Dissipative drift instability in dusty plasma
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Nilakshi Das
2012-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation has been done on the very low-frequency electrostatic drift waves in a collisional dusty plasma. The dust density gradient is taken perpendicular to the magnetic field B0⃗, which causes the drift wave. In this case, low-frequency drift instabilities can be driven by E1⃗×B0⃗ and diamagnetic drifts, where E1⃗ is the perturbed electric field. Dust charge fluctuation is also taken into consideration for our study. The dust- neutral and ion-neutral collision terms have been included in equations of motion. It is seen that the low-frequency drift instability gets damped in such a system. Both dust charging and collision of plasma particles with the neutrals may be responsible for the damping of the wave. Both analytical and numerical techniques have been used while developing the theory.
Comment on the drift mirror instability
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr
2008-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 5 (2008), 054502/1-054502/2 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : drift mirror instability * linear theory Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008
Effect of magnetic shear on dissipative drift instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzdar, P.N.; Chen, L.; Kaw, P.K.; Oberman, C.
1978-03-01
In this letter we report the results of a linear radial eigenmode analysis of dissipative drift waves in a plasma with magnetic shear and spatially varying density gradient. The results of the analysis are shown to be consistent with a recent experiment on the study of dissipative drift instabilities in a toroidal stellarator
Nonlinear evolution of the lower-hybrid drift instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brackbill, J.U.; Forslund, D.W.; Quest, K.B.; Winske, D.
1984-01-01
The results of simulations of the lower-hybrid drift instability in a neutral sheet configuration are described. The simulations use an implicit formulation to relax the usual time step limitations and thus extend previous explicit calculations to weaker gradients, larger mass ratios, and long times compared with the linear growth time. The numerical results give the scaling of the saturation level, heating rates, resistivity, and cross-field diffusion and a demonstration by comparison with a fluid electron model that dissipation in the lower-hybrid drift instability is caused by electron kinetic effects
Absolute dissipative drift-wave instabilities in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.; Chance, M.S.; Cheng, C.Z.
1979-07-01
Contrary to previous theoretical predictions, it is shown that the dissipative drift-wave instabilities are absolute in tokamak plasmas. The existence of unstable eigenmodes is shown to be associated with a new eigenmode branch induced by the finite toroidal couplings
Instability of drift Alfven wave accompanying polar magnetic storm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higuchi, Yoshihiro
1974-01-01
As the micro plasma instability due to the plasma non-uniformity in magnetosphere, there is the instability of drift Alfven wave. With the data obtained with the network of multiple observation points for geomagnetism, attempt was made to prove the hypothesis that the instability of drift Alfven wave due to the electron temperature gradient at the inner boundary of plasma sheet may be one of the causes for the geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 1) accompanying polar magnetic storm. Up to date, final conclusion is yet impossible as to the problems in it due to the discussion based on the data from widely separated observation points. The installation of economically efficient multi-point observation network is necessary for the solution. (Mori, K.)
The effect of plasma drift on the electromagnetic cyclotron instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulkarni, V.H.; Rycroft, M.J.
1979-01-01
It is shown that the drift of plasma across a homogeneous magnetic field causes the generation of a wave electric field which, for waves propagating along the magnetic field in the whistler mode, is in the direction of the magnetic field. This leads to Landau damping of the wave field by the background electron distribution, simultaneously with amplification via the electromagnetic cyclotron instability. The drift velocity of the plasma for zero net growth of a whistler mode signal is calculated. It is suggested that such a process occurs in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere during a geomagnetic storm and accounts for the missing band of emissions at half the equatorial gyrofrequency. (Auth.)
Warm ion effects on kinetic drift cyclotron loss cone instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Shichong; Shen Jiewu; Cai Shidong
1988-01-01
The effects of adding warm plasmas on the kinetic DCLC mode in high β loss cone plasmas are investigated in detail. It is found that when the fluid DCLC mode is stabilized by a small amount of warm plasma, the kinetic excitation still remains due to two different mechanisms, namely, (1) magnetic drift resonance dissipation excites the negative energy wave; (2) a new type of positive energy wave can become unstable as the resonance condition is met. Comparing with fluid approximation theory, more warm plasmas are needed to suppress the kinetic DCLC instabilities
Secondary instability in drift wave turbulence as a mechanism for avalanche and zonal flow formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Champeaux, S.; Malkov, M.
2001-01-01
We report on recent developments in the theory of secondary instability in drift-ITG turbulence. Specifically, we explore secondary instability as a mechanism for avalanche formation. A theory of radially extended streamer cell formation and self-regulation is presented. Aspects of streamer structure and dynamics are used to estimate the variance of the drift-wave induced flux. The relation between streamer cell structures and the avalanche concept is discussed, as are the implications of our results for transport modeling. (author)
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Wang Yansong; Kulsrud, Russell; Ji, Hantao
2008-01-01
A local linear theory is proposed for a perpendicularly propagating drift instability driven by relative drifts between electrons and ions. The theory takes into account local cross-field current, pressure gradients, and modest collisions as in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)]. The unstable waves have very small group velocities in the direction of the pressure gradient, but have a large phase velocity near the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions in the direction of the cross-field current. By taking into account the electron-ion collisions and applying the theory in the Harris sheet, we establish that this instability could be excited near the center of the Harris sheet and have enough e-foldings to grow to large amplitude before it propagates out of the unstable region. Comparing with the other magnetic reconnection related instabilities (lower-hybrid-drift instability, modified two-stream instability, etc.) studied previously, we believe the instability we found is a favorable candidate to produce anomalous resistivity because of its unique wave characteristics, such as electromagnetic component, large phase velocity, and small group velocity in the cross-current-layer direction.
Rippling and drift instabilities in the straight cylinder tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.
1984-01-01
It is shown that the electron and ion diamagnetic drifts stabilize the rippling mode in the straigth cylindrical tokamak model. Parallel electron heat conduction is further stabilizing if the parameter etasub(e) = dlnTsub(e)/dlnN is positive. This has a consequence that the mode does not survive at temperatures exceeding, typically, 50 eV for standard values of magnetic field and density. The collisional drift wave is found to be always stable even when the effect of the tokamak current is included in the calculation. (orig.)
Effect of alpha drift and instabilities on tokamak plasma edge conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miley, G.H.; Choi, C.K.
1983-01-01
As suprathermal fusion products slow down in a Tokamak, their average drift is inward. The effect of this drift on the alpha heating and thermalization profiles is examined. In smaller TFTR-type devices, heating in the outer region can be cut in half. Also, the fusion-product energy-distribution near the plasma edge has a positive slope with increasing energy, representing a possible driving mechanism for micro-instabilities. Another instability that can seriously affect outer plasma conditions and shear Alfven transport of alphas is also considered
Dissipative-drift wave instability in the presence of impurity radiation
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Bharuthram, R.; Shukla, P.K.
1992-01-01
It is believed that electrostatic fluctuations in edge plasmas are usually triggered by micro and macroscopic plasma instabilities. The latter involve dissipative-drift waves as well as tearing and rippling modes in nonuniform plasmas. However, if the plasma edge contains impurity radiation, then the radiative condensation instability could be the cause of nonthermal fluctuations. The radiative condensation instabilities have been extensively investigated in a homogeneous plasma by many authors. The effect of equilibrium density and electron temperature inhomogeneities in the study of radiative condensation instabilities has been examined by Shukla and Yu. They found new drift-like modes driven by the combined effect of impurity radiation loss and the equilibrium density and temperature gradients. The analyses of Shukla and Yu is, however, limited to low-frequency, long wavelength collisionless drift waves. Since the edge plasma of toroidal devices is highly collisional, the results of collisionless theories cannot be directly applied to explain the origin of nonthermal fluctuations. In this paper, we study the influence of impurity radiation on the dissipative-drift wave instability in a collision-dominated nonuniform plasma embedded in a homogeneous magnetic field. (author) 6 refs
Continental drift and climate change drive instability in insect assemblages
Li, Fengqing; Tierno de Figueroa, Jos? Manuel; Lek, Sovan; Park, Young-Seuk
2015-01-01
Global change has already had observable effects on ecosystems worldwide, and the accelerated rate of global change is predicted in the future. However, the impacts of global change on the stability of biodiversity have not been systematically studied in terms of both large spatial (continental drift) and temporal (from the last inter-glacial period to the next century) scales. Therefore, we analyzed the current geographical distribution pattern of Plecoptera, a thermally sensitive insect gro...
Periodic pulling of the drift instability in a thermal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrams, R.H. Jr.
1970-01-01
The primary objective of this thesis is to show that a mode of oscillation in a plasma can be represented by a van der Pol oscillator. The results of an experiment performed on a drift wave in a Q-machine are interpreted in terms of a mechanism developed by Lashinsky. The mechanism, called periodic pulling, predicts a specific kind of spectrum for certain experimental conditions when a van der Pol oscillator is perturbed by a small signal. The observed spectrum, along with other observations, lends credence to the van der Pol oscillator model of a plasma mode
Continental drift and climate change drive instability in insect assemblages
Li, Fengqing; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Lek, Sovan; Park, Young-Seuk
2015-06-01
Global change has already had observable effects on ecosystems worldwide, and the accelerated rate of global change is predicted in the future. However, the impacts of global change on the stability of biodiversity have not been systematically studied in terms of both large spatial (continental drift) and temporal (from the last inter-glacial period to the next century) scales. Therefore, we analyzed the current geographical distribution pattern of Plecoptera, a thermally sensitive insect group, and evaluated its stability when coping with global change across both space and time throughout the Mediterranean region—one of the first 25 global biodiversity hotspots. Regional biodiversity of Plecoptera reflected the geography in both the historical movements of continents and the current environmental conditions in the western Mediterranean region. The similarity of Plecoptera assemblages between areas in this region indicated that the uplift of new land and continental drift were the primary determinants of the stability of regional biodiversity. Our results revealed that climate change caused the biodiversity of Plecoptera to slowly diminish in the past and will cause remarkably accelerated biodiversity loss in the future. These findings support the theory that climate change has had its greatest impact on biodiversity over a long temporal scale.
Saturation regime of the collisionless drift instability in a hydrogen plasma column
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Boissier, R.
1982-09-01
The saturation regime of the collisionless drift instability is observed in a steady state hydrogen column. The steady state parameters are observed to relax around the average values. A quasilinear model is proposed to describe the dynamics of wave growth and density gradient decay
Drift wave instability and turbulence in advanced stellarator configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kendl, A.
2001-08-01
In the following chapter, an overview and references on the physics and geometry of helical advanced stellarators is given. On the basis of this configuration, the influence of magnetic field geometry is then discussed in a basic model of drift-Alfven wave turbulence which contains the necessary physics that applies to the plasma edge. By means of linear models, core physics in the form of ITG and dissipative trapped electron modes is further included in our survey. These models are, of course, by far not comprehensive in order to cover the complex physics of plasma turbulence in three-dimensional fusion devices, where a large range of parameter and mode regimes is present. Optimization criteria for a possible systematic minimization of turbulent transport in Helias configurations therefore still have to be regarded as tentative. The results presented here should, however, encourage for more detailed future computations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.; Kulsrud, R.; Ji, H.
2008-01-01
A local linear theory is proposed for a perpendicularly propagating drift instability driven by relative drifts between electrons and ions. The theory takes into account local cross-field current, pressure gradients and modest collisions as in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) (10). The unstable waves have very small group velocities in the direction of the pressure gradient, but have a large phase velocity near the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions in the direction of cross-field current. By taking into account the electron-ion collisions and applying the theory in the Harris sheet, we establish that this instability could be excited near the center of the Harris sheet and have enough efoldings to grow to large amplitude before it propagates out of the unstable region. Comparing with the other magnetic reconnection related instabilities (LHDI, MTSI et.) studied previously, we believe the instability we find is a favorable candidate to produce anomalous resistivity because of its unique wave characteristics, such as electromagnetic component, large phase velocity, and small group velocity in the cross current layer direction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Balsley, B.B.; Woodman, R.F.
1974-01-01
Radar measurements made with high spatial resolution and large dynamic range at the Jicamarca Radar Observatory near the time of reversal of the electrojet current provide further proof that the gradient drift instability is in fact responsible for the type-2 irregularities. Echoes are received over a much wider range of altitudes at night than during the day, partly because of the change in character of the background electron density profile and partly because of recombination effects, which can be important during the day. One must be cautious, particularly at night, in associating the mean Doppler shift of oblique radar echoes with the maximum east--west electron drift velocity
Current driven drift instability in the W VII-A stellarator
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Deutsch, R.; Wobig, H.
1978-12-01
The instability region and growth rates of current driven drift modes in the W VII-A stellarator are calculated. Several theoretical results are evaluated for specific temperature and density profiles. It is found that in the outer region of the plasma-column (r > 6 cm) collisional drift waves with wavelengths (k 2 x + K 2 y)sup(-1/2) = 0.13 - 0.3 cm exist. In this region also the electron thermal conductivity determined experimentally appears to be large. (orig./GG) [de
Markovskii, S. A.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Vasquez, Bernard J.
2018-04-01
We present two-dimensional hybrid simulations of proton-cyclotron and mirror instabilities in a proton-alpha plasma with particle-in-cell ions and a neutralizing electron fluid. The instabilities are driven by the protons with temperature perpendicular to the background magnetic field larger than the parallel temperature. The alpha particles with initially isotropic temperature have a nonzero drift speed with respect to the protons. The minor ions are known to influence the relative effect of the proton-cyclotron and mirror instabilities. In this paper, we show that the mirror mode can dominate the power spectrum at the nonlinear stage even if its linear growth rate is significantly lower than that of the proton-cyclotron mode. The proton-cyclotron instability combined with the alpha-proton drift is a possible cause of the nonzero magnetic helicity observed in the solar wind for fluctuations propagating nearly parallel to the magnetic field. Our simulations generally confirm this concept but reveal a complex helicity spectrum that is not anticipated from the linear theory of the instability.
Lower hybrid drift instability in modified Harris current sheet with negative ions
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Huang Feng; Chen, Y-H; Shi Guifen; Hu, Z-Q; Yu, M Y
2008-01-01
The lower hybrid drift instability (LHDI) in a Harris current sheet with negative ions is investigated using the kinetic theory. Numerical results show that the negative ions have considerable effect on the LHDI. With increase of the negative-ion concentration, the growth rate of the LHDI increases and its real frequency decreases for any wave length. The Harris current sheet can thus be significantly modified
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulgakov, A.A.; Shramkova, O.V.
2006-01-01
In terms of the assumption that the structure period is essentially shorter than the electromagnetic radiation wavelength one considers attenuation of waves of carrier concentration in a periodic semiconducting structure within an external electric field resulting in drift of different sign carriers. One determined conditions of occurrence of instability of carrier concentration waves propagating orthogonally to current direction. One predicts a resistive instability occurrence of which does not require increase of drift velocity in contrast to phase velocity of a plasmon [ru
An Obliquely Propagating Electromagnetic Drift Instability in the Lower Hybrid Frequency Range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hantao Ji; Russell Kulsrud; William Fox; Masaaki Yamada
2005-01-01
By employing a local two-fluid theory, we investigate an obliquely propagating electromagnetic instability in the lower hybrid frequency range driven by cross-field current or relative drifts between electrons and ions. The theory self-consistently takes into account local cross-field current and accompanying pressure gradients. It is found that the instability is caused by reactive coupling between the backward propagating whistler (fast) waves in the moving electron frame, and the forward propagating sound (slow) waves in the ion frame when the relative drifts are large. The unstable waves we consider propagate obliquely to the unperturbed magnetic field and have mixed polarization with significant electromagnetic components. A physical picture of the instability emerges in the limit of large wave number characteristic of the local approximation. The primary positive feedback mechanism is based on reinforcement of initial electron density perturbations by compression of electron fluid via induced Lorentz force. The resultant waves are qualitatively consistent with the measured electromagnetic fluctuations in reconnecting current sheet in a laboratory plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juhl, B.; Treumann, R.A.
1980-01-01
Observation of the adiabatic behaviour of energetic particle pitch-angle distributions in the magnetosphere (Lyons, 1977, and others) in the past indicated the development of pronounced minima or drift-loss cones on the pitch-angle distributions centred at α approx.= 90 0 in connection with storm-time changes in magnetospheric convection and magnetic field. Using a model of a drift-modified loss-cone distribution (MLCD) of the butterfly type, the linear stability of electromagnetic whistler or ion-cyclotron waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field has been investigated. The instability is shown to be quenched at high frequencies ω 0 are identified as generating electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the marginally stable frequency ωsub(m). It is concluded that the absence of electromagnetic VLF and ELF noise during times when MLCD develops is the result of the shift of the unstable spectrum to low frequencies. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Balsley, B.B.; Woodman, R.F.
1975-01-01
Radar measurements made with high spatial resolution and large dynamic range at the Jicamarca Radar Observatory near the time of reversal of the electrojet current provide further proof that the gradient drift instability is in fact responsible for the type 2 irregularities. Echoes are received over a much wider range of altitudes at night than during the day partly because of the change in character of the background electron density profile and partly because of recombination effects, which can be important during the day. It is also shown that one must be cautious, particularly at night, in associating the mean Doppler shift of oblique radar echoes with the maximum east-west electron drift velocity
Lower hybrid drift instability in a current sheet with anisotropic temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Feng; Liu Guohong; Yan Fei; Deng Yan; Chen Yinhua; Yu, M Y; Chen Hanshuang
2013-01-01
The effect of the temperature anisotropy on the lower hybrid drift instability (LHDI) in a current sheet is investigated using local kinetic theory. It is found that the ratio r te of the perpendicular to parallel electron temperatures can significantly affect the instability. In fact, a critical value exists r te = r te * , such that when r te >r te * the LHD waves are unstable if the perpendicular wave vector k y is between two threshold values, and when r te te * the LHD mode is stable for any k y . It is also found that r te * increases and the unstable LHD regime shrinks as the parallel wave vector k z increases. That is, sufficiently low perpendicular electron temperature can stabilize the LHDI, especially that of short parallel wavelength. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulsrud, Russell; Ji Hantao; Fox, William; Yamada, Masaaki
2005-01-01
The role which resistivity plays in breaking magnetic field lines, heating the plasma, and plasma-field slippage during magnetic reconnection is discussed. Magnetic fluctuations are observed in the MRX (magnetic reconnection experiment) [M. Yamada, H. Ji, S. Hsu, T. Carter, R. Kulsrud, N. Bertz, F. Jobes, Y. Ono, and F. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] that are believed to provide resistive friction or wave resistivity. A localized linear theory has been proposed for their origin as an obliquely propagating lower hybrid drift instability. In this paper, the linear theory of the instability is summarized, and the resulting heating and slippage are calculated from quasilinear theory. Making use of measured amplitudes of the magnetic fluctuations in the MRX, the amount of these effects is estimated. Within the experimental uncertainties they are shown to be quite important for the magnetic reconnection process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell Kulsrud; Hantao Ji; Will Fox; Masaaki Yamada
2005-01-01
The role which resistivity plays in breaking magnetic field lines, heating the plasma, and plasma field slippage during magnetic reconnection is discussed. Magnetic fluctuations are observed in the MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment) that are believed to provide resistive friction or wave resistivity. A localized linear theory has been proposed for their origin as an obliquely propagating Lower Hybrid Drift Instability. In this paper, the linear theory of the instability is summarized, and the resulting heating and slippage are calculated from quasi-linear theory. Making use of measured amplitudes of the magnetic fluctuations in the MRX the amount of these effects is estimated. Within the experimental uncertainties they are shown to be quite important for the magnetic reconnection process
E × B electron drift instability in Hall thrusters: Particle-in-cell simulations vs. theory
Boeuf, J. P.; Garrigues, L.
2018-06-01
The E × B Electron Drift Instability (E × B EDI), also called Electron Cyclotron Drift Instability, has been observed in recent particle simulations of Hall thrusters and is a possible candidate to explain anomalous electron transport across the magnetic field in these devices. This instability is characterized by the development of an azimuthal wave with wavelength in the mm range and velocity on the order of the ion acoustic velocity, which enhances electron transport across the magnetic field. In this paper, we study the development and convection of the E × B EDI in the acceleration and near plume regions of a Hall thruster using a simplified 2D axial-azimuthal Particle-In-Cell simulation. The simulation is collisionless and the ionization profile is not-self-consistent but rather is given as an input parameter of the model. The aim is to study the development and properties of the instability for different values of the ionization rate (i.e., of the total ion production rate or current) and to compare the results with the theory. An important result is that the wavelength of the simulated azimuthal wave scales as the electron Debye length and that its frequency is on the order of the ion plasma frequency. This is consistent with the theory predicting destruction of electron cyclotron resonance of the E × B EDI in the non-linear regime resulting in the transition to an ion acoustic instability. The simulations also show that for plasma densities smaller than under nominal conditions of Hall thrusters the field fluctuations induced by the E × B EDI are no longer sufficient to significantly enhance electron transport across the magnetic field, and transit time instabilities develop in the axial direction. The conditions and results of the simulations are described in detail in this paper and they can serve as benchmarks for comparisons between different simulation codes. Such benchmarks would be very useful to study the role of numerical noise (numerical
Analysis of the Onset of Flow Instability in rectangular heated channel using drift flux model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Hadjen, H.; Balistrou, M.; Hamidouche, T.; Bousbia-Salah, A.
2005-01-01
Two-phase flow excursion (Ledinegg) instability in boiling channels is of great concern in the design and operation of numerous practical systems especially in Research Reactors. Such instability can lead to significant reduction in channel flow, thereby causing premature burnout of the heated channel before the CHF point. The present work focuses on a simulation of pressure drop in forced convection boiling in vertical narrow and parallel uniformly heated channels. The objective is to determine the point of Onset of Flow Instability (OFI) by varying input flow rate. The axial void distribution is also provided. The numerical model is based on the finite difference method which transforms the partial differential conservation equation of mass, momentum and energy, in algebraic equations. Closure relationships based upon the drift flux model and other constitutive equations are considered to determine the channel pressure drop under steady state boiling conditions. The model validation is performed by confronting the calculations with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory thermal Hydraulic Test Loop (THTL) experimental data set. Further verification of this model is performed by code- to code verification using the results of RELAP5/Mod 3.2 code. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sydoruk, O.; Solymar, L.; Shamonina, E.; Kalinin, V.
2010-01-01
Traveling-wave interaction between optical phonons and electrons drifting in diatomic semiconductors has potential for amplification and generation of terahertz radiation. Existing models of this interaction were developed for infinite materials. As a more practically relevant configuration, we studied theoretically a finite semiconductor slab surrounded by a dielectric. This paper analyzes the optical-phonon instability in the slab including the Lorentz force and compares it to the instability in an infinite material. As the analysis shows, the slab instability occurs because of the interaction of surface optical-phonon polaritons with surface plasmon polaritons in the presence of electron drift. The properties of the instability depend on the slab thickness when the thickness is comparable to the wavelength. For large slab thicknesses, however, the dispersion relation of the slab is similar to that of an infinite material, although the coupling is weaker. The results could be used for the design of practical terahertz traveling-wave oscillators and amplifiers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulgakov, A. A.; Shramkova, O. V.
2006-01-01
The damping of waves of the charge carrier density in a periodic semiconductor structure in an external electric field is investigated under the assumption that the period of the structure is much smaller than the electromagnetic radiation wavelength. The threshold conditions for the instability of carrier density waves propagating obliquely to the direction of the electric current are obtained. The existence of a resistive instability that can develop at drift velocities both higher and lower than the plasmon phase velocity is predicted
Saturation of drift instabilities by ExB advection of resonant electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimits, A.M.
1990-01-01
Saturation of the collisionless and weakly collisional drift instabilities by nonlinear ExB advection of resonant electrons is considered. The nonlinear ExB advection of the resonant electrons around the O points and X points of the potential shuts off the linear phase shift between the electron density and the potential, and hence the linear growth, and produces residual oscillations at the ExB-trapping frequency. Two analytical solutions of a three-mode model of Lee et al. [Phys. Fluids 27, 2652 (1984)], which describes the saturation of drift waves by this mechanism, are found. The first is an exact solution in the form of a steadily propagating wave of constant amplitude, and is relevant when electron pitch-angle scattering is present. The second is an approximate time-dependent analytical solution, obtained using the method of O'Neil [Phys. Fluids 8, 2255 (1965)], and is relevant to the collisionless case. The predictions that follow from this solution for the saturation level and for the amplitude oscillation frequency are in excellent agreement with the direct numerical solutions of the three-mode system
Nonlocal linear theory of the gradient drift instability in the equatorial electrojet
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Ronchi, C.; Similon, P.L.; Sudan, R.N.
1989-01-01
The linear global eigenmodes of the gradient drift instability in the daytime equatorial electrojet are investigated. A main feature of the analysis is the inclusion of ion-neutral and electron-neutral collision frequencies dependent on altitude. It is found that the basic characteristics and localization of the unstable modes are determined mainly by the profiles of the Pedersen and Hall mobilities, which are derived from the Cowling conductivity model and experimental data. The equilibrium density profile is parabolic, which is fairly representative of the actual measurements. The unstable modes are sensitive not to the details of this profile, but only to the average value of the gradient. The results are obtained from a direct numerical integration of nonlocal linearized equations. They are further analyzed through an eikonal analysis, which provides both an interpretation of the transient modes observed by Fu et al. (1986) and some additional physics insight into the linear evolution of the global unstable modes. Finally, it is shown that the previously reported short-wavelength stabilization effect due to velocity shear may be overshadowed by the presence of regions in which the transient modes can develop into absolute instabilities. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.-H. Glassmeier
Full Text Available Giant pulsations are nearly monochromatic ULF-pulsations of the Earth's magnetic field with periods of about 100 s and amplitudes of up to 40 nT. For one such event ground-magnetic observations as well as simultaneous GEOS-2 magnetic and electric field data and proton flux measurements made in the geostationary orbit have been analysed. The observations of the electromagnetic field indicate the excitation of an odd-mode type fundamental field line oscillation. A clear correlation between variations of the proton flux in the energy range 30-90 keV with the giant pulsation event observed at the ground is found. Furthermore, the proton phase space density exhibits a bump-on-the-tail signature at about 60 keV. Assuming a drift-bounce resonance instability as a possible generation mechanism, the azimuthal wave number of the pulsation wave field may be determined using a generalized resonance condition. The value determined in this way,
m = - 21 ± 4, is in accord with the value m = - 27 ± 6 determined from ground-magnetic measurements. A more detailed examination of the observed ring current plasma distribution function f shows that odd-mode type eigenoscillations are expected for the case ∂f / ∂W > 0, much as observed. This result is different from previous theoretical studies as we not only consider local gradients of the distribution function in real space, but also in velocity space. It is therefore concluded that the observed giant pulsation is the result of a drift-bounce resonance instability of the ring current plasma coupling to an odd-mode fundamental standing wave. The generation of the bump-on-the-tail distribution causing ∂f / ∂W > 0 can be explained due to velocity dispersion of protons injected into the ring current. Both this velocity dispersion and the necessary substorm activity causing the injection of protons into the nightside magnetosphere are observed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.-H. Glassmeier
1999-03-01
Full Text Available Giant pulsations are nearly monochromatic ULF-pulsations of the Earth's magnetic field with periods of about 100 s and amplitudes of up to 40 nT. For one such event ground-magnetic observations as well as simultaneous GEOS-2 magnetic and electric field data and proton flux measurements made in the geostationary orbit have been analysed. The observations of the electromagnetic field indicate the excitation of an odd-mode type fundamental field line oscillation. A clear correlation between variations of the proton flux in the energy range 30-90 keV with the giant pulsation event observed at the ground is found. Furthermore, the proton phase space density exhibits a bump-on-the-tail signature at about 60 keV. Assuming a drift-bounce resonance instability as a possible generation mechanism, the azimuthal wave number of the pulsation wave field may be determined using a generalized resonance condition. The value determined in this way, m = - 21 ± 4, is in accord with the value m = - 27 ± 6 determined from ground-magnetic measurements. A more detailed examination of the observed ring current plasma distribution function f shows that odd-mode type eigenoscillations are expected for the case ∂f / ∂W > 0, much as observed. This result is different from previous theoretical studies as we not only consider local gradients of the distribution function in real space, but also in velocity space. It is therefore concluded that the observed giant pulsation is the result of a drift-bounce resonance instability of the ring current plasma coupling to an odd-mode fundamental standing wave. The generation of the bump-on-the-tail distribution causing ∂f / ∂W > 0 can be explained due to velocity dispersion of protons injected into the ring current. Both this velocity dispersion and the necessary substorm activity causing the injection of protons into the nightside magnetosphere are observed.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles , trapped
Generalized lower-hybrid drift instabilities in current-sheet equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Peter H.; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Sitnov, Mikhail I.
2002-01-01
A class of drift instabilities in one-dimensional current-sheet configuration, i.e., classical Harris equilibrium, with frequency ranging from low ion-cyclotron to intermediate lower-hybrid frequencies, are investigated with an emphasis placed on perturbations propagating along the direction of cross-field current flow. Nonlocal two-fluid stability analysis is carried out, and a class of unstable modes with multiple eigenstates, similar to that of the familiar quantum mechanical potential-well problem, are found by numerical means. It is found that the most unstable modes correspond to quasi-electrostatic, short-wavelength perturbations in the lower-hybrid frequency range, with wave functions localized at the edge of the current sheet where the density gradient is maximum. It is also found that there exist quasi-electromagnetic modes located near the center of the current sheet where the current density is maximum, with both kink- and sausage-type polarizations. These modes are low-frequency, long-wavelength perturbations. It turns out that the current-driven modes are low-order eigensolutions while the lower-hybrid-type modes are higher-order states, and there are intermediate solutions between the two extreme cases. Attempts are made to interpret the available simulation results in light of the present eigenmode analysis
Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sorokina, E. A.; Marusov, N. A.
2018-01-01
The gradient-drift instabilities of partially magnetized plasmas in plasma devices with crossed electric and magnetic fields are investigated in the framework of the two-fluid model with finite electron temperature in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The finite electron Larmor radius (FLR) effects are also included via the gyroviscosity tensor taking into account the magnetic field gradient. This model correctly describes the electron dynamics for k⊥ρe>1 in the sense of Padé approximants (here, k⊥ and ρe are the wavenumber perpendicular to the magnetic field and the electron Larmor radius, respectively). The local dispersion relation for electrostatic plasma perturbations with the frequency in the range between the ion and electron cyclotron frequencies and propagating strictly perpendicular to the magnetic field is derived. The dispersion relation includes the effects of the equilibrium E ×B electron current, finite ion velocity, electron inertia, electron FLR, magnetic field gradients, and Debye length effects. The necessary and sufficient condition of stability is derived, and the stability boundary is found. It is shown that, in general, the electron inertia and FLR effects stabilize the short-wavelength perturbations. In some cases, such effects completely suppress the high-frequency short-wavelength modes so that only the long-wavelength low-frequency (with respect to the lower-hybrid frequency) modes remain unstable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikov, V.K.; Sanochkin, Y.V.
1982-01-01
The stability of a discharge with a closed Hall-current circuit and a distributed electric field is analyzed with respect to long-wave, low-frequency perturbations propagating in the electric drift direction (''low-frequency'' here is with respect to the ion transit time). The analysis is carried out in the linear theory. A dispersion relation derived in the first approximation of the Bubnov--Galerkin method is analyzed numerically. The instability which is found requires a threshold to be attained, which occurs when the neutral density exceeds a certain critical value. An increase in the magnetic field, in contrast, has a stabilizing effect. The instability is oscillatory and develops over wavelengths lying in a finite interval which depends on the dimensions of the device, the magnetic field, and the gas pressure. The wave phase velocity is of order √V/sub i//M, where V/sub i/ is the ionization potential and M is the ion mass. The calculated oscillation frequencies and propagation velocities for the perturbations agree satisfactorily with experimental data. The wave structure is analyzed, and the nature of the instability is determined. Perturbations with an elevated plasma density move in the electric drift direction and correspond to an ionization wave
Liu, Yakun; Tao, Rumao; Su, Rongtao; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Pengfei; Zhang, Hanwei; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei
2018-04-01
This paper presents an investigation of the effect of pump wavelength drift on the threshold of mode instability (MI) in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber lasers. By using a semi-analytical model, we study the effects of pump wavelength drift with a central pump wavelength around 976 nm and 915 nm, respectively. The influences of the pump absorption coefficient and total pump absorption are considered simultaneously. The results indicate that the effect of pump wavelength drift around 976 nm is stronger than that around 915 nm. For more efficient suppression of MI by shifting the pump wavelength, efficient absorption of pump power is required. The MI thresholds for fibers with different total pump absorptions and cladding diameters are compared. When the total pump absorption is increased, the gain saturation is enhanced, which results in the MI being mitigated more effectively and being more sensitive to pump wavelength drift. The MI threshold in gain fibers with larger inner cladding diameter is higher but more dependent upon pump wavelength. The results of this work can help in optimizing the pump wavelength and fiber parameters and suppressing MI in high-power fiber lasers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose, M.
1989-01-01
It is often found, in fusion devices as well as in the auroral ionosphere, that the electrons consist of two distinct group, viz., hot and cold. These two-temperature electron model is sometimes convenient for analytical purposes. Thus the authors have considered a two-temperature electron plasma. In this paper, they investigated analytically the drift dissipative instabilities of modified electron-acoustic and lower-hybrid wve in a two-electron temperature plasma. It is found that the modified electron-acoustic drift dissipative mode are strongly dependent on the number density of cold electrons. From the expression of the growth rate, it is clear that these cold electrons can control the growth of this mode as well
Tertiary instability of zonal flows within the Wigner-Moyal formulation of drift turbulence
Zhu, Hongxuan; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.
