Simulations of drift resistive ballooning L-mode turbulence in the edge plasma of the DIII-D tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, B. I.; Umansky, M. V.; Nevins, W. M.; Makowski, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boedo, J. A.; Rudakov, D. L. [University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)
2013-05-15
Results from simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence for tokamak edge turbulence in realistic single-null geometry are reported. The calculations are undertaken with the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations [X. Q. Xu and R. H. Cohen, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 36, 158 (1998)]. The simulation setup models L-mode edge plasma parameters in the actual magnetic geometry of the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 807 (2002)]. The computations track the development of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the edge region to saturation. Fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes are compared to experimental data near the outer midplane from Langmuir probe and beam-emission-spectroscopy for a few well-characterized L-mode discharges in DIII-D. The simulations are comprised of a suite of runs in which the physics model is varied to include more fluid fields and physics terms. The simulations yield results for fluctuation amplitudes, correlation lengths, particle and energy fluxes, and diffusivities that agree with measurements within an order of magnitude and within factors of 2 or better for some of the data. The agreement of the simulations with the experimental measurements varies with respect to including more physics in the model equations within the suite of models investigated. The simulations show stabilizing effects of sheared E × B poloidal rotation (imposed zonal flow) and of lower edge electron temperature and density.
Resistive drift wave turbulence and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatani, M.
1986-01-01
Our efforts for studying the properties of resistive drift wave turbulence by using model mode-coupling equations are shown. It may be related to the edge turbulence and the associated anomalous transport in tokamaks or in stellarator/heliotron. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leconte, M.; Diamond, P.H.; Xu, Y.
2014-01-01
We study the effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows and confinement in the framework of resistive drift-wave turbulence. This work was motivated, in parts, by experiments reported at the IAEA 2010 conference (Xu et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 062030) which showed a decrease of long-range correlations during the application of RMPs. We derive and apply a zero-dimensional predator–prey model coupling the drift-wave–zonal-mode system (Leconte and Diamond 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 055903) to the evolution of mean quantities. This model has both density-gradient drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. This model allows a description of the full L–H transition evolution with RMPs, including the mean sheared flow evolution. The key results are the following: (i) the L–I and I–H power thresholds both increase with RMP amplitude | b-tilde x |, the relative increase of the L–I threshold scales as ΔP LI ∝| b-tilde x | 2 ν ∗ −2 ρ s −2 , where ν * is edge collisionality and ρ s is the sound gyroradius. (ii) RMPs are predicted to decrease the hysteresis between the forward and back-transition. (iii) Taking into account the mean density evolution, the density profile—sustained by the particle source—has an increased turbulent diffusion compared with the reference case without RMPs which provides one possible explanation for the density pump-out effect. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.
1989-01-01
Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Eun-jin; Diamond, P.H.
2003-01-01
The dynamics of and an interplay among structures (mean shear flows, zonal flows, and generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz modes) are studied in drift wave turbulence. Mean shear flows are found to inhibit the nonlinear generation of zonal flows by weakening the coherent modulation response of the drift wave spectrum. Based on this result, a minimal model for the L→H (low- to high-confinement) transition is proposed, which involves the amplitude of drift waves, zonal flows, and the density gradient. A transition to quiescent H-mode sets in as the profile becomes sufficiently steep to completely damp out drift waves, following an oscillatory transition phase where zonal flows regulate drift wave turbulence. The different roles of mean flows and zonal flows are elucidated. Finally, the effect of poloidally nonaxisymmetric structures (generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz mode) on anomalous transport is investigated, especially in reference to damping of collisionless zonal flows. Results indicate that nonlinear excitation of this structure can be potentially important in enhancing anomalous transport as well as in damping zonal flows
Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2003-01-01
A multi-grid part-in-cell algorithm for a shearless slab drift wave model with kinetic electrons is presented. The algorithm, which is based on an exact separation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic electron responses, is used to investigate the presence of strange attractors in drift wave turbulence. Although the simulation model has a large number of degrees of freedom, it is found that the strange attractor is low-dimensional and that it is strongly affected by dissipative (collisional) effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandt, C; Grulke, O; Klinger, T, E-mail: christian.brandt@lpmi.uhp-nancy.f [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)
2010-05-15
Experiments in a cylindrical magnetized plasma on the control of drift waves by means of two different spatiotemporal open-loop control systems-an electrostatic and an electromagnetic exciter-are reported. The drift wave dynamics is controlled by a mode-selective signal created with azimuthal arrangements of eight electrodes and eight saddle coils, respectively. Nonlinear interaction between the control signals and drift waves is observed, leading to synchronization of coherent drift waves and suppression of broadband drift wave turbulence. The cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations reduces from {approx}{pi}/2 in turbulence to {approx}0 in controlled turbulence. Hence, the cross-field transport is reduced to the level of coherent drift waves. For both control systems the coupling to the drift wave can be ascribed to the drive of parallel currents, on the one hand via direct electric contact and, on the other hand, via electromagnetic induction.
Warm-ion drift Alfven turbulence and the L-H transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.
1998-01-01
Computations of fluid drift turbulence treating ions and electrons on equal footing, including both temperatures, are conducted in a model toroidal geometry. The resulting 'ion mixing mode' turbulence bears features of both electron drift-Alfven and ion temperature gradient turbulence, and nonlinear sensitivity to the relative strengths of the density and temperature gradients provides a possible route to the bifurcation needed for the L-H transition. (author)
Drift wave instability and turbulence in advanced stellarator configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kendl, A.
2001-08-01
In the following chapter, an overview and references on the physics and geometry of helical advanced stellarators is given. On the basis of this configuration, the influence of magnetic field geometry is then discussed in a basic model of drift-Alfven wave turbulence which contains the necessary physics that applies to the plasma edge. By means of linear models, core physics in the form of ITG and dissipative trapped electron modes is further included in our survey. These models are, of course, by far not comprehensive in order to cover the complex physics of plasma turbulence in three-dimensional fusion devices, where a large range of parameter and mode regimes is present. Optimization criteria for a possible systematic minimization of turbulent transport in Helias configurations therefore still have to be regarded as tentative. The results presented here should, however, encourage for more detailed future computations. (orig.)
Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.
2003-01-01
There are growing experimental, numerical and theoretical evidences that the anomalous transport observed in tokamaks and stellarators is caused by slow, drift-type modes (such as trapped electron modes and ion-temperature gradient-driven modes). Although typical collision frequencies in hot, magnetized fusion plasmas can be quite low in absolute values, collisional effects are nevertheless important since they act as dissipative sinks. As it is well known, dissipative systems with many (strictly speaking more than two) degrees of freedom are often chaotic and may evolve towards a so-called attractor
Ponderomotive modification of drift tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urquijo, G.; Singh, R.; Sen, A.
1997-01-01
The linear characteristics of drift tearing modes are investigated in the presence of a significant background of radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The ponderomotive force, arising from the radial gradients in the RF field energy, is found to significantly modify the inner layer solutions of the drift tearing modes. It can have a stabilizing influence, even at moderate RF powers, provided the field energy has a decreasing radial profile at the mode rational surface. (author)
Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.
1992-09-23
The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling.
Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.
1992-01-01
The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bang Korsholm, S.
2011-12-15
Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa-Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron temperature and the potential in the presence of density and temperature gradients. 3D simulation results of the models are presented. Finally, the construction and first results from the MAST fluctuation reflectometer is described. The results demonstrate how L- to H-mode transitions as well as edge-localized-modes can be detected by the relatively simple diagnostic system. The present Risoe report is a slightly updated version of my original PhD report which was submitted in April 2002 and defended in August 2002. (Author)
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bang Korsholm, S.
2011-12-01
Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa-Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron temperature and the potential in the presence of density and temperature gradients. 3D simulation results of the models are presented. Finally, the construction and first results from the MAST fluctuation reflectometer is described. The results demonstrate how L- to H-mode transitions as well as edge-localized-modes can be detected by the relatively simple diagnostic system. The present Risoe report is a slightly updated version of my original PhD report which was submitted in April 2002 and defended in August 2002. (Author)
Nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prakash, M.
1985-01-01
We study the linear and the nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave energy in an inhomogeneous plasma. The drift mode excited in such a plasma is dispersive in nature. The drift wave energy spreads out symmetrically along the direction of inhomogeneity with a finite group velocity. To study the effect of the nonlinear coupling on the propagation of energy in a collision free plasma, we solve the Hasegawa-Mima equation as a mixed initial boundary-value problem. The solutions of the linearized equation are used to check the reliability of our numerical calculations. Additional checks are also performed on the invariants of the system. Our results reveal that a pulse gets distorted as it propagates through the medium. The peak of the pulse propagates with a finite velocity that depends on the amplitude of the initial pulse. The polarity of propagation depends on the initial parameters of the pulse. We have also studied drift wave propagation in a resistive plasma. The Hasegawa-Wakatani equations are used to investigate this problem
Suppression of Phase Mixing in Drift-Kinetic Plasma Turbulence
Parker, J. T.; Dellar, P. J.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Highcock, E. G.
2017-12-01
The solar wind and interstellar medium are examples of strongly magnetised, weakly collisional, astrophysical plasmas. Their turbulent fluctuations are strongly anisotropic, with small amplitudes, and frequencies much lower than the Larmor frequency. This regime is described by gyrokinetic theory, a reduced five-dimensional kinetic system describing averages over Larmor orbits. A turbulent plasma may transfer free energy, a measure of fluctuation amplitudes, from injection at large scales, typically by an instability, to dissipation at small physical scales like a turbulent fluid. Alternatively, a turbulent plasma may form fine scale structures in velocity space via phase-mixing, the mechanism that leads to Landau damping in linear plasma theory. Macroscopic plasma properties like heat and momentum transport are affected by both mechanisms. While each is understood in isolation, their interaction is not. We study this interaction using a Hankel-Hermite velocity space representation of gyrokinetic theory. The Hankel transform interacts neatly with the Bessel functions that arise from averaging over Larmor orbits, so the perpendicular velocity space is decoupled for linearized problems. The Hermite transform expresses phase mixing as nearest-neighbor coupling between parallel velocity space scales represented by Hermite mode numbers. We use this representation to study transfer mechanisms in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence, the long wavelength limit of gyrokinetic theory. We show that phase space is divided into two regions, with one transfer mechanism dominating in each. Most energy is contained in the region where the fluid-like nonlinear cascade dominates. Moreover, in that region the nonlinear cascade interferes with phase mixing by exciting an "anti phase mixing" transfer of free energy from small to large velocity space scales. This cancels out the usual phase mixing, and renders the overall behavior fluid-like. These results profoundly change our understanding
EFFECT OF ION ∇ B DRIFT DIRECTION ON TURBULENCE FLOW AND FLOW SHEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FENZI, C; McKEE, G.R; BURRELL, K.H; CARLSTROM, T.N; FONCK, R.J; GROEBNER, R.J
2003-01-01
The divertor magnetic geometry has a significant effect on the poloidal flow and resulting flow shear of turbulence in the outer region of L-mode tokamak plasmas, as determined via two-dimensional measurements of density fluctuations with Beam Emission Spectroscopy on DIII-D. Plasmas with similar parameters, except that in one case the ion (del)B drift points towards the divertor X-point (lower single-null, LSN), and in the other case, the ion (del)B drift points away from the divertor X-point (upper single-null, USN), are compared. Inside of r/a=0.9, the turbulence characteristics (amplitude, flow direction, correlation lengths) are similar in both cases, while near r/a=0.92, a dramatic reversal of the poloidal flow of turbulence relative to the core flow direction is observed in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. No such flow reversal is observed in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing away from the divertor X-point. This poloidal flow reversal results in a significantly larger local shear in the poloidal turbulence flow velocity in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. Additionally, these plasmas locally exhibit significant dispersion, with two distinct and counter-propagating turbulence modes. Likewise, the radial correlation length of the turbulence is reduced in these plasmas, consistent with biorthogonal decomposition measurements of dominant turbulence structures. The naturally occurring turbulence flow shear in these LSN plasmas may facilitate the LH transition that occurs at an input power of roughly one-half to one-third that of corresponding plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing away from the X-point
Analysis of zonal flow bifurcations in 3D drift wave turbulence simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kammel, Andreas
2012-01-01
The main issue of experimental magnetic fusion devices lies with their inherently high turbulent transport, preventing long-term plasma confinement. A deeper understanding of the underlying transport processes is therefore desirable, especially in the high-gradient tokamak edge which marks the location of the drift wave regime as well as the outer boundary of the still badly understood high confinement mode. One of the most promising plasma features possibly connected to a complete bifurcation theory for the transition to this H-mode is found in large-scale phenomena capable of regulating radial transport through vortex shearing - i.e. zonal flows, linearly stable large-scale poloidal vector E x vector B-modes based on radial flux surface averages of the potential gradient generated through turbulent self-organization. Despite their relevance, few detailed turbulence studies of drift wave-based zonal flows have been undertaken, and none of them have explicitly targeted bifurcations - or, within a resistive sheared-slab environment, observed zonal flows at all. In this work, both analytical means and the two-fluid code NLET are used to analyze a reduced set of Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, describing a sheared collisional drift wave system without curvature. The characteristics of the drift waves themselves, as well as those of the drift wave-based zonal flows and their retroaction on the drift wave turbulence are examined. The single dimensionless parameter ρ s proposed in previous analytical models is examined numerically and shown to divide the drift wave scale into two transport regimes, the behavioral characteristics of which agree perfectly with theoretical expectations. This transport transition correlates with a transition from pure drift wave turbulence at low ρ s into the high-ρ s zonal flow regime. The associated threshold has been more clearly identified by tracing it back to a tipping of the ratio between a newly proposed frequency gradient length at
Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.
1995-01-01
Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits
Almost two-dimensional treatment of drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albert, J.M.; Similon, P.L.; Sudan, R.N.
1990-01-01
The approximation of two-dimensionality is studied and extended for electrostatic drift wave turbulence in a three-dimensional, magnetized plasma. It is argued on the basis of the direct interaction approximation that in the absence of parallel viscosity, purely 2-D solutions exist for which only modes with k parallel =0 are excited, but that the 2-D spectrum is unstable to perturbations at nonzero k parallel . A 1-D equation for the parallel profile g k perpendicular (k parallel ) of the saturated spectrum at steady state is derived and solved, allowing for parallel viscosity; the spectrum has finite width in k parallel , and hence finite parallel correlation length, as a result of nonlinear coupling. The enhanced energy dissipation rate, a 3-D effect, may be incorporated in the 2-D approximation by a suitable renormalization of the linear dissipation term. An algorithm is presented that reduces the 3-D problem to coupled 1- and 2-D problems. Numerical results from a 2-D spectral direct simulation, thus modified, are compared with the results from the corresponding 3-D (unmodified) simulation for a specific model of drift wave excitation. Damping at high k parallel is included. It is verified that the 1-D solution for g k perpendicular (k parallel ) accurately describes the shape and width of the 3-D spectrum, and that the modified 2-D simulation gives a good estimate of the 3-D energy saturation level and distribution E(k perpendicular )
Multiscaling Dynamics of Impurity Transport in Drift-Wave Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Futatani, S.; Benkadda, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kondo, K.
2008-01-01
Intermittency effects and the associated multiscaling spectrum of exponents are investigated for impurities advection in tokamak edge plasmas. The two-dimensional Hasagawa-Wakatani model of resistive drift-wave turbulence is used as a paradigm to describe edge tokamak turbulence. Impurities are considered as a passive scalar advected by the plasma turbulent flow. The use of the extended self-similarity technique shows that the structure function relative scaling exponent of impurity density and vorticity follows the She-Leveque model. This confirms the intermittent character of the impurities advection in the turbulent plasma flow and suggests that impurities are advected by vorticity filaments
Zonal flow generation in collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, J; Nordman, H; Singh, R; Weiland, J
2006-01-01
In the present work the generation of zonal flows in collisionless trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence is studied analytically. A reduced model for TEM turbulence is utilized based on an advanced fluid model for reactive drift waves. An analytical expression for the zonal flow growth rate is derived and compared with the linear TEM growth, and its scaling with plasma parameters is examined for typical tokamak parameter values
Electromagnetic drift modes in an inhomogeneous electron gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1986-01-01
A pair of nonlinear equations is derived which describes the dynamics of the electromagnetic drift oscillations in a nonuniform magnetized electron gas. It is shown that the nonlinear electromagnetic drift modes can propagate in the form of dipole vortices...
Tokamak fluidlike equations, with applications to turbulence and transport in H mode discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.B.; Biglari, H.; Carreras, B.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Kwon, O.J.; Spong, D.A.; Callen, J.D.; Chang, Z.; Hollenberg, J.B.; Sundaram, A.K.; Terry, P.W.; Wang, J.F.
1990-01-01
Significant progress has been made in developing tokamak fluidlike equations which are valid in all collisionality regimes in toroidal devices, and their applications to turbulence and transport in tokamaks. The areas highlighted in this paper include: the rigorous derivation of tokamak fluidlike equations via a generalized Chapman-Enskog procedure in various collisionality regimes and on various time scales; their application to collisionless and collisional drift wave models in a sheared slab geometry; applications to neoclassical drift wave turbulence; i.e. neoclassical ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence and neoclassical electron-drift-wave turbulence; applications to neoclassical bootstrap-current-driven turbulence; numerical simulation of nonlinear bootstrap-current-driven turbulence and tearing mode turbulence; transport in Hot-Ion H mode discharges. 20 refs., 3 figs
Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sgalla, R. J. F., E-mail: reneesgalla@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)
2015-02-15
A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ∼ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λ{sub r} ∼ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs)
Coherent Structure Phenomena in Drift Wave-Zonal Flow Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyakov, A. I.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M.
2000-01-01
Zonal flows are azimuthally symmetric plasma potential perturbations spontaneously generated from small-scale drift-wave fluctuations via the action of Reynolds stresses. We show that, after initial linear growth, zonal flows can undergo further nonlinear evolution leading to the formation of long-lived coherent structures which consist of self-bound wave packets supporting stationary shear layers. Such coherent zonal flow structures constitute dynamical paradigms for intermittency in drift-wave turbulence that manifests itself by the intermittent distribution of regions with a reduced level of anomalous transport. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Numerical and theoretical investigations of resistive drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sunn Pedersen, T.
1995-07-01
With regard to the development of thermonuclear fusion utilizing a plasma confined in a magnetic field, anomalous transport is a major problem and is considered to be caused by electrostatic drift wave turbulence. A simplified quasi-two-dimensional slab model of resistive drift wave turbulence is investigated numerically and theoretically. The model (Hasegawa and Wakatani), consists of two nonlinear partial differential equations for the density perturbation n and the electrostatic potential perturbation φ. It includes the effect of a background density gradient perpendicular to the magnetic field and a generalized Ohm's law for the electrons in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. It may be used to model the basic features of electrostatic turbulence and the associated transport in an edge plasma. Model equations are derived and some important properties of the system are discussed. It is described how the Fourier spectral method is applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, how the time integration is developed to ensure accurate and fast simulations in a large parameter regime, and how the accuracy of the code is checked. Numerical diagnostics are developed to verify and extend the results in publications concerning quasi-stationary turbulent states and to give an overview of the properties of the quasi-stationary turbulent state. The use of analysis tools, not previously applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani system, and the results obtained are described. Fluid particles are tracked to obtain Lagrangian statistics for the turbulence. A new theoretical analysis of relative dispersion leads to a decomposition criterion for the particles. The significance of this is investigated numerically and characteristic time scales for particles are determined for a range of parameter values. It is indicated that the turbulent state can be characterized in the context of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory as an attractor with a large basin of attraction. The basic
Low frequency fluid drift turbulence in magnetised plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.
2001-03-01
We start with the first principles of fluid dynamics and classical electrodynamics and then find the regime in which we can reduce to quasineutral dynamics, which also implicitly underlies MHD. Then, we find the limits under which we can specialise to the MHD model as a subset, first of two fluid dynamics, then of the fluid drift dynamics that results when the motions are not vigorous enough to compress the magnetic field. In Chapters 4 and 5 we find the basic character of small disturbances in this system. Chapters 6 through 9 treat various aspects of fluid drift turbulence, also called drift wave turbulence, moving from a simple consideration of the underlying nonlinear dynamics, to some methods by which one can diagnose computations to find out what is going on, and then to the nonlinear instability which is the hallmark of this physics, and then to the interactions with large scale sheared flows. Chapter 10 introduces interchange turbulence, which is the plasma analog of the buoyant convection well known from fluid dynamics. Chapters 11 through 13 treat electromagnetic drift wave turbulence in closed magnetic field geometry, starting with a simplified model treating only the electron pressure and then introducing the electron and ion temperatures. Chapter 14 treats the basic characteristics of the transport that results from fluid drift turbulence, as this is quite different from the kinetic diffusion, such as heat conduction, that is more familiar. Appendices A and B treat the details of the numerical methods and models of magnetic field geometry necessary to treat all but the simplest cases. For this subject is dominated by nonlinear physics and therefore numerical computation. Computations therefore form an integral part of its study right from the beginning. Citations to the literature are not intended to be comprehensive but to serve as starting points for further reading, a section for which is included in every chapter. Much of this work is very new, and
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korsholm, Søren Bang
-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron......-localized-modes can be detected by the relatively simple diagnostic system....
Viscose kink and drift-kink modes in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhajlovskij, A.B.
1988-01-01
Intristic kink modes in a tokamak are theoretically investigated taking account of longitudinal viscosity of ions and electrons and drift effect. It is marked that dispersion equation of investigated modes coinsides in form with that for ballooning modes. It is shown that five types of intrinsic kink instability may be distinguished in disregard of viscosity and drift effects. Effect of stabilizing quasiideal viscose kink and viscose resistive kink modes by finite Larmuir ion radius is investigated. A branch of viscose reclosure mode which instability is due to electron viscosity is pointed out. A series of other viscose and drift-kink tokamak modes is considered. Both general disperse equations of the above-mentioned kink instability varieties, taking account of viscose and drift ones, and disperse equations of separate branches are presented
Turbulence and Solar p-Mode Oscillations
Bi, S. L.; Xu, H. Y.
The discrepancy between observed and theoretical mode frequencies can be used to examine the reliability of the standard solar model as a faithful representation of solar real situation. With the help of an improved time-dependent convective model that takes into account contribution of the full spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectrum, we study the influence of turbulent pressure on structure and solar p-mode frequencies. For the radial modes we find that the Reynolds stress produces signification modifications in structure and p-mode spectrum. Compared with an adiabatic approximation, the discrepancy is largely removed by the turbulent correction.
Collisional drift waves in the H-mode edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, S.
1994-01-01
The stability of the collisional drift wave in a sheared slab geometry is found to be severely restricted at the H-mode edge plasma due to the very steep density gradient. However, a radially varying transverse velocity field is found to play the key role in stability. Velocity profiles usually found in the H-mode plasma stabilize drift waves. On the other hand, velocity profiles corresponding to the L-mode render collisional drift waves unstable even though the magnetic shear continues to play its stabilizing role. (author). 24 refs
Generation of compressible modes in MHD turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Jungyeon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea); Lazarian, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2005-05-01
Astrophysical turbulence is magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) in nature. We discuss fundamental properties of MHD turbulence and in particular the generation of compressible MHD waves by Alfvenic turbulence and show that this process is inefficient. This allows us to study the evolution of different types of MHD perturbations separately. We describe how to separate MHD fluctuations into three distinct families: Alfven, slow, and fast modes. We find that the degree of suppression of slow and fast modes production by Alfvenic turbulence depends on the strength of the mean field. We review the scaling relations of the modes in strong MHD turbulence. We show that Alfven modes in compressible regime exhibit scalings and anisotropy similar to those in incompressible regime. Slow modes passively mimic Alfven modes. However, fast modes exhibit isotropy and a scaling similar to that of acoustic turbulence both in high and low {beta} plasmas. We show that our findings entail important consequences for star formation theories, cosmic ray propagation, dust dynamics, and gamma ray bursts. We anticipate many more applications of the new insight to MHD turbulence and expect more revisions of the existing paradigms of astrophysical processes as the field matures. (orig.)
Non-linear coupling of drift modes in a quadrupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, J.A.; Sandeman, J.C.; Tessema, G.Y.
1990-01-01
We report continuing experimental studies of non-linear interactions of drift waves, with direct evidence of a growth saturation mechanism by transfer of energy to lower frequency modes. Wave launching experiments show that the decay rate of drift waves can be strongly amplitude dependent. (author) 9 refs., 5 figs
Low-dimensional chaotic attractors in drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Persson, M.; Nordman, H.
1991-01-01
Simulation results of toroidal η i -mode turbulence are analyzed using mathematical tools of nonlinear dynamics. Low-dimensional chaotic attractors are found in the strongly nonlinear regime while in the weakly interacting regime the dynamics is high dimensional. In both regimes, the solutions are found to display sensitive dependence on initial conditions, characterized by a positive largest Liapunov exponent. (au)
Statistical theory of resistive drift-wave turbulence and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, G.; Krommes, J.A.; Bowman, J.C.
1997-01-01
Resistive drift-wave turbulence in a slab geometry is studied by statistical closure methods and direct numerical simulations. The two-field Hasegawa endash Wakatani (HW) fluid model, which evolves the electrostatic potential and plasma density self-consistently, is a paradigm for understanding the generic nonlinear behavior of multiple-field plasma turbulence. A gyrokinetic derivation of the HW model is sketched. The recently developed Realizable Markovian Closure (RMC) is applied to the HW model; spectral properties, nonlinear energy transfers, and turbulent transport calculations are discussed. The closure results are also compared to direct numerical simulation results; excellent agreement is found. The transport scaling with the adiabaticity parameter, which measures the strength of the parallel electron resistivity, is analytically derived and understood through weak- and strong-turbulence analyses. No evidence is found to support previous suggestions that coherent structures cause a large depression of saturated transport from its quasilinear value in the hydrodynamic regime of the HW model. Instead, the depression of transport is well explained by the spectral balance equation of the (second-order) statistical closure when account is taken of incoherent noise. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Drift-free kinetic equations for turbulent dispersion
Bragg, A.; Swailes, D. C.; Skartlien, R.
2012-11-01
The dispersion of passive scalars and inertial particles in a turbulent flow can be described in terms of probability density functions (PDFs) defining the statistical distribution of relevant scalar or particle variables. The construction of transport equations governing the evolution of such PDFs has been the subject of numerous studies, and various authors have presented formulations for this type of equation, usually referred to as a kinetic equation. In the literature it is often stated, and widely assumed, that these PDF kinetic equation formulations are equivalent. In this paper it is shown that this is not the case, and the significance of differences among the various forms is considered. In particular, consideration is given to which form of equation is most appropriate for modeling dispersion in inhomogeneous turbulence and most consistent with the underlying particle equation of motion. In this regard the PDF equations for inertial particles are considered in the limit of zero particle Stokes number and assessed against the fully mixed (zero-drift) condition for fluid points. A long-standing question regarding the validity of kinetic equations in the fluid-point limit is answered; it is demonstrated formally that one version of the kinetic equation (derived using the Furutsu-Novikov method) provides a model that satisfies this zero-drift condition exactly in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems. In contrast, other forms of the kinetic equation do not satisfy this limit or apply only in a limited regime.
Improved model of quasi-particle turbulence (with applications to Alfven and drift wave turbulence)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, J. T.; Hizanidis, K.
2011-01-01
We consider the classical problem of wave stability and dispersion in a turbulent plasma background. We adopt a kinetic description for the quasi-particle turbulence. We describe an improved theoretical approach, which goes beyond the geometric optics approximation and retains the recoil effects associated with the emission and absorption of low frequency waves by nearly resonant quasi-particles. We illustrate the present approach by considering two particular examples. One is the excitation of zonal flows by drift wave turbulence or driftons. The other is the coupling between ion acoustic waves and Alfven wave turbulence, eventually leading to saturation of Alfven wave growth. Both examples are relevant to anomalous transport in magnetic fusion devices. Connection with previous results is established. We show that these results are recovered in the geometric optics approximation.
Nonlinear excitation of geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakrabarti, N.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.; Guzdar, P. N.
2007-01-01
In this paper, two mode-coupling analyses for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by drift waves are presented. The first approach is a coherent parametric process, which leads to a three-wave resonant interaction. This investigation allows for the drift waves and the GAMs to have comparable scales. The second approach uses the wave-kinetic equations for the drift waves, which then couples to the GAMs. This requires that the GAM scale length be large compared to the wave packet associated with the drift waves. The resonance conditions for these two cases lead to specific predictions of the radial wave number of the excited GAMs
Drift mode calculations for the Large Helical Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rewoldt, G.; Ku, L.-P.; Tang, W.M.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Cooper, W.A.
2000-01-01
A fully kinetic assessment of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes has been obtained for a case for the Large Helical Device (LHD) [A.Iiyoshi, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1998, Nucl.Fusion 39, 1245 (1999)]. This calculation retains the important effects in the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities in the electrostatic limit. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by trapped particle dynamics and ion temperature gradients are presented, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics equilibria reconstructed from experimental measurements. The effects of helically-trapped particles and helical curvature are investigated
Linear local stability of electrostatic drift modes in helical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamagishi, O.; Nakajima, N.; Sugama, H.; Nakamura, Y.
2003-01-01
We investigate the stability of the drift wave in helical systems. For this purpose, we solve the linear local gyrokinetic-Poisson equation, in the electrostatic regime. As a model of helical plasmas, Large helical Device (LHD) is considered. The equation we apply is rather exact in the framework of linear gyrokinetic theory, where only the approximation is the ballooning representation. In this paper, we consider only collisionless cases. All the frequency regime can be naturally reated without any assumptions, and in such cases, ion temperature gradient modes (ITG), trapped electron modes (TEM), and electron temperature gradient modes (ETG) are expected to become unstable linearly independently. (orig.)
Curvature-induced electrostatic drift modes in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venema, M.
1985-01-01
This thesis deals with a number of problems in the theory of linear stability of a hot, fully ionized plasma immersed in a strong magnetic field. The most widely used system to magnetically confine a plasma is the tokamak. This is a toroidal, current carrying device with a strong, externally imposed, magnetic field. The author discusses the linear theory of unstable, low-frequency waves in the gradient region, restricted to electrostatic waves. In that case the resulting radial fluxes of particles and energy are due to electric cross-field drifts. In the presence of magnetic fluctuations and small-scale reconnection phenomena, radial transport could also be predominantly along field lines. At present, it is not clear which of the two mechanisms is the dominant feature of the observed anomalous transport. First, the author introduces the theory of drift waves in toroidal geometry. Next, the electrostratic drift modes in toroidal geometry (weakly collisional regime), the equations for low-frequency waves in the strongly collisional regime and the electrostatic drift modes (strongly collisional regime) are discussed. (Auth.)
Geodesic acoustic modes excited by finite beta drift waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, Nikhil Kumar; Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.
2008-01-01
Presented in this paper is a mode-coupling analysis for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by finite beta drift waves. The finite beta effects give rise to a strong stabilizing influence on the parametric excitation process. The dominant finite beta...... effect is the combination of the Maxwell stress, which has a tendency to cancel the primary drive from the Reynolds stress, and the finite beta modification of the drift waves. The zonal magnetic field is also excited at the GAM frequency. However, it does not contribute to the overall stability...... of the three-wave process for parameters of relevance to the edge region of tokamaks....
Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.
1985-01-01
Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime
Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wang, E.; Bell, R.E.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Yuh, H.
2011-01-01
This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.
Observation of drift wave propagation as a source of tokamak edge turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Guiding; Liu Wandong; Yu Changxuan
1998-01-01
Core and edge turbulences were measured by Langmuir probe arrays in the KT-5C tokamak plasma. The radial wavenumber spectra show a quasimode like structure which results in a net radial outward propagation of the turbulent fluctuations. The measured fluctuation levels and wave action fluxes are in good agreement with model predictions by Mattor et al., suggesting that drift wave propagation could be a source of edge turbulence
Self-sustained collisional drift-wave turbulence in a sheared magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.D.
1990-01-01
Although collisional drift waves in a sheared slab configuration are linearly damped, it is found that the corresponding turbulence is self-sustaining if initialized at nonlinear amplitude. The influence of the free-energy source represented by the temperature and density gradients on the turbulent system involving bidirectional spectral energy transfer is responsible for this change of regime. Several important features of tokamak edge fluctuations are reproduced by these single-rational-surface nonlinear dynamics. As a result, drift-wave turbulence must still be considered as an underlying dynamic of anomalous transport in tokamak edges
Dynamics of zonal flows and self-regulating drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Fleischer, J.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Hinton, F.L.; Malkov, M.; Smolyakov, A.
1999-01-01
We present a theory of zonal flow - drift wave dynamics. Zonal flows are generated by modulational instability of a drift wave spectrum, and are damped by collisions. Drift waves undergo random shearing-induced refraction, resulting in increased mean square radial wavenumber. Drift waves and zonal flows together form a simple dynamical system, which has a single stable fixed point. In this state, the fluctuation intensity and turbulent diffusivity are ultimately proportional to the collisional zonal flow damping. The implications of these results for transport models is discussed. (author)
Dynamics of zonal flows and self-regulating drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Fleischer, J.; Rosenbluth, M.; Hinton, F.L.; Malkov, M.; Smolyakov, A.
2001-01-01
We present a theory of zonal flow - drift wave dynamics. Zonal flows are generated by modulational instability of a drift wave spectrum, and are damped by collisions. Drift waves undergo random shearing-induced refraction, resulting in increased mean square radial wavenumber. Drift waves and zonal flows together form a simple dynamical system, which has a single stable fixed point. In this state, the fluctuation intensity and turbulent diffusivity are ultimately proportional to the collisional zonal flow damping. The implications of these results for transport models is discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro, T.; Scott, B.
2007-01-01
The field line connection of a tokamak sheared magnetic field has an important impact on turbulence, by ensuring a finite parallel dynamical response for every degree of freedom available in the system. This constitutes the main property which distinguishes closed from open flux surfaces in such a device. In the latter case, the poloidal periodicity of the magnetic field is replaced by a Debye sheath arising where the field lines strike the limiter/divertor plates. This is enough to break the field line connection constraint and allow the existence of convective cell modes, leading to a change in the character of the turbulence from drift wave- (closed flux surfaces) to interchange-type (open flux surfaces), and hence increasing the turbulent transport observed. Here we study the effect of changing the poloidal position of the limiter/divertor plates, using the three-dimensional electromagnetic gyrofluid turbulence code GEM, which has time dependently self consistent field aligned flux tube coordinates. For the closed flux surfaces, the globally consistent periodic boundary conditions are invoked, and for open flux surfaces a standard Debye sheath is used at the striking points. In particular, the use of two limiter positions simultaneously, top and bottom, is in order, such to allow a separation between the inboard and outboard sides of the tokamak. This highlights the differences between those two regions of the tokamak, where the curvature is either favourable (former) or unfavourable (latter), and further makes room for future experimental qualitative comparisons, for instance, on double null configurations of the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. (author)
Nonlinear drift tearing mode. Strong mode of excitation and stabilization mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galeev, A.A.; Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.
1985-01-01
A nonlinear theory of magnetic disturbance development in collisionless configurations with magnetic field shear is considered. The instability evolution is investigated with account for the dynamics of ions and potential electric fields which determine the mode stabilization. It has been found that the drift tearing mode possesses metastable properties: in a nonlinear mode even the growth of linearly stable disturbances of the finite amplitude is possible
Drift wave turbulence in low-β plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Pécseli, Hans
1983-01-01
Experimental investigations of strong turbulence associated with the radial density gradient of a rotating magnetized plasma column are reported. The experiment is designed to make Taylor's hypothesis effective, in order to allow a simple interpretation of measured frequency spectra in terms of w...... spectrum is demonstrated. Some aspects of the relative diffusion of a test-cloud of charged particles released in the turbulent field are discussed.......Experimental investigations of strong turbulence associated with the radial density gradient of a rotating magnetized plasma column are reported. The experiment is designed to make Taylor's hypothesis effective, in order to allow a simple interpretation of measured frequency spectra in terms...... of wavenumber spectra. The spectral index of the turbulent potential fluctuations is determined and the variation of the spectral intensity is investigated for varying magnetic fields. The results compare favourably with theoretical predictions. The importance of distinguishing subranges in the turbulent...
Atomic physics effects on tokamak edge drift-tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.
1993-01-01
The effects of ionization and charge exchange on the linear stability of drift-tearing modes are analytically investigated. In particular, the linear instability threshold Δ Th , produced by ion sound wave coupling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1500 (1978)] is modified. In the strongly collisional regime, the ionization breaks up the near cancellation of the perturbed electric field and the pressure gradient along the magnetic field, and increases the threshold. In the semicollisional regime, both ionization and charge exchange act as drag on the ion parallel velocity [Phys. Fluids B 4, 2567 (1992)], and consequently decrease the threshold by reducing the effectiveness of ion sound wave propagation
Theory of modulational interaction of trapped ion convective cells and drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, V.D.; Diamond, P.H.; Lebedev, V.; Soloviev, G.; Shevchenko, V.
1993-01-01
Theoretical and computational studies of the modulational interaction between trapped ion convective cells and short wavelength drift wave turbulence are discussed. These studies are motivated by the fact that cells and drift waves are expected to coexist in tokamaks so that: (a) cells strain and modulate drift waves, and (b) drift waves open-quote ride on close-quote a background of cells. The results of the authors' investigation indicate that: (1) (nonlinear) parametric growth rates of trapped ion convective cells can exceed linear predictions (for drift wave levels at the mixing length limit); (2) a set of coupled envelope equations, akin to the Zakharov equations from Langmuir turbulence, can be derived and used to predict the formation of a dipole pair of convective cells trapped by the drift wave envelope. This dipole pair is strongly anisotropic, due to the structure of the drift wave Reynolds stress which drives the cell flow. Numerical solutions of the envelope equations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, and indicate the persistence of the structure in time; (3) strong modulation and trapping of drift waves with k perpendicular ρ > 1 occurs. Extensions to magnetically sheared systems and the broader implications of this work as a paradigm for the dynamics of persistent structures in shearing flows are discussed
Secondary instability in drift wave turbulence as a mechanism for avalanche and zonal flow formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Champeaux, S.; Malkov, M.
2001-01-01
We report on recent developments in the theory of secondary instability in drift-ITG turbulence. Specifically, we explore secondary instability as a mechanism for avalanche formation. A theory of radially extended streamer cell formation and self-regulation is presented. Aspects of streamer structure and dynamics are used to estimate the variance of the drift-wave induced flux. The relation between streamer cell structures and the avalanche concept is discussed, as are the implications of our results for transport modeling. (author)
Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by a collection of plasma drift turbulent vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Resendes, D.
1995-01-01
An application of the self-consistent multiple-scattering theory of electro-magnetic waves to drift turbulent vortices is presented. Using the known single-vortex solution, the integral equation describing the scattering from a finite density of drift turbulent vortices is obtained. Rather than solving this equation and then averaging, the averaging operation is taken first to obtain statistical moment equations, from which the coherent and incoherent scattering follow. These results are expressed in a Fourier basis, and the cross-section is evaluated. Limiting forms of the theory and straightforward generalizations are discussed. (Author)
Linear theory of drift-tearing and interchange modes in a screw pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copenhaver, C.
1978-04-01
A drift dispersion relation, as applied to a resistive incompressible plasma in a screw pinch, is derived. This dispersion relation incorporates both drift-tearing and drift-interchange modes and is valid throughout the collisional regime by including kinetic theory factors. The dispersion relation reduces to the drift-tearing dispersion relation in the zero pressure gradient limit, and to the classical resistive dispersion relation in the zero drift limit. The electron temperature gradient instability is still present. Now, however, the introduction of the interchange-drift instability increases the growth rate further above the tearing-drift case. (orig.) [de
Turbulent spectra from three drift-wave interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Horton, W.
1982-02-01
Hydrodynamic equations for the drift-wave instability containing the rvec E x rvec B convective nonlinearity are used to show that the three wave interactions lead to temporal chaos with broad-band frequency spectra in the saturated state. 7 refs., 2 figs
Hong, R.; Li, J. C.; Hajjar, R.; Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Diamond, P. H.; Tynan, G. R.
2018-05-01
Detailed measurements of intrinsic axial flow generation parallel to the magnetic field in the controlled shear decorrelation experiment linear plasma device with no axial momentum input are presented and compared to theory. The results show a causal link from the density gradient to drift-wave turbulence with broken spectral symmetry and development of the axial mean parallel flow. As the density gradient steepens, the axial and azimuthal Reynolds stresses increase and radially sheared azimuthal and axial mean flows develop. A turbulent axial momentum balance analysis shows that the axial Reynolds stress drives the radially sheared axial mean flow. The turbulent drive (Reynolds power) for the azimuthal flow is an order of magnitude greater than that for axial flow, suggesting that the turbulence fluctuation levels are set by azimuthal flow shear regulation. The direct energy exchange between axial and azimuthal mean flows is shown to be insignificant. Therefore, the axial flow is parasitic to the turbulence-zonal flow system and is driven primarily by the axial turbulent stress generated by that system. The non-diffusive, residual part of the axial Reynolds stress is found to be proportional to the density gradient and is formed due to dynamical asymmetry in the drift-wave turbulence.
Drift-kinetic Alfven modes in high performance tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaun, A.; Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.
2001-01-01
The stability of fast-particle driven Alfven eigenmodes is modeled in high performance tokamaks, successively with a conventional shear, an optimized shear and a tight aspect ratio plasma. A large bulk pressure yields global kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are stabilized by mode conversion in the presence of a divertor. This suggests how conventional reactor scenarii could withstand significant pressure gradients from the fusion products. A large safety factor in the core q 0 >2.5 in deeply shear reversed configurations and a relatively large bulk ion Larmor radius in a low magnetic field can trigger global drift-kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are unstable in high performance JET, NSTX and ITER plasmas. (author)
Fluctuation and thermal energy balance for drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Chang-Bae; Horton, W.
1990-05-01
Energy conservation for the drift-wave system is shown to be separated into the wave-energy power balance equation and an ambient thermal-energy transport equation containing the anomalous transport fluxes produced by the fluctuations. The wave energy equation relates the wave energy density and wave energy flux to the anomalous transport flux and the dissipation of the fluctuations. The thermal balance equation determines the evolution of the temperature profiles from the divergence of the anomalous heat flux, the collisional heating and cooling mechanisms and the toroidal pumping effect. 16 refs., 1 tab
Fluctuation and thermal energy balance for drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Changbae Kim; Horton, W.
1991-01-01
Energy conservation for the drift-wave system is shown to be separated into the wave-energy power balance equation and an ambient thermal-energy transport equation containing the anomalous transport fluxes produced by the fluctuations. The wave energy equation relates the wave energy density and wave energy flux to the anomalous transport flux and the dissipation of the fluctuations. The thermal balance equation determines the evolution of the temperature profiles from the divergence of the anomalous heat flux, the collisional heating and cooling mechanisms and the toroidal pumping effect. (author)
Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, S.
