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Sample records for dried animal dung

  1. Comparison of in vitro toxicological effects of biomass smoke from different sources of animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Thatcher, Thomas H; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, over 4 million premature deaths each year are attributed to the burning of biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Epidemiological studies associate household air pollution with lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections. Animal dung, a biomass fuel used by economically vulnerable populations, generates more toxic compounds per mass burned than other biomass fuels. The type of animal dung used varies widely depending on local agro-geography. There are currently neither standardized experimental systems for dung biomass smoke research nor studies assessing the health impacts of different types of dung smoke. Here, we used a novel reproducible exposure system to assess outcomes related to inflammation and respiratory infections in human airway cells exposed to six different types of dung biomass smoke. We report that dung biomass smoke, regardless of species, is pro-inflammatory and activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and JNK transcription factors; however, dung smoke also suppresses interferon responses after a challenge with a viral mimetic. These effects are consistent with epidemiological data, and suggest a mechanism by which the combustion of animal dung can directly cause lung diseases, promote increased susceptibility to infection, and contribute to the global health problem of household air pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Studies of Cr (VI) uptake by a green resin: dry cow dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barot, Nisha S.; Bagla, Hemlata

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation dry cow dung powder has been employed as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous medium. The effect of various process parameters such as optimum pH, temperature, amount of resin, time of equilibration and concentration of metal ion etc. have been studied. Many naturally available materials are used for the adsorption of heavy metal pollutant, where most of them are modified physically or chemically. Dry cow dung powder has been utilized with simple chemical treatment thus manifesting the principle of Green Chemistry. (author)

  3. Study on rapid bio-drying technology of cow dung with CaO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaotian; Qu, Guangfei; Liu, Shugen; Xie, Ruosong; He, Yanhua

    2017-05-01

    Effect of CaO2 on cow dung rapid bio-drying technology was researched. A static aerobic composting system was applied to this experiment which combining natural ventilation with Turing in the process of composting. The physical characteristics of cow dung was observed and the compost temperature, moisture content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium content was determined which in order to study the effect of CaO2 on rapid drying of cattle in the compost. In the initial stage of compost, adding CaO2 groups compared with the control group, the temperature rise faster, 4-6 days in advance to the thermophilic phase; at the end of composting, the CaO2 composition and moisture content decreased significantly to below 30%. The addition of CaO2 in fertilizer was shorten the composting time, extend the thermophilic phase, to provide sufficient oxygen meeting the growth needs of aerobic microorganisms. It convinced that the rapid bio-drying of dairy manure has a good effect and provided a new idea for the effective treatment of cow dung.

  4. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hazardous Waste Water Remediation by Ecoresin-Dry Cow Dung Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    Water, the matter, matrix, medium and the mother of our life, is indeed one of the drivers of Nature. Through water cycle only the intra and inter equilibrium is maintained constantly between entire 'green' and 'blue'. Unfortunately, with each successive epoch of industrialization and urbanization, human societies have produced non-biodegradable waste hulk with far beyond handling capacities of mankind. At this juncture the very need is to appreciate and move towards the cost as well as time effective scientific alternatives for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutants. Green chemistry advocates the utilization of naturally available bio-resins which are environmentally benign alternative to current synthetic materials and technologies employed for waste water treatment. This explicit investigation aims to explore Dry Cow dung powder, DCP, a natural biosorbent as a green and clean alternative for the aqueous waste water treatment. It is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid'(HA). The HA has been successfully extracted by authors from DCP and this piece of work has been published in the International Journal [1]. We have developed simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutant such as Cr(VI) [2], Cd(II), Cr(III) [3] and Hg(II) as well radiotoxic 90Sr(II) [4], employing DCP. DCP is employed without any pre or post treatment. Being freely and easily available DCP has an edge over processed natural adsorbent considering their cost, time and energy efficiency. In nutshell we have to remember that prevention is better than the cure. If we fail to meet this, the situation will surely augment which will drain our water, our life, to slaughters knife..! Reference: 1. H.K.Bagla, N.S.Barot, Soil Amendement by Green Supplement: Dry Cowdung powder, EGUGA - 11