2017-10-01
The stability of zonal flows (ZFs) is analyzed within the generalized-Hasegawa-Mima model. The necessary and sufficient condition for a ZF instability, which is also known as the tertiary instability, is identified. The qualitative physics behind the tertiary instability is explained using the recently developed Wigner-Moyal formulation and the corresponding wave kinetic equation (WKE) in the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. By analyzing the drifton phase space trajectories, we find that the corrections proposed in Ref. to the WKE are critical for capturing the spatial scales characteristic for the tertiary instability. That said, we also find that this instability itself cannot be adequately described within a GO formulation in principle. Using the Wigner-Moyal equations, which capture diffraction, we analytically derive the tertiary-instability growth rate and compare it with numerical simulations. The research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Rogers, Barrett N.; Zhu, Ben; Francisquez, Manaure
2018-05-01
A gyrokinetic linear stability analysis of a collisionless slab geometry in the local approximation is presented. We focus on k∥=0 universal (or entropy) modes driven by plasma gradients at small and large plasma β. These are small scale non-MHD instabilities with growth rates that typically peak near k⊥ρi˜1 and vanish in the long wavelength k⊥→0 limit. This work also discusses a mode known as the Gradient Drift Coupling (GDC) instability previously reported in the gyrokinetic literature, which has a finite growth rate γ=√{β/[2 (1 +β)] }Cs/|Lp| with Cs2=p0/ρ0 for k⊥→0 and is universally unstable for 1 /Lp≠0 . We show that the GDC instability is a spurious, unphysical artifact that erroneously arises due to the failure to respect the total equilibrium pressure balance p0+B02/(8 π)=constant , which renders the assumption B0'=0 inconsistent if p0'≠0 .
Simulation of ITG instabilities with fully kinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons in tokamaks
Hu, Youjun; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott
2017-10-01
A turbulence simulation model with fully kinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons is being developed in the toroidal electromagnetic turbulence code GEM. This is motivated by the observation that gyrokinetic ions are not well justified in simulating turbulence in tokamak edges with steep density profile, where ρi / L is not small enough to be used a small parameter needed by the gyrokinetic ordering (here ρi is the gyro-radius of ions and L is the scale length of density profile). In this case, the fully kinetic ion model may be useful. Our model uses an implicit scheme to suppress high-frequency compressional Alfven waves and waves associated with the gyro-motion of ions. The ion orbits are advanced by using the well-known Boris scheme, which reproduces correct drift-motion even with large time-step comparable to the ion gyro-period. The field equation in this model is Ampere's law with the magnetic field eliminated by using an implicit scheme of Faraday's law. The current contributed by ions are computed by using an implicit δf method. A flux tube approximation is adopted, which makes the field equation much easier to solve. Numerical results of electromagnetic ITG obtained from this model will be presented and compared with the gyrokinetic results. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0008801.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, J W S; Chapman, S C; Dendy, R O; Brady, C S
2011-01-01
We present particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of minority energetic protons in deuterium plasmas, which demonstrate a collective instability responsible for emission near the lower hybrid frequency and its harmonics. The simulations capture the lower hybrid drift instability in a parameter regime motivated by tokamak fusion plasma conditions, and show further that the excited electromagnetic fields collectively and collisionlessly couple free energy from the protons to directed electron motion. This results in an asymmetric tail antiparallel to the magnetic field. We focus on obliquely propagating modes excited by energetic ions, whose ring-beam distribution is motivated by population inversions related to ion cyclotron emission, in a background plasma with a temperature similar to that of the core of a large tokamak plasma. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic relativistic PIC code representing all vector field quantities and particle velocities in three dimensions as functions of a single spatial dimension is used to model this situation, by evolving the initial antiparallel travelling ring-beam distribution of 3 MeV protons in a background 10 keV Maxwellian deuterium plasma with realistic ion-electron mass ratio. These simulations provide a proof-of-principle for a key plasma physics process that may be exploited in future alpha channelling scenarios for magnetically confined burning plasmas.
Lamarche, Leslie J.; Makarevich, Roman A.
2017-03-01
We present observations of plasma density gradients, electric fields, and small-scale plasma irregularities near a polar cap patch made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar at Rankin Inlet (RKN) and the northern face of Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N). RKN echo power and occurrence are analyzed in the context of gradient-drift instability (GDI) theory, with a particular focus on the previously uninvestigated 2-D dependencies on wave propagation, electric field, and gradient vectors, with the latter two quantities evaluated directly from RISR-N measurements. It is shown that higher gradient and electric field components along the wave vector generally lead to the higher observed echo occurrence, which is consistent with the expected higher GDI growth rate, but the relationship with echo power is far less straightforward. The RKN echo power increases monotonically as the predicted linear growth rate approaches zero from negative values but does not continue this trend into positive growth rate values, in contrast with GDI predictions. The observed greater consistency of echo occurrence with GDI predictions suggests that GDI operating in the linear regime can control basic plasma structuring, but measured echo strength may be affected by other processes and factors, such as multistep or nonlinear processes or a shear-driven instability.
Innocenti, Maria Elena; Beck, Arnaud; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni
2015-04-01
We study turbulence generated by the Lower Hybrid Drift Instability (LHDI [1]) in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The problem is not only of interest per se, but also for the implications it can have for the so-called turbulent reconnection. The LHDI evolution is simulated with the PIC Multi Level Multi Domain code Parsek2D-MLMD [2,3], which simulates different parts of the domain with different spatial and temporal resolutions. This allows to satisfy, at a low computing cost, the two necessary requirements for LHDI turbulence simulations: 1) a large domain, to capture the high wavelength branch of the LHDI and of the secondary kink instability and 2) high resolution, to cover the high wavenumber part of the power spectrum and to capture the wavenumber at which the turbulent cascade ends. The turbulent cascade proceeds seamlessly from the coarse (low resolution) to the refined (high resolution) grid, the only one resolved enough to capture its end, which is studied here and related to wave-particle interaction processes. We also comment upon the role of smoothing (a common technique used in PIC simulations to reduce particle noise, [4]) in simulations of turbulence and on how its effects on power spectra may be easily mistaken, in absence of accurate convergence studies, for the end of the inertial range. [1] P. Gary, Theory of space plasma microinstabilities, Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series, 2005. [2] M. E. Innocenti, G. Lapenta, S. Markidis, A. Beck, A. Vapirev, Journal of Computational Physics 238 (2013) 115 - 140. [3] M. E. Innocenti, A. Beck, T. Ponweiser, S. Markidis, G. Lapenta, Computer Physics Communications (accepted) (2014). [4] C. K. Birdsall, A. B. Langdon, Plasma physics via computer simulation, Taylor and Francis, 2004.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.
1989-01-01
Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed
Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovsky, A.B.
1983-01-01
The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)
On nonlinear periodic drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kauschke, U.; Schlueter, H.
1990-09-01
Nonlinear periodic drift waves are investigated on the basis of a simple perturbation scheme for both the amplitude and inverse frequency. The coefficients for the generation of the forced harmonics are derived, a nonlinear dispersion relation is suggested and a criterion for the onset of the modulational instability is obtained. The results are compared with the ones obtained with the help of a standard KBM-treatment. Moreover cnoidal drift waves are suggested and compared to an experimental observation. (orig.)
van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.
2017-12-01
During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.
Collisional drift fluids and drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.
1995-05-01
The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effect of which is extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter is important as concerns charge separation and resulting electric fields which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial for the stability behaviour; it will be discussed via an example. New collisional multispecies drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields in a transparent way conservation of energy and total angular momentum, and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. Their relation to the ideal equations imply, however, also a relation to the ideal Lagrangian of which one can take advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T ν (x)=const. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theories; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. Linear instability is investigated via energy considerations and the implications of taking ohmic resistivity into account are discussed. (orig./WL)
Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inagaki, Yosuke
1977-01-01
Drift chamber is becoming an important detector in high energy physics as a precision and fast position detector because of its high spatial resolution and count-rate. The basic principle is that it utilizes the drift at constant speed of electrons ionized along the tracks of charged particles towards the anode wire in the nearly uniform electric field. The method of measuring drift time includes the analog and digital ones. This report describes about the construction of and the application of electric field to the drift chamber, mathematical analysis on the electric field and equipotential curve, derivation of spatial resolution and the factor for its determination, and selection of gas to be used. The performance test of the chamber was carried out using a small test chamber, the collimated β source of Sr-90, and 500 MeV/C electron beam from the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Most chambers to date adopted one dimensional read-out, but it is very advantageous if the two dimensional read-out is feasible with one chamber when the resolution in that direction is low. The typical methods of delay line and charge division for two dimensional read-out are described. The development of digital read-out system is underway, which can process the signal of a large scale drift chamber at high speed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoute-Vanneck, H.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Nielsen, E.
1990-01-01
Characteristics of eastward drifting forms, previously described in the literature as black aurorae, have been identified in low-light level TV camera data. The TV field of view was within the field of view of STARE and that of an all-sky camera. On the basis of these observations the authors propose that these auroral forms are a manifestation of folds or waves on the borders of auroral bands propagating along the dark regions between neighboring auroral bands. Conditions under which the folds or waves occur are compatible with their formation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz electrostatic instability
Parametric decay of lower hybrid wave into drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanuki, Heiji.
1976-12-01
A dispersion relation describing the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into an electrostatic drift wave and a drift Alfven wave is derived for an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. Particularly the stimulated scattering of a drift Alfven wave in such a plasma was investigated in detail. The resonance backscattering instability is found to yield the minimum threshold. (auth.)
Electron/electron acoustic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, S.P.
1987-01-01
The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma
Linear theory of drift-tearing and interchange modes in a screw pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copenhaver, C.
1978-04-01
A drift dispersion relation, as applied to a resistive incompressible plasma in a screw pinch, is derived. This dispersion relation incorporates both drift-tearing and drift-interchange modes and is valid throughout the collisional regime by including kinetic theory factors. The dispersion relation reduces to the drift-tearing dispersion relation in the zero pressure gradient limit, and to the classical resistive dispersion relation in the zero drift limit. The electron temperature gradient instability is still present. Now, however, the introduction of the interchange-drift instability increases the growth rate further above the tearing-drift case. (orig.) [de
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
Unstable universal drift eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.
1980-01-01
The eigenmode equation describing ballooning collisionless drift instabilities is analyzed both analytically and numerically. A new branch of eigenmodes, which corresponds to quasi-bound states due to toroidal coupling effects such as ion delB drifts, is shown to be destabilized by electron Landau damping for typical tokamak parameters. This branch cannot be understood by the strong coupling approximation. However, the slab-like (Pearlstein--Berk-type) branch is found to remain stable and experience enhanced shear damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, G.
1988-01-01
The linear stability of the electrostatic drift waves in slab geometry has been studied analytically and numerically. The effects of magnetic field with shear, of the finite Larmor radius, of an electron streaming, of a temperature gradient and of collisions have been retained. The analytical solution has been obtained using the matched asymptotic expansion technique, and an expression for the critical streaming parameter has been derived. Finally, assuming that the transport in the Reversed Field Pinches is dominated by this instability, a scaling law for the temperature in such machine is derived
Viscose kink and drift-kink modes in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhajlovskij, A.B.
1988-01-01
Intristic kink modes in a tokamak are theoretically investigated taking account of longitudinal viscosity of ions and electrons and drift effect. It is marked that dispersion equation of investigated modes coinsides in form with that for ballooning modes. It is shown that five types of intrinsic kink instability may be distinguished in disregard of viscosity and drift effects. Effect of stabilizing quasiideal viscose kink and viscose resistive kink modes by finite Larmuir ion radius is investigated. A branch of viscose reclosure mode which instability is due to electron viscosity is pointed out. A series of other viscose and drift-kink tokamak modes is considered. Both general disperse equations of the above-mentioned kink instability varieties, taking account of viscose and drift ones, and disperse equations of separate branches are presented
Waves and instabilities in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.
1987-01-01
The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.
1989-01-01
A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.
1989-01-01
We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs
Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking
Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.
2014-10-01
Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals.
Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.
1992-09-23
The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling.
Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.
1992-01-01
The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling
Unstable universal drift eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.
1979-08-01
The eigenmode equation describing ballooning collisionless drift instabilities is analyzed both analytically and numerically. A new branch of eigenmodes, which corresponds to quasi-bound states due to the finite toroidicity, is shown to be destabilized by electron Landau damping for typical Tokamak parameters. This branch cannot be understood by the strong coupling approximation. However, the slab-like (Pearlstein-Berk type) branch is found to remain stable and experience enhanced shear damping due to finite toroidicity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
E. Gaffiney
2004-11-23
This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaffiney, E.
2004-01-01
This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1)
Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto
2016-01-01
The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the...
Rectangular drift tube characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.
1985-01-01
Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
E.S. Gaffney
2003-10-08
This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
E.S. Gaffney
2003-01-01
This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dwayne C. Kicker
2001-09-28
A statistical description of the probable block sizes formed by fractures around the emplacement drifts has been developed for each of the lithologic units of the repository host horizon. A range of drift orientations with the drift azimuth varied in 15{sup o} increments has been considered in the static analysis. For the quasi-static seismic analysis, and the time-dependent and thermal effects analysis, two drift orientations have been considered: a drift azimuth of 105{sup o} and the current emplacement drift azimuth of 75{sup o}. The change in drift profile resulting from progressive deterioration of the emplacement drifts has been assessed both with and without backfill. Drift profiles have been determined for four different time increments, including static (i.e., upon excavation), 200 years, 2,000 years, and 10,000 years. The effect of seismic events on rock fall has been analyzed. Block size distributions and drift profiles have been determined for three seismic levels, including a 1,000-year event, a 5,000-year event, and a 10,000-year event. Data developed in this modeling and analysis activity have been entered into the TDMS (DTN: MO0109RDDAAMRR.003). The following conclusions have resulted from this drift degradation analysis: (1) The available fracture data are suitable for supporting a detailed key block analysis of the repository host horizon rock mass. The available data from the north-south Main Drift and the east-west Cross Drift provide a sufficient representative fracture sample of the repository emplacement drift horizon. However, the Tptpln fracture data are only available from a relatively small section of the Cross Drift, resulting in a smaller fracture sample size compared to the other lithologic units. This results in a lower degree of confidence that the key block data based on the Tptpln data set is actually representative of the overall Tptpln key block population. (2) The seismic effect on the rock fall size distribution for all events
The importance of correcting for signal drift in diffusion MRI
Vos, Sjoerd B; Tax, Chantal M W; Luijten, Peter R; Ourselin, Sebastien; Leemans, Alexander; Froeling, Martijn
2017-01-01
PURPOSE: To investigate previously unreported effects of signal drift as a result of temporal scanner instability on diffusion MRI data analysis and to propose a method to correct this signal drift. METHODS: We investigated the signal magnitude of non-diffusion-weighted EPI volumes in a series of diffusion-weighted imaging experiments to determine whether signal magnitude changes over time. Different scan protocols and scanners from multiple vendors were used to verify this on phantom data, a...
An electrodeless drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Duerdoth, I.; Rowe, P.G.
1982-01-01
We describe a chamber in which the drift field is controlled by the deposition of electrostatic charge on an insulating surface. The chamber operates with good efficiency and precision for observed drift distances of up to 45 cm, promises to be extremely robust and adaptable and offers a very cheap way of making particle detectors. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.
2015-01-01
An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic ...... data set from a Spanish bank....
Time dependent drift Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, A.H.
1982-04-01
The motion of individual charged particles in a given magnetic and an electric fields is discussed. An idea of a guiding center distribution function f is introduced. The guiding center distribution function is connected to the asymptotic Hamiltonian through the drift kinetic equation. The general non-stochastic magnetic field can be written in a contravariant and a covariant forms. The drift Hamiltonian is proposed, and the canonical gyroradius is presented. The proposed drift Hamiltonian agrees with Alfven's drift velocity to lowest non-vanishing order in the gyroradius. The relation between the exact, time dependent equations of motion and the guiding center equation is clarified by a Lagrangian analysis. The deduced Lagrangian represents the drift motion. (Kato, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
J.T. Birkholzer
2004-01-01
This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G.H. Nieder-Westermann
2005-01-01
The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutqvist, J.
2004-01-01
This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a
Chaotic neoclassical separatrix dissipation in parametric drift-wave decay.
Kabantsev, A A; Tsidulko, Yu A; Driscoll, C F
2014-02-07
Experiments and theory characterize a parametric decay instability between plasma drift waves when the nonlinear coupling is modified by an electrostatic barrier. Novel mode coupling terms representing enhanced dissipation and mode phase shifts are caused by chaotic separatrix crossings on the wave-ruffled separatrix. Experimental determination of these coupling terms is in broad agreement with new chaotic neoclassical transport analyses.
Turbulent spectra from three drift-wave interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Horton, W.
1982-02-01
Hydrodynamic equations for the drift-wave instability containing the rvec E x rvec B convective nonlinearity are used to show that the three wave interactions lead to temporal chaos with broad-band frequency spectra in the saturated state. 7 refs., 2 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, T; Nagao, A; Nakamura, K; Kikuchi, M; Aoki, T; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Mitarai, O
1982-02-01
Critical condition for current-driven instability excited in turbulently heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma is investigated experimentally. Resistive hump in loop voltage, plasma density fluctuation and rapid increase of electron temperature in a skin layer are simultaneously observed at the time when the electron drift velocity amounts to the critical drift velocity for low-frequency ion acoustic instability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D. Kicker
2004-01-01
Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D. Kicker
2004-09-16
Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal
Spiral silicon drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.
1988-01-01
An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs
Radial semiconductor drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rawlings, K.J.
1987-01-01
The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto
are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the continuous-time Itô semi-martingale model in such a way that the fundamental arbitrage-free property is preserved......, currencies and commodities. We find that the majority of identified drift bursts are accompanied by strong price reversals and these can therefore be regarded as “flash crashes” that span brief periods of severe market disruption without any material longer term price impacts....
Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedrozzi, M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.
1997-10-01
Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs
Low-frequency instabilities of a warm plasma in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, D.F.; Hollweg, J.V.
1977-01-01
The marginal stability of a plasma carrying current along the static magnetic field with isotropic Maxwellian ions and isotropic Maxwellian electrons drifting relative to the ions is investigated. The complete electromagnetic dispersion relation is studied using numerical techniques; the electron sums are restricted to three terms which limits the analysis to frequencies much less than the electron gyro-frequency, but includes frequencies somewhat above the ion gyro-frequency. A 'kink-like' instability and an instability of the Alfven mode are found to have the lowest threshold drift velocities in most cases. In fact the threshold drift for the kink-like instability can be significantly less than the ion thermal speed. Electrostatic and electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instabilities are also found as well as the electro-static ion-acoustic instability. No instability of the fast magnetosonic mode was found. The stability analysis provides only threshold drift velocities and gives no information about growth rates. (author)
Tapping with intentional drift
Vardy, A.N.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.
2009-01-01
When tapping a desired frequency, subjects tend to drift away from this target frequency. This compromises the estimate of the correlation between inter-tap intervals (ITIs) as predicted by the two-level model of Wing and Kristofferson which consists of an internal timer ('clock') and motor delays.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, A.
2002-01-01
The design and construction of the large drift chamber of the KLOE experiment is presented. The track reconstruction is described, together with the calibration method and the monitoring systems. The stability of operation and the performance are studied with samples of e + e - , K S K L and K + K - events
High resolution drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Va'vra, J.
1985-07-01
High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danilov, M; Nagovizin, V; Hasemann, H; Michel, E; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wurth, R; Kim, P
1983-11-15
The ARGUS detector came into operation at the DORIS-II e/sup +/s/sup -/ storage ring at the end of 1982. Its two meter long drift chamber contains 5940 sense and 24588 field wires organized in uniform 18x18.8 mm/sup 2/ drift cells filling the whole volume. These cells form 36 layers, 18 of which provide stereo views. Each sense wire is equipped with a single hit TDC and ADC for coordinate and dE/dx measurements. The chamber is operated with propane to improve momentum and dE/dx resolution. The drift chamber design and initial performance are presented. With a very crude space-time relation approximation and without all the necessary corrections applied a spatial resolution of about 200 ..mu..m was obtained for half of the drift cell volume. Further corrections should improve this result. An intrinsic dE/dx resolution of 4.2% and an actual resolution of 5% were obtained for cosmic muons and also for Bhabha scattered electrons. An actual dE/dx resolution of 5.6% was obtained for pions from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data with almost no track selection. A relativistic rise of 30% was observed in good agreement with theory. The long-term stability is still to be investigated.
Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.
2010-01-01
Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these
Guiding center drift equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, A.H.
1979-03-01
The quations for particle guiding center drift orbits are given in a new magnetic coordinate system. This form of the equations not only separates the fast motion along the lines from the slow motion across, but also requires less information about the magnetic field than many other formulations of the problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D.M. Jolley
1999-12-02
As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.
Ion streaming instability in a quantum dusty magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P. K.; Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.
2008-01-01
It is shown that a relative drift between the ions and the charged dust particles in a magnetized quantum dusty plasma can produce an oscillatory instability in a quantum dust acousticlike wave. The threshold and growth rate of the instability are presented. The result may explain the origin of low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in semiconductors quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M and O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report
Zonal Flows Driven by Small-Scale Drift-Alfven Modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Dehui; Zhou Deng
2011-01-01
Generation of zonal flows by small-scale drift-Alfven modes is investigated by adopting the approach of parametric instability with the electron polarization drift included. The zonal mode can be excited by primary modes propagating at both electron and ion diamagnetic drift directions in contrast to the assertion in previous studies that only primary modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift directions can drive zonal instabilities. Generally, the growth rate of the driven zonal mode is in the same order as that in previous study. However, different from the previous work, the growth rate is no longer proportional to the difference between the diamagnetic drift frequencies of electrons and ions. (magnetically confined plasma)
Dynamics of zonal flows and self-regulating drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Fleischer, J.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Hinton, F.L.; Malkov, M.; Smolyakov, A.
1999-01-01
We present a theory of zonal flow - drift wave dynamics. Zonal flows are generated by modulational instability of a drift wave spectrum, and are damped by collisions. Drift waves undergo random shearing-induced refraction, resulting in increased mean square radial wavenumber. Drift waves and zonal flows together form a simple dynamical system, which has a single stable fixed point. In this state, the fluctuation intensity and turbulent diffusivity are ultimately proportional to the collisional zonal flow damping. The implications of these results for transport models is discussed. (author)
Dynamics of zonal flows and self-regulating drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Fleischer, J.; Rosenbluth, M.; Hinton, F.L.; Malkov, M.; Smolyakov, A.
2001-01-01
We present a theory of zonal flow - drift wave dynamics. Zonal flows are generated by modulational instability of a drift wave spectrum, and are damped by collisions. Drift waves undergo random shearing-induced refraction, resulting in increased mean square radial wavenumber. Drift waves and zonal flows together form a simple dynamical system, which has a single stable fixed point. In this state, the fluctuation intensity and turbulent diffusivity are ultimately proportional to the collisional zonal flow damping. The implications of these results for transport models is discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G.
2006-01-01
This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)
Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.
2009-01-01
We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less
Unified formulation for inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silveira, O.J.G.; Ziebell, L.F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, Peter H.
2002-01-01
A local dispersion relation that describes inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range is derived following a procedure that correctly describes energy exchange between waves and particles in inhomogeneous media, correcting some inherent ambiguities associated with the standard formalism found in the literature. Numerical solutions of this improved dispersion relation show that it constitutes a unified formulation for the instabilities in the lower-hybrid range, describing the so-called modified two-stream instability, excited by the ion cross-field drift, including the ion Weibel instability, and also describing the lower-hybrid drift instability, which is due to inhomogeneity effects on the electron population
Drift mode calculations for the Large Helical Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rewoldt, G.; Ku, L.-P.; Tang, W.M.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Cooper, W.A.
2000-01-01
A fully kinetic assessment of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes has been obtained for a case for the Large Helical Device (LHD) [A.Iiyoshi, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1998, Nucl.Fusion 39, 1245 (1999)]. This calculation retains the important effects in the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities in the electrostatic limit. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by trapped particle dynamics and ion temperature gradients are presented, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics equilibria reconstructed from experimental measurements. The effects of helically-trapped particles and helical curvature are investigated
Lagrangians for plasmas in drift-fluid approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.
1996-10-01
For drift waves and related instabilities conservation laws can play a crucial role. In an ideal theory these conservation laws are guaranteed when a Lagrangian can be found from which the equations for the various quantities result by Hamilton's principle. Such a Lagrangian for plasmas in drift-fluid approximation was obtained by a heuristic method in a recent paper by Pfirsch and Correa-Restrepo. In the present paper the same Lagrangian is derived from the exact multi-fluid Lagrangian via an iterative approximation procedure which resembles the standard method usually applied to the equations of motion. That method, however, does not guarantee all the conservation laws to hold. (orig.)
Diogene pictorial drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gosset, J.
1984-01-01
A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Banoo
1998-01-01
equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehre, Per Kristian
2011-01-01
An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms......, to be derived from simple conditions on the one-step behaviour of their variation operators and selection mechanisms....
Consistent guiding center drift theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wimmel, H.K.
1982-04-01
Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)
Laboratory Course on Drift Chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Ferreira, Ix-B.; Garcia-Herrera, J.; Villasenor, L.
2006-01-01
Drift chambers play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. We started this laboratory course with a brief review of the theoretical background and then moved on to the the experimental setup which consisted of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber. We also used a plastic scintillator paddle, standard P-10 gas mixture (90% Ar, 10% CH4) and a collimated 90Sr source. During the laboratory session the students performend measurements of the following quantities: a) drift velocities and their variations as function of the drift field; b) gas gains and c) diffusion of electrons as they drifted in the gas
Symbol synchronizer assembly instability study, part 2
Bunce, R. C.
1975-01-01
Data processing to develop a third-order phase model and to translate all such processed data to the frequency realm for further analysis was described. The frequency study yields a long frequency modulation (FM) drift sinusoid (1600-sec period), an impressed secondary drift wave with a period of about 116 sec, and a set of even harmonics of twice the ramp period-the latter arising from, and used to modify, the phase detector model. The result is applied secondarily to estimate the strong-signal SSA phase detector response "out-of-lock." Finally, the main drift components are verified against all available data, and the result is used to estimate minimum lock conditions and the SSA drift effect under normal operating modes. The instability problem appears marginally resolvable if the acquisition technique is modified.
Theory of dissipative drift instabilities in sheared magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.; Guzdar, P.N.; Hsu, J.Y.; Kaw, P.K.; Oberman, C.; White, R.
1978-07-01
It is found that in the slab approximation, where usual shear damping is operative, resistivity contributes to an enhancement of this damping and the enhancement factor increases with the electron-ion collision frequency ν/sub ei/. Thus no unstable eigenmodes result. If the shear damping is nullified, either by introducing a strong spatial variation of the density gradient, or by working in toroidal geometry with strong toroidal coupling effects, then unstable eigenmodes with growth rates increasing with ν/sub ei/ are recovered. A perturbation calculation shows that retention of electron temperature fluctuations associated with the mode and inclusion of temperature gradients does not alter these conclusions. Extensive numerical calculations and relation to published experimental results are also presented
Transition from flute modes to drift waves in a magnetized plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brochard, F.; Gravier, E.; Bonhomme, G.
2005-01-01
Recent experiments performed on the low β plasma device Mirabelle [T. Pierre, G. Leclert, and F. Braun, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 6 (1987)] using a limiter have shown that transitions between various gradient driven instabilities occurred on increasing the magnetic field strength. New thorough measurements allow to identify unambiguously three instability regimes. At low magnetic field the strong ExB velocity shear drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, whereas at high magnetic field drift waves are only observed. A centrifugal (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability is also observed in between when the ExB velocity is shearless and strong enough. A close connection is made between the ratio ρ s /L perpendicular of the drift parameter to the radial density gradient length and each instability regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, Michael L.
2001-01-01
Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing
Drift velocity monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers
Sonnenschein, Lars
2010-01-01
The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented.
Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.
1985-01-01
Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime
Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D
2002-01-01
The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).
Electronics for proportional drift tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fremont, G.; Friend, B.; Mess, K.H.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Tarle, J.C.; Verweij, H.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Geske, K.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Semenov, Y.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration)
1980-01-01
An electronic system for the read-out of a large number of proportional drift tubes (16,000) has been designed. This system measures deposited charge and drift-time of the charge of a particle traversing a proportional drift tube. A second event can be accepted during the read-out of the system. Up to 40 typical events can be collected and buffered before a data transfer to a computer is necessary. (orig.)
Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houseworth, J.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the
Observation of Ion Acoustic Waves Excited by Drift Waves in a Weakly Magnetized Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukabayashi, Isao; Sato, Sugiya; Nakamura, Yoshiharu
2003-01-01
Spontaneous fluctuations excited by drift waves are investigated experimentally in magnetic multi-pole plasma. The magnetic multi-pole has been widely used in DP devices and so on. It was observed that the high level of density fluctuations was generated by the drift instability near a magnetic multi-pole or a dipole magnet. The waves propagate to the middle plasma region forming the envelope train waves
Progress in semiconductor drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.
1985-01-01
Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements
CTF Void Drift Validation Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
2015-10-26
This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.
A Laboratory Experiment on EM Backscatter from Farley-Buneman and Gradient Drift Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alport, M. J.; D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans
1981-01-01
Results are reported of a laboratory experiment on Bragg backscatter of 3-cm microwaves by turbulent waves driven by the Farley-Buneman and gradient drift instabilities. The present work is the third in a series of laboratory experiments performed to test, under controlled conditions, prevalent i...... ideas on EM scattering by equatorial and high-latitude ionospheric waves and irregularities.......Results are reported of a laboratory experiment on Bragg backscatter of 3-cm microwaves by turbulent waves driven by the Farley-Buneman and gradient drift instabilities. The present work is the third in a series of laboratory experiments performed to test, under controlled conditions, prevalent...
Stabilizing effects of hot electrons on low frequency plasma drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Chaosong; Qiu Lijian; Ren Zhaoxing
1988-01-01
The MHD equation is used to study the stabilization of low frequency drift waves driven by density gradient of plasma in a hot electron plasma. The dispersion relation is derived, and the stabilizing effects of hot electrons are discussed. The physical mechanism for hot electron stabilization of the low frequency plasma perturbations is charge uncovering due to the hot electron component, which depends only on α, the ratio of N h /N i , but not on the value of β h . The hot electrons can reduce the growth rate of the interchange mode and drift wave driven by the plasma, and suppress the enomalous plasma transport caused by the drift wave. Without including the effectof β h , the stabilization of the interchange mode requires α≅2%, and the stabilization of the drift wave requires α≅40%. The theoretical analyses predict that the drift wave is the most dangerous low frequency instability in the hot electron plasma
Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flauger, Raphael [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); McAllister, Liam [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: flauger@physics.ucsd.edu, E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu, E-mail: evas@stanford.edu, E-mail: alexander.westphal@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)
2017-10-01
We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.
Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flauger, Raphael; Westphal, Alexander
2014-12-01
We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.
Drift chamber data readout system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basiladze, S.G.; Lokhonyai, L.
1980-01-01
An electronic system for processing drift chamber signals is described. The system consists of 4-channel fast amplifier-discriminators of low threshold, 16-channel time-expanders transforming 0.5 μs time intervals to 10 μs and a 9-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) recording up to 16 expanded time intervals. If the average track multiplicity is small, TDC is capable to process signals from 4 time-expanders (i.e., 64 drift gaps). In order to record multiple tracks per drift gap discriminator outputs can be connected to a number of time-expander channels. The fast clear input enables the system to be cleared within 0.5 μs. Efficient readout from TDC is facilated by reading only those channels which contain non-zero data (9 bits - drift time; 6 bits - wire number)
Photographic Service
1977-01-01
Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, J.R.; Elcombe, P.A.; Hill, J.C.; Roach, C.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Estabrooks, P.; Hemingway, R.; Karlen, D.; McPherson, A.; Pinfold, J.; Roney, J.M.; Routenburg, P.; Waterhouse, J.; Hargrove, C.K.; Klem, D.; Oakham, F.G.; Carter, A.A.; Jones, R.W.L.; Lasota, M.M.B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Pritchard, T.W.; Wyatt, T.R.
1990-01-01
A high precision vertex drift chamber has been installed in the OPAL experiment at LEP. The design of the chamber and the associated readout electronics is described. The performance of the system has been studied using cosmic ray muons and the results of these studies are presented. A space resolution of 50 μm in the drift direction is obtained using the OPAL central detector gas mixture at 4 bar. (orig.)
Generalized drift-flux correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.; Hochreiter, L.E.
1991-01-01
A one-dimensional drift-flux model with five conservation equations is frequently employed in major computer codes, such as TRAC-PD2, and in simulator codes. In this method, the relative velocity between liquid and vapor phases, or slip ratio, is given by correlations, rather than by direct solution of the phasic momentum equations, as in the case of the two-fluid model used in TRAC-PF1. The correlations for churn-turbulent bubbly flow and slug flow regimes were given in terms of drift velocities by Zuber and Findlay. For the annular flow regime, the drift velocity correlations were developed by Ishii et al., using interphasic force balances. Another approach is to define the drift velocity so that flooding and liquid hold-up conditions are properly simulated, as reported here. The generalized correlation is used to reanalyze the MB-2 test data for two-phase flow in a large-diameter pipe. The results are applied to the generalized drift flux velocity, whose relationship to the other correlations is discussed. Finally, the generalized drift flux correlation is implemented in TRAC-PD2. Flow reversal from countercurrent to cocurrent flow is computed in small-diameter U-shaped tubes and is compared with the flooding curve
Drift scale thermomechanical analysis for thermal loading and retrievability studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsai, F.C.
1995-01-01
The repository portion of the Mined Geologic Disposal System for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is currently in the advanced conceptual design stage. In support of systems studies, a numerical method was used to estimate the stability of emplacement drifts. Thermomechanical analyses, using the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis code, were performed using input data from Yucca Mountain documents. The analysis found that the stresses produced in the rock at thermal loads of 27.4 kilograms uranium per m2 (KgU/m2) would exceed stability criteria and could result in tunnel instability. At thermal loads between 20.5 KgU/m2, the drift is predicted to be stable and its structural integrity remains after thermal loading. In this case, the smaller diameter drift emplacement appears to have better stability. However, local rock spalling may occur. According to the numerical prediction, more rock fall may occur during the retrieval period due to the stress relaxation caused by the rapid cooling in the immediate drift area
2008-04-01
By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its
Instability of a Vacuum Arc Centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Bosco, E. del; Simpson, S.W.
