to assess and forecast the state of biological resources of natural sea water.Methods. Experimental studies of DC and DM showed the petroleum hydrocarbons content, the concentration of which varies depending on the timing of exposure. By quantitative and qualitative indicators, the metal content in the drill cuttings and mud is nonequivalent and this depends on the structure and hardness achieved during drilling the rocks as well as on the degree of contamination with metals.Results. The concentration level of petroleum hydrocarbons and other metals in the drilling waste (drill cuttings and mud imposes a major problem associated with the conservation of biological resources of the Caspian Sea.Main conclusions. Environmental effects from the discharges of drilling waste on the high seas can be detected only during drilling operations and in close proximity (typically up to 200-500 m from the discharge point. Persistent damages in communities and ecosystems occur only at long exposures and are adaptive in nature.

  18. Steerable system adds precision to Gulf drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschwale, H.; Ridley, R.

    1988-05-02

    A well bore intersection was achieved ahead of schedule with a steerable drilling system in the Gulf of Mexico. A computer-generated proximity survey comparing the directional surveys of the initial and replacement wells, confirmed that the wells were within 1 ft. of each other near the planned intersection depth of 8,890 ft. All objectives for the 9,050-ft. replacement well were accomplished 4 days ahead of schedule. This operation illustrates the effectiveness of the steerable drilling system for obtaining better directional control, increased drilling efficiently, and reduced overall drilling time. This article explains how the project was completed.

  19. Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  20. Drilling of polymer-matrix composites

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaraj, Vijayan; Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric composites are recognised as good candidates for structural components due to their inherent properties. However, they present several kinds of damages while creating holes for assembly. Delamination is considered the most serious damage since it reduces service life of the component. Thrust and delamination can be controlled by proper drill point geometry. Drilling at high speed is also a current requirement of the aerospace industry. This book focus on drilling of polymer matrix composites for aerospace and defence applications. The book presents introduction to machining of polymer composites and discusses drilling as a processing of composites.

  1. Optimization of Orthopaedic Drilling: A Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Kumar Pandey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone drilling is a common procedure to prepare an implant site during orthopaedic surgery. An increase in temperature during such a procedure can result in thermal ostenecrosis which may delay healing or reduce the stability of the fixation. Therefore it is important to minimize the thermal invasion of bone during drilling. The Taguchi method has been applied to investigate the optimal combination of drill diameter, feed rate and spindle speed in dry drilling of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA for minimizing the temperature produced.

  2. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  3. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  4. Kinematic equations to grind a helical drill point on a virtual axis drill sharpener

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈五一; 陈鼎昌

    2000-01-01

    The basic structure of a virtual axis drill grinder is presented in terms of the spatial vectors and thegrinding parameters calculated according to the geometry of a helical drill point. The kinematic equations for sharpening the drills on the virtual axis grinder are deduced using the grinding parameters via vector-matrix txansformation.

  5. Biological treatment of drilling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, F.H.; Seris, J.L.; Martignon, A.P.

    1995-12-01

    Off shore operators are now faced with more stringent forthcoming regulations regarding waste discharge. Several aspects are to be taken into account when considering waste disposal in the sea; among them, the total amount of COD and the toxicity. While, in many regards, the problem caused by the processing fluids toxicity has been addressed, the elimination of residual COD from the waste is yet to be solved. Biodegradation of drilling waste is one of the major routes taken by third party contracters to address the reduction of COD in sea-discharged cuttings. This report describes a technique specifically developed to enhance drilling waste biodegradation under selected conditions. The suggested treatment involved biological catalysts used in conjunction with or prior to the biodegradation. We demonstrated that the considered environment-compatible substitute for oil-based mud could be more efficiently biodegraded if an enzymatic pretreatment was carried out prior to or during the actual biodegradation. The biodegradation rate, expressed as CO{sub 2} envolvement, was significantly higher in lipase-treated cultures. In addition, we demonstrated that this treatment was applicable to substrates in emulsion, suspension, or adsorbed on solid.

  6. HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

    2008-03-31

    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole

  7. Change in the magnetic properties of bituminous coal intruded by an igneous dike, Dutch Creek Mine, Pitkin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Dulong, F.T.; Bostick, N.H.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetization measurements have been made on natural coke-coal samples collected at various distances from a felsic porphyry dike in a coal seam in Dutch Creek Mine, Colorado to help characterize the nature and distribution of the iron-bearing phases. The magnetization passes through a maximum at the coke-to-coal transition about 31 cm from the dike contact. The magnetic measurements support the geochemical data indicating that magmatic fluids along with a high-temperature gas pulse moved into the coal bed. Interaction of the magmatic fluids with the coal diminished the reducing power of the thermal gas pulse from the dike to a point about 24 cm into the coal. The hot reducing gas penetrated further and produced a high temperature (~400-525??C) zone (at about 31 cm) just ahead of the magmatic fluids. Metallic iron found in this zone is the principal cause of the observed high magnetization. Beyond this zone, the temperature was too low to alter the coal significantly.Magnetization measurements have been made on natural coke-coal samples collected at various distances from a felsic porphyry dike in a coal seam in Dutch Creek Mine, Colorado to help characterize the nature and distribution of the iron-bearing phases. The magnetization passes through a maximum at the coke-to-coal transition about 31 cm from the dike contact. The magnetic measurements support the geochemical data indicating that magmatic fluids along with a high-temperature gas pulse moved into the coal bed. Interaction of the magmatic fluids with the coal diminished the reducing power of the thermal gas pulse from the dike to a point about 24 cm into the coal. The hot reducing gas penetrated further and produced a high temperature (approximately 400-525 ??C) zone (at about 31 cm) just ahead of the magmatic fluids. Metallic iron found in this zone is the principal cause of the observed high magnetization. Beyond this zone, the temperature was too low to alter the coal significantly.

  8. The rheological behavior of fracture-filling cherts: example of Barite Valley dikes, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ledevin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 100 m-thick complex of near-vertical carbonaceous chert dikes marks the transition from the Mendon to Mapepe Formations (3260 Ma in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Fracturing was intense in this area, as shown by the profusion and width of the dikes (ca. 1 m on average and by the abundance of completely shattered rocks. The dike-and-sill organization of the fracture network and the upward narrowing of some of the large veins indicate that at least part of the fluid originated at depth and migrated upward in this hydrothermal plumbing system. Abundant angular fragments of silicified country rock are suspended and uniformly distributed within the larger dikes. Jigsaw-fit structures and confined bursting textures indicate that hydraulic fracturing was at the origin of the veins. The confinement of the dike system beneath an impact spherule bed suggests that the hydrothermal circulations were triggered by the impact and located at the external margin of a large crater. From the geometry of the dikes and the petrography of the cherts, we infer that the fluid that invaded the fractures was thixotropic. On one hand, the injection of black chert into extremely fine fractures is evidence for low viscosity at the time of injection; on the other hand, the lack of closure of larger veins and the suspension of large fragments in a chert matrix provide evidence of high viscosity soon thereafter. The inference is that the viscosity of the injected fluid increased from low to high as the fluid velocity decreased. Such rheological behavior is characteristic of media composed of solid and colloidal particles suspended in a liquid. The presence of abundant clay-sized, rounded particles of silica, carbonaceous matter and clay minerals, the high proportion of siliceous matrix and the capacity of colloidal silica to form cohesive 3-D networks through gelation, account for the viscosity increase and thixotropic behavior of the fluid that filled the

  9. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and

  10. Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.A.; Rubin, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    When downhole contact between the BHA and formation was optimum, as it was during rotation, high signal levels were experienced. Survey data acquired at the connections, when the BHA was totally at rest, is excellent. GEC intends modifying the system to optimize operations consistent with these disparate factors. A Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) of 89.9 hours appears reasonable from the data. It is not possible to infer an MTBF figure from this test. It is quite obvious, however, that the system reliability performance has been significantly improved since FT {number_sign}5 was performed almost two years earlier. Based on the above results, GEC concludes that it is certainly feasible to attain 100 hours MTBF, for the Model 27, in any and all situations, and hence to provide a reliable MWD for air-drilling.

  11. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2004-09-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser compares with other lasers used in past experimental work, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. Variables investigated include laser power, beam intensity, external purging of cut materials, sample orientation, beam duration, beam shape, and beam frequency. The investigation also studied the thermal effects on the two sample rock types and their methods of destruction: spallation for sandstone, and thermal dissociation for limestone. Optimal operating conditions were identified for each rock type and condition. As a result of this experimental work, the HPFL has demonstrated a better capability of cutting and drilling limestone and sandstone when compared with other military and industrial lasers previously tested. Consideration should be given to the HPFL as the leading candidate for near term remote high power laser applications for well construction and completion.

  12. The Arrangement of Dike Lines and the Choice of Dike Types in Rural Flood-control Works%农村防洪工程堤线布置与堤型选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文丽; 李宁; 王诗俊; 李经伟

    2012-01-01

    以某农村防洪工程为例,根据流域规划、工程现状、地形条件等因素,按照防洪标准,确定堤线布置形式。提出堤型方案,通过技术经济比较,确定合理堤型,即采用梯形断面均质土堤。%Taking a rural flood-control works as an example, combining the basin's plan, the present situation of projects and topo- graphical conditions, and according to the flood control standards, the dike line arrangement pattern is determined. The reasonable dike type is determined by the trapezoidal cross section isotropic earth embankment.

  13. 振孔切喷截渗墙技术在堤防消险加固中的应用%Application of vibrating hole cutting spraying intercepting seepage wall technique in dike damage prevention and dike reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永明; 郝群; 张秀宏

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduced the application of the vibrating hole cutting spraying intercepting seepage wall technique in the urban dike damage prevention,dike reinforcement and intercepting seepage.The technical theory,engineering design,construction technique,quality check for the vibrating hole cutting spraying are discussed in this paper.%介绍振孔切喷截渗墙技术在城区堤防消险加固截渗工程中的应用。其中包括振孔切喷技术工艺原理、工程设计、施工工艺、质量检查方法等。

  14. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  15. Foam drilling in natural gas hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of foam drilling in natural gas hydrate is prediction of characteristic parameters of bottom hole. The simulation shows that when the well depth increases, the foam mass number reduces and the pressure increases. At the same depth, pressure in drill string is always higher than annulus. The research findings provide theoretical basis for safety control.

  16. Number & operations drill sheets : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2010-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice number & operations concepts.

  17. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary...

  2. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  4. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  5. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  6. Status Report A Review of Slimhole Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Tao; Carroll, Herbert B.

    1994-09-01

    This 1994 report reviews the various applications of slimhole technology including for exploration in remote areas, low-cost development wells, reentering existing wells, and horizontal and multilateral drilling. Advantages of slimholes to regular holes are presented. Limitations and disadvantages of slimholes are also discussed. In 1994, slimhole drilling was still an ongoing development technology. (DJE 2005)

  7. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be...

  8. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  9. Neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Yo; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system that provides assistance throughout the complete bone drilling process. The system comprised neurosurgical robotic arm navigation combining robotic and surgical navigation, 3D medical imaging based surgical planning that could identify lesion location and plan the surgical path on 3D images, and automatic bone drilling control that would stop drilling when the bone was to be drilled-through. Three kinds of experiment were designed. The average positioning error deduced from 3D images of the robotic arm was 0.502 ± 0.069 mm. The correlation between automatically and manually planned paths was 0.975. The average distance error between automatically planned paths and risky zones was 0.279 ± 0.401 mm. The drilling auto-stopping algorithm had 0.00% unstopped cases (26.32% in control group 1) and 70.53% non-drilled-through cases (8.42% and 4.21% in control groups 1 and 2). The system may be useful for neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Basic Land Drills for Swimming Stroke Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Teaching swimming strokes can be a challenging task in physical education. The purpose of the article is to introduce 12 on land drills that can be utilized to facilitate the learning of swimming strokes, including elementary back stroke, sidestroke, front crawl, back stroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. Each drill consists of four components…

  11. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  12. Heat Generation During Bone Drilling: A Comparison Between Industrial and Orthopaedic Drill Bits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher; Inceoglu, Serkan; Juma, David; Zuckerman, Lee

    2017-02-01

    Cortical bone drilling for preparation of screw placement is common in multiple surgical fields. The heat generated while drilling may reach thresholds high enough to cause osteonecrosis. This can compromise implant stability. Orthopaedic drill bits are several orders more expensive than their similarly sized, publicly available industrial counterparts. We hypothesize that an industrial bit will generate less heat during drilling, and the bits will not generate more heat after multiple cortical passes. We compared 4 4.0 mm orthopaedic and 1 3.97 mm industrial drill bits. Three types of each bit were drilled into porcine femoral cortices 20 times. The temperature of the bone was measured with thermocouple transducers. The heat generated during the first 5 drill cycles for each bit was compared to the last 5 cycles. These data were analyzed with analysis of covariance. The industrial drill bit generated the smallest mean increase in temperature (2.8 ± 0.29°C) P industrial bit generated less heat during drilling than its orthopaedic counterparts. The bits maintained their performance after 20 drill cycles. Consideration should be given by manufacturers to design differences that may contribute to a more efficient cutting bit. Further investigation into the reuse of these drill bits may be warranted, as our data suggest their efficiency is maintained after multiple uses.