  6. Appraisal of Biogas Potential of Biogas from Animal Dung in Saeedabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMJAD ALISHAH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is facing energy scarcity. The biogas is one of the renewable substitutes. It does not only overcome the energy scarcity but also harness the energy from animal dung which causes the CO2 emissions. The present study was done on the appraisal of potential of biogas from the dung of animals (Buffaloes, Cows, Goats and Sheep within the villages surrounded by Taluka Saeedabad. The purpose of the study was the energy potential of the biogas and the selection of the most suitable design and size of the biogas plant for the villagers. The present study also includes the domestic biogas plant economics. As per the estimation, total quantity of animal dung generated was about 129 tons/day, which can produce 3859 m3 of biogas per day. On the contrary, for cooking villagers require only 2748 m3 of biogas per day. Moreover, the surplus biogas of 1111 m3 per day can be used to produce electricity of 6666 kWh per day, which can fulfill the demand of about half of the population of villages under study. People are using firewood, cotton stalks, kerosene oil and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas for cooking. Converting animal dung into the biogas not only reduces the consumption of the traditional fuels used (Firewood, Cotton Stalks, Kerosene Oil and LPG, but also prevents about 900 thousand tons of CO2 emissions into the environment. Additionally, a fixed dome biogas plant of 8-10 m3 size was recommended for each of the houses under study.

  7. Appraisal of biogas potential of biogas from animal dung in saeedabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.A.; Sahito, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is facing energy scarcity. The biogas is one of the renewable substitutes. It does not only overcome the energy scarcity but also harness the energy from animal dung which causes the CO/sub 2/ emissions. The present study was done on the appraisal of potential of biogas from the dung of animals (Buffaloes, Cows, Goats and Sheep) within the villages surrounded by Taluka Saeedabad. The purpose of the study was the energy potential of the biogas and the selection of the most suitable design and size of the biogas plant for the villagers. The present study also includes the domestic biogas plant economics. As per the estimation, total quantity of animal dung generated was about 129 tons/day, which can produce 3859 m/sup 3/ of biogas per day. On the contrary, for cooking villagers require only 2748 m3 of biogas per day. Moreover, the surplus biogas of 1111 m/sup 3/ per day can be used to produce electricity of 6666 kWh per day, which can fulfill the demand of about half of the population of villages under study. People are using firewood, cotton stalks, kerosene oil and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) for cooking. Converting animal dung into the biogas not only reduces the consumption of the traditional fuels used (Firewood, Cotton Stalks, Kerosene Oil and LPG), but also prevents about 900 thousand tons of CO/sub 2/ emissions into the environment. Additionally, a fixed dome biogas plant of 8-10 m/sup 3/ size was recommended for each of the houses under study. (author)

  8. Comparison of chemical attractants against dung beetles and application for rangeland and animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) play a major role in nutrient cycling, soil aeration, and biological control of pests and parasites that breed in manure. Habitat fragmentation, pesticide usage, and conventional agricultural practices threaten dung beetle diversity, and their conservation is ...

  9. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Samuel M A; Evangelista, Lucas A; Reis-Júnior, Ronaldo; Neves, Frederico S

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community. Dung beetles were collected in a TDF in the northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil over three sampling events (December 2009, February and April 2010). We sampled 2,018 dung beetles belonging to 39 species and distributed among 15 genera. Scarabaeinae α-diversity and abundance were highest in December and equivalent between February and April, while β-diversity among plots increased along the wet season. The importance of nestedness and species turnover varies between pairs of sample periods as the main process of temporal β-diversity. Most species collected in the middle and end of the wet season were found in greater abundance in early wet season. Thus, the dung beetle community becomes more homogeneous at the beginning of the wet season, and as the season advances, higher resource scarcity limits population size, which likely results in a smaller foraging range, increasing β-diversity. Our results demonstrate high synchronism between the dung beetle life cycle and seasonality of environmental conditions throughout the wet season in a TDF, where the onset of rains determines adult emergence for most species. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. Green ambrosia for Soil- Dry Cow Dung Powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    "Greener ambrosia for Soil - Dry cow dung powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy" Pedosphere, the soil with its biotic and abiotic component, is produced by lithosphere`s interactions with atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The theory of Biorhexistasy proposed by pedologist H. Erhart [1], describes two crucial climatic phases of soil i.e. Biostasy, period of soil formation and Rhexistasy, periods of soil erosion. Humus, the organic matter in soil, permits better aeration, enhances the absorption and releases nutrients, and makes the soil less susceptible to leaching and erosion [2], thus the agent of soil`s vitality. Mismanagement of soil, leads to the degradation of millions of acres of land through erosion, compaction, salinization and acidification. Among these threats salinity is a major abiotic stress reducing the yield of wide variety of crops all over the world [3]. It is been proved that Humic Acid (HA) treatment can ameliorate the deleterious effects of salt stress by increasing root growth, altering mineral uptake, and decreasing membrane damage, thus inducing salt tolerance in plants [4]. HA can be inexpensively incorporated into soils via different biowastes. Dry cow dung powder (DCP), is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as HA, Fulvic Acid (FA) etc [5]. The microbial consortium enables DCP with considerable potentials for biodegradation and biotransformation of even saline soil and further contributes to many biogeochemical processes, boosting humus content of soil. Due to unambiguous biological, microbiological as well as chemical inert properties of DCP, it has been successfully utilized as a fertilizer and soil conditioner since ages in India, one of the leading agrarian countries of the world. Thus we summarize that DCP is one of the best contenders for the biostasy and desaliner of soil, aptly, soil