2003-01-01
Ever since conception of the Vacuum Arc Centrifuge (VAC) in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a VAC. Our theoretical and experimental research suggests that these fluctuations are in fact a pressure-gradient driven drift mode. In this work, we summarise the properties of a theoretical model describing the range of instabilities in the VAC plasma column, present theoretical predictions and compare with detailed experiments conducted on the PCEN centrifuge at the Brazilian National Space Research Institute (INPE). We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density-gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity
Alfven instability and micromagnetic islands in a plasma with sheared magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, J.; Kaw, P.; Chen, L.
1977-07-01
The normal mode equation for coupled drift and Alfven waves in a finite-β nonuniform plasma with a sheared magnetic field is solved, in the slab geometry, to investigate the instability of slow Alfven waves. It is shown, that, besides having an appreciable growth rate, the instability also produces microscopic ''tearing'' of the rational surfaces which has important implications for anomalous transport
Numerical methods on flow instabilities in steam generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideki
2008-06-01
The phenomenon of two-phase flow instability is important for the design and operation of many industrial systems and equipment, such as steam generators. The designer's job is to predict the threshold of flow instability in order to design around it or compensate for it. So it is essential to understand the physical phenomena governing such instability and to develop computational tools to model the dynamics of boiling systems. In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, investigations on heat transfer characteristics of steam generator are being performed for the development of Sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor. As one part of the research work, the evaluations of two-phase flow instability in the steam generator are being carried out experimentally and numerically. In this report, the numerical methods were studied for two-phase flow instability analysis in steam generator. For numerical simulation purpose, the special algorithm to calculate inlet flow rate iteratively with inlet pressure and outlet pressure as boundary conditions for the density-wave instability analysis was established. There was no need to solve property derivatives and large matrices, so the spurious numerical instabilities caused by discontinuous property derivatives at boiling boundaries were avoided. Large time-step was possible. The flow instability in single heat transfer tube was successfully simulated with homogeneous equilibrium model by using the present algorithm. Then the drift-flux model including the effects of subcooled boiling and two phase slip was adopted to improve the accuracy. The computer code was developed after selecting the correlations of drift velocity and distribution parameter. The capability of drift flux model together with the present algorithm for simulating density-wave instability in single tube was confirmed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krall, N. A.; Pearlstein, L. D. [General Atomic Division, General Dynamics Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States)
1966-04-15
Most of the familiar drift instabilities (flute, universal, etc.) were, calculated in the limit {beta} = (plasma pressure)/(magnetic pressure) = 0. In this limit the perturbed electric field is electrostatic, and the Vlasov equation is remarkably simplified. The {beta} limit for validity of the electrostatic approximation depends on the particular mode considered and many present experiments fall outside the range. Two well-known low frequency drift instabilities are examined at arbitrary {beta}; the zero-{beta} regime is determined and stability criteria for larger values of {beta} are derived. In addition, the influence of finite {beta} on radiation at the electron cyclotron harmonics is examined. The finite Larmor radius (R) flute instability driven by mirror type curvature of the magnetic field is considered first. The lowest order's ominously large contribution, inversely proportional to R{sup 2}, cancels to all orders of {beta}. The leading terms are then independent of R, and are. included in the eigenvalue problem; stability criteria are obtained for various ranges of B. Next the universal instability, E = Perturbed = E (exp ik{sub Up-Tack }r{sub Up-Tack })(exp ik{sub II}r{sub II}), in a uniform magnetic field B = B{sub 0}i{sub II} is considered, with field curvature simulated by a fictitious gravity. Here the zero-{beta} limit is dependent upon wavelengths. If {beta} < (electron mass)/(ion mass), or if {beta} <(k{sub II}r{sub p}){sup 2} where r{sub p} = plasma radius and 1/k{sub II} {>=} plasma length, the zero-{beta} limit obtains. Since the instability only exists for (k{sub II}r{sub p}){sup 2} < 0.01, a modest plasma pressure violates the zero-{beta} limit. The eigenvalue for {beta} >(k{sub ll}r{sub p}){sup 2} is calculated and conditions for cusp stabilization as well as mirror destabilization are obtained. The dominant high frequency non-relativistic modes of the stable zero-{beta} plasma are longitudinal waves at electron gyrofrequency harmonics. If
Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran, I.; Martinez-Laso, L.
1989-01-01
We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs
Computer simulations of electromagnetic cool ion beam instabilities. [in near earth space
Gary, S. P.; Madland, C. D.; Schriver, D.; Winske, D.
1986-01-01
Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities driven by cool ion beams at propagation parallel or antiparallel to a uniform magnetic field are studied using computer simulations. The elements of linear theory applicable to electromagnetic ion beam instabilities and the simulations derived from a one-dimensional hybrid computer code are described. The quasi-linear regime of the right-hand resonant ion beam instability, and the gyrophase bunching of the nonlinear regime of the right-hand resonant and nonresonant instabilities are examined. It is detected that in the quasi-linear regime the instability saturation is due to a reduction in the beam core relative drift speed and an increase in the perpendicular-to-parallel beam temperature; in the nonlinear regime the instabilities saturate when half the initial beam drift kinetic energy density is converted to fluctuating magnetic field energy density.
In-Drift Microbial Communities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D. Jolley
2000-11-09
As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.
In-Drift Microbial Communities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jolley, D.
2000-01-01
As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses
Atomic physics effects on dissipative toroidal drift wave stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beer, M.A.; Hahm, T.S.
1992-02-01
The effects of atomic physics processes such as ionization, charge exchange, and radiation on the linear stability of dissipative drift waves are investigated in toroidal geometry both numerically and analytically. For typical TFTR and TEXT edge parameters, overall linear stability is determined by the competition between the destabilizing influence of ionization and the stabilizing effect due to the electron temperature gradient. An analytical expression for the linear marginal stability condition, η e crit , is derived. The instability is most likely to occur at the extreme edge of tokamaks with a significant ionization source and a steep electron density gradient
Atomic physics effects on tokamak edge drift-tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.
1993-01-01
The effects of ionization and charge exchange on the linear stability of drift-tearing modes are analytically investigated. In particular, the linear instability threshold Δ Th , produced by ion sound wave coupling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1500 (1978)] is modified. In the strongly collisional regime, the ionization breaks up the near cancellation of the perturbed electric field and the pressure gradient along the magnetic field, and increases the threshold. In the semicollisional regime, both ionization and charge exchange act as drag on the ion parallel velocity [Phys. Fluids B 4, 2567 (1992)], and consequently decrease the threshold by reducing the effectiveness of ion sound wave propagation
CERN PhotoLab
1977-01-01
With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.
Predicting public sector accountability : From agency drift to forum drift
Schillemans, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229913881; Busuioc, Madalina
2015-01-01
Principal-agent theory has been the dominant theory at the heart of public sector accountability research. The notion of the potentially drifting agent-such as independent public agencies, opaque transnational institutions, or recalcitrant street-level bureaucrats-has been the guiding paradigm in
Collisional drift fluid equations and implications for drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, Dieter; Correa-Restrepo, Dario
1996-01-01
The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effects of which are extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter law is important in relation to charge separation and the resulting electric fields, which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial to the stability behaviour, it will be discussed by means of an example. New collisional multi-species drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields, in a transparent way, conservation of energy and total angular momentum and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The only restriction involved is the validity of the drift approximation; in particular, there are no assumptions restricting the geometry of the system. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in the drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. However, their relation to the ideal equations also implies a relation to the ideal Lagrangian, which can be used to advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T v (x) = constant. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theory; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. (author)
Anomalous plasma transport due to electron temperature gradient instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Sinji; Ito, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo.
1979-01-01
The collisionless drift wave instability driven by an electron temperature inhomogeneity (electron temperature gradient instability) and the enhanced transport processes associated with it are studied using a two-and-a-half dimensional particle simulation code. The simulation results show that quasilinear diffusion in phase space is an important mechanism for the saturation of the electron temperature gradient instability. Also, the instability yields particle fluxes toward the hot plasma regions. The heat conductivity of the electron temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field, T sub(e'), is not reduced by magnetic shear but remains high, whereas the heat conductivity of the parallel temperature, T sub(e''), is effectively reduced, and the instability stabilized. (author)
Stanislavsky, A.; Volvach, Ya.; Konovalenko, A.; Koval, A.
2017-08-01
In this paper a new sight on the study of solar bursts historically called drift pairs (DPs) is presented. Having a simple morphology on dynamic spectra of radio records (two short components separated in time, and often they are very similar) and discovered at the dawn of radio astronomy, their features remain unexplained totally up to now. Generally, the DPs are observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, but not every storm of type III bursts is linked with DPs. Detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, the DP bursts are limited in frequency bandwidth. They can drift from high frequencies to low ones and vice versa. Their frequency drift rate may be both lower and higher than typical rates of type III bursts at the same frequency range. The development of low-frequency radio telescopes and data processing provide additional possibilities in the research. In this context the fresh analysis of DPs, made from recent observations in the summer campaign of 2015, are just considered. Their study was implemented by updated tools of the UTR-2 radio telescope at 9-33 MHz. During 10-12 July of 2015, DPs forming the longest patterns on dynamic spectra are about 7% of the total number of recorded DPs. Their marvelous resemblance in frequency drift rates with the solar S-bursts is discussed.
Job satisfaction and preference drift.
Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.
1999-01-01
Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support
Anisotropic gravitational instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.
1988-01-01
Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common
Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duran, I; Martinez laso, L
1989-07-01
We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.
Modelling substorm chorus events in terms of dispersive azimuthal drift
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. B. Collier
2004-12-01
Full Text Available The Substorm Chorus Event (SCE is a radio phenomenon observed on the ground after the onset of the substorm expansion phase. It consists of a band of VLF chorus with rising upper and lower cutoff frequencies. These emissions are thought to result from Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons which drift into a ground station's field of view from an injection site around midnight. The increasing frequency of the emission envelope has been attributed to the combined effects of energy dispersion due to gradient and curvature drifts, and the modification of resonance conditions and variation of the half-gyrofrequency cutoff resulting from the radial component of the ExB drift.
A model is presented which accounts for the observed features of the SCE in terms of the growth rate of whistler mode waves due to anisotropy in the electron distribution. This model provides an explanation for the increasing frequency of the SCE lower cutoff, as well as reproducing the general frequency-time signature of the event. In addition, the results place some restrictions on the injected particle source distribution which might lead to a SCE.
Key words. Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interaction – Magnetospheric physics (Plasma waves and instabilities; Storms and substorms
Modelling substorm chorus events in terms of dispersive azimuthal drift
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. B. Collier
2004-12-01
Full Text Available The Substorm Chorus Event (SCE is a radio phenomenon observed on the ground after the onset of the substorm expansion phase. It consists of a band of VLF chorus with rising upper and lower cutoff frequencies. These emissions are thought to result from Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons which drift into a ground station's field of view from an injection site around midnight. The increasing frequency of the emission envelope has been attributed to the combined effects of energy dispersion due to gradient and curvature drifts, and the modification of resonance conditions and variation of the half-gyrofrequency cutoff resulting from the radial component of the ExB drift. A model is presented which accounts for the observed features of the SCE in terms of the growth rate of whistler mode waves due to anisotropy in the electron distribution. This model provides an explanation for the increasing frequency of the SCE lower cutoff, as well as reproducing the general frequency-time signature of the event. In addition, the results place some restrictions on the injected particle source distribution which might lead to a SCE. Key words. Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interaction – Magnetospheric physics (Plasma waves and instabilities; Storms and substorms
ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arai, Y [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation, Tsukuba (Japan); Ball, B; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Gregory, J [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beretta, M [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P P M [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brandenburg, G W; Fries, T; Costa, J Guimaraes da; Harder, S; Huth, J [Harvard University, Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ceradini, F [INFN Roma Tre and Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Hazen, E [Boston University, Physics Department, Boston, MA (United States); Kirsch, L E [Brandeis University, Department of Physics, Waltham, MA (United States); Koenig, A C [Radboud University Nijmegen/Nikhef, Dept. of Exp. High Energy Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lanza, A [INFN Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mikenberg, G [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics, Rehovot (Israel)], E-mail: brandenburg@physics.harvard.edu (and others)
2008-09-15
This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 {mu}m, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at p{sub T}= 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.
ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics
Arai, Y; Beretta, M; Boterenbrood, H; Brandenburg, G W; Ceradini, F; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Fries, T; Gregory, J; Guimarães da Costa, J; Harder, S; Hazen, E; Huth, J; Jansweijer, P P M; Kirsch, L E; König, A C; Lanza, A; Mikenberg, G; Oliver, J; Posch, C; Richter, R; Riegler, W; Spiriti, E; Taylor, F E; Vermeulen, J; Wadsworth, B; Wijnen, T A M
2008-01-01
This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 microns, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at pT = 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.
A Pascalian lateral drift sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, H.
2016-01-01
A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.
A Pascalian lateral drift sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de
2016-09-21
A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.
Correlations of drift velocity for gas-liquid two-phase flow in rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, Isao; Matsuura, Keizo; Serizawa, Akimi
2004-01-01
A new correlation was developed for the drift velocity for low inlet liquid flux in rod bundle. Based on authors' previous analysis of drift velocity for large diameter pipe, an analysis was made on the drift velocity in rod bundle. It is assumed that the large bubble of which size is several subchannel diameter behaves as slug bubble. Under this assumption, it becomes very important how to define equivalent diameter for rod bundle. In view of physical consideration of slug bubble behavior and previous analysis, an equivalent diameter based on the wetted perimeter was found to be most appropriate. Using this equivalent diameter, experimental data of drift velocity in rod bundle were correlated with dimensional analysis. It was found out that for small diameter (dimensionless diameter less than 48) drift velocity increased with square root of diameter which is same dependency of ordinary slug flow correlation. For larger diameter (dimensionless diameter is more than 48), drift velocity is almost constant and same as that of dimensionless diameter of 48. The physical meaning of this result was considered to be the instability of interface of large slug bubble. The density ratio between gas and liquid and viscosity of liquid phase were found to be the main parameters which affect the drift velocity. This is physically reasonable because density ratio is related to the buoyancy force and liquid viscosity is related to shear force near solid wall. The experimental data were correlated by density ratio and dimensionless liquid viscosity. The obtained dimensionless correlation for the drift velocity in rod bundle successfully correlated experimental data for various rod bundles (equivalent diameters), pressures, liquid fluxes etc. It is also consistent with the drift flux correlation for round tube. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platner, E.D.
1982-01-01
The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed
Shear wall ultimate drift limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.
1994-04-01
Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated
Majority of Solar Wind Intervals Support Ion-Driven Instabilities
Klein, K. G.; Alterman, B. L.; Stevens, M. L.; Vech, D.; Kasper, J. C.
2018-05-01
We perform a statistical assessment of solar wind stability at 1 AU against ion sources of free energy using Nyquist's instability criterion. In contrast to typically employed threshold models which consider a single free-energy source, this method includes the effects of proton and He2 + temperature anisotropy with respect to the background magnetic field as well as relative drifts between the proton core, proton beam, and He2 + components on stability. Of 309 randomly selected spectra from the Wind spacecraft, 53.7% are unstable when the ion components are modeled as drifting bi-Maxwellians; only 4.5% of the spectra are unstable to long-wavelength instabilities. A majority of the instabilities occur for spectra where a proton beam is resolved. Nearly all observed instabilities have growth rates γ slower than instrumental and ion-kinetic-scale timescales. Unstable spectra are associated with relatively large He2 + drift speeds and/or a departure of the core proton temperature from isotropy; other parametric dependencies of unstable spectra are also identified.
Optimization of drift gases for accuracy in pressurized drift tubes
Kirchner, J J; Dinner, A R; Fidkowski, K J; Wyatt, J H
2001-01-01
Modern detectors such as ATLAS use pressurized drift tubes to minimize diffusion and achieve high coordinate accuracy. However, the coordinate accuracy depends on the exact knowledge of converting measured times into coordinates. Linear space-time relationships are best for reconstruction, but difficult to achieve in the $E \\propto \\frac{1}{r}$ field. Previous mixtures, which contained methane or other organic quenchers, are disfavored because of ageing problems. From our studies of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, two mixtures with only small deviations from linearity were determined and measured. Scaling laws for different pressures and magnetic fields are also given.
Optimization of drift gases for accuracy in pressurized drift tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirchner, J.J.; Becker, U.J.; Dinner, R.B.; Fidkowski, K.J.; Wyatt, J.H.
2001-01-01
Modern detectors such as ATLAS use pressurized drift tubes to minimize diffusion and achieve high coordinate accuracy. However, the coordinate accuracy depends on the exact knowledge of converting measured times into coordinates. Linear space-time relationships are best for reconstruction, but difficult to achieve in the E∝1/r field. Previous mixtures, which contained methane or other organic quenchers, are disfavored because of ageing problems. From our studies of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, two mixtures with only small deviations from linearity were determined and measured. Scaling laws for different pressures and magnetic fields are also given
Energy of linear quasineutral electrostatic drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.
1993-01-01
Certain kinds of nonlinear instabilities are related to the existence of negative-energy perturbations. In this paper, an exact energy expression for linear quasineutral electrostatic perturbations is derived within the framework of dissipationless multifluid theory that is valid for any geometry. Taking the mass formally as a tensor with, in general, different masses parallel and perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field allows one to treat in a convenient way different approximations such as the full dynamics and restriction to parallel dynamics or the completely adiabatic case. Application to slab configurations yields the result that the adiabatic approximation does not allow negative energy for perturbations which are perfectly localized at a mode resonant surface, whereas inclusion of the parallel dynamics does. This is in agreement with a recent numerical study of drift-wave turbulence within the framework of collisional two-fluid theory by B. Scott [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3289 (1990); Phys. Fluids B 4, 2468 (1992)]. A dissipationless theory can be formulated in terms of a Lagrangian, from which the energy is immediately obtained. We start with the nonlinear theory. The theory is formulated via a Lagrangian which is written in terms of displacement vectors ξ ν (x,t) such that all constraints are taken into account. The nonlinear energy is obtained from the Lagrangian by standard methods. The procedure used is the same as that developed in a forthcoming paper by Pfirsch and Sudan [Phys. Fluids B (to be published)] for ideal nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics theory. From the exact Lagrangian one obtains the Lagrangian of the linearized theory by simple expansion to second order in ξ ν . This Lagrangian then yields the energy of the linearized theory
Measurement of the positron-drift time relation of a high-pressure drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruefert, W.
1989-04-01
As a test of its performance, the measurement of the drift time versus drift distance relation of a high pressure drift chamber using cosmic rays is described. Two multiwire proportional chambers, mounted above and below the detector, are used to define the track of the cosmic particle in the drift chamber. The drift chamber is read out by FADCs (Flash Analog to Digital Converter), and the drift time is determined from the FADC signals by the DOS- (Difference Of Samples) method. The measured drift time versus drift distance relation showed good agreement with the relation, which is expected from the spatial dependence of the electric field and the dependence of the drift velocity on this field. (orig.) [de
Pulse shape simulation for drift chambers with long drift paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayer, H.J.
1987-01-01
A detailed Monte Carlo program for the simulation of drift chamber pulse shapes is described. It has been applied to the case of a jet chamber with drift paths up to 24 cm. Results on pulse shapes and corresponding spatial and double hit resolution are discussed and compared to recent measurements of the OPAL central detector jet chamber full size prototype and to measurements of a small 20-wire prototype, which was designed to study the pulse shapes generated by tracks in a magnetic field. Simulated pulse shapes and spatial resolutions agree well with the experimental data. Clustering, saturation and wire crosstalk are shown to be necessary ingredients in the simulation. A deterioration in resolution due to the influence of crosstalk signals is correctly reproduced, as well as the cancellation of this effect by a hardwired first and second neighbour crosstalk compensation. The simulation correctly describes the asymmetry in spatial resolution observed for tracks with positive or negative inclination against the wire plane when a magnetic field is present. The effect of saturation on double hit resolution is found to be small. The magnetic field is predicted to improve the double hit resolution. (orig.)
Pulse shape simulation for drift chambers with long drift paths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayer, H J
1987-09-15
A detailed Monte Carlo program for the simulation of drift chamber pulse shapes is described. It has been applied to the case of a jet chamber with drift paths up to 24 cm. Results on pulse shapes and corresponding spatial and double hit resolution are discussed and compared to recent measurements of the OPAL central detector jet chamber full size prototype and to measurements of a small 20-wire prototype, which was designed to study the pulse shapes generated by tracks in a magnetic field. Simulated pulse shapes and spatial resolutions agree well with the experimental data. Clustering, saturation and wire crosstalk are shown to be necessary ingredients in the simulation. A deterioration in resolution due to the influence of crosstalk signals is correctly reproduced, as well as the cancellation of this effect by a hardwired first and second neighbour crosstalk compensation. The simulation correctly describes the asymmetry in spatial resolution observed for tracks with positive or negative inclination against the wire plane when a magnetic field is present. The effect of saturation on double hit resolution is found to be small. The magnetic field is predicted to improve the double hit resolution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, A.; Sedlak, J.E.; Similon, P.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Ross, D.W.
1982-11-01
We investigate the eigenmode structure of drift waves in a straight stellarator using the ballooning mode formalism. The electrons are assumed to be adiabatic and the ions constitute a cold, magnetized fluid. The effective potential has an overall parabolic envelope but is modulated strongly by helical ripples along B. We have found two classes of solutions: those that are strongly localized in local helical wells, and those that are weakly localized and have broad spatial extent. The weakly localized modes decay spatially due to the existence of Mathieu resonances between the periods of the eigenfunction and the effective potential
Experimental work on drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcaraz, J.; Duran, I.; Gonzalez, E.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Olmos, P.
1989-01-01
An experimental work made on drift chambers is described in two chapters. In the firt chapter we present the description of the experimental installation used, as well as some details on the data adquisition systems and the characteristics on three ways used for calibration proposes (cosmic muons, β radiation and test beam using SPS at CERN facilities). The second chapter describes the defferent prototypes studied. The experimental set up and the analysis are given. Some results are discussed. The magnetic field effect is also studied. (Author)
Drift vortices in continuous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernousenko, V.M.; Chernenko, I.V.; Chernyshenko, S.V.
1989-01-01
The work is devoted to investigation into the problems of large-scale cortex drift and generation in continuous media based on the solution of notably non-linear differential equations. Using the capability of the modern computer technique it is possible to consider a series of cases with regard to medium viscosity and its inhomogeneity and with regard to three-dimensional vortex nature. Based on the solutions obtained the large-scale steady-state vortex generation processes are considered. The results can be used when studying non-linear phenomena in plasma and processes of substance and energy transfer in non-equilibrium media. 16 refs.; 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saitou, Y.; Yonesu, A.; Shinohara, S.; Ignatenko, M. V.; Kasuya, N.; Kawaguchi, M.; Terasaka, K.; Nishijima, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.
2007-01-01
The importance of reducing the neutral density to reach strong drift wave turbulence is clarified from the results of the extended magnetohydrodynamics and Monte Carlo simulations in a linear magnetized plasma. An upper bound of the neutral density relating to the ion-neutral collision frequency for the excitation of drift wave instability is shown, and the necessary flow velocity to excite this instability is also estimated from the neutral distributions. Measurements of the Mach number and the electron density distributions using Mach probe in the large mirror device (LMD) of Kyushu University [S. Shinohara et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 37, 1015 (1995)] are reported as well. The obtained results show a controllability of the neutral density and provide the basis for neutral density reduction and a possibility to excite strong drift wave turbulence in the LMD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silin, I.; Buechner, J.
2003-01-01
Nonlinear triggering of the instability of thin current sheets is investigated by two-and-one-half- dimensional Vlasov code simulations. A global drift-resonant instability (DRI) is found, which results from the lower-hybrid-drift waves penetrating from the current sheet edges to the center where they resonantly interact with unmagnetized ions. This resonant nonlinear instability grows faster than a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability obtained in previous studies. The DRI is either asymmetric or symmetric mode or a combination of the two, depending on the relative phase of the lower-hybrid-drift waves at the edges of the current sheet. With increasing particle mass ratio the wavenumber of the fastest-growing mode increases as kL z ∼(m i /m e ) 1/2 /2 and the growth rate of the DRI saturates at a finite level
Dynamic feedback for multi-mode plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.K.
1978-01-01
Constant feedback, which has been used exclusively, fails to stabilize more than one mode of a plasma instability. It is shown that a suitable dynamic or frequency-dependent feedback can stabilize all modes. Methods are developed in which such a feedback structure can be chosen in terms of its poles and zeros in relation to those of the plasma transfer function in the complex frequency plane. The synthesis procedure for such a feedback structure, in the form of an integrated electronic circuit is also discussed. As an example, a dynamic feedback for multi-mode stabilization of a collisional drift wave instability is developed in detail. (author)
Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlasek, P; Duris, S; Palencar, R
2015-01-01
Temperature measurements are one of the key factors in many industrial applications that directly affect the quality, effectiveness and safety of manufacturing processes. In many industrial applications these temperature measurements are realized by thermocouples. Accuracy of thermocouples directly affects the quality of the final product of manufacturing and their durability determines the safety margins required. One of the significant effects that affect the precision of the thermocouples is short and long term stability of their voltage output. This stability issue occurs in every type of thermocouples and is caused by multiple factors. In general these factors affect the Seebeck coefficient which is a material constant, which determines the level of generated voltage when exposed to a temperature gradient. Changes of this constant result in the change of the thermocouples voltage output thus indicated temperature which can result in production quality issues, safety and health hazards. These alternations can be caused by physical and chemical changes within the thermocouple lead material. Modification of this material constant can be of temporary nature or permanent. This paper concentrates on the permanent, or irreversible changes of the Seebeck coefficient that occur in commonly used swaged MIMS Type N thermocouples. These permanent changes can be seen as systematic change of the EMF of the thermocouple when it is exposed to a high temperature over a period of time. This change of EMF by time is commonly known as the drift of the thermocouple. This work deals with the time instability of thermocouples EMF at temperatures above 1200 °C. Instability of the output voltage was taken into relation with the lead diameter of the tested thermocouples. This paper concentrates in detail on the change of voltage output of thermocouples of different diameters which were tested at high temperatures for the overall period of more than 210 hours. The gather data from this
Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter
Pavlasek, P.; Duris, S.; Palencar, R.
2015-02-01
Temperature measurements are one of the key factors in many industrial applications that directly affect the quality, effectiveness and safety of manufacturing processes. In many industrial applications these temperature measurements are realized by thermocouples. Accuracy of thermocouples directly affects the quality of the final product of manufacturing and their durability determines the safety margins required. One of the significant effects that affect the precision of the thermocouples is short and long term stability of their voltage output. This stability issue occurs in every type of thermocouples and is caused by multiple factors. In general these factors affect the Seebeck coefficient which is a material constant, which determines the level of generated voltage when exposed to a temperature gradient. Changes of this constant result in the change of the thermocouples voltage output thus indicated temperature which can result in production quality issues, safety and health hazards. These alternations can be caused by physical and chemical changes within the thermocouple lead material. Modification of this material constant can be of temporary nature or permanent. This paper concentrates on the permanent, or irreversible changes of the Seebeck coefficient that occur in commonly used swaged MIMS Type N thermocouples. These permanent changes can be seen as systematic change of the EMF of the thermocouple when it is exposed to a high temperature over a period of time. This change of EMF by time is commonly known as the drift of the thermocouple. This work deals with the time instability of thermocouples EMF at temperatures above 1200 °C. Instability of the output voltage was taken into relation with the lead diameter of the tested thermocouples. This paper concentrates in detail on the change of voltage output of thermocouples of different diameters which were tested at high temperatures for the overall period of more than 210 hours. The gather data from this
The effect of vertical drift on the equatorial F-region stability
Hanson, W. B.; Cragin, B. L.; Dennis, A.
1986-01-01
Time-dependent ionospheric model calculations for day-time and night-time solutions are presented. The behavior of the growth rate and ion-electron recombination rate for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the F-region bottomside is examined as a function of the vertical eastward electric field-magnetic field strength drift velocity. It is observed that on the bottomside F-layer the growth rate exceeds the ion-electron recombination rate even without vertical drift; however, an eastward electric field-magnetic field strength drift can produce an increase in the growth rate by an order of magnitude. The calculated data are compared with previous research and good correlation is detected. The formation of bubbles from a seeding mechanism is investigated.
Electron-temperature-gradient-driven drift waves and anomalous electron energy transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.; Murtaza, G.; Weiland, J.
1990-01-01
By means of a kinetic description for ions and Braginskii's fluid model for electrons, three coupled nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency short-wavelength electrostatic waves in the presence of equilibrium density temperature and magnetic-field gradients in a two-component magnetized plasma are derived. In the linear limit a dispersion relation that admits new instabilities of drift waves is presented. An estimate of the anomalous electron energy transport due to non-thermal drift waves is obtained by making use of the saturated wave potential, which is deduced from the mixing-length hypothesis. Stationary solutions of the nonlinear equations governing the interaction of linearly unstable drift waves are also presented. The relevance of this investigation to wave phenomena in space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out. (author)
Nonlinear drift tearing mode. Strong mode of excitation and stabilization mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galeev, A.A.; Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.
1985-01-01
A nonlinear theory of magnetic disturbance development in collisionless configurations with magnetic field shear is considered. The instability evolution is investigated with account for the dynamics of ions and potential electric fields which determine the mode stabilization. It has been found that the drift tearing mode possesses metastable properties: in a nonlinear mode even the growth of linearly stable disturbances of the finite amplitude is possible
Drift-time measurement electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pernicka, M.
1978-01-01
The aim of the construction was to improve the time resolution without using the facility of time stretching, to have a fast read-out possibility, and to be still cheaper in price in comparison to other systems. A possibility was thus foreseen for using the firm Fairchild. These integrated circuits (IC) have, for example, a propagation delay of 0.75 ns for a gate. One can expect therefore less time jitter and less time difference between the different inputs. Furthermore this IC offers a greater flexibility and therefore the number of ICs decreases and distances become smaller. Working with clock frequencies up to 166.6 MHz is easily possible without running into timing problems. On the other hand, to make full use of the advantages of this IC, it was necessary to build the print as a multilayer. The only risk could be in the use of a completely new product. A further aim was to build for this system a second type of drift-time module with a short time range for measuring drift time and pulse length in rotated multiwire proportional chambers. A brief outline of the specifications of the different modules is given in table 1. (Auth.)
Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darryl Blalock
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
Joint instability and osteoarthritis.
Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi
2015-01-01
Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
Su, S.-Y.; Liu, C. H.; Chao, C.-K.
2018-04-01
Longitudinal distributions of post-midnight equatorial ionospheric irregularity occurrences observed by ROCSAT-1 (1st satellite of the Republic of China) during moderate to high solar activity years in two solstices are studied with respect to the vertical drift velocity and density variations. The post-midnight irregularity distributions are found to be similar to the well-documented pre-midnight ones, but are different from some published distributions taken during solar minimum years. Even though the post-midnight ionosphere is sinking in general, longitudes of frequent positive vertical drift and high density seems to coincide with the longitudes of high irregularity occurrences. Large scatters found in the vertical drift velocity and density around the dip equator in different ROCSAT-1 orbits indicate the existence of large and frequent variations in the vertical drift velocity and density that seem to be able to provide sufficient perturbations for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability to cause the irregularity occurrences. The need of seeding agents such as gravity waves from atmospheric convective clouds to initiate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may not be necessary.
The large cylindrical drift chamber of TASSO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boerner, H.; Fischer, H.M.; Hartmann, H.; Loehr, B.; Wollstadt, M.; Fohrmann, R.; Schmueser, P.; Cassel, D.G.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.
1980-03-01
We have built and operated a large cylindrical drift chamber for the TASSO experiment at the DESY storage ring, PETRA. The chamber has a length of 3.5 m, a diameter of 2.5 m, and a total of 2340 drift cells. The cells are arranged in 15 concentric layers such that tracks can be reconstructed in three dimensions. A spatial resolution of 220 μm has been achieved for tracks of normal incidence on the drift cells. (orig.)
Drift chamber tracking with neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.
1992-10-01
We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed
Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A.; Vacchi, A.
1990-01-01
The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs
Cooling tower drift: comprehensive case study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laulainen, N.S.; Ulanski, S.L.
1979-01-01
A comprehensive experiment to study drift from mechanical drift cooling towers was conducted during June 1978 at the PG and E Pittsburg Power Plant. The data from this study will be used for validation of drift deposition models. Preliminary results show the effects of tower geometry and orientation with respect to the wind and to single- or two-tower operation. The effect of decreasing relative humidity during a test run can also be seen
Theoretical study on the first kind of density wave instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuying, Gao; Jincai, Li; Baocheng, Xu; Zuoyi, Zhang; Cheng, Gao [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsingua Univ., Beijing (China)
1997-09-01
The present paper summarizes the theoretical studies carried out by INET (Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology) of Tsinghua University on the first kind of density wave instabilities (DWIs) of natural circulation systems. The analysis methods of DWI and mathematical models of drift flux are presented. Based on the general excess entropy production criterion of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, an energy principle of DWI is established. (author). 10 refs, 16 figs.
Low frequency fluid drift turbulence in magnetised plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.
2001-03-01
We start with the first principles of fluid dynamics and classical electrodynamics and then find the regime in which we can reduce to quasineutral dynamics, which also implicitly underlies MHD. Then, we find the limits under which we can specialise to the MHD model as a subset, first of two fluid dynamics, then of the fluid drift dynamics that results when the motions are not vigorous enough to compress the magnetic field. In Chapters 4 and 5 we find the basic character of small disturbances in this system. Chapters 6 through 9 treat various aspects of fluid drift turbulence, also called drift wave turbulence, moving from a simple consideration of the underlying nonlinear dynamics, to some methods by which one can diagnose computations to find out what is going on, and then to the nonlinear instability which is the hallmark of this physics, and then to the interactions with large scale sheared flows. Chapter 10 introduces interchange turbulence, which is the plasma analog of the buoyant convection well known from fluid dynamics. Chapters 11 through 13 treat electromagnetic drift wave turbulence in closed magnetic field geometry, starting with a simplified model treating only the electron pressure and then introducing the electron and ion temperatures. Chapter 14 treats the basic characteristics of the transport that results from fluid drift turbulence, as this is quite different from the kinetic diffusion, such as heat conduction, that is more familiar. Appendices A and B treat the details of the numerical methods and models of magnetic field geometry necessary to treat all but the simplest cases. For this subject is dominated by nonlinear physics and therefore numerical computation. Computations therefore form an integral part of its study right from the beginning. Citations to the literature are not intended to be comprehensive but to serve as starting points for further reading, a section for which is included in every chapter. Much of this work is very new, and
Construction update and drift velocity calibration for the CLAS drift chamber system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mestayer, M.D.; Barbosa, F.J.; Bonneau, P.; Burtin, E.; Christo, S.; Doolittle, G.; Dytman, S.A.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Klein, A.; Kossov, M.V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Magahiz, R.; Miskimen, R.A.; Murphy, L.Y.; O'Meara, J.E.; Pyron, T.D.; Qin, L.; Raue, B.A.; Schumacher, R.A.; Tuzel, W.; Weinstein, L.B.; Yegneswaran, A.