2018-05-01
The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind typically follow a power-law dependence with respect to the observed frequencies and wave-numbers. The background magnetic field often influences the plasma properties, setting a preferential direction for plasma heating and acceleration. At the same time the evolution of the solar-wind turbulence at the ion and electron scales is influenced by the plasma properties through local micro-instabilities and wave-particle interactions. The solar-wind-plasma temperature and the solar-wind turbulence at sub- and sup-ion scales simultaneously show anisotropic features, with different components and fluctuation power in parallel with and perpendicular to the orientation of the background magnetic field. The ratio between the power of the magnetic field fluctuations in parallel and perpendicular direction at the ion scales may vary with the heliospheric distance and depends on various parameters, including the local wave properties and nonthermal plasma features, such as temperature anisotropies and relative drift speeds. In this work we have performed two-and-a-half-dimensional hybrid simulations to study the generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence in a drifting multi-ion species plasma. We investigate the evolution of the turbulent spectral slopes along and across the background magnetic field for the cases of initially isotropic and anisotropic turbulence. Finally, we show the effect of the various turbulent spectra for the local ion heating in the solar wind.
Two-phase turbulent mixing and buoyancy drift in rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlucci, L.N.; Hammouda, N.; Rowe, D.S.
2004-01-01
This paper describes the development of generalized relationships for single- and two-phase inter subchannel turbulent mixing in vertical and horizontal flows, and lateral buoyancy drift in horizontal flows. The relationships for turbulent mixing, together with a recommended one for void drift, have been implemented in a subchannel thermal hydraulics code, and assessed using a range of data on enthalpy migration in vertical steam-water lows under BWR and PWR diabatic conditions. The intent of this assessment as to optimize these relationships to give the best agreement with the enthalpy migration data for vertical flows. The optimized turbulent mixing relationships were then used as a basis to benchmark a proposed buoyancy rift model to give the best predictions of void and enthalpy migration data n horizontal flows typical of PHWR CANDU reactor operation under normal and off-normal conditions. Overall, the optimized turbulent mixing and buoyancy drift relationships have been found to predict the available data quite well, nd generally better and more consistently than currently used models. This is expected to result in more accurate calculations of subchannel distributions of phasic flows, and hence, in improved predictions of critical heat flux (CHF)
Global kink and ballooning modes in high-beta systems and stability of toroidal drift modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, R.M.O.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Rem, J.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Schep, T.J.; Venema, M.
1983-01-01
A numerical code (HBT) has been developed which solves for the equilibrium, global stability and high-n stability of plasmas with arbitrary cross-section. Various plasmas are analysed for their stability to these modes in the high-beta limit. Screw-pinch equilibria are stable to high-n ballooning modes up to betas of 18%. The eigenmode equation for drift waves is analysed numerically. The toroidal branch is shown to be destabilized by the non-adiabatic response of trapped and circulating particles. (author)
Dynamical scaling law in the development of drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, T.; Fujisaka, H.; Iwayama, T.
1997-01-01
The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation, with random forcing at the narrow band wave-number region, which is set to be slightly larger than the characteristic wave number λ, evaluating the inverse ion Larmor radius in plasma, is numerically studied. It is shown that the Fourier spectrum of the potential vorticity fluctuation in the development of turbulence with an initial condition of quiescent state obeys a dynamic scaling law for k 1/2 ε 5/4 t 7/4 F(k/bar k(t))[bar k(t)∼λ 3/4 ε -1/8 t -3/8 ] with a scaling function F(x), which turns out to be in good agreement with numerical experiments. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Zonal Flows Driven by Small-Scale Drift-Alfven Modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Dehui; Zhou Deng
2011-01-01
Generation of zonal flows by small-scale drift-Alfven modes is investigated by adopting the approach of parametric instability with the electron polarization drift included. The zonal mode can be excited by primary modes propagating at both electron and ion diamagnetic drift directions in contrast to the assertion in previous studies that only primary modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift directions can drive zonal instabilities. Generally, the growth rate of the driven zonal mode is in the same order as that in previous study. However, different from the previous work, the growth rate is no longer proportional to the difference between the diamagnetic drift frequencies of electrons and ions. (magnetically confined plasma)
On current fluctuations in near-earth space plasma with lower-hybrid-drift turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meister, C.V.
1993-01-01
Electron and ion current fluctuations caused by lower-hybrid-drift turbulence are estimated within nonlinear theory for the plasma of the ionospheric F-layer, as well as for the plasma mantle and the plasma sheet boundary layer of the tail of the earth's magnetosphere. They are found to be of the order of 10 -14 - 10 -11 A/m 2 and 10 -13 - 10 -9 A/m 2 , respectively. (orig.)
Spatial mode structures of electrostatic drift waves in a collisional cylindrical helicon plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.
2004-01-01
In a cylindrical helicon plasma, mode structures of coherent drift waves are studied in the poloidal plane, the plane perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The mode structures rotate with a constant angular velocity in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift and show significant...... radial bending. The experimental observations are compared with numerical solutions of a linear nonlocal cylindrical model for drift waves [ Ellis , Plasma Phys. 22, 113 (1980) ]. In the numerical model, a transition to bended mode structures is found if the plasma collisionality is increased....... This finding proves that the experimentally observed bended mode structures are the result of high electron collisionality. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birkenmeier, Gregor
2012-01-01
For more than 60 years, fusion scientists try to confine a plasma by means of external magnetic fields in order to achieve appropriately high densities and temperatures for the ignition of nuclear fusion. Despite of great progress in the design of confinement concepts, which are considered for the confinement of burning plasmas in the near future, theoretical plasma physics promises further confinement improvements using novel magnetic field geometries. Therefor, the key is the minimization of turbulent transport by choosing appropiate magnetic field geometries, which necessitates a fundamental understanding of the influence of magnetic field geometry on plasma turbulence. There are several theoretical works on turbulent plasma dynamics in three-dimensional geometries, but only a few experimental studies for validation of the theoretical results exist. Hence, the present work aims at providing experimental data for comparison with theory and to gain insights into the interplay between drift-wave turbulence and magnetic field geometry. By means of two multi-probe arrays, local density and potential fluctuations are measured in low-temperature plasmas at 128 positions on a single flux surface of the stellarator TJ-K with high temporal resolution. Using methods of statistical timeseries analysis structure sizes and dynamic properties of the drift-wave turbulence in TJ-K are determined. Thereby, it is shown that the size of turbulent structures perpendicular to the magnetic field is reduced in regions of high absolute local magnetic shear. In addition, a poloidal displacement with respect to the magnetic field lines and a complex propagation pattern of parallelly extended turbulent structures is found. Also, poloidal profiles of turbulent transport are calculated from the probe data. The maximum transport is found to be poloidally localized in a region of negative normal curvature (unfavourable curvature). In addition, the results point to an influence of geodesic
Abler, M. C.; Mauel, M. E.; Saperstein, A.
2017-12-01
Plasmas confined by a strong dipole field exhibit interchange and entropy mode turbulence, which previous experiments have shown respond locally to active feedback [1]. On the Collisionless Terrella Experiment (CTX), this turbulence is characterized by low frequency, low order, quasi-coherent modes with complex spectral dynamics. We apply bicoherence analysis [2] to study nonlinear phase coupling in a variety of scenarios. First, we study the self-interaction of the naturally occurring interchange turbulence; this analysis is then expanded to include the effects of single or multiple driven modes in the frequency range of the background turbulent oscillations. Initial measurements of coupling coefficients are presented in both cases. Driven low frequency interchange modes are observed to generate multiple harmonics which persist throughout the plasma, becoming weaker as they propagate away from the actuator in the direction of the electron magnetic drift. Future work is also discussed, including application of wavelet bicoherence analysis and applications to planetary magnetospheres. [1] Roberts, Mauel, and Worstell, Phys Plasmas (2015). [2] Grierson, Worstell, and Mauel, Phys Plasmas (2009). Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science Grants DOE-DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF-PHY-1201896.
Energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in sheared background field
Hu, Di; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Huang, Yi-Min
2018-06-01
The energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in a sheared background magnetic field is studied in this work. We consider the scenario where the nonlinear interaction of overlapping large-scale modes excites a broad spectrum of small-scale modes, generating tearing mode turbulence. The spectrum of such turbulence is of interest since it is relevant to the small-scale back-reaction on the large-scale field. The turbulence we discuss here differs from traditional MHD turbulence mainly in two aspects. One is the existence of many linearly stable small-scale modes which cause an effective damping during the energy cascade. The other is the scale-independent anisotropy induced by the large-scale modes tilting the sheared background field, as opposed to the scale-dependent anisotropy frequently encountered in traditional critically balanced turbulence theories. Due to these two differences, the energy spectrum deviates from a simple power law and takes the form of a power law multiplied by an exponential falloff. Numerical simulations are carried out using visco-resistive MHD equations to verify our theoretical predictions, and a reasonable agreement is found between the numerical results and our model.
Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim; Joseph, Ilon
2015-11-01
Progress is reported on including self-consistent zonal flows in simulations of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence using the BOUT + + framework. Previous published work addressed the simulation of L-mode edge turbulence in realistic single-null tokamak geometry using the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations. The effects of imposed sheared ExB poloidal rotation were included, with a static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In new work our goal is to include the self-consistent effects on the radial electric field driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We describe a model for including self-consistent zonal flows and an algorithm for maintaining underlying plasma profiles to enable the simulation of steady-state turbulence. We examine the role of Braginskii viscous forces in providing necessary dissipation when including axisymmetric perturbations. We also report on some of the numerical difficulties associated with including the axisymmetric component of the fluctuating fields. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL-ABS-674950).
Interactions of disparate scales in drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, John A.; Kim, Chang-Bae
2000-01-01
Renormalized statistical theory is used to calculate the interactions between short scales (wave vector k) and long scales (wave vector q parallel =0 fluctuations). The calculations include the zonal-flow growth rate as a special case, but also describe long-wavelength fluctuations with q oriented at an arbitrary angle to the background gradient. The results are fully renormalized. They are subtly different from those of previous authors, in both mathematical form and physical interpretation. A term arising in previous treatments that is related to the propagation of short-scale wave packets is shown to be a higher-order effect that must consistently be neglected to lowest order in a systematic expansion in q/k. Rigorous functional methods are used to show that the long-wavelength growth rate γ q is related to second-order functional variations of the short-wavelength energy and to derive a heuristic algorithm. The principal results are recovered from simple estimates involving the first-order wave-number distension rate tilde γ k (1) dot eqdot kdeltilde Omega k /k 2 , where tilde Ω k is a nonlinear random advection frequency. Fokker-Planck analysis involving tilde γ k (1) is used to heuristically recover the evolution equation for the small scales, and a random-walk flux argument that relates tilde γ k (1) to an effective autocorrelation time is used to give an independent calculation of γ q . Both the rigorous and heuristic derivations demonstrate that the results do not depend on, and cannot be derived from, properties of linear normal modes; they are intrinsically nonlinear. The importance of random-Galilean-invariant renormalization is stressed
Integral equation based stability analysis of short wavelength drift modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirose, A.; Elia, M.
2003-01-01
Linear stability of electron skin-size drift modes in collisionless tokamak discharges has been investigated in terms of electromagnetic, kinetic integral equations in which neither ions nor electrons are assumed to be adiabatic. A slab-like ion temperature gradient mode persists in such a short wavelength regime. However, toroidicity has a strong stabilizing influence on this mode. In the electron branch, the toroidicity induced skin-size drift mode previously predicted in terms of local kinetic analysis has been recovered. The mode is driven by positive magnetic shear and strongly stabilized for negative shear. The corresponding mixing length anomalous thermal diffusivity exhibits favourable isotope dependence. (author)
Developed Turbulence: From Full Simulations to Full Mode Reductions
Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Reeh, Achim
1996-01-01
Developed Navier-Stokes turbulence is simulated with varying wave-vector mode reductions. The flatness and the skewness of the velocity derivative depend on the degree of mode reduction. They show a crossover towards the value of the full numerical simulation when the viscous subrange starts to be
Hyper-resistivity produced by tearing mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.
1986-01-01
Tearing mode turbulence produces a hyper-resistivity or effective anomalous electron viscosity. The hyper-resistivity is calculated for the mean magnetic field quasilinearly, and for long-wavelength modes using the direct interaction approximation. The hyper-resistivity accounts for current relaxation in reversed-field pinch experiments, and gives a magnetic fluctuation sealing of S -1 /sup // 3 . It causes enhanced tearing mode growth rates in the turbulent phase of tokamak disruptions. In astrophysics, it limits magnetic energy growth due to the dynamo effect, and may explain rapid reconnection phenomena such as solar flares
Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on secondary structures in Drift-Wave turbulence
Leconte, Michael
2011-10-01
In this work, we study the effects of RMPs on turbulence, flows and confinement, in the framework of two paradigmatic models, resistive ballooning and resistive drift waves. For resistive ballooning turbulence, we use 3D global numerical simulations, including RMP fields and (externally-imposed) sheared rotation profile. Without RMPs, relaxation oscillations of the pressure profile occur. With RMPs, results show that long-lived convection cells are generated by the combined effects of pressure modulation and toroidal curvature coupling. These modify the global structure of the turbulence and eliminate relaxation oscillations. This effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of residual magnetic island chains. Hence convection-cell generation increases for increasing δBr/B0. For RMP effect on zonal flows in drift wave turbulence, we extend the Hasegawa-Wakatani model to include RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large δBr/B0. Both the vorticity flux (Reynolds stress), and particle flux are modulated. We derive an extended predator prey model which couples zonal potential and density dynamics to the evolution of turbulence intensity. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters, and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. We find a novel set of system states that are similar to the Hmode-like state of the standard predator-prey model, but for which the power threshold is now a function of the RMP strength. For small RMP amplitude and low collisionality, both the ambient turbulence and zonal flow energy increase with δBr/B0. For larger RMP strength, the turbulence energy increases, but the energy of zonal flows decreases with δBr/B0, corresponding to a damping of zonal flows. At high
Nonlocal analysis of the excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode by drift waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.; Chakrabarti, N.
2009-01-01
The geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are typically observed in the edge region of toroidal plasmas. Drift waves have been identified as a possible cause of excitation of GAMs by a resonant three wave parametric process. A nonlocal theory of excitation of these modes in inhomogeneous plasmas typical...... of the edge region of tokamaks is presented in this paper. The continuum GAM modes with coupling to the drift waves can create discrete "global" unstable eigenmodes localized in the edge "pedestal" region of the plasma. Multiple resonantly driven unstable radial eigenmodes can coexist on the edge pedestal....
Flow shear stabilization of hybrid electron-ion drift mode in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, L.
1999-01-01
In this paper, a model of sheared flow stabilization on hybrid electron-ion drift mode is proposed. At first, in the presence of dissipative trapped electrons, there exists an intrinsic oscillation mode in tokamak plasmas, namely hybrid dissipative trapped electron-ion temperature gradient mode (hereafter, called as hybrid electron-ion drift mode). This conclusion is in agreement with the observations in the simulated tokamak experiment on the CLM. Then, it is found that the coupling between the sheared flows and dissipative trapped electrons is proposed as the stabilization mechanism of both toroidal sheared flow and poloidal sheared flow on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode, that is, similar to the stabilizing effect of poloidal sheared flow on edge plasmas in tokamaks, in the presence of both dissipative trapped electrons and toroidal sheared flow, large toroidal sheared flow is always a strong stabilizing effect on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode in internal transport barrier location, too. This result is consistent with the experimental observations in JT-60U. (author)
Flow shear stabilization of hybrid electron-ion drift mode in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, L.
2001-01-01
In this paper, a model of sheared flow stabilization on hybrid electron-ion drift mode is proposed. At first, in the presence of dissipative trapped electrons, there exists an intrinsic oscillation mode in tokamak plasmas, namely hybrid dissipative trapped electron-ion temperature gradient mode (hereafter, called as hybrid electron-ion drift mode). This conclusion is in agreement with the observations in the simulated tokamak experiment on the CLM. Then, it is found that the coupling between the sheared flows and dissipative trapped electrons is proposed as the stabilization mechanism of both toroidal sheared flow and poloidal sheared flow on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode, that is, similar to the stabilizing effect of poloidal sheared flow on edge plasmas in tokamaks, in the presence of both dissipative trapped electrons and toroidal sheared flow, large toroidal sheared flow is always a strong stabilizing effect on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode in internal transport barrier location, too. This result is consistent with the experimental observations in JT-60U. (author)
Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.
1998-01-01
The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Eun-jin; Diamond, P.H.; Malkov, M.
2003-01-01
Two examples of non-perturbative models of intermittency in drift-wave (DW) turbulence are presented. The first is a calculation of the probability distribution function (PDF) of ion heat flux due to structures in ion temperature gradient turbulence. The instanton calculus predicts the PDF to be a stretched exponential. The second is a derivation of a bi-variate Burgers equation for the evolution of the DW population density in the presence of radially extended streamer flows. The PDF of fluctuation intensity avalanches is determined. The relation of this to turbulence spreading, observed in simulations, is discussed. (author)
Drift mode in a bounded plasma having two-ion species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, Ali; Sajid, M.; Saleem, H.
2008-01-01
The drift wave is investigated in a two-ion species plasma in several different cases. The global drift mode is studied in a plasma bounded in a cylinder having Gaussian density profile corresponding to different poloidal wavenumbers. The frequency of the mode becomes a little larger when it is investigated without including the ion cyclotron wave dynamics. The effect of magnetic shear on the wave propagation along the density gradient is studied in a Cartesian geometry assuming absorbing boundary. It is found that the wave amplitude is reduced when two-ion species are present (with the same concentration) compared to pure electron-ion plasma
Electromagnetic transport components and sheared flows in drift-Alfven turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.
2003-01-01
Results from three-dimensional numerical simulations of drift-Alfven turbulence in a toroidal geometry with sheared magnetic field are presented. The simulations show a relation between self-generated poloidal shear flows and magnetic field perturbations. For large values of the plasma beta we ob...... with a folded Gaussian, while the PDFs of the spatially averaged transport are in good agreement with an extreme value distribution. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics....... related to magnetic flutter is proposed. The characteristics of the ExB flux are investigated using probability density distribution functions (PDFs). Although they are not Gaussian, no signs of algebraic tails in the PDFs are observed. The PDFs of the pointwise transport are found to agree well...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saitou, Y.; Yonesu, A.; Shinohara, S.; Ignatenko, M. V.; Kasuya, N.; Kawaguchi, M.; Terasaka, K.; Nishijima, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.
2007-01-01
The importance of reducing the neutral density to reach strong drift wave turbulence is clarified from the results of the extended magnetohydrodynamics and Monte Carlo simulations in a linear magnetized plasma. An upper bound of the neutral density relating to the ion-neutral collision frequency for the excitation of drift wave instability is shown, and the necessary flow velocity to excite this instability is also estimated from the neutral distributions. Measurements of the Mach number and the electron density distributions using Mach probe in the large mirror device (LMD) of Kyushu University [S. Shinohara et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 37, 1015 (1995)] are reported as well. The obtained results show a controllability of the neutral density and provide the basis for neutral density reduction and a possibility to excite strong drift wave turbulence in the LMD
A comprehensive spectral theory of zonal-mode dynamics in trapped electron mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Gatto, R.; Baver, D.A.; Fernandez, E.
2005-01-01
A comprehensive, self-consistent theory for spectral dynamics in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence offers critical new understanding and insights into zonal-mode physics. This theory shows that 1) zonal mode structure, anisotropy, excitation, and temporal behavior arise at and from the interface of nonlinear advection and linear wave properties; 2) waves induce a marked spectral energy-transfer anisotropy that preferentially drives zonal modes relative to non zonal modes; 3) triplet correlations involving density (as opposed to those involving only flow) mediate the dominant energy transfer at long wavelengths; 4) energy transfer becomes inverse in the presence of wave anisotropy, where otherwise it is forward; 5) zonal-mode excitation is accompanied by excitation of a spectrum of damped eigenmodes, making zonal modes nonlinearly damped; and 6) the combination of anisotropic transfer to zonal modes and their nonlinear damping make this the dominant saturation mechanism for TEM turbulence. This accounts for the reduction of turbulence level by zonal modes, not zonal-flow ExB shearing. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKee, G.; Gohil, P.; Schlossberg, D.; Boedo, J.; Burrell, K.; deGrassie, J.; Groebner, R.; Makowski, M.; Moyer, R.; Petty, C.; Rhodes, T.; Schmitz, L.; Shafer, M.; Solomon, W.; Umansky, M.; Wang, G.; White, A.; Xu, X.
2008-01-01
The injected power required to induce a transition from L-mode to H-mode plasmas is found to depend strongly on the injected neutral beam torque and consequent plasma toroidal rotation. Edge turbulence and flows, measured near the outboard midplane of the plasma (0.85 < r/a < 1.0) on DIII-D with the high-sensitivity 2D beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system, likewise vary with rotation and suggest a causative connection. The L-H power threshold in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift away from the X-point decreases from 4-6 MW with co-current beam injection, to 2-3 MW with near zero net injected torque, and to <2 MW with counter injection. Plasmas with the ion (del)B drift towards the X-point exhibit a qualitatively similar though less pronounced power threshold dependence on rotation. 2D edge turbulence measurements with BES show an increasing poloidal flow shear as the L-H transition is approached in all conditions. At low rotation, the poloidal flow of turbulent eddies near the edge reverses prior to the L-H transition, generating a significant poloidal flow shear that exceeds the measured turbulence decorrelation rate. This increased poloidal turbulence velocity shear may facilitate the L-H transition. No such reversal is observed in high rotation plasmas. The poloidal turbulence velocity spectrum exhibits a transition from a Geodesic Acoustic Mode zonal flow to a higher-power, lower frequency, zero-mean-frequency zonal flow as rotation varies from co-current to balanced during a torque scan at constant injected neutral beam power, perhaps also facilitating the L-H transition. This reduced power threshold at lower toroidal rotation may benefit inherently low-rotation plasmas such as ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.; Jenko, F.; Peeters, A.G.; Teo, A.C.Y.
1999-01-01
(1) Computations of turbulence from the electromagnetic gyro fluid model are performed in a flux surface geometry representing the actual MHD equilibrium of the ASDEX Upgrade edge flux surfaces. The transition to ideal ballooning seen in simple geometries as the plasma beta rises is suppressed, leaving the transport at quantitatively realistic levels. Computations for core parameters at half-radius geometry show significant contribution due to the finite beta electron dynamics, possibly removing the standard ITG threshold. (2) Strong inward vorticity transport in edge turbulence, resulting from ion diamagnetic flows, may lead to a build up of mean ExB vorticity fast enough to cause an H-mode transition. (3) Friction of mean ion flows against neutrals involves both toroidal and poloidal flow components, leading to a finite radial current due to a given ExB profile even with zero poloidal rotation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.; Jenko, F.; Peeters, A.; Teo, A.C-Y.
2001-01-01
(1) Computations of turbulence from the electromagnetic gyrofluid model are performed in a flux surface geometry representing the actual MHD equilibrium of the ASDEX Upgrade edge flux surfaces. The transition to ideal ballooning seen in simple geometries as the plasma beta rises is suppressed, leaving the transport at quantitatively realistic levels. Computations for core parameters at half-radius geometry show significant contribution due to the finite beta electron dynamics, possibly removing the standard ITG threshold. (2) Strong inward vorticity transport in edge turbulence, resulting from ion diamagnetic flows, may lead to a build up of mean ExB vorticity fast enough to cause an H-mode transition. (3) Friction of mean ion flows against neutrals involves both toroidal and poloidal flow components, leading to a finite radial current due to a given ExB profile even with zero poloidal rotation. (author)
Radial plasma drifts deduced from VLF whistler mode signals - A modelling study
Poulter, E. M.; Andrews, M. K.; Bailey, G. J.; Moffett, R. J.
1984-05-01
VLF whistler mode signals have previously been used to infer radial plasma drifts in the equatorial plane of the plasmasphere and the field-aligned ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes. Physical models of the plasmasphere consisting of O(+) adn H(+) ions along dipole magnetic field lines, and including radial E x B drifts, are applied to a mid-latitude flux tube appropriate to whistler mode signals received at Wellington, New Zealand, from the fixed frequency VLF transmitter NLK (18.6 kHz) in Seattle, U.S.A. These models are first shown to provide a good representation of the recorded Doppler shift and group delay data. They are then used to simulate the process of deducing the drifts and fluxes from the recorded data. Provided the initial whistler mode duct latitude and the ionospheric contributions are known, the drifts at the equatorial plane can be estimated to about + or - 20 m/s (approximately 10-15 percent), and the two hemisphere ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes to about + or - 10 to the 12th/sq m-sec (approximately 40 percent).
Evolutionary pulsational mode dynamics in nonthermal turbulent viscous astrofluids
Karmakar, Pralay Kumar; Dutta, Pranamika
2017-11-01
The pulsational mode of gravitational collapse in a partially ionized self-gravitating inhomogeneous viscous nonthermal nonextensive astrofluid in the presence of turbulence pressure is illustratively analyzed. The constitutive thermal species, lighter electrons and ions, are thermostatistically treated with the nonthermal κ-distribution laws. The inertial species, such as identical heavier neutral and charged dust microspheres, are modelled in the turbulent fluid framework. All the possible linear processes responsible for dust-dust collisions are accounted. The Larson logatropic equations of state relating the dust thermal (linear) and turbulence (nonlinear) pressures with dust densities are included. A regular linear normal perturbation analysis (local) over the complex astrocloud ensues in a generalized quartic dispersion relation with unique nature of plasma-dependent multi-parametric coefficients. A numerical standpoint is provided to showcase the basic mode features in a judicious astronomical paradigm. It is shown that both the kinematic viscosity of the dust fluids and nonthermality parameter (kappa, the power-law tail index) of the thermal species act as stabilizing (damping) agent against the gravity; and so forth. The underlying evolutionary microphysics is explored. The significance of redistributing astrofluid material via waveinduced accretion in dynamic nonhomologic structureless cloud collapse leading to hierarchical astrostructure formation is actualized.
Validation study of a drift-wave turbulence model for CSDX linear plasma device
Vaezi, P.; Holland, C.; Thakur, S. C.; Tynan, G. R.
2017-09-01
A validation study of self-regulating drift-wave turbulence/zonal flow dynamics in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment linear plasma device using Langmuir probe synthetic diagnostics is presented in this paper. We use a set of nonlocal 3D equations, which evolve density, vorticity, and electron temperature fluctuations, and include proper sheath boundary conditions. Nonlinear simulations of these equations are carried out using BOUndary Turbulence (BOUT++) framework. To identify the dominant parametric dependencies of the model, a linear growth rate sensitivity analysis is performed using input parameter uncertainties, which are taken from the experimental measurements. For the direct comparison of nonlinear simulation results to experiment, we use synthetic Langmuir probe diagnostics to generate a set of synthetic ion saturation current and floating potential fluctuations. In addition, comparisons of azimuthal velocities determined via time-delay estimation, and nonlinear energy transfer are shown. We observe a significant improvement of model-experiment agreement relative to the previous 2D simulations. An essential component of this improved agreement is found to be the effect of electron temperature fluctuations on floating potential measurements, which introduces clear amplitude and phase shifts relative to the plasma potential fluctuations in synthetically measured quantities, where the simulations capture the experimental measurements in the core of plasma. However, the simulations overpredict the fluctuation levels at larger radii. Moreover, systematic simulation scans show that the self-generated E × B zonal flows profile is very sensitive to the steepening of density equilibrium profile. This suggests that evolving both fluctuations and equilibrium profiles, along with the inclusion of modest axial variation of radial profiles in the model are needed for further improvement of simulation results against the experimental measurements.
H-mode threshold power scaling and the ∇B drift effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlstrom, T.N.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Staebler, G.M.
1997-06-01
One of the largest influences on the H-mode power threshold (P TH ) is the direction of the ion ∇B drift relative to the X-point location, where factors of 2--3 increase in P TH are observed for the ion ∇B drift away from the X-point. It is proposed that the threshold power scaling observed in single-null configurations with the ion ∇B drift toward the X-point location (P TH ∼ nB, where n is the plasma density, and B is the toroidal field) is due to the scaling of the magnitude of the ∇B drift effect. Hinton and later Hinton and Stebler have modeled this effect as neoclassical cross field fluxes of both heat and particles driven by poloidal temperature gradients on the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL). The ∇B drift effect influences the power threshold by affecting the edge conditions needed for the L-H transition. It is not essential for the L-H transition itself since transitions are observed with either direction of B. Predictions of this model include saturation of the B scaling of P TH at high field, 1/B scaling of P TH with reverse B, and no B scaling of P TH in balanced double-null configurations. This last prediction is consistent with the observed scaling of p TH in double-null plasma sin DIII-D
Two-coordinate mini drift chamber operating in a self-quenching streamer mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernenko, S.P.; Smykov, L.P.; Zanevskij, Yu.V.
1993-01-01
Two-coordinate mini drift chambers operating in a self-quenching streamer mode have been developed. The tests have demonstrated these chambers to possess an extended counting plateau, a high operating stability and a high uniformity of efficiency over detecting area. The space resolution along anode wires is not worse than 250μm; the expected space resolution for the second coordinate is about 100 μm
Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence Driven Intrinsic Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W.X.; Hahm, T.S.; Ethier, S.; Zakharov, L.E.
2011-01-01
Recent progress from global gyrokinetic simulations in understanding the origin of intrinsic rotation in toroidal plasmas is reported with emphasis on electron thermal transport dominated regimes. The turbulence driven intrinsic torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation by the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of zonal flow shear induced asymmetry in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is shown to scale close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current. These results qualitatively reproduce empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation observed in various experiments. The origin of current scaling is found to be due to enhanced kll symmetry breaking induced by the increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic torque on pressure gradient is that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving residual stress, increase with the strength of turbulence drive, which is R0/LTe and R0/Lne for the trapped electron mode.
Lapshin, Rostislav V.
2016-08-01
A method of distributed calibration of a probe microscope scanner is suggested. The main idea consists in a search for a net of local calibration coefficients (LCCs) in the process of automatic measurement of a standard surface, whereby each point of the movement space of the scanner can be characterized by a unique set of scale factors. Feature-oriented scanning (FOS) methodology is used as a basis for implementation of the distributed calibration permitting to exclude in situ the negative influence of thermal drift, creep and hysteresis on the obtained results. Possessing the calibration database enables correcting in one procedure all the spatial systematic distortions caused by nonlinearity, nonorthogonality and spurious crosstalk couplings of the microscope scanner piezomanipulators. To provide high precision of spatial measurements in nanometer range, the calibration is carried out using natural standards - constants of crystal lattice. One of the useful modes of the developed calibration method is a virtual mode. In the virtual mode, instead of measurement of a real surface of the standard, the calibration program makes a surface image ;measurement; of the standard, which was obtained earlier using conventional raster scanning. The application of the virtual mode permits simulation of the calibration process and detail analysis of raster distortions occurring in both conventional and counter surface scanning. Moreover, the mode allows to estimate the thermal drift and the creep velocities acting while surface scanning. Virtual calibration makes possible automatic characterization of a surface by the method of scanning probe microscopy (SPM).
Flux-driven turbulence GDB simulations of the IWL Alcator C-Mod L-mode edge compared with experiment
Francisquez, Manaure; Zhu, Ben; Rogers, Barrett
2017-10-01
Prior to predicting confinement regime transitions in tokamaks one may need an accurate description of L-mode profiles and turbulence properties. These features determine the heat-flux width upon which wall integrity depends, a topic of major interest for research aid to ITER. To this end our work uses the GDB model to simulate the Alcator C-Mod edge and contributes support for its use in studying critical edge phenomena in current and future tokamaks. We carried out 3D electromagnetic flux-driven two-fluid turbulence simulations of inner wall limited (IWL) C-Mod shots spanning closed and open flux surfaces. These simulations are compared with gas puff imaging (GPI) and mirror Langmuir probe (MLP) data, examining global features and statistical properties of turbulent dynamics. GDB reproduces important qualitative aspects of the C-Mod edge regarding global density and temperature profiles, within reasonable margins, and though the turbulence statistics of the simulated turbulence follow similar quantitative trends questions remain about the code's difficulty in exactly predicting quantities like the autocorrelation time A proposed breakpoint in the near SOL pressure and the posited separation between drift and ballooning dynamics it represents are examined This work was supported by DOE-SC-0010508. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).
Orbital angular momentum mode of Gaussian beam induced by atmospheric turbulence
Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting; Yan, Xu; Dong, Kangjun
2018-02-01
Superposition theory of the spiral harmonics is employed to numerical study the transmission property of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode of Gaussian beam induced by atmospheric turbulence. Results show that Gauss beam does not carry OAM at the source, but various OAM modes appear after affected by atmospheric turbulence. With the increase of atmospheric turbulence strength, the smaller order OAM modes appear firstly, followed by larger order OAM modes. The beam spreading of Gauss beams in the atmosphere enhance with the increasing topological charge of the OAM modes caused by atmospheric turbulence. The mode probability density of the OAM generated by atmospheric turbulence decreases, and peak position gradually deviate from the Gauss beam spot center with the increase of the topological charge. Our results may be useful for improving the performance of long distance laser digital spiral imaging system.
Samtaney, Ravi
2012-01-01
We present a numerical method based on an Eulerian approach to solve the Vlasov-Poisson system for 4D drift kinetic turbulence. Our numerical approach uses a conservative formulation with high-order (fourth and higher) evaluation of the numerical fluxes coupled with a fourth-order accurate Poisson solver. The fluxes are computed using a low-dissipation high-order upwind differencing method or a tuned high-resolution finite difference method with no numerical dissipation. Numerical results are presented for the case of imposed ion temperature and density gradients. Different forms of controlled regularization to achieve a well-posed system are used to obtain convergent resolved simulations. The regularization of the equations is achieved by means of a simple collisional model, by inclusion of an ad-hoc hyperviscosity or artificial viscosity term or by implicit dissipation in upwind schemes. Comparisons between the various methods and regularizations are presented. We apply a filtering formalism to the Vlasov equation and derive sub-grid-scale (SGS) terms analogous to the Reynolds stress terms in hydrodynamic turbulence. We present a priori quantifications of these SGS terms in resolved simulations of drift-kinetic turbulence by applying a sharp filter. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samtaney, Ravi
2012-01-01
We present a numerical method based on an Eulerian approach to solve the Vlasov-Poisson system for 4D drift kinetic turbulence. Our numerical approach uses a conservative formulation with high-order (fourth and higher) evaluation of the numerical fluxes coupled with a fourth-order accurate Poisson solver. The fluxes are computed using a low-dissipation high-order upwind differencing method or a tuned high-resolution finite difference method with no numerical dissipation. Numerical results are presented for the case of imposed ion temperature and density gradients. Different forms of controlled regularization to achieve a well-posed system are used to obtain convergent resolved simulations. The regularization of the equations is achieved by means of a simple collisional model, by inclusion of an ad-hoc hyperviscosity or artificial viscosity term or by implicit dissipation in upwind schemes. Comparisons between the various methods and regularizations are presented. We apply a filtering formalism to the Vlasov equation and derive sub-grid-scale (SGS) terms analogous to the Reynolds stress terms in hydrodynamic turbulence. We present a priori quantifications of these SGS terms in resolved simulations of drift-kinetic turbulence by applying a sharp filter.
BURNING PLASMA PROJECTIONS USING DRIFT WAVE TRANSPORT MODELS AND SCALINGS FOR THE H-MODE PEDESTAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KINSEY, J.E.; ONJUN, T.; BATEMAN, G.; KRITZ, A.; PANKIN, A.; STAEBLER, G.M.; WALTZ, R.E.
2002-01-01
OAK-B135 The GLF23 and Multi-Mode (MM95) transport models are used along with a model for the H-mode pedestal to predict the fusion performance for the ITER, FIRE, and IGNITOR tokamak designs. The drift-wave predictive transport models reproduce the core profiles in a wide variety of tokamak discharges, yet they differ significantly in their response to temperature gradient (stiffness). Recent gyro-kinetic simulations of ITG/TEM and ETG modes motivate the renormalization of the GLF23 model. The normalizing coefficients for the ITG/TEM modes are reduced by a factor of 3.7 while the ETG mode coefficient is increased by a factor of 4.8 in comparison with the original model. A pedestal temperature model is developed for type I ELMy H-mode plasmas based on ballooning mode stability and a theory-motivated scaling for the pedestal width. In this pedestal model, the pedestal density is proportional to the line-averaged density and the pedestal temperature is inversely related to the pedestal density
Crossbar H-mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac
Otani, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Kitamura, R.; Kondo, Y.; Kurennoy, S.
2017-07-01
We have developed a Crossbar H-mode (CH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The CH-DTL accelerates muons from β = v/c = 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The design and results are described in this paper.
Transport due to ion temperature gradient mode vortex turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, V.P.; Weiland, J.
1991-01-01
The ion energy transport due to an ensemble of nonlinear vortices is calculated in the test particle approximation for a strongly turbulent plasma. A diffusion coefficient proportional to the root of the stationary turbulence level is obtained. (au)
Adaptive Integral Sliding Mode Stabilization of Nonholonomic Drift-Free Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Waseem Abbasi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents adaptive integral sliding mode control algorithm for the stabilization of nonholonomic drift-free systems. First the system is transformed, by using input transform, into a special structure containing a nominal part and some unknown terms which are computed adaptively. The transformed system is then stabilized using adaptive integral sliding mode control. The stabilizing controller for the transformed system is constructed that consists of the nominal control plus a compensator control. The compensator control and the adaptive laws are derived on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed control algorithm is applied to three different nonholonomic drift-free systems: the unicycle model, the front wheel car model, and the mobile robot with trailer model. The controllability Lie algebra of the unicycle model contains Lie brackets of depth one, the model of a front wheel car contains Lie brackets of depths one and two, and the model of a mobile robot with trailer contains Lie brackets of depths one, two, and three. The effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm is verified through numerical simulations.
Global characteristics of zonal flows due to the effect of finite bandwidth in drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uzawa, K.; Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.
2009-01-01
The spectral effect of the zonal flow (ZF) on its generation is investigated based on the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima turbulence model. It is found that the effect of finite ZF bandwidth qualitatively changes the characteristics of ZF instability. A spatially localized (namely, global) nonlinear ZF state with an enhanced, unique growth rate for all spectral components is created under a given turbulent fluctuation. It is identified that such state originates from the successive cross couplings among Fourier components of the ZF and turbulence spectra through the sideband modulation. Furthermore, it is observed that the growth rate of the global ZF is determined not only by the spectral distribution and amplitudes of turbulent pumps as usual, but also statistically by the turbulence structure, namely, their probabilistic initial phase factors. A ten-wave coupling model of the ZF modulation instability involving the essential effect of the ZF spectrum is developed to clarify the basic features of the global nonlinear ZF state.
Discovery of multiple, ionization-created CS2 anions and a new mode of operation for drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snowden-Ifft, Daniel P.
2014-01-01
This paper focuses on the surprising discovery of multiple species of ionization-created CS 2 anions in gas mixtures containing electronegative CS 2 and O 2 , identified by their slightly different drift velocities. Data are presented to understand the formation mechanism and identity of these new anions. Regardless of the micro-physics, however, this discovery offers a new, trigger-less mode of operation for the drift chambers. A demonstration of trigger-less operation is presented
Theory of incremental turbulent transport in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Similon, P.L.
1991-01-01
The goal of this research is to understand how the various aspect of turbulent transport operate in tokamaks, in the presence of low frequency fluctuations such as drift waves or trapped electron modes
A new kinetic description for turbulent collisions including mode-coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.; Tchen, C.M.
1982-07-01
The usual introduction of higher-order mode-coupling terms in the description of turbulent collisions beyond usual Renormalized Quasi-Linear approximation (RQL) is briefly analyzed. Here new results are derived in the framework of the general kinetic theory, and the equivalence is proved with the long time limit of simple results deduced from the Vlasov equation. The correction to the RQL turbulent collision term is analyzed and a new approximation is proposed. Turbulent collisions are also described by perturbation around the Lagrangian autocorrelation of fluctuating fields. For an homogeneous turbulence, however, the asymptotic integral of this Lagrangian autocorrelation vanishes identically, similarly to what occurs in Brownian motion. For inhomogeneous turbulence this method can nevertheless be used, and higher-order mode-coupling terms can be interpreted as a shielding of elementary Lagrangian turbulent collisions
Possible effects of drift wave turbulence on magnetic structure and plasma transport in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
1977-07-01
A new mechanism is proposed by which low level, drift wave type fluctuations, such as those observed in the ATC and TFR experiments, can cause anomalous radial electron heat transport in tokamaks. The model is based on the fact that since transport processes parallel to the magnetic field are many orders of magnitude more rapid than perpendicular ones, very small helically resonant magnetic perturbations that cause field lines to move radially allow the parallel transport process to contribute to radial electron heat transport. It is hypothesized that the small magnetic perturbations accompanying drift waves at any nonzero plasma β are large enough to produce significant effects in present tokamak experiments. The helical magnetic component of drift waves produces magnetic island structures whose spatial widths can easily exceed the ion gyroradius. In a drift wave oscillation period, electrons circumnavigate a magnetic island, whereas the slower moving ions see only a tilt of the magnetic field lines. Thus, electrons try to diffuse radially more rapidly than ions; however, a radialpotential builds up on a very short time scale to confine the electrons electrostatically and thereby keep the particle diffusion ambipolar. Nonetheless, this parallel electron diffusion process does cause net radial electron heat conduction through an ensemble of closely packed island structures. The heat conduction coefficient is estimated. Other effects that these magnetic flutters may have on plasma transport and runaway electron processes are also discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Mirror mode turbulence is the lowest frequency perpendicular magnetic excitation in magnetized plasma proposed already about half a century ago by Rudakov and Sagdeev (1958 and Chandrasekhar et al. (1958 from fluid theory. Its experimental verification required a relatively long time. It was early recognized that mirror modes for being excited require a transverse pressure (or temperature anisotropy. In principle mirror modes are some version of slow mode waves. Fluid theory, however, does not give a correct physical picture of the mirror mode. The linear infinitesimally small amplitude physics is described correctly only by including the full kinetic theory and is modified by existing spatial gradients of the plasma parameters which attribute a small finite frequency to the mode. In addition, the mode is propagating only very slowly in plasma such that convective transport is the main cause of flow in it. As the lowest frequency mode it can be expected that mirror modes serve as one of the dominant energy inputs into plasma. This is however true only when the mode grows to large amplitude leaving the linear stage. At such low frequencies, on the other hand, quasilinear theory does not apply as a valid saturation mechanism. Probably the dominant processes are related to the generation of gradients in the plasma which serve as the cause of drift modes thus transferring energy to shorter wavelength propagating waves of higher nonzero frequency. This kind of theory has not yet been developed as it has not yet been understood why mirror modes in spite of their slow growth rate usually are of very large amplitudes indeed of the order of |B/B0|2~O(1. It is thus highly reasonable to assume that mirror modes are instrumental for the development of stationary turbulence in high temperature plasma. Moreover, since the magnetic field in mirror turbulence forms extended though slightly oblique magnetic bottles, low parallel energy particles can be trapped
The parallel dynamics of drift wave turbulence in the WEGA stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsen, S; Endler, M; Otte, M; Wagner, F, E-mail: stefan.marsen@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)
2009-08-15
The three-dimensional structure of turbulence in the edge (inside the last closed flux surface) of the WEGA stellarator is studied focusing on the parallel dynamics. WEGA as a small stellarator with moderate plasma parameters offers the opportunity to study turbulence with Langmuir probes providing high spatial and temporal resolution. Multiple probes with radial, poloidal and toroidal resolution are used to measure density fluctuations. Correlation analysis is used to reconstruct a 3D picture of turbulent structures. We find that these structures originate predominantly on the low field side and have a three-dimensional character with a finite averaged parallel wavenumber. The ratio between the parallel and perpendicular wavenumber component is in the order of 10{sup -2}. The parallel dynamics are compared at magnetic inductions of 57 and 500 mT. At 500 mT, the parallel wavelength is in the order of the field line connection length 2{pi}R{iota}-bar. A frequency resolved measure of k{sub ||}/k{sub {theta}} shows a constant ratio in this case. At 57 mT the observed k{sub ||} is much smaller than at 500 mT. However, the observed small average value is due to an averaging over positive and negative components pointing parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field vector.