  11. Rhodococcus antrifimi sp. nov., isolated from dried bat dung of a cave.

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    Ko, Kwan Su; Kim, Youngju; Seong, Chi Nam; Lee, Soon Dong

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, high DNA G+C content, non-motile actinobacterium, strain D7-21T, was isolated from dried bat dung inside a natural cave and its taxonomic status was examined by using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence study showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Rhodococcus and formed a cluster with Rhodococcus defluvii (98.98 % gene similarity), Rhodococcus equi (98.62 %) and Rhodococcus kunmingensis (97.66 %). Whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic diamino acid and sugars. MK-8(H2) was the predominant menaquinone. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phosphoglycolipid and an unknown glycolipid. Mycolic acids were present. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and 10-methyl C18 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 70.1 mol%. A battery of phenotypic features and DNA-DNA relatedness data support that strain D7-21T ( = KCTC 29469T = DSM 46727T) represents a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus, for which Rhodococcus antrifimi sp. nov. is proposed.

  12. Seasonality in the dung beetle community in a Brazilian tropical dry forest: Do small changes make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Anderson Matos; Lopes, Priscila Paixão

    2014-01-01

    Dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeinae) activity is influenced by rainfall seasonality. We hypothesized that rainfall might also play a major role in regulating the community structure of this group. In this study, we describe seasonal changes in the richness, composition, and structure of the Scarabaeinae community in a Brazilian tropical dry forest. A fragment of arboreal Caatinga was sampled using baited pitfall traps during the early dry season (EDS), late dry season (LDS), early wet season (EWS), and middle wet season (MWS). We compared the dung beetle community in each season in relationship to species richness, rank-dominance, curves, and composition. We collected 1352 Scarabaeinae individuals , belonging to 15 species. Dichotomius aff. laevicollis Felsche (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) was the dominant species, representing 73.89% of the individuals. There were no seasonal changes in the rank dominance curves; all had a single dominant species and a few species with low abundance, typical for arid areas. Estimated richness was highest in MWS, followed by EWS. Dry-season samples (EDS and LDS) had lower richness, with no significant difference between the dry seasons. Although species richness increased as the habitat became wetter, the difference between the wet and dry seasons was small, which differs completely from the findings of other studies in Neotropical dry forests, where almost all species cease activities in the dry season. Species composition changes were found in non-metric multidimensional scaling and sustained by analysis of similarity. All the seasons had pairwise differences in composition, with the exception of EDS and MWS, which indicates that the dung beetle community in this fragment requires more than three months of drought to trigger changes in species composition; this is probably due to small changes in the forest canopy. There was no difference in composition between EDS and MWS. As in other tropical dry forests, although

  13. Dung beetles in a Caatinga Natural Reserve: a threatened Brazilian dry-forest with high biological value

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    Letícia Vieira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Caatinga is an endemic and threatened dry-forest biome distributed across northern Brazil. We evaluated the conservation value of a Caatinga Natural Reserve (NR - Floresta Nacional (FLONA Contendas do Sincorá - using Scarabaeinae dung beetles as a biodiversity indicator. Specifically, we contrasted two zones impacted by two distinct intensity of selective logging that happened inside the NR until 1997. Dung beetles were collected 14 years after logging, using baited pitfall traps within three main habitats (riparian forest, regenerating Caatinga or arboreal Caatinga found in two zones (Preservation and Management Zones. A total of 1,214 individuals from 21 species were sampled. The two zones presented distinct species composition, although the habitats did not exhibit such differences. Our results indicated that the secondary areas are in a conservation status similar to arboreal Caatinga and riparian forest, 14 y after logging. Furthermore, we identified seven habitat-indicator species, two of them typical to Caatinga biome, highlighting the importance of updates in NR management plan considering the Scarabaeinae regional diversity management.