  13. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.

    2001-12-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55±0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01±0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67±0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89±0.17 and 2.97±0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing downward the

  14. Communication adapter for use with a drilling component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Hall; Jr.; H. Tracy; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael

    2007-04-03

    A communication adapter is disclosed that provides for removable attachment to a drilling component when the drilling component is not actively drilling and for communication with an integrated transmission system in the drilling component. The communication adapter comprises a data transmission coupler that facilitates communication between the drilling component and the adapter, a mechanical coupler that facilitates removable attachment of the adapter to the drilling component, and a data interface.

  15. Peculiarities of carbon fiber drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Yu. Melentiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available At polymeric composite materials (PCM machining we face a number of specific features. The research refers to PCMs classification, exposing an overview of known specific features described in the latest advances and techniques to improve the quality and efficiency in PCM processing. To study the carbon fiber drilling a preliminary experiment has been conducted, which essential parameters and issues have been described with respective data Tables and numerous images. The holes surface quality and edges dimensional accuracy have been compared for samples obtained using a blade and a diamond tool; established is the instrument blade material impact on the edges’ precision parameters. Confirmed are the typical and revealed some new types of imperfections and their occurrence conditions. The problem of rapid clogging and related diamond tool clogging problem are identified. Some promising ways of processing of carbon fiber are offered.

  16. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  17. PTAGIS - Development of Large PIT-Tag Antennas to Estimate Migration Timing and Survival for Adult Salmonids near Pile Dikes in the Columbia River Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We continued research and development of a passive PIT-tag detection system along a pile dike in the estuary (rkm 70). Target fish for this system are returning...

  18. Discussion on Weed Integrated Removal Prevention of Dike Turf%关于堤身草皮杂草综合防除的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玉生

    2014-01-01

    堤身草皮的杂草防除是一项十分繁重的日常养护工作,杂草的清除效果直接影响堤容堤貌,关系堤防工程的景观效果。本文分析了堤身草皮杂草特点、除草方式,对全年度堤身草皮杂草综合防除进行规划并提出了相应的建议。%The weed removal of dike turf is very onerous routine maintenance work.Weed removal effect directly affects dike appearance , which is related to landscape effect of dike project.In this paper , the characteristics of weeds and weed control methods are analyzed .The whole-year dike turf weed integrated removal plan and corresponding suggestions are proposed.

  19. Deformation of host rocks and flow of magma during growth of minette dikes and breccia-bearing intrusions near Ship Rock, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Paul T.; Pollard, David D.

    1981-01-01

    We have studied a small group of minette dikes and plugs that crop out within a flat-lying sequence of siltstone and shale near Ship Rock, a prominent volcanic throat of tuff breccia in northwestern New Mexico. Seven dikes form a radial pattern about Ship Rock we describe in detail the northeastern dike, which has an outcrop length of about 2,900 m, an average thickness of 2.3 m, and a maximum thickness of 7.2 m. The dike is composed of 35 discrete segments arranged in echelon; orientation. of dike segments ranges systematically from N. 52? E. to N. 66? E. A prominent joint set strikes parallel to the segments and is localized within several tens of meters of the dike. Regional joint patterns display no obvious relation to dike orientation. Small offsets of segment contacts, as well as wedge-shaped bodies of crumpled host rock within segments mark the sites of coalescence of smaller segments during dike growth. Bulges in the dike contact, which represent a nondilational component of growth, indicate that wall rocks were brecciated and eroded during the flow of magma. Breccias make up about 9 percent of the 7,176-m 2 area of the dike, are concentrated in its southwest half, and are commonly associated with its thickest parts. We also describe three subcircular plugs; each plug is smaller than 30 m in diameter, is laterally associated with a dike, and contains abundant breccias. Field evidence indicates that these plugs grew from the dikes by brecciation and erosion of wallrocks and that the bulges in the contact of the northeastern dike represent an initial stage of this process. From continuum-mechanical models of host-rock deformation, we conclude that dike propagation was the dominant mechanism for creating conduits for magma ascent where the host rock was brittle and elastic. At a given driving pressure, dikes dilate to accept greater volumes of magma than plugs, and for a given dilation, less work is done on the host rocks. In addition, the pressure required

  20. Reinforced dike seepage stability analysis for flood protection project in Quanshui town%巴江口水电站拦污清污系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明

    2014-01-01

    An introduction was made on the basic information of the flood protection project in Quanshui town. For the flood dike sections in need of reinforcement, earth filling is designed on the river side to thicken the old dike, de-crease the permeability with bank slope stability up to requirements. The author discussed the structural types and engineering geological conditions of thickening old dike by earth filling, and presented the calculation and analysis conducted to check seepage and sliding stability of the concerned dike section.%介绍了巴江口水电站拦污清污系统采用通仓式布置,孔口尺寸大的特点,分析了无障碍回转式清污机的结构及功能,并论述了该电站拦污清污的效果和效益。

  1. Aspectos nutricionales del búfalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    2011-11-01

    necesario para mantener al animal en un estado saludable donde puedan expresar su potencial reproductivo de acuerdo con el nivel de producción deseado en condiciones específicas de ambientales y de alimentación (Paul & Lal, 2010. El presente texto fue escrito con la intención de abordar algunos aspectos nutricionales del búfalo, exponiendo lo más actual sobre el tema y de esa forma aclarar las posibles dudas sobre las normas de alimentación para esta especie.

  2. AIR AND GAS DRILLING SUCCEEDED IN NORTHEASTERN SICHUAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Tingyong

    2006-01-01

    @@ On January 21, 2006, air and gas deep well drilling test was successfully carried out in the Sinopec southern exploration area. Lingering problems pestering deep well drillings in the southern marine facies area like low drilling rate and prolonged drilling periods were well resolved: average drilling rate of conventional drilling is about 1.4 meters per hour with drilling period (above Xujiahe Formation) of about 130 days, whereas it took only 22 days to complete the same task by air and gas drilling, with penetration rate increased more than eightfold.

  3. Comparative experiments of gas drainage in different types of drillings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-wu; WEI Shan-yang; WANG Chuan; GAO Tian-bao; FU Yu-kai

    2012-01-01

    Gas drainage effect is the utmost important factor for mining speed and mining safety.It has great meaning to study the effect of gas drainage.Comparative experiment of gas drainage in different types of drillings shows that the initial rate of gas natural emission by hydraulic loosed cross drilling is 1.5 times more than that of parallel drilling,and the drilling gas attenuation coefficients reduces to 0.78 times,the effect of gas drainage is good.The ultimate quantity of gas drainage of parallel drilling,cross drilling,hydraulic loosed cross drilling are 859.1,1 323.5 and 1 833.6 m3/100 m.The results of the measurement through these three kinds of drillings of 100 meters drilling is considered as following:cross drilling is 1.54 times more than that of parallel drillings,hydraulic loosed cross drilling are 2.13 times more than parallel drilling.The drainage rate of parallel drilling,cross drilling and hydraulic loosed cross drilling reached 10% to 15% in 3 months with the pre-draining time.Among these,the drainage effect of hydraulic loosed cross drilling increased by 46% than that of parallel drilling in three months.

  4. Detecting areal changes in tidal flats after sea dike construction using Landsat-TM images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moon Seong Kang; Sang June Im; Tae Il Jang; Seung Woo Park; Sang Min Kim

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate changes in the area of tidal flats that occurred after sea dike construction on the western coast of South Korea using Landsat-TM images. Applying the ISODATA method of unsupervised classification for Landsat-TM images, the tidal flats were identified, and the resulting areas were quantified for each image. The area of tidal flats from a topographic map published in one year differs significantly from that shown in another, which appears to be attributable to the tide levels at the time of aerial photography. During the study period, the area of tidal flats, as estimated from Landsat-TM images, increased by 4.57 km2 per year in the study areas. The tidal flats in the inner sea of Chunsu Harbor area increased by 200m2 per zone, while the accumulation for a number of inner sea areas within Asan Harbor area occurred at over 50m2 per zone. The results of this research may serve as the basis of an environmentallyfriendly development plan for tidal flats.

  5. Evidence for Moho-lower crustal transition depth diking and rifting of the Sierra Nevada microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth D.; Kent, Graham M.; Seggern, David P.; Driscoll, Neal W.; Eisses, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Lithospheric rifting most often initiates in continental extensional settings where "breaking of a plate" may or may not progress to sea floor spreading. Generally, the strength of the lithosphere is greater than the tectonic forces required for rupture (i.e., the "tectonic force paradox"), and it has been proposed that rifting requires basaltic magmatism (e.g., dike emplacement) to reduce the strength and cause failure, except for the case of a thin lithosphere (structure, each striking N45°W and dipping 50°NE. A single event at 30 km depth that locates on the implied dipping feature between the two swarms is further evidence for a single Moho-transition depth structure. We propose that basaltic or fluid emplacement at or near Moho depths weakens the upper mantle lid, facilitating lithospheric rupture of the Sierra Microplate. Similar to the LT sequence, the SV event is also associated with increased upper crustal seismicity. An 27 October 2011, Mw 4.7 earthquake occurred directly above the deep SV sequence at the base of the upper crustal seismogenic zone ( 15 km depth).

  6. Rapakivi texture in porphyritic dikes within the Karavanke Granitic Massif (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bellieni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern Karavanke Granitic Massif straddles the Slovenian–Austrian border. The investigated area lies in northern Slovenia, and extends from the western Slovenian–Austrian border to the east for about 30 km, with a maximum width of 2 km. The massif exhibits a bimodal magmatic association comprising mainly syenogranite and syenite with contemporaneous gabbroic rocks. Rocks of intermediate composition are less abundant and show field, textural and chemical features suggesting that they have formed as a result of the interaction (mixing and mingling between felsic and mafic magmas. Plagioclasemantled alkali feldspars occur in dikes of porphyritic syenite, which cut larger bodies of gabbroic rocks. Field, mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical evidences suggest that the porphyritic syenite is a hybrid rock, formed by the interaction of mafic and felsic magmas. The formation of plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar can be explained by the introduction of alkali feldspar from felsic, syenogranitic magma into more mafic magma, causing local undercooling in the portion of mafic magma surrounding the crystals. This resulted in the growth of cellular plagioclase, with quartz infilling, in a thermally and compositionally equilibrating system.

  7. 法律何以成为正义——从themis到dike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志敏; 郑兴凤

    2012-01-01

    法律女神忒弥斯代表着西方最早的规范性思想,后来却逐渐为“正义”所取代.themis(法律)与dike(正义)本身有着深刻而密切的联系,由于都具有“审判”的涵义,二者逐渐合流,dike取代了themis而上升为社会生活的主导规范.在这个过程中,本来主要指“审判”的dike吸收了审判过程的“公正”要求,变成了一种伦理品质,即“正义”.dike继承并集成了themis的众多属性,其内涵从司法领域上升到伦理政治的高度,逐渐取代了神法themis.这充分证明,法律的本质就在于正义.

  8. Flood risk assessment in The Netherlands: a case study for dike ring South Holland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Kok, Matthijs; Vrijling, Johannes K

    2008-10-01

    Large parts of The Netherlands are below sea level. Therefore, it is important to have insight into the possible consequences and risks of flooding. In this article, an analysis of the risks due to flooding of the dike ring area South Holland in The Netherlands is presented. For different flood scenarios the potential number of fatalities is estimated. Results indicate that a flood event in this area can expose large and densely populated areas and result in hundreds to thousands of fatalities. Evacuation of South Holland before a coastal flood will be difficult due to the large amount of time required for evacuation and the limited time available. By combination with available information regarding the probability of occurrence of different flood scenarios, the flood risks have been quantified. The probability of death for a person in South Holland due to flooding, the so-called individual risk, is small. The probability of a flood disaster with many fatalities, the so-called societal risk, is relatively large in comparison with the societal risks in other sectors in The Netherlands, such as the chemical sector and aviation. The societal risk of flooding appears to be unacceptable according to some of the existing risk limits that have been proposed in literature. These results indicate the necessity of a further societal discussion on the acceptable level of flood risk in The Netherlands and the need for additional risk reducing measures.