Asahi, Y.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.
2014-05-01
Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Werner, F.E.; MacKenzie, Brian; Perry, R.I.
2001-01-01
Using an individual-based model approach we consider trophodynamic effects on the growth and survival of larval cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on Georges Bank during late winter/early spring. These studies represent an extension of results described in Werner et al. (1996...... be an important input to larval growth and survival models. The inclusion of turbulence in determining the position of passive larvae in the water column allows the larvae to sample the entire water column, contributing to a decrease in the variance of the size of the larvae over time. The ability of larvae...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadatomi, Michio; Kawahara, Akimaro; Sato, Yoshifusa
1997-01-01
A practical way of treating two-phase turbulent mixing, void drift and diversion cross-flow on a subchannel analysis has been studied. Experimental data on the axial variations of subchannel flow parameters, such as flow rates of both phases, pressure, void fraction and concentrations of tracers for both phases, were obtained for hydraulically non-equilibrium two-phase subchannel flows in a vertical multiple channel made up of two-identical circular subchannels. These data were analyzed on the basis of the following four assumptions: (1) the turbulent mixing is independent of both the void drift and the diversion cross-flow; (2) the turbulent mixing rates of both phases in a non-equilibrium flow are equal to those in the equilibrium flow that the flow under consideration will attain; (3) the void drift is independent of the diversion cross-flow; and (4) the lateral gas velocity due to the void drift is predictable from Lahey et al.'s void settling model even in a non-equilibrium flow with the diversion cross-flow. The validity of the assumptions (1) and (2) was assured by comparing the concentration distribution data with the calculations, and that of the assumptions (3) and (4) by analyzing the data on flow rates of both phases, pressure and void fraction (author)
Near-drift thermal analysis including combined modes of conduction, convection, and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, C.K.; Francis, N.D.
1995-01-01
The performance of waste packages containing high-level nuclear wastes at underground repositories such as the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, depends, in part, on the thermodynamic environment immediately surrounding the buried waste packages. For example, degradation of the waste packages can be caused by corrosive and microbial processes, which are influenced by both the relative humidity and temperature within the emplacement drifts. In this paper, the effects of conduction, convection, and radiation are investigated for a heat-generating waste package in an empty-drift. Simulations explicitly modeling radiation from the waste package to the drift wall are compared simulations using only conduction. Temperatures, relative humidities, and vapor mass fractions are compared at various locations within the drift. In addition, the effects of convection on relative humidity and moisture distribution within the drift are presented
Turbulent edge transport in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified high confinement mode
Tynan, G. R.; Schmitz, L.; Blush, L.; Boedo, J. A.; Conn, R. W.; Doerner, R.; Lehmer, R.; Moyer, R.; Kugel, H.; Bell, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Sesnic, S.; Sun, Y.
1994-10-01
The first probe measurements of edge turbulence and transport in a neutral beam induced high confinement mode (H-mode) are reported. A strong negative radial electric field is directly observed in H-mode. A transient suppression of normalized ion saturation and floating potential fluctuation levels occurs at the low confinement mode to high confinement mode (L-H) transition, followed by a recovery to near low mode (L-mode) levels. The average poloidal wave number and the poloidal wave-number spectral width are decreased, and the correlation between fluctuating density and potential is reduced. A large-amplitude coherent oscillation, localized to the strong radial electric field region, is observed in H-mode but does not cause transport. In H-mode the effective turbulent diffusion coefficient is reduced by an order of magnitude inside the last closed flux surface and in the scrape-off layer. The results are compared with a heuristic model of turbulence suppression by velocity-shear stabilization.
The impact of pedestal turbulence and electron inertia on edge-localized-mode crashes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xi, P. W. [FSC and State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States)
2014-05-15
We demonstrate that the occurrence of Edge-Localized-Modes (ELM) crashes does not depend only on the linear peeling-ballooning threshold, but also relies on nonlinear processes. Wave-wave interaction constrains the growth time of a mode, thus inducing a shift in the criterion for triggering an ELM crash. An ELM crash requires the P-B growth rate to exceed a critical value γ>γ{sub c}, where γ{sub c} is set by 1/τ{sup ¯}{sub c}, and τ{sup ¯}{sub c} is the averaged mode phase coherence time. For 0<γ<γ{sub c}, P-B turbulence develops but drives enhanced turbulent transport. We also show that electron inertia dramatically changes the instability threshold when density is low. However, P-B turbulence alone cannot generate enough current transport to allow fast reconnection during an ELM crash.
Neoclassical and anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas with drift-ordered turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1996-01-01
Neoclassical and anomalous transport fluxes are determined for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with weak electromagnetic drift wave fluctuations. The neoclassical and anomalous fluxes are defined based on the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation with the statistically averaged nonlinear wave-particle interactions. The anomalous forces derived from that quasilinear term induce the anomalous particle and heat fluxes. For the microscale fluctuations k perpendicular ρ i ∼ 1 the parallel neoclassical fluxes remain invariant. For mesoscale fluctuations the mixing length fluctuation level with broken symmetry from (weak) shear flows the neoclassical banana-plateau fluxes are affected by the fluctuations through the parallel anomalous forces and the modified parallel viscosities. The entropy production rate due to the anomalous transport processes is formulated and used to identify conjugate pairs of the anomalous fluxes and forces, which are connected by the matrix with the Onsager symmetry. The proof of the Onsager symmetry is carried out by splitting the response function up into the even and odd parts under the (t, B) → (-t,-B) transformation and using the self-adjointness of the linearized Landau collision operator and the quasilinear formalism. An explicit calculation of the symmetric transport coefficients is possible when the Krook collision model replaces the Landau collision operator. The importance of low aspect ratio tokamaks and helical systems for experimental investigations of the Onsager symmetries is emphasized
Self-consistency constraints on turbulent magnetic transport and relaxation in collisionless plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Diamond, P.H.; Hahm, T.S.
1985-10-01
Novel constraints on collisionless relaxation and transport in drift-Alfven turbulence are reported. These constraints arise due to the consideration of mode coupling and incoherent fluctuations and the proper application of self-consistency conditions. The result that electrostatic fluctuations alone regulate transport in drift-Alfven turbulence follows directly. Quasilinear transport predictions are discussed in light of these constraints
Night-time radial plasma drifts and coupling fluxes at L = 2.3 from whistler mode measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, M.K.
1980-01-01
A method recently reported for measuring radial drifts in the equatorial plane, and ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling fluxes from the Doppler shifts and group delays on whistler mode signals is applied to VLF transmissions from station NLK on 18.6kHz. Data from 22 nights, primarily during the months November to February, are analysed. When averaged over a time of about 90 min, drifts found are accurate to +-20ms -1 , corresponding to an equatorial electric field accuracy of +-0.05mVm -1 , and fluxes, to +-1.5 x 10 12 el m -2 s -1 (two hemisphere total). Given currently accepted values of coupling fluxes, the flux accuracy is of marginal value on individual nights, but useful information on average behaviour may be obtained. It is found that fluxes generally contribute less than 20% to the measured Doppler shift, most of which is therefore produced by cross-L drifts. To an accuracy of about 20% then, Doppler data alone may give information on these drifts. Doppler shift data previously accumulated over a number of years and relating to signals in ducts near L = 2.3 are re-examined. Dominating the nightly behaviour is an inward drift which reaches a maximum of approximately 100m s -1 as the duct ends cross the dusk terminator, and an outward drift at dawn of the same magnitude which is intitiated when the duct end crosses the terminator in the E or lower F-region. In some months, separate effects can be seen corresponding to sunrise at each end of the duct. (author)
Scaling and interaction of self-similar modes in models of high Reynolds number wall turbulence.
Sharma, A S; Moarref, R; McKeon, B J
2017-03-13
Previous work has established the usefulness of the resolvent operator that maps the terms nonlinear in the turbulent fluctuations to the fluctuations themselves. Further work has described the self-similarity of the resolvent arising from that of the mean velocity profile. The orthogonal modes provided by the resolvent analysis describe the wall-normal coherence of the motions and inherit that self-similarity. In this contribution, we present the implications of this similarity for the nonlinear interaction between modes with different scales and wall-normal locations. By considering the nonlinear interactions between modes, it is shown that much of the turbulence scaling behaviour in the logarithmic region can be determined from a single arbitrarily chosen reference plane. Thus, the geometric scaling of the modes is impressed upon the nonlinear interaction between modes. Implications of these observations on the self-sustaining mechanisms of wall turbulence, modelling and simulation are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
POD Mode Robustness for the Turbulent Jet Sampled with PIV
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hodzic, Azur; Meyer, Knud Erik; Velte, Clara Marika
2017-01-01
An important challenge in the description and simulation of turbulence is the large amount of information that is needed to describe even relatively simple flows in detail. The frequent disagreement between Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes-based simulations and experiments is well known. Albeit, d...... and even high speed volumetric PIV systems providing fully three dimensional velocity fields. Another challenge is how do we verify simulations against experiments and ensure that we indeed have simulated the same flow that we have measured?......An important challenge in the description and simulation of turbulence is the large amount of information that is needed to describe even relatively simple flows in detail. The frequent disagreement between Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes-based simulations and experiments is well known. Albeit......, direct numerical simulations and in certain cases large eddy simulations tend to agree fairly well with experiments, their practical implementation introduces the problem of data storage. The experimentalist, however, experiences the same problem, using highspeed particle image velocimetry (PIV) systems...
Bifurcation and phase diagram of turbulence constituted from three different scale-length modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, S.-I.; Kitazawa, A.; Yagi, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2002-04-01
Cases where three kinds of fluctuations having the different typical scale-lengths coexist are analyzed, and the statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed. Statistical nonlinear interactions between fluctuations are kept in the analysis as the renormalized drag, statistical noise and the averaged drive. The nonlinear interplay through them induces a quenching or suppressing effect, even if all the modes are unstable when they are analyzed independently. Variety in mode appearance takes place: one mode quenches the other two modes, or one mode is quenched by the other two modes, etc. The bifurcation of turbulence is analyzed and a phase diagram is drawn. Phase diagrams with cusp type catastrophe and butterfly type catastrophe are obtained. The subcritical bifurcation is possible to occur through the nonlinear interplay, even though each one is supercritical turbulence when analyzed independently. Analysis reveals that the nonlinear stability boundary (marginal point) and the amplitude of each mode may substantially shift from the conventional results of independent analyses. (author)
Liu, Yakun; Tao, Rumao; Su, Rongtao; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Pengfei; Zhang, Hanwei; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei
2018-04-01
This paper presents an investigation of the effect of pump wavelength drift on the threshold of mode instability (MI) in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber lasers. By using a semi-analytical model, we study the effects of pump wavelength drift with a central pump wavelength around 976 nm and 915 nm, respectively. The influences of the pump absorption coefficient and total pump absorption are considered simultaneously. The results indicate that the effect of pump wavelength drift around 976 nm is stronger than that around 915 nm. For more efficient suppression of MI by shifting the pump wavelength, efficient absorption of pump power is required. The MI thresholds for fibers with different total pump absorptions and cladding diameters are compared. When the total pump absorption is increased, the gain saturation is enhanced, which results in the MI being mitigated more effectively and being more sensitive to pump wavelength drift. The MI threshold in gain fibers with larger inner cladding diameter is higher but more dependent upon pump wavelength. The results of this work can help in optimizing the pump wavelength and fiber parameters and suppressing MI in high-power fiber lasers.
Multi-scale-nonlinear interactions among macro-MHD mode, micro-turbulence, and zonal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, Akihiro; Nakajima, Noriyoshi
2007-01-01
This is the first numerical simulation demonstrating that macro-magnetohydrodynamic (macro-MHD) mode is exited as a result of multi-scale interaction in a quasi-steady equilibrium formed by a balance between zonal flow and micro-turbulence via reduced-two-fluid simulation. Only after obtaining the equilibrium which includes zonal flow and the turbulence caused by kinetic ballooning mode is this simulation of macro-MHD mode, double tearing mode, accomplished. In the quasi-steady equilibrium a macro-fluctuation which has the same helicity as that of double tearing mode is a part of the turbulence until it grows as a macro-MHD mode finally. When the macro-MHD grows it effectively utilize free energy of equilibrium current density gradient because of positive feedback loop between suppression of zonal flow and growth of the macro-fluctuation causing magnetic reconnection. Thus once the macro-MHD grows from the quasi-equilibrium, it does not go back. This simulation is more comparable with experimental observation of growing macro-fluctuation than traditional MHD simulation of linear instabilities in a static equilibrium. (author)
A novel turbulence trigger for neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka
2003-07-01
Stochastic trigger by microturbulence for neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is studied. NTM induces topological change of magnetic structure and has subcritical nature. Transition rate of probability density function for and statistically-averaged amplitude of NTM are obtained. Boundary in the phase diagram is determined as the statistical long time average of the transition conditions. NTM can be excited by crossing this boundary even in the absence of other global instabilities. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowal, Grzegorz; Lazarian, A.
2010-01-01
We study compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, which holds the key to many astrophysical processes, including star formation and cosmic-ray propagation. To account for the variations of the magnetic field in the strongly turbulent fluid, we use wavelet decomposition of the turbulent velocity field into Alfven, slow, and fast modes, which presents an extension of the Cho and Lazarian decomposition approach based on Fourier transforms. The wavelets allow us to follow the variations of the local direction of the magnetic field and therefore improve the quality of the decomposition compared to the Fourier transforms, which are done in the mean field reference frame. For each resulting component, we calculate the spectra and two-point statistics such as longitudinal and transverse structure functions as well as higher order intermittency statistics. In addition, we perform a Helmholtz- Hodge decomposition of the velocity field into incompressible and compressible parts and analyze these components. We find that the turbulence intermittency is different for different components, and we show that the intermittency statistics depend on whether the phenomenon was studied in the global reference frame related to the mean magnetic field or in the frame defined by the local magnetic field. The dependencies of the measures we obtained are different for different components of the velocity; for instance, we show that while the Alfven mode intermittency changes marginally with the Mach number, the intermittency of the fast mode is substantially affected by the change.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhurovich, K.; Fiore, C.L.; Ernst, D.R.; Bonoli, P.T.; Greenwald, M.J.; Hubbard, A.E.; Hughes, J.W.; Marmar, E.S.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Phillips, P.; Rice, J.E.
2007-01-01
Internal transport barriers (ITBs) can be routinely produced in enhanced D α (EDA) H-mode discharges on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak by putting the minority ion cyclotron resonance layer at vertical bar r/a vertical bar ≥ 0.5 during the current flat top phase of the discharge. These ITBs are characterized by density peaking at constant temperature and are therefore both particle and energy transport barriers. The ITB formation appears to result from widening the region near the magnetic axis in which toroidal drift modes are stable, allowing the Ware pinch to peak the density profile. Experimental evidence shows that shifting the ICRF resonance off-axis results in a local flattening of ion and electron temperature profiles. TRANSP calculations of ion temperature profiles support this experimentally observed trend. Stability analysis of ion temperature gradient (ITG) and electron temperature gradient modes at times before ITB formation is done using the linear gyrokinetic code GS2. These gyrokinetic calculations find that the most unstable modes in the C-Mod EDA H-mode core, prior to ITB onset, are the toroidal ITG driven type. These modes are suppressed in the ITB region through a temperature gradient reduction when the ICRF resonance is shifted off-axis
Turbulent Statistics From Time-Resolved PIV Measurements of a Jet Using Empirical Mode Decomposition
Dahl, Milo D.
2013-01-01
Empirical mode decomposition is an adaptive signal processing method that when applied to a broadband signal, such as that generated by turbulence, acts as a set of band-pass filters. This process was applied to data from time-resolved, particle image velocimetry measurements of subsonic jets prior to computing the second-order, two-point, space-time correlations from which turbulent phase velocities and length and time scales could be determined. The application of this method to large sets of simultaneous time histories is new. In this initial study, the results are relevant to acoustic analogy source models for jet noise prediction. The high frequency portion of the results could provide the turbulent values for subgrid scale models for noise that is missed in large-eddy simulations. The results are also used to infer that the cross-correlations between different components of the decomposed signals at two points in space, neglected in this initial study, are important.
Transition from flute modes to drift waves in a magnetized plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brochard, F.; Gravier, E.; Bonhomme, G.
2005-01-01
Recent experiments performed on the low β plasma device Mirabelle [T. Pierre, G. Leclert, and F. Braun, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 6 (1987)] using a limiter have shown that transitions between various gradient driven instabilities occurred on increasing the magnetic field strength. New thorough measurements allow to identify unambiguously three instability regimes. At low magnetic field the strong ExB velocity shear drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, whereas at high magnetic field drift waves are only observed. A centrifugal (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability is also observed in between when the ExB velocity is shearless and strong enough. A close connection is made between the ratio ρ s /L perpendicular of the drift parameter to the radial density gradient length and each instability regime
On the bicoherence analysis of plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Nagashima, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Diamond, P.H.; Fukuyama, A.
2005-10-01
The bicoherence of fluctuations in a system of drift waves and zonal flows is discussed. In strong drift-wave turbulence, where broad-band fluctuations are excited, the bicoherence is examined. A Langevin equation formalism of turbulent interactions allows us to relate the bicoherence coefficient to the projection of nonlinear force onto the test mode. The dependence of the summed bicoherence on the amplitude of zonal flows is clarified. The importance of observing biphase is also stressed. The results provide a basis for measurement of nonlinear interaction in a system of drift waves and zonal flow. (author)
Targeting specific azimuthal modes using wall changes in turbulent pipe flow
van Buren, Tyler; Hellström, Leo; Marusic, Ivan; Smits, Alexander
2017-11-01
We experimentally study turbulent pipe flow at Re =3486 using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Using pipe inserts with non-circular geometry to perturb the flow upstream of the measurement location, we excite specific naturally occurring energetic modes. We consider inserts that directly manipulate the flow momentum (vortex generators), and/or induce secondary flows through Reynolds stresses (sinusoidally varying wall shape). These inserts substantially change the mean flow, and produce distinct regions of low and high momentum corresponding to the mode being excited. The inserts add energy in the targeted modes while simultaneously reducing the energy in the non-excited azimuthal modes. In addition, inserts designed to excite two modes simultaneously exhibit non-linear interactions. Supported under ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2402, Program Manager/Director Thomas Fu and the Australian Research Council.
Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Xian, Hao
2015-10-10
High-speed free-space optical communication systems using fiber-optic components can greatly improve the stability of the system and simplify the structure. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence degrades the spatial coherence of the signal beam and limits the single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the SMF coupling efficiency over various turbulences. The results show that the SMF coupling efficiency drops from 81% without phase distortion to 10% when phase root mean square value equals 0.3λ. The simulations of SMF coupling with adaptive optics (AO) indicate that it is inevitable to compensate the high-order aberrations for SMF coupling over relatively strong turbulence. The SMF coupling efficiency experiments, using an AO system with a 137-element deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, obtain average coupling efficiency increasing from 1.3% in open loop to 46.1% in closed loop under a relatively strong turbulence, D/r0=15.1.
Heuristic Drift-based Model of the Power Scrape-off width in H-mode Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldston, Robert J.
2011-01-01
An heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the SOL are balanced against sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall particle flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch-Shlueter flows to include sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of ∼ 2αρ p /R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, defined above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Haerm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in a heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in reasonable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data from deuterium plasmas. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.
An Heuristic Drift-Based Model of the Power Scrape-Off Width in H-Mode Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldston, Robert J.
2011-01-01
An heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the SOL are balanced against sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall mass flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch-Shlueter flows to include sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of 2αρ p /R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, defined above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Haerm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in an heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in remarkable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelino, P; Bottino, A; Hatzky, R; Jolliet, S; Sauter, O; Tran, T M; Villard, L
2006-01-01
The mutual interactions of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven modes, zonal flows and geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) in tokamak plasmas are investigated using a global nonlinear gyrokinetic formulation with totally unconstrained evolution of temperature gradient and profile. A series of numerical simulations with the same initial temperature and density profile specifications is performed using a sequence of ideal MHD equilibria differing only in the value of the total plasma current, in particular with identical magnetic shear profiles and shapes of magnetic surfaces. On top of a bursty or quasi-steady state behaviour the zonal flows oscillate at the GAM frequency. The amplitude of these oscillations increases with the value of the safety factor q, resulting in a less effective suppression of ITG turbulence by zonal flows at a lower plasma current. The turbulence-driven volume-averaged radial heat transport is found to scale inversely with the total plasma current
A sparse-mode spectral method for the simulation of turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meneguzzi, M.; Politano, H.; Pouquet, A.; Zolver, M.
1996-01-01
We propose a new algorithm belonging to the family of the sparsemode spectral method to simulate turbulent flows. In this method the number of Fourier modes k increases with k more slowly than k D-1 in dimension D, while retaining the advantage of the fast Fourier transform. Examples of applications of the algorithm are given for the one-dimensional Burger's equation and two-dimensional incompressible MHD flows
Edge energy transport barrier and turbulence in the I-mode regime on Alcator C-Moda)
Hubbard, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Churchill, R. M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Greenwald, M. J.; Howard, N.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.; Reinke, M. L.; Rowan, W. L.; Terry, J. L.
2011-05-01
We report extended studies of the I-mode regime [Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] obtained in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Marmar et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 51(3), 3261 (2007)]. This regime, usually accessed with unfavorable ion B × ∇B drift, features an edge thermal transport barrier without a strong particle transport barrier. Steady I-modes have now been obtained with favorable B × ∇B drift, by using specific plasma shapes, as well as with unfavorable drift over a wider range of shapes and plasma parameters. With favorable drift, power thresholds are close to the standard scaling for L-H transitions, while with unfavorable drift they are ˜ 1.5-3 times higher, increasing with Ip. Global energy confinement in both drift configurations is comparable to H-mode scalings, while density profiles and impurity confinement are close to those in L-mode. Transport analysis of the edge region shows a decrease in edge χeff, by typically a factor of 3, between L- and I-mode. The decrease correlates with a drop in mid-frequency fluctuations (f ˜ 50-150 kHz) observed on both density and magnetics diagnostics. Edge fluctuations at higher frequencies often increase above L-mode levels, peaking at f ˜ 250 kHz. This weakly coherent mode is clearest and has narrowest width (Δf/f ˜ 0.45) at low q95 and high Tped, up to 1 keV. The Er well in I-mode is intermediate between L- and H-mode and is dominated by the diamagnetic contribution in the impurity radial force balance, without the Vpol shear typical of H-modes.
Hanson, Frank; Lasher, Mark
2010-06-01
We characterize and compare the effects of turbulence on underwater laser propagation with theory. Measurements of the coupling efficiency of the focused beam into a single-mode fiber are reported. A simple tip-tilt control system, based on the position of the image centroid in the focal plane, was shown to maintain good coupling efficiency for a beam radius equal to the transverse coherence length, r(0). These results are relevant to high bandwidth communication technology that requires good spatial mode quality.
Innocenti, Maria Elena; Beck, Arnaud; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni
2015-04-01
We study turbulence generated by the Lower Hybrid Drift Instability (LHDI [1]) in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The problem is not only of interest per se, but also for the implications it can have for the so-called turbulent reconnection. The LHDI evolution is simulated with the PIC Multi Level Multi Domain code Parsek2D-MLMD [2,3], which simulates different parts of the domain with different spatial and temporal resolutions. This allows to satisfy, at a low computing cost, the two necessary requirements for LHDI turbulence simulations: 1) a large domain, to capture the high wavelength branch of the LHDI and of the secondary kink instability and 2) high resolution, to cover the high wavenumber part of the power spectrum and to capture the wavenumber at which the turbulent cascade ends. The turbulent cascade proceeds seamlessly from the coarse (low resolution) to the refined (high resolution) grid, the only one resolved enough to capture its end, which is studied here and related to wave-particle interaction processes. We also comment upon the role of smoothing (a common technique used in PIC simulations to reduce particle noise, [4]) in simulations of turbulence and on how its effects on power spectra may be easily mistaken, in absence of accurate convergence studies, for the end of the inertial range. [1] P. Gary, Theory of space plasma microinstabilities, Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series, 2005. [2] M. E. Innocenti, G. Lapenta, S. Markidis, A. Beck, A. Vapirev, Journal of Computational Physics 238 (2013) 115 - 140. [3] M. E. Innocenti, A. Beck, T. Ponweiser, S. Markidis, G. Lapenta, Computer Physics Communications (accepted) (2014). [4] C. K. Birdsall, A. B. Langdon, Plasma physics via computer simulation, Taylor and Francis, 2004.
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Weak turbulence theory of ion temperature gradient modes for inverted density plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Tang, W.M.
1989-09-01
Typical profiles measured in H-mode (''high confinement'') discharges from tokamaks such as JET and DIII-D suggest that the ion temperature gradient instability threshold parameter η i (≡dlnT i /dlnn i ) could be negative in many cases. Previous linear theoretical calculations have established the onset conditions for these negative η i -modes and the fact that their growth rate is much smaller than their real frequency over a wide range of negative η i values. This has motivated the present nonlinear weak turbulence analysis to assess the relevance of such instabilities for confinement in H-mode plasmas. The nonlinear eigenmode equation indicates that the 3-wave coupling to shorter wavelength modes is the dominant nonlinear saturation mechanism. It is found that both the saturation level for these fluctuations and the magnitude of the associated ion thermal diffusivity are considerably smaller than the strong turbulence mixing length type estimates for the more conventional positive-η i -instabilities. 19 refs., 3 figs
3D fluid simulations of tokamak edge turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeiler, A.; Biskamp, D.; Drake, J.F.; Guzdar, P.N.
1995-09-01
3D simulations of drift resistive ballooning turbulence are presented. The turbulence is basically controlled by a parameter α, the ratio of the drift wave frequency to the ideal ballooning growth rate. If this parameters is small (α≤1, corresponding to Ohmic or L-mode plasmas), the system is dominated by ballooning turbulence, which is strongly peaked at the outside of the torus. If it is large (α≥1, corresponding to H-mode plasmas) field line curvature plays a minor role. The turbulence is nonlinearly sustained even if curvature is removed and all modes are linearly stable due to magnetic shear. In the nonlinear regime without curvature the system obeys a different scaling law compared to the low α regime. The transport scaling is discussed in both regimes and the implications for OH-, L-mode and H-mode transport are discussed. (orig.)
Rogers, Barrett N.; Zhu, Ben; Francisquez, Manaure
2018-05-01
A gyrokinetic linear stability analysis of a collisionless slab geometry in the local approximation is presented. We focus on k∥=0 universal (or entropy) modes driven by plasma gradients at small and large plasma β. These are small scale non-MHD instabilities with growth rates that typically peak near k⊥ρi˜1 and vanish in the long wavelength k⊥→0 limit. This work also discusses a mode known as the Gradient Drift Coupling (GDC) instability previously reported in the gyrokinetic literature, which has a finite growth rate γ=√{β/[2 (1 +β)] }Cs/|Lp| with Cs2=p0/ρ0 for k⊥→0 and is universally unstable for 1 /Lp≠0 . We show that the GDC instability is a spurious, unphysical artifact that erroneously arises due to the failure to respect the total equilibrium pressure balance p0+B02/(8 π)=constant , which renders the assumption B0'=0 inconsistent if p0'≠0 .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Fiore, C.L.; Dorland, W.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Rewoldt, G.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ernst, D.R.; Rice, J.E.; Wukitch, S.J.
2003-01-01
Recent H-mode experiments on Alcator C-Mod [I.H. Hutchinson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 1 (1994) 1511] which exhibit an internal transport barrier (ITB), have been examined with flux tube geometry gyrokinetic simulations, using the massively parallel code GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88 (1995) 128]. The simulations support the picture of ion/electron temperature gradient (ITG/ETG) microturbulence driving high xi/ xe and that suppressed ITG causes reduced particle transport and improved ci on C-Mod. Nonlinear calculations for C-Mod confirm initial linear simulations, which predicted ITG stability in the barrier region just before ITB formation, without invoking E x B shear suppression of turbulence. Nonlinear fluxes are compared to experiment, which both show low heat transport in the ITB and higher transport within and outside of the barrier region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.
1990-12-01
Ion temperature gradient turbulence based transport models have difficulties reconciling the recent DIII-D H-mode results where the density profile is flat, but χ e > χ i in the core region. In this work, a nonlinear theory is developed for recently discovered ion temperature gradient trapped electron modes propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction. This instability is predicted to be linearly unstable for L Ti /R approx-lt κ θ ρ s approx-lt (L Ti /R) 1/4 . They are also found to be strongly dispersive even at these long wavelengths, thereby suggesting the importance of the wave-particle-wave interactions in the nonlinear saturation phase. The fluctuation spectrum and anomalous fluxes are calculated. In accordance with the trends observed in DIII-D, the predicted electron thermal diffusivity can be larger than the ion thermal diffusivity. 17 refs., 3 figs
Comparison of collision operators for drift and MHD-interchange modes in unsheared slab geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.; Hastie, R.J.
1986-02-01
The general procedure for the kinetic analysis of low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic modes in toroidal geometry is now well known. In the collisionless limit, the relevant dynamics (e.g., trapped particles, resonances, etc.) can be treated appropriately. However, with the introduction of collisional effects, it is customary, for tractability, to employ model collision operators which do not rigorously satisfy all conservation properties of more exact collision operators. Insight into the essential required features of such operators can be gained by studying models with increasing levels of completeness for a simpler, unsheared slab geometry. The results presented here for this simpler geometry can provide guidance in choosing model collision operators for toroidal-geometry kinetic calculations. 6 refs., 3 figs
H-Mode Turbulence, Power Threshold, ELM, and Pedestal Studies in NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maingi, R.; Bush, C.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Menard, J.E.; Meyer, H.; Mueller, D.; Nishino, N.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Tritz, K.; Zweben, S.J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Biewer, T.; Boedo, J.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; Maqueda, R.J.; Munsat, T.; Raman, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.
2004-01-01
High-confinement mode (H-mode) operation plays a crucial role in NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] research, allowing higher beta limits due to reduced plasma pressure peaking, and long-pulse operation due to high bootstrap current fraction. Here, new results are presented in the areas of edge localized modes (ELMs), H-mode pedestal physics, L-H turbulence, and power threshold studies. ELMs of several other types (as observed in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks) are often observed: (1) large, Type I ELMs, (2) ''medium'' Type II/III ELMs, and (3) giant ELMs which can reduce stored energy by up to 30% in certain conditions. In addition, many high-performance discharges in NSTX have tiny ELMs (newly termed Type V), which have some differences as compared with ELM types in the published literature. The H-mode pedestal typically contains between 25-33% of the total stored energy, and the NSTX pedestal energy agrees reasonably well with a recent international multi-machine scaling. We find that the L-H transition occurs on a ∼100 (micro)sec timescale as viewed by a gas puff imaging diagnostic, and that intermittent quiescent periods precede the final transition. A power threshold identity experiment between NSTX and MAST shows comparable loss power at the L-H transition in balanced double-null discharges. Both machines require more power for the L-H transition as the balance is shifted toward lower single null. High field side gas fueling enables more reliable H-mode access, but does not always lead to a lower power threshold e.g., with a reduction of the duration of early heating. Finally the edge plasma parameters just before the L-H transition were compared with theories of the transition. It was found that while some theories can separate well-developed L- and H-mode data, they have little predictive value
Self-sustained turbulence and L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.
1993-04-01
Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The quantitative effect of the anomalous transport, which is caused by microscopic fluctuations, on the pressure-gradient- driven modes is analyzed. The ExB nonlinearity is renormalized in a form of the transport coefficient such as the thermal diffusivity, the ion viscosity and the current diffusivity. The destabilization by the current-diffusivity and the stabilization by the thermal transport and ion viscosity are analyzed. By use of the mean-field approximations, the nonlinear dispersion relation is solved. Growth rate and stability condition are expressed in terms of the renormalized transport coefficients. The transport coefficients in the steady state are obtained by the marginal stability condition for the least stable mode. This method is applied to the microscopic ballooning mode for the toroidal plasma with the magnetic well (such as tokamak). The comparison with experimental observations are made. A good agreement is found in a various aspects of the L-mode plasmas; The typical wavenumber and level of the fluctuations for the self-sustained turbulence is also obtained. The analysis is also made for the plasma with magnetic hill and shear (such as torsatron/Heliotron devices). This method is applied to the interchange modes. Formula of the anomalous transport is obtained. Also investigated is the case of the magnetic well and low magnetic shear (conventional stellarator). The roles of the pressure gradient and the collisionless skin depth in determining the anomalous transport are found to be generic in toroidal plasmas. The difference in the magnetic configuration affects the transport coefficient. These formula explain major experimental observations. (J.P.N.)
Inertial modes and their transition to turbulence in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow
Hoff, Michael; Harlander, Uwe; Andrés Triana, Santiago; Egbers, Christoph
2016-04-01
dominant mode (l,m,ˆω) = (3,2,˜ 0.71) is increasing with increasing |Ro| until a critical Rossby number Rocrit. Accompanying with this is an increase of the zonal mean flow outside the tangent cylinder, leading to enhanced angular momentum transport. At the particular Rocrit, the wave mode, and the entire flow, breaks up into smaller-scale turbulence [6], together with a strong increase of the zonal mean flow inside the tangent cylinder. We found that the critical Rossby number scales approximately with E1/5. References [1] Aldridge, K. D.; Lumb, L. I. (1987): Inertial waves identified in the Earth's fluid outer core. Nature 325 (6103), S. 421-423. DOI: 10.1038/325421a0. [2] Greenspan, H. P. (1968): The theory of rotating fluids. London: Cambridge U.P. (Cambridge monographs on mechanics and applied mathematics). [3] Kelley, D. H.; Triana, S. A.; Zimmerman, D. S.; Lathrop, D. P. (2010): Selection of inertial modes in spherical Couette flow. Phys. Rev. E 81 (2), 26311. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.026311. [4] Rieutord, M.; Triana, S. A.; Zimmerman, D. S.; Lathrop, D. P. (2012): Excitation of inertial modes in an experimental spherical Couette flow. Phys. Rev. E 86 (2), 026304. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.026304. [5] Hoff, M., Harlander, U., Egbers, C. (2016): Experimental survey of linear and nonlinear inertial waves and wave instabilities in a spherical shell. J. Fluid Mech., (in print) [6] Kerswell, R. R. (1999): Secondary instabilities in rapidly rotating fluids: inertial wave breakdown. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 382, S. 283-306. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112098003954.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohlsson, D.
1977-11-01
Gas blanket systems are of interest for mainly two reasons. First, plasma wall interaction effects are expected to be considerably reduced due to the presence of the surrounding neutral gas. Consequently the impurity radiation due to impurities originating from plasma wall interaction processes is probably eliminated to a large extent. Second, the fueling of a future thermonuclear reactor can take place in a natural way in gas blanket systems in the sense that neutrals can diffuse inwards at a suitable rate to replace burnt fuel under certain conditions. In this analysis we consider certain stability aspects of plasmas surrounded by neutral gas. In particular we consider the stability of localized collisional drift modes, in the cool partially ionized boundary regions. In these regions large pressure gradients are expected due to plasma neutral gas interaction effects. It is concluded that stability is possible within certain parameter ranges due to the presence of several stabilizing effects associated with finite Larmor radius and viscosity effects and coupling between dissipative effects directly or indirectly connected with plasma neutral gas interaction processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkin, E. R.; Bicknell, G. V.
2013-01-01
Global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when nonlinear motions—perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence—upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with previous works. In particular, the globally averaged stress normalized to the gas pressure P >bar = 0.034, with notably higher values achieved for simulations with higher azimuthal resolution. Supplementary tests are performed using different numerical algorithms and resolutions. Convergence with resolution during the initial linear MRI growth phase is found for 23-35 cells per scale height (in the vertical direction).
Nonlinear Simulations of Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence in Low Magnetic Shear Stellarators
Faber, B. J.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hegna, C. C.
2017-10-01
Optimized stellarators, like the Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX), often operate with small global magnetic shear to avoid low-order rational surfaces and magnetic islands. Nonlinear, flux-tube gyrokinetic simulations of density-gradient-driven Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) turbulence in HSX shows two distinct spectral fluctuation regions: long-wavelength slab-like TEMs localized by global magnetic shear that extend along field lines and short-wavelength TEMs localized by local magnetic shear to a single helical bad curvature region. The slab-like TEMs require computational domains significantly larger than one poloidal turn and are computationally expensive, making turbulent optimization studies challenging. A computationally more efficient, zero-average-magnetic-shear approximation is shown to sufficiently describe the relevant nonlinear physics and replicate finite-shear computations, and can be exploited in quasilinear models based on linear gyrokinetics as a feasible optimization tool. TEM quasilinear heat fluxes are computed with the zero-shear approximation and compared to experimentally-relevant nonlinear gyrokinetic TEM heat fluxes for HSX. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-FG02-93ER54222 and DE-FG02-89ER53291.
On the effective turbulence driving mode of molecular clouds formed in disc galaxies
Jin, Keitaro; Salim, Diane M.; Federrath, Christoph; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Habe, Asao; Kainulainen, Jouni T.
2017-07-01
We determine the physical properties and turbulence driving mode of molecular clouds formed in numerical simulations of a Milky Way-type disc galaxy with parsec-scale resolution. The clouds form through gravitational fragmentation of the gas, leading to average values for mass, radii and velocity dispersion in good agreement with observations of Milky Way clouds. The driving parameter (b) for the turbulence within each cloud is characterized by the ratio of the density contrast (σ _{ρ /ρ _0}) to the average Mach number (M) within the cloud, b=σ _{ρ /ρ _0}/M. As shown in previous works, b ˜ 1/3 indicates solenoidal (divergence-free) driving and b ˜ 1 indicates compressive (curl-free) driving. We find that the average b value of all the clouds formed in the simulations has a lower limit of b > 0.2. Importantly, we find that b has a broad distribution, covering values from purely solenoidal to purely compressive driving. Tracking the evolution of individual clouds reveals that the b value for each cloud does not vary significantly over their lifetime. Finally, we perform a resolution study with minimum cell sizes of 8, 4, 2 and 1 pc and find that the average b value increases with increasing resolution. Therefore, we conclude that our measured b values are strictly lower limits and that a resolution better than 1 pc is required for convergence. However, regardless of the resolution, we find that b varies by factors of a few in all cases, which means that the effective driving mode alters significantly from cloud to cloud.
Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A.H.
2009-01-01
Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, G. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: wangg@fusion.gat.com; Peebles, W.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Doyle, E.J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rhodes, T.L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zeng, L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Nguyen, X. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Snyder, P.B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kramer, G.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Groebner, R.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Burrell, K.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Strait, E.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)
2007-06-15
High-resolution quadrature reflectometer measurements of density fluctuation levels have been obtained on DIII-D for H-mode edge pedestal studies. Initial results are presented from the L-H transition to the first ELM for two cases: (i) a low pedestal beta discharge, in which density turbulence in the pedestal has little change during the ELM-free phase, and (ii) a high pedestal beta discharge in which both density and magnetic turbulence are observed to increase before the first ELM. These high beta data are consistent with the existence of electromagnetic turbulence suggested by some transport models. During Type-I ELM cycles, when little magnetic turbulence can be observed, pedestal turbulence increases just after an ELM crash and then decreases before next ELM strikes, in contrast to a drop after ELM crash and then it re-grows when strong magnetic turbulence shows similar behavior. Clear ELM precursors are observed on {<=}20% of Type-I ELMs observed to date.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiengarten, T.; Fichtner, H.; Kleimann, J.; Scherer, K. [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany); Oughton, S. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Engelbrecht, N. E. [Center for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)
2016-12-10
We extend a two-component model for the evolution of fluctuations in the solar wind plasma so that it is fully three-dimensional (3D) and also coupled self-consistently to the large-scale magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the background solar wind. The two classes of fluctuations considered are a high-frequency parallel-propagating wave-like piece and a low-frequency quasi-two-dimensional component. For both components, the nonlinear dynamics is dominanted by quasi-perpendicular spectral cascades of energy. Driving of the fluctuations by, for example, velocity shear and pickup ions is included. Numerical solutions to the new model are obtained using the Cronos framework, and validated against previous simpler models. Comparing results from the new model with spacecraft measurements, we find improved agreement relative to earlier models that employ prescribed background solar wind fields. Finally, the new results for the wave-like and quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations are used to calculate ab initio diffusion mean-free paths and drift lengthscales for the transport of cosmic rays in the turbulent solar wind.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiengarten, T.; Fichtner, H.; Kleimann, J.; Scherer, K.; Oughton, S.; Engelbrecht, N. E.