1995-01-01
We briefly describe the drift chamber system for the CLAS detector at CEBAF, concentrating on the method which will be used to calibrate the drift velocity function. We identify key features of the function which should apply to any small-cell drift chamber geometry in which the cathode and anode surfaces are wires. Using these ideas, we describe a simple method to compensate for variations in the drift velocity function due to environmental changes. (orig.)
Construction update and drift velocity calibration for the CLAS drift chamber system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mestayer, M.D. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Barbosa, F.J. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bonneau, P. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Burtin, E. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Christo, S. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Doolittle, G. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Dytman, S.A. [University of Pittsburg, Pittsburg, PA (United States); Gilfoyle, G.P. [University of Richmond, Richmond, VA (United States); Hyde-Wright, C.E. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Klein, A. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Kossov, M.V. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Kuhn, S.E. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Magahiz, R. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miskimen, R.A. [University of Massachussetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Murphy, L.Y. [CE Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); O`Meara, J.E. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Pyron, T.D. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Qin, L. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Raue, B.A. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Schumacher, R.A. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tuzel, W. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weinstein, L.B. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Yegneswaran, A. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
1995-12-11
We briefly describe the drift chamber system for the CLAS detector at CEBAF, concentrating on the method which will be used to calibrate the drift velocity function. We identify key features of the function which should apply to any small-cell drift chamber geometry in which the cathode and anode surfaces are wires. Using these ideas, we describe a simple method to compensate for variations in the drift velocity function due to environmental changes. (orig.).
Graphical analysis of electron inertia induced acoustic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmakar, P.K.; Deka, U.; Dwivedi, C.B.
2005-01-01
Recently, the practical significance of the asymptotic limit of m e /m i →0 for electron density distribution has been judged in a two-component plasma system with drifting ions. It is reported that in the presence of drifting ions with drift speed exceeding the ion acoustic wave speed, the electron inertial delay effect facilitates the resonance coupling of the usual fluid ion acoustic mode with the ion-beam mode. In this contribution the same instability is analyzed by graphical and numerical methods. This is to note that the obtained dispersion relation differs from those of the other known normal modes of low frequency ion plasma oscillations and waves. This is due to consideration of electron inertial delay in derivation of the dispersion relation of the ion acoustic wave fluctuations. Numerical calculations of the dispersion relation and wave energy are carried out to depict the graphical appearance of poles and positive-negative energy modes. It is found that the electron inertia induced ion acoustic wave instability arises out of linear resonance coupling between the negative and positive energy modes. Characterization of the resonance nature of the instability in Mach number space for different wave numbers of the ion acoustic mode is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castoldi, A.; Rehak, P.
1995-01-01
This paper presents a precise absolute measurement of the drift velocity and mobility of electrons in high resistivity silicon at room temperature. The electron velocity is obtained from the differential measurement of the drift time of an electron cloud in a silicon drift detector. The main features of the transport scheme of this class of detectors are: the high uniformity of the electron motion, the transport of the signal electrons entirely contained in the high-purity bulk, the low noise timing due to the very small anode capacitance (typical value 100 fF), and the possibility to measure different drift distances, up to the wafer diameter, in the same semiconductor sample. These features make the silicon drift detector an optimal device for high precision measurements of carrier drift properties. The electron drift velocity and mobility in a 10 kΩ cm NTD n-type silicon wafer have been measured as a function of the electric field in the range of possible operation of a typical drift detector (167--633 V/cm). The electron ohmic mobility is found to be 1394 cm 2 /V s. The measurement precision is better than 1%. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, G.; Tsang, C.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to
Autoresonant control of drift waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shagalov, A.G.; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker
2017-01-01
The control of nonlinear drift waves in a magnetized plasmas column has been investigated. The studies are based on the Hasegawa–Mima model, which is solved on a disk domain with radial inhomogeneity of the plasma density. The system is forced by a rotating potential with varying frequency defined...... on the boundary. To excite and control the waves we apply the autoresonant effect, taking place when the amplitude of the forcing exceeds a threshold value and the waves are phase-locked with the forcing. We demonstrate that the autoresonant approach is applicable for excitation of a range of steady nonlinear...... waves of the lowest azimuthal mode numbers and for controlling their amplitudes and phases. We also demonstrate the excitation of zonal flows (m = 0 modes), which are controlled via the forced modes....
Single wire drift chamber design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krider, J.
1987-01-01
This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles
Drift effects in CANDU reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koclas, J.; Roy, R.; Marleau, G.
1993-01-01
The diffusion equation is an approximation to the transport equation which relies on the validity of Fick's law. Since this law is not explicitly integrated in the transport equation it can only be derived approximately using homogenization theories. However, such homogenization theories state that when the cell is not symmetric Fick's law breaks down due to the presence of an additional term to the neutron current, called the drift term. In fact, this term can be interpreted as a transport correction to Fick's law which tends to increase the neutron current in a direction opposite to that specified by the flux gradient. In this paper, we investigate how the presence of asymmetric liquid zone controllers will modify the flux distribution inside a CANDU core. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, N.M.
1994-01-01
This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milic, B.S.; Gajic, D.Z.
1994-01-01
Quasi-perpendicular electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (QPEMIC) modes and instabilities are studied, on the ground of linear theory of perturbations and kinetic equations with BGK collision integrals, in weakly ionized, low-β and moderately non-isothermal plasmas placed in non-parallel electric and magnetic fields. The magnetization is assumed to be sufficiently high to cut off the perpendicular steady-state current. Special attention is given to evaluation of magnitudes of the threshold drifts required for the onset of instabilities. It is found that these drifts are smaller than those for the corresponding quasi-perpendicular electrostatic ion-cyclotron (QPESIC) instabilities studied previously for the same type of plasmas. Both QPEMIC and QPESIC threshold drifts exhibit the same behavioural pattern if the order of harmonic, magnetization, non-isothermality or the angle between the fields are varied. An increase of the angle between the fields lowers the threshold drifts, which means that the presence of u perpendicular to (or E perpendicular to ) facilitates the excitation of both QPEMIC and QPESIC instabilities. The QPEMIC threshold drifts are found to depend on the overall gas pressure, and to decrease as the pressure is lowered, which is a feature not found in the QPESIC case. The discrepancies between the QPEMIC and QPESIC threshold drifts increase if the pressure decreases, or if magnetization, degree of ionization or ion charge number increase. (orig.)
Genomic instability following irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W.
2001-01-01
Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)
Energy drift in reversible time integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLachlan, R I; Perlmutter, M
2004-01-01
Energy drift is commonly observed in reversible integrations of systems of molecular dynamics. We show that this drift can be modelled as a diffusion and that the typical energy error after time T is O(√T). (letter to the editor)
TBV 361 RESOLUTION ANALYSIS: EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ORIENTATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, M.; Kicker, D.C.; Sellers, M.D.
1999-01-01
The purpose of this To Be Verified/To Be Determined (TBX) resolution analysis is to release ''To Be Verified'' (TBV)-361 related to the emplacement drift orientation. The system design criterion in ''Subsurface Facility System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1998a, p.9) specifies that the emplacement drift orientation relative to the dominant joint orientations should be at least 30 degrees. The specific objectives for this analysis include the following: (1) Collect and evaluate key block data developed for the repository host horizon rock mass. (2) Assess the dominant joint orientations based on available fracture data. (3) Document the maximum block size as a function of drift orientation. (4) Assess the applicability of the drift orientation/joint orientation offset criterion in the ''Subsurface Facility System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1998a, p.9). (5) Consider the effects of seepage on drift orientation. (6) Verify that the viability assessment (VA) drift orientation complies with the drift orientation/joint orientation offset criterion, or provide justifications and make recommendations for modifying the VA emplacement drift layout. In addition to providing direct support to the System Description Document (SDD), the release of TBV-361 will provide support to the Repository Subsurface Design Department. The results from this activity may also provide data and information needs to support the MGR Requirements Department, the MGR Safety Assurance Department, and the Performance Assessment Organization
Silicon drift detectors, present and future prospects
Takahashi, J.; Bellwied, R.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Caines, H.; Chen, W.; Dyke, H.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Humanic, T.; Kotov, I.; Kuczewski, P.; Leonhardt, W.; Li, Z.; Lynn, D.; Minor, R.; Munhoz, M.; Ott, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Schambach, J.; Soja, R.; Sugarbaker, E.; Willson, R. M.
2001-04-01
Silicon drift detectors provide unambiguous two-dimensional position information for charged particle detection with a single detector layer. A large area silicon drift detector was developed for the inner tracking detector of the STAR experiment at RHIC. In this paper, we discuss the lessons learned and the future prospects of this technology.
Drift resonance and stability of the Io plasma torus
Zhan, Jie; Hill, T. W.
2000-03-01
The observed local time asymmetry of the Io plasma torus is generally attributed to the presence of a persistent dawn-to-dusk electric field in the Jovian magnetosphere. The local time asymmetry is modulated at the System 3 rotation period of Jupiter's magnetic field, suggesting that the dawn-to-dusk electric field may be similarly modulated. We argue that such a System 3 modulation would have a profound disruptive effect on the observed torus structure if the torus were to corotate at exactly the System 3 rate: the torus would be a resonantly forced harmonic oscillator, and would disintegrate in a few rotation periods, contrary to observations. This destabilizing effect is independent of, and in addition to, the more familiar effect of the centrifugal interchange instability, which is also capable of disrupting the torus in a few rotation periods in the absence of other effects. We conclude that the observed (few percent) corotation lag of the torus is essential to preserving the observed long-lived torus structure by detuning the resonant frequency (the torus drift frequency) relative to the forcing frequency (System 3). A possible outcome of this confinement mechanism is a residual radial oscillation of the torus at the beat period (~10 days) between System 3 and the torus drift period.
Nonlinear damping of drift waves by strong flow curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidikman, K.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.
1993-01-01
A single-equation model has been used to study the effect of a fixed poloidal flow (V 0 ) on turbulent drift waves. The electron dynamics come from a laminar kinetic equation in the dissipative trapped-electron regime. In the past, the authors have assumed that the mode frequency is close to the drift-wave frequency. Trapped-electron density fluctuations are then related to potential fluctuations by an open-quotes iδclose quotes term. Flow shear (V 0 ') and curvature (V 0 double-prime) both have a stabilizing effect on linear modes for this open-quotes iδclose quotes model. However, in the nonlinear regime, single-helicity effects inhibit the flow damping. Neither V 0 ' nor V 0 double-prime produces a nonlinear damping effect. The above assumption on the frequency can be relaxed by including the electron time-response in the linear part of the evolution. In this time-dependent model, instability drive due to trapped electrons is reduced when mode frequency is greater than drift-wave frequency. Since V 0 double-prime produces such a frequency shift, its linear effect is enhanced. There is also nonlinear damping, since single-helicity effects do not eliminate the shift. Renormalized theory for this model predicts nonlinear stability for sufficiently large curvature. Single-helicity calculations have already shown nonlinear damping, and this strong V 0 double-prime regime is being explored. In the theory, the Gaussian shape of the nonlinear diffusivity is expanded to obtain a quadratic potential. The implications of this assumption will be tested by solving the full renormalized equation using a shooting method
Drift resonance in high density non-neutral plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaup, D.J.
2006-01-01
Theoretical studies of the operation of crossed-field electron vacuum devices such as magnetrons and crossed-field amplifiers (CFA) have usually centered on their initial growth, taking this as an indication of their operating modes. In such an analysis one solves the equations for the density profile, the operating frequency, the growth rate, and other features of these devices. What one really obtains then are only the conditions for the device to turn on. The dominant interaction in this stage is a Rayleigh-type instability which initiates a quasilinear diffusion process whereby the electron density profile redistributes itself into a profile which will be in equilibrium with the ponderomotive-like forces produced by the growing rf fields. Eventually the rf fields will saturate and an operating device will settle into a stationary operating regime. This stage of a device's operation is called the ''saturation stage.'' This latter stage involves a different set of physical interactions from the initiation stage. No longer is there a growth rate; rather the rf amplitudes have saturated and as a result, the ponderomotive-like forces have also vanished along with the quasilinear diffusion. In this saturation stage, we find that new rf modes appear. In fact, there are a total of five rf modes, two of which are the usual slow modes of the initiation stage, and three of which have fast oscillations in the vertical direction. One fast mode corresponds to a drift plasma oscillation while the other two fast modes are drift cyclotron modes. In this paper, we will describe how the drift plasma oscillation interacts and couples with the slow rf modes at the diocotron resonance
Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J.; Shur, M.
2016-05-01
An alternative approach of using a distributed transmission line analogy for solving transport equations for ballistic nanostructures is applied for solving the three-dimensional problem of electron transport in gated ballistic nanostructures with periodically changing width. The structures with varying width allow for modulation of the electron drift velocity while keeping the plasma velocity constant. We predict that in such structures biased by a constant current, a periodic modulation of the electron drift velocity due to the varying width results in the instability of the plasma waves if the electron drift velocity to plasma wave velocity ratio changes from below to above unity. The physics of such instability is similar to that of the sonic boom, but, in the periodically modulated structures, this analog of the sonic boom is repeated many times leading to a larger increment of the instability. The constant plasma velocity in the sections of different width leads to resonant excitation of the unstable plasma modes with varying bias current. This effect (that we refer to as the superplasmonic boom condition) results in a strong enhancement of the instability. The predicted instability involves the oscillating dipole charge carried by the plasma waves. The plasmons can be efficiently coupled to the terahertz electromagnetic radiation due to the periodic geometry of the gated structure. Our estimates show that the analyzed instability should enable powerful tunable terahertz electronic sources.
FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE DRIFT SHADOW
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G.W. Su; T.J. Kneafsey
2006-01-01
A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rock mass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming the existence of the drift shadow have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow--and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sand mine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rock mass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content using a gravimetric technique, as well as analyzed for chemistry. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift
Role of drifts in diffusive shock acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decker, R.B.
1988-01-01
The role played by shock-associated drifts during the diffusive acceleration of charged particles at collisionless MHD shocks is evaluated. In the rest frame of the shock, the total energy gained by a particle is shown to result from two coupled acceleration mechanisms, the usual first-order Fermi mechanism and the drift mechanism. When averaged over a distribution of particles, the ratio of the drift-associated energy gain to the total energy is found to be independent of the total energy at a given theta1 (the angle between the shock normal and the unperturbed upstream magnetic field) in agreement with theoretical predictions. No evidence is found for drift-associated deceleration, suggesting that drifts always augment acceleration. 35 references
Drift reversal capability in helical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, M.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.
2002-10-01
The maximum-J (J is the second adiabatic invariant) capability, i.e., the drift reversal capability, is examined in quasi-axisymmetric (QAS) stellarators and quasi-poloidally symmetric (QPS) stellarators as a possible mechanism for turbulent transport suppression. Due to the existence of non-axisymmetry of the magnetic field strength in QAS configurations, a local maximum of J is created to cause the drift reversal. The increase of magnetic shear in finite beta equilibria also has favorable effect in realizing the drift reversal. The radial variation of the uniform magnetic field component plays a crucial role for the drift reversal in a QPS configuration. Thus, the drift reversal capability and its external controllability are demonstrated for QAS and QPS stellarators, by which the impact of magnetic configuration on turbulent transport can be studied in experiments. (author)
Drift reversal capability in helical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, M.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Nakajima, N.; Itoh, S.-I.; Neilson, G.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Rewoldt, G.
2003-01-01
The maximum-J (J is the second adiabatic invariant) capability, i.e., the drift reversal capability, is examined in quasi-axisymmetric (QAS) stellarators and quasi-poloidally symmetric (QPS) stellarators as a possible mechanism for turbulent transport suppression. Due to the existence of non-axisymmetry of the magnetic field strength in QAS configurations, a local maximum of J is created to cause the drift reversal. The increase of magnetic shear in finite beta equilibria also has favorable effect in realizing the drift reversal. The radial variation of the uniform magnetic field component plays a crucial role for the drift reversal in a QPS configuration. Thus, the drift reversal capability and its external controllability are demonstrated for QAS and QPS stellarators, by which the impact of magnetic configuration on turbulent transport can be studied in experiments. (author)
Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Y. Sun
2004-01-01
The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c)
Drift velocity and pressure monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers
Sonnenschein, Lars
2011-01-01
The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore, the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented. Another important parameter to be monitored is the pressure inside the muon drift tube chambers. The differential pressure must not exceed a certain value and the absolute pressure has to be kept slightly above ambient pressure to prevent air from entering into the muon drift tube chambers in case of a leak. Latest drift velocity monitoring results are discussed.
Drift velocity and pressure monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers
Sonnenschein, Lars
2010-01-01
The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore, the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented. Another important parameter to be monitored is the pressure inside the muon drift tube chambers because the drift velocity depends on it. Furthermore the differential pressure must not exceed a certain value and the absolute pressure has to be kept slightly above ambient pressure to prevent air from entering into the muon drift tube chambers in case of a leak. Latest pressure monitoring results are discussed.
Field investigation of the drift shadow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, Grace W.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Marshall, Brian D.; Cook, Paul J.
2005-01-01
A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rockmass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming its existence have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sandmine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine Formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rockmass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content and chemical constituents. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift. Tensiometers, electrical resistance probes, neutron probes, and ground
Tearing instabilities in turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2009-01-01
Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial
Drift-modeling and monitoring comparisons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, N.C.J.; Hanna, S.R.
1977-01-01
Congress is looking into the conglomeration of nuclear reactors into energy centers of limited area. Drift from cooling towers can corrode and damage structures in the immediate vicinity of the towers, cause a public nuisance if located near parking lots or high-density traffic areas, and endanger local vegetation. The estimation of salt deposition has relied primarily on predictions from a variety of models, with very few direct measurements. One of the major efforts in our program is to evaluate the assumptions, limitations, and applicabilities of various analytical models for drift deposition prediction. Several drift deposition models are compared using a set of standard input conditions. The predicted maximum drift deposition differs by two orders of magnitude, and the downwind locations of the maximum differ by one order of magnitude. The discrepancies are attributed mainly to different assumptions in the models regarding the initial effective height of the droplets. Current programs in which drift characteristics at the tower mouth and drift deposition downwind of the tower are being measured are summarized. At the present time, drift deposition measurements, sufficiently comprehensive for model verifications, are unavailable. Hopefully, the Chalk Point Program will satisfy this need
Seepage into drifts with mechanical degradation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu
2002-01-01
Seepage into drifts in unsaturated tuff is an important issue for the long-term performance of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drifts in which waste packages will potentially be emplaced are subject to degradation in the form of rockfall from the drift ceiling induced by stress relief, seismic, or thermal effects. The objective of this study is to calculate seepage rates for various drift-degradation scenarios and for different values of percolation flux for the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and the Topopah Spring lower lithophysal (Tptpll) units. Seepage calculations are conducted by (1) defining a heterogeneous permeability model on the drift scale that is consistent with field data, (2) selecting calibrated parameters associated with the Tptpmn and Tptpll units, and (3) simulating seepage on detailed degraded-drift profiles, which were obtained from a separate rock mechanics engineering analysis. The simulation results indicate (1) that the seepage threshold (i.e., the percolation flux at which seepage first occurs) is not significantly changed by drift degradation, and (2) the degradation-induced increase in seepage above the threshold is influenced more by the shape of the cavity created by rockfall than the rockfall volume
Ion heating at the disruptive instability in the LT-3 Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, M.G.; Hutchinson, I.H.
1976-01-01
Measurements of the ion temperature and the toroidal current density and electric field during the disruptive instability in LT-3 are presented. Rapid ion heating and strong current inhibition have been observed. Fluctuation measurements suggest that these effects may be attributable to the excitation of ion cyclotron drift waves in the plasma
Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Theory With Polarization Drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, L.; Hahm, T.S.
2010-01-01
A set of the electrostatic toroidal gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and the Poisson equation, which explicitly includes the polarization drift, is derived systematically by using Lie-transform method. The polarization drift is introduced in the gyrocenter equations of motion, and the corresponding polarization density is derived. Contrary to the wide-spread expectation, the inclusion of the polarization drift in the gyrocenter equations of motion does not affect the expression for the polarization density significantly. This is due to modification of the gyrocenter phase-space volume caused by the electrostatic potential [T. S. Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)].
Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl
2005-01-01
A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...... report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...
Computer controlled drifting of Si(Li) detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landis, D.A.; Wong, Y.K.; Walton, J.T.; Goulding, F.S.
1989-01-01
A relatively inexpensive computer-controlled system for performing the drift process used in fabricating Si(Li) detectors is described. The system employs a small computer to monitor the leakage current, applied voltage and temperature on eight individual drift stations. The associated computer program initializes the drift process, monitors the drift progress and then terminates the drift when an operator set drift time has elapsed. The improved control of the drift with this system has been well demonstrated over the past three years in the fabrication of a variety of Si(Li) detectors. A few representative system responses to detector behavior during the drift process are described
Density-space potential phase difference in a Kelvin--Helmholtz instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glowienka, J.C.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.
1974-01-01
The low-frequency instability found in a hollow cathode discharge in helium was studied using an ion beam probe as a primary diagnostic tool. Three aspects of the instability are discussed: the location and amplitude of the oscillation and its correlation with the shape of the space potential; the phase angle between density and space potential oscillations; and the comparison of the data with three known instability models: Kelvin--Helmholtz, Rayleigh--Taylor, and drift waves--for mode identification. (U.S.)
Curvature-driven instabilities in a hot-electron plasma: radial analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Van Dam, J.W.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Spong, D.A.
1981-12-01
The theory of unfavorable curvature-driven instabilities is developed for a plasma interacting with a hot electron ring whose drift frequencies are larger than the growth rates predicted from conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. A z-pinch model is used to emphasize the radial structure of the problem. Stability criteria are obtained for the five possible modes of instability: the conventional hot electron interchange, a high-frequency hot electron interchange (at frequencies larger than the ion cyclotron frequency), a compressional instability, a background pressure-driven interchange, and an interacting pressure-driven interchange
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Character of decay instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polovin, R.V.; Demutskii, V.P.
1981-01-01
If the initial wave is unstable in the upper half plane Im ω>0 and there are no branch points of the quasiwave number, or if waves traveling in the same direction coalesce at a branch point, the instability is convective. On the other hand, if a branch point k(ω) does exist in the upper half-plane Im ω>0, and not all the waves that merge at this point travel in the same direction, the instability is absolute. A Green's function that describes the evolution of the perturbations of the initial wave in space and in time is constructed. The growth rates of the decay instability of the harmonics are determined. The produced waves are richer in harmonics than the initial waves. It is shown that the decay instability of an Alfven wave is absolute
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D.; Simons, P.; Kuchta, J.
2009-01-01
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))
2009-04-15
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.
Anomalous conductivity and electron heating in a plasma unstable to the two-stream instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, W.H.M.; Hamberger, S.M.
1979-01-01
An experiment to excite the electron-ion two-stream instability in a cylindrical Q-machine plasma column is described. The mechanism for establishing a large pulsed electron drift velocity in the plasma by applying a potential difference between the end electrodes is discussed. The pulsed current-voltage characteristic of the plasma column and the temporal evolution of the electron density, drift velocity and thermal velocity are measured. In contrast with the behaviour of some computer simulations of the two-stream instability, the plasma exhibits a constant conductivity and the electron thermal velocity increases to values far in excess of the drift velocity. The electrical dissipation is consistent with the increase of the electron thermal energy, both indicating an anomalous conductivity of the same order as an empirical scaling found in earlier experiments on a toroidal discharge. (author)
Gravier, E.; Klein, R.; Morel, P.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.
2008-12-01
A new model is presented, named collisional-gyro-water-bag (CGWB), which describes the collisional drift waves and ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instabilities in a plasma column. This model is based on the kinetic gyro-water-bag approach recently developed [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)] to investigate ion-temperature-gradient modes. In CGWB electron-neutral collisions have been introduced and are now taken into account. The model has been validated by comparing CGWB linear analysis with other models previously proposed and experimental results as well. Kinetic effects on collisional drift waves are investigated, resulting in a less effective growth rate, and the transition from collisional drift waves to ITG instability depending on the ion temperature gradient is studied.
Streaming gravity mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shui.
1989-05-01
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
Genomic instability and radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Little, John B [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)
2003-06-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Genomic instability and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Little, John B
2003-01-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Unintended Positional Drift and Its Potential Solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf
2013-01-01
many users unintentionally move forward while walking in place. We refer to this phenomenon accidental movement as Unintended Positional Drift. The poster presents evidence of the phenomenon's existence and subsequently discusses different design solutions which potentially could circumvent the problem....
CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
S. Goodin
1999-01-01
The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches
Travelling fronts in stochastic Stokes’ drifts
Blanchet, Adrien; Dolbeault, Jean; Kowalczyk, Michał
2008-01-01
By analytical methods we study the large time properties of the solution of a simple one-dimensional model of stochastic Stokes' drift. Semi-explicit formulae allow us to characterize the behaviour of the solutions and compute global quantities
Theory of the current-driven ion cyclotron instability in the bottomside ionosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satyanarayana, P.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Keskinen, M.J.; Huba, J.D.; Ossakow, S.L.
1985-01-01
A theory of the current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) instability in the collisional bottomside ionosphere is presented. It is found that electron collisions are destabilizing and are crucial for the excitation of the EIC instability in the collisional bottomside ionosphere. Furthermore, the growth rates of the ion cyclotron instability in the bottomside ionosphere maximize for k/sub perpendicular/ rho/sub i/> or =1, where 2π/k/sub perpendicular/ is the mode scale size perpendicular to the magnetic field and rho/sub i/ the ion gyroradius. Realistic plasma density and temperature profiles typical of the high-latitude ionosphere are used to compute the altitude dependence of the linear growth rate of the maximally growing modes and critical drift velocity of the EIC instability. The maximally growing modes correspond to observed tens of meter size irregularities, and the threshold drift velocity required for the excitation of EIC instability is lower for heavier ions (NO + , O + ) than that for the lighter ions (H + ). Dupree's resonance-broadening theory is used to estimate nonlinear saturated amplitudes for the ion cyclotron instability in the high-latitude ionosphere. Comparison with experimental observations is also made. It is conjectured that the EIC instability in the bottomside ionosphere could be a source of transversely accelerated heavier ions and energetic heavy-ion conic distributions at higher altitudes
Self-shielding flex-circuit drift tube, drift tube assembly and method of making
Jones, David Alexander
2016-04-26
The present disclosure is directed to an ion mobility drift tube fabricated using flex-circuit technology in which every other drift electrode is on a different layer of the flex-circuit and each drift electrode partially overlaps the adjacent electrodes on the other layer. This results in a self-shielding effect where the drift electrodes themselves shield the interior of the drift tube from unwanted electro-magnetic noise. In addition, this drift tube can be manufactured with an integral flex-heater for temperature control. This design will significantly improve the noise immunity, size, weight, and power requirements of hand-held ion mobility systems such as those used for explosive detection.
Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2003-01-01
A multi-grid part-in-cell algorithm for a shearless slab drift wave model with kinetic electrons is presented. The algorithm, which is based on an exact separation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic electron responses, is used to investigate the presence of strange attractors in drift wave turbulence. Although the simulation model has a large number of degrees of freedom, it is found that the strange attractor is low-dimensional and that it is strongly affected by dissipative (collisional) effects
SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
C. Tsang
2004-01-01
The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to
Ponderomotive modification of drift tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urquijo, G.; Singh, R.; Sen, A.
1997-01-01
The linear characteristics of drift tearing modes are investigated in the presence of a significant background of radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The ponderomotive force, arising from the radial gradients in the RF field energy, is found to significantly modify the inner layer solutions of the drift tearing modes. It can have a stabilizing influence, even at moderate RF powers, provided the field energy has a decreasing radial profile at the mode rational surface. (author)
Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan, F.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure
Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.
1968-01-01
A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....
Calibration of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers and Measurement of the Drift Velocity with Cosmic Rays
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Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A
2010-01-01
This paper describes the calibration procedure for the drift tubes of the CMS barrel muon system and reports the main results obtained with data collected during a high statistics cosmic ray data-taking period. The main goal of the calibration is to determine, for each drift cell, the minimum time delay for signals relative to the trigger, accounting for the drift velocity within the cell. The accuracy of the calibration procedure is influenced by the random arrival time of cosmic muons. A more refined analysis of the drift velocity was performed during the offline reconstruction phase, which takes into account this feature of cosmic ray events.
Thermal instabilities in the edge region of reversed-field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goedert, J.; Mondt, J.P.
1984-04-01
Thermal stability of the edge region of reversed-field pinch configurations is analyzed within the context of a two-fluid model. Two major sources of instability are identified in combination with a parallel electric field: either an electron temperature gradient and/or a density gradient that leads to rapid growth (of several to many ohmic heating rates) over a region of several millimeters around the mode-rational surfaces in the edge region. The basic signature of both instabilities is electrostatic. In the case of the density gradient mode, the signature relies on the effects of electron compressibility, whereas the temperature gradient mode can be identified as the current-convective instability by taking the limit of zero diamagnetic drift, density gradient, thermal force, drift heat flux, and electron compressibility
Multispecies Weibel Instability for Intense Ion Beam Propagation Through Background Plasma
Davidson, Ronald C; Kaganovich, Igor D; Qin, Hong; Startsev, Edward
2005-01-01
In application of heavy ion beams to high energy density physics and fusion, background plasma is utilized to neutralize the beam space charge during drift compression and/or final focus of the ion beam. It is important to minimize the deleterious effects of collective instabilities on beam quality associated with beam-plasma interactions. Plasma electrons tend to neutralize both the space charge and current of the beam ions. It is shown that the presence of the return current greatly modifies the electromagnetic Weibel instability (also called the filamentation instability), i.e., the growth rate of the filamentation instability greatly increases if the background ions are much lighter than the beam ions and the plasma density is comparable to the ion beam density. This may preclude using underdense plasma of light gases in heavy ion beam applications. It is also shown that the return current may be subject to the fast electrostatic two-stream instability.
Plasma physics and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashmore-Davies, C.N.
1981-01-01
These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)
Strong drifts effects on neoclassical transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tessarotto, M.; Gregoratto, D.; White, R.B.
1996-01-01
It is well known that strong drifts play an important role in plasma equilibrium, stability and confinement A significant example concerns, in particular for tokamak plasmas, the case of strong toroidal differential rotation produced by E x B drift which is currently regarded as potentially important for its influence in equilibrium, stability and transport. In fact, theoretically, it has been found that shear flow can substantially affect the stability of microinstabilities as well modify substantially transport. Recent experimental observations of enhanced confinement and transport regimes in Tokamaks, show, however, evidence of the existence of strong drifts in the plasma core. These are produced not only by the radial electric field [which gives rise to the E x B drift], but also by density [N s ], temperature [T s ] and mass flow [V = ωRe var-phi , with e var-phi the toroidal unit vector, R the distance for the symmetry axis of the torus and ω being the toroidal angular rotation velocity] profiles which are suitably steep. This implies that, in a significant part of the plasma core, the relevant scale lengths of the gradients [of N s , T s , ω], i.e., respectively L N , L T and L ω can be as large as the radial scale length characterizing the banana orbits, L b . Interestingly enough, the transport estimates obtained appear close or even lower than the predictions based on the simplest neoclassical model. However, as is well known, the latter applies, in a strict sense only in the case of weak drifts and also ignoring even the contribution of shear flow related to strong E x B drift. Thus a fundamental problem appears the extension of neoclassical transport theory to include the effect of strong drifts in Tokamak confinement systems. The goal of this investigation is to develop a general formulation of neoclassical transport embodying such important feature
Impurity and neutral effects on the dissipative drift wave in tokamak edge plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1991-05-01
Possible destabilizing mechanisms for the liner electrostatic dissipative drift waves (in tokamak edge plasmas) are investigated in slab geometry. The effects of processes such as ionization, charge exchange, radiation, and rippling are examined. In particular, the impurity condensation associated with radiation cooling is evaluated appropriately for the drift wave ordering, which is found to be an important driving mechanism in contrast to the results of earlier studies. It also shown that the role of ionization is quite complicated, and depends strongly on the manner in which the equilibrium is achieved. The linear eigenmode equation is studied both analytically and numerically. For the range of parameters relevant to TEXT tokamak, both the charge exchange of the rippling effect are found to be unimportant for instability. 25 refs., 6 figs
Nonlinear correlations in phase-space resolved fluctuations at drift wave frequencies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skiff, F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Uzun, I [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Diallo, A [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasams EPF, Lausanne (Switzerland)
2007-12-15
In an effort to better understand plasma transport, we measure fluctuations associated with drift instabilities resolved in the ion phase-space. Primary attention is given to fluctuations near the electron drift frequency where there are two general components to the observed fluctuations. From two (spatial) point measurements of the ion distribution function with a variable separation along the magnetic field, a number of statistical measures of the fluctuations are calculated including cross-correlation and cross-bicoherence. Both fluid ({omega}/k >> v{sub ti}) and kinetic ({omega}/k {approx} v{sub ti}) components are observed in the fluctuations. The nonlinear interactions are found to depend strongly on the ion particle velocity.
Fingerprints of dynamical instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.
1993-01-01
It is explained why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. It is shown that the introduction of this stochastic dynamics leads to a predictive theory in a statistical sens whatever the individual trajectories are characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations, instabilities or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, the spinodal instability is discussed. In such a critical situation, the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment is studied. It is shown that the fingerprints of these instabilities are kept during the evolution because of the relatively long recombination time compared with the typical time scales imposed by the Coulomb repulsion and the possible collective expansion. (author) 5 refs., 12 figs
Instability and star evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzoyan, L.V.
1981-01-01
The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru
Kinetic instabilities in the solar wind driven by temperature anisotropies
Yoon, Peter H.