  9. PIV experiment on flow characteristics between submerged double spur dikes%淹没双丁坝间水流结构特性PIV试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘易庄; 蒋昌波; 邓斌; 王刚

    2015-01-01

    为探讨淹没双丁坝对坝间水流的影响,采用粒子图像测速( PIV)系统对坝间水平面流场进行了测量,并对坝间水流结构进行了分析。结果表明:丁坝间距与丁坝长度的比值d/B( B为定值)对坝间漩涡中心位置、坝间回流区及涡量分布有着显著影响;d/B越大,坝间“漩涡”中心越接近坝头线;坝间回流区宽度随d/B增大而增大,零速度线基本呈线性关系且其斜率随d/B增大而减小,同时回流区流速也随之发生很大变化;上游丁坝头附近出现最大负涡量而在下游丁坝头附近出现最大正涡量。%In order to study the influence of submerged double spur dikes on the flow characteristics between them, this study measured the horizontal flow field within the area between the spur dikes using a particle image velocimetry ( PIV) system, and analyzed the flow characteristics between the spur dikes. Results show that the ratio of the gap between the double spur dikes to the dike length d/B ( B is a constant) has a significant impact on the location of the eddy’ s core between the spur dikes, the recirculation flow between the spur dikes, and the vorticity distribution around the heads of the spur dikes. When the value of d/B increases, the eddy’ s core is closer to the line connecting the tips of the spur dikes, and the width of the recirculation zone increases. The zero velocity line changes linearly in the streamwise direction, and its slope decreases with the increase of d/B. The velocity in the recirculation zone changes significantly with the value of d/B. The maximum negative vorticity occurs near the head of the upstream spur dike, while the maximum positive vorticity occurs near the head of the downstream spur dike.

  10. Blind Source Separation Model of Earth-Rock Junctions in Dike Engineering Based on Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizhi Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed temperature sensing (DTS provides an important technology support for the earth-rock junctions of dike projects (ERJD, which are binding sites between culvert, gates, and pipes and dike body and dike foundation. In this study, a blind source separation model is used for the identification of leakages based on the temperature data of DTS in leakage monitoring of ERJD. First, a denoising method is established based on the temperature monitoring data of distributed optical fiber in ERJD by a wavelet packet signal decomposition technique. The temperature monitoring messages of fibers are combined response for leakages and other factors. Its character of unclear responding mechanism is very obvious. Thus, a blind source separation technology is finally selected. Then, the rule of temperature measurement data for optical fiber is analyzed and its temporal and spatial change process is also discussed. The realization method of the blind source separation model is explored by combining independent component analysis (ICA with principal component analysis (PCA. The practical test result in an example shows that the method could efficiently locate and identify the leakage location of ERJD. This paper is expected to be useful for further scientific research and efficient applications of distributed optical fiber sensing technology.

  11. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger

  12. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Zircon Geochronology of Basic Dikes within Maxianshan Rock Group in the Central Qilian Orogenic Belt and Its Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Shiping; Wang Hongliang; Chen Junlu; Xu Xueyi; Zhang Hongfei; Ren Guangming; Yu Jiyuan

    2007-01-01

    A large number of basic dikes, which indicate an important tectonic-magmatic event in the eastern part of the Central Qilian (祁连) orogenic belt, were found from Maxianshan (马衔山) rock group, Yongjing (永靖) county, Gansu (甘肃) Province, China. According to the research on the characteristics of geology and petrology, the basic dike swarms, widely intruded in Maxianshan rock group,are divided into two phases by the authors. U-Pb isotope of zircons from the basic dikes above two phases is separately determined by LA-ICP-MS in the Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics of Northwest University, China and the causes of formation of the zircons are studied using CL images.The formation age of the earlier phase of metagabbro dikes is (441.1±1.4) Ma (corresponding to the early stage of Early Silurian), and the age of the main metamorphic period is (414.3±1.2) Ma (corresponding to the early stage of Early Devonian). The formation age of the later phase of diabase dike swarms is (434±1.0) Ma (corresponding to the late stage of Early Silurian). The cap- tured-zircons from diabase dike swarms saved some information of material interfusion by Maxianshan rock group (207pb/206Pb apparent ages are (2325±3)-(2573±6) Ma), and some zircons from diabase dike swarms also saved impacted information by tectonic thermal event during the late period of Caledonian movement (206pb/238U apparent ages are (400±2)-(429±2) Ma). By combining the results of the related studies, the basic dikes within Maxianshan rock group were considered to be formed in the transfer period, from subductional orogeny towards collisional orogeny, which represents geological records of NW-SE extension during regional NE-SW towards intense compression in the Central Qilian block.

  13. 忻城县都乐河防洪整治工程堤防设计%Dike design of Dule River Flood Protection Project in Xincheng County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝君

    2014-01-01

    介绍了忻城县都乐河河道整治工程的基本情况,论述了都乐河防洪堤堤线布置的原则和方案。通过对草皮护面土堤、混凝土护面土堤和浆砌石3种堤型的安全、环保和投资情况比较后,推荐草皮护面土堤作为实施方案,并探讨了防洪堤设计中应该注意的一些问题。%An introduction was made on the basic situation of Dule River Flood Protection Project in Xincheng County,based on which the author presented the layout principle and scheme of flood dike line. Three design schemes had been taken into consideration,including herbaceous cover soil dike,concrete cover soil dike and ce-ment stone masonry dike. After three schemes were compared in respects of safety,environment protection and cost,herbaceous cover soil dike scheme was recommended. The author also discussed some issues in need of spe-cial attention during flood dike design.

  14. Robot force control for hazardous drilling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici, Gursel; Daniel, R. W.

    The use of robot manipulators for tasks which are inherently risky for human beings, specifically hazardous drilling operations, is investigated. Although drilling is one of the simplest and most basic metal cutting processes, robot drilling is problematic and has resulted in extreme operator fatigue and shorter drill life under telemanipulator control due to a number of possible causes such as dynamic and static effects. Both originate from differences between a robot and a drilling machine. A detailed study of the task highlighted the fact that it is necessary to regulate the distance dependent force by closed loop force control. How the robot type force could be controlled together with the robot position to allow fast drilling but without too much drill wear was considered. The answer was found in further exploration of the tasks which generated a set of specifications and problems that were addressed using novel strategies rather than those usually adopted for robots. The possible solutions are given in terms of a new control strategy and the correct choice of coordinate system to be used within that strategy.

  15. The Auto-Gopher Deep Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been in development at JPL's Nondestructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) lab as an adaptable tool for many of these applications. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the high frequency ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a lower frequency sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. The USDC device idea has been implemented at various scales from handheld drills to large diameter coring devices. A series of computer programs that model the function and performance of the USDC device were developed and were later integrated into an automated modeling package. The USDC has also evolved from a purely hammering drill to a rotary hammer drill as the design requirements increased form small diameter shallow drilling to large diameter deep coring. A synthesis of the Auto-Gopher development is presented in this paper.

  16. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  17. Spatiotemporal evolution of dike opening and décollement slip at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Sinnett, D.K.; Larson, K.M.; Poland, Michael P.; Segall, P.; Miklius, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in ground tilt and GPS positions on Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, are interpreted as resulting from a shallow, two-segment dike intrusion into the east rift zone that began at 1217 UTC (0217 HST) on 17 June 2007 and lasted almost 3 days. As a result of the intrusion, a very small volume of basalt (about 1500 m3) erupted on 19 June. Northward tilt at a coastal tiltmeter, subsidence of south flank GPS sites, southeastward displacements at southwestern flank GPS sites, and a swarm of flank earthquakes suggest that a slow slip event occurred on the décollement beneath Kīlauea's south flank concurrent with the rift intrusion. We use 4 min GPS positions that include estimates of time-dependent tropospheric gradients and ground tilt data to study the spatial and temporal relationships between the two inferred shallow, steeply dipping dike segments extending from the surface to about 2 km depth and décollement slip at 8 km depth. We invert for the temporal evolution of distributed dike opening and décollement slip in independent inversions at each time step using a nonnegative least squares algorithm. On the basis of these inversions, the intrusion occurred in two stages that correspond spatially and temporally with concentrated rift zone seismicity. The dike opening began on the western of the two segments before jumping to the eastern segment, where the majority of opening accumulated. Dike opening preceded the start of décollement slip at an 84% confidence level; the latter is indicated by the onset of northward tilt of a coastal tiltmeter. Displacements at southwest flank GPS sites began about 18 h later and are interpreted as resulting from slow slip on the southwestern flank. Additional constraints on the evolution of the intrusion and décollement slip come from inversion of an Envisat interferogram that spans the intrusion until 0822 UTC on 18 June 2007, combined with GPS and tilt data. This inversion shows that up to 0822 UTC on 18 June, d

  18. Lack of training threatening drilling talent supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Flatern, R.

    1996-07-01

    When oil prices crashed in the mid-1980s, the industry tightened budgets. Among the austerity measures taken to survive the consequences of low product prices was an end to expensive, long-term investment training of drilling engineers. In the absence of traditional sources of trained drilling talent, forward-looking contractors are creating their own training programs. The paper describes the activities of some companies who are setting up their own training programs, and an alliance being set up by Chevron and Amoco for training. The paper also discusses training drilling managers, third-party trainers, and the consequences for the industry that does not renew its inventory of people.

  19. Modal Analysis of Drilling Machine Derrick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the finite element analysis software ( ANSYS ) is applied to the modal analysis of a ZJ30/1700CZ 's drilling machine derrick under a natural condition and a loaded condition, respectively. The preceding nine step natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of the derrick are calculated. By means of the comparison of the natural frequency of the derrick with the design work frequency of the drilling machine and the analysis of the step mode shape of the derrick, the drilling machine derrick structure design is proved to be correct.

  20. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  1. Aspectos esenciales de condicionales para los contratos sensibles al contexto

    OpenAIRE

    Sartorio, Alejandro R.; Rodríguez, Guillermo L.; Vaquero, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta los aspectos tecnológicos y de diseño de los mecanismos de inyección de contratos sensibles al contexto en el Dispositivo Hipermedial Dinámico (DHD), se desarrollan tres tipos de condicionales para las reglas de los contratos que representan información de contexto. A su vez se presenta un modelo conceptual de condicionales donde se capturan aspectos esenciales para el framework colaborativo Sakai utilizado para la implementación tecnológica del DHD en el agregado de nuevas...

  2. Prediction of the temperature of a drill in drilling lunar rock simulant in a vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Jinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the temperature of a sampling drill in drilling lunar rock simulant in a high-vacuum environment was studied. The thermal problem was viewed as a 1-D transient heat transfer problem in a semi-infinite object. The simplified drill was modeled using heat conduction differential equation and a fast numerical calculation method is proposed on this basis, with time and the drill discretized. The model was modified to consider the effects of radiation, drill bit configuration, and non-constant heat source. A thermal analysis was conducted using ANSYS Workbench to determine the value of the equivalent correction coefficient proposed in this paper. Using fiber Bragg grating temperature measurement method, drilling experiments were conducted in a vacuum, and the results were compared to the model. The agreement between model and experiment was very good.

  3. Study on temperature field of the drilling machine during the course of drilling in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-chao; YU Ming-gao; ZHENG Li-gang; PAN Rong-kun

    2006-01-01

    The working conditions of the MK-3 type full hydraulic tunnel drilling machine during the course of drilling were analyzed. Based on the energy balance governing equations for the drill rod, the temperature field of drill rod at the normal and non-normal working conditions was numerically obtained. The numerical results show that the maximum temperature at the head of drill rod under the normal working circumstance is insufficient to ignite the gas. But under the non-normal working condition, the local high temperature can ignite the gas easily and cause the fire. In order to prevent the gas fire, the occurrence of the non-normal operating condition must be prevented as far as possible during the drilling.

  4. Final Technical Report for “A Heliportable Sonic Drilling Platform for Microhole Drilling and Exploration”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, Peter

    2008-05-05

    The Phase I objectives were fully achieved the execution of a program that included the: • Development of a comprehensive model of the sonic drill technology and interaction of the dynamic drilling parameters with the impedance of the earth. • Operation and measurement of the sonic drilling process in the field at full scale. • Comparison of the analytical and experimental results to form an objective and quantified approach to describe the fundamental phenomena and to develop a methodology for automated control of the sonic drilling process. • Conceptual design of a modular sonic drilling system that can be transported to remote sites by helicopter. As a result, the feasibility of a commercially viable sonic drilling technology that can produce microholes up to 1,500 feet in depth, and that is field deployable to remote, environmentally sensitive sites via a helicopter, has been demonstrated.

  5. 丁坝对鱼类栖地的影响范围评估%Estimation of spur dike-affected fish habitat area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑞贤; 陈嬿如; 葛奕良

    2012-01-01

    基于一维水理模式(HEC-RAS)和河川栖地二维模式(River 2D),以5%权重栖地可使用面积(weighted usable area,WUA)增减率判定筏子溪丁坝对台湾石鱼宾的影响范围,并结合近年台湾地区丁坝设置的相关文献,探讨丁坝对鱼群栖地的影响范围以及丁坝建置要素[如坝高、坝长(阻水率)、流量、河道平均坡降、单双丁坝]对其范围的影响.结果表明:丁坝对下游的影响范围皆远于上游,下游影响范围约为上游的2~6倍.上下游影响范围之比随坡降增加而下降、随丁坝阻水率及流量增加而增加,但流量趋近至10年重现期距时,上下游影响范围比趋于2.双丁坝配置较单丁坝配置有较优的WUA.%Based on the HEC-RAS and River 2D modes, and taking 5% change rate of weighted usable area (WUA) as the threshold to define the spur dike- affected area of target fish species Acrossocheilus paradoxus in Fazi River in Taiwan, this paper studied the affected area of the fish habitat by spur dike, and, in combining with the references about the installations of spur dikes in Taiwan in recent 10 years, analyzed the relative importance of related affecting factors such as dike height, dike length (water block rate) , average slope gradient of river way, single or double spur dike, and flow discharge. In spite of the length of the dike, the affected area in downstream was farther, and was about 2-6 times as large as that in upstream. The ratio of the affected area in downstream / upstream decreased with increasing slope gradient, but increased with increasing dike length and flow discharge. When the discharge was approximate to 10 years return periods, the ratio of the affected area would be close to a constant of 2. Building double spur dike would produce a better WUA than building single spur dike.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  7. Investigation of the wear of hard-metal drilling tools when drilling cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    Escursell Mor, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Spheroidal cast iron still has a lot of applications; especially in the automotive industry. In this Master Thesis the wear of the drilling tools and its effect on the quality of the drilled holes is being studied. An experimental investigation of different types of tool coatings and geometry will be done to understand the diverse factors that affect the creation of wear. Also the forces involved in the process of drilling will be experimentally calculated. Studying the results, recommenda...