2016-01-01
We extend a two-component model for the evolution of fluctuations in the solar wind plasma so that it is fully three-dimensional (3D) and also coupled self-consistently to the large-scale magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the background solar wind. The two classes of fluctuations considered are a high-frequency parallel-propagating wave-like piece and a low-frequency quasi-two-dimensional component. For both components, the nonlinear dynamics is dominanted by quasi-perpendicular spectral cascades of energy. Driving of the fluctuations by, for example, velocity shear and pickup ions is included. Numerical solutions to the new model are obtained using the Cronos framework, and validated against previous simpler models. Comparing results from the new model with spacecraft measurements, we find improved agreement relative to earlier models that employ prescribed background solar wind fields. Finally, the new results for the wave-like and quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations are used to calculate ab initio diffusion mean-free paths and drift lengthscales for the transport of cosmic rays in the turbulent solar wind.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Çelikel, Oğuz; Sametoğlu, Ferhat
2012-01-01
In this study, a novel interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG), which has a different depolarizer structure, is designed in TUBITAK UME (National Metrology Institute of Turkey) to experimentally and relatively evaluate the effect of the degree of polarization on the Faraday effect-based drift of the light waves injected into both arms of a Sagnac interferometer. In order to observe whether or not any change occurs in the Faraday-based drift, depending on the variations in degree of polarization (DOP), a triple structure-depolarizer IFOG possessing adjustable DOP is firstly designed and prototyped. The minimum DOP achieved with triple structure-depolarizers is typically 0.15% for both clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) light waves at both arms of the Sagnac interferometer. The experimental evaluations about the drift are given for DOP changes extending from 78.00% to 0.15% together with two main and different theoretical approaches in the literature. According to the experimental evaluations given herein, it is experimentally proved that the Faraday-based drift does not change depending on DOP values of both CW and CCW light waves injected into the single-mode (SM) sensing coil and it is impossible to state a concept of a depolarized IFOG by considering the polarization state at the entrance arms of the SM sensing coil. (paper)
Rectangular drift tube characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.
1985-01-01
Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode
Turbulent transport stabilization by ICRH minority fast ions in low rotating JET ILW L-mode plasmas
Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Di Siena, A.; Delabie, E.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T.; Lerche, E.; Menmuir, S.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET
2018-05-01
The first experimental demonstration that fast ion induced stabilization of thermal turbulent transport takes place also at low values of plasma toroidal rotation has been obtained in JET ILW (ITER-like wall) L-mode plasmas with high (3He)-D ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) power. A reduction of the gyro-Bohm normalized ion heat flux and higher values of the normalized ion temperature gradient have been observed at high ICRH power and low NBI (neutral beam injection) power and plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic simulations indicate that ITG (ion temperature gradient) turbulence stabilization induced by the presence of high-energetic 3He ions is the key mechanism in order to explain the experimental observations. Two main mechanisms have been identified to be responsible for the turbulence stabilization: a linear electrostatic wave-fast particle resonance mechanism and a nonlinear electromagnetic mechanism. The dependence of the stabilization on the 3He distribution function has also been studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, T.L.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Sydora, R.D.; Groebner, R.J.; Doyle, E.J.; McKee, G.R.; Peebles, W.A.; Rettig, C.L.; Zeng, L.; Wang, G.
2002-01-01
Measured turbulence characteristics (correlation lengths, spectra, etc.) in low-confinement (L-mode) and high-performance plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak [Luxon et al., Proceedings Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] show many similarities with the characteristics determined from turbulence simulations. Radial correlation lengths Δr of density fluctuations from L-mode discharges are found to be numerically similar to the ion poloidal gyroradius ρ θ,s , or 5-10 times the ion gyroradius ρ s over the radial region 0.2 θ,s or 5-10 times ρ s , an experiment was performed which modified ρ θs while keeping other plasma parameters approximately fixed. It was found that the experimental Δr did not scale as ρ θ,s , which was similar to low-resolution UCAN simulations. Finally, both experimental measurements and gyrokinetic simulations indicate a significant reduction in the radial correlation length from high-performance quiescent double barrier discharges, as compared to normal L-mode, consistent with reduced transport in these high-performance plasmas
Isliker, H.; Pisokas, Th.; Strintzi, D.; Vlahos, L.
2010-08-01
A new self-organized criticality (SOC) model is introduced in the form of a cellular automaton (CA) for ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode driven turbulence in fusion plasmas. Main characteristics of the model are that it is constructed in terms of the actual physical variable, the ion temperature, and that the temporal evolution of the CA, which necessarily is in the form of rules, mimics actual physical processes as they are considered to be active in the system, i.e., a heating process and a local diffusive process that sets on if a threshold in the normalized ITG R /LT is exceeded. The model reaches the SOC state and yields ion temperature profiles of exponential shape, which exhibit very high stiffness, in that they basically are independent of the loading pattern applied. This implies that there is anomalous heat transport present in the system, despite the fact that diffusion at the local level is imposed to be of a normal kind. The distributions of the heat fluxes in the system and of the heat out-fluxes are of power-law shape. The basic properties of the model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results.
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.
2014-10-01
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.
2014-01-01
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2014-10-15
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isliker, H.; Pisokas, Th.; Vlahos, L.; Strintzi, D.
2010-01-01
A new self-organized criticality (SOC) model is introduced in the form of a cellular automaton (CA) for ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode driven turbulence in fusion plasmas. Main characteristics of the model are that it is constructed in terms of the actual physical variable, the ion temperature, and that the temporal evolution of the CA, which necessarily is in the form of rules, mimics actual physical processes as they are considered to be active in the system, i.e., a heating process and a local diffusive process that sets on if a threshold in the normalized ITG R/L T is exceeded. The model reaches the SOC state and yields ion temperature profiles of exponential shape, which exhibit very high stiffness, in that they basically are independent of the loading pattern applied. This implies that there is anomalous heat transport present in the system, despite the fact that diffusion at the local level is imposed to be of a normal kind. The distributions of the heat fluxes in the system and of the heat out-fluxes are of power-law shape. The basic properties of the model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Ware, A.S.; Newman, D.E.
1994-01-01
A nonlinear frequency shift in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence is shown to give rise to a relaxation oscillation in the saturated power density spectrum. A simple non-Markovian closure for the coupled evolution of ion momentum and electron density response is developed to describe the oscillations. From solutions of a nonlinear oscillator model based on the closure, it is found that the oscillation is driven by the growth rate, as modified by the amplitude-dependent frequency shift, with inertia provided by the memory of the growth rate of prior amplitudes. This memory arises from time-history integrals common to statistical closures. The memory associated with a finite time of energy transfer between coupled spectrum components does not sustain the oscillation in the simple model. Solutions of the model agree qualitatively with the time-dependent numerical solutions of the original dissipative trapped electron model, yielding oscillations with the proper phase relationship between the fluctuation energy and the frequency shift, the proper evolution of the wave number spectrum shape and particle flux, and a realistic period
Analytic moment method calculations of the drift wave spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thayer, D.R.; Molvig, K.
1985-11-01
A derivation and approximate solution of renormalized mode coupling equations describing the turbulent drift wave spectrum is presented. Arguments are given which indicate that a weak turbulence formulation of the spectrum equations fails for a system with negative dissipation. The inadequacy of the weak turbulence theory is circumvented by utilizing a renormalized formation. An analytic moment method is developed to approximate the solution of the nonlinear spectrum integral equations. The solution method employs trial functions to reduce the integral equations to algebraic equations in basic parameters describing the spectrum. An approximate solution of the spectrum equations is first obtained for a mode dissipation with known solution, and second for an electron dissipation in the NSA
Heuristic drift-based model of the power scrape-off width in low-gas-puff H-mode tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldston, R.J.
2012-01-01
A heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in low-gas-puff tokamak H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the scrape-off layer (SOL) are balanced against near-sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall particle flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch–Schlüter flows to include order-unity sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of ∼2aρ p /R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, derived above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer–Härm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in a heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in reasonable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.
CTF Void Drift Validation Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
2015-10-26
This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H.; Casper, T.S.
1996-08-01
The confinement and the stability properties of the DIII-D tokamak high performance discharges are evaluated in terms of rotational and magnetic shear with emphasis on the recent experimental results obtained from the negative central magnetic shear (NCS) experiments. In NCS discharges, a core transport barrier is often observed to form inside the NCS region accompanied by a reduction in core fluctuation amplitudes. Increasing negative magnetic shear contributes to the formation of this core transport barrier, but by itself is not sufficient to fully stabilize the toroidal drift mode (trapped- electron-η i mode) to explain this formation. Comparison of the Doppler shift shear rate to the growth rate of the η i mode suggests that the large core E x B flow shear can stabilize this mode and broaden the region of reduced core transport . Ideal and resistive stability analysis indicates the performance of NCS discharges with strongly peaked pressure profiles is limited by the resistive interchange mode to low Β N < 2.3. This mode is insensitive to the details of the rotational and the magnetic shear profiles. A new class of discharges which has a broad region of weak or slightly negative magnetic shear (WNS) is described. The WNS discharges have broader pressure profiles and higher values than the NCS discharges together with high confinement and high fusion reactivity
Encoding information using Laguerre Gaussian modes over free space turbulence media
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Trichili, A
2016-07-01
Full Text Available of the atmospheric turbulence on the proposed communication system. We believe that the proposed technique is promising for high-bit-rate spatial division multiplexing in optical fiber and free space communication systems....
Tokamak turbulence in self-regulated differentially rotating flow and L-H transition dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Carreras, B.A.; Sidikman, K.
1992-01-01
An analytical study of turbulence in the presence of turbulently generated differentially rotating flow is presented as a paradigm for fluctuation dynamics in L- and H-mode plasmas. Using a drift wave model, the role of both flow shear and flow curvature (second radial derivative of the poloidal ExB flow) is detailed in linear and saturated turbulence phases. In the strong turbulence saturated state, finite amplitude-induced modification of the fluctuation structure near low order rational surfaces strongly inhibits flow shear suppression. Suppression by curvature is not diminished, but it occurs through a frequency shift. A description of L-H mode transition dynamics based on the self-consistent linking of turbulence suppression by differentially rotating flow and generation of flow by turbulent momentum transport is presented. In this model, rising edge temperature triggers a transition characterized by spontaneous generation of differentially rotating flow and decreasing turbulence intensity
Wang, Wenkang; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jinjun
2018-01-01
The identification and separation of multi-scale coherent structures is a critical task for the study of scale interaction in wall-bounded turbulence. Here, we propose a quasi-bivariate variational mode decomposition (QB-VMD) method to extract structures with various scales from instantaneous two-dimensional (2D) velocity field which has only one primary dimension. This method is developed from the one-dimensional VMD algorithm proposed by Dragomiretskiy and Zosso (IEEE Trans Signal Process 62:531-544, 2014) to cope with a quasi-2D scenario. It poses the feature of length-scale bandwidth constraint along the decomposed dimension, together with the central frequency re-balancing along the non-decomposed dimension. The feasibility of this method is tested on both a synthetic flow field and a turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number (Re_{τ } = 3458) measured by 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). Some other popular scale separation tools, including pseudo-bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (PB-EMD), bi-dimensional EMD (B-EMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), are also tested for comparison. Among all these methods, QB-VMD shows advantages in both scale characterization and energy recovery. More importantly, the mode mixing problem, which degrades the performance of EMD-based methods, is avoided or minimized in QB-VMD. Finally, QB-VMD analysis of the wall-parallel plane in the log layer (at y/δ = 0.12) of the studied turbulent boundary layer shows the coexistence of large- or very large-scale motions (LSMs or VLSMs) and inner-scaled structures, which can be fully decomposed in both physical and spectral domains.
Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Porter, G.D.; Rognlien, T.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.
2001-01-01
Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the ExB drift speed, ion diamagnetism and nite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)
Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Por, G.D. ter; Rognlien, T.D.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.
1999-01-01
Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the E x B drift speed, ion diamagnetism and finite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleva, R.G.
1980-01-01
The first part of this work is concerned with test particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field. In the absence of collisions, the test particle self-diffusion coefficient is given by D = D/sub m/ V (in the zero gyroradius limit), where D/sub m/ is the magnetic diffusion coefficient due to a given spectrum of magnetic fluctuations and V is the particle velocity along a field line. The effect of collisions, either classical or turbulent, on this result is considered. The second part of this work is concerned with the evolution of the collisionless tearing mode in the presence of a stochastic magnetic field. A statistical closure approximation, obtained from the DIA by neglecting a mode-coupling term, is used to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation. For L 0 < L/sub K/ the dominant nonlinear effect is shown to be a turbulent broadening of the perturbed current layer. Saturation occurs when the perturbed current layer broadens to the point where Δ' = 0, where Δ' is the jump in the logarithmic derivative of the vector potential across the perturbed current layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzdar, P.N.; Drake, J.F.
1993-01-01
The generation of shear flow by resistive ballooning modes and resistive interchange modes is compared and contrasted using a 3-D fluid code. The resistive ballooning modes give rise to poloidally asymmetric transport and hence drive poloidal rotation due to the Reynold's Stress as well as the anomalous Stringer/Winsor mechanism. On the other hand the resistive interchange mode can drive shear flow only through the Reynold's Stress. The studies show that if the self-consistent sheared flow is suppressed, the resistive ballooning modes give rise to a larger anomalous transport than produced by the resistive interchange modes. Furthermore the shear flow generated by the resistive ballooning modes is larger than that driven by the resistive interchange modes due to the combined effect of the dual mechanisms stated earlier. As a consequence strong suppression of the fluctuations as well as reduction of the transport occurs for resistive ballooning modes. On the other hand, for the resistive interchange modes the level of fluctuation as well as the anomalous transport is not reduced by the self consistent shear flow generated by the Reynold's Stress. This latter result is in agreement with some earlier 3-D simulation of resistive interchange modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Rettig, C.L.
1993-01-01
VH-mode plasma exhibit energy confinement times up to 2.4 times the DIII-D/JET H-mode scaling relation and up to 3.9 times the value given by ITER89-P L-mode scaling. If this confinement improvement can be exploited in reactor plasmas, smaller prototype reactors with significantly lower unit cost can be produced. Accordingly, understanding and optimizing the confinement improvement is of significant interest. One of the possible explanations for this bulk confinement improvement is stabilization of turbulence by shear in the radial electric field, similar to the present explanation for the confinement improvement at the extreme plasma edge at the L to H transition. Preliminary measurements have shown that the region of the plasma where the electric field gradient is steepest broadens when the plasma goes from H-mode to VH-mode. More recent measurements have confirmed this broadening and have shown that the change in the electric field gradient occurs prior to the change in the thermal transport. In addition, transport analysis shows that the electric field shear increases in the same region between magnetic flux coordinate p=0.6 and 0.9 where the local thermal transport decreases. Furthermore, far infra-red (FIR) scattering measurements have detected density fluctuations in the region around p=0.8 which could be responsible for enhanced transport and which disappear at the time that the electric shear increases. These fluctuations appear as bursts of density fluctuations in the 0.5 to 1.5 MHz range. The time between bursts increases as the electric field shear increases. Once these bursts disappear, the major change in confinement takes place in most discharges. When isolated bursts occur, the heat and angular momentum pulse connected with the burst are detectable on the plasma profile diagnostics. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs
Turbulent regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosetto, A.
2014-01-01
The tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) is the plasma region characterized by open field lines that start and end on the vessel walls. The plasma dynamics in the SOL plays a crucial role in determining the overall performance of a tokamak, since it controls the plasma-wall interactions, being responsible of exhausting the tokamak power, it regulates the overall plasma confinement, and it governs the plasma refueling and the removal of fusion ashes. Scrape-off layer physics is intrinsically non-linear and characterized by phenomena that occur on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Free energy sources drive a number of unstable modes that develop into turbulence and lead to transport of particles and heat across the magnetic field lines. Depending on the driving instability, different SOL turbulent regimes can be identified. As the SOL turbulent regimes determine the plasma confinement properties and the SOL width (and, consequently, the power flux on the vessel wall, for example), it is of crucial importance to understand which turbulent regimes are active in the SOL, under which conditions they develop, and which are the main properties of the associated turbulent transport. In the present thesis we define the SOL turbulent regimes, and we provide a framework to identify them, given the operational SOL parameters. Our study is based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations and it is focused on a limited tokamak SOL configuration. We first describe the main SOL linear instabilities, such as the inertial and resistive branches of the drift waves, the resistive, inertial and ideal branches of the ballooning modes, and the ion temperature gradient mode. Then, we find the SOL turbulent regimes depending on the instability driving turbulent transport, assuming that turbulence saturates when the radial gradient associated to the pressure fluctuations is comparable to the equilibrium one. Our methodology for the turbulent regime identification is supported by the analysis
Turbulence at the transition to the high density H-mode in Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Baumel, S.
2003-01-01
Recently a new improved confinement regime was found in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator (Renner H. et al 1989 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 31 1579). The discovery of this high density high confinement mode (HDH-mode) was facilitated by the installation of divertor modules. In this paper,...
A nondissipative simulation method for the drift kinetic equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko; Sugama, Hideo; Sato, Tetsuya
2001-07-01
With the aim to study the ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence, a nondissipative kinetic simulation scheme is developed and comprehensively benchmarked. The new simulation method preserving the time-reversibility of basic kinetic equations can successfully reproduce the analytical solutions of asymmetric three-mode ITG equations which are extended to provide a more general reference for benchmarking than the previous work [T.-H. Watanabe, H. Sugama, and T. Sato: Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000) 984]. It is also applied to a dissipative three-mode system, and shows a good agreement with the analytical solution. The nondissipative simulation result of the ITG turbulence accurately satisfies the entropy balance equation. Usefulness of the nondissipative method for the drift kinetic simulations is confirmed in comparisons with other dissipative schemes. (author)
Simulations of edge and scrape off layer turbulence in mega ampere spherical tokamak plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Militello, F; Fundamenski, W; Naulin, Volker
2012-01-01
The L-mode interchange turbulence in the edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) of the tight aspect ratio tokamak MAST is investigated numerically. The dynamics of the boundary plasma are studied using the 2D drift-fluid code ESEL, which has previously shown good agreement with large aspect ratio machin...
Sung, C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Staebler, G. M.; Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; Smith, S. P.; Osborne, T. H.; Peebles, W. A.
2018-05-01
For the first time, we report increased edge electron temperature and density turbulence levels ( T˜ e and n˜ e) in Edge Localized Mode free Quiescent H-mode (ELM-free QH-mode) plasmas as compared to the ELMing time period. ELMs can severely damage plasma facing components in fusion plasma devices due to their large transient energy transport, making ELM-free operation a highly sought after goal. The QH-mode is a candidate for this goal as it is ELM-free for times limited only by hardware constraints. It is found that the driving gradients decrease during the QH-mode compared to the ELMing phase, however, a significant decrease in the ExB shearing rate is also observed that taken together is consistent with the increased turbulence. These results are significant as the prediction and control of ELM-free H-mode regimes are crucial for the operation of future fusion devices such as ITER. The changes in the linear growth rates calculated by CGYRO [Candy et al., J. Comput. Phys. 324, 73 (2016)] and the measured ExB shearing rate between ELMing and QH-mode phases are qualitatively consistent with these turbulence changes. Comparison with ELMing and 3D fields ELM suppressed H-mode finds a similar increase in T˜ e and n˜ e, however, with distinctly different origins, the increased driving gradients rather than the changes in the ExB shearing rate in 3D fields ELM suppressed the H-mode. However, linear gyrokinetic calculation results are generally consistent with the increased turbulence in both ELM-controlled discharges.
Profiles of zonal flows and turbulence mode numbers and probe system in the HL-2A tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong Wenyu; Zhao Kaijun; Yan Longwen; Dong Jiaqi; Cheng Jun; Qian Jun
2009-01-01
The toroidal and poloidal symmetries (m-0, n-0) of the measured low frequency zonal flows (f=0-5 kHz) and geodesic acoustic mode zonal flow (f=16 kHz) electric potential and radial promulgate features were unambiguously identified with displaced Langmuir probe arrays in the edge plasma of the HL-2A tokamak for the first time. The finite radial wave vector (K r-LF =0.6 cm -1 , K r-GAM =2 cm -1 ) of the flows was simultaneously estimated. The formation mechanism of the flows is identified to be nonlinear three wave coupling between high frequency turbulent fluctuations and the flows. Changes of zonal flow amplitude bring by ECRH power and the boundary safety factors were simply studied. Moreover, change of zonal flow amplitude in radial direction was too observed. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ware, A.S.; Diamond, P.H.
1993-01-01
The effects of a poloidally asymmetric ionization source on both dissipative toroidal drift wave stability and the generation of mean sheared parallel flow are examined. The first part of this work extends the development of a local model of ionization-driven drift wave turbulence [Phys. Fluids B 4, 877 (1992)] to include the effects of magnetic shear and poloidal source asymmetry, as well as poloidal mode coupling due to both magnetic drifts and the source asymmetry. Numerical and analytic investigation confirm that ionization effects can destabilize collisional toroidal drift waves. However, the mode structure is determined primarily by the magnetic drifts, and is not overly effected by the poloidal source asymmetry. The ionization source drives a purely inward particle flux, which can explain the anomalously rapid uptake of particles which occurs in response to gas puffing. In the second part of this work, the role poloidal asymmetries in both the source and turbulent particle diffusion play in the generation of sheared mean parallel flow is examined. Analysis indicates that predictions of sonic parallel shear flow [v parallel (r)∼c s ] are an unphysical result of the assumption of purely parallel flow (i.e., v perpendicular =0) and the neglect of turbulent parallel momentum transport. Results indicate that the flow produced is subcritical to the parallel shear flow instability when diamagnetic effects are properly considered
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Banoo
1998-01-01
equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.
Drift-based Model for Power Scrape-off Width in Low-Gas-Puff H-mode Plasmas: Theory and Implications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldston, R., E-mail: rgoldston@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)
2012-09-15
Full text: A heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in low-gas-puff tokamak H-mode plasmas is introduced. {nabla}B and curvature drifts into the scrape-off layer (SOL) are balanced against near-sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of order the poloidal gyroradius. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, derived above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is then calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Hiarm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in a heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data. The applicability of the Spitzer-Harm model to this regime can be questioned at the lowest densities, where the presence of a sheath can raise the divertor target electron temperature. A more general two-point model including a finite ratio of divertor target to upstream electron temperature shows only a 5% effect on the SOL width with target temperature f{sub T} = 75% of upstream, so this effect is likely negligible in experimentally relevant regimes. To achieve the near-sonic flows measured experimentally, and assumed in this model, sets requirements on the ratio of upstream to total SOL particle sources relative to the square-root of the ratio of target to upstream temperature. As a result very high recycling regimes may allow significantly wider power fluxes. The Pfisch-Schluter model for equilibrium flows has been modified to allow near-sonic flows, appropriate for gradient scale lengths of order the poloidal gyroradius. This results in a new quadrupole flow pattern that amplifies the usual P-S flows at the outer midplane, while reducing them at the inner
Collisional drift fluids and drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.
1995-05-01
The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effect of which is extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter is important as concerns charge separation and resulting electric fields which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial for the stability behaviour; it will be discussed via an example. New collisional multispecies drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields in a transparent way conservation of energy and total angular momentum, and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. Their relation to the ideal equations imply, however, also a relation to the ideal Lagrangian of which one can take advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T ν (x)=const. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theories; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. Linear instability is investigated via energy considerations and the implications of taking ohmic resistivity into account are discussed. (orig./WL)
Low- and high-mode separation of short wavelength turbulence in dithering Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Saffman, M.
2002-01-01
In this article measurements of small scale electron density fluctuations in dithering high confinement (H)-mode plasmas obtained by collective scattering of infrared light are presented. A scan of the fluctuation wavenumber was made in a series of similar discharges in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-A...
van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.
2017-12-01
During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.
Dynamic mode decomposition of turbulent cavity flows for self-sustained oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seena, Abu; Sung, Hyung Jin
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► DMD modes were extracted from two cavity flow data set at Re D = 12,000 and 3000. ► At Re D = 3000, frequencies of boundary layer and shear layer structures coincides. ► Boundary layer structures exceed in size with shear layer structures. ► At Re D = 12,000, structure showed coherence leading to self-sustained oscillations. ► Hydrodynamic resonance occurs if coherence exists in wavenumber and frequency. - Abstract: Self-sustained oscillations in a cavity arise due to the unsteady separation of boundary layers at the leading edge. The dynamic mode decomposition method was employed to analyze the self-sustained oscillations. Two cavity flow data sets, with or without self-sustained oscillations and possessing thin or thick incoming boundary layers (Re D = 12,000 and 3000), were analyzed. The ratios between the cavity depth and the momentum thickness (D/θ) were 40 and 4.5, respectively, and the cavity aspect ratio was L/D = 2. The dynamic modes extracted from the thick boundary layer indicated that the upcoming boundary layer structures and the shear layer structures along the cavity lip line coexisted with coincident frequency space but with different wavenumber space, whereas structures with a thin boundary layer showed complete coherence among the modes to produce self-sustained oscillations. This result suggests that the hydrodynamic resonances that gave rise to the self-sustained oscillations occurred if the upcoming boundary layer structures and the shear layer structures coincided, not only in frequencies, but also in wavenumbers. The influences of the cavity dimensions and incoming momentum thickness on the self-sustained oscillations were examined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Biglari, H.; Gang, F.Y.
1991-01-01
Recent advances in the theory of trapped particle pressure gradient driven turbulence are summarized. A novel theory of trapped ion convective cell turbulence is presented. It is shown that non-linear transfer to small scales occurs, and that saturation levels are not unphysically large, as previously thought. As the virulent saturation mechanism of ion Compton scattering is shown to result in weak turbulence at higher frequencies, it is thus likely that trapped ion convective cells are the major agent of tokamak transport. Fluid like trapped electron modes at short wavelengths (k θ ρ i > 1) are shown to drive an inward particle pinch. The characteristics of convective cell turbulence in flat density discharges are described, as is the stability of dissipative trapped electron modes in stellarators, with flexible magnetic field structure. The role of cross-correlations in the dynamics of multifield models of drift wave turbulence is discussed. (author). 32 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab
Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchida, M.; Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.
1999-12-01
The effect of finite gyroradius on the current diffusive ballooning mode is examined. Starting from the reduced MHD equations including turbulent transports, coupling with drift motion and finite gyroradius effect of ions, we derive a ballooning mode equation with complex transport coefficients. The eigenfrequency, saturation level and thermal diffusivity are evaluated numerically from the marginal stability condition. Preliminary results of their parameter dependence is presented. (author)
Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.
Michael, C. A.; Tanaka, K.; Akiyama, T.; Ozaki, T.; Osakabe, M.; Sakakibara, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Murakami, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Shoji, M.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; LHD Experimental Group
2018-04-01
In the Large helical device, a change of energetic particle mode is observed as He concentration is varied in ion-ITB type experiments, having constant electron density and input heating power but with a clear increase of central ion temperature in He rich discharges. This activity consists of bursty, but damped energetic interchange modes (EICs, Du et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 155003), whose occurrence rate is dramatically lower in the He-rich discharges. Mechanisms are discussed for the changes in drive and damping of the modes with He concentration. These EIC bursts consist of marked changes in the radial electric field, which is derived from the phase velocity of turbulence measured with the 2D phase contrast imaging (PCI) system. Similar bursts are detected in edge fast ion diagnostics. Ion thermal transport by gyro-Bohm scaling is recognised as a contribution to the change in ion temperature, though fast ion losses by these EIC modes may also contribute to the ion temperature dependence on He concentration, most particularly controlling the height of an ‘edge-pedestal’ in the Ti profile. The steady-state level of fast ions is shown to be larger in helium rich discharges on the basis of a compact neutral particle analyser (CNPA), and the fast-ion component of the diamagnetic stored energy. These events also have an influence on turbulence and transport. The large velocity shear induced produced during these events transiently improves confinement and suppresses turbulence, and has a larger net effect when bursts are more frequent in hydrogen discharges. This exactly offsets the increased gyro-Bohm related turbulence drive in hydrogen which results in the same time-averaged turbulence level in hydrogen as in helium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inagaki, Yosuke
1977-01-01
Drift chamber is becoming an important detector in high energy physics as a precision and fast position detector because of its high spatial resolution and count-rate. The basic principle is that it utilizes the drift at constant speed of electrons ionized along the tracks of charged particles towards the anode wire in the nearly uniform electric field. The method of measuring drift time includes the analog and digital ones. This report describes about the construction of and the application of electric field to the drift chamber, mathematical analysis on the electric field and equipotential curve, derivation of spatial resolution and the factor for its determination, and selection of gas to be used. The performance test of the chamber was carried out using a small test chamber, the collimated β source of Sr-90, and 500 MeV/C electron beam from the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Most chambers to date adopted one dimensional read-out, but it is very advantageous if the two dimensional read-out is feasible with one chamber when the resolution in that direction is low. The typical methods of delay line and charge division for two dimensional read-out are described. The development of digital read-out system is underway, which can process the signal of a large scale drift chamber at high speed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, D.E.
1993-09-01
Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E x B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics
Drift reversal capability in helical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, M.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.
2002-10-01
The maximum-J (J is the second adiabatic invariant) capability, i.e., the drift reversal capability, is examined in quasi-axisymmetric (QAS) stellarators and quasi-poloidally symmetric (QPS) stellarators as a possible mechanism for turbulent transport suppression. Due to the existence of non-axisymmetry of the magnetic field strength in QAS configurations, a local maximum of J is created to cause the drift reversal. The increase of magnetic shear in finite beta equilibria also has favorable effect in realizing the drift reversal. The radial variation of the uniform magnetic field component plays a crucial role for the drift reversal in a QPS configuration. Thus, the drift reversal capability and its external controllability are demonstrated for QAS and QPS stellarators, by which the impact of magnetic configuration on turbulent transport can be studied in experiments. (author)
Drift reversal capability in helical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, M.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Nakajima, N.; Itoh, S.-I.; Neilson, G.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Rewoldt, G.
2003-01-01
The maximum-J (J is the second adiabatic invariant) capability, i.e., the drift reversal capability, is examined in quasi-axisymmetric (QAS) stellarators and quasi-poloidally symmetric (QPS) stellarators as a possible mechanism for turbulent transport suppression. Due to the existence of non-axisymmetry of the magnetic field strength in QAS configurations, a local maximum of J is created to cause the drift reversal. The increase of magnetic shear in finite beta equilibria also has favorable effect in realizing the drift reversal. The radial variation of the uniform magnetic field component plays a crucial role for the drift reversal in a QPS configuration. Thus, the drift reversal capability and its external controllability are demonstrated for QAS and QPS stellarators, by which the impact of magnetic configuration on turbulent transport can be studied in experiments. (author)
Shear flow generation and energetics in electromagnetic turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Kendl, A.; Garcia, O.E.
2005-01-01
acoustic mode (GAM) transfer in drift-Alfvén turbulence is investigated. By means of numerical computations the energy transfer into zonal flows owing to each of these effects is quantified. The importance of the three driving ingredients in electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence for conditions...... relevant to the edge of fusion devices is revealed for a broad range of parameters. The Reynolds stress is found to provide a flow drive, while the electromagnetic Maxwell stress is in the cases considered a sink for the flow energy. In the limit of high plasma β, where electromagnetic effects and Alfvén...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Q. Q., E-mail: yangqq@ipp.ac.cn; Zhong, F. C., E-mail: gsxu@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Jia, M. N. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, G. S., E-mail: gsxu@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Wang, H. Q.; Chen, R.; Yan, N.; Liu, S. C.; Chen, L.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, J. B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2015-06-15
The power fall-off width in the H-mode scrape-off layer (SOL) in tokamaks shows a strong inverse dependence on the plasma current, which was noticed by both previous multi-machine scaling work [T. Eich et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 093031 (2013)] and more recent work [L. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 114002 (2014)] on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. To understand the underlying physics, probe measurements of three H-mode discharges with different plasma currents have been studied in this work. The results suggest that a higher plasma current is accompanied by a stronger E×B shear and a shorter radial correlation length of turbulence in the SOL, thus resulting in a narrower power fall-off width. A simple model has also been applied to demonstrate the suppression effect of E×B shear on turbulence in the SOL and shows relatively good agreement with the experimental observations.
Generalized drift-flux correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.; Hochreiter, L.E.
1991-01-01
A one-dimensional drift-flux model with five conservation equations is frequently employed in major computer codes, such as TRAC-PD2, and in simulator codes. In this method, the relative velocity between liquid and vapor phases, or slip ratio, is given by correlations, rather than by direct solution of the phasic momentum equations, as in the case of the two-fluid model used in TRAC-PF1. The correlations for churn-turbulent bubbly flow and slug flow regimes were given in terms of drift velocities by Zuber and Findlay. For the annular flow regime, the drift velocity correlations were developed by Ishii et al., using interphasic force balances. Another approach is to define the drift velocity so that flooding and liquid hold-up conditions are properly simulated, as reported here. The generalized correlation is used to reanalyze the MB-2 test data for two-phase flow in a large-diameter pipe. The results are applied to the generalized drift flux velocity, whose relationship to the other correlations is discussed. Finally, the generalized drift flux correlation is implemented in TRAC-PD2. Flow reversal from countercurrent to cocurrent flow is computed in small-diameter U-shaped tubes and is compared with the flooding curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, T.L.; Doyle, E.J.; Hillesheim, J.C.; Peebles, W.A.; Schmitz, L.; Holland, C.; Smith, S.P.; Burrell, K.H.; Candy, J.; DeBoo, J.C.; Kinsey, J.E.; Petty, C.C.; Prater, R.; Staebler, G.M.; Waltz, R.E.; White, A.E.; McKee, G.R.; Mikkelsen, D.; Parker, S.; Chen, Y.
2011-01-01
A series of carefully designed experiments on DIII-D have taken advantage of a broad set of turbulence and profile diagnostics to rigorously test gyrokinetic turbulence simulations. In this paper the goals, tools and experiments performed in these validation studies are reviewed and specific examples presented. It is found that predictions of transport and fluctuation levels in the mid-core region (0.4 < ρ < 0.75) are in better agreement with experiment than those in the outer region (ρ ≥ 0.75) where edge coupling effects may become increasingly important and multiscale simulations may also be necessary. Validation studies such as these are crucial in developing confidence in a first-principles based predictive capability for ITER.
Plasma shaping effects on tokamak scrape-off layer turbulence
Riva, Fabio; Lanti, Emmanuel; Jolliet, Sébastien; Ricci, Paolo
2017-03-01
The impact of plasma shaping on tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) turbulence is investigated. The drift-reduced Braginskii equations are written for arbitrary magnetic geometries, and an analytical equilibrium model is used to introduce the dependence of turbulence equations on tokamak inverse aspect ratio (ε ), Shafranov’s shift (Δ), elongation (κ), and triangularity (δ). A linear study of plasma shaping effects on the growth rate of resistive ballooning modes (RBMs) and resistive drift waves (RDWs) reveals that RBMs are strongly stabilized by elongation and negative triangularity, while RDWs are only slightly stabilized in non-circular magnetic geometries. Assuming that the linear instabilities saturate due to nonlinear local flattening of the plasma gradient, the equilibrium gradient pressure length {L}p=-{p}e/{{\
Theoretical studies of turbulence and anomalous transport in toroidal confinement devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.
1993-01-01
The research performed under this grant has focused on key issues with respect to turbulence and transport in toroidal confinement devices. Progress and publications in these areas are summarized in this report. This work includes analytical and numerical studies of spectral energy transfer and the saturation dynamics and transport of dissipative and collisionless trapped electron turbulence, the role of flow curvature in L-H mode transition physics, fully nonlinear calculations of the anomalous particle transport from the ion mixing mode, and the development of a theory for the drift wave frequency spectrum. Novel aspects of this work include an elucidation of the role of nonlinear frequency shifts in producing nonstationary saturated states, an identification of reverse and non-conserved flows in Hasegawa-Mima turbulence, and a description of the way incoherent emission affects the frequency of turbulent fluctuations
Drift wave coherent vortex structures in inhomogeneous plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, X.N.
1992-01-01
Nonlinear drift wave vortex structures in magnetized plasmas are studied theoretically and numerically in the various physical environments. The effects of density and temperature gradients on drift wave vortex dynamics are analyzed using a fully nonlinear model with the Boltzmann density distribution. The equation, based on the full Boltzmann relation, possess no localized monopole solution in the short wavelength (∼ρ s ) region, while in the longer wavelength (∼(ρ s (r) n ) 1/2 ) region the density profile governs the existence of monopole-like solutions. In the longer wavelength regime, however, the monopoles cannot be localized sufficiently to avoid coupling to propagating drift waves due to the inhomogeneity of the plasma. Thus, the monopole vortex is a long lived coherent structure, but it is not precisely a stationary structure since the coupling results in a open-quote flapping close-quote tail. The tail causes energy of the vortex to leak out, but the effect of the temperature gradient is to reduce the leaking of this energy. Nonlinear coherent structures governing by the coupled drift wave-ion acoustic mode equations in sheared magnetic field are studied analytically and numerically. A solitary vortex equation that includes the effects of density and temperature gradients and magnetic shear is derived and analyzed. The results show that for a plasma in a sheared magnetic field, there exist the solitary vortex solutions. The new vortex structures are dipole-like in their symmetry, but not the modon type of dipoles. The numerical simulations are performed in 2-D with the coupled vorticity and parallel mass flow equations. The vortex structures in an unstable drift wave system driven by parallel shear flow are studied. The nonlinear solitary vortex solutions are given and the formation of the vortices from a turbulent state is observed from the numerical simulations
Polar spacecraft observations of the turbulent outer cusp/magnetopause boundary layer of Earth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. S. Pickett
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 RE. The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfvén waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.
Polar Spacecraft Observations of the Turbulent Outer Cusp/Magnetopause Boundary Layer of Earth
Pickett, J. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Dowell, J. H.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scudder, J. D.
1999-01-01
The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 R(sub E). The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfven waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.
Dewhurst, J.; Hnat, B.; Dudson, B.; Dendy, R. O.; Counsell, G. F.; Kirk, A.
2007-12-01
Almost all astrophysical and magnetically confined fusion plasmas are turbulent. Here, we examine ion saturation current (Isat) measurements of edge plasma turbulence for three MAST L-mode plasmas that differ primarily in their edge magnetic field configurations. First, absolute moments of the coarse grained data are examined to obtain accurate values of scaling exponents. The dual scaling behaviour is identified in all samples, with the temporal scale τ ≍ 40-60 μs separating the two regimes. Strong universality is then identified in the functional form of the probability density function (PDF) for Isat fluctuations, which is well approximated by the Fréchet distribution on temporal scales τ ≤ 40μs. For temporal scales τ > 40μs, the PDFs appear to converge to the Gumbel distribution, which has been previously identified as a universal feature of many other complex phenomena. The optimal fitting parameters k=1.15 for Fréchet and a=1.35 for Gumbel provide a simple quantitative characterisation of the full spectrum of fluctuations. We conclude that, to good approximation, the properties of the edge turbulence are independent of the edge magnetic field configuration.
Experimental studies of edge turbulence and confinement in Alcator C-Moda)
Cziegler, I.; Terry, J. L.; Hughes, J. W.; LaBombard, B.
2010-05-01
The steep gradient edge region and scrape-off-layer (SOL) on the low-field-side of Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson, R. Boivin, F. Bombarda et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] tokamak plasmas are studied using gas-puff-imaging diagnostics. In L-mode plasmas, the region extending ˜2 cm inside the magnetic separatrix has fluctuations showing a broad, turbulent spectrum, propagating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction, whereas features in the open field line region propagate in the ion diamagnetic drift direction. This structure is robust against toroidal field strength, poloidal null-point geometry, plasma current, and plasma density. Global parameter dependence of spectral and spatial structure of the turbulence inside the separatrix is explored and characterized, and both the intensity and spectral distributions are found to depend strongly on the plasma density normalized to the tokamak density limit. In H-mode discharges the fluctuations at and inside the magnetic separatrix show fundamentally different trends compared to L-mode, with the electron diamagnetic direction propagating turbulence greatly reduced in ELM-free [F. Wagner et al., Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, Vienna, 1982), Vol. I, p. 277], and completely dominated by the modelike structure of the quasicoherent mode in enhanced D-alpha regimes [A. E. Hubbard, R. L. Boivin, R. S. Granetz et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2033 (2001)], while the normalized SOL turbulence is largely unaffected.
Nonlinear damping of drift waves by strong flow curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidikman, K.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.
1993-01-01
A single-equation model has been used to study the effect of a fixed poloidal flow (V 0 ) on turbulent drift waves. The electron dynamics come from a laminar kinetic equation in the dissipative trapped-electron regime. In the past, the authors have assumed that the mode frequency is close to the drift-wave frequency. Trapped-electron density fluctuations are then related to potential fluctuations by an open-quotes iδclose quotes term. Flow shear (V 0 ') and curvature (V 0 double-prime) both have a stabilizing effect on linear modes for this open-quotes iδclose quotes model. However, in the nonlinear regime, single-helicity effects inhibit the flow damping. Neither V 0 ' nor V 0 double-prime produces a nonlinear damping effect. The above assumption on the frequency can be relaxed by including the electron time-response in the linear part of the evolution. In this time-dependent model, instability drive due to trapped electrons is reduced when mode frequency is greater than drift-wave frequency. Since V 0 double-prime produces such a frequency shift, its linear effect is enhanced. There is also nonlinear damping, since single-helicity effects do not eliminate the shift. Renormalized theory for this model predicts nonlinear stability for sufficiently large curvature. Single-helicity calculations have already shown nonlinear damping, and this strong V 0 double-prime regime is being explored. In the theory, the Gaussian shape of the nonlinear diffusivity is expanded to obtain a quadratic potential. The implications of this assumption will be tested by solving the full renormalized equation using a shooting method
Turbulent transport in the MST reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rempel, T.D.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C.; Stoneking, M.R.; Zita, E.J.
1991-11-01
Measurements of edge turbulence and the associated transport are ongoing in the Madison Symmetric Torus (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.52 m) reversed-field pinch using magnetic and electrostatic probes. Magnetic fluctuations are dominated by m = 1 and n ∼ 2R/a tearing modes. Particle losses induced by magnetic field fluctuations have been found to be ambipolar ( parallel B r > = O). Electrostatic fluctuations are broadband and turbulent, with mode widths δm ∼ 3--7 and δn ∼70--150. Particle, parallel current, and energy transport arising from coherent motion with the fluctuating ExB drift has been measured. Particle transport via this channel is comparable to the total particle loss from MST. Energy transport (from phi >/B o ) due to electrostatic fluctuations is relatively small, and parallel current transport (from parallel E chi >/B o ) may be small as well
Chen, B.; Xu, X. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Li, N. M.; Porkolab, M.; Edlund, E.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J.; Hughes, J. W.; Ye, M. Y.; Wan, Y. X.