2017-12-01
The present paper comprises a review of kinetic instabilities that may be operative in the solar wind, and how they influence the dynamics thereof. The review is limited to collective plasma instabilities driven by the temperature anisotropies. To limit the scope even further, the discussion is restricted to the temperature anisotropy-driven instabilities within the model of bi-Maxwellian plasma velocity distribution function. The effects of multiple particle species or the influence of field-aligned drift will not be included. The field-aligned drift or beam is particularly prominent for the solar wind electrons, and thus ignoring its effect leaves out a vast portion of important physics. Nevertheless, for the sake of limiting the scope, this effect will not be discussed. The exposition is within the context of linear and quasilinear Vlasov kinetic theories. The discussion does not cover either computer simulations or data analyses of observations, in any systematic manner, although references will be made to published works pertaining to these methods. The scientific rationale for the present analysis is that the anisotropic temperatures associated with charged particles are pervasively detected in the solar wind, and it is one of the key contemporary scientific research topics to correctly characterize how such anisotropies are generated, maintained, and regulated in the solar wind. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date theoretical development on this research topic, largely based on the author's own work.
Suppression of Phase Mixing in Drift-Kinetic Plasma Turbulence
Parker, J. T.; Dellar, P. J.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Highcock, E. G.
2017-12-01
The solar wind and interstellar medium are examples of strongly magnetised, weakly collisional, astrophysical plasmas. Their turbulent fluctuations are strongly anisotropic, with small amplitudes, and frequencies much lower than the Larmor frequency. This regime is described by gyrokinetic theory, a reduced five-dimensional kinetic system describing averages over Larmor orbits. A turbulent plasma may transfer free energy, a measure of fluctuation amplitudes, from injection at large scales, typically by an instability, to dissipation at small physical scales like a turbulent fluid. Alternatively, a turbulent plasma may form fine scale structures in velocity space via phase-mixing, the mechanism that leads to Landau damping in linear plasma theory. Macroscopic plasma properties like heat and momentum transport are affected by both mechanisms. While each is understood in isolation, their interaction is not. We study this interaction using a Hankel-Hermite velocity space representation of gyrokinetic theory. The Hankel transform interacts neatly with the Bessel functions that arise from averaging over Larmor orbits, so the perpendicular velocity space is decoupled for linearized problems. The Hermite transform expresses phase mixing as nearest-neighbor coupling between parallel velocity space scales represented by Hermite mode numbers. We use this representation to study transfer mechanisms in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence, the long wavelength limit of gyrokinetic theory. We show that phase space is divided into two regions, with one transfer mechanism dominating in each. Most energy is contained in the region where the fluid-like nonlinear cascade dominates. Moreover, in that region the nonlinear cascade interferes with phase mixing by exciting an "anti phase mixing" transfer of free energy from small to large velocity space scales. This cancels out the usual phase mixing, and renders the overall behavior fluid-like. These results profoundly change our understanding
Single nozzle spray drift measurements of drift reducing nozzles at two forward speeds
Stallinga, H.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Velde, van P.
2016-01-01
In 2011‒2012 single nozzle field experiments were carried out to determine the effect of different flat fan spray nozzles of the spray drift reduction classes 50, 75, 90 and 95% on spray drift at two different forward speeds (7.2 km h-1 and 14.4 km h-1). Experiments were performed with a single
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel
2015-01-01
function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make......Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus...
Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.
1987-01-01
Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)
RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)
2016-04-01
We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.
Rotational instability in a linear theta pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekdahl, C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Commisso, R.J.; Gribble, R.F.; McKenna, K.F.; Miller, G.; Siemon, R.E.
1980-01-01
The m=1 ''wobble'' instability of the plasma column in a 5-m linear theta pinch has been studied using an axial array of orthogonally viewing position detectors to resolve the wavelength and frequency of the column motion. The experimental results are compared with recent theoretical predictions that include finite Larmor orbit effects. The frequency and wavelength characteristics at saturation agree with the predicted dispersion relation for a plasma rotating faster than the diamagnetic drift speed. Measurements of the magnetic fields at the ends of the pinch establish the existence of currents flowing in such a way that they short out the radial electric fields in the plasma column. The magnitude of rotation, the observed delay in the onset of m=1 motion, and the magnitude of end-shorting currents can all be understood in terms of the torsional Alfven waves that communicate to the central plasma column the information that the ends have been shorted. The same waves are responsible for the torque which rotates the plasma and leads to the observed m=1 instability. Observations of the plasma in the presence of solid end plugs indicate a stabilization of high-m number modes and a reduction of the m=1 amplitude
Structure and damping of toroidal drift waves (and their implications for anomalous transport)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, J.B.; Connor, J.; Wilson, H.R.
1993-05-01
The conventional theory of high-n toroidal drift waves, based on the ballooning representation, indicates that shear-damping is generally reduced in a torus compared to its plane-slab value. It therefore describes the most unstable class of toroidal drift waves. However, modes of this type occur only i f the diamagnetic frequency ω*(r) has a maximum in r, and they affect only a small fraction, Ο(1/n l/2 ), of the plasma radius around this maximum. Consequently they may produce little anomalous transport. In the present work we show that, within the ballooning description, there is another class of toroidal drift waves with very different properties to the conventional ones. The new modes have greater shear-damping (closer to that in a plane-slab) than the conventional ones and so have a higher instability threshold. However, they occur for any plasma profile and at all radii, and they have larger radial extent. Consequently they may produce much greater anomalous transport than the possibly benign conventional modes. This suggests a picture of anomalous transport in which the plasma profile is determined by marginal stability, but marginal to the new class of modes not to the conventional ones. This might explain why marginally stable profiles calculated for drift waves with plane-slab damping sometimes agree well with the profiles in toroidal experiments. It is also consistent with the fact that experimental profiles may exceed conventional toroidal instability thresholds. The new modes may also be related to the tong radial structures which appear in some plasma simulations and in experiments
Optical drift effects in general relativity
Korzyński, Mikołaj; Kopiński, Jarosław
2018-03-01
We consider the question of determining the optical drift effects in general relativity, i.e. the rate of change of the apparent position, redshift, Jacobi matrix, angular distance and luminosity distance of a distant object as registered by an observer in an arbitrary spacetime. We present a fully relativistic and covariant approach, in which the problem is reduced to a hierarchy of ODE's solved along the line of sight. The 4-velocities and 4-accelerations of the observer and the emitter and the geometry of the spacetime along the line of sight constitute the input data. We build on the standard relativistic geometric optics formalism and extend it to include the time derivatives of the observables. In the process we obtain two general, non-perturbative relations: the first one between the gravitational lensing, represented by the Jacobi matrix, and the apparent position drift, also called the cosmic parallax, and the second one between the apparent position drift and the redshift drift. The applications of the results include the theoretical study of the drift effects of cosmological origin (so-called real-time cosmology) in numerical or exact Universe models.
Drift chamber performance in the field of a superconducting magnet: measurement of the drift angle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, G.H.; Sherman, S.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Thaler, J.J.
1977-01-01
Results are presented of the first measurements in a study of drift chamber performance in magnetic fields up to 6 tesla. The angle of the electron drift was measured as a function of electric and magnetic field intensity. It appears that even at the high fields of superconducting magnets (3 to 6 tesla) the drift angle induced by the Lorentz force can be corrected for with tilted electric drift fields and/or the use of Xenon gas. At 3 tesla a drift field tilted at 45 0 with a magnitude of 3.5 kV/cm should restore normal operating conditions. At 4 tesla, a 45 0 tilt field would have a magnitude 5 kV/cm
Spray particle drift mitigation using field corn (Zea mays L.) as a drift barrier.
Vieira, Bruno C; Butts, Thomas R; Rodrigues, Andre O; Golus, Jeffrey A; Schroeder, Kasey; Kruger, Greg R
2018-04-24
Herbicide particle drift reduces application efficacy and can cause severe impacts on nearby vegetation depending on the herbicide mode-of-action, exposure level, and tolerance to the herbicide. A particle drift mitigation effort placing windbreaks or barriers on the field boundaries to reduce off-target movement of spray particles has been utilized in the past. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of field corn (Zea mays L.) at different heights as a particle drift barrier. Applications with a non-air inclusion flat fan nozzle (ER11004) resulted in greater particle drift when compared to an air inclusion nozzle (TTI11004). Eight rows of corn were used as barriers (0.91, 1.22, and 1.98 m height) which reduced the particle drift for both nozzles, especially at shorter downwind distances. Applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers had 1% of the applied rate (D 99 ) predicted to deposit at 14.8 m downwind, whereas this distance was reduced (up to 7-fold) when applications were performed with corn barriers. The combination of corn drift barriers and nozzle selection (TTI11004) provided satisfactory particle drift reduction when the D 99 estimates were compared to applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers (up to 10-fold difference). The corn drift barriers were effective in reducing particle drift from applications with the ER11004 and the TTI11004 nozzles (Fine and Ultra Coarse spray classifications, respectively). The corn drift barrier had appropriate porosity and width as the airborne spray was captured within its canopy instead of deflecting up and over it. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Buneman instability and Pierce instability in a collisionless bounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke
1983-01-01
A systematic experiment is performed on the Buneman instability and the Pierce instability in a bounded plasma consisting of beam electrons and stationary ions. Current fluctuations are confirmed to be induced by the Buneman instability. On the other hand, the Pierce instability gives rise to a current limitation. The phenomena are well explained by Mikhailovskii's theory taking account of ion motion in a bounded plasma. (author)
Generation of zonal magnetic fields by drift waves in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.
2010-01-01
It is shown that zonal magnetic fields (ZMFs) can be nonlinearly excited by incoherent drift waves (DWs) in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma. The dynamics of incoherent DWs in the presence of ZMFs is governed by a wave-kinetic equation. The governing equation for ZMFs in the presence of nonlinear advection force of the DWs is obtained from the parallel component of the electron momentum equation and the Faraday law. Standard techniques are used to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation, which depicts instability via which ZMFs are excited in plasmas. ZMFs may inhibit the turbulent cross-field particle and energy transport in a nonuniform magnetoplasma.
Drift waves and counter rotating vortices in pair-ion plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haque, Q., E-mail: qamar_haque@hotmail.co [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2010-07-19
Linear dispersion relation has been found for drift and acoustic waves in pair-ion-electron plasmas. The stationary solution in the form of counter rotating vortices has been obtained in the presence of equilibrium potential profile. It is noticed that the speed of nonlinear structures is reduced with the increase of electrons concentration in pair-ion plasmas. Linear instability condition has also been found in the presence of shear flow. It is pointed out that the present results can be useful for future pair-ion plasma experiments.
Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water
Breivik, Øyvind; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond
2014-09-01
A deep-water approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile is explored as an alternative to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profile investigated relies on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profile gives a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The alternative profile comes at no added numerical cost compared to the monochromatic profile.
P-type silicon drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walton, J.T.; Krieger, B.; Krofcheck, D.; O'Donnell, R.; Odyniec, G.; Partlan, M.D.; Wang, N.W.
1995-06-01
Preliminary results on 16 CM 2 , position-sensitive silicon drift detectors, fabricated for the first time on p-type silicon substrates, are presented. The detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested recently at LBL and show interesting properties which make them attractive for use in future physics experiments. A pulse count rate of approximately 8 x l0 6 s -1 is demonstrated by the p-type silicon drift detectors. This count rate estimate is derived by measuring simultaneous tracks produced by a laser and photolithographic mask collimator that generates double tracks separated by 50 μm to 1200 μm. A new method of using ion-implanted polysilicon to produce precise valued bias resistors on the silicon drift detectors is also discussed
Correcting sample drift using Fourier harmonics.
Bárcena-González, G; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Guerrero, E; Reyes, D F; Braza, V; Yañez, A; Nuñez-Moraleda, B; González, D; Galindo, P L
2018-07-01
During image acquisition of crystalline materials by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, the sample drift could lead to distortions and shears that hinder their quantitative analysis and characterization. In order to measure and correct this effect, several authors have proposed different methodologies making use of series of images. In this work, we introduce a methodology to determine the drift angle via Fourier analysis by using a single image based on the measurements between the angles of the second Fourier harmonics in different quadrants. Two different approaches, that are independent of the angle of acquisition of the image, are evaluated. In addition, our results demonstrate that the determination of the drift angle is more accurate by using the measurements of non-consecutive quadrants when the angle of acquisition is an odd multiple of 45°. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole
1994-01-01
The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...
Structural and Material Instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cifuentes, Gustavo Cifuentes
This work is a small contribution to the general problem of structural and material instability. In this work, the main subject is the analysis of cracking and failure of structural elements made from quasi-brittle materials like concrete. The analysis is made using the finite element method. Three...
Agricultural Markets Instability
Garrido, A.; Brümmer, B.; M'Barek, R.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Morales-Opazo, C.
2016-01-01
Since the financial and food price crises of 2007, market instability has been a topic of major concern to agricultural economists and policy professionals. This volume provides an overview of the key issues surrounding food prices volatility, focusing primarily on drivers, long-term implications of
Comment on critical instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, S.F.; Suzuki, Mahiko
1992-01-01
We discuss the problem of the mass splitting between top and bottom quarks, within the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type models involving top and bottom quark condensates. We interpret the phenomenon of 'critical instability' recently proposed to account for such a mass splitting as the fine-tuning of two vacuum expectation values in a composite two-Higgs doublet model. (orig.)
Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves
Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.
2012-04-01
The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.
Tracking Code for Microwave Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, S.; SLAC
2006-01-01
To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability
Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.
1978-01-01
Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness
Accurate computer simulation of a drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Killian, T.J.
1980-01-01
A general purpose program for drift chamber studies is described. First the capacitance matrix is calculated using a Green's function technique. The matrix is used in a linear-least-squares fit to choose optimal operating voltages. Next the electric field is computed, and given knowledge of gas parameters and magnetic field environment, a family of electron trajectories is determined. These are finally used to make drift distance vs time curves which may be used directly by a track reconstruction program. Results are compared with data obtained from the cylindrical chamber in the Axial Field Magnet experiment at the CERN ISR
Drift estimation from a simple field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendes, F. M.; Figueiredo, A.
2008-01-01
Given the outcome of a Wiener process, what can be said about the drift and diffusion coefficients? If the process is stationary, these coefficients are related to the mean and variance of the position displacements distribution. However, if either drift or diffusion are time-dependent, very little can be said unless some assumption about that dependency is made. In Bayesian statistics, this should be translated into some specific prior probability. We use Bayes rule to estimate these coefficients from a single trajectory. This defines a simple, and analytically tractable, field theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assiro, R.; Cappelli, L.; Cascella, M.; De Lorenzis, L.; Grancagnolo, F.; Ignatov, F.; L'Erario, A.; Maffezzoli, A.; Miccoli, A.; Onorato, G.; Perillo, M.; Piacentino, G.; Rella, S.; Rossetti, F.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G.
2013-01-01
We present a novel low mass drift chamber concept, developed in order to fulfill the stringent requirements imposed by the experiments for extremely rare processes, which require high resolutions (order of 100–200 keV/c) for particle momenta in a range (50–100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution. We describe a geometry optimization procedure and a new wiring strategy with a feed-through-less wire anchoring system developed and tested on a drift chamber prototype under completion at INFN-Lecce
Assiro, R.; Cappelli, L.; Cascella, M.; De Lorenzis, L.; Grancagnolo, F.; Ignatov, F.; L'Erario, A.; Maffezzoli, A.; Miccoli, A.; Onorato, G.; Perillo, M.; Piacentino, G.; Rella, S.; Rossetti, F.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G.; Zavarise, G.
2013-08-01
We present a novel low mass drift chamber concept, developed in order to fulfill the stringent requirements imposed by the experiments for extremely rare processes, which require high resolutions (order of 100-200 keV/c) for particle momenta in a range (50-100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution. We describe a geometry optimization procedure and a new wiring strategy with a feed-through-less wire anchoring system developed and tested on a drift chamber prototype under completion at INFN-Lecce .
Properties of low-pressure drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breskin, A.; Trautner, N.
1976-01-01
Drift chambers operated with methylal vapour or ethylene at pressures in the range of 10-110 torr are described. A systematic study of position resolution, pulse height and rise time shows that especially for ethylene they are strongly influenced by electron diffusion. Intrinsic position resolution was found to be at least as good as found at atmospheric pressure. A relative pulse height resolution of 10% was obtained with 5.5 MeV alpha-particles. A simple mathematical model which can describe the processes in the drift chamber is presented. (Auth.)
Silicon Drift Detectors development for position sensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castoldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.
2007-01-01
Novel Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) with multi-linear architecture specifically intended for 2D position sensing and imaging applications are presented and their achievable spatial, energy and time resolution are discussed. The capability of providing a fast timing of the interaction with nanosecond time resolution is a new available feature that allows operating the drift detector in continuous readout mode for coincidence imaging applications either with an external trigger or in self-timing. The application of SDDs with multi-linear architecture to Compton electrons' tracking within a single silicon layer and the achieved experimental results will be discussed
Nonlinear dynamics of resistive electrostatic drift waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H.L.
1999-01-01
The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which is pertur......The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which...... polarity, i.e. a pair of electrostatic convective cells....
Accurate computer simulation of a drift chamber
Killian, T J
1980-01-01
The author describes a general purpose program for drift chamber studies. First the capacitance matrix is calculated using a Green's function technique. The matrix is used in a linear-least-squares fit to choose optimal operating voltages. Next the electric field is computed, and given knowledge of gas parameters and magnetic field environment, a family of electron trajectories is determined. These are finally used to make drift distance vs time curves which may be used directly by a track reconstruction program. The results are compared with data obtained from the cylindrical chamber in the Axial Field Magnet experiment at the CERN ISR. (1 refs).
Small-scale lacustrine drifts in Lake Champlain, Vermont
Manley, Patricia L.; Manley, T.O.; Hayo, Kathryn; Cronin, Thomas
2012-01-01
High resolution CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic profiles reveal the presence of two lacustrine sediment drifts located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments. Drift B sits on a basement high while Drift A is built on a trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment unit inferred to be a mass-transport event. These drifts are oriented approximately north–south and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of upslope asymmetric mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) located across Drift A. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the Drift A and were dated. Drift source, deposition, and evolution show that these drifts are formed by a water column shear with the highest deposition occurring along its crest and western flank and began developing circa 8700–8800 year BP.
Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.
1975-01-01
A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)
A new variable transformation technique for the nonlinear drift vortex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orito, Kohtaro
1996-02-01
The dipole vortex solution of the Hasegawa-Mima equation describing the nonlinear drift wave is a stable solitary wave which is called the modon. The profile of the modon depends on the nonlinearity of the ExB drift. In order to investigate the nonlinear drift wave more accurately, the effect of the polarization drift needs to be considered. In case of containing the effect of the polarization drift the profile of the electrostatic potential is distorted in the direction perpendicular to the ExB drift. (author)
Instability Rules: The Ten Most Amazing Ideas of Modern Science
Flowers, Charles
2002-03-01
World-altering discoveries that reveal a universe of uncertainty and constant change Whether probing the farthest reaches of the vast universe or exploring the microscopic world of genetics and the subatomic world of quantum mechanics, Instability Rules is a remarkably informative and engaging look at ten milestone discoveries and their discoverers-a wide range of very human personalities whose insights have dramatically altered our most basic assumptions about human existence during the last century. The stories include Edwin Hubble and the expanding universe, Alfred Wegener and continental drift, Neils Bohr and quantum mechanics, Alan Turing and artificial intelligence, and James Watson and Francis Crick and DNA. Also covering discoveries of the twenty-first century that are already refining these and other ideas, Instability Rules is an exhilarating, sometimes amusing encounter with the defining scientific discoveries of our age.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ware, A.S.; Diamond, P.H.
1993-01-01
The effects of a poloidally asymmetric ionization source on both dissipative toroidal drift wave stability and the generation of mean sheared parallel flow are examined. The first part of this work extends the development of a local model of ionization-driven drift wave turbulence [Phys. Fluids B 4, 877 (1992)] to include the effects of magnetic shear and poloidal source asymmetry, as well as poloidal mode coupling due to both magnetic drifts and the source asymmetry. Numerical and analytic investigation confirm that ionization effects can destabilize collisional toroidal drift waves. However, the mode structure is determined primarily by the magnetic drifts, and is not overly effected by the poloidal source asymmetry. The ionization source drives a purely inward particle flux, which can explain the anomalously rapid uptake of particles which occurs in response to gas puffing. In the second part of this work, the role poloidal asymmetries in both the source and turbulent particle diffusion play in the generation of sheared mean parallel flow is examined. Analysis indicates that predictions of sonic parallel shear flow [v parallel (r)∼c s ] are an unphysical result of the assumption of purely parallel flow (i.e., v perpendicular =0) and the neglect of turbulent parallel momentum transport. Results indicate that the flow produced is subcritical to the parallel shear flow instability when diamagnetic effects are properly considered
Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift
Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne
2017-01-01
This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…
Resistive drift wave turbulence and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatani, M.
1986-01-01
Our efforts for studying the properties of resistive drift wave turbulence by using model mode-coupling equations are shown. It may be related to the edge turbulence and the associated anomalous transport in tokamaks or in stellarator/heliotron. (author)
Effects of Drifting Macroalgae in Eelgrass Ecosystems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canal Vergés, Paula; Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Kristensen, Erik
2010-01-01
and physical damage on eelgrass can occur when macroalgae are drifting as bedload. The ballistic effect of moving macroalgae on surface sediment was tested in the field as well as in a series of annular flume experiments, where simultaneous measurements of macroalgae transport and turbidity were measured...
EU law revisions and legislative drift
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai
2014-01-01
in force in their original form for several years while others are revised soon after their enactment. What factors account for this variation? We empirically analyze the proposition that in the presence of ‘legislative drift,’ i.e. the intertemporal variation of decision-makers’ preferences, major...
Nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prakash, M.
1985-01-01
We study the linear and the nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave energy in an inhomogeneous plasma. The drift mode excited in such a plasma is dispersive in nature. The drift wave energy spreads out symmetrically along the direction of inhomogeneity with a finite group velocity. To study the effect of the nonlinear coupling on the propagation of energy in a collision free plasma, we solve the Hasegawa-Mima equation as a mixed initial boundary-value problem. The solutions of the linearized equation are used to check the reliability of our numerical calculations. Additional checks are also performed on the invariants of the system. Our results reveal that a pulse gets distorted as it propagates through the medium. The peak of the pulse propagates with a finite velocity that depends on the amplitude of the initial pulse. The polarity of propagation depends on the initial parameters of the pulse. We have also studied drift wave propagation in a resistive plasma. The Hasegawa-Wakatani equations are used to investigate this problem
Study and analysis of drift chamber parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez Laso, L.
1988-01-01
The present work deals mainly with drift chambers. In the first chapter a summary of drift chamber properties is presented. The information has been collected from the extensive bibliography available in this field. A very simple calculation procedure of drift chamber parameters has been developed and is presented in detail in the second chapter. Some prototypes have been made following two geometries (multidrift chamber and Z-chambers). Several installations have been used for test and calibration of these prototypes. A complete description of these installations is given in the third chapter. Cosmic rays, beta particles from a Ru106 radiactive source and a test beam in the WA (West Area) of SPS at CERN have been used for experimental purposes. The analysis and the results are described for the different setups. The experimental measurements have been used to produce a complete cell parametrization (position as function of drift time) and to obtain spatial resolution values (in the range of 200-250 um). Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. (Author)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.
Learning in the context of distribution drift
2017-05-09
Figure 3 shows a heatmap of the pairwise drift in the joint distribution on the Landsat-8 French land usage satellite data. This data represents 10 meter...listed under the List of Publications. 1. White, C., Using Big Data for Smarter Decision Making. 2011, BI Research: Ashland, Or. 2. Cook , S., et al
Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rios, R.; Tatar, E.; Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W.; Saltus, M.; Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R.
2011-01-01
We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.
Learning drifting concepts with neural networks
Biehl, Michael; Schwarze, Holm
1993-01-01
The learning of time-dependent concepts with a neural network is studied analytically and numerically. The linearly separable target rule is represented by an N-vector, whose time dependence is modelled by a random or deterministic drift process. A single-layer network is trained online using
Fine structure in fast drift storm bursts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McConnell, D.; Ellis, G.R.A.
1981-01-01
Recent observations with high time resolution of fast drift storm (FDS) solar bursts are described. A new variety of FDS bursts characterised by intensity maxima regularly placed in the frequency domain is reported. Possible interpretations of this are mentioned and the implications of the short duration of FDS bursts are discussed. (orig.)
Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas
Kalman, G J
2003-01-01
The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.
Orphans and political instability.
Breuning, Marijke; Ishiyama, John
2011-01-01
This study investigates the security implications of growing orphan populations, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Little has been written about the security implications of this especially vulnerable group of children. Are growing orphan populations associated with increases in political instability as has been suggested? Using data from several sources, we employ regression analysis to test whether Sub-Saharan African countries with larger proportions of orphans and those with increasing orphan populations experience higher rates of political instability. We find that the increase in the orphan population is related to an increasing incidence of civil conflict, but do not find a similar relationship for the proportion of orphans. In addition, we find that the causes of orphanhood matter. We conclude that increases in orphan populations (rather than simple proportions) are destabilizing. We suggest possible avenues for mediating the security risks posed by growing orphan populations.
Bossa, Benjamin
2005-11-01
We address the problem of the free fall of a long, horizontal and narrow liquid layer squeezed in a vertical open Hele-Shaw cell. The layer destabilizes as it falls down, evolving into a series of liquid blobs linked together by thin bridges, which ultimately break, leaving the initially connex fluid layer as a set a disjointed drops. The mechanism of this instability is the onset of a vertical pressure gradient due to the curvature difference of the moving contact line between the advancing interface and the rear interface. This instability, whose growth rate scales with a non-trivial power of the capillary number, amplifies indifferently a broad band of wavenumbers because of the flat shape of its dispersion relation in the thin layer limit. We will finally comment on the nature of the final fragmentation process and drop size distributions.
Instability and internet design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Braman
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Instability - unpredictable but constant change in one’s environment and the means with which one deals with it - has replaced convergence as the focal problem for telecommunications policy in general and internet policy in particular. Those who designed what we now call the internet during the first decade of the effort (1969-1979, who in essence served simultaneously as its policy-makers, developed techniques for coping with instability of value for network designers today and for those involved with any kind of large-scale sociotechnical infrastructure. Analysis of the technical document series that was medium for and record of that design process reveals coping techniques that began with defining the problem and went on to include conceptual labour, social practices, and technical approaches.
Imaging of patellofemoral instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waldt, S.; Rummeny, E.J.
2012-01-01
Patellofemoral instability remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to its multifactorial genesis. The purpose of imaging is to systematically analyze predisposing factors, such as trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, rotational deformities of the lower limb and patellar tilt. In order to evaluate anatomical abnormalities with a sufficient diagnostic accuracy, standardized measurement methods and implementation of various imaging modalities are necessary. Diagnosis of acute and often overlooked lateral patellar dislocation can be established with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of its characteristic patterns of injury. Damage to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has a significance just as high as the predisposing risk factors in relation to the cause of chronic instability. (orig.) [de
Linear waves and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1975-01-01
The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorfi, E.A.; Drury, L.O.
1985-01-01
The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma, which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration, leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homoeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can in addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves
Instability in dynamic fracture
Fineberg, J.; Marder, M.
1999-05-01
The fracture of brittle amorphous materials is an especially challenging problem, because the way a large object shatters is intimately tied to details of cohesion at microscopic scales. This subject has been plagued by conceptual puzzles, and to make matters worse, experiments seemed to contradict the most firmly established theories. In this review, we will show that the theory and experiments fit within a coherent picture where dynamic instabilities of a crack tip play a crucial role. To accomplish this task, we first summarize the central results of linear elastic dynamic fracture mechanics, an elegant and powerful description of crack motion from the continuum perspective. We point out that this theory is unable to make predictions without additional input, information that must come either from experiment, or from other types of theories. We then proceed to discuss some of the most important experimental observations, and the methods that were used to obtain the them. Once the flux of energy to a crack tip passes a critical value, the crack becomes unstable, and it propagates in increasingly complicated ways. As a result, the crack cannot travel as quickly as theory had supposed, fracture surfaces become rough, it begins to branch and radiate sound, and the energy cost for crack motion increases considerably. All these phenomena are perfectly consistent with the continuum theory, but are not described by it. Therefore, we close the review with an account of theoretical and numerical work that attempts to explain the instabilities. Currently, the experimental understanding of crack tip instabilities in brittle amorphous materials is fairly detailed. We also have a detailed theoretical understanding of crack tip instabilities in crystals, reproducing qualitatively many features of the experiments, while numerical work is beginning to make the missing connections between experiment and theory.
Relativistic centrifugal instability
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.
2018-03-01
Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Tatsuoki
1985-01-01
In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)
Ion temperature gradient instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
Anomalous ion thermal conductivity remains an open physics issue for the present generation of high temperature Tokamaks. It is generally believed to be due to Ion Temperature Gradient Instability (η i mode). However, it has been difficult, if not impossible to identify this instability and study the anomalous transport due to it, directly. Therefore the production and identification of the mode is pursued in the simpler and experimentally convenient configuration of the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). CLM is a steady state machine which already has all the appropriate parameters, except η i . This parameter is being increased to the appropriate value of the order of 1 by 'feathering' a tungsten screen located between the plasma source and the experimental cell to flatten the density profile and appropriate redesign of heating antennas to steepen the ion temperature profile. Once the instability is produced and identified, a thorough study of the characteristics of the mode can be done via a wide range of variation of all the critical parameters: η i , parallel wavelength, etc
Competing processes of whistler and electrostatic instabilities in the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omura, Y.; Matsumoto, H.
1987-01-01
Competing processes of whistler mode and electrostatic mode instabilities induced by an electron beam are studied by a linear growth rate analysis and by an electromagnetic particle simulation. In addition to a background cold plasma we assumed an electron beam drifting along a static magnetic field. We studied excitation of whistler and electrostatic mode waves in the direction of the static magnetic field. We first calculated linear growth rates for the whistler mode and electrostatic mode instabilities, assuming various possible parameters in the equatorial magnetosphere. We found that the growth rate for the electrostatic instability is always larger than that of the whistler mode instability. A short simulation run with a monoenergetic electron beam demonstrates that a monoenergetic beam can hardly give energy to whistler mode waves as a result of competition with faster growing electrostatic waves, because the beam electrons are trapped and diffused by the electrostatic waves, and hence the growth rates for whistler mode waves become very small. A long simulation run starting with a warm electron beam demonstrates that whistler mode waves are excited in spite of the small growth rates and the coexisting quasi-linear electrostatic diffusion process
Curvature-driven instabilities in the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, H.; Spong, D.A.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Tsang, K.T.; Nguyen, K.T.
1982-01-01
Curvature-driven instabilities are analyzed for an EBT configuration which consists of plasma interacting with a hot electron ring whose drift frequencies are larger than the growth rates predicted from conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. Stability criteria are obtained for five possible modes: the conventional hot electron interchange, a high-frequency hot electron interchange (at frequencies greater than the ion-cyclotron frequency), a compressional instability, a background plasma interchange, and an interacting pressure-driven interchange. A wide parameter regime for stable operation is found, which, however, severely deteriorates for a band of intermediate mode numbers. Finite Larmor radius effects can eliminate this deterioration; moreover, all short-wavelength curvature-driven modes are stabilized if the hot electron Larmor radius rho/sub h/ satisfies (kappa/sub perpendicular/rho/sub h/) 2 > 2Δ/[Rβ/sub h/(1 + P'/sub parallel//P'/sub perpendicular/)], where kappa/sub perpendicular/ is the transverse wavenumber, Δ is the ring half-width, R is the mid-plane radius of curvature, β/sub h/ is the hot electron beta value, and P' is the pressure gradient. Resonant wave-particle instabilities predicted by a new low frequency variational principle show that a variety of remnant instabilities may still persist
Physical Mechanism of the Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in a Collisional Plasma.
1981-01-30
8217 70Q SaCE .A-.D A> AT TN R~~ . WIL.IAMRS 01CI " CUT% 755O -řA ol2’ 4’TN E_."D-NP F. WIMItNITZ 01:y A’ ’N. LOGE 02CY ATTN D’E_,D).p C. MOAZED 0:2’ All% c
Drift mechanism for energetic charged particles at shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G.M.; Axford, W.I.; Terasawa, T.
1983-01-01
The energy changes of energetic charged particles at a plane shock due to the so-called drift mechanism are analyzed by using the ''adiabatic treatment.'' The analysis shows that for a fast MHD shock, particles lose energy owing to acceleration (curvature) drift in the magnetic field at the shock with the drift velocity being antiparallel to the electric field, and they gain energy owing to gradient drift parallel to the electric field. It is shown that particles with pitch angles aligned along the magnetic field which pass through the shock tend to lose energy owing to acceleration drift, whereas particles with pitch angles nonaligned to the magnetic field gain energy owing to gradient drift. Particles that are reflected by the shock always gain energy. Slow-mode shocks may be similarly analyzed, but in this case curvature drifts give rise to particle energy gains, and gradient drifts result in particle energy losses
Barber's Point, Oahu, Hawaii Drift Card Study 2002-2004
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drift cards were be released from Barber's Point, Oahu, approximately once a month during the two year span to get an idea of the distribution of card drift under...
Electromagnetic drift modes in an inhomogeneous electron gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1986-01-01
A pair of nonlinear equations is derived which describes the dynamics of the electromagnetic drift oscillations in a nonuniform magnetized electron gas. It is shown that the nonlinear electromagnetic drift modes can propagate in the form of dipole vortices...
A drift chamber constructed of aluminized mylar tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baringer, P.; Jung, C.; Ogren, H.O.; Rust, D.R.
1987-01-01
A thin reliable drift chamber has been constructed to be used near the interaction point of the PEP storage ring in the HRS detector. It is composed of individual drift tubes with aluminized mylar walls. (orig.)
A drift chamber constructed of aluminized mylar tubes
Baringer, P.; Jung, C.; Ogren, H. O.; Rust, D. R.