  8. Polyethylene Glycol Drilling Fluid for Drilling in Marine Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sediments: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Kuang; Yibing Yu; Yunzhong Tu; Ling Zhang; Fulong Ning; Guosheng Jiang; Tianle Liu

    2011-01-01

    Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of these tests show that drilling fluid with a formulation of artificial seawater, 3% bentonite, 0.3% Na 2 CO 3 , 10% polyethylene glycol, 20% NaCl, 4% SMP-2, 1% ...

  9. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  10. 75 FR 8113 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. DATES: Effective...

  11. Fort Bliss exploratory slimholes: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    During November/96 to April/97 Sandia National Laboratories provided consulation, data collection, analysis and project documentation to the U.S. Army for a series of four geothermal exploratory slimholes drilled on the McGregor Range approximately 25 miles north of El Paso, Texas. This drilling was directed toward evaluating a potential reservoir for geothermal power generation in this area, with a secondary objective of assessing the potential for direct use applications such as space heating or water de-salinization. This report includes: representative temperature logs from the wells; daily drilling reports; a narrative account of the drilling and testing; a description of equipment used; a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data; and recommendations for future work.

  12. Extreme Temperature Motor and Drill System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the need for motors, actuators and drilling systems that can operate in the harsh venusian environment for extended periods of time, on the order of...

  13. Downhole drilling spotting fluid composition and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.R.; Campbell, G.J.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a spotting fluid concentrate composition suitable for use in downhole drilling operations in a pill for releasing periodically stuck drill string. It comprises glycerophosphoric acid ester; a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof; an optional viscosifying agent for increasing the viscosity of the dispersion; and an optional sealing agent for preventing diffusion of water into the downhole formation. This patent also describes a method for lubricating a downhole well drilling operation. It comprises mixing a spotting fluid concentrate composition comprising glycerophosphoric acid ester, a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof, an optional viscosifying agent and an optional sealing agent with drilling mud; and circulating the mud mixture through the well.

  14. Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines into Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160702.html Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines Into Dentists Seeing their ... HealthDay News) -- Dentists are less likely to prescribe antibiotics for patients after seeing a "report card" on ...

  15. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A. [SKB Geotechnika, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gelfgat, M. [Aquatic Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). GeoEngineering Group

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  16. Environment-friendly drilling operation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huaidong; Jing, Ning; Zhang, Yanna; Huang, Hongjun; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Under the circumstance that international safety and environmental standards being more and more stringent, drilling engineering is facing unprecedented challenges, the extensive traditional process flow is no longer accepted, the new safe and environment-friendly process is more suitable to the healthy development of the industry. In 2015, CNPCIC adopted environment-friendly drilling technology for the first time in the Chad region, ensured the safety of well control, at the same time increased the environmental protection measure, reduced the risk of environmental pollution what obtain the ratification from local government. This technology carries out recovery and disposal of crude oil, cuttings and mud without falling on the ground. The final products are used in road and well site construction, which realizes the reutilization of drilling waste, reduces the operating cost, and provides a strong technical support for cost-cutting and performance-increase of drilling engineering under low oil price.

  17. New Era of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Sanada, Y.; Igarashi, C.; Kubo, Y.; Maeda, L.; Sawada, I.; Takase, K.; Kyo, N.

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, committed to scientific ocean drilling since 2007, has completed thirteen IODP expeditions, and Chikyu's enhanced drilling technology gives us the means to reach deep targets, enhanced well logging, deep water riserless drilling, and state of the art laboratory. Chikyu recovered core samples from 2466 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in IODP Exp. 337, and drilled to 3058.5 mbsf in IODP Exp. 348, but these are still not the limit of Chikyu's capability. As deep as these depths are, they are just halfway to the 5200 mbsf plate boundary target for the NanTroSEIZE deep riser borehole. There are several active IODP proposals in the pipeline. Each has scientific targets requiring several thousand meters of penetration below the sea floor. Riser technology is the only way to collect samples and data from that depth. Well logging has been enhanced with the adoption of riser drilling, especially for logging-while-drilling (LWD). LWD has several advantages over wireline logging, and provides more opportunities for continuous measurements even in unstable boreholes. Because of the larger diameter of riser pipes and enhanced borehole stability, Chikyu can use several state-of-the-art downhole tools, e.g. fracture tester, fluid sampling tool, wider borehole imaging, and the latest sonic tools. These new technologies and tools can potentially expand the envelope of scientific ocean drilling. Chikyu gives us access to ultra-deep water riserless drilling. IODP Exp. 343/343T investigating the March 2011 Tohoku Oki Earthquake, explored the toe of the landward slope of the Japan Trench. This expedition reached the plate boundary fault target at more than 800 mbsf in water depths over 6900 m for logging-while-drilling, coring, and observatory installation. This deep-water drilling capability also expands the scientific ocean drilling envelope and provides access to previously unreachable targets. On top of these operational capabilities, Chikyu's onboard laboratory is

  18. 21 CFR 872.4130 - Intraoral dental drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental drill. 872.4130 Section 872.4130...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4130 Intraoral dental drill. (a) Identification. An intraoral dental drill is a rotary device intended to be attached to a dental handpiece to drill holes...

  19. Buckling and dynamic analysis of drill strings for core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, H.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-15

    This supporting document presents buckling and dynamic stability analyses of the drill strings used for core sampling. The results of the drill string analyses provide limiting operating axial loads and rotational speeds to prevent drill string failure, instability and drill bit overheating during core sampling. The recommended loads and speeds provide controls necessary for Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic field operations.

  20. Thermal numerical assessment of jawbone drilling factor during implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Pirjamali Neisiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Optimization drilling parameters in order to temperature decrease during creation of hole in the bone is an interested issue. The aim of this study was to achieve optimum values of drilling parameters based on the creation of minimum temperature during jawbone drilling. Materials and Methods: In this study two models of mandible and maxilla was created and teeth 2, 5 and 8 from maxilla and teeth 25, 28 and 31 from mandible were removed. The drilling operation was performed under different conditions on jawbone models using finite element analysis and the maximum temperatures were measured in adjacent of holes. Results: Drill bit head angle of 70 degrees was created the lowest maximum temperature during drilling operation. The lowest maximum temperatures were observed in the drill bit rotational speed, drill bit feed rate and the force exerted on the drill bit equal to 200 rpm, 120 mm/min and 60 N, respectively. The use of irrigation can decrease the maximum bone temperature about 7ºC. The maximum temperature differences in various regions of mandible and maxilla were approximately about 1ºC. Conclusion: Sharpness of drill bit head angle, reduction of drill bit rotational speed, increasing drill bit feed rate and exerted force on drill bit and also the use of irrigation played effective roles in temperature decrease during jawbone drilling. Drilling site did not have important effect on the temperature changes during jawbone drilling.

  1. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District Manager...

  2. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chongbin; Quan Qiquan; Shi Xiaomeng; Deng Zongquan; Tang Dewei; Jiang Shengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock), this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algo-rithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states:the interface detection, initi-ation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM) and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of dril-ling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detect-ing drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  3. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongbin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  4. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  5. Method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, G.D.; Fayner, L.B.; Gurerich, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    A method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit consists of duplicating its position by an indicator which moves along with movement of the drill head during its forward and backward movements. In order to reduce time spent on auxilliary operations mismatching of the reading of the indicator and the position of the drill head is accomplished due to automatic rejection of the accumulated air during backward motion. The indicated mismatching is rejected at the end of the backward cycle.

  6. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  7. Development of Diamond-Coated Drills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Compared with the sintered polycrystalline diamond, the deposited thin film diamond has the great advantage on the fabrication of cutting tools with complex geometries such as drills. Because of their low costs for fabrication equipment and high performance on high speed machining non-ferrous metals and alloys, metal-compound materials, and hard brittle non-metals, diamond-coated drills find great potentialities in the commercial application. However, the poor adhesion of the diamond film on the substrate...

  8. Nonlinear Estimation with Applications to Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Stamnes, Øyvind Nistad

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses the topic of nonlinear estimation and its applications. Particular emphasis is given to downhole pressure estimation for Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD), but due to the mathematical similarities of the two problems, velocity estimation for mechanical systems is also considered.  The thesis consists of the following three parts:Part I of this thesis addresses the problem of pressure estimation for MPD systems. Over the last decade MPD has emerged as a tool for drilling of...

  9. Research on the fates of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munschenheim, D. K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    Dispersal characteristics and fates of fine particulate drilling wastes were studied in the Cohasset and Panuke oilfields lying 45 km west of Sable Island in 38 m of water. A second study was carried out at the Hibernia field in 1995 prior to the emplacement of the Hibernia platform. In the Cohasset and Panuke study the wells were relatively shallow and drilling operations were done with a minimum of barite. The initial trial comparing samples from within the discharge plume with those taken from clear water revealed that drilling waste fines accumulate in the benthic boundary layer. Subsequent studies at Copan delineated the extent of drilling wastes coverage on the seabed, showing flocculation of the waste particles, with subsequent increase in their settling rate. There was also evidence of an increase in water column turbidity with increasing proximity to the platform. In the case of Hibernia drilling wastes were detected only in the upper water column. Subsequent information revealed that this was due to the fact that at the time of sampling silica-based drilling mud, formulated with fresh water, was used. In 1998 Hibernia switched to synthetic muds. Since that time, no drilling mud waste was detected in the upper water column and only slight amounts in the benthic boundary layer. The explanation lies in the differences in discharge practices, such as for example pre-dilution with sea water. Overall, the results confirm the suitability of particle size analysis for the detection of particulate drilling wastes on energetic offshore banks. The technique also confirms the role of flocculation in retarding the dispersion of fine particles through increasing the settling rate. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Pure waterjet drilling of articular bone

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Christian; Dunnen, Steven den; Kraaij, Gert; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical application of waterjet technology for machining tough human tissues, such as articular bone, has advantages, as it produces clean sharp cuts without tissue heating. Additionally, water supply is possible via flexible tubing, which enables minimally invasive surgical access. This pilot study investigates whether drilling bony tissue with pure waterjets is feasible. Water pressures between 20 and 120 MPa with an orifice of 0.6 mm were used to create waterjets to drill blind boring...

  11. Drill Embedded Nanosensors For Planetary Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor for water vapor detection under Martian Conditions and the miniaturized electronics can be embedded in the drill bit for collecting sensor data and transmit it to a computer wirelessly.This capability will enable the real time measurement of ice during drilling. With this real time and in-situ measurement, subsurface ice detection can be easy, fast, precise and low cost.

  12. STUDY ON THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DRILL WANDERING MOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the kinematic relationship of the drill, drill point and workpiece and the coordinate systems founded, the mathematical models of the drill point wandering motion for the drill initial penetration, i. e. the formulae for the drill point center locus, hole shape and cutting edge locus, are established. According to these formulae the hole shape to be made is simulated and analyzed. It is verified that the bending chatter of the drill during the drill penetrating is the main cause to form a polygon like hole.

  13. Drilling Automation Tests At A Lunar/Mars Analog Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B.; Cannon, H.; Hanagud, S.; Lee, P.; Paulsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. The limited mass, energy and manpower in planetary drilling situations makes application of terrestrial drilling techniques problematic. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project is developing drilling automation and robotics for projected use in missions to the Moon and Mars in the 2011-15 period. This has been tested recently, drilling in permafrost at a lunar/martian analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada).

  14. Insulating coupling for drill collars and method of manufacture thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, F.A.; Maron, R.J.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an insulating drill collar joint, including: a first metallic drill collar segment having a first threaded section with a coating of electrically insulating ceramic material; insulating coating in the range of from 0.002 to 0.006 inch thick; and a second metallic drill collar segment connected to first drill collar segment; second drill collar segment having a second threaded section engaged with the insulation coated section of the first drill collar section. An electrically insulated drill collar joint is formed.