2018-05-01
The heat flux distributions on divertor targets in H-mode plasmas are serious concerns for future devices. We seek to simulate the tokamak boundary plasma turbulence and heat transport in the edge localized mode-suppressed regimes. The improved BOUT++ model shows that not only Ip but also the radial electric field Er plays an important role on the turbulence behavior and sets the heat flux width. Instead of calculating Er from the pressure gradient term (diamagnetic Er), it is calculated from the plasma transport equations with the sheath potential in the scrape-off layer and the plasma density and temperature profiles inside the separatrix from the experiment. The simulation results with the new Er model have better agreement with the experiment than using the diamagnetic Er model: (1) The electromagnetic turbulence in enhanced Dα H-mode shows the characteristics of quasi-coherent modes (QCMs) and broadband turbulence. The mode spectra are in agreement with the phase contrast imaging data and almost has no change in comparison to the cases which use the diamagnetic Er model; (2) the self-consistent boundary Er is needed for the turbulence simulations to get the consistent heat flux width with the experiment; (3) the frequencies of the QCMs are proportional to Er, while the divertor heat flux widths are inversely proportional to Er; and (4) the BOUT++ turbulence simulations yield a similar heat flux width to the experimental Eich scaling law and the prediction from the Goldston heuristic drift model.
Impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarazin, Y [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Grandgirard, V [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Dif-Pradalier, G [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Fleurence, E [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bertrand, P [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Besse, N [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Crouseilles, N [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Sonnendruecker, E [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Latu, G [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France); Violard, E [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France)
2006-12-15
The impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas is explored by means of various kinetic models. Zonal flows are found to lead to a non-linear upshift of turbulent transport in a 3D kinetic model for interchange turbulence. Such a transition is absent from fluid simulations, performed with the same numerical tool, which also predict a much larger transport. The discrepancy cannot be explained by zonal flows only, despite they being overdamped in fluids. Indeed, some difference remains, although reduced, when they are artificially suppressed. Zonal flows are also reported to trigger transport barriers in a 4D drift-kinetic model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. The density gradient acts as a source drive for zonal flows, while their curvature back stabilizes the turbulence. Finally, 5D simulations of toroidal ITG modes with the global and full-f GYSELA code require the equilibrium density function to depend on the motion invariants only. If not, the generated strong mean flows can completely quench turbulent transport.
Impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazin, Y; Grandgirard, V; Dif-Pradalier, G; Fleurence, E; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Bertrand, P; Besse, N; Crouseilles, N; Sonnendruecker, E; Latu, G; Violard, E
2006-01-01
The impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas is explored by means of various kinetic models. Zonal flows are found to lead to a non-linear upshift of turbulent transport in a 3D kinetic model for interchange turbulence. Such a transition is absent from fluid simulations, performed with the same numerical tool, which also predict a much larger transport. The discrepancy cannot be explained by zonal flows only, despite they being overdamped in fluids. Indeed, some difference remains, although reduced, when they are artificially suppressed. Zonal flows are also reported to trigger transport barriers in a 4D drift-kinetic model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. The density gradient acts as a source drive for zonal flows, while their curvature back stabilizes the turbulence. Finally, 5D simulations of toroidal ITG modes with the global and full-f GYSELA code require the equilibrium density function to depend on the motion invariants only. If not, the generated strong mean flows can completely quench turbulent transport
Improving the theoretical foundations of the multi-mode transport model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Redd, A.J.; Erba, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Weiland, J.; Strand, P.; Kinsey, J.E.; Scott, B.
1999-01-01
A new version of the Multi-Mode transport model, designated MMM98, is being developed with improved theoretical foundations, in an ongoing effort to predict the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. For transport near the edge of the plasma, MMM98 uses a new model based on 3-D nonlinear simulations of drift Alfven mode turbulence. Flow shear stabilization effects have been added to the Weiland model for Ion Temperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Modes, which usually dominates in most of the plasma core. For transport near the magnetic axis at high beta, a new kinetic ballooning mode model has been constructed based on FULL stability code computations. (author)
Improving the theoretical foundations of the multi-mode transport model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Redd, A.J.; Erba, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Weiland, J.; Strand, P.; Kinsey, J.E.; Scott, B.
2001-01-01
A new version of the Multi-Mode transport model, designated MMM98, is being developed with improved theoretical foundations, in an ongoing effort to predict the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. For transport near the edge of the plasma, MMM98 uses a new model based on 3-D nonlinear simulations of drift Alfven mode turbulence. Flow shear stabilization effects have been added to the Weiland model for Ion Temperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Modes, which usually dominates in most of the plasma core. For transport near the magnetic axis at high beta, a new kinetic ballooning mode model has been constructed based on FULL stability code computations. (author)
Collisional drift fluid equations and implications for drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, Dieter; Correa-Restrepo, Dario
1996-01-01
The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effects of which are extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter law is important in relation to charge separation and the resulting electric fields, which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial to the stability behaviour, it will be discussed by means of an example. New collisional multi-species drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields, in a transparent way, conservation of energy and total angular momentum and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The only restriction involved is the validity of the drift approximation; in particular, there are no assumptions restricting the geometry of the system. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in the drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. However, their relation to the ideal equations also implies a relation to the ideal Lagrangian, which can be used to advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T v (x) = constant. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theory; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Webster, A.J.; Wilson, H.R.
2005-01-01
Tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs) provide improved confinement, so it is important to understand their stability properties. The stability to an important class of modes with high wave-numbers perpendicular to the magnetic field, is usually studied with the standard ballooning transformation and eikonal approach. However, ITBs are often characterised by radial q profiles that have regions of negative or low magnetic shear and by radially sheared electric fields. Both these features affect the validity of the standard method. A new approach to calculating stability in these circumstances is developed and applied to ideal MHD ballooning modes and to micro-instabilities responsible for anomalous transport. (author)
Porkolab, M.; Lin, L.; Edlund, E. M.; Rost, J. C.; Fiore, C. L.; Greenwald, M.; Mikkelsen, D.
2008-11-01
We present recent experimental measurements of turbulence and transport in C-Mod H-Mode plasmas with and without internal transport barriers (ITB) using the phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic and compare the results with GYRO predictions. In plasmas without ITB, the fluctuation above 300 kHz observed by PCI agrees with ITG in GYRO simulation, including the direction of propagation, wavenumber spectrum, and absolute intensity within experimental uncertainly (+/-75%). After transition to ITBs, the observed overall fluctuation intensity increases. GYRO simulation in the core shows that ITG dominates in ITBs but its intensity is lower than the overall experimental measurements which may also include contributions from the plasma edge. These results, as well as the impact of varying ∇Ti, ∇n, and ExB shear on turbulence will be discussed. C.L. Fiore et al., Fusion Sci. Technol., 51, 303 (2007). M. Porkolab et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 229 (2006). J. Candy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 91, 045001 (2003).
Hnat, B.; Dudson, B. D.; Dendy, R. O.; Counsell, G. F.; Kirk, A.; MAST Team
2008-08-01
Ion saturation current (Isat) measurements of edge plasma turbulence are analysed for six MAST L-mode plasmas that differ primarily in their edge magnetic field configurations. The analysis techniques are designed to capture the strong nonlinearities of the datasets. First, absolute moments of the data are examined to obtain accurate values of scaling exponents. This confirms dual scaling behaviour in all samples, with the temporal scale τ ≈ 40-60 µs separating the two regimes. Strong universality is then identified in the functional form of the probability density function (PDF) for Isat fluctuations, which is well approximated by the Fréchet distribution on temporal scales τ 40 µs, the PDFs appear to converge to the Gumbel distribution, which has been previously identified as a universal feature of many other complex phenomena. The optimal fitting parameters k = 1.15 for Fréchet and a = 1.35 for Gumbel provide a simple quantitative characterization of the full spectrum of fluctuations. It is concluded that, to good approximation, the properties of the edge turbulence are independent of the edge magnetic field configuration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, H.W.; Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Conway, G.D.; Fischer, R.; Happel, T.; Manz, P.; Suttrop, W.; Wolfrum, E.
2014-01-01
In the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade the influence of a non-axisymmetric n = 2 error field on the turbulence in the far scrape-off layer of a low density L-mode discharge has been studied. There is no density pump-out with the non-axisymmetric perturbation but an increase of the scrape-off layer density at the outer midplane. While the relative ion saturation current fluctuation level in the far scrape-off layer is decreasing, the skewness rises and especially the excess kurtosis grows by a factor of 1.5-3. The frequency of intermittent events (blobs) is increasing by 50 %. Also the poloidal velocity grows with the magnetic perturbation while the typical turbulent structure size becomes smaller by a factor 5-10 about 20-25 mm outside the separatrix. The local spectral density has been calculated from a two-point measurement of the ion saturation current. It is used to derive a dispersion relation. Two poloidal propagation velocities depending on the wave number have been found. One is an upper limit for the bulk E x B velocity and the second one the lower limit of the phase velocity. There is a significant contribution of the phase velocity to the propagation speed in the far scrape-off layer. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
2D turbulence structure observed by a fast framing camera system in linear magnetized device PANTA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohdachi, Satoshi; Inagaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Goto, M.
2015-01-01
Mesoscale structure, such as the zonal flow and the streamer plays important role in the drift-wave turbulence. The interaction of the mesoscale structure and the turbulence is not only interesting phenomena but also a key to understand the turbulence driven transport in the magnetically confined plasmas. In the cylindrical magnetized device, PANTA, the interaction of the streamer and the drift wave has been found by the bi-spectrum analysis of the turbulence. In order to study the mesoscale physics directly, the 2D turbulence is studied by a fast-framing visible camera system view from a window located at the end plate of the device. The parameters of the plasma is the following; Te∼3eV, n ∼ 1x10 19 m -3 , Ti∼0.3eV, B=900G, Neutral pressure P n =0.8 mTorr, a∼ 6cm, L=4m, Helicon source (7MHz, 3kW). Fluctuating component of the visible image is decomposed by the Fourier-Bessel expansion method. Several rotating mode is observed simultaneously. From the images, m = 1 (f∼0.7 kHz) and m = 2, 3 (f∼-3.4 kHz) components which rotate in the opposite direction can be easily distinguished. Though the modes rotate constantly in most time, there appear periods where the radially complicated node structure is formed (for example, m=3 component, t = 142.5∼6 in the figure) and coherent mode structures are disturbed. Then, a new rotating period is started again with different phase of the initial rotation until the next event happens. The typical time interval of the event is 0.5 to 1.0 times of the one rotation of the slow m = 1 mode. The wave-wave interaction might be interrupted occasionally. Detailed analysis of the turbulence using imaging technique will be discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Yao Shuo
2012-01-01
To determine the wave modes prevailing in solar wind turbulence at kinetic scales, we study the magnetic polarization of small-scale fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the data sampling direction (namely, the solar wind flow direction, V SW ) and analyze its orientation with respect to the local background magnetic field B 0,local . As an example, we take only measurements made in an outward magnetic sector. When B 0,local is quasi-perpendicular to V SW , we find that the small-scale magnetic-field fluctuations, which have periods from about 1 to 3 s and are extracted from a wavelet decomposition of the original time series, show a polarization ellipse with right-handed orientation. This is consistent with a positive reduced magnetic helicity, as previously reported. Moreover, for the first time we find that the major axis of the ellipse is perpendicular to B 0,local , a property that is characteristic of an oblique Alfvén wave rather than oblique whistler wave. For an oblique whistler wave, the major axis of the magnetic ellipse is expected to be aligned with B 0,local , thus indicating significant magnetic compressibility, and the polarization turns from right to left handedness as the wave propagation angle (θ kB ) increases toward 90°. Therefore, we conclude that the observation of a right-handed polarization ellipse with orientation perpendicular to B 0,local seems to indicate that oblique Alfvén/ion-cyclotron waves rather than oblique fast-mode/whistler waves dominate in the 'dissipation' range near the break of solar wind turbulence spectra occurring around the proton inertial length.
A multi water bag model of drift kinetic electron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morel, P.; Dreydemy Ghiro, F.; Berionni, V.; Gurcan, O.D.; Coulette, D.; Besse, N.
2014-01-01
A Multi Water Bag model is proposed for describing drift kinetic plasmas in a magnetized cylindrical geometry, relevant for various experimental devices, solar wind modeling... The Multi Water Bag (MWB) model is adapted to the description of a plasma with kinetic electrons as well as an arbitrary number of kinetic ions. This allows to describe the kinetic dynamics of the electrons, making possible the study of electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, in addition to the effects of non adiabatic electrons on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, that are of prime importance in the magnetized plasmas micro-turbulence [X. Garbet, Y. Idomura, L. Villard, T.H. Watanabe, Nucl. Fusion 50, 043002 (2010); J.A. Krommes, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 44, 175 (2012)]. The MWB model is shown to link kinetic and fluid descriptions, depending on the number of bags considered. Linear stability of the ETG modes is presented and compared to the existing results regarding cylindrical ITG modes [P. Morel, E. Gravier, N. Besse, R. Klein, A. Ghizzo, P. Bertrand, W. Garbet, Ph. Ghendrih, V. Grandgirard, Y. Sarazin, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. (authors)
Edge turbulence and transport: Text and ATF modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Lin, H.; Rowan, W.L.; Bengtson, R.; Wootton, A.J.; Diamond, P.H.; Ware, A.S.; Thayer, D.R.
1990-01-01
We present experimental results on edge turbulence and transport from the tokamak TEXT and the torsatron ATF. The measured electrostatic fluctuations can explain the edge transport of particles and energy. Certain drive (radiation) and stabilizing (velocity shear) terms are suggested by the results. The experimental fluctuation levels and spectral widths can be reproduced by considering the nonlinear evolution of the reduced MHD equations, incorporating a thermal drive from line radiation. In the tokamak limit (with toroidal electric field) the model corresponds to the resistivity gradient mode, while in the currentless torsatron or stellarator limit it corresponds to a thermally driven drift wave
Tearing instabilities in turbulence
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Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2009-01-01
Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, A.; Sedlak, J.E.; Similon, P.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Ross, D.W.
1982-11-01
We investigate the eigenmode structure of drift waves in a straight stellarator using the ballooning mode formalism. The electrons are assumed to be adiabatic and the ions constitute a cold, magnetized fluid. The effective potential has an overall parabolic envelope but is modulated strongly by helical ripples along B. We have found two classes of solutions: those that are strongly localized in local helical wells, and those that are weakly localized and have broad spatial extent. The weakly localized modes decay spatially due to the existence of Mathieu resonances between the periods of the eigenfunction and the effective potential
Gyrokinetic simulation of microtearing turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doerk, Hauke
2013-01-01
In modern fusion experiments, plasma turbulence is responsible for the radial heat transport and thus determines the plasma confinement within the magnetic field of tokamak devices. Deeper theoretical understanding is needed to explain today's and future fusion experiments. The goal of fusion research is to establish nuclear fusion as a safe and sustainable energy source. In future fusion power plants, and also in large fusion experiments like the presently constructed ITER, plasma heating predominantly affects the electron species. The reason is of fundamental nature: the collisional cross section of fast ions that are produced by the heating systems is larger for thermal electrons than for thermal ions. It is thus essential to correctly predict electron thermal transport, but the overall picture still continues to evolve. Besides microinstabilities on the electron gyroradius scales, also a stochastized magnetic field can contribute to enhanced electron transport. Already since the 1970's, the so-called microtearing instability is discussed as a source of stochastic fields. This microinstability deserves its name for breaking up the magnetic field structure by forming small-scale magnetic islands. The linear microtearing instability and its nonlinear, turbulent behavior is investigated in this thesis by means of numerical simulations with the gyrokinetic turbulence code Gene. The underlying gyrokinetic equations are not only appropriate to predict turbulent transport, but also describe neoclassical transport that is drift-kinetic in nature. Besides revealing interesting physics on long time scales, solving the neoclassical equation serves as an excellent test for the numerical implementation of the collision operator in Gene. Focusing on the local limit, it is found that a modification of this implementation that considers certain symmetries is necessary to obtain a satisfactory agreement with the well-established drift-kinetic neoclassical code Neo. Also the
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Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.
1989-01-01
A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.
1989-01-01
We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs
Gyrokinetic continuum simulations of turbulence in the Texas Helimak
Bernard, T. N.; Shi, E. L.; Hammett, G. W.; Hakim, A.; Taylor, E. I.
2017-10-01
We have used the Gkeyll code to perform 3x-2v full-f gyrokinetic continuum simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in the Texas Helimak. The Helimak is an open field-line experiment with magnetic curvature and shear. It is useful for validating numerical codes due to its extensive diagnostics and simple, helical geometry, which is similar to the scrape-off layer region of tokamaks. Interchange and drift-wave modes are the main turbulence mechanisms in the device, and potential biasing is applied to study the effect of velocity shear on turbulence reduction. With Gkeyll, we varied field-line pitch angle and simulated biased and unbiased cases to study different turbulent regimes and turbulence reduction. These are the first kinetic simulations of the Helimak and resulting plasma profiles agree fairly well with experimental data. This research demonstrates Gkeyll's progress towards 5D simulations of the SOL region of fusion devices. Supported by the U.S. DOE SCGSR program under contract DE-SC0014664, the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Drift mechanism for energetic charged particles at shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G.M.; Axford, W.I.; Terasawa, T.
1983-01-01
The energy changes of energetic charged particles at a plane shock due to the so-called drift mechanism are analyzed by using the ''adiabatic treatment.'' The analysis shows that for a fast MHD shock, particles lose energy owing to acceleration (curvature) drift in the magnetic field at the shock with the drift velocity being antiparallel to the electric field, and they gain energy owing to gradient drift parallel to the electric field. It is shown that particles with pitch angles aligned along the magnetic field which pass through the shock tend to lose energy owing to acceleration drift, whereas particles with pitch angles nonaligned to the magnetic field gain energy owing to gradient drift. Particles that are reflected by the shock always gain energy. Slow-mode shocks may be similarly analyzed, but in this case curvature drifts give rise to particle energy gains, and gradient drifts result in particle energy losses
''Turbulent Equipartition'' Theory of Toroidal Momentum Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Gurcan, O.D.; Rewaldt, G.
2008-01-01
The mode-independent part of magnetic curvature driven turbulent convective (TuroCo) pinch of the angular momentum density (Hahm et al., Phys. Plasmas 14,072302 (2007)) which was originally derived from the gyrokinetic equation, can be interpreted in terms of the turbulent equipartition (TEP) theory. It is shown that the previous results can be obtained from the local conservation of 'magnetically weighted angular momentum density', nm i U # parallel# R/B 2 , and its homogenization due to turbulent flows. It is also demonstrated that the magnetic curvature modification of the parallel acceleration in the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in the laboratory frame, which was shown to be responsible for the TEP part of the TurCo pinch of angular momentum density in the previous work, is closely related to the Coriolis drift coupling to the perturbed electric field. In addition, the origin of the diffusive flux in the rotating frame is highlighted. Finally, it is illustrated that there should be a difference in scalings between the momentum pinch originated from inherently toroidal effects and that coming from other mechanisms which exist in a simpler geometry.
Turbulent effective absorptivity and refractivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rax, J.M.
1984-09-01
The problem of wave propagation in a turbulent magnetized plasma is investigated. Considering small scale, low frequency density fluctuations we solve the Maxwell equations and show that the eikonal approximation remains valid with an effective refractivity and an effective absorptivity taking into account the energy diffusion due to the turbulent motion. Then the result is applied to the problem of lower hybrid waves scattering by drift waves density fluctuations in tokamaks
Scale separation closure and Alfven wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, C.Y.; Mahajan, S.M.
1985-04-01
Based on the concept of scale separation between coherent response function and incoherent source for renormalized turbulence theories, a closure scheme is proposed. A model problem dealing with shear-Alfven wave turbulence is numerically solved; the solution explicitly shows expected turbulence features such as frequency shift from linear modes, band-broadening, and a power law dependence for the turbulence spectrum
Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water
Breivik, Øyvind; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond
2014-09-01
A deep-water approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile is explored as an alternative to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profile investigated relies on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profile gives a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The alternative profile comes at no added numerical cost compared to the monochromatic profile.
Stirring turbulence with turbulence
Cekli, H.E.; Joosten, R.; van de Water, W.
2015-01-01
We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the
Statistical properties of transport in plasma turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Garcia, O.E.; Nielsen, A.H.
2004-01-01
The statistical properties of the particle flux in different types of plasma turbulence models are numerically investigated using probability distribution functions (PDFs). The physics included in the models range from two-dimensional drift wave turbulence to three-dimensional MHD dynamics...
Turbulent response in a stochastic regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molvig, K.; Freidberg, J.P.; Potok, R.; Hirshman, S.P.; Whitson, J.C.; Tajima, T.
1981-06-01
The theory for the non-linear, turbulent response in a system with intrinsic stochasticity is considered. It is argued that perturbative Eulerian theories, such as the Direct Interaction Approximation (DIA), are inherently unsuited to describe such a system. The exponentiation property that characterizes stochasticity appears in the Lagrangian picture and cannot even be defined in the Eulerian representation. An approximation for stochastic systems - the Normal Stochastic Approximation - is developed and states that the perturbed orbit functions (Lagrangian fluctuations) behave as normally distributed random variables. This is independent of the Eulerian statistics and, in fact, we treat the Eulerian fluctuations as fixed. A simple model problem (appropriate for the electron response in the drift wave) is subjected to a series of computer experiments. To within numerical noise the results are in agreement with the Normal Stochastic Approximation. The predictions of the DIA for this mode show substantial qualitative and quantitative departures from the observations
Plasma Soliton Turbulence and Statistical Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treumann, R.A.; Pottelette, R.
1999-01-01
Collisionless kinetic plasma turbulence is described approximately in terms of a superposition of non-interacting solitary waves. We discuss the relevance of such a description under astrophysical conditions. Several types of solitary waves may be of interest in this relation as generators of turbulence and turbulent transport. A consistent theory of turbulence can be given only in a few particular cases when the description can be reduced to the Korteweg-de Vries equation or some other simple equation like the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation. It turns out that the soliton turbulence is usually energetically harder than the ordinary weakly turbulent plasma description. This implies that interaction of particles with such kinds of turbulence can lead to stronger acceleration than in ordinary turbulence. However, the description in our model is only classical and non-relativistic. Transport in solitary turbulence is most important for drift wave turbulence. Such waves form solitary drift wave vortices which may provide cross-field transport. A more general discussion is given on transport. In a model of Levy flight trapping of particles in solitons (or solitary turbulence) one finds that the residence time of particles in the region of turbulence may be described by a generalized Lorentzian probability distribution. It is shown that under collisionless equilibrium conditions far away from thermal equilibrium such distributions are natural equilibrium distributions. A consistent thermodynamic description of such media can be given in terms of a generalized Lorentzian statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
E. Gaffiney
2004-11-23
This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaffiney, E.
2004-01-01
This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1)
Autoresonant control of drift waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shagalov, A.G.; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker
2017-01-01
The control of nonlinear drift waves in a magnetized plasmas column has been investigated. The studies are based on the Hasegawa–Mima model, which is solved on a disk domain with radial inhomogeneity of the plasma density. The system is forced by a rotating potential with varying frequency defined...... on the boundary. To excite and control the waves we apply the autoresonant effect, taking place when the amplitude of the forcing exceeds a threshold value and the waves are phase-locked with the forcing. We demonstrate that the autoresonant approach is applicable for excitation of a range of steady nonlinear...... waves of the lowest azimuthal mode numbers and for controlling their amplitudes and phases. We also demonstrate the excitation of zonal flows (m = 0 modes), which are controlled via the forced modes....
Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto
2016-01-01
The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jolliet, S.
2009-02-01
The goal of thermonuclear fusion research is to provide power plants, that will be able to produce one gigawatt of electricity. Among the different ways to achieve fusion, the tokamak, based on magnetic confinement, is the most promising one. A gas is heated up to hundreds of millions of degrees and becomes a plasma, which is maintained - or confined - in a toroidal vessel by helical magnetic field lines. Then, deuterium and tritium are injected and fuse to create an α particle and an energetic neutron. In order to have a favorable power balance, the power produced by fusion reactions must exceed the power needed to heat the plasma and the power losses. This can be cast in a very simple expression which stipulates that the product of the density, the temperature and the energy confinement time must exceed some given value. Unfortunately, present-days tokamaks are not able to reach this condition, mostly due to plasma turbulence. The latter phenomenon enhances the heat losses and degrades the energy confinement time, which cannot be predicted by analytical theories such as the so-called neoclassical theory in which the heat losses are caused by Coulomb collisions. Therefore, numerical simulations are being developed to model plasma turbulence, mainly caused by the Ion and Electron Temperature-Gradient and the Trapped-Electron-Mode (TEM) instabilities. The plasma is described by a distribution function which evolves according to the Vlasov equation. The electromagnetic fields created by the particles are self-consistently obtained through Maxwell’s equations. The resulting Vlasov-Maxwell system is greatly simplified by using the gyrokinetic theory, which consists, through an appropriate ordering, of eliminating the fast gyromotion (compared to the typical frequency of instabilities). Nevertheless, it is still extremely difficult to solve this system numerically due to the large range of time and spatial scales to be resolved. In this thesis, the Vlasov
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
E.S. Gaffney
2003-10-08
This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
E.S. Gaffney
2003-01-01
This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report
Energy of linear quasineutral electrostatic drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.
1993-01-01
Certain kinds of nonlinear instabilities are related to the existence of negative-energy perturbations. In this paper, an exact energy expression for linear quasineutral electrostatic perturbations is derived within the framework of dissipationless multifluid theory that is valid for any geometry. Taking the mass formally as a tensor with, in general, different masses parallel and perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field allows one to treat in a convenient way different approximations such as the full dynamics and restriction to parallel dynamics or the completely adiabatic case. Application to slab configurations yields the result that the adiabatic approximation does not allow negative energy for perturbations which are perfectly localized at a mode resonant surface, whereas inclusion of the parallel dynamics does. This is in agreement with a recent numerical study of drift-wave turbulence within the framework of collisional two-fluid theory by B. Scott [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3289 (1990); Phys. Fluids B 4, 2468 (1992)]. A dissipationless theory can be formulated in terms of a Lagrangian, from which the energy is immediately obtained. We start with the nonlinear theory. The theory is formulated via a Lagrangian which is written in terms of displacement vectors ξ ν (x,t) such that all constraints are taken into account. The nonlinear energy is obtained from the Lagrangian by standard methods. The procedure used is the same as that developed in a forthcoming paper by Pfirsch and Sudan [Phys. Fluids B (to be published)] for ideal nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics theory. From the exact Lagrangian one obtains the Lagrangian of the linearized theory by simple expansion to second order in ξ ν . This Lagrangian then yields the energy of the linearized theory
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
Electrostatic instabilities and turbulence in a toroidal magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poli, F. M.
2007-06-01
This Thesis aims at characterizing the linear properties of electrostatic drift instabilities arising in a toroidal plasma and the mechanisms leading to their development into turbulence. The experiments are performed on the TORoidal Plasma EXperiment (TORPEX) at CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne. The first part of the Thesis focuses on the identification of the nature of the instabilities observed in TORPEX, using a set of electrostatic probes, designed and built for this purpose. The global features of fluctuations, analyzed for different values of control parameters such as the magnetic field, the neutral gas pressure and the injected microwave power, are qualitatively similar in different experimental scenarios. The maximum of fluctuations is observed on the low field side, where the pressure gradient and the gradient of the magnetic field are co-linear, indicating that the curvature of the magnetic field lines has an important role in the destabilization of the waves. The power spectrum is dominated by electrostatic fluctuations with frequencies much lower than the ion cyclotron frequency. Taking advantage of the extended diagnostics coverage, the spectral properties of fluctuations are measured over the whole poloidal cross-section. Both drift and interchange instabilities develop and propagate on TORPEX, with the stability of both being affected by the curvature of the magnetic field. It is shown that modes of different nature are driven at separate locations over the plasma cross-section and that the wavenumber and frequency spectra, narrow at the location where the instabilities are generated, broaden during convection, suggesting an increase in the degree of turbulence. The transition from coherent to turbulent spectral features and the role of nonlinear coupling between modes in the development of turbulence are treated in the second part of this work. It is found that nonlinear mode-mode coupling is responsible for the redistribution of spectral energy from the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dwayne C. Kicker
2001-09-28
A statistical description of the probable block sizes formed by fractures around the emplacement drifts has been developed for each of the lithologic units of the repository host horizon. A range of drift orientations with the drift azimuth varied in 15{sup o} increments has been considered in the static analysis. For the quasi-static seismic analysis, and the time-dependent and thermal effects analysis, two drift orientations have been considered: a drift azimuth of 105{sup o} and the current emplacement drift azimuth of 75{sup o}. The change in drift profile resulting from progressive deterioration of the emplacement drifts has been assessed both with and without backfill. Drift profiles have been determined for four different time increments, including static (i.e., upon excavation), 200 years, 2,000 years, and 10,000 years. The effect of seismic events on rock fall has been analyzed. Block size distributions and drift profiles have been determined for three seismic levels, including a 1,000-year event, a 5,000-year event, and a 10,000-year event. Data developed in this modeling and analysis activity have been entered into the TDMS (DTN: MO0109RDDAAMRR.003). The following conclusions have resulted from this drift degradation analysis: (1) The available fracture data are suitable for supporting a detailed key block analysis of the repository host horizon rock mass. The available data from the north-south Main Drift and the east-west Cross Drift provide a sufficient representative fracture sample of the repository emplacement drift horizon. However, the Tptpln fracture data are only available from a relatively small section of the Cross Drift, resulting in a smaller fracture sample size compared to the other lithologic units. This results in a lower degree of confidence that the key block data based on the Tptpln data set is actually representative of the overall Tptpln key block population. (2) The seismic effect on the rock fall size distribution for all events
Effects of parallel dynamics on vortex structures in electron temperature gradient driven turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
2011-01-01
Vortex structures and related heat transport properties in slab electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence are comprehensively investigated by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations, with the aim of elucidating the underlying physical mechanisms of the transition from turbulent to coherent states. Numerical results show three different types of vortex structures, i.e., coherent vortex streets accompanied with the transport reduction, turbulent vortices with steady transport, and a zonal-flow-dominated state, depending on the relative magnitude of the parallel compression to the diamagnetic drift. In particular, the formation of coherent vortex streets is correlated with the strong generation of zonal flows for the cases with weak parallel compression, even though the maximum growth rate of linear ETG modes is relatively large. The zonal flow generation in the ETG turbulence is investigated by the modulational instability analysis with a truncated fluid model, where the parallel dynamics such as acoustic modes for electrons is incorporated. The modulational instability for zonal flows is found to be stabilized by the effect of the finite parallel compression. The theoretical analysis qualitatively agrees with secondary growth of zonal flows found in the slab ETG turbulence simulations, where the transition of vortex structures is observed.
An electrodeless drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Duerdoth, I.; Rowe, P.G.
1982-01-01
We describe a chamber in which the drift field is controlled by the deposition of electrostatic charge on an insulating surface. The chamber operates with good efficiency and precision for observed drift distances of up to 45 cm, promises to be extremely robust and adaptable and offers a very cheap way of making particle detectors. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.
2015-01-01
An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic ...... data set from a Spanish bank....
Turbulent flux and the diffusion of passive tracers in electrostatic turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basu, R.; Jessen, T.; Naulin, V.
2003-01-01
The connection between the diffusion of passive tracer particles and the anomalous turbulent flux in electrostatic drift-wave turbulence is investigated by direct numerical solutions of the 2D Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The probability density functions for the point-wise and flux surface...
Time dependent drift Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, A.H.
1982-04-01
The motion of individual charged particles in a given magnetic and an electric fields is discussed. An idea of a guiding center distribution function f is introduced. The guiding center distribution function is connected to the asymptotic Hamiltonian through the drift kinetic equation. The general non-stochastic magnetic field can be written in a contravariant and a covariant forms. The drift Hamiltonian is proposed, and the canonical gyroradius is presented. The proposed drift Hamiltonian agrees with Alfven's drift velocity to lowest non-vanishing order in the gyroradius. The relation between the exact, time dependent equations of motion and the guiding center equation is clarified by a Lagrangian analysis. The deduced Lagrangian represents the drift motion. (Kato, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
J.T. Birkholzer
2004-01-01
This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G.H. Nieder-Westermann
2005-01-01
The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])
Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry
2016-01-01
Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.
1987-01-01
Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here
Spray particle drift mitigation using field corn (Zea mays L.) as a drift barrier.
Vieira, Bruno C; Butts, Thomas R; Rodrigues, Andre O; Golus, Jeffrey A; Schroeder, Kasey; Kruger, Greg R
2018-04-24
Herbicide particle drift reduces application efficacy and can cause severe impacts on nearby vegetation depending on the herbicide mode-of-action, exposure level, and tolerance to the herbicide. A particle drift mitigation effort placing windbreaks or barriers on the field boundaries to reduce off-target movement of spray particles has been utilized in the past. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of field corn (Zea mays L.) at different heights as a particle drift barrier. Applications with a non-air inclusion flat fan nozzle (ER11004) resulted in greater particle drift when compared to an air inclusion nozzle (TTI11004). Eight rows of corn were used as barriers (0.91, 1.22, and 1.98 m height) which reduced the particle drift for both nozzles, especially at shorter downwind distances. Applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers had 1% of the applied rate (D 99 ) predicted to deposit at 14.8 m downwind, whereas this distance was reduced (up to 7-fold) when applications were performed with corn barriers. The combination of corn drift barriers and nozzle selection (TTI11004) provided satisfactory particle drift reduction when the D 99 estimates were compared to applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers (up to 10-fold difference). The corn drift barriers were effective in reducing particle drift from applications with the ER11004 and the TTI11004 nozzles (Fine and Ultra Coarse spray classifications, respectively). The corn drift barrier had appropriate porosity and width as the airborne spray was captured within its canopy instead of deflecting up and over it. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Drift Wave Test Particle Transport in Reversed Shear Profile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.; Park, H.B.; Kwon, J.M.; Stronzzi, D.; Morrison, P.J.; Choi, D.I.
1998-01-01
Drift wave maps, area preserving maps that describe the motion of charged particles in drift waves, are derived. The maps allow the integration of particle orbits on the long time scale needed to describe transport. Calculations using the drift wave maps show that dramatic improvement in the particle confinement, in the presence of a given level and spectrum of E x B turbulence, can occur for q(r)-profiles with reversed shear. A similar reduction in the transport, i.e. one that is independent of the turbulence, is observed in the presence of an equilibrium radial electric field with shear. The transport reduction, caused by the combined effects of radial electric field shear and both monotonic and reversed shear magnetic q-profiles, is also investigated
Memory effects in turbulent diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zagorodny, A.G.; Weiland, J.; Wilhelmsson, H.
1993-01-01
A non-Markovian approach is proposed for the derivation of the diffusion coefficient of saturated turbulence. A memory term accounting for nonlocal coherence effects is introduced in a new attempt to describe the transition between weak and strong turbulence. The result compares favourably with recent experiments as well as mode coupling simulations of fusion plasmas. (14 refs.)
Silicon Drift Detectors development for position sensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castoldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.
2007-01-01
Novel Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) with multi-linear architecture specifically intended for 2D position sensing and imaging applications are presented and their achievable spatial, energy and time resolution are discussed. The capability of providing a fast timing of the interaction with nanosecond time resolution is a new available feature that allows operating the drift detector in continuous readout mode for coincidence imaging applications either with an external trigger or in self-timing. The application of SDDs with multi-linear architecture to Compton electrons' tracking within a single silicon layer and the achieved experimental results will be discussed
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Biskamp, Dieter
2003-01-01
This book presents an introduction to, and modern account of, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, an active field both in general turbulence theory and in various areas of astrophysics. The book starts by introducing the MHD equations, certain useful approximations and the transition to turbulence. The second part of the book covers incompressible MHD turbulence, the macroscopic aspects connected with the different self-organization processes, the phenomenology of the turbulence spectra, two-point closure theory, and intermittency. The third considers two-dimensional turbulence and compressi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutqvist, J.
2004-01-01
This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, R.J.
1988-01-01
Most flows of fluids, in nature and in technology, are turbulent. Since much of the energy expended by machines and devices that involve fluid flows is spent in overcoming drag caused by turbulence, there is a strong motivation to understand the phenomena. Surprisingly, the peculiar, quantum-mechanical form of turbulence that can form in superfluid helium may turn out to be much simpler to understand that the classical turbulence that forms in normal fluids. It now seems that the study of superfluid turbulence may provide simplified model systems for studying some forms of classical turbulence. There are also practical motivations for studying superfluid turbulence. For example, superfuid helium is often used as a coolant in superconducting machinery. Superfluid turbulence is the primary impediment to the transfer of heat by superfluid helium; an understanding of the phenomena may make it possible to design more efficient methods of refrigeration for superconducting devices. 8 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D. Kicker
2004-01-01
Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D. Kicker
2004-09-16
Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal
Spiral silicon drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.
1988-01-01
An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs
Laguerre Gaussian beam multiplexing through turbulence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Trichili, A
2014-08-17
Full Text Available We analyze the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of multiplexed Laguerre Gaussian modes. We present a method to multiplex Laguerre Gaussian modes using digital holograms and decompose the resulting field after encountering a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.; Correa, C.; Chagelishvili, G. D.; Avsarkisov, V. S.; Lominadze, J. G.; Perez, J. C.; Kim, J.-H.; Carter, T. A.
2009-01-01
According to recent experiments, magnetically confined fusion plasmas with ''drift wave-zonal flow turbulence'' (DW-ZF) give rise to broadband electromagnetic waves. Sharapov et al. [Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 35th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Hersonissos, 2008, edited by P. Lalousis and S. Moustaizis (European Physical Society, Switzerland, 2008), Vol. 32D, p. 4.071] reported an abrupt change in the magnetic turbulence during L-H transitions in Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)] plasmas. A broad spectrum of Alfvenic-like (electromagnetic) fluctuations appears from ExB flow driven turbulence in experiments on the large plasma device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] facility at UCLA. Evidence of the existence of magnetic fluctuations in the shear flow region in the experiments is shown. We present one possible theoretical explanation of the generation of electromagnetic fluctuations in DW-ZF systems for an example of LAPD experiments. The method used is based on generalizing results on shear flow phenomena from the hydrodynamics community. In the 1990s, it was realized that fluctuation modes of spectrally stable nonuniform (sheared) flows are non-normal. That is, the linear operators of the flows modal analysis are non-normal and the corresponding eigenmodes are not orthogonal. The non-normality results in linear transient growth with bursts of the perturbations and the mode coupling, which causes the generation of electromagnetic waves from the drift wave-shear flow system. We consider shear flow that mimics tokamak zonal flow. We show that the transient growth substantially exceeds the growth of the classical dissipative trapped-particle instability of the system.
Radial semiconductor drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rawlings, K.J.
1987-01-01
The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto
are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the continuous-time Itô semi-martingale model in such a way that the fundamental arbitrage-free property is preserved......, currencies and commodities. We find that the majority of identified drift bursts are accompanied by strong price reversals and these can therefore be regarded as “flash crashes” that span brief periods of severe market disruption without any material longer term price impacts....
Ofman, Leon; Ozak, Nataly; Vinas, Adolfo F.
2016-01-01
Near the Sun (plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super- Alfvenic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ofman, Leon, E-mail: Leon.Ofman@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Visiting, Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ozak, Nataly [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
2016-03-25
Near the Sun (< 10R{sub s}) the acceleration, heating, and propagation of the solar wind are likely affected by the background inhomogeneities of the magnetized plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super-Alfvénic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.
Convective growth of broadband turbulence in the plasma sheet boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dusenbery, P.B.
1987-01-01
Convective growth of slow and fast beam acoustic waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) is investigated. It has been shown previously that a could ion population must be present in order to excite beam acoustic waves in the PSBL. However, growth rates are significantly enhanced when warm plasma sheet boundary layer ions are present. Net wave growth along a ray path is determined by convective growth. This quantity is calculated for particle distribution models consistent with the PSBL where the intensity of broadband turbulence is observed to peak. Total number density dependence on beam acoustic convective growth is evaluated, and it is found that even for low density conditions of ∼0.01 cm -3 , a measurable level of broadband turbulence is expected. Relative drift effects between cold and warm ion populations are also considered. In particular, it is found that slow mode convective growth can be enhanced when slowly streaming cold ions are present, compared to fast ion streams
Transport due to ion pressure gradient turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.
1986-01-01
Turbulent transport due to the ion pressure gradient (or temperature drift) instability is thought to be significant when etasub(i)=d(ln Tsub(i))/d(ln n)>1. The invariance properties of the governing equations under scale transformations are used to discuss the characteristics of this turbulence. This approach not only clarifies the relationships between earlier treatments but also, in certain limits, completely determines the scaling properties of the fluctuations and the consequent thermal transport. (author)
Tapping with intentional drift
Vardy, A.N.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.
2009-01-01
When tapping a desired frequency, subjects tend to drift away from this target frequency. This compromises the estimate of the correlation between inter-tap intervals (ITIs) as predicted by the two-level model of Wing and Kristofferson which consists of an internal timer ('clock') and motor delays.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, A.
2002-01-01
The design and construction of the large drift chamber of the KLOE experiment is presented. The track reconstruction is described, together with the calibration method and the monitoring systems. The stability of operation and the performance are studied with samples of e + e - , K S K L and K + K - events
High resolution drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Va'vra, J.
1985-07-01
High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danilov, M; Nagovizin, V; Hasemann, H; Michel, E; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wurth, R; Kim, P
1983-11-15
The ARGUS detector came into operation at the DORIS-II e/sup +/s/sup -/ storage ring at the end of 1982. Its two meter long drift chamber contains 5940 sense and 24588 field wires organized in uniform 18x18.8 mm/sup 2/ drift cells filling the whole volume. These cells form 36 layers, 18 of which provide stereo views. Each sense wire is equipped with a single hit TDC and ADC for coordinate and dE/dx measurements. The chamber is operated with propane to improve momentum and dE/dx resolution. The drift chamber design and initial performance are presented. With a very crude space-time relation approximation and without all the necessary corrections applied a spatial resolution of about 200 ..mu..m was obtained for half of the drift cell volume. Further corrections should improve this result. An intrinsic dE/dx resolution of 4.2% and an actual resolution of 5% were obtained for cosmic muons and also for Bhabha scattered electrons. An actual dE/dx resolution of 5.6% was obtained for pions from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data with almost no track selection. A relativistic rise of 30% was observed in good agreement with theory. The long-term stability is still to be investigated.
Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.
2010-01-01
Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these
Guiding center drift equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, A.H.
1979-03-01
The quations for particle guiding center drift orbits are given in a new magnetic coordinate system. This form of the equations not only separates the fast motion along the lines from the slow motion across, but also requires less information about the magnetic field than many other formulations of the problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D.M. Jolley
1999-12-02
As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M and O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report
Chaotic neoclassical separatrix dissipation in parametric drift-wave decay.
Kabantsev, A A; Tsidulko, Yu A; Driscoll, C F
2014-02-07
Experiments and theory characterize a parametric decay instability between plasma drift waves when the nonlinear coupling is modified by an electrostatic barrier. Novel mode coupling terms representing enhanced dissipation and mode phase shifts are caused by chaotic separatrix crossings on the wave-ruffled separatrix. Experimental determination of these coupling terms is in broad agreement with new chaotic neoclassical transport analyses.