  14. The gas forming potential of dry chicken dung in biogas production; Das Gasbildungspotenzial von Huehnertrockenkot bei der Biogasgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissbach, Friedrich

    2012-07-01

    In order to utilize substrates for biogas production efficiently, the knowledge of their gas forming potential is crucial. Until now, sufficiently precise data has been lacking for poultry excrements without bedding. These excrements are usually referred to as dry chicken dung (DCD). It has not been determined as to whether differences exist in quality between different batches and which laboratory analyses are meaningful to cover them. The aim of this study was, therefore, to address the differences in composition of DCD. Based on data from digestibility measurements in sheep, the content of fermentable organic matter (FOM) was calculated. Additionally, the potential gas yield per kg FOM of DCD was determined, and recommendations were made regarding quality assurance of DCD. (orig.)

  15. Removal rates of native and exotic dung by dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a fragmented tropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, Sandra; Favila, Mario E

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle assemblage structure. However, few have analyzed how forest fragmentation affects the processes carried out by these insects in tropical forests where their food sources consist mainly of dung produced by native herbivore mammals. With the conversion of forests to pastures, cattle dung has become an exotic alternative and abundant food for dung beetles. This study compares dung removal rates of native (monkey) and exotic (cow) dung in different-sized fragments of tropical rain forests, during the dry and rainy seasons at the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve. Dung removal rates were affected by season, dung type, and the interaction between resource type and season. During the dry season, the removal rates of monkey dung were somewhat similar than during the rainy season, whereas the removal rates of cow dung were much higher during the rainy season. Dung beetle biomass and species richness were almost three times greater in monkey dung than in cow dung. Monkey dung attracted species belonging to the dweller, roller, and tunneler guilds; cow dung attracted mostly tunnelers. Therefore, the use of exotic dung may result in a biased misconception of the rates of dung removal in tropical forest and an underestimation of dung beetle diversity. This study highlights the importance of working with natural tropical forest resources when attempting to identify realistic tendencies concerning processes in natural habitats and those modified by fragmentation and by other human activities.

  16. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  17. Removal of Co(II) from waste water using dry cow dung powder : a green ambrosia to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    Co(II) is one of the hazardous products found in the waste streams. The anthropogenic activities are major sources of Co(II) in our environment. Some of the well-established processes such as chemical precipitation, membrane process, liquid extraction and ion exchange have been applied as a tool for the removal of this metal ion [1]. All the above methods are not considered to be greener due to some of their shortcomings such as incomplete metal ion removal, high requirement of energy and reagents, generation of toxic sludge or other waste materials which in turn require further treatments for their cautious disposal. The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous medium. DCP, is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic-aromatic species such as 'Humic acid' (HA), Fulvic acid, Ulmic acid [2,3]. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 60Co(II) as a tracer and effect of various process parameters such as pH (1-8), temperature (283-363K), amount of biosorbent (5-40 g/L), time of equilibration (0-30 min), agitation speed (0-4000 rpm), concentration of initial metal ions (0.5-20 mg/mL) and interfering effect of different organic as well as inorganic salts were studied. The Kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model [4] with high correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.999 and adsorption capacity of 2.31 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were also evaluated which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Co(II). Many naturally available materials are used for biosorption of hazardous metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research

  18. Studies on biosorption of Cr(VI) on a green resin: dry cow dung powder and tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barot, N.S.; Bagla, H.K.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous medium. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 51 Cr(VI) as a tracer and the effect of various process parameters such as optimum pH, temperature, amount of resin, time of equilibration, agitation speed, concentration of metal ions and interfering effect of different salts etc. were studied. The kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model with high correlation coefficient R 2 value of 0.997 and adsorption capacity of 10.20 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were evaluated as ΔG = -2.837 kJ/mol, ΔH = -4.757 kJ/mol and ΔS = 16.64 J/mol K, which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Cr(VI). Many naturally available materials are used for the biosorption of heavy metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research work, DCP has been utilized without any pre or post chemical treatment. Thus it manifests the principle of green chemistry and proves to be an eco-friendly resin. (orig.)

  19. Studies on biosorption of Cr(VI) on a green resin: dry cow dung powder and tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barot, N.S.; Bagla, H.K. [Kishinchand Chellaram College, Mumbai (India). Nuclear and Radiochemistry Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous medium. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing {sup 51}Cr(VI) as a tracer and the effect of various process parameters such as optimum pH, temperature, amount of resin, time of equilibration, agitation speed, concentration of metal ions and interfering effect of different salts etc. were studied. The kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model with high correlation coefficient R{sup 2} value of 0.997 and adsorption capacity of 10.20 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were evaluated as {Delta}G = -2.837 kJ/mol, {Delta}H = -4.757 kJ/mol and {Delta}S = 16.64 J/mol K, which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Cr(VI). Many naturally available materials are used for the biosorption of heavy metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research work, DCP has been utilized without any pre or post chemical treatment. Thus it manifests the principle of green chemistry and proves to be an eco-friendly resin. (orig.)