  15. Stinger Enhanced Drill Bits For EGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrand, Christopher J. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Skeem, Marcus R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Crockett, Ron B. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Hall, David R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-04-29

    The project objectives were to design, engineer, test, and commercialize a drill bit suitable for drilling in hard rock and high temperature environments (10,000 meters) likely to be encountered in drilling enhanced geothermal wells. The goal is provide a drill bit that can aid in the increased penetration rate of three times over conventional drilling. Novatek has sought to leverage its polycrystalline diamond technology and a new conical cutter shape, known as the Stinger®, for this purpose. Novatek has developed a fixed bladed bit, known as the JackBit®, populated with both shear cutter and Stingers that is currently being tested by major drilling companies for geothermal and oil and gas applications. The JackBit concept comprises a fixed bladed bit with a center indenter, referred to as the Jack. The JackBit has been extensively tested in the lab and in the field. The JackBit has been transferred to a major bit manufacturer and oil service company. Except for the attached published reports all other information is confidential.

  16. Aspectos del dengue investigados en Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Martínez

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre 1998 y 2003 se registraron en Colombia 256,831 casos de dengue (22,834 de dengue hemorrágico DH de los cuales 41,325 (36% fueron en Santander (3,265 DH (1,2. En este período ocurrieron brotes en 1998 y 2001 observándose incremento de casos severos en el segundo (2. Por otro lado, existen inconvenientes con el diagnóstico que dificultan el manejo clínico oportuno y la vigilancia epidemiológica. Como consecuencia, los siguientes aspectos han sido investigados:

    1 Contribución de la circulación de los serotipos/genotipos al incremento del dengue hemorrágico, considerando que la entrada o emergencia de éstos se han asociado con epidemias (3. Entre 1998 y 2004 se hicieron 1,180 intentos de aislamiento viral en células C6/36 (4, detectándose los 4 serotipos. El DEN-2 se aisló todos los años con mayor frecuencia durante los brotes (43% y 40% de los cepas; el DEN-1 se detectó entre 1998 y 2001, siendo el prevalente en el primer brote (57%, pero el menos en el segundo (4%; el DEN-3 se detectó en el brote del 2001 con similar frecuencia al DEN-2 (36%, por primera vez en Colombia luego de 23 años ausente, y fue el prevalerte entre 2002-2004 (92% de los aislados, aunque en estos años no se reportó incremento del DH (2; el DEN-4 se aisló solo en el 2000 (27% y en el brote del 2001 (20%. El genotipo de cada serotipo se identificó por análisis de RSS-PCR (5,6. Se encontraron el subtipo A (ó III, C (ó I y B (ó II de los serotipos 2, 1 y 4, similares a los que están circulando en países de América y oriundos del Asia. Los DEN-3 fueron del subtipo C (ó III iguales al virus que entró en América en 1994 oriundo de Sri-Lanka, India. Los genotipos del 2 y 3 encontrados en Santander producen con mayor frecuencia DH (3,7.

    Aspectos sobre el matrimonio en el Derecho Romano arcaico

    OpenAIRE

    Fern??ndez Baquero, Mar??a-Eva

    2004-01-01

    El libro "El Derecho de Familia: De Roma al Derecho actual" donde se encuentra recogido este cap??tulo "Aspectos sobre el matrimonio en el Derecho Romano arcaico" (p??gs. 193-207) tiene un total de 853 p??ginas.

  17. Aspectos funcionales de la psicoterapia analítico funcional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Virués Ortega

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se considera una nueva psicoterapia de orientación conductual: la Psicoterapia Analítico Funcional. Se describen brevemente sus fundamentos teóricos, metodológicos y aplicados. Se discuten sus aspectos funcionales desde un punto de vista contextual.

  18. Aspectos funcionales de la psicoterapia analítico funcional.

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Virués Ortega; Alberto Descalzo Quero; José Fernando Venceslá Martínez

    2003-01-01

    Se considera una nueva psicoterapia de orientación conductual: la Psicoterapia Analítico Funcional. Se describen brevemente sus fundamentos teóricos, metodológicos y aplicados. Se discuten sus aspectos funcionales desde un punto de vista contextual.

  19. Aspectos funcionales de la psicoterapia analítico funcional.

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Se considera una nueva psicoterapia de orientación conductual: la Psicoterapia Analítico Funcional. Se describen brevemente sus fundamentos teóricos, metodológicos y aplicados. Se discuten sus aspectos funcionales desde un punto de vista contextual.

  1. Aspectos de diseno de un entorno de programacion colaborativo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rincon, Carlos; Acurero, Alfredo; Bracho, David

    2008-01-01

    ..., estructura e implementacion de este tipo de entornos. Como resultado se obtuvo que desde el punto de vista del diseno, la comunicacion entre desarrolladores, la revision de codigo y la construccion del proyecto de software son los principales aspectos a considerar, y desde el punto de vista de la implementacion se propone utilizar el modelo cliente--servidor y una arquitectura multiplataforma.

  2. Electrotechnical complex of drill rig with adjustable electric drives

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulin Oleg; Shabanov Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the electrotechnical complex of a drill rig with adjustable electric drives of the main mechanisms. A computer model has been developed for the electrical complex of the drill rig, which allows studying processes in case of interruptions in the power supply system, changes in the technological parameters of drilling, etc. The article presents the simulation results for short circuits in the power supply system of the drilling rig and for drilling a well.

  3. Electrotechnical complex of drill rig with adjustable electric drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulin Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the electrotechnical complex of a drill rig with adjustable electric drives of the main mechanisms. A computer model has been developed for the electrical complex of the drill rig, which allows studying processes in case of interruptions in the power supply system, changes in the technological parameters of drilling, etc. The article presents the simulation results for short circuits in the power supply system of the drilling rig and for drilling a well.

  4. Drilling Fluid System & Technology in Sichuan Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang You; He Lun

    1995-01-01

    @@ Polymer Drilling FluidSystem SPA (Sichuan Petroleum Administration) began to use non-dispersed polymer drilling fluids in 1975. In the beginning,SPA adopted the single polymer drilling fluid systems utilizing single polyacrylamide as full flocculants or utilizing PHPA (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) as proper flocculants, then SPA widely popularized the multi-polymer drilling fluid systems compounding of high, medium and low molecular weight polymers. The amphoteric polymers drilling fluid has been successfully developed and applied in recent years.

  5. Differentiated rare-element mineralization in an ongonite − topazite composite dike at the Xianghualing tin district, Southern China: an electron-microprobe study on the evolution from niobium-tantalum-oxides to cassiterite

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Xie, Lei; Zhu, Jin-Chu; Erdmann, Saskia; Che, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Rong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Our study characterizes in detail the mineralogical, textural and compositional features of a highly evolved, composite ongonite-topazite dike and its magmatic differentiation history. We present compositional data collected by established techniques, i.e. by electron microprobe and wet-chemical analysis, which provide a detailed framework for future studies that employ state-of-the-art analytical techniques. The studied dike (referred to as the No. 431 dike) crops out...

  6. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2005-09-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation prototype tool. In the past, several combinations of laser and rock variables were investigated at standard conditions and reported in the literature. More recent experiments determined the technical feasibility of

  7. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  8. Rb-Sr and Nd-Sr isotope geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Misho Mountains mafic dikes (NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ahankoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are some theories about the Paleotethys event during the Paleozoic that have been proposed by geologists (Metcalfe, 2006. Some scientist offered some pieces of evidence about the northern margin of Gondwana (Zhu et al., 2010. The Paleotethys Ocean and Hercynian orogenic report first in Iran, have been Offered from the Morrow and Misho Mountain (Eftekharnejad, 1981. Misho Mountains is located between the north and south Misho faults and cause the formation of a positive flower structure (Moayyed and Hossainzade, 2011. There is theory about Misho southern fault as the best candidate of the Paleotethys suture zone (Moayyed and Hossainzade, 2011. Geochemistry and Sr –Nd isotopic data of the A2 granitic and Synite rocks of the East Misho, indicate that the magmatism post collision has occurred in the active continental margin by extensional zones of the following the closure of the Paleotethys (Ahankoub, 2012. Granite and syenite rocks have been cut by mafic dikes. Mafic dikes are often formed in extensional tectonic settings related to mantle plume or continental break –up (Zhu et al., 2009. In this paper, we use the geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotope data to determined petrogenesis, tectono-magmatic setting and age of Misho mafic dikes. Materials and methods After petrography study of 30 thin sections of mafic dike rocks, 8 samples were selected for whole-rock chemical analyses using ICP-MS and ICP-AES instruments by ACME Company in Vancouver, Canada. We prepared 6 sample For Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr analysis. Sr and Nd isotope ratios were measured with a thermal ionization mass spectrometer, VG Sector 54–30 at the Nagoya University. The isotope abundances of Rb, Sr, Nd, and Sm were measured by the ID method with a Finnigan MAT Thermoquad THQ thermal ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer at the Nagoya University. NBS987 and JNdi-1 were measured as natural Sr and Nd isotope ratio standards (Tanaka et al., 2000. Averages and 2σ errors

  9. A preliminary geochemical study of zircons and monazites from Deccan felsic dikes, Rajula, Gujarat, India: Implications for crustal melting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilanjan Chatterjee; Somdev Bhattacharji

    2004-12-01

    Zircons of 10–100 m size and monazites of up to 10 m size are present in rhyolite and trachyte dikes associated with Deccan basalts around Rajula in the southern Saurashtra Peninsula of Gujarat. On the basis of structural conformity of the felsic and basaltic dikes, K-Ar ages and trace element considerations, a previous study concluded that the felsic rocks are coeval with the Deccan Volcanics and originated by crustal anatexis. The felsic rocks contain two populations of zircons and monazites, one that crystallized from the felsic melt and the other that contains inherited crustal material. Trace element variations in the rhyolites and trachytes indicate that zircons and monazites crystallized from the felsic melts, but compositional analysis of a zircon indicates the presence of a small core possibly inherited from the crust. Hf compositional zoning profile of this zircon indicates that it grew from the host rhyolitic melt while the melt differentiated, and Y and LREE contents suggest that this zircon crystallized from the host melt. Pb contents of some monazites also suggest the presence of inherited crustal cores. Hence, any age determination by the U-Th-Pb isotopic method should be interpreted with due consideration to crustal inheritance. Temperatures estimated from zircon and monazite saturation thermometry indicate that the crust around Rajula may have been heated to a maximum of approximately 900°C by the intruding Deccan magma. Crustal melting models of other workers indicate that a 1-2 million year emplacement time for the Deccan Traps may be appropriate for crustal melting characteristics observed in the Rajula area through the felsic dikes.

  10. [Textual research on "Chigu Decoction" in Wooden Slips from the Site of the Ancient People's Dike in Zhangjiajie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Zhang, Ru-Qing

    2011-07-01

    In 1987, wooden slips named Zhi Chigu Fang (Chigu Decoction) were discovered on the site of the Ancient People's Dike in Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province. 15 drugs with dosage were listed on the front of the wooden slip and processing on the reverse side. Though there are two academic opinions about Chigu Decoction neither of them is convincing. Zhi means treatment and Chigu is the name of an ancient exogenous febrile disease with the symptoms of aversion to cold, fever, headache and neck pain, ankylosis, cough and asthma or cold pain in the gastric area and diarrhea. Chi is a descriptive word describing the appearance of exogenous febrile fever.

  11. Optimization of process parameters for drilled hole quality characteristics during cortical bone drilling using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj; Ghai, Aman

    2016-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgery involves drilling of bones to get them fixed at their original position. The drilling process used in orthopaedic surgery is most likely to the mechanical drilling process and there is all likelihood that it may harm the already damaged bone, the surrounding bone tissue and nerves, and the peril is not limited at that. It is very much feared that the recovery of that part may be impeded so that it may not be able to sustain life long. To achieve sustainable orthopaedic surgery, a surgeon must try to control the drilling damage at the time of bone drilling. The area around the holes decides the life of bone joint and so, the contiguous area of drilled hole must be intact and retain its properties even after drilling. This study mainly focuses on optimization of drilling parameters like rotational speed, feed rate and the type of tool at three levels each used by Taguchi optimization for surface roughness and material removal rate. The confirmation experiments were also carried out and results found with the confidence interval. Scanning electrode microscopy (SEM) images assisted in getting the micro level information of bone damage.

  12. Great Wall Drilling Company on The Way to Rapid Expansion in Overseas Drilling Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ In early 2003, an exciting new reached Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC). After strict evaluation procedure, PDVSA, the national oil company of Venezuela, made the decision to award GWDC a service contract valued at US$116 millions,which is the largest one GWDC has obtained since it began international drilling business.