Unstable drift eigenmode in slab geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsotsonis, S.; Hirose, A.
1986-01-01
The unstable Pearlstein-Berk mode of drift waves in plane, sheared slab geometry has later been shown to be stable when electron Landau resonance is rigorously treated. Based on the variational method previously developed the authors have found that in addition to the absolutely stable Pearlstein-Berk mode, there exists an absolutely unstable eigenfunction characterized by ω ≤ ω/sub chemical bonde/, and weak ''radial'' dependence. Also, the growth rate, only weakly depends on the magnetic shear and ion/electron temperature ratio
Benchmark test of drift-kinetic and gyrokinetic codes through neoclassical transport simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, S.; Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Idomura, Yasuhiro
2009-09-01
Two simulation codes that solve the drift-kinetic or gyrokinetic equation in toroidal plasmas are benchmarked by comparing the simulation results of neoclassical transport. The two codes are the drift-kinetic δf Monte Carlo code (FORTEC-3D) and the gyrokinetic full- f Vlasov code (GT5D), both of which solve radially-global, five-dimensional kinetic equation with including the linear Fokker-Planck collision operator. In a tokamak configuration, neoclassical radial heat flux and the force balance relation, which relates the parallel mean flow with radial electric field and temperature gradient, are compared between these two codes, and their results are also compared with the local neoclassical transport theory. It is found that the simulation results of the two codes coincide very well in a wide rage of plasma collisionality parameter ν * = 0.01 - 10 and also agree with the theoretical estimations. The time evolution of radial electric field and particle flux, and the radial profile of the geodesic acoustic mode frequency also coincide very well. These facts guarantee the capability of GT5D to simulate plasma turbulence transport with including proper neoclassical effects of collisional diffusion and equilibrium radial electric field. (author)
Comparing simulation of plasma turbulence with experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, David W.; Bravenec, Ronald V.; Dorland, William; Beer, Michael A.; Hammett, G. W.; McKee, George R.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Murakami, Masanori; Burrell, Keith H.; Jackson, Gary L.; Staebler, Gary M.
2002-01-01
The direct quantitative correspondence between theoretical predictions and the measured plasma fluctuations and transport is tested by performing nonlinear gyro-Landau-fluid simulations with the GRYFFIN (or ITG) code [W. Dorland and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Fluids B 5, 812 (1993); M. A. Beer and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)]. In an L-mode reference discharge in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)], which has relatively large fluctuations and transport, the turbulence is dominated by ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. Trapped electron modes and impurity drift waves also play a role. Density fluctuations are measured by beam emission spectroscopy [R. J. Fonck, P. A. Duperrex, and S. F. Paul, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3487 (1990)]. Experimental fluxes and corresponding diffusivities are analyzed by the TRANSP code [R. J. Hawryluk, in Physics of Plasmas Close to Thermonuclear Conditions, edited by B. Coppi, G. G. Leotta, D. Pfirsch, R. Pozzoli, and E. Sindoni (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Vol. 1, p. 19]. The shape of the simulated wave number spectrum is close to the measured one. The simulated ion thermal transport, corrected for ExB low shear, exceeds the experimental value by a factor of 1.5 to 2.0. The simulation overestimates the density fluctuation level by an even larger factor. On the other hand, the simulation underestimates the electron thermal transport, which may be accounted for by modes that are not accessible to the simulation or to the BES measurement
Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.
2009-01-01
We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less
Diogene pictorial drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gosset, J.
1984-01-01
A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive)
Modeling cross-field drifts and current with the B2 code for the CIT divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rognlien, T.D.; Milovich, J.L.; Rensink, M.E.
1990-01-01
We have modified the B2 edge-plasma code to include the effects of classical fluid drifts across the magnetic field lines and plasma currents. This report presents preliminary results of these effects for the CIT parameter regime. The basic plasma model described by Braams involves solving the continuity equation, the parallel momentum balance equation, and separate energy balance equations for the ions and the electrons. If multiple ion species are present, they are all assumed to have a common temperature, but their densities and parallel velocities are solved for using additional continuity and parallel momentum balance equations for each species. Momentum and heat transport parallel to the magnetic field, B, are given by the classical collisional theory. On the other hand, transport perpendicular to B is represented by anomalous diffusion coefficients which are adjusted to agree with experimental measurements. These transport coefficients are generally taken to be constant in radius and poloidal angle, although this is not necessary. The goal of our work has been to include both the classical cross-field drift terms and the effects of parallel currents in the equations used in the B2 code. The motivation for including the cross-field terms comes from simple model calculations which indicate that the classical flows can contribute an important asymmetry which may help explain the transition from L-mode to H-mode confinement. Radial electric fields which arise near the separatrix cause E x B poloidal rotation which may also be related to the L-to-H mode transition through its effect on edge turbulence. Including the parallel currents is done to provide a tool for understanding the biased divertor experiments on DIII-D at General Atomics. Such biasing may provide an effective means of controlling the asymmetry of the power flow to different divertor plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehre, Per Kristian
2011-01-01
An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms......, to be derived from simple conditions on the one-step behaviour of their variation operators and selection mechanisms....
Consistent guiding center drift theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wimmel, H.K.
1982-04-01
Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)
Laboratory Course on Drift Chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Ferreira, Ix-B.; Garcia-Herrera, J.; Villasenor, L.
2006-01-01
Drift chambers play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. We started this laboratory course with a brief review of the theoretical background and then moved on to the the experimental setup which consisted of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber. We also used a plastic scintillator paddle, standard P-10 gas mixture (90% Ar, 10% CH4) and a collimated 90Sr source. During the laboratory session the students performend measurements of the following quantities: a) drift velocities and their variations as function of the drift field; b) gas gains and c) diffusion of electrons as they drifted in the gas
Radial extension of drift waves in presence of velocity profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, S.; Weiland, J.
1994-01-01
The effect of a radially varying poloidal velocity field on the recently found radially extended toroidal drift waves is investigated analytically. The role of velocity curvature (υ φ '') is found to have robust effects on the radial model structure of the mode. For a positive value of the curvature (Usually found in the H-mode edges) the radial model envelope, similar to the sheared slab case, becomes fully outgoing. The mode is therefore stable. On the other hand, for a negative value of the curvature (usually observed in the L-mode edges) all the characteristics of conventional drift waves return back. The radial mode envelope reduces to a localized Gaussian shape and the mode is therefore unstable again for typical (magnetic) shear values in tokamaks. Velocity shear (υ φ ??) on the other hand is found to have rather insignificant role both in determining the radial model structure and stability
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diallo, A.; Kramer, G. J.; Bell, R. E.; Guttenfelder, W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Smith, D. R.; McKee, G. J. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831 (United States); Fonck, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)
2013-01-15
Characterization of the spatial structure of turbulence fluctuations during the edge localized mode cycle in the pedestal region is reported. Using the beam emission spectroscopy and the correlation reflectometry systems, measurements show spatial structure-k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub i}{sup ped}-ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction at the pedestal top. These propagating spatial scales are found to be anisotropic and consistent with ion-scale microturbulence of the type ion temperature gradient and/or kinetic ballooning modes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.
2011-07-01
Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)
Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu
2014-01-01
A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete
Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width
Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.
2015-04-01
Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments.
Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.
2015-01-01
Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments
Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence Including Self-Consistent Zonal Flows
Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim
2013-10-01
Progress on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge is summarized in this mini-conference talk. A more detailed report on this work is presented in a poster at this conference. This work extends our previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed the simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT. The calculations used realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produced fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Simulations of Turbulence in Tokamak Edge and Effects of Self-Consistent Zonal Flows
Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim
2013-10-01
Progress is reported on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge. This extends previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT that solves Braginskii-based plasma fluid equations in tokamak edge domain. The calculations use realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produce fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Microinstabilities and turbulent transport in the reversed field pinch
Carmody, Daniel Richard
-analytic equilibrium, the adjusted circular model (ACM), is developed and implemented in the gyrokinetic code GENE to investigate representative PPCD discharges. The flexibility of the ACM enables it to be used for the high-theta PPCD discharges where the TBFM breaks down. The dominant linear instabilites for the discharges modeled here---ITG and the trapped electron mode (TEM)---are studied, as are their scaling properties in the PPCD regime. It is found that these instabilities are present outside of the reversal surface, where the driving gradients are strongest. Nonlinear simulations of the TEM turbulence are performed, the first such done for the RFP, and zonal flows are found to play an important role in the nonlinear saturation mechanism. These zonal flows lead to a large Dimits-like shift and suppressed transport. There is also evidence that residual global tearing mode fluctuations are a necessary part of modeling transport in the RFP, even in improved confinement PPCD discharges, and by modeling these residual fluctuations through the use of an externally imposed perpendicular magnetic field perturbation it is possible to bring simulated fluxes into agreement with experiment. Finally, the nature of the collisionless MTM, an instability seen to arise in some parameter regimes of the RFP, is investigated analytically using a fluid expansion in the drift-kinetic framework. Particular attention is paid to the role of magnetic drifts, and some evidence for their role in the collisionless instability is presented. Comparisons are made to gyrokinetic simulations and to earlier theory on the magnetic-curvature drift instability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoute-Vanneck, H.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Nielsen, E.
1990-01-01
Characteristics of eastward drifting forms, previously described in the literature as black aurorae, have been identified in low-light level TV camera data. The TV field of view was within the field of view of STARE and that of an all-sky camera. On the basis of these observations the authors propose that these auroral forms are a manifestation of folds or waves on the borders of auroral bands propagating along the dark regions between neighboring auroral bands. Conditions under which the folds or waves occur are compatible with their formation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz electrostatic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, Michael L.
2001-01-01
Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing
Theoretical Studies of Drift-Alfven and Energetic Particle Physics in Fusion Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Chen
2005-07-06
Nonlinear equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift-wave envelope and zonal flow amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent four-wave drift wave-zonal flow modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin, and White [Phys. Plasmas 7, 3129 (2000)]. Solutions clearly demonstrate turbulence spreading due to nonlinearly dispersiveness and, consequently, the device-size dependence of the saturated wave intensities and transport coefficients.
Drift velocity monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers
Sonnenschein, Lars
2010-01-01
The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented.
Rippling and drift instabilities in the straight cylinder tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.
1984-01-01
It is shown that the electron and ion diamagnetic drifts stabilize the rippling mode in the straigth cylindrical tokamak model. Parallel electron heat conduction is further stabilizing if the parameter etasub(e) = dlnTsub(e)/dlnN is positive. This has a consequence that the mode does not survive at temperatures exceeding, typically, 50 eV for standard values of magnetic field and density. The collisional drift wave is found to be always stable even when the effect of the tokamak current is included in the calculation. (orig.)
The effect of plasma drift on the electromagnetic cyclotron instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulkarni, V.H.; Rycroft, M.J.
1979-01-01
It is shown that the drift of plasma across a homogeneous magnetic field causes the generation of a wave electric field which, for waves propagating along the magnetic field in the whistler mode, is in the direction of the magnetic field. This leads to Landau damping of the wave field by the background electron distribution, simultaneously with amplification via the electromagnetic cyclotron instability. The drift velocity of the plasma for zero net growth of a whistler mode signal is calculated. It is suggested that such a process occurs in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere during a geomagnetic storm and accounts for the missing band of emissions at half the equatorial gyrofrequency. (Auth.)
BOOK REVIEW: Plasma and Fluid Turbulence: Theory and Modelling
Yoshizawa, A.; Itoh, S. I.; Itoh, K.
2003-03-01
extensive description of dynamo theory in Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. This area has applications both in geophysics and plasma confinement by magnetic fields. The most well known example being the reversed field pinch. This part is fundamental in several respects and the principle of relaxation of the turbulence to quasi stationary states that can be predicted theoretically is very elegant. The problem of rotation of magnetized plasmas and its importance for obtaining internal transport barriers is also treated here. This part is entirely described by the one-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The next part deals with plasma turbulence. It starts from the Braginskii collisional fluid equations. These are then reduced for typical cases of quasi two dimensional plasma turbulence where the magnetic perturbations can be described by a vector potential which is parallel to the unperturbed magnetic field. Also a couple of well known sets of nonlinear electrostatic systems for drift waves are presented as well as a gyro-averaged kinetic description for inhomogeneous plasmas. Then, several low frequency eigenmodes in magnetized plasmas are described and finally the quasilinear theory of transport is presented. The following part deals with strongly nonlinear phenomena in inhomogeneous plasma turbulence. Here, concepts of importance for confinement such as convective cells, zonal flows and streamers are presented. As a natural continuation, renormalization and scale invariance methods for strongly nonlinear plasmas are given. Also non-Markovian properties are discussed. This is natural since turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas typically has a rather large real eigenfrequency leading to memory of the wave phase. The next part deals with plasma turbulence driven by inhomogeneities. This is followed by a new part on flows where the flows this time are generated by the turbulence which is driven by plasma inhomogeneities. In particular flows driven by such instabilities can
A Laboratory Experiment on EM Backscatter from Farley-Buneman and Gradient Drift Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alport, M. J.; D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans
1981-01-01
Results are reported of a laboratory experiment on Bragg backscatter of 3-cm microwaves by turbulent waves driven by the Farley-Buneman and gradient drift instabilities. The present work is the third in a series of laboratory experiments performed to test, under controlled conditions, prevalent i...... ideas on EM scattering by equatorial and high-latitude ionospheric waves and irregularities.......Results are reported of a laboratory experiment on Bragg backscatter of 3-cm microwaves by turbulent waves driven by the Farley-Buneman and gradient drift instabilities. The present work is the third in a series of laboratory experiments performed to test, under controlled conditions, prevalent...
Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D
2002-01-01
The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).
Electronics for proportional drift tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fremont, G.; Friend, B.; Mess, K.H.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Tarle, J.C.; Verweij, H.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Geske, K.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Semenov, Y.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration)
1980-01-01
An electronic system for the read-out of a large number of proportional drift tubes (16,000) has been designed. This system measures deposited charge and drift-time of the charge of a particle traversing a proportional drift tube. A second event can be accepted during the read-out of the system. Up to 40 typical events can be collected and buffered before a data transfer to a computer is necessary. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prisiazhniuk, Dmitrii
2017-06-05
One of the key question of high temperature plasma confinement in a magnetic field is how plasma turbulence influences the radial transport of particles and energy. A better understanding of transport processes caused by turbulence would allow to improve the plasma confinement in fusion devices. To this end a deeper understanding of the mechanisms controlling the development, saturation and stabilization of turbulence is needed. From the experimental point of view a main challenge in these investigations is the measurement of plasma parameters on both small temporal (μs) and spatial (mm) scales. In this thesis a new microwave heterodyne poloidal correlation reflectometry diagnostic has been developed and installed at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to investigate the cross-correlation of turbulent density fluctuations. This diagnostic yields information on fundamental turbulence parameters such as the perpendicular propagation velocity v {sub perpendicular} {sub to}, the perpendicular correlation length l {sub perpendicular} {sub to} (characteristic size of the turbulent eddies) and the decorrelation time τ{sub d} (characteristic life time of the turbulent eddies) over a wide range of plasma densities. The inclination of the turbulent eddies α in the poloidal-toroidal plane spanned by the magnetic flux surfaces of a tokamak, being a measure of the magnetic field pitch angle, can also be obtained. The turbulence investigations were performed in low confinement mode (L-mode) plasmas for a range of plasma parameters. All measurements were interpreted taking into account the transfer function of reflectometry in the Born approximation. The results are compared with theoretical predictions and simulations. In the first part of this thesis the inclination and the propagation of turbulent structures are investigated. It is shown that eddies are nearly aligned to the magnetic field line and, therefore, the magnetic field pitch angle can be measured with a precision of about 1
Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houseworth, J.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernst, D.R.; Basse, N.; Bonoli, P.T.; Catto, P.J.; Fiore, C.L.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.E.; Marmar, E.S.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J.E.; Zeller, K.; Zhurovich, K.; Dorland, W.
2005-01-01
Internal particle and thermal energy transport barriers are produced in Alcator C-Mod with off-axis ICRF heating, with core densities exceeding 10 21 m -3 , without core fueling, and with little change in the temperature profile. Applying on-axis ICRF heating controls the core density gradient and rate of rise. The present study employs linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence to explore mechanisms for ITB formation and control in Alcator C-Mod ITB experiments. Anomalous pinches are found to be negligible in our simulations; further, the collisional Ware pinch is sufficient to account for the slow density rise, lasting many energy confinement times. The simulations have revealed new nonlinear physics of TEM turbulence. The critical density gradient for onset of TEM turbulent transport is nonlinearly up-shifted by zonal flows. As the density profile peaks, during ITB formation, this nonlinear critical gradient is eventually exceeded, and the turbulent particle diffusivity from GS2 gyrokinetic simulations matches the particle diffusivity from transport analysis, within experimental errors. A stable equilibrium is then established when the TEM turbulent diffusion balances the Ware pinch in the ITB. This equilibrium is sensitive to temperature through gyroBohm scaling of the TEM turbulent transport, and the collisionality dependence of the neoclassical pinch, providing for control of the density rate of rise with on-axis RF heating. With no core particle fueling, and ∼1 mm between density spatial channels, the C-Mod experiments provide a nearly ideal test bed for particle transport studies. The pure TEM is the only unstable drift mode in the ITB, producing particle transport driven by the density gradient. (author)
Hanratty, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2005-01-01
Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.
Structure of parallel-velocity-shear-driven mode in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, J.Q.; Xu, W.B.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Horton, W.
1998-01-01
It is shown that the Fourier-ballooning representation is appropriate for the study of short-wavelength drift-like perturbation in toroidal plasmas with a parallel velocity shear (PVS). The radial structure of the mode driven by a PVS is investigated in a torus. The Reynolds stress created by PVS turbulence, and proposed as one of the sources for a sheared poloidal plasma rotation, is analyzed. It is demonstrated that a finite ion temperature may strongly enhance the Reynolds stress creation ability from PVS-driven turbulence. The correlation of this observation with the requirement that ion heating power be higher than a threshold value for the formation of an internal transport barrier is discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Statistical properties of turbulence in a toroidal magnetized ECR plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Yi; Lu Ronghua; Wang Zhijiang; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu, Wandong
2008-01-01
The statistical analyses of fluctuation data measured by electrostatic-probe arrays clearly show that the self-organized criticality (SOC) avalanches are not the dominant behaviors in a toroidal ECR plasma in the SMT (Simple Magnetic Torus) mode of KT-5D device. The f -1 index region in the auto-correlation spectra of the floating potential V f and the ion saturation current I s , which is a fingerprint of a SOC system, ranges only in a narrow frequency band. By investigating the Hurst exponents at increasingly coarse grained time series, we find that at a time scale of τ>100 μs, there exists no or a very weak long-range correlation over two decades in τ. The difference between the PDFs of I s and V f clearly shows a more global nature of the latter. The transport flux induced by the turbulence suggests that the natural intermittency of turbulent transport maybe independent of the avalanche induced by near criticality. The drift instability is dominant in a SMT plasma generated by means of ECR discharges
Dynamics of Turbulence Suppression in a Helicon Plasma
Hayes, Tiffany; Gilmore, Mark
2012-10-01
Experiments are currently being conducted in the the Helicon-Cathode Device (HelCat) at the University of New Mexico. The goal is to the study in detail the transition from a turbulent to a non-turbulent state in the presence of flow shear. HelCat has intrinsic fluctuations that have been identified as drift-waves. Using simple electrode biasing, it has been found that these fluctuations can be completely suppressed. In some extreme cases, a different instability, possibly the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, can be excited. Detailed studies are underway in order to understand the characteristics of each mode, and to elucidate the underlying physics that cause the change between an unstable plasma, and an instability-free plasma. Dynamics being observed include changes in flow profiles, both azimuthal and parallel, as well as changes in potential and temperature gradients. Further understanding is being sought using several computer codes developed at EPFL: a linear stability solver (LSS,footnotetextP. Ricci and B.N. Rogers (2009). Phys Plasmas 16, 062303. a one-dimensional PIC code/sheath solver, ODISEE,footnotetextJ. Loizu, P. Ricci, and C. Theiler (2011). Phys Rev E 83, 016406 and a global, 3D Braginski code, GBS.footnotetextRicci, Rogers (2009) A basic overview of results will be presented.
Localized vortices in ηi-modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nycander, J.; Lynov, J.P.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1992-01-01
For a wide variety of nonlinear wave equations necessary conditions for the existence of localized, stationary structures can be found by applying a simple procedure, involving two steps: First the linear dispersion relation is obtained and the regions of the phase velocity of linear waves found. Secondly, assuming that localized solutions exist, their velocities are determined by using integral relations. The obtained velocity takes the form of a ''center of mass velocity''. If this velocity falls outside the regions of phase velocities for linear waves then nonlinear localized vortices may exist. Otherwise, the structure will couple to the linear waves and gradually disperse. Applying this method we have shown that monopole vortex solutions exist for drift waves driven by the ion temperature gradient in a magnetized plasma, the so-called η i -modes. Numerical solutions show that such vortices are steadily propagating and stable and they generally emerge from localized initial conditions. Our study is motivated by recent high resolution simulations of η i -turbulence, where it was observed that coherent vortices developed spontaneously. These had a dominating influence on the evolution of the turbulence, and the associated anomalous transport was found to be significantly reduced as compared with the predictions from quasilinear theory. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs
Multiscale coherent structures in tokamak plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Zhang, W.; Yang, Q. W.; Wang, L.; Wen, Y. Z.
2006-01-01
A 12-tip poloidal probe array is used on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak [Li, Wan, and Mao, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 42, 135 (2000)] to measure plasma turbulence in the edge region. Some statistical analysis techniques are used to characterize the turbulence structures. It is found that the plasma turbulence is composed of multiscale coherent structures, i.e., turbulent eddies and there is self-similarity in a relative short scale range. The presence of the self-similarity is found due to the structural similarity of these eddies between different scales. These turbulent eddies constitute the basic convection cells, so the self-similar range is just the dominant scale range relevant to transport. The experimental results also indicate that the plasma turbulence is dominated by low-frequency and long-wavelength fluctuation components and its dispersion relation shows typical electron-drift-wave characteristics. Some large-scale coherent structures intermittently burst out and exhibit a very long poloidal extent, even longer than 6 cm. It is found that these large-scale coherent structures are mainly contributed by the low-frequency and long-wavelength fluctuating components and their presence is responsible for the observations of long-range correlations, i.e., the correlation in the scale range much longer than the turbulence decorrelation scale. These experimental observations suggest that the coexistence of multiscale coherent structures results in the self-similar turbulent state
Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Adámek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
2014-10-15
A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.
Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.
2014-01-01
A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved
Helicity--vorticity turbulent pumping of magnetic fields in the solar dynamo
Pipin, V. V.
2012-01-01
The interaction of helical convective motions and differential rotation in the solar convection zone results in turbulent drift of a large-scale magnetic field. We discuss the pumping mechanism and its impact on the solar dynamo.
Progress in semiconductor drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.
1985-01-01
Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements
Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Lincoln, Frank W.; Beus, Stephen G.
2002-01-01
In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved
Recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terry, P.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1997-09-22
This report contains viewgraphs of recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport. Localized nonlinear structures occur under a variety of circumstances in turbulent, magnetically confined plasmas, arising in both kinetic and fluid descriptions, i.e., in either wave-particle or three-wave coupling interactions. These structures are non wavelike. They cannot be incorporated in the collective wave response, but interact with collective modes through their shielding by the plasma dielectric. These structures are predicted to modify turbulence-driven transport in a way that in consistent with, or in some cases are confirmed by recent experimental observations. In kinetic theory, non wavelike structures are localized perturbations of phase space density. There are two types of structures. Holes are self-trapped, while clumps have a self-potential that is too weak to resist deformation and mixing by ambient potential fluctuations. Clumps remain correlated in turbulence if their spatial extent is smaller than the correlation length of the scattering fields. In magnetic turbulence, clumps travel along stochastic magnetic fields, shielded by the plasma dielectric. A drag on the clump macro-particle is exerted by the shielding, inducing emission into the collective response. The emission in turn damps back on the particle distribution via Landau dampling. The exchange of energy between clumps and particles, as mediated by the collective mode, imposes constraints on transport. For a turbulent spectrum whose mean wavenumber along the equilibrium magnetic field is nonzero, the electron thermal flux is proportional to the ion thermal velocity. Conventional predictions (which account only for collective modes) are larger by the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Recent measurements are consistent with the small flux. In fluid plasma,s localized coherent structures can occur as intense vortices.
Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D.H.Tang
2001-01-01
The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M and O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M and O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4
Rocket studies of plasma turbulence in the equatorial and auroral electrojets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfaff, R.F. Jr.
1986-01-01
Rocket observations of plasma turbulence in the equatorial and auroral electrojets have been studied in detail. Intense electric field and plasma density fluctuations characterize the collisional two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, showing a marked spectral differentiation with respect to height consistent with changes in the local sources of free energy. The interpretation of the frequencies and amplitudes of irregularities detected by in-situ probes travelling at comparable speeds to the waves is discussed in detail. Observations from three rockets in the daytime equatorial electrojet during strong, mild, and weak currents show that the linear theory accounts for the general height and wavelength domains of the irregularities. In the strong case, laminar two-stream waves were observed where the current was strongest and the density gradient was stable. The data suggest phase velocities that were comparable to the electron drift velocity (∼500 m/s) and peak wavelengths (2-3 m) that agree with kinetic theory. Vertically propagating waves observed here may have been generated by mode coupling. Where the gradient was unstable, large amplitude, kilometer scale waves dominated, although the linear gradient drift growth rate peaks at a few hundred meters. The amplitudes (10-15 mV/m) of these horizontal waves were strong enough to drive vertical two-stream waves
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Chen, Bin
2017-10-01
QCMs (quasi-coherent modes) are well characterized in the edge of Alcator C-Mod, when operating in the Enhanced Dα (EDA) H-mode, a promising alternative regime for ELM (edge localized modes) suppressed operation. To improve the understanding of the physics behind the QCMs, three typical C-Mod EDA H-Mode discharges are simulated by BOUT + + using a six-field two-fluid model (based on the Braginskii equations). The simulated characteristics of the frequency versus wave number spectra of the modes is in reasonable agreement with phase contrast imaging data. The key simulation results are: 1) Linear spectrum analysis and the nonlinear phase relationship indicate the dominance of resistive-ballooning modes and drift-Alfven wave instabilities; 2) QCMs originate inside the separatrix; (3) magnetic flutter causes the mode spreading into the SOL; 4) the boundary electric field Er changes the turbulent characteristics of the QCMs and controls edge transport and the divertor heat flux width; 5) the magnitude of the divertor heat flux depends on the physics models, such as sources and sinks, sheath boundary conditions, and parallel heat flux limiting coefficient. The BOUT + + simulations have also been performed for inter-ELM periods of DIII-D and EAST discharges, and similar quasi-coherent modes have been found. The parallel electron heat fluxes projected onto the target from these BOUT + + simulations follow the experimental heat flux width scaling, in particular the inverse dependence of the width on the poloidal magnetic field with an outlier. Further turbulence statistics analysis shows that the blobs are generated near the pedestal peak gradient region inside the separatrix and contribute to the transport of the particle and heat in the SOL region. To understand the Goldston heuristic drift-based model, results will also be presented from self-consistent transport simulations with the electric and magnetic drifts in BOUT + + and with the sheath potential included in the
Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Yokoi, N.
2017-12-01
Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow
Transport barrier fluctuations governed by SOL turbulence spreading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.; Ciraolo, G.; Darmet, G.; Garbet, X.; Grangirard, V.; Tamain, P.; Benkadda, S.; Beyer, P.
2007-01-01
Turbulence spreading, namely turbulent transport extending into a stable region is reported both for the flat density profiles in the far SOL and into a modeled H-mode barrier. It is shown that due to turbulence penetration, the pedestal width fluctuates and that its effective width is a factor 2 smaller than the linear predicted width. Turbulence overshooting throughout the pedestal leads to a non-vanishing turbulent transport within the barrier and provides a coupling of core and SOL turbulence despite the transport barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drury, L.O.; Stewart, J.M.
1976-01-01
A generalization of a transformation due to Kurskov and Ozernoi is used to rewrite the usual equations governing subsonic turbulence in Robertson-Walker cosmological models as Navier-Stokes equations with a time-dependent viscosity. This paper first rederives some well-known results in a very simple way by means of this transformation. The main result however is that the establishment of a Kolmogorov spectrum at recombination appears to be incompatible with subsonic turbulence. The conditions after recombination are also discussed briefly. (author)
Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flauger, Raphael [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); McAllister, Liam [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: flauger@physics.ucsd.edu, E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu, E-mail: evas@stanford.edu, E-mail: alexander.westphal@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)
2017-10-01
We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.
Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flauger, Raphael; Westphal, Alexander
2014-12-01
We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.
Physics basis of Multi-Mode anomalous transport module
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Weiland, J. [Departments of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Assoc., S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado (United States)
2013-03-15
The derivation of Multi-Mode anomalous transport module version 8.1 (MMM8.1) is presented. The MMM8.1 module is advanced, relative to MMM7.1, by the inclusion of peeling modes, dependence of turbulence correlation length on flow shear, electromagnetic effects in the toroidal momentum diffusivity, and the option to compute poloidal momentum diffusivity. The MMM8.1 model includes a model for ion temperature gradient, trapped electron, kinetic ballooning, peeling, collisionless and collision dominated magnetohydrodynamics modes as well as model for electron temperature gradient modes, and a model for drift resistive inertial ballooning modes. In the derivation of the MMM8.1 module, effects of collisions, fast ion and impurity dilution, non-circular flux surfaces, finite beta, and Shafranov shift are included. The MMM8.1 is used to compute thermal, particle, toroidal, and poloidal angular momentum transports. The fluid approach which underlies the derivation of MMM8.1 is expected to reliably predict, on an energy transport time scale, the evolution of temperature, density, and momentum profiles in plasma discharges for a wide range of plasma conditions.
Onset of current-driven turbulence on application of a low toroidal electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Yukio; Watanabe, Takechiyo; Nagao, Akihiro; Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Itoh, Satoshi
1982-01-01
The critical condition for current-driven instability excited in a turbulently-heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma is investigated experimentally. A resistive hump in the loop voltage, plasma density fluctuation and rapid increase in electron temperature in the skin layer are simultaneously observed when the electron drift velocity equals the critical drift velocity for low-frequency ion acoustic instability. (author)
Onset of current-driven turbulence on application of a low toroidal electric field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Yukio; Watanabe, Takechiyo; Nagao, Akihiro; Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Itoh, Satoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1982-06-01
The critical condition for current-driven instability excited in a turbulently-heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma is investigated experimentally. A resistive hump in the loop voltage, plasma density fluctuation and rapid increase in electron temperature in the skin layer are simultaneously observed when the electron drift velocity equals the critical drift velocity for low-frequency ion acoustic instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, T; Nagao, A; Nakamura, K; Kikuchi, M; Aoki, T; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Mitarai, O
1982-02-01
Critical condition for current-driven instability excited in turbulently heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma is investigated experimentally. Resistive hump in loop voltage, plasma density fluctuation and rapid increase of electron temperature in a skin layer are simultaneously observed at the time when the electron drift velocity amounts to the critical drift velocity for low-frequency ion acoustic instability.
Dynamic structure in self-sustained turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.
1995-06-01
Dynamical equation for the self-sustained and pressure-driven turbulence in toroidal plasmas is derived. The growth rate of the dressed-test mode, which belongs to the subcritical turbulence, is obtained as a function of the turbulent transport coefficient. In the limit of the low fluctuation level, the mode has the feature of the nonlinear instability and shows the explosive growth. The growth rate vanishes when the driven transport reaches to the stationarily-turbulent level. The stationary solution is thermodynamically stable. The characteristic time, by which the stationary and self-sustained turbulence is established, scales with the ion-sound transit time and is accelerated by the bad magnetic curvature. Influences of the pressure gradient as well as the radial electric field inhomogeneity are quantified. (author)
Simulation of heat transfer around a canister placed horizontally in a drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moujaes, S.; Bhargava, A.
1994-01-01
The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is investigating the feasibility of locating a high level radioactive nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The bore hole and the in-drift waste emplacement schemes are under evaluation as potential repository drift geometries. This paper presents a two-dimensional finite element thermal analysis of the nuclear waste canister placed horizontally in a drift. Simulation has been carried out for 1000 years and the peak temperatures at the walls of the drift and at the center of the canister have been determined. The effect of the three modes of heat transfer, conduction, natural convection and radiation, is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imaizumi, Ryota; Morikawa, Koichi; Higuchi, Masamori; Saito, Takayuki
2009-01-01
In this study, the interaction between a bubble swarm and homogeneous isotropic turbulence was experimentally investigated. The objective is to clarify the turbulence modulation induced by interaction between the bubble swarm and the homogeneous isotropic turbulence without mean flow. In order to generate simultaneously ideally homogeneous isotropic turbulence and a sufficiently controlled bubble swarm, we employed both oscillating grid and bubble generators equipped with audio speakers. First, the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was formed by operating the oscillating grid cylindrical acrylic pipe (height: 600 mm, inner diameter: 149 mm) filled with ion-exchanged and degassed water. Second, we stopped the oscillating-grid in arbitrary time after the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was achieved. A few moments later, the controlled bubble swarm (number of bubbles: 3, average equivalent diameter of bubble: 3 mm, bubble Reynolds number: 859, Weber number: 3.48) was launched into the decaying turbulence described above, using the bubble generators. The bubble formation, bubble size and bubble-launch timing are controlled arbitrarily and precisely by this device. In this study, we conducted the following experiments: 1) measurement of the motion of bubbles in rest water and oscillating grid turbulence via high-speed visualization, 2) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in rest water via PIV system with LIF method, 3) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in oscillating-grid turbulence via PIV system with LIF method. In the vitalization of the liquid-phase motion of both experiments, two high speed video cameras were employed in order to simultaneously film large- and small-scale interrogation areas. The liquid-phase ambient turbulence hastened the change of the bubble motion from zigzag mode to spiral mode. The interaction between the bubble swarm and liquid-phase turbulence increased decay-rate of the turbulence. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster issue on `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence'
Itoh, S.-I.
2005-07-01
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) invites submissions on the topic of `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence', for consideration for a special topical cluster of articles to be published early in 2006. The topical cluster will be published in an issue of PPCF, combined with regular articles. The Guest Editor for the special cluster will be S-I Itoh, Kyushu University, Japan. There has been remarkable progress in the area of structure formation by turbulence. One of the highlights has been the physics of zonal flow and drift wave turbulence in toroidal plasmas. Extensive theoretical as well as computational studies have revealed the various mechanisms in turbulence and zonal flows. At the same time, experimental research on the zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of global electric field by turbulence has evolved rapidly. Fast growth in reports of experimental results has stimulated further efforts to develop increased knowledge and systematic understanding. Each paper considered for the special cluster should describe the present research status and new scientific knowledge/results from the authors on experimental studies of zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of electric field by turbulence (including studies of Reynolds-Maxwell stresses, etc). Manuscripts submitted to this special cluster in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal. The Guest Editor guides the progress of the cluster from the initial open call, through the standard refereeing process, to publication. To be considered for inclusion in the special cluster, articles must be submitted by 2 September 2005 and must clearly state `for inclusion in the Turbulent Plasma Cluster'. Articles submitted after this deadline may not be included in the cluster issue but may be published in a later issue of the journal. Please submit your manuscript electronically via our web site at www
Kolmogorov spectra of long wavelength ion-drift waves in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onishchenko, O.G.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Pavlenko, V.P.; Stenflo, L.; Shukla, P.K.; Zolotukhin, V.V.
2002-01-01
Weakly turbulent Kolmogorov spectra of ion-drift waves in dusty plasmas with an arbitrary ratio between the ion-drift and the Shukla-Varma frequencies are investigated. It is shown that in the long wavelength limit, when the contribution to the wave dispersion associated with the inhomogeneity of the dust component is larger than that related to the plasma inhomogeneity, the wave dispersion and the matrix interaction element coincide with those for the Rossby or the electron-drift waves described by the Charney or Hasegawa-Mima equations with an accuracy of unessential numerical coefficients. It is found that the weakly turbulent spectra related to the conservation of the wave energy are local and thus the energy flux is directed towards smaller spatial scales
Drift chamber data readout system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basiladze, S.G.; Lokhonyai, L.
1980-01-01
An electronic system for processing drift chamber signals is described. The system consists of 4-channel fast amplifier-discriminators of low threshold, 16-channel time-expanders transforming 0.5 μs time intervals to 10 μs and a 9-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) recording up to 16 expanded time intervals. If the average track multiplicity is small, TDC is capable to process signals from 4 time-expanders (i.e., 64 drift gaps). In order to record multiple tracks per drift gap discriminator outputs can be connected to a number of time-expander channels. The fast clear input enables the system to be cleared within 0.5 μs. Efficient readout from TDC is facilated by reading only those channels which contain non-zero data (9 bits - drift time; 6 bits - wire number)
Photographic Service
1977-01-01
Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.
Ambient and Wake Turbulence Measurements at Marine Energy Sites from a Five Beam AD2CP
Guerra, M. A.; Thomson, J. M.
2016-02-01
Ambient turbulence at hydrokinetic energy sites is a key input for turbine design and for their performance determination. Added turbulence from rotating blades to the flow affects the environment surrounding the turbine and has an impact in turbine array distribution. We present two approaches of turbulence measurements: stationary and drifting. Stationary measurements allow for time and frequency analysis of turbulent velocities, while drifting measurements give a spatial characterization of turbulence. For both approaches we used the new five beam Nortek Signature AD2CP. This instrument captures turbulent flow along the water column at high sampling rates (8 Hz) with low Doppler noise level; the use of five beams also makes it possible to fully calculate the Reynolds Stresses. Both sets of measurements require Doppler noise removal for consistent results. Stationary measurements of ambient turbulence were carried out in Admiralty Inlet, WA, in May 2015. The Signature was deployed up looking on a sea spider tripod in a 50 m depth tidal channel during two tidal cycles. This data set allowed us to characterize the turbulence in terms of spectra and Reynolds Stresses in order to evaluate the turbulent kinetic energy balance along the water column and to compare results to other tidal energy sites with similar characteristics where turbulence measurements were taken as well. Drifting measurements of ambient and wake turbulence were conducted in the vicinity of the ORPC RivGen® turbine deployed on the Kvichak River in Alaska in July 2015. The Signature was mounted down looking onboard an anchor buoy equipped with two GPS data receivers for georefference. The cross-sectional river span was covered by releasing the drifter at different positions across the river. More than 300 drifts were performed to spatially characterize turbulence before and after turbine's deployment and grid connection. Results indicate an increased turbulent wake extending up to 75 m downstream
Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles and their use in Ocean Modelling
Breivik, Oyvind; Bidlot, Jea-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Mogensen, Kristian
2016-04-01
Deep-water approximations to the Stokes drift velocity profile are explored as alternatives to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profiles investigated rely on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons against parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profiles give a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. Of the two Stokes drift profiles explored here, the profile based on the Phillips spectrum is by far the best. In particular, the shear near the surface is almost identical to that influenced by the f-5 tail of spectral wave models. The NEMO general circulation ocean model was recently extended to incorporate the Stokes-Coriolis force along with two other wave-related effects. The ECWMF coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean ensemble forecast system now includes these wave effects in the ocean model component (NEMO).
On nonlinear periodic drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kauschke, U.; Schlueter, H.
1990-09-01
Nonlinear periodic drift waves are investigated on the basis of a simple perturbation scheme for both the amplitude and inverse frequency. The coefficients for the generation of the forced harmonics are derived, a nonlinear dispersion relation is suggested and a criterion for the onset of the modulational instability is obtained. The results are compared with the ones obtained with the help of a standard KBM-treatment. Moreover cnoidal drift waves are suggested and compared to an experimental observation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, J.R.; Elcombe, P.A.; Hill, J.C.; Roach, C.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Estabrooks, P.; Hemingway, R.; Karlen, D.; McPherson, A.; Pinfold, J.; Roney, J.M.; Routenburg, P.; Waterhouse, J.; Hargrove, C.K.; Klem, D.; Oakham, F.G.; Carter, A.A.; Jones, R.W.L.; Lasota, M.M.B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Pritchard, T.W.; Wyatt, T.R.
1990-01-01
A high precision vertex drift chamber has been installed in the OPAL experiment at LEP. The design of the chamber and the associated readout electronics is described. The performance of the system has been studied using cosmic ray muons and the results of these studies are presented. A space resolution of 50 μm in the drift direction is obtained using the OPAL central detector gas mixture at 4 bar. (orig.)
Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for SR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Y. Sun
2000-01-01
This analysis demonstrates that a satisfactory ground control system can be designed for the Yucca Mountain site, and provides the technical basis for the design of ground support systems to be used in repository emplacement and non-emplacement drifts. The repository ground support design was based on analytical methods using acquired computer codes, and focused on the final support systems. A literature review of case histories, including the lessons learned from the design and construction of the ESF, the studies on the seismic damages of underground openings, and the use of rock mass classification systems in the ground support design, was conducted (Sections 6.3.4 and 6.4). This review provided some basis for determining the inputs and methodologies used in this analysis. Stability of the supported and unsupported emplacement and non-emplacement drifts was evaluated in this analysis. The excavation effects (i.e., state of the stress change due to excavation), thermal effects (i.e., due to heat output from waste packages), and seismic effects (i.e., from potential earthquake events) were evaluated, and stress controlled modes of failure were examined for two in situ stress conditions (k 0 =0.3 and 1.0) using rock properties representing rock mass categories of 1 and 5. Variation of rock mass units such as the non-lithophysal (Tptpmn) and lithophysal (Tptpll) was considered in the analysis. The focus was on the non-lithophysal unit because this unit appears to be relatively weaker and has much smaller joint spacing. Therefore, the drift stability and ground support needs were considered to be controlled by the design for this rock unit. The ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts were incorporated into the models to assess their performance under in situ, thermal, and seismic loading conditions. Both continuum and discontinuum modeling approaches were employed in the analyses of the rock mass behavior and in the evaluation of the
Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.