  20. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  1. Treatment of reindeer with ivermectin - effect on dung insect fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C. Nilssen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug widely used in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (L. in Fennoscandia and North America. Most of the ivermectin injected in the animal is excreted unchanged in the faeces. Several reports show that ivermectin in cattle dung disrupts colonisation and survival of beneficial dung breeding insects. The present study investigated the effect of ivermectin on the reindeer dung fauna. Four reindeer calves (males, 6 months of age were injected subcutaneously with standard doses of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg body weight in early December. The daily produced faeces was collected until day 30 after treatment, and the concentration of ivermectin was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest concentration measured (mean 1632 ng/g faeces (dry weight, range 907 to 2261 ng/g among the animals was on day 4 after treatment. The concentration decreased gradually to 28 ng/g (range 6 to 58 ng/g on day 30. Faeces portions from day 4 and from untreated reindeer were placed in the field on 2-4 July and recollected on 13-22 September in order to detect possible differences in decomposition fauna between the samples. The most important coprophilous beetles (Apbodius spp. and flies (Scatbophaga spp. were not detected in this winter dung whether it contained ivermectin or not, probably because of the dry consistency and small size of the pellets. On the other hand, these insects (larvae and imagines were common in summer dung, which had been deposited naturally in the field and later placed together with the ivermectin-containing winter dung for comparison. The summer dung has a more soft and lumpy consistency. Treatment in autumn or early winter implies that the bulk of the ivermectin from the animal will be present in faeces with winter consistency, since this bulk portion is excreted during the first 30 days after treatment. This dry and pelleted faeces is not utilized by the important

  2. Growth and reproductive potential of Eisenia foetida (Sav) on various zoo animal dungs after two methods of pre-composting followed by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Godínez, Edmundo Arturo; Lagunes-Zarate, Jorge; Corona-Hernández, Juan; Barajas-Aceves, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Disposal of animal manure without treatment can be harmful to the environment. In this study, samples of four zoo animal dungs and one horse dung were pre-composted in two ways: (a) traditional composting and (b) bokashi pre-composting for 1month, followed by vermicomposting for 3months. The permanence (PEf) and reproductive potential (RP) of Eisenia foetida as well as the quality of vermicompost were evaluated. The PEf values and RP index of E. foetida were higher for samples pre-composted using the traditional composting method (98.7-88% and 31.85-16.27%, respectively) followed by vermicomposting (92.7-72.7% and 22.96-13.51%, respectively), when compared with those for bokashi pre-composted samples followed by vermicomposting, except for the horse dung sample (100% for both the parameters). The values of electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, total N, available P, C/N ratio, and pH showed that both treatments achieved the norms of vermicompost (bokashi pre-composting followed by vermicomposting produced the highest values (98.7-70.7%, 97.67-96.65%, and 2.7-1.97%, respectively), when compared with the other method adapted in this study. Nevertheless, further studies with plants for plant growth evaluation are needed to assess the benefits and limitations of these two pre-composting methods prior to vermicomposting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. PMID:27226475

  5. Dungeness bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, H.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a bibliography of material relating to the ecology of Dungeness in Kent and has been produced, under contract, for the Nature Conservancy Council. Since its first appearance in 1985, much new material has been published or has come to light, and is included in this 1989 edition. The area concerned comprises the system of shingle beaches between Jury's Gap and Greatstone-on-Sea on the south Kent/Sussex coast, and is a site of international conservation importance. It is one of the finest examples of an apposition shingle beach in the world and in terms of physiography, botany, entomology and ornithology it is an area of high scientific interest. As well as being of great scientific importance, Dungeness is subject to a high degree of 'human' pressure: excavation and building operations, military activity, vehicular damage and trampling threaten to destroy what is left of the natural shingle ecosystem at Dungeness. In recognition of this the Nature Conservancy Council is supporting a renewed programme of research into the ecology of the site, to try to determine how best to protect the remaining intact areas. (author)

  6. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  7. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Tobin J.; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they p...