  13. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yudan; Wen, Guojun; Chen, Han

    2017-04-27

    The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  14. A water-budget approach to restoring a sedge fen affected by diking and ditching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Sweat, Michael J.; Carlson, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2006-04-01

    A vast, ground-water-supported sedge fen in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA was ditched in the early 1900 s in a failed attempt to promote agriculture. Dikes were later constructed to impound seasonal sheet surface flows for waterfowl management. The US Fish and Wildlife Service, which now manages the wetland as part of Seney National Wildlife Refuge, sought to redirect water flows from impounded C-3 Pool to reduce erosion in downstream Walsh Ditch, reduce ground-water losses into the ditch, and restore sheet flows of surface water to the peatland. A water budget was developed for C-3 Pool, which serves as the central receiving and distribution body for water in the affected wetland. Surface-water inflows and outflows were measured in associated ditches and natural creeks, ground-water flows were estimated using a network of wells and piezometers, and precipitation and evaporation/evapotranspiration components were estimated using local meteorological data. Water budgets for the 1999 springtime peak flow period and the 1999 water year were used to estimate required releases of water from C-3 Pool via outlets other than Walsh Ditch and to guide other restoration activities. Refuge managers subsequently used these results to guide restoration efforts, including construction of earthen dams in Walsh Ditch upslope from the pool to stop surface flow, installation of new water-control structures to redirect surface water to sheet flow and natural creek channels, planning seasonal releases from C-3 Pool to avoid erosion in natural channels, stopping flow in downslope Walsh Ditch to reduce erosion, and using constructed earthen dams and natural beaver dams to flood the ditch channel below C-3 Pool. Interactions between ground water and surface water are critical for maintaining ecosystem processes in many wetlands, and management actions directed at restoring either ground- or surface-water flow patterns often affect both of these components of the water budget. This

  15. Geochemistry and zircon ages of mafic dikes in the South Qinling, central China: evidence for late Neoproterozoic continental rifting in the northern Yangtze block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiyan; Chen, Fukun; Liu, Bingxiang; Zhang, He; Zhai, Mingguo

    2015-01-01

    Neoproterozoic volcanic-sedimentary sequences of the southern Qinling belt, central China, were intruded by voluminous mafic dikes. secondary ion mass spectrometry zircon U-Pb dating indicates that these dikes were emplaced at 650.8 ± 5.2 Ma, coeval with mafic rocks occurring at the northern margin of the Yangtze block. The dikes are characterized by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements, high Ti contents (up to 3.73 wt%) and Nb/Ta ratios between 14.5 and 19.6, suggesting a mantle source of oceanic island basalt affinity. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios show positive correlation with SiO2 contents and negative correlation with Zr/Nb ratios, implying that these rocks were affected by crustal contamination during the magma ascend and emplacement process. The dikes have initial ɛ Nd values of +0.2 to +3.3, low 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 16.96-17.45, and moderate 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7043-0.7076, likely pointing to the involvement of an enriched mantle source. The mafic dikes and coeval mafic volcanic equivalents in the South Qinling and the northern Yangtze are hypothesized to be related with the prolonged breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia, suggesting that continental rifting lasted until ca. 650 Ma.

  16. Analysis on Yellow River dike slope stability with strength reduction method%黄河大堤边坡稳定的强度折减法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜波

    2012-01-01

    The article calculates and analyzes Yellow River dike slope stability with finite element strength reduction method, and respectively calculates the dike slope stability security coefficients under two conditions of riverside upstream and riverside levee. Results show that : under the first condition, the security coefficient Fs = 1. 963 〉 1, which shows that the dike slope is safe and stable, under the second condition, the securi- ty coefficient Fs = 1. 395 〉 1, the security coefficient reduces a little, while the dike slope is still safe. Thus, the Yellow River dike slope is safe and reliable.%采用有限元强度折减法对黄河大堤边坡稳定问题进行了计算和分析,分别计算了临河堤坡未迎水和河床水位达到堤顶两种工况下的堤坡稳定安全系数,结果表明,第一种工况下安全系数Fs=1.963〉1,堤坡安全稳定,第二种工况下安全系数F=1.395〉1,安全系数有所减小,但堤坡仍然是安全的,由此可知黄河大堤的边坡是安全可靠的。

  17. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF CRYO TREATED HSS DRILLS IN DRILLING CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Ramji

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the performance of cryogenically treated HSS drills for drilling gray cast iron. The thrust force and torque were measured using drill tool dynamometer. The surface roughness (Ra, Rz, Rq and Rt of the drilled specimens were measured using talysurf. The experimental lay-out was designedusing Taguchi’s Orthogonal Array technique. Signal-to-Noise Ratio analysis was performed to identify the effect of the parameters on the response variables. The treated drills were found superior to the non-treated in all the test conditions in terms of lesser thrust force, torque and also superior surface roughness of the specimens.The tool wear was studied using SEM. FEM was done to predict tool tip temperature.

  18. Post-drilling analysis of underbalanced drilled wells in Hassi-Messaoud Field, Algeria : case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, K. [Sonatrach Inc., Alger (Algeria); Osisanya, S.O. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); Madi, Y. [Algerian Petroleum Inst. (Algeria)

    2004-07-01

    Underbalanced drilling (UBD) is often undertaken in fractured reservoirs, in depleted formations that are susceptible to well bore damage or mud loss, and in medium to hard rock with problematic drilling rates. UBD involves manipulating the bottom hole circulating pressure so that it will be less than the static reservoir pressure, allowing formation fluids to flow into the well. UBD has increased profits at several oil and gas drilling properties including the Hassi Messaoud Field in Algeria where Sonatrach conducted trials in depleted oil production zones to assess the operational feasibility and commercial benefits of UBD. The technique was found to prevent lost circulation and differential pipe sticking; improve penetration rates; provide real-time reservoir evaluation while drilling; eliminate well stimulation costs; and, improve well bore productivity as a result of reduced formation damage. UBD also provides access to reserves that would otherwise not be produced, and substantially reduces total drilling and completion costs. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Deep learning in assessment of drill condition on the basis of images of drilled holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Jaroslaw; Swiderski, Bartosz; Jegorowa, Albina; Kruk, Michal; Osowski, Stanislaw

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents novel approach to drill condition assessment using deep learning. The assessment regarding level of the drill wear is done on the basis of the drilled hole images. Two states of the drill are taken into account: the sharp enough to continue production and worn out. The decision is taken on the basis of the shape of hole and also the level of hole shredding. In this way the drill condition is associated with the problem of image analysis and classification. Novel approach to this classification task in the form of deep learning has been applied in solving this problem. The important advantage of this method is great simplification of the recognition procedure, since any handy craft prepared features are not needed and the focus may be concentrated on the most interesting aspects of data mining and machine learning. The obtained results belong to the best in comparison to other approaches to the problem solution.

  20. Machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates using candle stick drill and multi-facet drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Dong; Qiu, Kun-Xian; Chen, Ming; Cai, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite laminates are widely used in aerospace and aircraft structural components due to their superior properties. However, they are regarded as difficult-to-cut materials because of bad surface quality and low productivity. Drilling is the most common hole making process for CFRP composite laminates and drilling induced delamination damage usually occurs severely at the exit side of drilling holes, which strongly deteriorate holes quality. In this work, the candle stick drill and multi-facet drill are employed to evaluate the machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A CFRP composite laminates in terms of thrust force, delamination, holes diameter and holes surface roughness. S/N ratio is used to characterize the thrust force while an ellipse-shaped delamination model is established to quantitatively analyze the delamination. The best combination of drilling parameters are determined by full consideration of S/N ratios of thrust force and the delamination. The results indicate that candle stick drill will induce the unexpected ellipse-shaped delamination even at its best drilling parameters of spindle speed of 10,000 rpm and feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth. However, the multi-facet drill cutting at the relative lower feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth and lower spindle speed of 6000 rpm can effectively prevent the delamination. Comprehensively, holes quality obtained by multi-facet drill is much more superior to those obtained by candle stick drill.

  1. Innovative collaboration important to rotary steerable drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2000-05-01

    Sperry-Sun Drilling Services' recently commercialized Geo-Pilot{sup T}M rotary steerable drilling system is described. The system consists of the Geo-Pilot{sup T}M rotary steerable tool, a logging-while-drilling (LWD) system, specially designed long-gauge bits and the INSITE{sup T}M data acquisition and management system. The system brings a completely new approach to rotary steerable drilling. It uses 'point-the-bit' technology to deflect a rotating drive shaft off center, causing the drive shaft to flex and alter the direction of the drilling. The tool provides real-time steering information and at-bit inclination measurement, both of which are integrated with the INSITE{sup T}M rig information system. The real-time data can be displayed along with other formation evaluation information. The system has been evaluated at the Gas Research Institute's Oklahoma test facility; it has been used commercially by Canadian, Norwegian and US operators, with complete success. Worldwide deployment of the system is in the planning stages.

  2. Drilling: medical indications and surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Kallás Hueb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: anovulation is a major cause of female infertility, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the leading cause of anovulation. While undergoing drug-induced ovulation, women with PCOS usually have a satisfactory response recruiting follicles, but some are unable to recruit follicles or often produce an excessive number of follicles, which can result in ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and/or multiple pregnancy. Surgical laparoscopy with ovarian "drilling" may prevent or reduce the need for drug-induced ovulation. Objective: to identify the current indications of laparoscopic ovarian drilling and the best surgical technique. Method: a review of the medical literature based on systematic search in the Medline, Lilacs and Cochrane databases, using as keywords laparoscopy, polycystic ovary syndrome, and drilling. Results: we found 105 articles in the literature, 27 of these highly relevant, describing findings on ovarian drilling. Conclusion: laparoscopic drilling is indicated for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome with ovulatory resistance to the use of clomiphene citrate, body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 and preoperative luteinizing hormone above 10 IU/L. The preferred surgical technique should be the realization of 5 to 10 perforations on the surface of each ovary bilaterally using monopolar energy.

  3. Physical demand of seven closed agility drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark; Rosalie, Simon; Netto, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the demand of seven generic, closed agility drills. Twenty males with experience in invasion sports volunteered to participate in this study. They performed seven, closed agility drills over a standardised 30-m distance. Physical demand measures of peak velocity, total foot contacts, peak impacts, completion time, and maximum heart rate were obtained via the use of wearable sensor technologies. A subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also obtained. All measures, with the exception of maximum heart rates and RPE were able to delineate drills in terms of physical and physiological demand. The findings of this study exemplify the differences in demand of agility-type movements. Drill demand was dictated by the type of agility movement initiated with the increase in repetitiveness of a given movement type also contributing to increased demand. Findings from this study suggest agility drills can be manipulated to vary physical and physiological demand. This allows for the optimal application of training principles such as overload, progression, and periodisation.

  4. Beyond the Next Generation in Drilling Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Tom; Heysse, Dale

    1998-12-31

    This presentation looks back at the history of offshore drilling and then projects a number of evolutionary developments into the years from 1998 to 2005: (1) By the end of 1999, LWD formation testers and nuclear magnetic resonance tools will become field proven. (2) Global personal networks should be further enhanced when such new communications satellites as Motorola`s Iridium enter operation. Global communications will lead to remote pay zone steering of offshore wells. (3) Casing will be expanded downhole, enabling drilling of smaller uniform diameter wells. (4) Riserless drilling will become available for more applications. (5) There will be increased used of multilateral well designs. (6) Somebody will drill an extended reach well longer than 15 km. (7) The current trend toward subsea production and large floating facilities will continue. (8) `Smart` well completions will mature and become more common, including downhole separation of oil, gas and water. Beyond 2005, rig efficiency will increase, riserless drilling will become commercially available for deepwater applications, computing and communication will become integrated worldwide, and seafloor gas-to-liquids conversion may become commercial. 16 refs.

  5. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Fox, Joe

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  6. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States); Aaron, Dick [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States); Macpherson, John [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Many countries around the world, including the USA, have untapped geothermal energy potential. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is needed to economically utilize this resource. Temperatures in some EGS reservoirs can exceed 300°C. To effectively utilize EGS resources, an array of injector and production wells must be accurately placed in the formation fracture network. This requires a high temperature directional drilling system. Most commercial services for directional drilling systems are rated for 175°C while geothermal wells require operation at much higher temperatures. Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) projects have been initiated to develop a 300°C capable directional drilling system, the first developing a drill bit, directional motor, and drilling fluid, and the second adding navigation and telemetry systems. This report is for the first project, “High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System, including drill bit, directional motor and drilling fluid, for enhanced geothermal systems,” award number DE-EE0002782. The drilling system consists of a drill bit, a directional motor, and drilling fluid. The DOE deliverables are three prototype drilling systems. We have developed three drilling motors; we have developed four roller-cone and five Kymera® bits; and finally, we have developed a 300°C stable drilling fluid, along with a lubricant additive for the metal-to-metal motor. Metal-to-metal directional motors require coatings to the rotor and stator for wear and corrosion resistance, and this coating research has been a significant part of the project. The drill bits performed well in the drill bit simulator test, and the complete drilling system has been tested drilling granite at Baker Hughes’ Experimental Test Facility in Oklahoma. The metal-to-metal motor was additionally subjected to a flow loop test in Baker Hughes’ Celle Technology Center in Germany, where it ran for more than 100

  7. Drill System Development for the Lunar Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, Kris; Davis, Kiel; Paulsen, Gale; Roberts, Dustyn; Wilson, Jack; Hernandez, Wilson

    Reaching the cold traps at the lunar poles and directly sensing the subsurface regolith is a primary goal of lunar exploration, especially as a means of prospecting for future In Situ Resource Utilization efforts. As part of the development of a lunar drill capable of reaching a depth of two meters or more, Honeybee Robotics has built a laboratory drill system with a total linear stroke of 1 meter, capability to produce as much as 45 N-m of torque at a rotational speed of 200 rpm, and a capability of delivering maximum downforce of 1000 N. Since this is a test-bed, the motors were purposely chosen to be relative large to provide ample power to the drill system (the Apollo drill was a 500 Watt drill, i.e. not small in current standards). In addition, the drill is capable of using three different drilling modes: rotary, rotary percussive and percussive. The frequency of percussive impact can be varied if needed while rotational speed can be held constant. An integral part of this test bed is a vacuum chamber that is currently being constructed. The drill test-bed is used for analyzing various drilling modes and testing different drill bit and auger systems under low pressure conditions and in lunar regolith simulant. The results of the tests are used to develop final lunar drill design as well as efficient drilling protocols. The drill was also designed to accommodate a downhole neutron spectrometer for measuring the amount of hydrated material in the area surrounding the borehole, as well as downhole temperature sensors, accelerometers, and electrical properties tester. The presentation will include history of lunar drilling, challenges of drilling on the Moon, a description of the drill and chamber as well as preliminary drilling test results conducted in the ice-bound lunar regolith simulant with a variety of drill bits and augers systems.