1986-06-01
A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs
Stabilizing effects of hot electrons on low frequency plasma drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Chaosong; Qiu Lijian; Ren Zhaoxing
1988-01-01
The MHD equation is used to study the stabilization of low frequency drift waves driven by density gradient of plasma in a hot electron plasma. The dispersion relation is derived, and the stabilizing effects of hot electrons are discussed. The physical mechanism for hot electron stabilization of the low frequency plasma perturbations is charge uncovering due to the hot electron component, which depends only on α, the ratio of N h /N i , but not on the value of β h . The hot electrons can reduce the growth rate of the interchange mode and drift wave driven by the plasma, and suppress the enomalous plasma transport caused by the drift wave. Without including the effectof β h , the stabilization of the interchange mode requires α≅2%, and the stabilization of the drift wave requires α≅40%. The theoretical analyses predict that the drift wave is the most dangerous low frequency instability in the hot electron plasma
Operational SAR-based sea ice drift monitoring over the Baltic Sea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Karvonen
2012-07-01
Full Text Available An algorithm for computing ice drift from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images covering a common area has been developed at FMI. The algorithm has been developed based on the C-band SAR data over the Baltic Sea. It is based on phase correlation in two scales (coarse and fine with some additional constraints. The algorithm has been running operationally in the Baltic Sea from the beginning of 2011, using Radarsat-1 ScanSAR wide mode and Envisat ASAR wide swath mode data. The resulting ice drift fields are publicly available as part of the MyOcean EC project. The SAR-based ice drift vectors have been compared to the drift vectors from drifter buoys in the Baltic Sea during the first operational season, and also these validation results are shown in this paper. Also some navigationally useful sea ice quantities, which can be derived from ice drift vector fields, are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammouda, N.; Rao, Y.F.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Presentation of the “advanced” drift-flux model of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV. • Study the effect of the drift-flux model of ASSERT on CHF and flow distribution. • Quantify model component effects with flow, quality and dryout power measurements. - Abstract: This paper studies the effect of the drift flux model of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV on critical heat flux (CHF), void fraction and flow distribution across fuel bundles. Numerical experiments and comparison against measurements were performed to examine the trends and relative behaviour of the different components of the model under various flow conditions. The drift flux model of ASSERT-PV is composed of three components: (a) the lateral component or diversion cross-flow, caused by pressure difference between connected subchannels, (b) the turbulent diffusion component or the turbulent mixing through gaps of subchannels, caused by instantaneous turbulent fluctuations or flow oscillations, and (c) the void drift component that occurs due to the two-phase tendency toward a preferred distribution. This study shows that the drift flux model has a significant impact on CHF, void fraction and flow distribution predictions. The lateral component of the drift flux model has a stronger effect on CHF predictions than the axial component, especially for horizontal flow. Predictions of CHF, void fraction and flow distributions are most sensitive to the turbulent diffusion component of the model, followed by the void drift component. Buoyancy drift can be significant, but it does not have as much influence on CHF and flow distribution as the turbulent diffusion and void drift.
Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, Atsushi; Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi
2000-01-01
Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)
Air flow phenomena in the model of the blind drift
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaszczur Marek
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the presented paper, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV has been used to investigate flow pattern and turbulent structure in the model of blind drift. The presented model exist in mining, and has been analyzed to resolve ventilation issues. Blind region is particularly susceptible to unsafe methane accumulation. The measurement system allows us to evaluate all components of the velocity vector in channel cross-section simultaneously. First order and second order statistic of the velocity fields from different channel cross-section are computed and analyzed.
Anomalous diffusion, clustering, and pinch of impurities in plasma edge turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Priego, M.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.
2005-01-01
The turbulent transport of impurity particles in plasma edge turbulence is investigated. The impurities are modeled as a passive fluid advected by the electric and polarization drifts, while the ambient plasma turbulence is modeled using the two-dimensional Hasegawa-Wakatani paradigm for resistive...... drift-wave turbulence. The features of the turbulent transport of impurities are investigated by numerical simulations using a novel code that applies semi-Lagrangian pseudospectral schemes. The diffusive character of the turbulent transport of ideal impurities is demonstrated by relative...... orientation determined by the charge of the impurity particles. Second, a radial pinch scaling linearly with the mass-charge ratio of the impurities is discovered. Theoretical explanation for these observations is obtained by analysis of the model equations. (C) 2005 American Institute of Physics....
2008-04-01
By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its
Stability and magnetic tearing of finite-β modified drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.; Hsu, J.; Kaw, P.K.; Rutherford, P.H.
1977-10-01
A new simplified approach to the analysis of radial eigenmodes of finite-β modified drift waves in a sheared magnetic field is described. Applying this approach to the universal drift mode, one recovers, for the lowest (n = 0) radial eigenmode, the previous result that finite-β effects are stabilizing. For the next (n = 1) radial eigenmode, however, one finds that finite-β effects further destabilize the mode. Moreover, the corresponding mode structure exhibits nonzero radial (tearing) magnetic perturbations around the mode-rational surface. The consequences of a structure of microscopic magnetic islands, created in this way, for plasma transport are also briefly discussed
Integrated analysis of energy transfers in elastic-wave turbulence.
Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori
2017-08-01
In elastic-wave turbulence, strong turbulence appears in small wave numbers while weak turbulence does in large wave numbers. Energy transfers in the coexistence of these turbulent states are numerically investigated in both the Fourier space and the real space. An analytical expression of a detailed energy balance reveals from which mode to which mode energy is transferred in the triad interaction. Stretching energy excited by external force is transferred nonlocally and intermittently to large wave numbers as the kinetic energy in the strong turbulence. In the weak turbulence, the resonant interactions according to the weak turbulence theory produce cascading net energy transfer to large wave numbers. Because the system's nonlinearity shows strong temporal intermittency, the energy transfers are investigated at active and moderate phases separately. The nonlocal interactions in the Fourier space are characterized by the intermittent bundles of fibrous structures in the real space.
Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran, I.; Martinez-Laso, L.
1989-01-01
We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs
Drift resonance in high density non-neutral plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaup, D.J.
2006-01-01
Theoretical studies of the operation of crossed-field electron vacuum devices such as magnetrons and crossed-field amplifiers (CFA) have usually centered on their initial growth, taking this as an indication of their operating modes. In such an analysis one solves the equations for the density profile, the operating frequency, the growth rate, and other features of these devices. What one really obtains then are only the conditions for the device to turn on. The dominant interaction in this stage is a Rayleigh-type instability which initiates a quasilinear diffusion process whereby the electron density profile redistributes itself into a profile which will be in equilibrium with the ponderomotive-like forces produced by the growing rf fields. Eventually the rf fields will saturate and an operating device will settle into a stationary operating regime. This stage of a device's operation is called the ''saturation stage.'' This latter stage involves a different set of physical interactions from the initiation stage. No longer is there a growth rate; rather the rf amplitudes have saturated and as a result, the ponderomotive-like forces have also vanished along with the quasilinear diffusion. In this saturation stage, we find that new rf modes appear. In fact, there are a total of five rf modes, two of which are the usual slow modes of the initiation stage, and three of which have fast oscillations in the vertical direction. One fast mode corresponds to a drift plasma oscillation while the other two fast modes are drift cyclotron modes. In this paper, we will describe how the drift plasma oscillation interacts and couples with the slow rf modes at the diocotron resonance
A flowing plasma model to describe drift waves in a cylindrical helicon discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, L.; Hole, M. J.; Corr, C. S.
2011-01-01
A two-fluid model developed originally to describe wave oscillations in the vacuum arc centrifuge, a cylindrical, rapidly rotating, low temperature, and confined plasma column, is applied to interpret plasma oscillations in a RF generated linear magnetized plasma [WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence)], with similar density and field strength. Compared to typical centrifuge plasmas, WOMBAT plasmas have slower normalized rotation frequency, lower temperature, and lower axial velocity. Despite these differences, the two-fluid model provides a consistent description of the WOMBAT plasma configuration and yields qualitative agreement between measured and predicted wave oscillation frequencies with axial field strength. In addition, the radial profile of the density perturbation predicted by this model is consistent with the data. Parameter scans show that the dispersion curve is sensitive to the axial field strength and the electron temperature, and the dependence of oscillation frequency with electron temperature matches the experiment. These results consolidate earlier claims that the density and floating potential oscillations are a resistive drift mode, driven by the density gradient. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed physics model of flowing plasmas in the diffusion region away from the RF source. Possible extensions to the model, including temperature nonuniformity and magnetic field oscillations, are also discussed.
In-Drift Microbial Communities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D. Jolley
2000-11-09
As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.
In-Drift Microbial Communities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jolley, D.
2000-01-01
As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses
Chaos control and taming of turbulence in plasma devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klinger, T.; Schröder, C.; Block, D.
2001-01-01
Chaos and turbulence are often considered as troublesome features of plasma devices. In the general framework of nonlinear dynamical systems, a number of strategies have been developed to achieve active control over complex temporal or spatio-temporal behavior. Many of these techniques apply...... to plasma instabilities. In the present paper we discuss recent progress in chaos control and taming of turbulence in three different plasma "model" experiments: (1) Chaotic oscillations in simple plasma diodes, (2) ionization wave turbulence in the positive column of glow discharges, and (3) drift wave...
Site characterization and validation - validation drift fracture data, stage 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bursey, G.; Gale, J.; MacLeod, R.; Straahle, A.; Tiren, S.
1991-08-01
This report describes the mapping procedures and the data collected during fracture mapping in the validation drift. Fracture characteristics examined include orientation, trace length, termination mode, and fracture minerals. These data have been compared and analysed together with fracture data from the D-boreholes to determine the adequacy of the borehole mapping procedures and to assess the nature and degree of orientation bias in the borehole data. The analysis of the validation drift data also includes a series of corrections to account for orientation, truncation, and censoring biases. This analysis has identified at least 4 geologically significant fracture sets in the rock mass defined by the validation drift. An analysis of the fracture orientations in both the good rock and the H-zone has defined groups of 7 clusters and 4 clusters, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the fracture patterns in five consecutive sections along the validation drift further identified heterogeneity through the rock mass, with respect to fracture orientations. These results are in stark contrast to the results form the D-borehole analysis, where a strong orientation bias resulted in a consistent pattern of measured fracture orientations through the rock. In the validation drift, fractures in the good rock also display a greater mean variance in length than those in the H-zone. These results provide strong support for a distinction being made between fractures in the good rock and the H-zone, and possibly between different areas of the good rock itself, for discrete modelling purposes. (au) (20 refs.)
CERN PhotoLab
1977-01-01
With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Physics issues of compact drift optimized stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Hirshman, S.; Berry, L.A.
2001-01-01
Physics issues are discussed for compact stellarator configurations which achieve good confinement by the fact that the magnetic field modulus, vertical bar B vertical bar, in magnetic coordinates is dominated by poloidally symmetric components. Two distinct configuration types are considered: (1) those which achieve their drift optimization and rotational transform at low β and low bootstrap current by appropriate plasma shaping; and (2) those which have a greater reliance on plasma β and bootstrap currents for supplying the transform and obtaining quasi poloidal symmetry. Stability analysis of the latter group of devices against ballooning, kink and vertical displacement modes has indicated that stable 's on the order of 15% are possible. The first class of devices is being considered for a low β near-term experiment that could explore some of the confinement features of the high beta configurations. (author)
Predicting public sector accountability : From agency drift to forum drift
Schillemans, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229913881; Busuioc, Madalina
2015-01-01
Principal-agent theory has been the dominant theory at the heart of public sector accountability research. The notion of the potentially drifting agent-such as independent public agencies, opaque transnational institutions, or recalcitrant street-level bureaucrats-has been the guiding paradigm in
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Thompson, D. S. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2013-05-15
The spherical torus edge region is among the most challenging regimes for plasma turbulence simulations. Here, we measure the spatial and temporal properties of ion-scale turbulence in the steep gradient region of H-mode pedestals during edge localized mode-free, MHD quiescent periods in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Poloidal correlation lengths are about 10 ρ{sub i}, and decorrelation times are about 5 a/c{sub s}. Next, we introduce a model aggregation technique to identify parametric dependencies among turbulence quantities and transport-relevant plasma parameters. The parametric dependencies show the most agreement with transport driven by trapped-electron mode, kinetic ballooning mode, and microtearing mode turbulence, and the least agreement with ion temperature gradient turbulence. In addition, the parametric dependencies are consistent with turbulence regulation by flow shear and the empirical relationship between wider pedestals and larger turbulent structures.
Destructive interference of TEM and ITG turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merz, F.; Jenko, F.
2009-01-01
Full text: Turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEMs) is generally considered the key mechanism for anomalous transport in fusion devices on ion scales. But while pure ITG and, to a lesser extent, also pure TEM turbulence have been studied in detail over the last years, not much is presently known about nonlinear interactions between ITG modes and TEMs, which are often present simultaneously in experimentally relevant situations. This important issue is addressed by means of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GENE code. To examine the properties of the (linear) TEM and ITG instabilities in the (realistic) transitional regime, the GENE code is run as eigenvalue solver, which allows for a systematic study of dominant and subdominant modes. Corresponding nonlinear initial value computations show that the particle transport of the turbulent system can be completely suppressed if the two driving instabilities are active simultaneously. The direct comparison of the linear modes and the corresponding turbulent system reveals a coexistence of the two microinstabilities in a transitional regime even at the same wave number. The consequences of this dual turbulence drive for transport modeling is discussed. (author)
TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators
Proll, J. H. E.; Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Faber, B. J.
2016-01-01
With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is addressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X (Beidler et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 148) and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT (Spong et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 711) code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stellarator experiment HSX (Anderson et al 1995 Fusion Technol. 27 273) is presented for which a reduction of the linear growth rates is achieved over a broad range of the operational parameter space. As an important consequence of this property, the turbulent heat flux levels are reduced compared with the initial configuration.
Radial propagation of turbulence in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Samain, A.
1993-12-01
It is shown in this paper that a turbulence propagation can be due to toroidal or non linear mode coupling. An analytical analysis indicates that the toroidal coupling acts through a convection while the non linear effects induce a diffusion. Numerical simulations suggest that the toroidal propagation is usually the fastest process, except perhaps in some highly turbulent regimes. The consequence is the possibility of non local effects on the fluctuation level and the associated transport. (authors). 7 figs., 19 refs
A Robust Definition for the Turbulent Langmuir Number
Christensen, K. H.; Breivik, O.; Sutherland, G.; Belcher, S. E.; Gargett, A.
2016-02-01
The turbulent Langmuir number combines the water side friction velocity and the surface value of the Stokes drift, and is central to parameterizations of mixing by Langmuir turbulence. Making a direct comparison between such parameterizations and observations is difficult since the surface Stokes drift is sensitive to both the spectral tail and the directional spread of the waves. We propose a new definition for the turbulent Langmuir number based on low order moments of the one-dimensional frequency spectrum, hence eliminating most of the uncertainties associated with the diagnostic spectral tail. Comparison is made between the old and the new definitions using both observed and modeled wave spectra. The new definition has a higher variation around the mean and is better at resolving typical oceanic conditions. In addition, it is backwards compatible with the old definition for monochromatic waves, which means that scalings based on large eddy simulations with monochromatic wave forcing are still valid.
Stanislavsky, A.; Volvach, Ya.; Konovalenko, A.; Koval, A.
2017-08-01
In this paper a new sight on the study of solar bursts historically called drift pairs (DPs) is presented. Having a simple morphology on dynamic spectra of radio records (two short components separated in time, and often they are very similar) and discovered at the dawn of radio astronomy, their features remain unexplained totally up to now. Generally, the DPs are observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, but not every storm of type III bursts is linked with DPs. Detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, the DP bursts are limited in frequency bandwidth. They can drift from high frequencies to low ones and vice versa. Their frequency drift rate may be both lower and higher than typical rates of type III bursts at the same frequency range. The development of low-frequency radio telescopes and data processing provide additional possibilities in the research. In this context the fresh analysis of DPs, made from recent observations in the summer campaign of 2015, are just considered. Their study was implemented by updated tools of the UTR-2 radio telescope at 9-33 MHz. During 10-12 July of 2015, DPs forming the longest patterns on dynamic spectra are about 7% of the total number of recorded DPs. Their marvelous resemblance in frequency drift rates with the solar S-bursts is discussed.
Job satisfaction and preference drift.
Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.
1999-01-01
Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support
Characteristics of rectangular drift tube for muon identifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.
1987-01-01
The results of a study of an aluminum drift tube with a cross section of 50 x 100 mm are presented. Argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures were used as fillers. For a 16% methane concentration, the nonlinearity of the time-coordinate dependence does not exceed 2 mm. The tube can operate in the self-quenched streamer mode when filled with a mixture of argon with isobutane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokunaga, S.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.
2009-01-01
Full text: It is widely understood that the improved confinement mode with transport barrier is necessary to achieve the self-ignition condition in ITER. The negative magnetic shear, mean ExB flow shear, and zonal flow are considered to play important roles for ITB formation. In our previous study, it is found that the non-linear interaction between the meso-scale modes produces non-local energy transfer to the off-resonant mode in the vicinity of q min surface and brings global relaxation of the temperature profile involving ITB collapse. Experimental studies indicate that a relationship exists between the ITB formation and safety factor q-profile, with a reversed magnetic shear (RS) configuration. Transitional ITB events occur on the low-order rational resonant surface. The ITB shape and location depend on the q-profile and q min position. These observations indicate that the q-profile might play an essential role in determining the turbulent structure. In this study, the effect of safety factor profile on the ion temperature gradient driven drift wave (ITG) turbulence is investigated using a global non-linear simulation code based on the gyro-fluid model. A heat source and toroidal momentum source are introduced. Dependence of safety factor profiles on ITB formation and its stability is examined to clarify the influence of the radial distribution of the rational surfaces and the q min value. It is found that the nonlinearly excited meso-scale mode in the vicinity of q min depends on the value of q min . A detailed analysis of the structure selection rule is in progress. (author)
Fluid simulations of ∇Te-driven turbulence and transport in boundary plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.
1993-01-01
This paper is a report on simulations of a new drift wave type instability driven by the electron temperature gradient in tokamak scrapeoff-layers (SOL). A 2D(x,y) fluid code has been developed in order to explore the anomalous transport in the boundary plasmas. The simulation consists of a set of fluid equations (in the electrostatic limit) for the vorticity ∇ perpendicular 2 φ, the electron density n e and the temperature T e in a shearless plasma slab confined by a uniform, straight magnetic field B z with two diverter (or limiter) plates intercepting the magnetic field. The model has two regions separated by a magnetic separatrix: in the edge region inside the separatrix, the model is periodic along the magnetic field while in the SOL region outside the separatrix, the magnetic field is taken to be of finite length with model (logical sheath) boundary conditions at diverter (or limiter) plates. The simulation results show that the observed linear instability agrees well with theory, and that a saturated state of turbulence is reached. In saturated turbulence, clear evidence of the expected long-wavelength mode penetration into the edge is seen, an inverse cascade of wave energy (toward both long wavelengths and low frequencies) is observed. The simulation results also show that amplitudes of potential and the electron temperature fluctuations are somewhat above and the heat flux are somewhat below those of the simplest mixing-length estimates. The results from the self-consistent simulations to determine the microturbulent SOL electron temperature profile agree reasonably with the experimental measurements. The effects on the mode of neutral gas collisions at the divertor sheath and comparisons with the ionization driven turbulence are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.
1990-01-01
A serious degradation of confinement with additional heating is commonly observed on most tokamaks. The microtearing modes could provide an explanation for this experimental fact. They are driven linearly unstable by diamagnetism in collisional regimes, but it may be shown that the collisions in non linear regimes provide a small diffusion coefficient which can be only significant at the plasme edge. In the bulk of the plasma, the microtearing turbulence could play a basic role if it is unstable in the collisionless regime. While it is linearly stable without collisions, it could be driven unstable in realistic regimes by the radial diffusion it induces. To study this effect, we have used a model where the non linear action of the modes on a given helicity component is represented by a diffusion operator. They are found unstable for reasonable β p =2μ o nT/B 2 p , with a special radial profile of the potential vector A. The problem arises the validity of this model where non linearities in the trajectories behaviour are replaced by the diffusion which broadens resonances. To test this procedure, we calculate the actual electron distribution function when it is determined by the ergodicity of the field lines. We compute the correlations of the distribution function with the magnetic perturbation and compare them with the analytical expressions derived from the resonance broadening model. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs
Turbulence, Magnetic Reconnection in Turbulent Fluids and Energetic Particle Acceleration
Lazarian, A.; Vlahos, L.; Kowal, G.; Yan, H.; Beresnyak, A.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.
2012-11-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysics. It radically changes many astrophysical phenomena, in particular, the propagation and acceleration of cosmic rays. We present the modern understanding of compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, in particular its decomposition into Alfvén, slow and fast modes, discuss the density structure of turbulent subsonic and supersonic media, as well as other relevant regimes of astrophysical turbulence. All this information is essential for understanding the energetic particle acceleration that we discuss further in the review. For instance, we show how fast and slow modes accelerate energetic particles through the second order Fermi acceleration, while density fluctuations generate magnetic fields in pre-shock regions enabling the first order Fermi acceleration of high energy cosmic rays. Very importantly, however, the first order Fermi cosmic ray acceleration is also possible in sites of magnetic reconnection. In the presence of turbulence this reconnection gets fast and we present numerical evidence supporting the predictions of the Lazarian and Vishniac (Astrophys. J. 517:700-718, 1999) model of fast reconnection. The efficiency of this process suggests that magnetic reconnection can release substantial amounts of energy in short periods of time. As the particle tracing numerical simulations show that the particles can be efficiently accelerated during the reconnection, we argue that the process of magnetic reconnection may be much more important for particle acceleration than it is currently accepted. In particular, we discuss the acceleration arising from reconnection as a possible origin of the anomalous cosmic rays measured by Voyagers as well as the origin cosmic ray excess in the direction of Heliotail.
Periodic pulling of the drift instability in a thermal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrams, R.H. Jr.
1970-01-01
The primary objective of this thesis is to show that a mode of oscillation in a plasma can be represented by a van der Pol oscillator. The results of an experiment performed on a drift wave in a Q-machine are interpreted in terms of a mechanism developed by Lashinsky. The mechanism, called periodic pulling, predicts a specific kind of spectrum for certain experimental conditions when a van der Pol oscillator is perturbed by a small signal. The observed spectrum, along with other observations, lends credence to the van der Pol oscillator model of a plasma mode
Warm ion effects on kinetic drift cyclotron loss cone instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Shichong; Shen Jiewu; Cai Shidong
1988-01-01
The effects of adding warm plasmas on the kinetic DCLC mode in high β loss cone plasmas are investigated in detail. It is found that when the fluid DCLC mode is stabilized by a small amount of warm plasma, the kinetic excitation still remains due to two different mechanisms, namely, (1) magnetic drift resonance dissipation excites the negative energy wave; (2) a new type of positive energy wave can become unstable as the resonance condition is met. Comparing with fluid approximation theory, more warm plasmas are needed to suppress the kinetic DCLC instabilities
Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duran, I; Martinez laso, L
1989-07-01
We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.
Hierarchical order in wall-bounded shear turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbone, F.; Aubry, N.
1996-01-01
Since turbulence at realistic Reynolds numbers, such as those occurring in the atmosphere or in the ocean, involve a high number of modes that cannot be resolved computationally in the foreseeable future, there is a strong motivation for finding techniques which drastically decrease the number of such required modes, particularly under inhomogeneous conditions. The significance of this work is to show that wall-bounded shear turbulence, in its strongly inhomogeneous direction (normal to the wall), can be decomposed into one (or a few) space endash time mother mode(s), with each mother generating a whole family of modes by stretching symmetry. In other words, the generated modes are similar, dilated copies of their mother. In addition, we show that the nature of all previous modes strongly depends on the symmetry itself. These findings constitute the first scaling theory of inhomogeneous turbulence. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Nulling, Mode-Changing and Drifting Subpulses in the Highly ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Joanna M. Rankin
2017-09-12
Sep 12, 2017 ... to the leading half of the profile and highly modulated in a 2-period odd–even manner; ..... test may be more complicated depending on the physical ... The 3-σ background noise level of this sequence is indicated by the white.
Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W.X.; Tang, W.M.
2007-01-01
For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers
Destabilization of hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves in a finite pressure collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, J.T.
1974-01-01
In a finite beta (β = 8πn 0 kT 0 /B 0 2 ) plasma, where the plasma pressure n 0 kT 0 is an appreciable fraction of the confining magnetic field energy-density B 0 2 /8π, density-gradient driven drift waves couple with Alfven waves when the phase velocities of the two waves become comparable. The resulting hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves separate into two branches--a drift mode and an Alfven mode, with both modes exhibiting magnetic field and localized density fluctuations near the coupling point. The dispersion relation of the collisional drift-Alfven wave is derived by using a slab-geometry, two-fluid model which includes finite beta, electron-ion collisions, ion-ion collisions, finite ion larmar radius, temperature fluctuations, and an axial electron current. A hydromagnetic drift mode is found to be unstable in a moderately dense plasma. A localized ''Alfven'' mode is destabilized only with the passage of an axial current along the plasma column. In order to check the theoretical predictions an experiment is performed in a finite-beta plasma of density n 0 = 10 13 -10 15 cm -3 and temperature T/sub e/ approximately T/sub i/ = 1-7 eV. (U.S.)
Nonlinear theory of collisionless trapped ion modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Tang, W.M.
1996-01-01
A simplified two field nonlinear model for collisionless trapped-ion-mode turbulence has been derived from nonlinear bounce-averaged drift kinetic equations. The renormalized thermal diffusivity obtained from this analysis exhibits a Bohm-like scaling. A new nonlinearity associated with the neoclassical polarization density is found to introduce an isotope-dependent modification to this Bohm-like diffusivity. The asymptotic balance between the equilibrium variation and the finite banana width induced reduction of the fluctuation potential leads to the result that the radial correlation length decreases with increasing plasma current. Other important conclusions from the present analysis include the predictions that (i) the relative density fluctuation level δn/n 0 is lower than the conventional mixing length estimate, Δr/L n (ii) the ion temperature fluctuation level δT i /T i significantly exceeds the density fluctuation level δn/n 0 ; and (iii) the parallel ion velocity fluctuation level δv iparallel /v Ti is expected to be negligible
ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arai, Y [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation, Tsukuba (Japan); Ball, B; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Gregory, J [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beretta, M [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P P M [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brandenburg, G W; Fries, T; Costa, J Guimaraes da; Harder, S; Huth, J [Harvard University, Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ceradini, F [INFN Roma Tre and Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Hazen, E [Boston University, Physics Department, Boston, MA (United States); Kirsch, L E [Brandeis University, Department of Physics, Waltham, MA (United States); Koenig, A C [Radboud University Nijmegen/Nikhef, Dept. of Exp. High Energy Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lanza, A [INFN Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mikenberg, G [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics, Rehovot (Israel)], E-mail: brandenburg@physics.harvard.edu (and others)
2008-09-15
This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 {mu}m, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at p{sub T}= 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.
ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics
Arai, Y; Beretta, M; Boterenbrood, H; Brandenburg, G W; Ceradini, F; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Fries, T; Gregory, J; Guimarães da Costa, J; Harder, S; Hazen, E; Huth, J; Jansweijer, P P M; Kirsch, L E; König, A C; Lanza, A; Mikenberg, G; Oliver, J; Posch, C; Richter, R; Riegler, W; Spiriti, E; Taylor, F E; Vermeulen, J; Wadsworth, B; Wijnen, T A M
2008-01-01
This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 microns, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at pT = 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.
A Pascalian lateral drift sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, H.
2016-01-01
A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.
A Pascalian lateral drift sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de
2016-09-21
A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platner, E.D.
1982-01-01
The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed
Shear wall ultimate drift limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.
1994-04-01
Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated
Drift effects on the galactic cosmic ray modulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laurenza, M.; Storini, M. [INAF/IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Vecchio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia-Sede di Cosenza, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Carbone, V., E-mail: monica.laurenza@iaps.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)
2014-02-01
Cosmic ray (CR) modulation is driven by both solar activity and drift effects in the heliosphere, although their role is only qualitatively understood as it is difficult to connect the CR variations to their sources. In order to address this problem, the Empirical Mode Decomposition technique has been applied to the CR intensity, recorded by three neutron monitors at different rigidities (Climax, Rome, and Huancayo-Haleakala (HH)), the sunspot area, as a proxy for solar activity, the heliospheric magnetic field magnitude, directly related to CR propagation, and the tilt angle (TA) of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), which characterizes drift effects on CRs. A prominent periodicity at ∼six years is detected in all the analyzed CR data sets and it is found to be highly correlated with changes in the HCS inclination at the same timescale. In addition, this variation is found to be responsible for the main features of the CR modulation during periods of low solar activity, such as the flat (peaked) maximum in even (odd) solar cycles. The contribution of the drift effects to the global Galactic CR modulation has been estimated to be between 30% and 35%, depending on the CR particle energy. Nevertheless, the importance of the drift contribution is generally reduced in periods nearing the sunspot maximum. Finally, threshold values of ∼40°, ∼45°, and >55° have been derived for the TA, critical for the CR modulation at the Climax, Rome, and HH rigidity thresholds, respectively.
Liu, S. C.; Liang, Y.; Drews, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Han, X.; Nicolai, D.; Satheeswaran, G.; Wang, N. C.; Cai, J. Q.; Charl, A.; Cosfeld, J.; Fuchert, G.; Gao, Y.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Henkel, M.; Hirsch, M.; Hoefel, U.; Hollfeld, K. P.; Höschen, D.; Killer, C.; Knieps, A.; König, R.; Neubauer, O.; Pasch, E.; Rahbarnia, K.; Rack, M.; Sandri, N.; Sereda, S.; Schweer, B.; Wang, E. H.; Wei, Y. L.; Weir, G.; Windisch, T.; W7-X Team
2018-04-01
Turbulence is considered to play an important role in the edge cross field heat and particle transport in fusion devices. Scrape-off layer (SOL) turbulence characteristics were measured by the combined probe mounted on the multi-purpose manipulator during the first experimental campaign of W7-X. An electromagnetic coherent mode (EMCM) at 7 kHz has been observed by multiple diagnostics in both the plasma core and the SOL and exhibits a strong dependence of the magnetic topology. As demonstrated by the measurements of the combined probe, the EMCM starts to appear at a radius of R = 6.15 m along the path of probe measurement and this location is shifted inwards in higher iota configurations. It propagates along the direction of electron diamagnetic drift in the far SOL with a poloidal velocity about 0.6 km s-1 while it turns to the opposite direction gradually in the near SOL in the laboratory frame, but keeps a velocity of about 0.6-0.7 km s-1 along the direction of electron diamagnetic drift in the plasma frame. This mode can be induced by raising the ECRH heating power in similar discharge conditions, which is probably linked to the gradient of electron temperature and pressure. The EMCM is enhanced significantly in the edge magnetic island with long connection length where the EMCM can grow up due to the long particle confinement time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bechtel SAIC Company
2002-01-01
Higher and lower temperature operating modes (e.g., above and below the boiling point of water) are alternative approaches to managing the heat produced by the radioactive decay of spent nuclear fuel. Current analyses indicate that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site is likely to comply with applicable safety standards regardless of the particular thermal operating mode. Both modes have potential advantages and disadvantages. With a higher temperature operating mode (HTOM), waste packages (WPs) can be placed closer together. This reduces the number of drifts, the required emplacement area, construction costs, and occupational risks to construction workers. In addition, the HTOM would minimize the amount of water that might contact the waste for hundreds of years after closure. On the other hand, higher temperatures introduce uncertainties in the understanding of the long-term performance of the repository because of uncertainties in the thermal effects on WP lifetime and the near-field environment around the drifts. A lower temperature operating mode (LTOM) has the potential to reduce uncertainties in long-term performance of the repository by limiting the effects of temperature on WP lifetime and on the near-field environment around the drifts. Depending on the combination of operating parameters, a LTOM could require construction of additional drifts, a larger emplacement area, increased construction costs, increased occupational risks to construction works, and a longer period of ventilation than a HTOM. The repository design for the potential Yucca Mountain site is flexible and can be constructed and operated in various operating modes to achieve specific technical objectives, accommodate future policy decisions, and use of new information. For example, the flexible design can be operated across a range of temperatures and can be tailored to achieve specific thermal requirements in the future. To accommodate future policy decisions, the repository can be
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and pressure data were collected using drifting buoy and profiling floats from CHAIN, GILLISS, OCEANUS, and ENDEAVOR from the North Atlantic Ocean from...
Optimization of drift gases for accuracy in pressurized drift tubes
Kirchner, J J; Dinner, A R; Fidkowski, K J; Wyatt, J H
2001-01-01
Modern detectors such as ATLAS use pressurized drift tubes to minimize diffusion and achieve high coordinate accuracy. However, the coordinate accuracy depends on the exact knowledge of converting measured times into coordinates. Linear space-time relationships are best for reconstruction, but difficult to achieve in the $E \\propto \\frac{1}{r}$ field. Previous mixtures, which contained methane or other organic quenchers, are disfavored because of ageing problems. From our studies of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, two mixtures with only small deviations from linearity were determined and measured. Scaling laws for different pressures and magnetic fields are also given.
Optimization of drift gases for accuracy in pressurized drift tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirchner, J.J.; Becker, U.J.; Dinner, R.B.; Fidkowski, K.J.; Wyatt, J.H.
2001-01-01
Modern detectors such as ATLAS use pressurized drift tubes to minimize diffusion and achieve high coordinate accuracy. However, the coordinate accuracy depends on the exact knowledge of converting measured times into coordinates. Linear space-time relationships are best for reconstruction, but difficult to achieve in the E∝1/r field. Previous mixtures, which contained methane or other organic quenchers, are disfavored because of ageing problems. From our studies of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, two mixtures with only small deviations from linearity were determined and measured. Scaling laws for different pressures and magnetic fields are also given
Modelling substorm chorus events in terms of dispersive azimuthal drift
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. B. Collier
2004-12-01
Full Text Available The Substorm Chorus Event (SCE is a radio phenomenon observed on the ground after the onset of the substorm expansion phase. It consists of a band of VLF chorus with rising upper and lower cutoff frequencies. These emissions are thought to result from Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons which drift into a ground station's field of view from an injection site around midnight. The increasing frequency of the emission envelope has been attributed to the combined effects of energy dispersion due to gradient and curvature drifts, and the modification of resonance conditions and variation of the half-gyrofrequency cutoff resulting from the radial component of the ExB drift.
A model is presented which accounts for the observed features of the SCE in terms of the growth rate of whistler mode waves due to anisotropy in the electron distribution. This model provides an explanation for the increasing frequency of the SCE lower cutoff, as well as reproducing the general frequency-time signature of the event. In addition, the results place some restrictions on the injected particle source distribution which might lead to a SCE.
Key words. Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interaction – Magnetospheric physics (Plasma waves and instabilities; Storms and substorms
Modelling substorm chorus events in terms of dispersive azimuthal drift
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. B. Collier
2004-12-01
Full Text Available The Substorm Chorus Event (SCE is a radio phenomenon observed on the ground after the onset of the substorm expansion phase. It consists of a band of VLF chorus with rising upper and lower cutoff frequencies. These emissions are thought to result from Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons which drift into a ground station's field of view from an injection site around midnight. The increasing frequency of the emission envelope has been attributed to the combined effects of energy dispersion due to gradient and curvature drifts, and the modification of resonance conditions and variation of the half-gyrofrequency cutoff resulting from the radial component of the ExB drift. A model is presented which accounts for the observed features of the SCE in terms of the growth rate of whistler mode waves due to anisotropy in the electron distribution. This model provides an explanation for the increasing frequency of the SCE lower cutoff, as well as reproducing the general frequency-time signature of the event. In addition, the results place some restrictions on the injected particle source distribution which might lead to a SCE. Key words. Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interaction – Magnetospheric physics (Plasma waves and instabilities; Storms and substorms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Chen
Full Text Available Gaussian distribution is used to describe the power law along the propagation path and phase screen of the non-Kolmogorov turbulence is proposed based on the equivalent refractive-index structure constants. Various simulations of Gaussian beam propagation in Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence are used for telling the difference between isotropic and anisotropic turbulence. The results imply that the non-Kolmogorov turbulence makes a great influence on the simulations via power law in spectrum and the number of phase screens. Furthermore, the influence is mainly reflected in light intensity and beam drift. Statistics suggest that when Gaussian beam propagate through single phase screen of non-Kolmogorov, maximum and uniformity of light intensity increase first and then decrease with power law, and beam drift firstly increases and then to stabilize. When Gaussian beam propagate through multiple phase screens, relative errors of beam drift decrease with the number of phase screens. And scintillation indices in non-Kolmogorov turbulence is larger than that in Kolmogorov turbulence when the number is small. When the number is big, the scintillation indices in non-Kolmogorov turbulence is smaller than that in Kolmogorov turbulence. The results shown in this paper demonstrate the effect of the non-Kolmogorov turbulence on laser atmospheric transmissions. Thus, this paper suggests a possible direction of the improvement of the laser transmission accuracy over a long distance through the atmosphere.
Study of the plasma edge turbulence in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Mourgues, F.; Roubin, J.P.; Samain, A.
1990-01-01
The plasma edge in tokamaks is known to be very turbulent. We investigate here the non linear stability of a test mode in presence of an helical potential perturbation, i.e. a pump mode, which simulates the plasma turbulence. The particle trajectories in this perturbed equilibrium are derived using an hamiltonian formalism. The electrons appear to have trapped trajectories in the potential well of the pump mode, while the ions experience a large convective motion. These two effects have a large influence on the test mode stability. First, non linearly trapped electrons supply an energy source for the test mode. Second, the ion convective motion introduces a radial scale of the test mode larger than the ion Larmor radius, in agreement with experimental data. These two phenomena allow a bifurcation in the turbulence level and provide therefore an explanation for the L-H transition
Comments on the dispersion equation of a turbulent plasma - an inhomogeneous, magnetoactive case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ag, A.
1978-03-01
A weakly turbulent, magnetoactive plasma is considered in an inhomogeneous case with anisotropic temperature distribution. The dispersion relation is established following a method developed by Tsytovich and Nekrasov. The correction coefficients are calculated in the three principal scaling modes: (1) the turbulent frequencies predominate, (2) the cyclotronic velocities of the macroinstabilities predominate, (3) the turbulent frequencies are lower. (D.P.)
Measurement of the positron-drift time relation of a high-pressure drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruefert, W.
1989-04-01
As a test of its performance, the measurement of the drift time versus drift distance relation of a high pressure drift chamber using cosmic rays is described. Two multiwire proportional chambers, mounted above and below the detector, are used to define the track of the cosmic particle in the drift chamber. The drift chamber is read out by FADCs (Flash Analog to Digital Converter), and the drift time is determined from the FADC signals by the DOS- (Difference Of Samples) method. The measured drift time versus drift distance relation showed good agreement with the relation, which is expected from the spatial dependence of the electric field and the dependence of the drift velocity on this field. (orig.) [de
Pulse shape simulation for drift chambers with long drift paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayer, H.J.
1987-01-01
A detailed Monte Carlo program for the simulation of drift chamber pulse shapes is described. It has been applied to the case of a jet chamber with drift paths up to 24 cm. Results on pulse shapes and corresponding spatial and double hit resolution are discussed and compared to recent measurements of the OPAL central detector jet chamber full size prototype and to measurements of a small 20-wire prototype, which was designed to study the pulse shapes generated by tracks in a magnetic field. Simulated pulse shapes and spatial resolutions agree well with the experimental data. Clustering, saturation and wire crosstalk are shown to be necessary ingredients in the simulation. A deterioration in resolution due to the influence of crosstalk signals is correctly reproduced, as well as the cancellation of this effect by a hardwired first and second neighbour crosstalk compensation. The simulation correctly describes the asymmetry in spatial resolution observed for tracks with positive or negative inclination against the wire plane when a magnetic field is present. The effect of saturation on double hit resolution is found to be small. The magnetic field is predicted to improve the double hit resolution. (orig.)
Pulse shape simulation for drift chambers with long drift paths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayer, H J
1987-09-15
A detailed Monte Carlo program for the simulation of drift chamber pulse shapes is described. It has been applied to the case of a jet chamber with drift paths up to 24 cm. Results on pulse shapes and corresponding spatial and double hit resolution are discussed and compared to recent measurements of the OPAL central detector jet chamber full size prototype and to measurements of a small 20-wire prototype, which was designed to study the pulse shapes generated by tracks in a magnetic field. Simulated pulse shapes and spatial resolutions agree well with the experimental data. Clustering, saturation and wire crosstalk are shown to be necessary ingredients in the simulation. A deterioration in resolution due to the influence of crosstalk signals is correctly reproduced, as well as the cancellation of this effect by a hardwired first and second neighbour crosstalk compensation. The simulation correctly describes the asymmetry in spatial resolution observed for tracks with positive or negative inclination against the wire plane when a magnetic field is present. The effect of saturation on double hit resolution is found to be small. The magnetic field is predicted to improve the double hit resolution.
Characterization of zonal flow generation in weak electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negrea, M; Petrisor, I; Weyssow, B
2008-01-01
The influence of the diamagnetic Kubo number, which is proportional to the diamagnetic drift velocity, on the zonal flow generation by an anisotropic stochastic electrostatic potential is considered from a semi-analytic point of view. The analysis is performed in the weak turbulence limit and as an analytical tool the decorrelation trajectory method is used. It is shown that the fragmentation of the drift wave structures (a signature of the zonal flow generation) is influenced not only by the anisotropy parameter and the electrostatic Kubo number as expected, but also by the diamagnetic Kubo number. Global Lagrangian averages of characteristic quantities are calculated and interpreted
Periodic Boundary Motion in Thermal Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jun; Libchaber, Albert
2000-01-01
A free-floating plate is introduced in a Benard convection cell with an open surface. It partially covers the cell and distorts the local heat flux, inducing a coherent flow that in turn moves the plate. Remarkably, the plate can be driven to a periodic motion even under the action of a turbulent fluid. The period of the oscillation depends on the coverage ratio, and on the Rayleigh number of the convective system. The plate oscillatory behavior observed in this experiment may be related to a geological model, in which continents drift in a quasiperiodic fashion. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Shock drift acceleration in the presence of waves
Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.
1985-01-01
Attention is given to the initial results of a model designed to study the modification of the scatter-free, shock drift acceleration of energetic test particles by wave activity in the vicinity of a quasi-perpendicular, fast-mode MHD shock. It is emphasized that the concept of magnetic moment conservation is a valid approximation only in the perpendicular and nearly perpendicular regimes, when the angle theta-Bn between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field vector is in the range from 70 deg to 90 deg. The present investigation is concerned with one step in a program which is being developed to combine the shock drift and diffusive processes at a shock of arbitrary theta-Bn.
Second coordinate readout in drift chambers by charge division
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.