  8. Microwave/vacuum drying treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Zhang Yinsheng; Teng Hongdi; Zhu Chongde; Ge Lixin; Wang Jinliang

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a microwave/vacuum drying process for the treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of the process. The treatment process could completely remove the water from carcasses and effectively extend the preservation period. No radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  9. Dry-distillation of experimental animal wastes containing radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Hideo; Saito, Kazumi; Kurihara, Norio

    1988-01-01

    Mice were dry-distilled at 800deg C for 10 min, after [ 32 P]orthophosphate or L-[4,5- 3 H]leucine was intraperitoneally administered. Phosphorus-32 was quantitatively recovered in the residual solid, whereas 95% of 3 H was found in the distillate (condensed water). When 14 C (L-[U- 14 C]malic acid or L-[U- 14 C]leucine) was administered to mice and they were dry-distilled, 14 C-radioactivity was distributed into two fractions; residual solid and exhaust gas. In these cases, the recovery percentage of 14 C in residual solid was not very high but increased as the treating temperature decreased. It reached about 40% of the administered 14 C at 400deg C for 120 min. By the dry-distillation of animals, their weight was reduced to about 10% in every animal tested (mice, rats and rabbits). The volume was reduced to about 20% in cases of mice and rats, and about 30% in case of rabbits. It was concluded that the dry-distillation can be useful as a pre-treatment for disposal of animal wastes containing radioisotopes. (author)

  10. Preliminary biological screening of microbes isolated from cow dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... Susceptibilities of five isolates to 17 different types of antibiotics were evaluated using the ... All isolates produced protease, lipase and esterase lipase. Further ... Cow dung is excreted by bovine animal species which.

  11. What We Have Learned from Animal Models of Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have proved valuable to investigate the pathogenesis of dry eye disease, identify therapeutic targets and the efficacy of candidate therapeutics for dry eye. Pharmacological inhibition of the lacrimal functional unit and exposure of the mouse eye to desiccating stress was found to activate innate immune pathways, promote dendritic cell maturation and initiate an adaptive T cell response to ocular surface antigens. Disease relevant mediators and pathways have been identified through use of genetically altered mice, specific inhibitors and adoptive transfer of desiccating stress primed CD4+ T cells to naïve recipients. Findings from mouse models have elucidated the mechanism of action of cyclosporine A and the rationale for developing lifitegrast, the two currently approved therapeutics in the US. PMID:28282318

  12. PERAN MIKROBA STARTER DALAM DEKOMPOSISI KOTORAN TERNAK DAN PERBAIKAN KUALITAS PUPUK KANDANG (The Role of Microbial Starter in Animal Dung Decomposition and Manure Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyono Agus

    2014-10-01

    microbial decomposer population and requires a condusive environment. Those two factors influence on the  rate of organic material decomposition and limites the negative impact of this organic fertilizer on the aspect of social, ethic, and health of living organism. Cow dung was used as the material for decomposition of organic fertilizer. Two treatments were applied: with or without microbial decomposer (microbial starter followed by incubation in the dark condition under room temperature. The cow dung was sampled in 0, 6, and 24 hours after microbial starter application.The cow dung pH, color, smell, water content, and electrical conductivity were analyzed.  Furthermore, microbial pathogen (Eschericia coli and Salmonella, cow dung total nutrition (C,N,P,K,Ca,Mg,Na,S,Cd,Cr,B,Fe,Cu,Zn, and available N (NH4 dan NO3 were also determined. Amonia emision (NH3, oxygen (O2, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, NOx, NO, and SO2were analyzed as well. The result showed that microbial starter contained of important microbial for the process of cow dung decomposition. Application of microbial starter in cow dung reduced E. coli dan Salmonella sp. by the length of incubation time.Variation of nutrition, i.a. P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, and heavy metal, i.a. Cr was found during incubation, both in chicken and cow manure.Application of microbial starter reduced sulfur in organic matter to be SO2 without smell, and inhibited H2S production. Decomposition by application of microbial starter should be conducted in aerob condition to reduce H2S production.  This research implied that application of microbial starter is crucially important in improving manure nutrition and quality.

  13. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles

    OpenAIRE

    el Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue...

  14. Dung pat nesting by the solitary bee, Osmia (Acanthosmiodes) integra (Megachilidae: Apiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solitary bees nest in a diversity of substrates, typically soil, but also wood, stems and twigs. A new and novel substrate is reported here, dried cattle dung. Two species of Osmia bees were found nesting in dung in Wyoming. One species, O. integra, otherwise nests shallowly in soil. Nests were ...

  15. Dry coupling for whole-body small-animal photoacoustic computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Chenghung; Li, Lei; Zhu, Liren; Xia, Jun; Li, Chiye; Chen, Wanyi; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-01-01

    We have enhanced photoacoustic computed tomography with dry acoustic coupling that eliminates water immersion anxiety and wrinkling of the animal and facilitates incorporating complementary modalities and procedures. The dry acoustic coupler is made of a tubular elastic membrane enclosed by a closed transparent water tank. The tubular membrane ensures water-free contact with the animal, and the closed water tank allows pressurization for animal stabilization. The dry coupler was tested using ...