  8. Drilling on Mars---Mathematical Model for Rotary-Ultrasonic Core Drilling of Brittle Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Mera Fayez

    The results from the Phoenix mission led scientists to believe it is possible that primitive life exists below the Martian surface. Therefore, drilling in Martian soil in search for organisms is the next logical step. Drilling on Mars is a major engineering challenge due to the drilling depth requirement. Mars lacks a thick atmosphere and a continuous magnetic field that shield the planet's surface from solar radiation and solar flares. As a result, the Martian surface is sterile and if life ever existed, it must be found below the surface. In 2001, NASA's Mars Exploration Payload Advisory Group proposed that drilling should be considered as a priority investigation on Mars in an effort of finding evidence of extinct or extant life. On August 6, 2012, the team of engineers landed the spacecraft Curiosity on the surface of Mars by using a revolutionary hovering platform. The results from the Curiosity mission suggested the next logical step, which is drilling six meters deep in the red planet in search of life. Excavation tools deployed to Mars so far have been able to drill to a maximum depth of 6.5 cm. Thus, the drilling capabilities need to be increased by a factor or approximately 100 to achieve the goal of drilling six meters deep. This requirement puts a demand on developing a new and more effective technologies to reach this goal. Previous research shows evidence of a promising drilling mechanism in rotary-ultrasonic for what it offers in terms of high surface quality, faster rate of penetration and higher material removal rate. This research addresses the need to understand the mechanics of the drill bit tip and rock interface in rotary-ultrasonic drilling of brittle materials. A mathematical model identifying all contributing independent parameters, such as drill bit design parameters, drilling process parameters, ultrasonic wave amplitude and rocks' material properties, that have effect on rate of penetration is developed. Analytical and experimental

  9. Aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & Relacionamento Humano & Sinergia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vieira Holtz Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As Tecnologias de Informação (TI estão entre os principais agentes de mudança sociais. Para gerir tais mudanças, uma miríade de áreas do conhecimento humano têm muito a contribuir para a abordagem dos aspectos sociotécnicos das TI e promover sinergia. Como uma organização empresarial atua no sentido de provocar mudanças no comportamento das pessoas, visando a melhoria contínua, esse processo de mudança provocada chama-se aprendizagem. Isto posto, neste artigo apresentaremos resultados observados em empresas em processo de reengenharia e submetidas a utilização de metodologias integradas (PDCA, Método Paulo Freire e Roteiro Integração de Equipes, abordando os aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & relacionamentos humanos pela praxe da pedagogia como elemento de sinergia.

  10. Asymmetrical magnetic fabrics in the Egersund doleritic dike swarm (SW Norway) reveal sinistral oblique rifting before the opening of the Iapetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Salvatrice; Diot, Hervé; Bolle, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The 616 ± 3 Ma (Ediacaran) Egersund doleritic dike swarm cuts across the Rogaland anorthosite province and its granulitic country rocks, in SW Norway. The structure of eight out of eleven main dikes of the swarm was investigated using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) technique. Thermomagnetic data and values of the bulk magnetic susceptibility reveal a magnetic mineralogy dominated by Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Magnetic fabric and global petrofabric are coaxial, except in sites strongly affected by hydrothermal alteration, as demonstrated through image analysis. Asymmetrical dispositions of the magnetic foliation and lineation support the existence of a syn-emplacement, sinistral strike-slip shearing resolved on dike walls. Such asymmetrical fabrics are attributed to a transtension tectonic regime, in a context of oblique extension during the continental rifting phase which preceded the opening of the Iapetus Ocean along the SW margin (present-day orientation) of Baltica.

  11. Diking-induced moderate-magnitude earthquakes on a youthful rift border fault: The 2002 Nyiragongo-Kalehe sequence, D.R. Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthier, C.; Smets, B.; Keir, D.

    2015-12-01

    On 24 October 2002, Mw 6.2 earthquake occurred in the central part of the Lake Kivu basin, Western Branch of the East African Rift. This is the largest event recorded in the Lake Kivu area since 1900. An integrated analysis of radar interferometry (InSAR), seismic and geological data, demonstrates that the earthquake occurred due to normal-slip motion on a major preexisting east-dipping rift border fault. A Coulomb stress analysis suggests that diking events, such as the January 2002 dike intrusion, could promote faulting on the western border faults of the rift in the central part of Lake Kivu. We thus interpret that dike-induced stress changes can cause moderate to large-magnitude earthquakes on major border faults during continental rifting. Continental extension processes appear complex in the Lake Kivu basin, requiring the use of a hybrid model of strain accommodation and partitioning in the East African Rift.

  12. 浅谈南四湖湖东堤堤防的管理%Discussion on the Management of the Eastern Dike of Nansi Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉

    2011-01-01

    Nansi Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northern China, and is a lake with multi-functions, so the management of its dike is very important.Based on the analysis of the geography of Nansi Lake, this paper briefly describes the progress status of the project of eastern dike of Nansi Lake, raised the management measures of dike and the principles of unified management.%南四湖是我国北方最大的淡水湖,并且是一个多功能湖泊,所以其堤防的管理非常重要.本文在分析南四湖地理概况的基础上简单介绍了南四湖湖东堤的工程的进展情况,从提出了堤防的管理措施以及堤防统一管理的原则.

  13. Selection of general design scheme for Pinglang Flood Dike in Wuzhou City%梧州市平浪防洪堤总体设计方案选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂斌

    2016-01-01

    An introduction was made on the design of Pinglang Flood Dike in Wuzhou City,including the selection principle and concept of dike-line and dike type,the general design scheme integrating the concept of sustainable development and ecological water conservancy. The principles of environmental protection,humanity,sustainable development,harmonious coexistence between human being and nature were followed in the overall design process.%介绍了梧州市平浪防洪堤堤线、堤型的选择原则、思路,总体设计方案等基本情况。该设计方案融入可持续发展及生态水利的理念,将环保、人文以及可持续发展等贯彻于设计的全过程,体现了人与自然的和谐共处。

  14. Investigation on drilling-grinding of CFRP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanming QUAN; Wenwang ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to machine polymer matrix composites reinforced by carbon fibre, and the hole-making process is the most necessary machining process for composite plate products. Conventional drills have a very short life in the drilling of this kind of composites and the quality of the hole is very poor. In this paper, the cemented or plated diamond core tools are tested to make holes in carbon fibre/epoxy composite plates. The effects of machining parameters, cooling and chip removal on the tool life, and the hole quality are investigated. The results indicate that the material removal mechanism of the two kinds of diamond tools is not like the cutting effect of the conventional drilling but similar to that of grinding. Satisfactory effects in making holes in the composites are obtained--quite acceptable machined hole quality, low costs, and long wear-resistant endurance.

  15. Geochemical Characteristics and Genesis of the Luxi-Xianrenzhang Diabase Dikes in Xiazhuang Uranium Orefield, Northern Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Hongfei; SHEN Weizhou; DENG Ping; JIANG Shaoyong; JIANG Yaohui; YE Haimin; PU Wei; TAN Zhengzhong

    2005-01-01

    The Luxi-Xianrenzhang diabase dikes were emplaced into the eastern part of the Guidong composite granitoids in northern Guangdong Province at the end of the Early Cretaceous.They show tholeiitic features,enrichment in large ion lithophile elements,slight enrichment in light rare earth elements,depletion in Zr and Hf,and basically no depletion in Nb and Ta and no Eu anomaly.They are similar to intraplate basalt in terms of trace element characteristics.They have high εNd(t) values (3.6-4.9),initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70530-0.70641) and δ18O values and Dupal anomaly of Pb isotope compositions.Their Sr-Nd,Pb-Sr,Pb-Nd and Pb-Pb isotopes plot between DMM and EMⅡ,with Pb similar to EMⅡ,Nd relatively close to DMM and Sr in between.This profile suggests that the diabase dikes studied were derived from partial melting of a mantle source that had been subjected to metasomatism by fluids originated from a subduction zone under a tectonic environment of crustal extension and lithosphere thinning in the late Yanshanian.

  16. Aspectos de regulación sanitaria en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Buzanello

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mira a algunos aspectos de la regulación de los servicios de saneamiento en Brasil, específicamente la política de regulación resultante del proceso de reforma del Estado de 1995. Cuestiona los resultados de la productividad de los servicios de agua y alcantarillado de los concesionarios y el alcance de estas medidas al consumismo usuario.

  17. Aspectos fundamentales del método de Edith Stein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Crespo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available este trabajo aborda tres aspectos fundamentales del método filosófico de Edith Stein. En primer lugar, se alude a las cosas mismas como el punto de partida del filosofar de esta autora. En segundo lugar, se considera el aspecto que constituye uno de los aportes fundamentales del método fenomenológico y que es claramente reconocible en nuestra autora, a saber, el haber puesto de manifiesto la imposibilidad de hacer filosofía primera sin tomar en cuenta la vida consciente ante la que todas las cosas se abren. En tercer lugar, se remite a la individualidad de la persona como un aspecto de la antropología de Stein especialmente relevante. Al final del análisis de cada uno de estos tres aspectos metodológicos se intenta mostrar en qué sentido éstos pueden ser de relevancia para emprender el camino hacia la pregunta por la mujer.This paper addresses three fundamental aspects of Edith Stein's philosophical method. Firstly, it looks at issues such as the author's starting point of philosophizing. Secondly, it considers the aspect, which constitutes one of the fundamental contributions of the phenomenological method and is clearly recognizable in our author, such as having highlighted that it is impossible to carry out first philosophy without taking into account conscious life, before which all things are opened. Thirdly it looks at the individuality of the person as an especially relevant aspect of Stein's anthropology After analyzing each of these methodological aspects, this paper attempts to show how they may be relevant in laying out the path towards the question of the woman.

  18. Aspectos topográficos y temporales en terapia familiar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Vaz Leal

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presenta un modelo teórico, construido para trabajar en el estudio de la familia; dicho modelo, basado en el concepto de «reglas» familiares, pretende tomar en consideración diversos aspectos territoriales y temporales relacionados con las mismas, para integrarlos en el proceso terapéutico. Se ofrecen diversos ejemplos clínicos para ilustrar cada uno de los puntos abordados

  19. Rapid Development of Drilling Technology and Market of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guanqing; Ni Rongfu

    1994-01-01

    @@ China's developing drilling market Now, CNPC is the owner of more than 1 000 rigs of large and medium size, including imported electric-drive rigs with 6 000 to 9 000 m drilling capacity, imported mechanical drive rigs with 5 000 to 6 000 m drilling capacity, imported mobile rigs with 1 500 to 3 000 m drilling capacity and a lot of home-made mechanical rigs with 2 000,3 200, 4 500 and 6 000m drilling capacity, which can meet the requirement of the domestic and foreign drilling market.

  20. Use of Hardware Battery Drill in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Bhava R J; Shahdi, Masood; Ramarao, Duddupudi; Ranganadham, Atmakuri V; Kalamegam, Sundaresan

    2017-03-01

    Among the power drills (Electrical/Pneumatic/Battery) used in Orthopedic surgery, battery drill has got several advantages. Surgeons in low resource settings could not routinely use Orthopedic battery drills (OBD) due to the prohibitive cost of good drills or poor quality of other drills. "Hardware" or Engineering battery drill (HBD) is a viable alternative to OBD. HBD is easy to procure, rugged in nature, easy to maintain, durable, easily serviceable and 70 to 75 times cheaper than the standard high end OBD. We consider HBD as one of the cost effective equipment in Orthopedic operation theatres.