1987-03-01
A thin reliable drift chamber has been constructed to be used near the interaction point of the PEP storage ring in the HRS detector. It is composed of individual drift tubes with aluminized mylar walls.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
C.R. Bryan
2005-02-17
The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
C.R. Bryan
2005-01-01
The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC submodel uses a drift
Ocean modelling aspects for drift applications
Stephane, L.; Pierre, D.
2010-12-01
Nowadays, many authorities in charge of rescue-at-sea operations lean on operational oceanography products to outline research perimeters. Moreover, current fields estimated with sophisticated ocean forecasting systems can be used as input data for oil spill/ adrift object fate models. This emphasises the necessity of an accurate sea state forecast, with a mastered level of reliability. This work focuses on several problems inherent to drift modeling, dealing in the first place with the efficiency of the oceanic current field representation. As we want to discriminate the relevance of a particular physical process or modeling option, the idea is to generate series of current fields of different characteristics and then qualify them in term of drift prediction efficiency. Benchmarked drift scenarios were set up from real surface drifters data, collected in the Mediterranean sea and off the coasts of Angola. The time and space scales that we are interested in are about 72 hr forecasts (typical timescale communicated in case of crisis), for distance errors that we hope about a few dozen of km around the forecast (acceptable for reconnaissance by aircrafts) For the ocean prediction, we used some regional oceanic configurations based on the NEMO 2.3 code, nested into Mercator 1/12° operational system. Drift forecasts were computed offline with Mothy (Météo France oil spill modeling system) and Ariane (B. Blanke, 1997), a Lagrangian diagnostic tool. We were particularly interested in the importance of the horizontal resolution, vertical mixing schemes, and any processes that may impact the surface layer. The aim of the study is to ultimately point at the most suitable set of parameters for drift forecast use inside operational oceanic systems. We are also motivated in assessing the relevancy of ensemble forecasts regarding determinist predictions. Several tests showed that mis-described observed trajectories can finally be modelled statistically by using uncertainties
Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D.H.Tang
2001-01-01
The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M and O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M and O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4
Cross-field dust acoustic instability in a dusty negative ion plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, M
2010-01-01
A cross-field dust acoustic instability in a dusty negative ion plasma in a magnetic field is studied using kinetic theory. The instability is driven by the ExB drifts of the ions. It is assumed that the negative ions are much heavier than the positive ions, and that the dust is negatively charged. The case where the positive ions and electrons are magnetized, the negative ions are marginally unmagnetized, and the dust is unmagnetized is considered. The focus is on a situation where Doppler resonances near harmonics of the positive ion gyrofrequency can affect the spectrum of unstable dust acoustic waves. Application to possible laboratory experimental parameters is discussed.
Hole drift mobility in poly(hexylphenylsilane)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunimi, Y.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S.
2000-01-01
Poly(n-alkylphenylsilane)s in which n-alkyl were changed from methyl to octyl were polymerized. Hole transport properties of poly(alkyllphenylsilane)s were systematically studied by the DC time-of-flight (TOF) technique. While the hole drift mobility of poly(methylphenylsilane) increased monotonously in entire field, those of poly(hexylphenylsilane) and poly(octylphenylsilane) decreased with increase in the field strength. Temperature dependence of hole drift mobility in those polymers was small. On the basis of Baessler's disorder formalism the mobility was analyzed quantitatively to disserve complex contributions of charge transport. The analyzed results indicated that with increase in the length of n-alkyl side-groups, the energetic disorder of hopping sites became smaller and the disorder of distance between hopping sites became larger. These results were supported by the results obtained by UV absorption measurement and positron annihilation life-time spectroscopy measurement. (author)
Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu
2014-01-01
A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete
Clean industrial room for drift tube assembling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Evtukhovich, P.G.
2001-01-01
Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volume (∼ 190 m 3 ), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2%). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer. (author)
Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling
Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A
2001-01-01
Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.
Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific
Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter
Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.
The drift-flux correlation package MDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoeld, A.
2001-01-01
Based on the SONNENBURG drift-flux correlation, developed at GRS/Garching (Germany), a comprehensive drift-flux correlation package (MDS) has been established. Its aim is to support thermal-hydraulic mixture-fluid models, models being used for the simulation of the steady state and transient behaviour of characteristic thermal-hydraulic parameters of single- or two-phase fluids flowing along coolant channels of different types (being, e.g., parts of NPP-s, steam generators etc.). The characteristic properties of this package with respect to the behaviour at co- and counter-current flow, its inverse solutions needed for steady state simulations, its behaviour when approaching the lower or upper boundary of a two-phase region, its verification and behaviour with respect to other correlations will be discussed. An adequate driver code, MDSDRI, has been established too, allowing to test the package very thoroughly out of the complex thermal-hydraulic codes. (author)
Ionospheric drift measurements: Skymap points selection
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kouba, Daniel; Boška, Josef; Galkin, I. A.; Santolík, Ondřej; Šauli, Petra
2008-01-01
Roč. 43, č. 1 (2008), RS1S90/1-RS1S90/11 ISSN 0048-6604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1619; GA ČR GA205/06/1267; GA AV ČR IAA300420504 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) OC 296; MIERS(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : digisonde drift measurement * plasma drift * radio sounding * ionosphere * Doppler shift * skymap processing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2008 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2007RS003633.shtml
Pulsar magnetic alignment. The drifting subpulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, P.B.
1977-01-01
According to Ruderman and Sutherland (Ap.J.;196:51 (1975)) the subpulse drift observed in certain pulsars is a consequence of the circulation around the magnetic axis of electron-positron discharges occurring within an acceleration region near the polar cap. The predicted period of circulation P 3 is of the correct order of magnitude, but the sense of circulation and therefore the direction of subpulse drift is not consistent with indirect evidence, from observed integrated pulse widths, on the variation with pulsar age of the angle between the spin and magnetic axes. It is shown that this problem is resolved by a model of the acceleration electric field based on space charge limited ion flow. (author)
The drift-flux correlation package MDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeld, A. [Bernaysstr. 16A, Munich, F.R. (Germany)
2001-07-01
Based on the SONNENBURG drift-flux correlation, developed at GRS/Garching (Germany), a comprehensive drift-flux correlation package (MDS) has been established. Its aim is to support thermal-hydraulic mixture-fluid models, models being used for the simulation of the steady state and transient behaviour of characteristic thermal-hydraulic parameters of single- or two-phase fluids flowing along coolant channels of different types (being, e.g., parts of NPP-s, steam generators etc.). The characteristic properties of this package with respect to the behaviour at co- and counter-current flow, its inverse solutions needed for steady state simulations, its behaviour when approaching the lower or upper boundary of a two-phase region, its verification and behaviour with respect to other correlations will be discussed. An adequate driver code, MDSDRI, has been established too, allowing to test the package very thoroughly out of the complex thermal-hydraulic codes. (author)
Doǧan, S.; Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.
2018-05-01
Accretion discs are generally warped. If a warp in a disc is too large, the disc can `break' apart into two or more distinct planes, with only tenuous connections between them. Further, if an initially planar disc is subject to a strong differential precession, then it can be torn apart into discrete annuli that precess effectively independently. In previous investigations, torque-balance formulae have been used to predict where and when the disc breaks into distinct parts. In this work, focusing on discs with Keplerian rotation and where the shearing motions driving the radial communication of the warp are damped locally by turbulence (the `diffusive' regime), we investigate the stability of warped discs to determine the precise criterion for an isolated warped disc to break. We find and solve the dispersion relation, which, in general, yields three roots. We provide a comprehensive analysis of this viscous-warp instability and the emergent growth rates and their dependence on disc parameters. The physics of the instability can be understood as a combination of (1) a term that would generally encapsulate the classical Lightman-Eardley instability in planar discs (given by ∂(νΣ)/∂Σ < 0) but is here modified by the warp to include ∂(ν1|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0, and (2) a similar condition acting on the diffusion of the warp amplitude given in simplified form by ∂(ν2|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0. We discuss our findings in the context of discs with an imposed precession, and comment on the implications for different astrophysical systems.
Pressure-drop and density-wave instability thresholds in boiling channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurgenci, H.; Yildirim, T.; Kakac, S.; Veziroglu, T.N.
1987-01-01
In this study, a criterion for linearized stability with respect to both the pressure-drop and the density-wave oscillations is developed for a single-channel upflow boiling system operating between constant pressures with upstream compressibility introduced through a surge tank. Two different two-phase flow models, namely a constant-property homogeneous flow model a variable-property drift-flux model, have been employed. The conservation equations for both models and the equations of surge tank dynamics are first linearized for small perturbation and the stability of the resulting set of equations for each model are examined by use of Nyquist plots. As a measure of the relative instability of the system, the amounts of the inlet throttling necessary to stabilize the system at particular operating points have been calculated. The results are compared with experimental findings. Comparisons show that the drift-flux formulation offers a simple and reliable way of determining the instability thresholds
Electrostatic instabilities and turbulence in a toroidal magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poli, F. M.
2007-06-01
This Thesis aims at characterizing the linear properties of electrostatic drift instabilities arising in a toroidal plasma and the mechanisms leading to their development into turbulence. The experiments are performed on the TORoidal Plasma EXperiment (TORPEX) at CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne. The first part of the Thesis focuses on the identification of the nature of the instabilities observed in TORPEX, using a set of electrostatic probes, designed and built for this purpose. The global features of fluctuations, analyzed for different values of control parameters such as the magnetic field, the neutral gas pressure and the injected microwave power, are qualitatively similar in different experimental scenarios. The maximum of fluctuations is observed on the low field side, where the pressure gradient and the gradient of the magnetic field are co-linear, indicating that the curvature of the magnetic field lines has an important role in the destabilization of the waves. The power spectrum is dominated by electrostatic fluctuations with frequencies much lower than the ion cyclotron frequency. Taking advantage of the extended diagnostics coverage, the spectral properties of fluctuations are measured over the whole poloidal cross-section. Both drift and interchange instabilities develop and propagate on TORPEX, with the stability of both being affected by the curvature of the magnetic field. It is shown that modes of different nature are driven at separate locations over the plasma cross-section and that the wavenumber and frequency spectra, narrow at the location where the instabilities are generated, broaden during convection, suggesting an increase in the degree of turbulence. The transition from coherent to turbulent spectral features and the role of nonlinear coupling between modes in the development of turbulence are treated in the second part of this work. It is found that nonlinear mode-mode coupling is responsible for the redistribution of spectral energy from the
System Detects Vibrational Instabilities
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1990-01-01
Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.
Evaporation and Antievaporation Instabilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Addazi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We review (antievaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (antievaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, f ( R -gravity, f ( T -gravity, string-inspired black holes, and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to conceptual and technical aspects of (antievaporation effects, while discussing problems that are still open.
Cylindrical geometry for proportional and drift chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadoulet, B.
1975-06-01
For experiments performed around storage rings such as e + e - rings or the ISR pp rings, cylindrical wire chambers are very attractive. They surround the beam pipe completely without any dead region in the azimuth, and fit well with the geometry of events where particles are more or less spherically produced. Unfortunately, cylindrical proportional or drift chambers are difficult to make. Problems are discussed and two approaches to fabricating the cathodes are discussed. (WHK)
Spin-drift transport in semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miah, M Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)
2008-02-07
We present a study on spin transport in semiconductors under applied electric fields. Our experiments detect photoinjected electron spins and their relaxation during drift transport in intrinsic and moderately n-doped GaAs, based on the extraordinary Hall (eH) effect. For relatively low electric field (E), the optically spin-induced eH effect in n-doped GaAs is found to be enhanced with increasing doping density and not to depend much on E, indicating that a substantial amount of optical spin polarization is preserved during the drift transport in these extrinsic semiconductors. However, when the spin-oriented electrons are injected with a high E, a very significant decrease is observed in the eH voltage (V{sub eH}) due to an increase in the spin precession frequency of the hot electrons. Spin relaxation by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is calculated, and is suggested to be the reason for such a rapid spin relaxation for hot electrons under a high E. However, in an intrinsic GaAs (i-GaAs), a much weaker V{sub eH} is observed and, as the electron spins scattered by holes due to the Coulomb interaction in i-GaAs, the spin relaxation by the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism is considered. Skew scattering and side jump as possible mechanisms of the optically spin-induced transverse Hall currents are discussed. Based on a spin drift-diffusion model, drift and diffusion contributions to the V{sub eH} are examined. The results are also discussed in comparison with theoretical investigations.
Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland
2016-05-01
management Snow surveys Transport analysis Winds -- Speed 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...that about 25% of the estimated snow that the wind transports to Summit each winter is deposited and forms drifts, mostly in close proxim- ity to...the structures. This analysis demonstrates that weather data ( wind speed and direction) and a transport analysis can aid in estimating the vol- ume of
New developments on silicon drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rashevsky, A.
1996-01-01
In the frame of the project to develop large-area linear drift detectors few prototypes have been designed and produced. the function of these prototypes is to allow the evaluation of the solutions chosen for the geometry of the on-board electrodes and the production process. On these prototypes it is studied the static characteristics and measured time of-flight and charge collection injecting charges with an IR laser source. It is report the results from one of the prototypes
The Absence of Stokes Drift in Waves
Chafin, Clifford
2015-01-01
Stokes drift has been as central to the history of wave theory as it has been distressingly absent from experiment. Neither wave tanks nor experiments in open bodies detect this without nearly canceling "eulerian flows." Acoustic waves have an analogous problem that is particularly problematic in the vorticity production at the edges of beams. Here we demonstrate that the explanation for this arises from subtle end-of-packet and wavetrain gradient effects such as microbreaking events and wave...
Continued Drift, but without the Acrimony
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kristian L.
2013-01-01
If the measure of Barack Obama's success in mending US–European relations is whether the tone has improved, his presidency has been a great success. If the measure of success, however, is halting the drifting apart of policy preferences, the picture looks a lot less rosy. This article argues....... The Obama administration realises that, and by this more limited measure, it has succeeded brilliantly....
Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.
1995-01-01
A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)
Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes
Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.
1995-12-01
A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.
Drift bifurcation detection for dissipative solitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liehr, A W; Boedeker, H U; Roettger, M C; Frank, T D; Friedrich, R; Purwins, H-G
2003-01-01
We report on the experimental detection of a drift bifurcation for dissipative solitons, which we observe in the form of current filaments in a planar semiconductor-gas-discharge system. By introducing a new stochastic data analysis technique we find that due to a change of system parameters the dissipative solitons undergo a transition from purely noise-driven objects with Brownian motion to particles with a dynamically stabilized finite velocity
Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: antoniomarcosbatista@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)
2016-04-22
Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.
Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, D.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M and O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used
Monitored Drift Chambers in the ATLAS Detector
Herten, G
Monitored Drift Chambers (MDT) are used in the ATLAS Detector to measure the momentum of high energy muons. They consist of drift tubes, which are filled with an Ar-CO2 gas mixture at 3 bar gas pressure. About 1200 drift chambers are required for ATLAS. They are up to 6 m long. Nevertheless the position of every wire needs to be known with a precision of 20 µm within a chamber. In addition, optical alignment sensors are required to measure the relative position of adjacent chambers with a precision of 30µm. This gigantic task seems impossible at first instance. Indeed it took many years of R&D to invent the right tools and methods before the first chamber could be built according to specifications. Today, at the time when 50% of the chambers have been produced, we are confident that the goal for ATLAS can be reached. The mechanical precision of the chambers could be verified with the x-ray tomograph at CERN. This ingenious device, developed for the MDT system, is able to measure the wire position insid...
Internal Clock Drift Estimation in Computer Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hicham Marouani
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Most computers have several high-resolution timing sources, from the programmable interrupt timer to the cycle counter. Yet, even at a precision of one cycle in ten millions, clocks may drift significantly in a single second at a clock frequency of several GHz. When tracing the low-level system events in computer clusters, such as packet sending or reception, each computer system records its own events using an internal clock. In order to properly understand the global system behavior and performance, as reported by the events recorded on each computer, it is important to estimate precisely the clock differences and drift between the different computers in the system. This article studies the clock precision and stability of several computer systems, with different architectures. It also studies the typical network delay characteristics, since time synchronization algorithms rely on the exchange of network packets and are dependent on the symmetry of the delays. A very precise clock, based on the atomic time provided by the GPS satellite network, was used as a reference to measure clock drifts and network delays. The results obtained are of immediate use to all applications which depend on computer clocks or network time synchronization accuracy.
Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.
2018-04-01
We identify and study a number of new, rapidly growing instabilities of dust grains in protoplanetary disks, which may be important for planetesimal formation. The study is based on the recognition that dust-gas mixtures are generically unstable to a Resonant Drag Instability (RDI), whenever the gas, absent dust, supports undamped linear modes. We show that the "streaming instability" is an RDI associated with epicyclic oscillations; this provides simple interpretations for its mechanisms and accurate analytic expressions for its growth rates and fastest-growing wavelengths. We extend this analysis to more general dust streaming motions and other waves, including buoyancy and magnetohydrodynamic oscillations, finding various new instabilities. Most importantly, we identify the disk "settling instability," which occurs as dust settles vertically into the midplane of a rotating disk. For small grains, this instability grows many orders of magnitude faster than the standard streaming instability, with a growth rate that is independent of grain size. Growth timescales for realistic dust-to-gas ratios are comparable to the disk orbital period, and the characteristic wavelengths are more than an order of magnitude larger than the streaming instability (allowing the instability to concentrate larger masses). This suggests that in the process of settling, dust will band into rings then filaments or clumps, potentially seeding dust traps, high-metallicity regions that in turn seed the streaming instability, or even overdensities that coagulate or directly collapse to planetesimals.
Feedback stabilization of plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cap, F.F.
1977-01-01
This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental aspects of feedback stabilization. After giving an outline of a general theoretical model for electrostatic instabilities the author provides a theoretical analysis of the suppression of various types of instability. Experiments which have been carried out on the feedback stabilization of various types of plasma instability are reported. An extensive list of references is given. (B.R.H.)
Thermal Shrinkage for Shoulder Instability
Toth, Alison P.; Warren, Russell F.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Doward, David A.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Altchek, David W.; O’Brien, Stephen J.
2010-01-01
Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent...
Political Instability and Economic Growth
Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel
1992-01-01
This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...
Simplified Drift Analysis for Proving Lower Bounds in Evolutionary Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oliveto, Pietro S.; Witt, Carsten
2011-01-01
Drift analysis is a powerful tool used to bound the optimization time of evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Various previous works apply a drift theorem going back to Hajek in order to show exponential lower bounds on the optimization time of EAs. However, this drift theorem is tedious to read...... and to apply since it requires two bounds on the moment-generating (exponential) function of the drift. A recent work identifies a specialization of this drift theorem that is much easier to apply. Nevertheless, it is not as simple and not as general as possible. The present paper picks up Hajek’s line...
Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: gorji@ipm.ir, E-mail: shosseini@shahroodut.ac.ir, E-mail: shossein@ipm.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161 Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-01
We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.
Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francis, N.D.; Sassani, D.
2000-01-01
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes an abstraction, for the performance assessment total system model, of the near-field host rock water chemistry and gas-phase composition. It also provides an abstracted process model analysis of potentially important differences in the thermal hydrologic (TH) variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository obtained from models that include fully coupled reactive transport with thermal hydrology and those that include thermal hydrology alone. Specifically, the motivation of the process-level model comparison between fully coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) and thermal-hydrologic-only (TH-only) is to provide the necessary justification as to why the in-drift thermodynamic environment and the near-field host rock percolation flux, the essential TH variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository, can be obtained using a TH-only model and applied directly into a TSPA abstraction without recourse to a fully coupled reactive transport model. Abstraction as used in the context of this AMR refers to an extraction of essential data or information from the process-level model. The abstraction analysis reproduces and bounds the results of the underlying detailed process-level model. The primary purpose of this AMR is to abstract the results of the fully-coupled, THC model (CRWMS M andO 2000a) for effects on water and gas-phase composition adjacent to the drift wall (in the near-field host rock). It is assumed that drift wall fracture water and gas compositions may enter the emplacement drift before, during, and after the heating period. The heating period includes both the preclosure, in which the repository drifts are ventilated, and the postclosure periods, with backfill and drip shield emplacement at the time of repository closure. Although the preclosure period (50 years) is included in the process models, the postclosure performance assessment starts at the end of this initial period
Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for SR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Y. Sun
2000-01-01
This analysis demonstrates that a satisfactory ground control system can be designed for the Yucca Mountain site, and provides the technical basis for the design of ground support systems to be used in repository emplacement and non-emplacement drifts. The repository ground support design was based on analytical methods using acquired computer codes, and focused on the final support systems. A literature review of case histories, including the lessons learned from the design and construction of the ESF, the studies on the seismic damages of underground openings, and the use of rock mass classification systems in the ground support design, was conducted (Sections 6.3.4 and 6.4). This review provided some basis for determining the inputs and methodologies used in this analysis. Stability of the supported and unsupported emplacement and non-emplacement drifts was evaluated in this analysis. The excavation effects (i.e., state of the stress change due to excavation), thermal effects (i.e., due to heat output from waste packages), and seismic effects (i.e., from potential earthquake events) were evaluated, and stress controlled modes of failure were examined for two in situ stress conditions (k 0 =0.3 and 1.0) using rock properties representing rock mass categories of 1 and 5. Variation of rock mass units such as the non-lithophysal (Tptpmn) and lithophysal (Tptpll) was considered in the analysis. The focus was on the non-lithophysal unit because this unit appears to be relatively weaker and has much smaller joint spacing. Therefore, the drift stability and ground support needs were considered to be controlled by the design for this rock unit. The ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts were incorporated into the models to assess their performance under in situ, thermal, and seismic loading conditions. Both continuum and discontinuum modeling approaches were employed in the analyses of the rock mass behavior and in the evaluation of the
In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mariner, P.
2001-01-01
As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a), an analysis of the effects of salts and precipitates on the repository chemical environment is to be developed and documented in an Analyses/Model Report (AMR). The purpose of this analysis is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and the Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). The purpose of this ICN is to qualify and document qualification of the AMR's technical products. The scope of this document is to develop a model of the processes that govern salt precipitation and dissolution and resulting water composition in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS). This model is developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical modeling work performed by PAO and is to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. However, the concepts may also apply to some near and far field geochemical processes and can have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone and saturated zone transport modeling efforts. The intended use of the model developed in this report is to estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the pH, chloride concentration, and ionic strength of water on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the post-closure period. These estimates are based on evaporative processes that are subject to a broad range of potential environmental conditions and are independent of the presence or absence of backfill. An additional intended use is to estimate the environmental conditions required for complete vaporization of water. The presence and composition of liquid water
In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P. Mariner
2001-01-10
As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), an analysis of the effects of salts and precipitates on the repository chemical environment is to be developed and documented in an Analyses/Model Report (AMR). The purpose of this analysis is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and the Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). The purpose of this ICN is to qualify and document qualification of the AMR's technical products. The scope of this document is to develop a model of the processes that govern salt precipitation and dissolution and resulting water composition in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS). This model is developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical modeling work performed by PAO and is to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. However, the concepts may also apply to some near and far field geochemical processes and can have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone and saturated zone transport modeling efforts. The intended use of the model developed in this report is to estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the pH, chloride concentration, and ionic strength of water on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the post-closure period. These estimates are based on evaporative processes that are subject to a broad range of potential environmental conditions and are independent of the presence or absence of backfill. An additional intended use is to estimate the environmental conditions required for complete vaporization of water. The presence and composition of liquid water
A novel silicon drift detector with two dimensional drift time measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hijzen, E.A.; Schooneveld, E.M.; Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Hollander, R.W.; Sarro, P.M.; Van den Bogaard, A.
1994-01-01
Until now silicon drift detectors with two dimensional position resolution made use of drift time measurement in one dimension only. The resolution in the other dimension was obtained by dividing the collecting anode into small pixels. In this paper we present a new type of drift detector that uses drift time measurements for both dimensions. The design consists of concentric quadrilateral closed strips with a small collecting anode in the centre. At first electrons will travel perpendicular to the strips until they reach a diagonal. Then they will proceed along this diagonal until they are collected at the centre. Position resolution in two dimensions can be obtained when both the time the electrons need to reach the diagonal and the time they need to reach the centre are measured. The latter is obtained from the collecting anode, the former from a diagonal strip present at the back side of the detector. Compared to common 2D drift detectors this detector offers the advantage of a small amount of readout electronics. It also has the advantage of having just one small collecting anode with a very low capacitance, resulting in low noise and therefore in a good energy resolution. ((orig.))
Instability characteristics of fluidelastic instability of tube rows in crossflow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.
1986-04-01
An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow. 9 refs., 10 figs
Intrafractional baseline drift during free breathing breast cancer radiation therapy.
Jensen, Christer Andre; Acosta Roa, Ana María; Lund, Jo-Åsmund; Frengen, Jomar
2017-06-01
Intrafraction motion in breast cancer radiation therapy (BCRT) has not yet been thoroughly described in the literature. It has been observed that baseline drift occurs as part of the intrafraction motion. This study aims to measure baseline drift and its incidence in free-breathing BCRT patients using an in-house developed laser system for tracking the position of the sternum. Baseline drift was monitored in 20 right-sided breast cancer patients receiving free breathing 3D-conformal RT by using an in-house developed laser system which measures one-dimensional distance in the AP direction. A total of 357 patient respiratory traces from treatment sessions were logged and analysed. Baseline drift was compared to patient positioning error measured from in-field portal imaging. The mean overall baseline drift at end of treatment sessions was -1.3 mm for the patient population. Relatively small baseline drift was observed during the first fraction; however it was clearly detected already at the second fraction. Over 90% of the baseline drift occurs during the first 3 min of each treatment session. The baseline drift rate for the population was -0.5 ± 0.2 mm/min in the posterior direction the first minute after localization. Only 4% of the treatment sessions had a 5 mm or larger baseline drift at 5 min, all towards the posterior direction. Mean baseline drift in the posterior direction in free breathing BCRT was observed in 18 of 20 patients over all treatment sessions. This study shows that there is a substantial baseline drift in free breathing BCRT patients. No clear baseline drift was observed during the first treatment session; however, baseline drift was markedly present at the rest of the sessions. Intrafraction motion due to baseline drift should be accounted for in margin calculations.
Kinetic instabilities in relativistic plasmas: the Harris instability revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tautz, R.C.
2008-01-01
Plasma instabilities that generate aperiodic fluctuations are of outstanding importance in the astrophysical context. Two prominent examples are the electromagnetic Weibel instability and the electrostatic Harris instability, which operate in initially non-magnetized and magnetized plasmas, respectively. In this talk, the original formulation of the Harris instability will be reviewed and generalizations will be presented such as the inclusion of (1) relativistic effects, (2) ion effects, and (3) mode coupling. It will be shown that, with these modifications, a powerful method has been developed for the determination of both the existence and the growth rate of low-frequency instabilities. Applications can be found in astrophysical jets, where the rest frame can be used and so no parallel motion is present. At the end of the talk, how the particle composition of gamma-ray burst jets can be predicted using the Harris technique. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandt, C; Grulke, O; Klinger, T, E-mail: christian.brandt@lpmi.uhp-nancy.f [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)
2010-05-15
Experiments in a cylindrical magnetized plasma on the control of drift waves by means of two different spatiotemporal open-loop control systems-an electrostatic and an electromagnetic exciter-are reported. The drift wave dynamics is controlled by a mode-selective signal created with azimuthal arrangements of eight electrodes and eight saddle coils, respectively. Nonlinear interaction between the control signals and drift waves is observed, leading to synchronization of coherent drift waves and suppression of broadband drift wave turbulence. The cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations reduces from {approx}{pi}/2 in turbulence to {approx}0 in controlled turbulence. Hence, the cross-field transport is reduced to the level of coherent drift waves. For both control systems the coupling to the drift wave can be ascribed to the drive of parallel currents, on the one hand via direct electric contact and, on the other hand, via electromagnetic induction.
Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry
2008-11-01
A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial
Oblique whistler instability in the earth's foreshock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sentman, D.D.; Thomsen, M.F.; Gary, S.P.; Feldman, W.C.; Hoppe, M.M.
1983-01-01
The linear Vlasov stability properties of electron velocity distributions, similar to those observed in the upstream foreshock region in association with obliquely propagating whistler waves at approximately 1 Hz, are studied. These distributions are modeled by a sum of bi-Maxwellians with drift speeds parallel to the magnetic field B. We find such distributions to be stable to modes with wavevectors k parallel to B but unstable to whistler waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. The frequencies and wavelengths of these unstable modes agree well with those of whistlers observed upstream of the earth's bow shock. The free energy source driving the instability is a region of positive parallel slope partialf/sub e//partialv/sub parallel/>0 at large pitch angles (about 85 0 ) and intermediate energies (about 20 eV), probably corresponding to the solar wind electrons magnetostatically reflected from the magnetic ramp of the bow shock. The whistlers grow via electromagnetic Landau resonance with this free energy source
Curvature driven instabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, P.
1986-11-01
The electromagnetic ballooning mode, the curvature driven trapped electron mode and the toroidally induced ion temperature gradient mode have been studies. Eigenvalue equations have been derived and solved both numerically and analytically. For electromagnetic ballooning modes the effects of convective damping, finite Larmor radius, higher order curvature terms, and temperature gradients have been investigated. A fully toroidal fluid ion model has been developed. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for an instability below the MHD limit is the presence of an ion temperature gradient. Analytical dispersion relations giving results in good agreement with numerical solutions are also presented. The curvature driven trapped electron modes are found to be unstable for virtually all parameters with growth rates of the order of the diamagnetic drift frequency. Studies have been made, using both a gyrokinetic ion description and the fully toroidal ion model. Both analytical and numerical results are presented and are found to be in good agreement. The toroidally induced ion temperature gradients modes are found to have a behavior similar to that of the curvature driven trapped electron modes and can in the electrostatic limit be described by a simple quadratic dispersion equation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, Sean M.; Dulaney, Timothy R.; Gresham, Moira I.; Tam, Heywood
2009-01-01
We investigate the stability of theories in which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously broken by fixed-norm vector 'aether' fields. Models with generic kinetic terms are plagued either by ghosts or by tachyons, and are therefore physically unacceptable. There are precisely three kinetic terms that are not manifestly unstable: a sigma model (∂ μ A ν ) 2 , the Maxwell Lagrangian F μν F μν , and a scalar Lagrangian (∂ μ A μ ) 2 . The timelike sigma-model case is well defined and stable when the vector norm is fixed by a constraint; however, when it is determined by minimizing a potential there is necessarily a tachyonic ghost, and therefore an instability. In the Maxwell and scalar cases, the Hamiltonian is unbounded below, but at the level of perturbation theory there are fewer degrees of freedom and the models are stable. However, in these two theories there are obstacles to smooth evolution for certain choices of initial data.
Posterolateral elbow joint instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Nielsen, K K
1998-01-01
Thirty-five osteoligamentous elbows were included in a study on the kinematics of posterolateral elbow joint instability during the pivot shift test (PST) before and after separate ligament cuttings in the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC). Division of the annular ligament or the lateral...... ulnar collateral ligament caused no laxity during the PST. Division of the lateral collateral ligament caused maximal laxity of 4 degrees and 23 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. Cutting of the LCLC at the ulnar or the humeral insertion was necessary...... for any PST stressed elbow joint laxity to occur. Total division of the LCLC induced a maximal laxity of 7.9 degrees and 37 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be the primary soft tissue constraint...
Instabilities in electromagnetic quasilevitation.
Spragg, Kirk; Letout, Sebastien; Ernst, R; Sneyd, Alfred; Fautrelle, Yves
2014-05-01
We investigate free-surface instabilities occurring in various industrial processes involving liquid metal. Of particular interest is the behavior of the free surface of a pool of liquid metal when it is submitted to an alternating magnetic field. Experimentally, we study the effect of a vertical alternating medium-frequency magnetic field on an initially circular pool. We observe various types of behavior according to magnetic field amplitude, e.g., axisymmetric deformations, azimuthal mode structures, slow radial oscillation of the pool perimeter, and random rotation of the pool around its center. Drop rotation could be attributed to nonsymmetric shape deformations. The effect of oxidation leads to drastic changes in pool behavior. The experimental results are then compared to a linear stability analysis of the free surface of a circular liquid drop.
From instabilities to multifragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, P.; Jacquot, B.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.
1994-01-01
The main purpose of this article is to show that, in many physical situations, the spinodal decomposition of unstable systems can be correctly described by stochastic mean-field approaches. Such theories predict that the occurrence of spinodal instability leading the multifragmentation of an expended nuclear system, can be signed through the observation of time scales for the fragment formation of the order of 100 fm/c and of typical fragment size around A=20. We will finally discuss the fact that these fragments are formed at finite temperature and so can subsequently decay in flight. Finally, we will give some hints about possible experimental signals of such first order phase transitions. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs
From instabilities to multifragmentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, P.; Jacquot, B. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)
1994-12-31
The main purpose of this article is to show that, in many physical situations, the spinodal decomposition of unstable systems can be correctly described by stochastic mean-field approaches. Such theories predict that the occurrence of spinodal instability leading the multifragmentation of an expended nuclear system, can be signed through the observation of time scales for the fragment formation of the order of 100 fm/c and of typical fragment size around A=20. We will finally discuss the fact that these fragments are formed at finite temperature and so can subsequently decay in flight. Finally, we will give some hints about possible experimental signals of such first order phase transitions. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs.
Saturation of equatorial inertial instability
Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.; Carnevale, G.F.
2015-01-01
Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vortices in a uniformly rotating system ( $f$f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other
Development of an equipment diagnostic system that evaluates sensor drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanada, Masaki; Arita, Setsuo; Tada, Nobuo; Yokota, Katsuo
2011-01-01
The importance of condition monitoring technology for equipment has increased with the introduction of condition-based maintenance in nuclear power plants. We are developing a diagnostic system using process signals for plant equipment, such as pumps and motors. It is important to enable the diagnostic system to distinguish sensor drift and equipment failure. We have developed a sensor drift diagnostic method that combines some highly correlative sensor signals by using the MT (Mahalanobis-Taguchi) method. Furthermore, we have developed an equipment failure diagnostic method that measures the Mahalanobis distance from the normal state of equipment by the MT method. These methods can respectively detect sensor drift and equipment failure, but there are the following problems. In the sensor drift diagnosis, there is a possibility of misjudging the sensor drift when the equipment failure occurs and the process signal changes because the behavior of the process signal is the same as that of the sensor drift. Oppositely, in the equipment failure diagnosis, there is a possibility of misjudging the equipment failure when the sensor drift occurs because the sensor drift influences the change of process signal. To solve these problems, we propose a diagnostic method combining the sensor drift diagnosis and the equipment failure diagnosis by the MT method. Firstly, the sensor drift values are estimated by the sensor drift diagnosis, and the sensor drift is removed from the process signal. It is necessary to judge the validity of the estimated sensor drift values before removing the sensor drift from the process signal. We developed a method for judging the validity of the estimated sensor drift values by using the drift distribution based on the sensor calibration data. And then, the equipment failure is diagnosed by using the process signals after removal of the sensor drifts. To verify the developed diagnostic system, several sets of simulation data based on abnormal cases
Internal rotor friction instability
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1990-01-01
The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.