  16. Dry coupling for whole-body small-animal photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Li, Lei; Zhu, Liren; Xia, Jun; Li, Chiye; Chen, Wanyi; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-04-01

    We have enhanced photoacoustic computed tomography with dry acoustic coupling that eliminates water immersion anxiety and wrinkling of the animal and facilitates incorporating complementary modalities and procedures. The dry acoustic coupler is made of a tubular elastic membrane enclosed by a closed transparent water tank. The tubular membrane ensures water-free contact with the animal, and the closed water tank allows pressurization for animal stabilization. The dry coupler was tested using a whole-body small-animal ring-shaped photoacoustic computed tomography system. Dry coupling was found to provide image quality comparable to that of conventional water coupling.

  17. Effects of increasing levels of cow dung application associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guatemala grass (Tripsacum laxum) originating from Tropical America was introduced to Cameroon as an attempt to solve the problem of low forage availability during the dry season. Tripsacum laxum forage production under cow dung fertilization associated with the probiotic Light Matrix Organic (LMO) was evaluated at ...

  18. Large herbivores affect forest ecosystem functions by altering the structure of dung beetle communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Taichi; Soga, Masashi; Koike, Shinsuke

    2018-04-01

    Dramatic increases in populations of large mammalian herbivores have become a major ecological issue, particularly in the northern hemisphere, due to their substantial impacts on both animal and plant communities through processes such as grazing, browsing, and trampling. However, little is known about the consequences of these population explosions on ecosystem functions. Here, we experimentally investigated how the population density of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in temperate deciduous forest areas in Japan affected the decomposition of mammal dung by dung beetles, which is a key process in forest ecosystems. We measured a range of environmental variables (e.g., vegetation cover, soil hardness) and the dung decomposition rate, measured as the amount of deer dung decomposed during one week, and sampled dung beetles at 16 study sites with three different deer densities (high/intermediate/low). We then used structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships between deer density, environmental variables, the biomass of dung beetles (classified into small or large species), and the dung decomposition rate. We found that the biomass of small species increased with increasing deer density, whereas that of large species was not related to deer density. Furthermore, the dung decomposition rate was positively related to the biomass of small species but unrelated to that of large species. Overall, our results showed that an increase in deer density affects the decomposition rate of mammal dung by changing the structure of dung beetle communities (i.e., increasing the number of small dung beetles). Such an understanding of how increases in large herbivore populations affect ecosystem functions is important for accurately evaluating the ecological consequences of their overabundance and ultimately managing their populations appropriately.

  19. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  20. What do dung beetles eat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle...... that of elephant and rhino (40-58%) was available to selective feeders. 3. Nitrogen concentrations were high - and C/N ratios low - in most types of bulk dung compared with the average food of terrestrial detritivores or herbivores. Exceptions were elephant and rhino dung with low nitrogen concentrations and high...... C/N ratios. 4. Estimated C/N ratios of 13-39 in bulk dung (sheep-elephant) were decreased by selective feeding to 7.3-12.6 in the ingested material. In assimilated food, ratios are probably only 5-7, as most assimilable nitrogen and carbon may be of microbial origin. If so, the assimilable food...

  1. The Boron Isotopic Composition of Elephant Dung: Inputs to the Global Boron Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. B.; Hervig, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    A survey of boron in kerogen showed isotopically light δ11B values (0 to -50%) that are distinctly different from most mineral and natural water B reservoirs. Diagenesis releases this isotopically light B into pore fluids when hydrocarbons are generated, thus enriching oilfield brines in 10B. This observation suggests that borated biomolecules (BM) are primarily tetrahedral favoring 10B, whereas 11B is preferred in trigonal coordination. Plants, with optimal concentrations up to 100ppm, contribute more B than animal remains to sediment. Elephants are one of the largest herbivores on earth, consuming 200 - 250 kg of plant material/day and producing 50 kg of manure/day. They are inefficient at digestion, thus the manure contains >50% undigested plant material. Dung samples are therefore ideal for studying the δ11B of both the food input and digested output of a significant B supply to sedimentary systems. Horse and rabbit manure were studied for comparison to evaluate B isotope variations in the food supply and potential vital effects on the output. B-content and isotopic composition of dung plant material and digested fractions were measured in the solid state by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The digests were rinsed in 1.8% mannitol, a B-complexing agent, to remove surface adsorbed-B, then air dried and Au-coated for charge compensation. Results showed that the elephant diet contains 3-13 ppm B, with an average δ11B of -20 ± 0.8% (1σ), while rabbit food had 88 ppm B with a δ11B of -50 ± 1.3 %. The digested fraction of the elephant dung contains 4-10ppm B with average δ11B values of -12 ± 1.2%. In comparison, horse manure with 11-21 ppm B has a δ11B of -10.7 ± 0.5% and rabbit manure contains 2-3 ppm B with a δ11B of -8.8 ± 1%. Boron isotope compositions of these manures are indistinguishable (within error). Clearly plant material is a major contributor of isotopically light B to sediments. The herbivores studied fractionate their total B intake in