1977-10-01
The drift time measurement and the charge division can be performed simultaneously on the same electrode (resistive anode) without affecting the accuracy of either measurement. It is shown that for the shortest measurement time there is an optimum value for the anode wire resistance. The signal requirement for a position uncertainty sigma less than or equal to 0.5% of the anode wire length is only 2.7 x 10 6 electron charges. The drift chamber can be operated in the linear mode and with negligible space charge effects, so that it can also be used for ΔE/ΔX measurements. A simple preamplifier optimized for both the time and charge measurements using a monolithic transistor array is described
Pulsar bi-drifting: implications for polar cap geometry
Wright, Geoff; Weltevrede, Patrick
2017-01-01
For many years it has been considered puzzling how pulsar radio emission, supposedly created by a circulating carousel of sub-beams, can produce the drift bands demonstrated by PSR J0815+0939, and more recently PSR B1839-04, which simultaneously drifts in opposing directions. Here, we suggest that the carousels of these pulsars, and hence their beams, are not circular but elliptical with axes tilted with respect to the fiducial plane. We show that certain relatively unusual lines of sight can cause bi-drifting to be observed, and a simulation of the two known exemplars is presented. Although bi-drifting is rare, non-circular beams may be common among pulsars and reveal themselves by having profile centroids displaced from the fiducial plane identified by polarization position angle swings. They may also result in profiles with asymmetric- and frequency-dependent component evolution. It is further suggested that the carousels may change their tilt by specific amounts and later reverse them. This may occur suddenly, accompanying a mode change (e.g. PSR B0943+10), or more gradually and short lived as in `flare' pulsars (e.g. PSR B1859+07). A range of pulsar behaviour (e.g. the shifting drift patterns of PSRs B0818-41 and B0826-34) may also be the result of non-circular carousels with varying orientation. The underlying nature of these carousels - whether they are exclusively generated by polar cap physics or driven by magnetospheric effects - is briefly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, G.
1988-01-01
The linear stability of the electrostatic drift waves in slab geometry has been studied analytically and numerically. The effects of magnetic field with shear, of the finite Larmor radius, of an electron streaming, of a temperature gradient and of collisions have been retained. The analytical solution has been obtained using the matched asymptotic expansion technique, and an expression for the critical streaming parameter has been derived. Finally, assuming that the transport in the Reversed Field Pinches is dominated by this instability, a scaling law for the temperature in such machine is derived
Experimental work on drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcaraz, J.; Duran, I.; Gonzalez, E.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Olmos, P.
1989-01-01
An experimental work made on drift chambers is described in two chapters. In the firt chapter we present the description of the experimental installation used, as well as some details on the data adquisition systems and the characteristics on three ways used for calibration proposes (cosmic muons, β radiation and test beam using SPS at CERN facilities). The second chapter describes the defferent prototypes studied. The experimental set up and the analysis are given. Some results are discussed. The magnetic field effect is also studied. (Author)
Drift vortices in continuous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernousenko, V.M.; Chernenko, I.V.; Chernyshenko, S.V.
1989-01-01
The work is devoted to investigation into the problems of large-scale cortex drift and generation in continuous media based on the solution of notably non-linear differential equations. Using the capability of the modern computer technique it is possible to consider a series of cases with regard to medium viscosity and its inhomogeneity and with regard to three-dimensional vortex nature. Based on the solutions obtained the large-scale steady-state vortex generation processes are considered. The results can be used when studying non-linear phenomena in plasma and processes of substance and energy transfer in non-equilibrium media. 16 refs.; 5 figs
Turbulent current heating of dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suprunenko, V.A.; Sukhomlin, E.A.; Volkov, E.D.; Perepelkij, N.F.
1976-01-01
Based upon experimental results an attempt is made for systematizing and analysing conditions of experiments in anomalous resistance and turbulent heating of a plasma. The extensive program of such investigations aims at a direct practical study on quasistationary heating and plasma containment in magnetic traps. It has been shown that in real conditions turbulent heating turns out to be a far more complicated phenomenon than that described within the framework of theories developed so far. It has been established that the phenomenon alters in the transition through the critical values of electric and magnetic fields. This makes it possible to separate four characteristic experimental regimes. For all the regimes the stabilization of the electron current drift rate is typical. On the basis of the experimental results obtained an explanation is given of the sporadic character of the ultrathermal radiation in a quasistationary discharge
Images of Edge Turbulence in NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zweben, S.J.; Bush, C.E.; Maqueda, R.; Munsat, T.; Stotler, D.; Lowrance, J.; Mastracola, V.; Renda, G.
2004-01-01
The 2-D structure of edge plasma turbulence has been measured in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by viewing the emission of the Da spectral line of deuterium. Images have been made at framing rates of up to 250,000 frames/sec using an ultra-high speed CCD camera developed by Princeton Scientific Instruments. A sequence of images showing the transition between L-mode and H-mode states is shown
High Reynolds Number Turbulence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Smits, Alexander J
2007-01-01
The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...
Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoric, M.M.
1981-01-01
This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)
Drift-time measurement electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pernicka, M.
1978-01-01
The aim of the construction was to improve the time resolution without using the facility of time stretching, to have a fast read-out possibility, and to be still cheaper in price in comparison to other systems. A possibility was thus foreseen for using the firm Fairchild. These integrated circuits (IC) have, for example, a propagation delay of 0.75 ns for a gate. One can expect therefore less time jitter and less time difference between the different inputs. Furthermore this IC offers a greater flexibility and therefore the number of ICs decreases and distances become smaller. Working with clock frequencies up to 166.6 MHz is easily possible without running into timing problems. On the other hand, to make full use of the advantages of this IC, it was necessary to build the print as a multilayer. The only risk could be in the use of a completely new product. A further aim was to build for this system a second type of drift-time module with a short time range for measuring drift time and pulse length in rotated multiwire proportional chambers. A brief outline of the specifications of the different modules is given in table 1. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob
2011-01-01
The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....
Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.
1987-01-01
The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure
Pebble Accretion in Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks
Xu, Ziyan; Bai, Xue-Ning; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.
2017-09-01
It has been realized in recent years that the accretion of pebble-sized dust particles onto planetary cores is an important mode of core growth, which enables the formation of giant planets at large distances and assists planet formation in general. The pebble accretion theory is built upon the orbit theory of dust particles in a laminar protoplanetary disk (PPD). For sufficiently large core mass (in the “Hill regime”), essentially all particles of appropriate sizes entering the Hill sphere can be captured. However, the outer regions of PPDs are expected to be weakly turbulent due to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), where turbulent stirring of particle orbits may affect the efficiency of pebble accretion. We conduct shearing-box simulations of pebble accretion with different levels of MRI turbulence (strongly turbulent assuming ideal magnetohydrodynamics, weakly turbulent in the presence of ambipolar diffusion, and laminar) and different core masses to test the efficiency of pebble accretion at a microphysical level. We find that accretion remains efficient for marginally coupled particles (dimensionless stopping time {τ }s˜ 0.1{--}1) even in the presence of strong MRI turbulence. Though more dust particles are brought toward the core by the turbulence, this effect is largely canceled by a reduction in accretion probability. As a result, the overall effect of turbulence on the accretion rate is mainly reflected in the changes in the thickness of the dust layer. On the other hand, we find that the efficiency of pebble accretion for strongly coupled particles (down to {τ }s˜ 0.01) can be modestly reduced by strong turbulence for low-mass cores.
Decay of homogeneous two-dimensional quantum turbulence
Baggaley, Andrew W.; Barenghi, Carlo F.
2018-03-01
We numerically simulate the free decay of two-dimensional quantum turbulence in a large, homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate. The large number of vortices, the uniformity of the density profile, and the absence of boundaries (where vortices can drift out of the condensate) isolate the annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs as the only mechanism which reduces the number of vortices, Nv, during the turbulence decay. The results clearly reveal that vortex annihilation is a four-vortex process, confirming the decay law Nv˜t-1 /3 where t is time, which was inferred from experiments with relatively few vortices in small harmonically trapped condensates.
Impurity and trace tritium transport in tokamak edge turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.
2005-01-01
The turbulent transport of impurity or minority species, as for example tritium, is investigated in drift-Alfven edge turbulence. The full effects of perpendicular and parallel convection are kept for the impurity species. The impurity density develops a granular structure with steep gradients...... and locally exceeds its initial values due to the compressibility of the flow. An approximate decomposition of the impurity flux into a diffusive part and an effective convective part (characterized by a pinch velocity) is performed and a net inward pinch effect is recovered. The pinch velocity is explained...
The large cylindrical drift chamber of TASSO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boerner, H.; Fischer, H.M.; Hartmann, H.; Loehr, B.; Wollstadt, M.; Fohrmann, R.; Schmueser, P.; Cassel, D.G.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.
1980-03-01
We have built and operated a large cylindrical drift chamber for the TASSO experiment at the DESY storage ring, PETRA. The chamber has a length of 3.5 m, a diameter of 2.5 m, and a total of 2340 drift cells. The cells are arranged in 15 concentric layers such that tracks can be reconstructed in three dimensions. A spatial resolution of 220 μm has been achieved for tracks of normal incidence on the drift cells. (orig.)
Drift chamber tracking with neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.
1992-10-01
We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed
Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A.; Vacchi, A.
1990-01-01
The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs
Cooling tower drift: comprehensive case study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laulainen, N.S.; Ulanski, S.L.
1979-01-01
A comprehensive experiment to study drift from mechanical drift cooling towers was conducted during June 1978 at the PG and E Pittsburg Power Plant. The data from this study will be used for validation of drift deposition models. Preliminary results show the effects of tower geometry and orientation with respect to the wind and to single- or two-tower operation. The effect of decreasing relative humidity during a test run can also be seen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, M.V.
1984-01-01
After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)
Simulations of drift waves in 3D magnetic configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jost, G.
2000-06-01
Drift waves are commonly held responsible for anomalous transport in tokamak configurations and in particular for the anomalously high heat loss. The next generation of stellarators on the other hand are hoped to be characterized by a much smaller neo-classical transport and by particle confinement close to that of tokamaks. There is nevertheless a strong interest in the stellarator community to study the properties of drift waves in 3D magnetic configurations. To serve this interest we have developed the first global gyrokinetic code, EUTERPE, aimed at the investigation of linear drift wave stability in general toroidal geometry. The physical model assumes electrostatic waves and adiabatic electrons. EUTERPE is a particle-in-cell (PIC) code in which the gyrokinetic Poisson equation is discretized with the finite element method defined in the PEST -1 system of magnetic coordinates. The magnetic geometry is provided by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium code VMEC. The complete 3D model has been successfully validated in toroidal axisymmetric and straight helical geometries and has permitted the first simulation of unstable global ITG driven modes in non-axisymmetric toroidal configurations. As a first application, two configurations have been studied, the Quasi-Axially symmetric Stellarator with three fields periods (QAS3) currently one system under consideration at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Helically Symmetric experiment (HSX) which has recently started operation at the University of Wisconsin. QAS3 is characterized by a tokamak-Iike field in the outer part of the torus. In this structure the drift waves are mainly affected by the magnetic shear and barely by the shape of the plasma. Also, the results are very close to those obtained for a tokamak. On the other hand, results for the HSX configuration, which is characterized by a dominant helical magnetic field, show a clear 3D effect, namely a strong toroidal variation of the drift wave
Basic randomness of nature and ether-drift experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Consoli, M.; Pluchino, A.; Rapisarda, A.
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► We re-consider the idea of a basic randomness of nature. ► We adopt Stochastic Electro Dynamics as a heuristic model. ► We represent the vacuum as a form of turbulent ether. ► This picture can be tested with forthcoming ether-drift experiments. - Abstract: We re-consider the idea that quantum fluctuations might reflect the existence of an ‘objective randomness’, i.e. a basic property of the vacuum state which is independent of any experimental accuracy of the observations or limited knowledge of initial conditions. Besides being responsible for the observed quantum behavior, this might introduce a weak, residual form of ‘noise’ which is intrinsic to natural phenomena and could be important for the emergence of complexity at higher physical levels. By adopting Stochastic Electro Dynamics as a heuristic model, we are driven to a picture of the vacuum as a form of highly turbulent ether, which is deep-rooted into the basic foundational aspects of both quantum physics and relativity, and to search for experimental tests of this scenario. An analysis of the most precise ether-drift experiments, operating both at room temperature and in the cryogenic regime, shows that, at present, there is some ambiguity in the interpretation of the data. In fact the average amplitude of the signal has precisely the magnitude expected, in a ‘Lorentzian’ form of relativity, from an underlying stochastic ether and, as such, might not be a spurious instrumental effect. This puzzle, however, should be solved in a next future with the use of new cryogenically cooled optical resonators whose stability should improve by about two orders of magnitude. In these new experimental conditions, the persistence of the present amplitude would represent a clean evidence for the type of random vacuum we are envisaging.
Drift wave vortices and anomalous transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.
1990-01-01
Many plasma equations for drift waves and other modes possess vortex solutions, so it is important to consider the transport associated with vortex structures and their mutual interactions. Vortex structures occur when the amplitude of the fluctuation is sufficient to trap and circulate plasma around the vortex in one wave period. The vortex contribution of the diffusion of the passively convected scalar field was calculated. It was found that the field can be represented by the superposition of vortices and wave fluctuation components. For transport the computer solutions for the vortex-vortex collisions with various impact parameters while carrying along the passively convected scalar thermodynamic field were used. As the result, the inelastic collisions with b≅r 0 ≅1/k x cross-section σ(b)≅b exp(-b/r 0 )≅r 0 give the strongest transport. An example is shown in figure. As the final result, the anomalous diffusion D was derived in dimensional form. (M.T.)
Poloidal rotation and the evolution of H-mode and VH-mode profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinton, F.L.; Staebler, G.M.; Kim, Y.B.
1993-12-01
The physics which determines poloidal rotation, and its role in the development of profiles during H- and VH-modes, is discussed. A simple phenomenological transport model, which incorporates the rvec E x rvec B flow shear suppression of turbulence, is shown to predict profile evolution similar to that observed experimentally during H-mode and VH-mode
Construction update and drift velocity calibration for the CLAS drift chamber system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mestayer, M.D.; Barbosa, F.J.; Bonneau, P.; Burtin, E.; Christo, S.; Doolittle, G.; Dytman, S.A.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Klein, A.; Kossov, M.V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Magahiz, R.; Miskimen, R.A.; Murphy, L.Y.; O'Meara, J.E.; Pyron, T.D.; Qin, L.; Raue, B.A.; Schumacher, R.A.; Tuzel, W.; Weinstein, L.B.; Yegneswaran, A.
1995-01-01
We briefly describe the drift chamber system for the CLAS detector at CEBAF, concentrating on the method which will be used to calibrate the drift velocity function. We identify key features of the function which should apply to any small-cell drift chamber geometry in which the cathode and anode surfaces are wires. Using these ideas, we describe a simple method to compensate for variations in the drift velocity function due to environmental changes. (orig.)
Construction update and drift velocity calibration for the CLAS drift chamber system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mestayer, M.D. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Barbosa, F.J. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bonneau, P. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Burtin, E. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Christo, S. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Doolittle, G. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Dytman, S.A. [University of Pittsburg, Pittsburg, PA (United States); Gilfoyle, G.P. [University of Richmond, Richmond, VA (United States); Hyde-Wright, C.E. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Klein, A. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Kossov, M.V. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Kuhn, S.E. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Magahiz, R. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miskimen, R.A. [University of Massachussetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Murphy, L.Y. [CE Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); O`Meara, J.E. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Pyron, T.D. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Qin, L. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Raue, B.A. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Schumacher, R.A. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tuzel, W. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weinstein, L.B. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Yegneswaran, A. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
1995-12-11
We briefly describe the drift chamber system for the CLAS detector at CEBAF, concentrating on the method which will be used to calibrate the drift velocity function. We identify key features of the function which should apply to any small-cell drift chamber geometry in which the cathode and anode surfaces are wires. Using these ideas, we describe a simple method to compensate for variations in the drift velocity function due to environmental changes. (orig.).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castoldi, A.; Rehak, P.
1995-01-01
This paper presents a precise absolute measurement of the drift velocity and mobility of electrons in high resistivity silicon at room temperature. The electron velocity is obtained from the differential measurement of the drift time of an electron cloud in a silicon drift detector. The main features of the transport scheme of this class of detectors are: the high uniformity of the electron motion, the transport of the signal electrons entirely contained in the high-purity bulk, the low noise timing due to the very small anode capacitance (typical value 100 fF), and the possibility to measure different drift distances, up to the wafer diameter, in the same semiconductor sample. These features make the silicon drift detector an optimal device for high precision measurements of carrier drift properties. The electron drift velocity and mobility in a 10 kΩ cm NTD n-type silicon wafer have been measured as a function of the electric field in the range of possible operation of a typical drift detector (167--633 V/cm). The electron ohmic mobility is found to be 1394 cm 2 /V s. The measurement precision is better than 1%. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Progress in turbulence research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradshaw, P.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in experiments and eddy simulations, as an introduction to a discussion of turbulence modeling for engineers is reviewed. The most important advances in the last decade rely on computers: microcomputers to control laboratory experiments, especially for multidimensional imaging, and supercomputers to simulate turbulence. These basic studies in turbulence research are leading to genuine breakthroughs in prediction methods for engineers and earth scientists. The three main branches of turbulence research: experiments, simulations (numerically-accurate three-dimensional, time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, with any empiricism confined to the smallest eddies), and modeling (empirical closure of time-averaged equations for turbulent flow) are discussed. 33 refs
Observation of trapped-electron-mode microturbulence in reversed field pinch plasmas
Duff, J. R.; Williams, Z. R.; Brower, D. L.; Chapman, B. E.; Ding, W. X.; Pueschel, M. J.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W.
2018-01-01
Density fluctuations in the large-density-gradient region of improved confinement Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas exhibit multiple features that are characteristic of the trapped-electron mode (TEM). Core transport in conventional RFP plasmas is governed by magnetic stochasticity stemming from multiple long-wavelength tearing modes. Using inductive current profile control, these tearing modes are reduced, and global confinement is increased to that expected for comparable tokamak plasmas. Under these conditions, new short-wavelength fluctuations distinct from global tearing modes appear in the spectrum at a frequency of f ˜ 50 kHz, which have normalized perpendicular wavenumbers k⊥ρs≲ 0.2 and propagate in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. They exhibit a critical-gradient threshold, and the fluctuation amplitude increases with the local electron density gradient. These characteristics are consistent with predictions from gyrokinetic analysis using the Gene code, including increased TEM turbulence and transport from the interaction of remnant tearing magnetic fluctuations and zonal flow.
Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, G.; Tsang, C.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to
Direct numerical simulation of homogeneous stratified rotating turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iida, O.; Tsujimura, S.; Nagano, Y. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Department of Mech. Eng., Nagoya (Japan)
2005-12-01
The effects of the Prandtl number on stratified rotating turbulence have been studied in homogeneous turbulence by using direct numerical simulations and a rapid distortion theory. Fluctuations under strong stable-density stratification can be theoretically divided into the WAVE and the potential vorticity (PV) modes. In low-Prandtl-number fluids, the WAVE mode deteriorates, while the PV mode remains. Imposing rotation on a low-Prandtl-number fluid makes turbulence two-dimensional as well as geostrophic; it is found from the instantaneous turbulent structure that the vortices merge to form a few vertically-elongated vortex columns. During the period toward two-dimensionalization, the vertical vortices become asymmetric in the sense of rotation. (orig.)
Regulation of ETG turbulence by TEM driven zonal flows
Asahi, Yuuichi; Ishizawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji
2013-10-01
Anomalous heat transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It is found that the ETG turbulence can be suppressed by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs). The TEMs appear in a statistically steady state of ETG turbulence and generate zonal flows, while its growth rate is much smaller than those of ETGs. The TEM-driven zonal flows with lower radial wave numbers are more strongly generated than those driven by ETG modes, because of the higher zonal flow response to a density source term. An ExB shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is strong enough to suppress the long-wavelength ETG modes which make the main contribution to the turbulent transport.
Single wire drift chamber design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krider, J.
1987-01-01
This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles
Drift effects in CANDU reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koclas, J.; Roy, R.; Marleau, G.
1993-01-01
The diffusion equation is an approximation to the transport equation which relies on the validity of Fick's law. Since this law is not explicitly integrated in the transport equation it can only be derived approximately using homogenization theories. However, such homogenization theories state that when the cell is not symmetric Fick's law breaks down due to the presence of an additional term to the neutron current, called the drift term. In fact, this term can be interpreted as a transport correction to Fick's law which tends to increase the neutron current in a direction opposite to that specified by the flux gradient. In this paper, we investigate how the presence of asymmetric liquid zone controllers will modify the flux distribution inside a CANDU core. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Turbulent Transport in a Three-dimensional Solar Wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Telloni, D. [INAF—Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Bruno, R., E-mail: shiota@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)
2017-03-01
Turbulence in the solar wind can play essential roles in the heating of coronal and solar wind plasma and the acceleration of the solar wind and energetic particles. Turbulence sources are not well understood and thought to be partly enhanced by interaction with the large-scale inhomogeneity of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field and/or transported from the solar corona. To investigate the interaction with background inhomogeneity and the turbulence sources, we have developed a new 3D MHD model that includes the transport and dissipation of turbulence using the theoretical model of Zank et al. We solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of three moments or variables, the energy in the forward and backward fluctuating modes and the residual energy and their three corresponding correlation lengths. The transport model is coupled to our 3D model of the inhomogeneous solar wind. We present results of the coupled solar wind-turbulence model assuming a simple tilted dipole magnetic configuration that mimics solar minimum conditions, together with several comparative intermediate cases. By considering eight possible solar wind and turbulence source configurations, we show that the large-scale solar wind and IMF inhomogeneity and the strength of the turbulence sources significantly affect the distribution of turbulence in the heliosphere within 6 au. We compare the predicted turbulence distribution results from a complete solar minimum model with in situ measurements made by the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft, finding that the synthetic profiles of the turbulence intensities show reasonable agreement with observations.
Homogeneous turbulence dynamics
Sagaut, Pierre
2018-01-01
This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse
of resolved inflow turbulence on airfoil simulations in CFD. The detached-eddy simulation technique is used because it can resolve the inflow turbulence without becoming too computationally expensive due to its limited requirements for mesh resolution in the boundary layer. It cannot resolve the turbulence......Wind turbines operate in inflow turbulence whether it originates from the shear in the atmospheric boundary layer or from the wake of other wind turbines. Consequently, the airfoils of the wings experience turbulence in the inflow. The main topic of this thesis is to investigate the effect...... that is formed in attached boundary layers, but the freestream turbulence can penetrate the boundary layer. The idea is that the resolved turbulence from the freestream should mix high momentum flow into the boundary layer and thereby increase the resistance against separation and increase the maximum lift...
Drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment
Afanasiev, L G
2002-01-01
A drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. The system is intended to read out the signals from planar chambers operating in a high current mode. The sense wire signals are digitized in the 16-channel time-to-digital converter boards which are plugged in the signal plane connectors. This design results in a reduced number of modules, a small number of cables and high noise immunity. The system has been successfully operating in the experiment since 1999.
Polarization particle drift and quasi-particle invariants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.
1995-01-01
The second-order approximation in quasi-particle description of magnetized plasmas is studied. Reduced particle and guiding-centre velocities are derived taking account of the second-order renormalization and polarization drift modified owing to finite-Larmor-radius effects. The second-order adiabatic invariant of quasi-particle motion is found. Global adiabatic invariants for the magnetized plasma are revealed, and their possible role in energy exchange between particles and fields, nonlinear mode cascades and global plasma stability is shown. 49 refs
Spectral properties of electromagnetic turbulence in plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Shaikh
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We report on the nonlinear turbulent processes associated with electromagnetic waves in plasmas. We focus on low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency nonlinearly interacting electron whistlers and nonlinearly interacting Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD fluctuations in a magnetized plasma. Nonlinear whistler mode turbulence study in a magnetized plasma involves incompressible electrons and immobile ions. Two-dimensional turbulent interactions and subsequent energy cascades are critically influenced by the electron whisters that behave distinctly for scales smaller and larger than the electron skin depth. It is found that in whistler mode turbulence there results a dual cascade primarily due to the forward spectral migration of energy that coexists with a backward spectral transfer of mean squared magnetic potential. Finally, inclusion of the ion dynamics, resulting from a two fluid description of the H-MHD plasma, leads to several interesting results that are typically observed in the solar wind plasma. Particularly in the solar wind, the high-time-resolution databases identify a spectral break at the end of the MHD inertial range spectrum that corresponds to a high-frequency regime. In the latter, turbulent cascades cannot be explained by the usual MHD model and a finite frequency effect (in comparison with the ion gyrofrequency arising from the ion inertia is essentially included to discern the dynamics of the smaller length scales (in comparison with the ion skin depth. This leads to a nonlinear H-MHD model, which is presented in this paper. With the help of our 3-D H-MHD code, we find that the characteristic turbulent interactions in the high-frequency regime evolve typically on kinetic-Alfvén time-scales. The turbulent fluctuation associated with kinetic-Alfvén interactions are compressive and anisotropic and possess equipartition of the kinetic and magnetic energies.
Scaling, Intermittency and Decay of MHD Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarian, A.; Cho, Jungyeon
2005-01-01
We discuss a few recent developments that are important for understanding of MHD turbulence. First, MHD turbulence is not so messy as it is usually believed. In fact, the notion of strong non-linear coupling of compressible and incompressible motions along MHD cascade is not tenable. Alfven, slow and fast modes of MHD turbulence follow their own cascades and exhibit degrees of anisotropy consistent with theoretical expectations. Second, the fast decay of turbulence is not related to the compressibility of fluid. Rates of decay of compressible and incompressible motions are very similar. Third, viscosity by neutrals does not suppress MHD turbulence in a partially ionized gas. Instead, MHD turbulence develops magnetic cascade at scales below the scale at which neutrals damp ordinary hydrodynamic motions. Forth, density statistics does not exhibit the universality that the velocity and magnetic field do. For instance, at small Mach numbers the density is anisotropic, but it gets isotropic at high Mach numbers. Fifth, the intermittency of magnetic field and velocity are different. Both depend on whether the measurements are done in a local system of reference oriented along the local magnetic field or in the global system of reference related to the mean magnetic field
The spatio-temporal structure of electrostatic turbulence in the WEGA stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marsen, Stefan
2008-03-01
The main object of this work is to provide a detailed characterisation of electrostatic turbulence in WEGA and to identify the underlying instability mechanism driving turbulence. The spatio-temporal structure of turbulence is studied using multiple Langmuir probes providing a sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution. Turbulence in WEGA is dominated by drift wave dynamics. The phase shift between density and potential fluctuations is close to zero, fluctuations are mainly driven by the density gradient, and the phase velocity of turbulent structures points in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift. The structure of turbulence is studied mainly in the plasma edge region inside the last closed flux surface. WEGA can be operated in two regimes differing in the magnetic field strength by almost one order of magnitude (57 mT and 500 mT, respectively). At 57 mT large structures with a poloidal extent comparable to the machine dimensions are observed, whereas at 500 mT turbulent structures are much smaller. The poloidal structure size scales nearly linearly with the inverse magnetic field strength. This scaling may be argued to be related to the drift wave dispersion scale, ρ s =√(m i k B T e )/(qB). However, the structure size remains unchanged when the ion mass is changed by using different discharge gases. Inside the last closed flux surface the poloidal E x B drift in WEGA is negligible. The three-dimensional structure is studied in detail using probes which are toroidally separated but aligned along connecting magnetic field lines. A small but finite parallel wavenumber is found. The ratio between the average parallel and perpendicular wavenumber is in the order of anti κ parallel / anti κ θ ∼ 10 -2 . The parallel phase velocity of turbulent structures is in-between the ion sound velocity and the Alfven velocity. In the parallel dynamics a fundamental difference between the two operational regimes at different magnetic field strength is
Turbulence and anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nordman, H
1990-12-31
In present-day Tokamak fusion machines, instabilities and turbulence driven by temperature gradients can have a considerable impact on the confinement qualities. This thesis is mainly devoted to analyzing the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities and the associated turbulent transport. A combined analytical and numerical study of the ion temperature gradient driven turbulence is presented. An analytical expression for the ion thermal conductivity is derived and found to be in good agreement with the simulation results. The scaling properties of chi{sub i} are investigated and compared with experimental results. The transport due to the simultaneous presence of a trapped electron mode and an ion temperature gradient mode is analysed. It is found that the coupling of the modes can give rise to inward diffusive fluxes of both particles and energy. The tendency of the system to equilibrate density and temperature scale lengths is compared with recent experimental trends. The nonlinear behaviour of the instabilities is also studied in the context of low dimensional dynamical systems. Here, the relation between the fully nonlinear fluid models and the low dimensional models is discussed. The influence of a high frequency RF-field on the ion temperature gradient driven mode is investigated analytically. The consequences for mode stability and transport are considered. 23 refs.
Turbulence and anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nordman, H.
1989-01-01
In present-day Tokamak fusion machines, instabilities and turbulence driven by temperature gradients can have a considerable impact on the confinement qualities. This thesis is mainly devoted to analyzing the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities and the associated turbulent transport. A combined analytical and numerical study of the ion temperature gradient driven turbulence is presented. An analytical expression for the ion thermal conductivity is derived and found to be in good agreement with the simulation results. The scaling properties of chi i are investigated and compared with experimental results. The transport due to the simultaneous presence of a trapped electron mode and an ion temperature gradient mode is analysed. It is found that the coupling of the modes can give rise to inward diffusive fluxes of both particles and energy. The tendency of the system to equilibrate density and temperature scale lengths is compared with recent experimental trends. The nonlinear behaviour of the instabilities is also studied in the context of low dimensional dynamical systems. Here, the relation between the fully nonlinear fluid models and the low dimensional models is discussed. The influence of a high frequency RF-field on the ion temperature gradient driven mode is investigated analytically. The consequences for mode stability and transport are considered. 23 refs
Energy drift in reversible time integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLachlan, R I; Perlmutter, M
2004-01-01
Energy drift is commonly observed in reversible integrations of systems of molecular dynamics. We show that this drift can be modelled as a diffusion and that the typical energy error after time T is O(√T). (letter to the editor)
TBV 361 RESOLUTION ANALYSIS: EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ORIENTATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, M.; Kicker, D.C.; Sellers, M.D.
1999-01-01
The purpose of this To Be Verified/To Be Determined (TBX) resolution analysis is to release ''To Be Verified'' (TBV)-361 related to the emplacement drift orientation. The system design criterion in ''Subsurface Facility System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1998a, p.9) specifies that the emplacement drift orientation relative to the dominant joint orientations should be at least 30 degrees. The specific objectives for this analysis include the following: (1) Collect and evaluate key block data developed for the repository host horizon rock mass. (2) Assess the dominant joint orientations based on available fracture data. (3) Document the maximum block size as a function of drift orientation. (4) Assess the applicability of the drift orientation/joint orientation offset criterion in the ''Subsurface Facility System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1998a, p.9). (5) Consider the effects of seepage on drift orientation. (6) Verify that the viability assessment (VA) drift orientation complies with the drift orientation/joint orientation offset criterion, or provide justifications and make recommendations for modifying the VA emplacement drift layout. In addition to providing direct support to the System Description Document (SDD), the release of TBV-361 will provide support to the Repository Subsurface Design Department. The results from this activity may also provide data and information needs to support the MGR Requirements Department, the MGR Safety Assurance Department, and the Performance Assessment Organization
Silicon drift detectors, present and future prospects
Takahashi, J.; Bellwied, R.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Caines, H.; Chen, W.; Dyke, H.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Humanic, T.; Kotov, I.; Kuczewski, P.; Leonhardt, W.; Li, Z.; Lynn, D.; Minor, R.; Munhoz, M.; Ott, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Schambach, J.; Soja, R.; Sugarbaker, E.; Willson, R. M.
2001-04-01
Silicon drift detectors provide unambiguous two-dimensional position information for charged particle detection with a single detector layer. A large area silicon drift detector was developed for the inner tracking detector of the STAR experiment at RHIC. In this paper, we discuss the lessons learned and the future prospects of this technology.
Kinetic features of interchange turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazin, Y; Grandgirard, V; Fleurence, E; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Bertrand, P; Depret, G
2005-01-01
Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the interchange instability are discussed. The semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme allows one to address two critical points achieved with simulations lasting several confinement times: an accurate statistical analysis of the fluctuations and the back reaction of the turbulence on equilibrium profiles. Zonal flows are found to quench a 2D + 1D interchange turbulence when one of the species has a vanishing response to zonal modes. Conversely, when streamers dominate, the equilibrium profiles are found to be stiff. In the non-linear regime and steady-state turbulence, the distribution function exhibits a significant departure from a Maxwellian distribution. This property is characterized by an expansion on generalized Laguerre functions with a slow decay of the series of moments. This justifies the use of gyrokinetic simulations since a standard fluid approach, based on a limited number of moments, would certainly require a complex closure so as to take into account the impact of these non-vanishing high order moments
FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE DRIFT SHADOW
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G.W. Su; T.J. Kneafsey
2006-01-01
A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rock mass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming the existence of the drift shadow have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow--and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sand mine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rock mass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content using a gravimetric technique, as well as analyzed for chemistry. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift
Role of drifts in diffusive shock acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decker, R.B.
1988-01-01
The role played by shock-associated drifts during the diffusive acceleration of charged particles at collisionless MHD shocks is evaluated. In the rest frame of the shock, the total energy gained by a particle is shown to result from two coupled acceleration mechanisms, the usual first-order Fermi mechanism and the drift mechanism. When averaged over a distribution of particles, the ratio of the drift-associated energy gain to the total energy is found to be independent of the total energy at a given theta1 (the angle between the shock normal and the unperturbed upstream magnetic field) in agreement with theoretical predictions. No evidence is found for drift-associated deceleration, suggesting that drifts always augment acceleration. 35 references
Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Y. Sun
2004-01-01
The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c)
Dissipative drift instability in dusty plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nilakshi Das
2012-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation has been done on the very low-frequency electrostatic drift waves in a collisional dusty plasma. The dust density gradient is taken perpendicular to the magnetic field B0⃗, which causes the drift wave. In this case, low-frequency drift instabilities can be driven by E1⃗×B0⃗ and diamagnetic drifts, where E1⃗ is the perturbed electric field. Dust charge fluctuation is also taken into consideration for our study. The dust- neutral and ion-neutral collision terms have been included in equations of motion. It is seen that the low-frequency drift instability gets damped in such a system. Both dust charging and collision of plasma particles with the neutrals may be responsible for the damping of the wave. Both analytical and numerical techniques have been used while developing the theory.
Drift velocity and pressure monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers
Sonnenschein, Lars
2011-01-01
The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore, the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented. Another important parameter to be monitored is the pressure inside the muon drift tube chambers. The differential pressure must not exceed a certain value and the absolute pressure has to be kept slightly above ambient pressure to prevent air from entering into the muon drift tube chambers in case of a leak. Latest drift velocity monitoring results are discussed.
Drift velocity and pressure monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers
Sonnenschein, Lars
2010-01-01
The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore, the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented. Another important parameter to be monitored is the pressure inside the muon drift tube chambers because the drift velocity depends on it. Furthermore the differential pressure must not exceed a certain value and the absolute pressure has to be kept slightly above ambient pressure to prevent air from entering into the muon drift tube chambers in case of a leak. Latest pressure monitoring results are discussed.
Diffusion and drift regimes of plasma ionization wave propagation in a microwave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khodataev, K.V.; Gorelik, B.R.
1997-01-01
Investigation into diffusion and drift modes of a plasma ionization wave propagation in the microwave field are conducted within the framework of a one-dimensional model with regard to gas ionization by electron shock in an electrical field, adhesion, mobility and diffusion of electrons
Theory of self-sustained turbulence in confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.
1996-01-01
This article reviews some aspects of recent theoretical activities in Japan on the problem of turbulent transport in confined plasmas. The method of self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The process of the renormalization is shown and the turbulent Prandtl number is introduced. Nonlinear destabilization by the electron momentum diffusion is explained. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived for the dressed-test-mode for the inhomogeneous plasma in the shear magnetic field. The eigenvalue equation is solved, and the least stable mode determines the anomalous transport coefficient. The formula of the thermal conductivity is presented for the system of bad average magnetic curvature (current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) turbulence) and that for the average good magnetic curvature (current diffusive ballooning mode (CDBM) turbulence). The transport coefficient, scale length of fluctuations and fluctuation level are shown to be an increasing function of the pressure gradient. Verification by use of the nonlinear simulation is shown. The bifurcation of the electric field and improved confinement are addressed, in order to explain the H-mode physics. The improved confinement and dynamics such as ELMs are explained. Application to the transport analysis of tokamaks is also presented, including explanations of the L-mode confinement, internal transport barrier, and the role of the current profile control
Field investigation of the drift shadow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, Grace W.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Marshall, Brian D.; Cook, Paul J.
2005-01-01
A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rockmass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming its existence have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sandmine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine Formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rockmass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content and chemical constituents. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift. Tensiometers, electrical resistance probes, neutron probes, and ground
From dressed particle to dressed mode in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2002-05-01
A theoretical method to analyze the strong turbulence in far-nonequilibrium plasma is discussed. In this approach, a test mode is treated being dressed with interactions with other modes. Nonlinear dispersion relation of the dressed mode and statistical treatment of turbulence is briefly explained. Analogue to the method of dressed particle, which has given Balescu-Lenard collision operator for inter-particle collisions, is mentioned. (author)
Self-consistent dynamo-like activity in turbulent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, A.; Hameiri, E.
1986-05-01
The evolution of turbulent plasmas is investigated within the framework of resistive magnetohydrodynamics. The functional form of the mean electric field is derived for fluctuations generated by tearing and resistive interchange modes. It is shown that a bath of such local and global modes in pinches causes toroidal field-reversal with finite pressure gradients in the plasma
Statistical characterization of turbulence in the boundary plasma of EAST
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yan, Ning; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Xu, G.S.
2013-01-01
In Ohmic heated low confinement mode (L-mode) discharges, the intermittent statistical characteristics of turbulent fluctuations have been investigated in the edge and the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma on EAST (the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak) by fast reciprocating Langmuir probe...
Turbulence generation by waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.
Drift-modeling and monitoring comparisons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, N.C.J.; Hanna, S.R.
1977-01-01
Congress is looking into the conglomeration of nuclear reactors into energy centers of limited area. Drift from cooling towers can corrode and damage structures in the immediate vicinity of the towers, cause a public nuisance if located near parking lots or high-density traffic areas, and endanger local vegetation. The estimation of salt deposition has relied primarily on predictions from a variety of models, with very few direct measurements. One of the major efforts in our program is to evaluate the assumptions, limitations, and applicabilities of various analytical models for drift deposition prediction. Several drift deposition models are compared using a set of standard input conditions. The predicted maximum drift deposition differs by two orders of magnitude, and the downwind locations of the maximum differ by one order of magnitude. The discrepancies are attributed mainly to different assumptions in the models regarding the initial effective height of the droplets. Current programs in which drift characteristics at the tower mouth and drift deposition downwind of the tower are being measured are summarized. At the present time, drift deposition measurements, sufficiently comprehensive for model verifications, are unavailable. Hopefully, the Chalk Point Program will satisfy this need
Seepage into drifts with mechanical degradation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu
2002-01-01
Seepage into drifts in unsaturated tuff is an important issue for the long-term performance of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drifts in which waste packages will potentially be emplaced are subject to degradation in the form of rockfall from the drift ceiling induced by stress relief, seismic, or thermal effects. The objective of this study is to calculate seepage rates for various drift-degradation scenarios and for different values of percolation flux for the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and the Topopah Spring lower lithophysal (Tptpll) units. Seepage calculations are conducted by (1) defining a heterogeneous permeability model on the drift scale that is consistent with field data, (2) selecting calibrated parameters associated with the Tptpmn and Tptpll units, and (3) simulating seepage on detailed degraded-drift profiles, which were obtained from a separate rock mechanics engineering analysis. The simulation results indicate (1) that the seepage threshold (i.e., the percolation flux at which seepage first occurs) is not significantly changed by drift degradation, and (2) the degradation-induced increase in seepage above the threshold is influenced more by the shape of the cavity created by rockfall than the rockfall volume
Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negrea, M; Petrisor, I; Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L; Weyssow, B
2011-01-01
We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.
Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza str. 13, Craiova (Romania); Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2011-08-15
We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.
Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields
Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I.; Isliker, H.; Vogiannou, A.; Vlahos, L.; Weyssow, B.
2011-08-01
We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.
Studies of drift waves in a toroidal heliac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, X.H.; Blackwell, B.D.; Hamberger, S.M.
1989-01-01
Low frequency, coherent density fluctuations have been studied for three typical magnetic configurations in the helical axis stellarator SHEILA using Langmuir probe techniques. The parametric dependence, the threshold magnetic field, the frequency spectrum and the spatial structure of the fluctuations are measured experimentally. Mode analyses are made in a magnetic coordinate system. Both the mode numbers thus obtained and the smallness of the directly measured values of the wavenumber along the magnetic field lines indicate a close correspondence between the helicity of the fluctuations and the field lines. These experimental results are consistent with a collisional drift wave model, derived from a linearized two-fluid theory, related to the heliac geometry. Density reduction associated with the fluctuations is clearly observed and is consistent with rough estimates of the cross-filed particle flux due to the fluctuations. 17 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab
Collisional drift waves in a plasma with electron temperature inhomogeneity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Hassam, A.B.
1981-01-01
A fluid theory of collisional electrostatic drift waves in a plasma slab with magnetic shear is presented. Both electron temperature and density gradients are included. The equations are solved analytically in all relevant regions of the parameter space defined by the magnetic shear strength and the perpendicular wavelength and explicit expressions for the growth rates are given. For shear strengths appropriate for present-day tokamak discharges the temperature gradient produces potential wells which localize the mode in the electron resistive region, well inside the ion sound turning points. Mode stability arises from a competition between the destabilizing influence of the time dependent thermal force and the stabilizing influence of electron energy dissipation. Convective energy loss is not important for shear parameters of present-day fusion devices
Plasma Turbulence General Topics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)
1965-06-15
It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.
Simulation of ITG instabilities with fully kinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons in tokamaks
Hu, Youjun; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott
2017-10-01
A turbulence simulation model with fully kinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons is being developed in the toroidal electromagnetic turbulence code GEM. This is motivated by the observation that gyrokinetic ions are not well justified in simulating turbulence in tokamak edges with steep density profile, where ρi / L is not small enough to be used a small parameter needed by the gyrokinetic ordering (here ρi is the gyro-radius of ions and L is the scale length of density profile). In this case, the fully kinetic ion model may be useful. Our model uses an implicit scheme to suppress high-frequency compressional Alfven waves and waves associated with the gyro-motion of ions. The ion orbits are advanced by using the well-known Boris scheme, which reproduces correct drift-motion even with large time-step comparable to the ion gyro-period. The field equation in this model is Ampere's law with the magnetic field eliminated by using an implicit scheme of Faraday's law. The current contributed by ions are computed by using an implicit δf method. A flux tube approximation is adopted, which makes the field equation much easier to solve. Numerical results of electromagnetic ITG obtained from this model will be presented and compared with the gyrokinetic results. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0008801.