Dynamical Instability and Soliton Concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kartavenko, V.G.
1994-01-01
The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is noted that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The spinodal instability and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may compensate each other and lead to stable quasi-soliton type objects. The simple analytical model is presented to illustrate this physical picture. The time evolution of an initially compressed cold nuclear system is analysed in the framework of the inverse mean-field method. It is demonstrated that the nonlinearity and dispersion terms of the evolution equations can lead to clusterization in the final channel. 8 p
Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-01-01
The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions
Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.
Suspended sediment drift and dispersion at Hibernia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tedford, T.; Drozdowski, A.; Hannah, C.G.
2003-01-01
Surface water waves and near-bottom currents around the Hibernia oil production platform on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland were examined to determine how the different seasons affect changes in wave magnitude and directions of water currents. Wave observations revealed a strong correlation with seasons, with the larger waves occurring in fall and early winter. There was no obvious seasonality in the size or direction of currents. The benthic boundary layer transport (BBLT) model was used to predict the drift and dispersion pathways of suspended drilling muds discharged from the Hibernia platform. The 2-year study from March 1998 to May 2000 involved 5-day BBLT model simulations covering the complete period of current meter deployment. The study focused on the sensitivity of the drift and dispersion to variability in the physical environment and uncertainty in the bottom stress calculation and particle settling velocity. The BBLT model incorporates a stress dependent particle settling velocity that includes the main features of the flocculations of drill mud fines under marine conditions. The study provides a better understanding of how drill mud concentration levels can change with variations in waves, currents, and bottom stress. It was determined that drift is generally oriented along the northwest/southeast axis, with a typical magnitude of 0.8 cm/sec for the fast settling velocity and 3.1 cm/sec for the slow settling velocity. It was concluded that near-surface or mid-depth discharges of drilling mud in the summer may not reach the sea floor. 17 refs., 13 tabs., 36 figs
Moreno Ruiz, J.R.
2014-01-01
In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The
Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.
2003-01-01
There are growing experimental, numerical and theoretical evidences that the anomalous transport observed in tokamaks and stellarators is caused by slow, drift-type modes (such as trapped electron modes and ion-temperature gradient-driven modes). Although typical collision frequencies in hot, magnetized fusion plasmas can be quite low in absolute values, collisional effects are nevertheless important since they act as dissipative sinks. As it is well known, dissipative systems with many (strictly speaking more than two) degrees of freedom are often chaotic and may evolve towards a so-called attractor
The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.
1989-03-01
We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 μm spatial resolution and 2 gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO 2 mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab
Autocalibration of high precision drift tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bacci, C.; Bini, C.; Ciapetti, G.; De Zorzi, G.; Gauzzi, P.; Lacava, F.; Nisati, A.; Pontecorvo, L.; Rosati, S.; Veneziano, S.; Cambiaghi, M.; Casellotti, G.; Conta, C.; Fraternali, M.; Lanza, A.; Livan, M.; Polesello, G.; Rimoldi, A.; Vercesi, V.
1997-01-01
We present the results on MDT (monitored drift tubes) autocalibration studies obtained from the analysis of the data collected in Summer 1995 on the H8B Muon Test Beam. In particular we studied the possibility of autocalibration of the MDT using four or three layers of tubes, and we compared the calibration obtained using a precise external tracker with the output of the autocalibration procedure. Results show the feasibility of autocalibration with four and three tubes and the good accuracy of the autocalibration procedure. (orig.)
Drift chambers in BM@N Experiment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedorišin Ján
2017-01-01
In first step, the radius vs drift time calibration curve is estimated and applied to calculate DCH hit closest approach coordinates. These coordinates are used to construct hits in each DCH under the assumption of track linearity. Hits in both the DCHs are subsequently aligned and fitted to produce global linear track candidates. Eventually the hit and track reconstruction is optimized by the autocalibration method. The coordinate resolutions are estimated from Gaussian fits of the DCH hit residual spectra for different DCH planes. Furthermore, the deuteron beam momentum value is reconstructed in order to check reliability of the employed track reconstruction algorithm.
Unstable drift eigenmode in slab geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsotsonis, S.; Hirose, A.
1986-01-01
The unstable Pearlstein-Berk mode of drift waves in plane, sheared slab geometry has later been shown to be stable when electron Landau resonance is rigorously treated. Based on the variational method previously developed the authors have found that in addition to the absolutely stable Pearlstein-Berk mode, there exists an absolutely unstable eigenfunction characterized by ω ≤ ω/sub chemical bonde/, and weak ''radial'' dependence. Also, the growth rate, only weakly depends on the magnetic shear and ion/electron temperature ratio
Analysis of digisonde drift measurements quality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kouba, Daniel; Koucká Knížová, Petra
90-91, December (2012), s. 212-221 ISSN 1364-6826. [IAGA/ICMA/CAWSES-II TG4 Workshop on Vertical Coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System /4./. Prague, 14.02.2011-18.02.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420904; GA AV ČR IAA300420704 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Ionosphere * Plasma drifts * Skymap * Digisonde Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682612001290
MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift
Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.
1981-01-01
Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.
Crowdsourcing and annotating NER for Twitter #drift
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fromreide, Hege; Hovy, Dirk; Søgaard, Anders
2014-01-01
We present two new NER datasets for Twitter; a manually annotated set of 1,467 tweets (kappa=0.942) and a set of 2,975 expert-corrected, crowdsourced NER annotated tweets from the dataset described in Finin et al. (2010). In our experiments with these datasets, we observe two important points: (a......) language drift on Twitter is significant, and while off-the-shelf systems have been reported to perform well on in-sample data, they often perform poorly on new samples of tweets, (b) state-of-the-art performance across various datasets can beobtained from crowdsourced annotations, making it more feasible...
Cathode Readout with Stripped Resistive Drift Tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhil'tsov, V.E.
1994-01-01
A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with carbon layer of resistivity 0.5, 30 and 70 k Ohm/sq. The gas mixture used was Ar/CH 4 . Both the anode wire and cathode signals were detected in order to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab
Hydrogen high pressure proportional drift detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arefiev, A.; Balaev, A.
1983-01-01
The design and operation performances of a proportional drift detector PDD are described. High sensitivity of the applied PAD makes it possible to detect the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the energy range of recoil protons as low as 1 keV. The PDD is filled with hydrogen up to the pressure at 40 bars. High purity of the gas is maintained by a continuously operating purification system. The detector has been operating for several years in a neutron beam at the North Area of the CERN SPS
Evaluation of prototype silicon drift detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellison, J.; Hall, G.; Roe, S.; Lucas, A.
1988-01-01
Operating characteristics of several prototypes of silicon drift detectors are investigated. Detectors are made of unpolished silicon produced by the zone melting method and characterized by n-type conductivity and specific resistance of 3.6-4.6 kOhmxcm. The detectors comprise 40 parallel bands of 200 μm width and 1 cm length separated by 50 μm intervals. Data characterizing the potential distribution near anodes under the operating bias voltage, dependences of capacities and leakage as well as the detector space resolution
Post-earnings announcement drift in Greece
Forbes, William; Giannopoulos, George
2015-01-01
This paper presents evidence regarding the post-earnings announcement drift (PEAD) anomaly for the Greek market in the years 2000–2006 (covering earnings announcements in the years 2001–2007). The impact of the introduction of International Financial Reporting Standards on the size and prevalence of the PEAD anomaly is examined. Unlike recent evidence for the US market we find PEAD to be\\ud alive and well, and of growing importance in our Greek sample. It may be the adoption of international ...
Construction of the Cleo III drift chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csorna, S.; Marka, S.; Dickson, M.; Dombrowski, S. von; Peterson, D.; Thies, P.; Glenn, S.; Thorndike, E.H.; Kravchenko, I.
1998-01-01
The CLEO III group is constructing a new chamber to be installed as part of the staged luminosity upgrade program at the Cornell electron storage ring and compatible with the interaction region optics. Although having less radial extent than the current CLEO II tracking system, CLEO III will have equivalent momentum resolution because of material reduction in the drift chamber inner skin and gas. The thin inner skin requires special attention to the end-plate motion due to wire creep. During stringing, use of a robot will fully automate the wire handling on the upper end. (author)
Drift Tube Linac Conditioning of Tank1
Shafqat, N; Toor, W A
2014-01-01
Tank1 of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) of the Linac4 has been conditioned at the Linac4 tunnel. The tank was tuned for resonance at 352.2 MHz, and stable operation has been achieved with 725 µs long RF pulses at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The maximum RF level that has been reached is 810 kW with a pulse width of 600 µs. Since this was the first RF structure exclusively conditioned in the Linac4 tunnel with the operation and control software of Linac4, some related issues and limitations had to be taken into account.
Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks
Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe
2016-09-01
Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular
Thermal shrinkage for shoulder instability.
Toth, Alison P; Warren, Russell F; Petrigliano, Frank A; Doward, David A; Cordasco, Frank A; Altchek, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J
2011-07-01
Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent shoulder stabilization surgery with thermal capsular shrinkage using a monopolar radiofrequency device. Follow-up included a subjective outcome questionnaire, discussion of pain, instability, and activity level. Mean follow-up was 3.3 years (range 2.0-4.7 years). The thermal capsular shrinkage procedure failed due to instability and/or pain in 31% of shoulders at a mean time of 39 months. In patients with unidirectional anterior instability and those with concomitant labral repair, the procedure proved effective. Patients with multidirectional instability had moderate success. In contrast, four of five patients with isolated posterior instability failed. Thermal capsular shrinkage has been advocated for the treatment of shoulder instability, particularly mild to moderate capsular laxity. The ease of the procedure makes it attractive. However, our retrospective review revealed an overall failure rate of 31% in 80 patients with 2-year minimum follow-up. This mid- to long-term cohort study adds to the literature lacking support for thermal capsulorrhaphy in general, particularly posterior instability. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9187-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system
Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob
2018-04-01
The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.
Some results of observations of solar radio bursts of the ''drift pairs'' type near 25 and 12.5 MHz
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abranin, Eh.P.; Bazelyan, L.L.; Goncharov, N.Yu.; Zajtsev, V.V.; Zinichev, V.A.; Levin, B.N.; Rapoport, V.O.; Tsybko, Ya.G.; Gor'kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.
1977-01-01
The drift pairs in the frequency range of 12-13 MHz and 24-26 MHz are considered. It is shown that double bursts may be observed both at the second and at the first harmonics. The time interval between the elements of the double burst remains practically unchanged. This fact creates difficulties when interpreting double bursts due to the radio echo in the solar corona. It is suggested that the double (and generally multiple) structure of burst may be associated with the successive transmission of a fast electron beam in regions of double plasma resonance. It is considered that the radiation occurs due to cyclotron instability at the forward front of the electron beam travelling along the decreasing magnetic field of the coronal ray. It is shown that the properties of these burst can be explained by the proposed mechanism of drift pairs formation
Nonlinear turbulence theory and simulation of Buneman instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, P. H.; Umeda, T.
2010-01-01
In the present paper, the weak turbulence theory for reactive instabilities, formulated in a companion paper [P. H. Yoon, Phys. Plasmas 17, 112316 (2010)], is applied to the strong electron-ion two-stream (or Buneman) instability. The self-consistent theory involves quasilinear velocity space diffusion equation for the particles and nonlinear wave kinetic equation that includes quasilinear (or induced emission) term as well as nonlinear wave-particle interaction term (or a term that represents an induced scattering off ions). We have also performed one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation in order to benchmark the theoretical analysis. Under the assumption of self-similar drifting Gaussian distribution function for the electrons it is shown that the current reduction and the accompanying electron heating as well as electric field turbulence generation can be discussed in a self-consistent manner. Upon comparison with the Vlasov simulation result it is found that quasilinear wave kinetic equation alone is insufficient to account for the final saturation amplitude. Upon including the nonlinear scattering term in the wave kinetic equation, however, we find that a qualitative agreement with the simulation is recovered. From this, we conclude that the combined quasilinear particle diffusion plus induced emission and scattering (off ions) processes adequately account for the nonlinear development of the Buneman instability.
Nonlinear analysis of generalized cross-field current instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, P.H.; Lui, A.T.Y.
1993-01-01
Analysis of the generalized cross-field current instability is carried out in which cross-field drift of both the ions and electrons and their temperatures are permitted to vary in time. The unstable mode under consideration is the electromagnetic generalization of the classical modified-two-stream instability. The generalized instability is made of the modified-two-stream and ion-Weibel modes. The relative importance of the features associated with the ion-Weibel mode and those of the modified-two-stream mode is assessed. Specific applications are made to the Earth's neutral sheet prior to substorm onset and to the Earth's bow shock. The numerical solution indicates that the ion-Weibel mode dominates in the Earth's neutral sheet environment. In contrast, the situation for the bow shock is dominated by the modified-two-stream mode. Notable differences are found between the present calculation and previous results on ion-Weibel mode which restrict the analysis to only parallel propagating waves. However, in the case of Earth's bow shock for which the ion-Weibel mode plays no important role, the inclusion of the electromagnetic ion response is found to differ little from the previous results which treats ions responding only to the electrostatic component of the excited waves
Kinetic instabilities in the solar wind: A short review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matteini, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.matteini@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2016-03-25
We know from in situ measurements that solar wind plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. Distribution functions of its main constituents -electrons, protons, and alpha particles-show several departures from Maxwellian, including temperature anisotropy, relative drifts and secondary populations streaming along the local magnetic field. We present a short review of recent solar wind observations of these non-thermal features and associated signatures of wave-particle interactions. Several kinetic instabilities are expected to be at work in the solar wind during its expansion, playing a role in the continuous shaping of particle distributions with distance, and regulating the macroscopic behavior of the plasma. Over the past years, modeling of these processes by means of numerical simulations has been successful in reproducing and explaining the observations; these include the evolution of the plasma due to radial expansion and the response of individual species to different kinetic instabilities. Finally, the impact of local inhomogeneities, like current sheets and turbulence, on the development of kinetic instabilities is also discussed.
Flute instability growth on a magnetized plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, D. V.; Genoni, T. C.; Welch, D. R.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.; Ditmire, T.
2006-01-01
The growth of the flute-type instability for a field-aligned plasma column immersed in a uniform magnetic field is studied. Particle-in-cell simulations are compared with a semi-analytic dispersion analysis of the drift cyclotron instability in cylindrical geometry with a Gaussian density profile in the radial direction. For the parameters considered here, the dispersion analysis gives a local maximum for the peak growth rates as a function of R/r i , where R is the Gaussian characteristic radius and r i is the ion gyroradius. The electrostatic and electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation results give azimuthal and radial mode numbers that are in reasonable agreement with the dispersion analysis. The electrostatic simulations give linear growth rates that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis results, while the electromagnetic simulations yield growth rate trends that are similar to the dispersion analysis but that are not in quantitative agreement. These differences are ascribed to higher initial field fluctuation levels in the electromagnetic field solver. Overall, the simulations allow the examination of both the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability in this physical system up to and beyond the point of wave energy saturation
Functional Instability of the Ankle Joint: Etiopathogenesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aydan ÖRSÇELİK
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Ankle sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. Chronic ankle instability is a common complication of ankle sprains. Two causes of chronic ankle instability are mechanical instability and functional instability. It is important to understand functional instability etiopathogenesis of the ankle joint in order to guide diagnosis and treatment. This article aims to understand the etiopathogenesis of functional ankle instability.
Wolters, A.; Linnemann, V.; Zande, van de J.C.; Vereecken, H.
2008-01-01
A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done
Precision alignment of permanent-magnet drift tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liska, D.J.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Spalek, G.
1986-01-01
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) technique of drift-tube alignment has been resurrected at Los Alamos for the precision alignment of 1-cm-bore drift tubes that carry high-gradient rare-earth-cobalt quadrupole. Because the quadrupole cannot be switched off, this technique is not applicable to a drift-tube assembly, but tests indicate that individual magnetic centers can be detected with a precision of +- 0.003 mm. Methods of transferring this information to machined alignment flats on the sides of the drift-tube body are discussed. With measurements of drift tubes designed for a 100-mA. 425-MHz drift-tube linac, we have detected offsets between the geometric and magnetic axes of up to +- 0.05 mm following final assembly and welding. This degree of offset is serious if not accommodated, because it represents the entire alignment tolerance for the 40-cell tank. The measurement equipment and technique are described
Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, D.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository non-emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for non-emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). This calculation will provide input for the development of LA documents. The scope of this calculation is limited to the non-emplacement drifts including access mains, ramps, exhaust mains, turnouts, intersections between access mains and turnouts, and intersections between exhaust mains and emplacement drifts, portals, TBM launch chambers, observation drift and test alcove in the performance confirmation (PC) facilities, etc. The calculation is limited to the non-emplacement drifts subjected to a combined loading of in-situ stress, seismic stress, and/or thermal stress. Other effects such as hydrological and chemical effects are not considered in this analysis
Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.
1988-10-01
A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs
Metabolic drift in the aging brain.
Ivanisevic, Julijana; Stauch, Kelly L; Petrascheck, Michael; Benton, H Paul; Epstein, Adrian A; Fang, Mingliang; Gorantla, Santhi; Tran, Minerva; Hoang, Linh; Kurczy, Michael E; Boska, Michael D; Gendelman, Howard E; Fox, Howard S; Siuzdak, Gary
2016-05-01
Brain function is highly dependent upon controlled energy metabolism whose loss heralds cognitive impairments. This is particularly notable in the aged individuals and in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, how metabolic homeostasis is disrupted in the aging brain is still poorly understood. Here we performed global, metabolomic and proteomic analyses across different anatomical regions of mouse brain at different stages of its adult lifespan. Interestingly, while severe proteomic imbalance was absent, global-untargeted metabolomics revealed an energymetabolic drift or significant imbalance in core metabolite levels in aged mouse brains. Metabolic imbalance was characterized by compromised cellular energy status (NAD decline, increased AMP/ATP, purine/pyrimidine accumulation) and significantly altered oxidative phosphorylation and nucleotide biosynthesis and degradation. The central energy metabolic drift suggests a failure of the cellular machinery to restore metabostasis (metabolite homeostasis) in the aged brain and therefore an inability to respond properly to external stimuli, likely driving the alterations in signaling activity and thus in neuronal function and communication.
EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ISOLATION DOOR CONTROL SYSTEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
N.T. Raczka
1998-01-01
The purpose of this analysis is to review and refine key design concepts related to the control system presently under consideration for remotely operating the emplacement drift isolation doors at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will discuss the key design concepts of the control system that may be utilized for remotely monitoring, opening, and closing the emplacement drift isolation doors. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Discuss the purpose and function of the isolation doors (Presented in Section 7.1). (2) Review the construction of the isolation door and other physical characteristics of the doors that the control system will interface with (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Discuss monitoring and controlling the operation of the isolation doors with a digital control system (either a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) system or a Distributed Control System (DCS)) (Presented in Section 7.3). (4) Discuss how all isolation doors can be monitored and controlled from a subsurface central control center (Presented in Section 7.4). This analysis will focus on the development of input/output (I/O) counts including the types of I/O, redundancy and fault tolerance considerations, and processor requirements for the isolation door control system. Attention will be placed on operability, maintainability, and reliability issues for the system operating in the subsurface environment with exposure to high temperatures and radiation
PWCs and drift chambers at ISABELLE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuno, H.; Teramoto, Y.; Wheeler, C.D.
1978-01-01
Rate effects in proportional chambers and drift chambers are addressed first. The widely used high-gas-gain chambers would have impaired performance at ISABELLE data rates. Improvement can be expected with lower gas gain, and this possibility is investigated with respect to position and time resolution. Results on chamber lifetime are summarized; space-charge effects, gain saturation, and radiation hardness of electronics are considered. The resolution of drift chambers is discussed in some detail; time resolution, double pulse resolution, and momentum resolution and multiple scattering are included. The expected high multiplicity of tracks from a single event, the high event rates, and the requirement for low gas gain necessitate revision of the methods for measuring the second coordinate. Known methods of two-dimensional point localization are summarized according to spatial accuracy, electronics requirements, and multihit capability. Delay lines, charge division, and cathode strips are considered. Particle identification by means of measurement of the relativistic rise of energy loss by conventional and unconventional means was investigated. 32 references, 3 figures, 4 tables
In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
P. Mariner
2004-01-01
This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO 3 -SO 4 -Br-CO 3 -SiO 2 -CO 2 -O 2 -H 2 O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , OH - , H + , HSO 4 - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , CaHCO 3 + , MgHCO 3 + , HSiO 3 - , and MgOH + ); (2) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, mineral
In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P. Mariner
2004-11-09
This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, HSO{sub 4}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CaHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, MgHCO{sub 3
Nonlinear drift waves in a dusty plasma with sheared flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vranjes, J. [K.U. Leuven (Belgium). Center for Plasma Astrophysics; Shukla, R.K. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik IV
2002-01-01
Nonlinear properties of dust-modified drift waves and dust-drift waves in a dusty magnetoplasma with equilibrium sheared flows are examined. For this purpose, the relevant nonlinear equations for drift waves are analyzed for various profiles of the perpendicular and parallel plasma flows, and a variety of nonlinear solutions (viz. single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, tripolar and global vortices), which are driven by nommiform shear flows and nommiform dust density, is presented.
Nonlinear drift waves in a dusty plasma with sheared flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vranjes, J.; Shukla, R.K.
2002-01-01
Nonlinear properties of dust-modified drift waves and dust-drift waves in a dusty magnetoplasma with equilibrium sheared flows are examined. For this purpose, the relevant nonlinear equations for drift waves are analyzed for various profiles of the perpendicular and parallel plasma flows, and a variety of nonlinear solutions (viz. single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, tripolar and global vortices), which are driven by nommiform shear flows and nommiform dust density, is presented
Test of a high resolution drift chamber prototype
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comminchau, V.; Deutschmann, M.; Draheim, K.J.; Fritze, P.; Hangarter, K.; Hawelka, P.; Herten, U.; Tonutti, M.; Anderhub, H.; Fehlmann, J.; Hofer, H.; Klein, M.; Paradiso, J.A.; Schreiber, J.; Viertel, G.
1984-06-01
The performance of a drift chamber prototype for a colliding beam vertex detector in a test beam at DESY is described. At one (two) atmosphere gas pressure a spatial resolution of 40 μm (30 μm) per wire for one cm drift length was achieved with a 100 MHz Flash-ADC system. An excellent double track resolution of better than 300 μm over the full drift length of 5 cm can be estimated. (orig.)
Temporal and spatial evolution of runaway electrons at the instability moments in Damavand tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pourshahab, B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advance Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, P.O. Box 81747-73441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, M. R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, P.O. Box 81747-73441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadighzadeh, A.; Rasouli, C. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-07-15
The time and position behavior of runaway electrons at the Parail–Pogutse instability moments has been investigated using experimental observations in plasma current, loop voltage, the Hard X-ray (HXR) radiations, and 18 poloidal pickup coils signals received by data acquisition system simultaneously. The conditional average sampling (CAS) method was used to analyze the output data. Moreover, a filament current code was modified to study the runaway electrons beam movement in the event of instabilities. The results display a rapid drift of runaway beam toward the inner wall of the vacuum vessel and the collision with the wall components at the instability moments. The existence of the collisions in these experiments is evident in the HXR bursts which are considered as the main trigger for CAS Analysis. Also, the variation of HXR bursts with the toroidal magnetic field shows that the hard X-ray bursts drop with increase in the toroidal magnetic field and runaway electrons confinement quality.
Analysis of plasma instabilities and verification of the BOUT code for the Large Plasma Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popovich, P.; Carter, T. A.; Friedman, B.; Umansky, M. V.
2010-01-01
The properties of linear instabilities in the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] are studied both through analytic calculations and solving numerically a system of linearized collisional plasma fluid equations using the three-dimensional fluid code BOUT[M. Umansky et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 180, 887 (2009)], which has been successfully modified to treat cylindrical geometry. Instability drive from plasma pressure gradients and flows is considered, focusing on resistive drift waves and the Kelvin-Helmholtz and rotational interchange instabilities. A general linear dispersion relation for partially ionized collisional plasmas including these modes is derived and analyzed. For Large Plasma Device relevant profiles including strongly driven flows, it is found that all three modes can have comparable growth rates and frequencies. Detailed comparison with solutions of the analytic dispersion relation demonstrates that BOUT accurately reproduces all characteristics of linear modes in this system.
Beam-plasma instability in charged plasma in the absence of ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubinov, Alexander E. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409, Russia and Sarov State Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI) of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Dukhova Str., 6, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod Region 607186 (Russian Federation); Petrik, Alexey G. [Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Kurkin, Semen A.; Frolov, Nikita S.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E., E-mail: hramovae@gmail.com [Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaja 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)
2016-04-15
We report on the possibility of the beam-plasma instability development in the system with electron beam interacting with the single-component hot electron plasma without ions. As considered system, we analyse the interaction of the low-current relativistic electron beam (REB) with squeezed state in the high-current REB formed in the relativistic magnetically insulated two-section vircator drift space. The numerical analysis is provided by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation in CST Particle Studio. We have conducted an extensive study of characteristic regimes of REB dynamics determined by the beam-plasma instability development in the absence of ions. As a result, the dependencies of instability increment and wavelength on the REB current value have been obtained. The considered process brings the new mechanism of controlled microwave amplification and generation to the device with a virtual cathode. This mechanism is similar to the action of the beam-plasma amplifiers and oscillators.
The Study of Westward Drift in the Main Geomagnetic Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Bayanjargal
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We have obtained a solution for the velocity of westward drift from the induction equation in which an approach for main geomagnetic field was built. Distribution functions B(r, t entered into the induction equation have been built by the observatories' data in North America and the Europe from 1991 to 2006. The longitudinal −0.123 degree/year and latitudinal 0.068 degree/year drifts were defined in North America. And the longitudinal −0.257 degree/year drift was defined in Europe from 1991 to 2006. These drifts are similar to results of other studies.
Size effects on cavitation instabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo
2006-01-01
growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...... as the void grows to a size well above the characteristic material length....
Resistive instabilities in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutherford, P.H.
1985-10-01
Low-m tearing modes constitute the dominant instability problem in present-day tokamaks. In this lecture, the stability criteria for representative current profiles with q(0)-values slightly less than unit are reviewed; ''sawtooth'' reconnection to q(0)-values just at, or slightly exceeding, unity is generally destabilizing to the m = 2, n = 1 and m = 3, n = 2 modes, and severely limits the range of stable profile shapes. Feedback stabilization of m greater than or equal to 2 modes by rf heating or current drive, applied locally at the magnetic islands, appears feasible; feedback by island current drive is much more efficient, in terms of the radio-frequency power required, then feedback by island heating. Feedback stabilization of the m = 1 mode - although yielding particularly beneficial effects for resistive-tearing and high-beta stability by allowing q(0)-values substantially below unity - is more problematical, unless the m = 1 ideal-MHD mode can be made positively stable by strong triangular shaping of the central flux surfaces. Feedback techniques require a detectable, rotating MHD-like signal; the slowing of mode rotation - or the excitation of non-rotating modes - by an imperfectly conducting wall is also discussed
Sheared Electroconvective Instability
Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon
2012-11-01
Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.
Tabulated In-Drift Geometric and Thermal Properties Used In Drift-Scale Models for TSPA-SR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
N.D. Francis
2000-01-01
The objective of this calculation is to provide in-drift physical properties required by the drift-scale models (both two- and three-dimensional) used in total system performance assessments (TSPA). The physical properties include waste package geometry, waste package thermal properties, emplacement drift geometry including backfill and invert geometry and properties (both thermal and hydrologic), drip shield geometry and thermal properties, all tabulated in a single source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richstein, J.
1986-01-01
This work describes measurements on the drift of electrons in gases, using the TPC90, the prototype of the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber. Tracks which were created by UV-Laser ionization have been drifted over distances of up to 1.3 m in parallel electric and magnetic fields. Electron drift properties have been systematically measured as a function of these, in several gas mixtures. (orig./HSI)
Trapped-particle instabilities in quasi-isodynamic stellarators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proll, Josefine Henriette Elise
2014-01-28
The confinement of energy has always been a challenge in magnetic confinement fusion devices. Due to their toroidal shape there exist regions of high and low magnetic field, so that the particles are divided into two classes - trapped ones that are periodically reflected in regions of high magnetic field with a characteristic frequency, and passing particles, whose parallel velocity is high enough that they largely follow a magnetic field line around the torus without being reflected. The radial drift that a particle experiences due to the field inhomogeneity depends strongly on its position, and the net drift therefore depends on the path taken by the particle. While the radial drift is close to zero for passing particles, trapped particles experience a finite radial net drift and are therefore lost in classical stellarators. These losses are described by the so-called neoclassical transport theory. Recent optimised stellarator geometries, however, in which the trapped particles precess around the torus poloidally and do not experience any net drift, promise to reduce the neoclassical transport down to the level of tokamaks. In these optimised stellarators, the neoclassical transport becomes small enough so that turbulent transport may limit the confinement instead. The turbulence is driven by small-scale-instabilities, which tap the free energy of density or temperature gradients in the plasma. Some of these instabilities are driven by the trapped particles and therefore depend strongly on the magnetic geometry, so the question arises how the optimisation affects the stability. In this thesis, collisionless electrostatic microinstabilities are studied both analytically and numerically. Magnetic configurations where the action integral of trapped-particle bounce motion, J, only depends on the radial position in the plasma and where its maximum is in the plasma centre, so-called maximum-J configurations, are of special interest. This condition can be achieved
Trapped-particle instabilities in quasi-isodynamic stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proll, Josefine Henriette Elise
2014-01-01
The confinement of energy has always been a challenge in magnetic confinement fusion devices. Due to their toroidal shape there exist regions of high and low magnetic field, so that the particles are divided into two classes - trapped ones that are periodically reflected in regions of high magnetic field with a characteristic frequency, and passing particles, whose parallel velocity is high enough that they largely follow a magnetic field line around the torus without being reflected. The radial drift that a particle experiences due to the field inhomogeneity depends strongly on its position, and the net drift therefore depends on the path taken by the particle. While the radial drift is close to zero for passing particles, trapped particles experience a finite radial net drift and are therefore lost in classical stellarators. These losses are described by the so-called neoclassical transport theory. Recent optimised stellarator geometries, however, in which the trapped particles precess around the torus poloidally and do not experience any net drift, promise to reduce the neoclassical transport down to the level of tokamaks. In these optimised stellarators, the neoclassical transport becomes small enough so that turbulent transport may limit the confinement instead. The turbulence is driven by small-scale-instabilities, which tap the free energy of density or temperature gradients in the plasma. Some of these instabilities are driven by the trapped particles and therefore depend strongly on the magnetic geometry, so the question arises how the optimisation affects the stability. In this thesis, collisionless electrostatic microinstabilities are studied both analytically and numerically. Magnetic configurations where the action integral of trapped-particle bounce motion, J, only depends on the radial position in the plasma and where its maximum is in the plasma centre, so-called maximum-J configurations, are of special interest. This condition can be achieved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeba, I.; Yahia, M.E.; Shukla, P.K.; Moslem, W.M.
2012-01-01
The electron–hole two-stream instability in a quantum semiconductor plasma has been studied including electrons and holes quantum recoil effects, exchange-correlation potentials, and degenerate pressures of the plasma species. Typical values of GaAs and GaSb semiconductors are used to estimate the growth rate of the two-stream instability. The effects of electron– and hole–phonon collision, quantum recoil effects, the streaming velocities, and the corresponding threshold on the growth rate are investigated numerically. Considering the phonon susceptibility allows the acoustic mode to exist and the collisional instability arises in combination with drift of the holes. -- Highlights: ► Electron–hole two stream instability in quantum plasmas is presented. ► Typical values of GaAs and GaSb semiconductors are used to estimate the growth rate. ► The streaming velocities and the corresponding threshold on the growth rate are investigated numerically.
Tunnelling instability via perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graffi, S. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Grecchi, V. (Moderna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Jona-Lasinio, G. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies)
1984-10-21
The semiclassical limit of low lying states in a multiwell potential is studied by rigorous perturbative techniques. In particular tunnelling instability and localisation of wave functions is obtained in a simple way under small deformations of symmetric potentials.
Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation
Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John
2011-01-01
This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations
Edge instabilities of topological superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)
2016-07-01
Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.
Instability of ties in compression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius
2013-01-01
Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...... exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie...
Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chasman, R.
1976-01-01
A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at Brookhaven, August 9-13, 1976. About a dozen outside accelerator experts, both from Europe and the U.S.A., joined the local staff for discussions of longitudinal instabilities in ISABELLE. An agenda of talks was scheduled for the first day of the workshop. Later during the week, a presentation was given on the subject ''A more rigorous treatment of Landau damping in longitudinal beam instabilities''. A few progress meetings were held in which disagreements regarding calculations of coupling impedances were clarified. A summary session was held on the last day. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber.
Predicting Catastrophic BGP Routing Instabilities
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Nguyen, Lien
2004-01-01
.... Currently, this critical function is performed by the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) version 4 RF01771. Like all routing protocols, BGP is vulnerable to instabilities that reduce its effectiveness...
WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borivoje Pašić
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.