  1. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  2. Effects of implant drilling parameters for pilot and twist drills on temperature rise in bone analog and alveolar bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Ciou, Ji-Sih; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2016-11-01

    This study concerns the effects of different drilling parameters of pilot drills and twist drills on the temperature rise of alveolar bones during dental implant procedures. The drilling parameters studied here include the feed rate and rotation speed of the drill. The bone temperature distribution was analyzed through experiments and numerical simulations of the drilling process. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) elasto-plastic dynamic finite element model (DFEM) was proposed to investigate the effects of drilling parameters on the bone temperature rise. In addition, the FE model is validated with drilling experiments on artificial human bones and porcine alveolar bones. The results indicate that 3D DFEM can effectively simulate the bone temperature rise during the drilling process. During the drilling process with pilot drills or twist drills, the maximum bone temperature occurred in the region of the cancellous bones close to the cortical bones. The feed rate was one of the important factors affecting the time when the maximum bone temperature occurred. Our results also demonstrate that the elevation of bone temperature was reduced as the feed rate increased and the drill speed decreased, which also effectively reduced the risk region of osteonecrosis. These findings can serve as a reference for dentists in choosing drilling parameters for dental implant surgeries.

  3. 基于 FLUENT的丁坝回流区数值模拟%Sim ulation of the Backflow Zone aor und Spur Dike Based on FLUE NT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷亚; 刘杰

    2015-01-01

    The flow field in the backflow zone of the round -head, turn-head and trapezoidal dike has been simulated based on the k-ε and VOF model in fluent. First, comparisons about the simu-lation and experiment are made and the results are good .Further , simulations of different dikes are conducted , it is concluded that the backflow zone of the round -head dike is the largest , that of the turn-head dike is the second , and that of the trapezoidal dike is the third .The range of the back-flow is smaller and smaller with the water depth increasing , and this tend is slow near the surface . The result of the trapezoidal dike is opposite because of the slope .%利用FLUENT中的k-ε湍流模型和VOF模型,对非淹没的圆头、拐头和梯形丁坝回流区流场进行了数值模拟。首先将文献试验与模型计算进行了对比,结果吻合良好。然后进一步对不同类型丁坝进行了模拟。计算结果表明,不同类型丁坝的坝后回流区范围不同,圆头坝坝后回流区范围最大(涡长和涡宽),拐头坝次之,梯形坝最小。同一丁坝下,随着水深增加,圆头坝和拐头坝坝后回流区范围减小,且越接近水面减小越慢;梯形坝由于有坡度,结果与前两个丁坝结果相反。

  4. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, L.; Sauer, P.E.; Topalov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., {single bond}OH, {single bond}COOH, {single bond}NH2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ???2.5 to ???3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong ??13Ckerogen vs. ??15Nkerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back

  5. The effect of drilling parameters for surface roughness in drilling of AA7075 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Nafiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA7075 aluminum alloy has been very popular significantly interest in the production of structural components in automotive and aviation applications due to its high strength, low density, good plasticity and better machinability comparable to many metals. Particularly, final products must have uniformly high quality to ensure essential safety standards in the aircraft industry. The optimization of hole quality which can variable according to tool geometry and drilling parameters is important in spite of high machinability rate of AA7075 alloy. In this study, the effects of drilling parameters on average surface roughness (Ra has been investigated in drilling of AA7075 with tungsten carbide drills. Machining experiments were performed with three different drill point angles and three different levels of cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed. The effects of drilling parameters on thrust force has been determined with ANOVA in %95 confidence level. Feed rate was determined as the most important factor on Ra according to ANOVA results. Moreover, it was shown that increasing feed rate leads to increase of Ra while increasing drill point angle leads to decrease of Ra. The optimum surface roughness was obtained with point angle of 130°, cutting speed of 40 m/min and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev, thereby the validity of optimization was confirmed with Taguchi method.

  6. Comparative study for surface topography of bone drilling using conventional drilling and loose abrasive machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2015-03-01

    Drilling through the bone is a complicated process in orthopaedic surgery. It involves human as a part of the work so it needs better perfection and quality which leads to the sustainability. Different studies were carried out on this curious topic and some interesting results were obtained, which help the orthopaedic surgeon on the operation table. Major problems faced during bone drilling were crack initiation, thermal necrosis and burr formation. The surface topography of the bone is an indirect indication for the sustainability of bone joint. In this study, a comparison is made between conventional and a loose abrasive unconventional drilling technique for the surface characterization of the bone. The attempt has been made to show the feasibility of bone drilling with non-conventional technique and its aftereffect on the bone structure. The burr formation during conventional bone drilling was found to be more which leads to problems such as crack initiation and thermal necrosis. Scanning electrode microscope and surface roughness tester were used to characterize the surface of the fine drilled bone specimen and the results testified quite better surface finish and least crack formation while drilling with loose abrasive unconventional technique.

  7. Great Wall Drilling Company Operating Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Great changes have taken place in Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC) since the start of the new century, when GWDC conducted a profound reorganization in response to CNPC's (China National Petroleum Corporation)continuously restructuring strategy. The reorganization leads to a new top management full of youthful spirit and rich experience in international business by inviting applications for its key positions from the whole drilling sector of CNPC. Also, an effective organization structure forms with its characteristic of centering on international market development and overseas operations, aiming to raise its competitiveness internationally.

  8. Ergonomic exposure on a drilling rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Jensen, Chris

    , absence from work due to other health problems may not show a similar trend towards lower absenteeism. Sickness absence was reported by Maersk Contractors to have increased among their drilling rig personnel in the Danish Sector of the North Sea from 2000 to 2004 (Steffensen 2005). Their statistics were....... In a relatively old study on American drilling rigs it was indicated that lower back problems was a frequent cause of absence (Clemmer et al. 1991). Most of the incidents causing lower back injuries were associated with heavy lifting or pushing/pulling objects by roustabouts, floorhands, derrickmen and welders...

  9. GREATWALL DRILLING COMPANY HEADING FOR THE WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Rongfu; Wang Ni; Du Deling

    1997-01-01

    @@ Ready to Enter the International Market Based on the strategy of transnational operations, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) had established a technical service group company by the end of 1996. The main mission of the group company is to integratively organize the contracting of drilling,wireline logging, mud logging, well testing and other services from the overseas markets,including services in some leases in China where the operators are foreign companies. Greatwall Drilling Company(GWDC) is the core enterprise of the newly-founded group company.

  10. Wellbore Surveying While Drilling Based on Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ElGizawy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil and gas are global fuels obtained primarily from drilling wells in underground terrestrial reservoirs. Vertical drilling is preferred because of its simplicity and therefore low cost, but subsurface targets can often be procured only by directing the wellbore along predefined non-vertical trajectories. For instance, directional drilling must be employed to reach locations inaccessible to the drilling rig, to side track an existing well (multilateral drilling, or to drill multiple wells from the same offshore platform (horizontal drilling. Approach: A complete knowledge of the wellbore direction and orientation during the drilling process is essential to guarantee proper directional drilling procedure. Results: Thus, besides the conventional drilling assembly, directional drilling operations require sensors to provide azimuth, inclination and toolface angles of the drill. These sensors are part of the Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD tool, which in current technology is installed several feet behind the drill bit. In such systems, values for inclination and toolface angles are determined from accelerometer measurements at predetermined stationary surveying stations; these values are then incorporated with magnetometer measurements to deliver the azimuth angle. Values for inclination and azimuth angles at the current surveying station are combined with those from the previous station to compute the position of the probe. However, there is no accurate information about the wellbore trajectory between survey stations. Additionally, the magnetic field of the magnetometers has deleterious effect on the overall accuracy of surveying measurements. Conclusion: A method to provide continuous information about the wellbore trajectory has been developed in this study. The module developed integrates a Rotary Steerable System (RSS and MWD tool into one drilling probe utilizing Inertial Navigation System (INS technology. This is achieved

  11. Advances in developing the air-lift drilling technology. Concept of a portal drilling rig - trial of a steerable shaft drilling bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.

    1988-12-01

    The Federal Minister of Research and Technology is supporting a project of Wirth GmbH to develop a new drilling rig suitable for drilling deep shafts from the surface through ground of almost any condition, from unstable formations to solid rock. The development of such drilling rig is based on the blind drilling method with air-assisted reverse circulation. - Various concepts of drilling rigs have been developed in accordance with different planning stages of a combined RD-project. Based on the experience of an extensive R and D program a steerable vertical drilling bit has been developed by which deviations from the vertical can be positively corrected. The prototype of this steerable bit with a diameter of 2.1 m has been tested successfully while drilling a well with a depth of more than 200 m in an open pit coal mine.

  12. Development and Application of Insulated Drill Pipe for High Temperature, High Pressure Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Champness; Tony Worthen; John Finger

    2008-12-31

    This project aimed to extend the insulated drill pipe (IDP) technology already demonstrated for geothermal drilling to HTHP drilling in deep gas reservoirs where temperatures are high enough to pose a threat to downhole equipment such as motors and electronics. The major components of the project were: a preliminary design; a market survey to assess industry needs and performance criteria; mechanical testing to verify strength and durability of IDP; and development of an inspection plan that would quantify the ability of various inspection techniques to detect flaws in assembled IDP. This report is a detailed description of those activities.

  13. High Temperature Venus Drill and Sample Delivery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We proposed to design, build and test a high temperature Pneumatic Drill and Trencher system for Venus subsurface exploration. The Venus Drill and Trencher will be...

  14. Emplacement hole drill evaluation and specification study. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-30

    This appendix contains pertinent data sheets, drawings, and photographs provided by the drill manufacturers Acker Drill Co, Calweld, Dresser Industries, Gus Pech, Hughes Tool, Ingersoll-Rand, Robbins, and Subterranean Tools.

  15. NanoDrill: 1 Actuator Core Acquisition System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build, and test a sample acquisition drill weighing less than 1 kg. The drill uses a novel method of core or powder acquisition, and is...

  16. NanoDrill: 1 Actuator Core Acquisition System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test a 1 kg, single actuator, sample acquisition drill. The drill uses a novel method of core or powder acquisition. The core...

  17. Ultra-Deepwater Riserless Mud Circulation with Dual Gradient Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Myers

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drilling deep holes in very deep water presents the offshore drilling community with major wellbore stability challenges that are typically mitigated through the circulation of dense drilling mud to prevent hole collapse and to remove drilling debris (“cuttings”. This is normally accomplished through the application of a riser system (Fig. 1; however, riser lengths ; are presently limited to use in water depths of around 3047 m. In the scientific ocean drilling realm, we have been very successful in drilling relatively shallow holes (<1500 m in water depths greater than 3657 m, a range we call “hyper-deep”. Drilling in these extreme water depths requires the use of the “riserless” drilling technique (Fig. 1A which is not constrained by the length limitations of a riser system (“riser”.

  18. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  19. Experimental survey on geothermal well drilling for improvement of the drilling work efficiency. Chinetsui kussakuno noritsu kojoni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    In order to reduce the geothermal well drilling cost which amounts to 40 to 60 % of the total geothermal energy development cost, various factors relevant to the drilling operation have been extracted and examined, aiming at the reduction in the well drilling time which is the most definite factor for the well drilling cost. The following items have been studied on their current situations: drilling time analysis on 13 geothermal wells drilled by NEDO; questionare to 9 domestic geothermal developer enterprises to obtain information on their bussiness status; to investigate current activities of 5 geothermal well drilling companies in U.S.A. and Italy. Investigations of countermeasures for improving well drilling work efficiency, such as reducing the time of rig-up and rig-down, prevention and countermeasures against borehole troubles, improvement of rate of penetration have been carried out. Furthermore, investigations of organization for well drilling work such as education and training of drilling crew and secure of drilling supervisors have been conducted. Having summerized the items examined for improving the geothermal well drilling efficiency, the goals of improvement of the efficiency and the future tasks in the mainly technical aspect are extracted. Example of the content is as follows, shortening rig-up and down time set to less than 15 days for rig-up and less than 10 days for rig-down, by securing drilling site area. (50 figs, 13 tabs, 13 refs)

  20. Drilling fluids engineering to drill extra-heavy oil reservoir on the Orinoco Oil Belt, eastern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, R.; Gonazalez, W. [Proamsa, Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    Petrocedeno is an exploration and development company operating in Venezuela. As part of a multidisciplinary group, Proamsa has been working with Petrocedeno to drill horizontal wells while minimizing issues related to the handling of drilling fluids. Proamsa is the only 100 per cent Venezuelan Company involved in drilling extra-heavy oil wells. The drilling plan for Petrocedeno was divided into two campaigns. More than 400 horizontal wells were drilled during the first campaign from 1999 to 2003 which represented over 2,500,000 drilled feet into the Oficina Formation (pay zone of the field). From 2006, during the second drilling campaign, and another 154 horizontal wells having been drilled until 2006 utilizing the xantam gum viscoelastic fluid. This paper discussed the field geology of the Orinoco oil belt. Well design was also explained and discussed and drilling fluid design and new fluid formations were presented. The benefits of xantam gum viscoelastic fluid were also discussed. It was concluded that recycling of drilling fluid from well to well minimized volume and reduced costs. In addition, centrifugation of drilling fluids either on intermediate or horizontals sections while the rig was skidding was always a very good practice avoiding mixing additional volumes. It was also demonstrated that the initial idea to provide a drilling fluid service company with a 100 per cent national value was a success, as demonstrated by the high performance shown by Proamsa during the second drilling campaign with external technologic support. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.