Genomic instability and radiation effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christian Streffer
2007-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Cancer, genetic mutations and developmental abnormalities are apparently associated with an increased genomic instability. Such phenomena have been frequently shown in human cancer cells in vitro and in situ. It is also well-known that individuals with a genetic predisposition for cancer proneness, such as ataxia telangiectesia, Fanconi anaemia etc. demonstrate a general high genomic instability e.g. in peripheral lymphocytes before a cancer has developed. Analogous data have been found in mice which develop a specific congenital malformation which has a genetic background. Under these aspects it is of high interest that ionising radiation can increase the genomic instability of mammalian cells after exposures in vitro an in vivo. This phenomenon is expressed 20 to 40 cell cycles after the exposure e.g. by de novo chromosomal aberrations. Such effects have been observed with high and low LET radiation, high LET radiation is more efficient. With low LET radiation a good dose response is observed in the dose range 0.2 to 2.0 Gy, Recently it has been reported that senescence and genomic instability was induced in human fibroblasts after 1 mGy carbon ions (1 in 18 cells are hit), apparently bystander effects also occurred under these conditions. The instability has been shown with DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutation and cell death. It is also transferred to the next generation of mice with respect to gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations. Several mechanisms have been discussed. The involvement of telomeres has gained interest. Genomic instability seems to be induced by a general lesion to the whole genome. The transmission of one chromosome from an irradiated cell to an non-irradiated cell leads to genomic instability in the untreated cells. Genomic instability increases mutation rates in the affected cells in general. As radiation late effects (cancer, gene mutations and congenital
Integral-equation formulation for drift eigenmodes in cylindrically symmetric systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linsker, R.
1980-12-01
A method for solving the integral eigenmode equation for drift waves in cylindrical (or slab) geometry is presented. A leading-order kinematic effect that has been noted in the past, but incorrectly ignored in recent integral-equation calculations, is incorporated. The present method also allows electrons to be treated with a physical mass ratio (unlike earlier work that is restricted to artificially small m/sub i//m/sub e/ owing to resolution limitations). Results for the universal mode and for the ion-temperature-gradient driven mode are presented. The kinematic effect qualitatively changes the spectrum of the ion mode, and a new second region of instability for k/sub perpendicular to/rho/sub i/greater than or equal to 1 is found
Aerodynamic instability: A case history
Eisenmann, R. C.
1985-01-01
The identification, diagnosis, and final correction of complex machinery malfunctions typically require the correlation of many parameters such as mechanical construction, process influence, maintenance history, and vibration response characteristics. The progression is reviewed of field testing, diagnosis, and final correction of a specific machinery instability problem. The case history presented addresses a unique low frequency instability problem on a high pressure barrel compressor. The malfunction was eventually diagnosed as a fluidic mechanism that manifested as an aerodynamic disturbance to the rotor assembly.
Surgical treatment of chest instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitka, M.; Masek, M.
2015-01-01
Fractures of the ribs is the most common thoracic injury after blunt trauma. Chest wall instability (flail chest) is a common occurrence in the presence of multiple ribs fracture. Unilateral or bilateral fractures more ribs anteriorly or posteriorly will produce enough instability that paradoxical respiratory motion results in hypoventilation of an unacceptable degree. Open approach and surgical stabilisation of the chest preserved pulmonary function, improved pain control, minimized posttraumatic deformities and shorter back to work time. (author)
Beam Instabilities in Hadron Synchrotrons
Métral, E; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Buffat, X; Esteban Muller, J F; Herr, W; Iadarola, G; Lasheen, A; Li, K; Oeftiger, A; Pieloni, T; Quartullo, D; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Schenk, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Tambasco, C; Timko, H; Zannini, C; Burov, A; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Mounet, N; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Niedermayer, U; Kornilov, V; White, S
2016-01-01
Beam instabilities cover a wide range of effects in particle accelerators and they have been the subjects of intense research for several decades. As the machines performance was pushed new mechanisms were revealed and nowadays the challenge consists in studying the interplays between all these intricate phenomena, as it is very often not possible to treat the different effects separately. The aim of this paper is to review the main mechanisms, discussing in particular the recent developments of beam instability theories and simulations.
Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K
1993-01-01
Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....
Instability following total knee arthroplasty.
Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos
2011-10-01
Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and
Multilevel Drift-Implicit Tau-Leap
Ben Hammouda, Chiheb
2016-01-06
The dynamics of biochemical reactive systems with small copy numbers of one or more reactant molecules is dominated by stochastic effects. For those systems, discrete state-space and stochastic simulation approaches were proved to be more relevant than continuous state-space and deterministic ones. In systems characterized by having simultaneously fast and slowtimescales, the existing discrete space-state stochastic path simulation methods such as the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and the explicit tauleap method can be very slow. Implicit approximations were developed in the literature to improve numerical stability and provide efficient simulation algorithms for those systems. In this work, we propose an efficient Multilevel Monte Carlo method in the spirit of the work by Anderson and Higham (2012) that uses drift-implicit tau-leap approximations at levels where the explicit tauleap method is not applicable due to numerical stability issues. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method.
Wet drift chambers for precise luminosity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, B.E.; Kennedy, B.W.; Ahmet, K.; Attree, D.J.; Barraclough, G.A.; Cresswell, M.J.; Hayes, D.A.; Miller, D.J.; Selby, C.; Sherwood, P.
1994-01-01
A set of high-precision compact drift chambers has been a vital component of the OPAL luminosity monitor since the start of data-taking at LEP. They were augmented in 1992 by the addition of Small Angle Reference Chambers with a very similar design to the original chamber. The performance of the chambers is reviewed, highlighting both the importance of using polyalkylene glycol (Breox) to maintain a uniform and parallel electric field and the construction techniques used to sustain the required field strength. We describe some of the operating problems, with their solutions, and show how the chambers have been used in achieving a systematic error of 0.41% on the luminosity measurement. ((orig.))
Variable-energy drift-tube linacs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.; Potter, J.M.; Stovall, J.E.
1982-01-01
Practical applications of ion linacs are more viable now than ever before because of the recent development of the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerating structure, as well as other technological advances developed under the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations program. This report describes a practical technique for varying the energy of drift-tube linacs and thus further broadening the possibilities for linac applications. This technique involves using the post couplers (normally used to flatten and stabilize the electric fields) to create a step in the fields, thus terminating the acceleration process. In the examples given for a 70-MeV accelerator design, when using this technique the energy is continually variable down to 20 MeV, while maintaining a small energy spread
Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sgalla, R. J. F., E-mail: reneesgalla@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)
2015-02-15
A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ∼ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λ{sub r} ∼ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs)
Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milburn, R.H.
1997-01-01
The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)
A metal support for mining drifts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopukhov, N M; Dolotkin, Yu N; Parfenov, Yu A; Verner, Yu V
1982-01-01
The invention relates to underground coal production; namely, the area of reinforcing development workings in gently sloping coal seams, notably workings with pillarless working of the columns. The proposed metal support for mining drifts includes props made of special sections and a roof timber with curved and straight sections; yieldability units; and a shoe. To raise the support's reliability and work safety as it is erected and removed, the shoe is made of firmly interconnected special cross sections; one of them has holes in the side walls, while the prop has a lug firmly fastened to it, situated in the special section and fixed in it by a pin installed in the holes of the lug and special profile with a clearance. The end of the roof timber has a guide trough at an angle to the prop's axis.
Physics issues of compact drift optimized stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Hirshman, S.; Berry, L.A.
2001-01-01
Physics issues are discussed for compact stellarator configurations which achieve good confinement by the fact that the magnetic field modulus, vertical bar B vertical bar, in magnetic coordinates is dominated by poloidally symmetric components. Two distinct configuration types are considered: (1) those which achieve their drift optimization and rotational transform at low β and low bootstrap current by appropriate plasma shaping; and (2) those which have a greater reliance on plasma β and bootstrap currents for supplying the transform and obtaining quasi poloidal symmetry. Stability analysis of the latter group of devices against ballooning, kink and vertical displacement modes has indicated that stable 's on the order of 15% are possible. The first class of devices is being considered for a low β near-term experiment that could explore some of the confinement features of the high beta configurations. (author)
Gamma sensitivity of pressurized drift tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranov, S.A.; Bojko, I.R.; Shelkov, G.A.; Ignatenko, M.A.
1995-01-01
Using a set of commonly used radioactive sources, the efficiency of pressurized drift tubes for gammas with energy from 5.9 keV up to 1.3 MeV has been measured. The tube was made of aluminium and filled with Ar, 15%CO 2 and 2.5%iC 4 H 10 gas mixture at 3 atm. The measured efficiency is compared with the results of the calculations in the frame of our simple model as well as with that of the Monte Carlo simulation using GEANT code. The results of our calculations are in agreement with experimental data, while GEANT simulation tends to give lower efficiency in the energy range of 200 keV γ <1300 keV. The average efficiency of the tube in the field of ATLAS gamma background is about 0.45%. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Instability of enclosed horizons
Kay, Bernard S.
2015-03-01
We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.
History of shoulder instability surgery.
Randelli, Pietro; Cucchi, Davide; Butt, Usman
2016-02-01
The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included. The various types of shoulder instability including anterior, posterior and multidirectional instability are discussed, focussing on the history of surgical management of these topics, the current concepts and the results of available surgical interventions. The last century has seen important advancements in the understanding and treatment of shoulder instability. The transition from open to arthroscopic surgery has allowed the discovery of previously unrecognised pathologic entities and facilitated techniques to treat these. Nevertheless, open surgery still produces comparable results in the treatment of many instability-related conditions and is often required in complex or revision cases, particularly in the presence of bone loss. More high-quality research is required to better understand and characterise this spectrum of conditions so that successful evidence-based management algorithms can be developed. IV.
Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fejer, J.A.
1979-01-01
Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level
Bonvicini, V; D'Acunto, L; Franck, D; Gregorio, A; Pihet, P; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N
2000-01-01
A silicon drift detector (SDD) prototype where the drift electrode also plays the role of a high-voltage divider has been realised and characterised for spectroscopic applications at near-room temperatures. Among the advantages of this design, is the absence of metal on the sensitive surface which makes this detector interesting for soft X-rays. The detector prototype has a large sensitive area (2x130 mm sup 2) and the charge is collected by two anodes (butterfly-like detector). The energy resolution of a such a detector has been investigated at near-room temperatures using a commercial, hybrid, low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier. The results obtained for the X-ray lines from sup 5 sup 5 Fe and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am are presented.
Engineering Design of a Drift Tube for PEFP DTL II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Heok Jung; Kim, Kui Young; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Keong Tae; Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Hong, In Seok; Choi, Hyun Mi; Han, Sang Hyo; Cho, Yong Sub
2005-01-01
As the second stage of the PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) whose final goal is to develop 100MeV, 20mA proton accelerator, Engineering design of the DTL(Drift Tube Linac) II is in proceeding. In this paper, the details of design of the DT(Drift Tube) and EQM(Electro-Quadrupole Magnet) will be reported
Concentrated Hitting Times of Randomized Search Heuristics with Variable Drift
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten
2014-01-01
Drift analysis is one of the state-of-the-art techniques for the runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics (RSHs) such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), simulated annealing etc. The vast majority of existing drift theorems yield bounds on the expected value of the hitting time for a target...
Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idrish Miah, M [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au
2008-09-15
On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.
Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Idrish Miah
2008-01-01
Full Text Available On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.
Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idrish Miah, M
2008-01-01
On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.
Height drift correction in non-raster atomic force microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Travis R. [Department of Mathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ziegler, Dominik [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brune, Christoph [Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Münster (Germany); Chen, Alex [Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Farnham, Rodrigo; Huynh, Nen; Chang, Jen-Mei [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Bertozzi, Andrea L., E-mail: bertozzi@math.ucla.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ashby, Paul D., E-mail: pdashby@lbl.gov [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2014-02-01
We propose a novel method to detect and correct drift in non-raster scanning probe microscopy. In conventional raster scanning drift is usually corrected by subtracting a fitted polynomial from each scan line, but sample tilt or large topographic features can result in severe artifacts. Our method uses self-intersecting scan paths to distinguish drift from topographic features. Observing the height differences when passing the same position at different times enables the reconstruction of a continuous function of drift. We show that a small number of self-intersections is adequate for automatic and reliable drift correction. Additionally, we introduce a fitness function which provides a quantitative measure of drift correctability for any arbitrary scan shape. - Highlights: • We propose a novel height drift correction method for non-raster SPM. • Self-intersecting scans enable the distinction of drift from topographic features. • Unlike conventional techniques our method is unsupervised and tilt-invariant. • We introduce a fitness measure to quantify correctability for general scan paths.
Prediction of littoral drift with artificial neural networks
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Singh, A.K.; Deo, M.C.; SanilKumar, V.
of the rate of sand drift has still remained as a problem. The current study addresses this issue through the use of artificial neural networks (ANN). Feed forward networks were developed to predict the sand drift from a variety of causative variables...
Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, D.C.; Frank, J.A.; Liska, D.J.; Potter, R.C.; Schamaun, R.G.
1982-01-01
The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder
A chopper-stabilized long pulse integrator with low drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Yongqing; Xie Jikang; Wan Baonian; Shen Biao
2006-01-01
A chopper-stabilized integrator for tokamak with a digital signal processing unit to dynamically suppress the primary drift factors of analog integrator, has been designed. Long pulse integrations with low drift have been obtained with this apparatus in experiments. (authors)
Solitary drift waves in the presence of magnetic shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meiss, J.D.; Horton, W.
1982-07-01
The two-component fluid equations describing electron drift and ion acoustic waves in a nonuniform magnetized plasma are shown to possess nonlinear two-dimensional solitary wave solutions. In the presence of magnetic shear, radiative shear damping is exponentially small in L/sub s//L/sub n/ for solitary drift waves, in contrast to linear waves
The Storm Time Evolution of the Ionospheric Disturbance Plasma Drifts
Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Chen, Yiding; Kuai, Jiawei
2017-11-01
In this paper, we use the C/NOFS and ROCSAT-1 satellites observations to analyze the storm time evolution of the disturbance plasma drifts in a 24 h local time scale during three magnetic storms driven by long-lasting southward IMF Bz. The disturbance plasma drifts during the three storms present some common features in the periods dominated by the disturbance dynamo. The newly formed disturbance plasma drifts are upward and westward at night, and downward and eastward during daytime. Further, the disturbance plasma drifts are gradually evolved to present significant local time shifts. The westward disturbance plasma drifts gradually migrate from nightside to dayside. Meanwhile, the dayside downward disturbance plasma drifts become enhanced and shift to later local time. The local time shifts in disturbance plasma drifts are suggested to be mainly attributed to the evolution of the disturbance winds. The strong disturbance winds arisen around midnight can constantly corotate to later local time. At dayside the westward and equatorward disturbance winds can drive the F region dynamo to produce the poleward and westward polarization electric fields (or the westward and downward disturbance drifts). The present results indicate that the disturbance winds corotated to later local time can affect the local time features of the disturbance dynamo electric field.
A drift free nernstian iridium oxide PH sensor
Hendrikse, J.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet
1997-01-01
A novel way of eliminating drift problems in metal oxide pH sensors is presented. The method employs a FET-structure under the electrode that uses the metal oxide as a gate contact. In addition to the enhanced drift properties, the new sensor has an almost ideal nernstian response. First a
Nonlinear propagation of short wavelength drift-Alfven waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1986-01-01
Making use of a kinetic ion and a hydrodynamic electron description together with the Maxwell equation, the authors derive a set of nonlinear equations which governs the dynamics of short wavelength ion drift-Alfven waves. It is shown that the nonlinear drift-Alfven waves can propagate as two-dim...
Non-linear coupling of drift modes in a quadrupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, J.A.; Sandeman, J.C.; Tessema, G.Y.
1990-01-01
We report continuing experimental studies of non-linear interactions of drift waves, with direct evidence of a growth saturation mechanism by transfer of energy to lower frequency modes. Wave launching experiments show that the decay rate of drift waves can be strongly amplitude dependent. (author) 9 refs., 5 figs
The F-Region Equatorial Ionospheric Electrodynamics Drifts ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The ionospheric plasma drift is one of the most essential parameters for understanding the dynamics of ionospheric F-region. F-region electromagnetic drifts are calculated for three seasonal conditions from ionosonde observations acquired during quiet period of a typical year of high and low solar activity at Ibadan (7.4oN, ...
Using Institutional Theory To Reframe Research on Academic Drift.
Morphew, Christopher C.; Huisman, Jeroen
2002-01-01
Examines patterns of academic drift (a drift toward the structure and norms typical of more prestigious universities) in multiple higher education systems and tests the concept of "isomorphism in organizational fields" as discussed in institutional theory. Argues that the theoretical framework provided by institutional theory presents a useful…
Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators
Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.
1982-01-01
The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.
Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator
Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.; Potter, James M.; Stovall, James E.
1984-01-01
A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.
Beam test of a large area silicon drift detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castoldi, A.; Chinnici, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Palma, F.; Sampietro, M.; Rehak, P.; Ballocchi, G.; Kemmer, J.; Holl, P.; Cox, P.T.; Giacomelli, P.; Vacchi, A.
1992-01-01
The results from the tests of the first large area (4 x 4 cm 2 ) planar silicon drift detector prototype in a pion beam are reported. The measured position resolution in the drift direction is (σ=40 ± 10)μm
Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, S.
2018-05-01
The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind typically follow a power-law dependence with respect to the observed frequencies and wave-numbers. The background magnetic field often influences the plasma properties, setting a preferential direction for plasma heating and acceleration. At the same time the evolution of the solar-wind turbulence at the ion and electron scales is influenced by the plasma properties through local micro-instabilities and wave-particle interactions. The solar-wind-plasma temperature and the solar-wind turbulence at sub- and sup-ion scales simultaneously show anisotropic features, with different components and fluctuation power in parallel with and perpendicular to the orientation of the background magnetic field. The ratio between the power of the magnetic field fluctuations in parallel and perpendicular direction at the ion scales may vary with the heliospheric distance and depends on various parameters, including the local wave properties and nonthermal plasma features, such as temperature anisotropies and relative drift speeds. In this work we have performed two-and-a-half-dimensional hybrid simulations to study the generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence in a drifting multi-ion species plasma. We investigate the evolution of the turbulent spectral slopes along and across the background magnetic field for the cases of initially isotropic and anisotropic turbulence. Finally, we show the effect of the various turbulent spectra for the local ion heating in the solar wind.
Characteristics of titanium oxide memristor with coexistence of dopant drift and a tunnel barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Xiao-Bo; Xu Hui
2014-01-01
The recent published experimental data of titanium oxide memristor devices which are tested under the same experimental conditions exhibit the strange instability and complexity of these devices. Such undesired characteristics preclude the understanding of the device conductive processes and the memristor-based practical applications. The possibility of the coexistence of dopant drift and tunnel barrier conduction in a memristor provides preliminary explanations for the undesired characteristics. However, current research lacks detailed discussion about the coexistence case. In this paper, dopant drift and tunnel barrier-based theories are first analyzed for studying the relations between parameters and physical variables which affect characteristics of memristors, and then the influences of each parameter change on the conductive behaviors in the single and coexistence cases of the two mechanisms are simulated and discussed respectively. The simulation results provide further explanations of the complex device conduction. Theoretical methods of eliminating or reducing the coexistence of the two mechanisms are proposed, in order to increase the stability of the device conduction. This work also provides the support for optimizing the fabrications of memristor devices with excellent performance
Effects of Alfvénic Drift on Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Weak Cluster Shocks
Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu
2018-03-01
Non-detection of γ-ray emission from galaxy clusters has challenged diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of cosmic-ray (CR) protons at weak collisionless shocks that are expected to form in the intracluster medium. As an effort to address this problem, we here explore possible roles of Alfvén waves self-excited via resonant streaming instability during the CR acceleration at parallel shocks. The mean drift of Alfvén waves may either increase or decrease the scattering center compression ratio, depending on the postshock cross-helicity, leading to either flatter or steeper CR spectra. We first examine such effects at planar shocks, based on the transport of Alfvén waves in the small amplitude limit. For the shock parameters relevant to cluster shocks, Alfvénic drift flattens the CR spectrum slightly, resulting in a small increase of the CR acceleration efficiency, η. We then consider two additional, physically motivated cases: (1) postshock waves are isotropized via MHD and plasma processes across the shock transition, and (2) postshock waves contain only forward waves propagating along with the flow due to a possible gradient of CR pressure behind the shock. In these cases, Alfvénic drift could reduce η by as much as a factor of five for weak cluster shocks. For the canonical parameters adopted here, we suggest η ∼ 10‑4–10‑2 for shocks with sonic Mach number M s ≈ 2–3. The possible reduction of η may help ease the tension between non-detection of γ-rays from galaxy clusters and DSA predictions.
Low drift and small hysteresis characteristics of diamond electrolyte-solution-gate FET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Hiroshi
2010-01-01
We have investigated drift and hysteresis characteristics on an electrolyte-solution-gate field-effect transistor (SGFET) with a unique structure using polycrystalline diamond and verified the possibility as chemical sensors and biosensors. Silicon-based ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) have not yet solved such time-related issues due to the chemical instability of the passivation layer covering on SiO 2 and that is why the Si-ISFET is not wide spread. First of all, we have confirmed that the pH sensitivities of oxygen- and amine-terminated diamond surfaces are 20 mV/pH and 48 mV/pH, respectively, whereas that of hydrogen-terminated surface is only 7 mV/pH. Drift characteristics measurement on diamond SGFET reveals that diamond SGFETs with any surface termination are more stable in electrolyte solution than Si-ISFETs with typical passivation membranes. Hysteresis width, which is known to be a more serious cause of measurement error than drift, proves to be 0.39 mV on amine-terminated SGFET. This is less than 1/10 compared with common Si 3 N 4 -ISFET. These results can be explained by high tolerance of diamond against ions in solution due to intrinsic chemical stability and densely packed structure of diamond itself. In this work, we bear out that diamond SGFET is a promising platform for highly sensitive biosensor application owing to the superiority in terms of time response and resulting measurement accuracy.
Thonusin, Chanisa; IglayReger, Heidi B; Soni, Tanu; Rothberg, Amy E; Burant, Charles F; Evans, Charles R
2017-11-10
In recent years, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has increasingly been applied to large-scale epidemiological studies of human subjects. However, the successful use of metabolomics in this context is subject to the challenge of detecting biologically significant effects despite substantial intensity drift that often occurs when data are acquired over a long period or in multiple batches. Numerous computational strategies and software tools have been developed to aid in correcting for intensity drift in metabolomics data, but most of these techniques are implemented using command-line driven software and custom scripts which are not accessible to all end users of metabolomics data. Further, it has not yet become routine practice to assess the quantitative accuracy of drift correction against techniques which enable true absolute quantitation such as isotope dilution mass spectrometry. We developed an Excel-based tool, MetaboDrift, to visually evaluate and correct for intensity drift in a multi-batch liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics dataset. The tool enables drift correction based on either quality control (QC) samples analyzed throughout the batches or using QC-sample independent methods. We applied MetaboDrift to an original set of clinical metabolomics data from a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). The performance of the method was evaluated for multiple classes of metabolites by comparison with normalization using isotope-labeled internal standards. QC sample-based intensity drift correction significantly improved correlation with IS-normalized data, and resulted in detection of additional metabolites with significant physiological response to the MMTT. The relative merits of different QC-sample curve fitting strategies are discussed in the context of batch size and drift pattern complexity. Our drift correction tool offers a practical, simplified approach to drift correction and batch combination in large metabolomics studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. J. G. Perron
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Temperature anisotropies may be encountered in space plasmas when there is a preferred direction, for instance, a strong magnetic or electric field. In this paper, we study how ion temperature anisotropy can affect the threshold conditions of a shear-modified current driven electrostatic ion-acoustic (CDEIA instability. In particular, this communication focuses on instabilities in the context of topside auroral F-region situations and in the limit where finite Larmor radius corrections are small. We derived a new fluid-like expression for the critical drift which depends explicitly on ion anisotropy. More importantly, for ion to electron temperature ratios typical of F-region, solutions of the kinetic dispersion relation show that ion temperature anisotropy may significantly lower the drift threshold required for instability. In some cases, a perpendicular to parallel ion temperature ratio of 2 and may reduce the relative drift required for the onset of instability by a factor of approximately 30, assuming the ion-acoustic speed of the medium remains constant. Therefore, the ion temperature anisotropy should be considered in future studies of ion-acoustic waves and instabilities in the high-latitude ionospheric F-region.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badarin, A. A.; Kurkin, S. A. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation); Koronovskii, A. A. [Yuri Gagarin State Technical University (Russian Federation); Rak, A. O. [Belorussian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Hramov, A. E., E-mail: hramovae@gmail.com [Saratov State University (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
The development and interaction of Bursian and diocotron instabilities in an annular relativistic electron beam propagating in a cylindrical drift chamber are investigated analytically and numerically as functions of the beam wall thickness and the magnitude of the external uniform magnetic field. It is found that the interaction of instabilities results in the formation of a virtual cathode with a complicated rotating helical structure and several reflection regions (electron bunches) in the azimuthal direction. It is shown that the number of electron bunches in the azimuthal direction increases with decreasing beam wall thickness and depends in a complicated manner on the magnitude of the external magnetic field.
Drift Compression and Final Focus Options for Heavy Ion Fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong Qin; Davidson, Ronald C.; Barnard, John J.; Lee, Edward P.
2005-01-01
A drift compression and final focus lattice for heavy ion beams should focus the entire beam pulse onto the same focal spot on the target. We show that this requirement implies that the drift compression design needs to satisfy a self-similar symmetry condition. For un-neutralized beams, the Lie symmetry group analysis is applied to the warm-fluid model to systematically derive the self-similar drift compression solutions. For neutralized beams, the 1-D Vlasov equation is solved explicitly, and families of self-similar drift compression solutions are constructed. To compensate for the deviation from the self-similar symmetry condition due to the transverse emittance, four time-dependent magnets are introduced in the upstream of the drift compression such that the entire beam pulse can be focused onto the same focal spot
Drift of suspended ferromagnetic particles due to the Magnus effect
Denisov, S. I.; Pedchenko, B. O.
2017-01-01
A minimal system of equations is introduced and applied to study the drift motion of ferromagnetic particles suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to a time-periodic driving force and a nonuniformly rotating magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the synchronized translational and rotational oscillations of these particles are accompanied by their drift in a preferred direction, which occurs under the action of the Magnus force. We calculate both analytically and numerically the drift velocity of particles characterized by single-domain cores and nonmagnetic shells and show that there are two types of drift, unidirectional and bidirectional, which can be realized in suspensions composed of particles with different core-shell ratios. The possibility of using the phenomenon of bidirectional drift for the separation of core-shell particles in suspensions is also discussed.
Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W.F.
2015-01-01
A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Therefore, it is demonstrated that a factor two faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon
Nonlinear dynamics of drift structures in a magnetized dissipative plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aburjania, G. D.; Rogava, D. L.; Kharshiladze, O. A.
2011-01-01
and localized, while the cyclone is less intense and has a larger size. In the course of further evolution, the cyclone persists for a relatively longer time, while the anticyclone breaks into small-scale vortices and dissipation hastens this process. It is found that the relaxation of the vortex by viscous dissipation differs in character from that by the frictional force. The time scale on which the vortex is damped depends strongly on its typical size: larger scale vortices are longer lived structures. It is shown that, as the instability develops, the initial vortex is amplified and the lifetime of the dipole pair components-cyclone and anticyclone-becomes longer. As time elapses, small-scale noise is generated in the system, and the spatial structure of the perturbation potential becomes irregular. The pattern of interaction of solitary vortex structures among themselves and with the medium shows that they can take part in strong drift turbulence and anomalous transport of heat and matter in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma.
Micro-instability physics as illuminated by the ST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roach, C. M.; Applegate, D. J.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W. D.; Joiner, N.
2005-01-01
Spherical tokamaks (STs) have attractive features for fusion, and there is considerable interest in understanding their transport properties, which are likely to be determined by the underlying micro-instabilities. Inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and . effects are large in STs, and are known to have important influences on the particle dynamics and the nature of the underlying micro-instabilities respectively. Gyrokinetic micro stability calculations, using the flux-tube geometry code GS2, are presented for a number of ST equilibria, some closely resembling those from the MAST experiment. These calculations are performed both with and without electromagnetic effects (which are fully included in GS2). In a modest . MAST equilibrium, ion temperature gradient driven drift waves (ITG) are close to being stabilised by sheared equilibrium ... flows, but electron temperature gradient driven drift waves (ETG) have stronger growth rates and cannot usually be stabilised in this way. Electromagnetic effects, even in this relatively low . equilibrium, appear to give rise to longer perpendicular wavelength tearing parity modes in the plasma core [1]. Micro stability analyses are also presented for higher . equilibria, including that proposed for a conceptual ST power plant, where tearing parity modes are found over wide ranges of perpendicular length scales. Mixing length estimates from linear calculations may suggest the level of the transport coefficients, but nonlinear calculations are required to derive the heat and particle fluxes self-consistently. The status of these computations, which are particularly challenging in today's STs. will be reviewed, and the issues that must be resolved in the future in order to improve these calculations will be outlined. (Author)
Bangbang controller design and implementation for EAST vertical instability control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yuehang, E-mail: wagn8901@mail.ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Xiao, Bingjia, E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Liu, Lei, E-mail: liulei@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yuan, Qiping, E-mail: qpyuan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)
2016-11-15
Highlights: • The linearized plasma vertical response model is designed and analysed. • The Bangbang controller for EAST vertical displacement is designed. • The Bangbang controller is optimized for time delay of control system. • We investigate efficacy of Bangbang controller with simulations. • Performance of the controller is roughly given by experiments. - Abstract: In the EAST 2014 campaign, a new internal coil (IC) power supply was used in order to enhance the control over the plasma’s vertical instabilities. The IC power supply now allows for current and voltage working modes with much higher peak voltages and currents and faster response time. In comparison the previous power supply only allowed for the current mode. A Bangbang and PID composite controller has been designed for the voltage mode based on optimal control theory and the RZIP rigid plasma response model. This paper will demonstrate that faster and enhanced controllability are realized with the combination of Bangbang and PID controller. For the large z position drift, the Bangbang controller will export the maximum voltage to achieve much faster power supply response and slow the vertical displacement events (VDEs). The PID controller is used for the small z drifts which will finally stabilize the VDEs with minimum z position oscillation. Furthermore, to evaluate the time latency of this control system and power supply, the stability and performance of the closed loop were simulated and analysed. This controller was finally implementation and test on EAST using the Quasi-snowflake shape which achieved growth rates of 500 s{sup −1}. This paper shows that the new power supply using the bangbang + PID controller can significantly enhance the control over vertical instabilities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zigman, V.J.; Milic, B.S.
1982-01-01
The results of recent experimental measurements of the differential cross-section for elastic scattering of electrons on sodium atoms are used to evaluate the electron steady-state distribution function in a weakly ionized, uniform and non-magnetized sodium plasma placed in a d.c. electric field. The field is assumed to be of moderate intensity, so that the thermal motion of the neutrals has to be taken into account in the evaluation of the distribution function. The resulting 'modified Druyvesteinian function' is applied to study the non-potential instabilities arising from the presence of the field in this particular plasma. Threshold drifts for both very slow and slow modes are obtained and the conditions for the onset of instabilities are discussed. It is shown that the thermal motion of the neutrals affects both critical drifts and the angles of propagation. (author)
Interaction of energetic particles with large and small scale instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenter, S.; Conway, G.; Graca, S. da; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Forest, C.; Munoz, M. Garcia; Hauff, T.; Hobirk, J.; Igochine, V.; Jenko, F.; Lackner, K.; Lauber, P.; McCarthy, P.; Maraschek, M.; Martin, P.; Poli, E.; Sassenberg, K.; Strumberger, E.; Tardini, G.; Wolfrum, E.; Zohm, H.
2007-01-01
Beyond a certain heating power, measured and predicted distributions of neutral beam injection (NBI) driven currents deviate from each other even in the absence of MHD instabilities. The most reasonable explanation is a redistribution of fast NBI ions on a time scale smaller than the current redistribution time. The hypothesis of a redistribution of fast ions by background turbulence is discussed. Direct numerical simulation of fast test particles in a given field of electrostatic turbulence indicates that for reasonable parameters fast and thermal particle diffusion can indeed be similar. High quality plasma edge density profiles on ASDEX Upgrade and the recent extension of the reflectometry system allow for a direct comparison of observed TAE eigenfunctions with theoretical ones as obtained with the linear, gyrokinetic, global stability code LIGKA. These comparisons support the hypothesis of TAE-frequency crossing the continuum at the plasma edge in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode discharges. A new fast ion loss detector with 1 MHz time resolution allows frequency and phase resolved correlation between the observed losses and low frequency magnetic perturbations such as TAE modes and rotating magnetic islands. Whereas losses caused by TAE modes are known to be due to resonances in velocity space, by modelling the particle drift orbits we were able to explain losses caused by magnetic islands as due to island formation and stochasticity in the drift orbits
In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mariner, P.
2003-01-01
As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO 3 -SO 4 -Br-CO 3 -SiO 2 -CO 2 -O 2 -H 2 O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate the values for the rest of
In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P. Mariner
2003-10-21
As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirza, Arshad M.; Hasan, Asma; Azeem, M.; Saleem, H.
2003-01-01
It is found that the low-frequency ion acoustic and electrostatic drift waves can become unstable in uniform electron-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas due to the ion shear flow. In a collisional plasma a drift-dissipative instability can also take place. In the presence of collisions the temporal behavior of nonlinear drift-dissipative mode can be represented in the form of well-known Lorenz and Stenflo type equations that admit chaotic trajectories. On the other hand, a quasi-stationary solution of the mode coupling equations can be represented in the form of monopolar vortex. The results of the present investigation can be helpful in understanding electrostatic turbulence and wave phenomena in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas
Neutron star pulsations and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindblom, L.
2001-01-01
Gravitational radiation (GR) drives an instability in certain modes of rotating stars. This instability is strong enough in the case of the r-modes to cause their amplitudes to grow on a timescale of tens of seconds in rapidly rotating neutron stars. GR emitted by these modes removes angular momentum from the star at a rate which would spin it down to a relatively small angular velocity within about one year, if the dimensionless amplitude of the mode grows to order unity. A pedagogical level discussion is given here on the mechanism of GR instability in rotating stars, on the relevant properties of the r-modes, and on our present understanding of the dissipation mechanisms that tend to suppress this instability in neutron stars. The astrophysical implications of this GR driven instability are discussed for young neutron stars, and for older systems such as low mass x-ray binaries. Recent work on the non-linear evolution of the r-modes is also presented. (author)
Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.
1977-01-01
The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges
Radiation-induced chromosomal instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritter, S.
1999-01-01
Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/μm) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)