  2. Methane gas from cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The Khadi and Village Industries Commission offers a gobar gas (methane gas) production scheme. The gas plant, available in sizes of 60 to 3000 cu ft, requires only low maintenance expenditures. The cow dung, which is at present being wasted or burned as domestic fuel, can be used for manufacturing methane for fuel gas. The residue will be a good fertilizer for increasing food production. There are now about 4000 gobar gas plants in India.

  3. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Cow Dung and Rice Straw to Produce Biogas using Semi-Continuous Flow Digester: Effect of Urea Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, A.; Sugara, B. P.; Telaumbanua, M.; Rosadi, R. A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The objective this research was to investigate the effect of urea addition on the biogas yield from co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung using semi-continuous anaerobic digester. The experiment was conducted by using self-made semi-continuous anaerobic digester having a working volume of 30 L. Cow dung was provided from Department of Animal Husbandry, University of Lampung; while rice straw was collected from farmer at Way Galih, Tanjung Bintang, South Lampung. Rice straw was sun-dried to about 12% of moisture content and then ground into fine particles. Cow dung and ground straw were mixed at a dung-to-straw ratio of 3:1 based on total solid (TS) and four different urea additions (0, 0.25, 0.65, and 1.30 g/L) were applied to have a C/N ratio between 20 and 30. The mixture was diluted with water to create TS content of 10%. As much as 30 L of the substrate mixture was introduced into the digester as a starting load. The same substrate was added daily at a loading rate of 0.5 L/d. The experiment was made in triplicate and observation was performed for two months. Total and volatile solids of influent and effluent and daily biogas production were observed. The biogas quality was measured by its methane content using gas chromatography. Results showed that urea addition influenced the biogas yield and its quality. Substrate mixture with urea addition of 0.25 g/L (C/N ratio of 27.3) was the best in terms of biogas yield (434.2 L/kgVSr), methane content (50.12%), and methane yield (217.6 L/kgVSr).

  4. Development of a Dung Beetle Robot and Investigation of Its Dung-Rolling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a bio-inspired dung beetle robot was developed that emulated the dung rolling motion of the dung beetle. Dung beetles, which can roll objects up to 1000 times their own body weight, are one of the strongest insect species in the world. While the locomotion of many insects, such as cockroaches, inchworms, and butterflies, has been studied widely, the locomotion of dung beetles has rarely been given attention. Here, we report on the development of a dung beetle robot made specifically to investigate dung-rolling behavior and to determine and understand the underlying mechanism. Two versions of the robot were built, and the leg trajectories were carefully designed based on kinematic analysis. Cylinder and ball rolling experiments were conducted, and the results showed that the dung beetle robot could successfully and reliably roll objects. This further suggests that the dung beetle robot, with its current morphology, is capable of reliably rolling dung without the need for complex control strategies.

  5. Anaerobic digestion performance of sweet potato vine and animal manure under wet, semi-dry, and dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlan; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Keqiang; Wang, Feng; Yang, Houhua; Zhi, Suli; Liu, Guangqing

    2018-03-22

    Sweet potato vine (SPV) is an abundant agricultural waste, which is easy to obtain at low cost and has the potential to produce clean energy via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objectives of this study were to reveal methane production and process stability of SPV and the mixtures with animal manure under various total solid conditions, to verify synergetic effect in co-digestion of SPV and manure in AD systems, and to determine the kinetics characteristics during the full AD process. The results showed that SPV was desirable feedstock for AD with 200.22 mL/g VS added of methane yield in wet anaerobic digestion and 12.20 L methane /L working volume in dry anaerobic digestion (D-AD). Synergistic effects were found in semi-dry anaerobic digestion and D-AD with each two mixing feedstock. In contrast with SPV mono-digestion, co-digestion with manure increased methane yield within the range of 14.34-49.11% in different AD digesters. The values of final volatile fatty acids to total alkalinity (TA) were below 0.4 and the values of final pH were within the range of 7.4-8.2 in all the reactors, which supported a positive relationship between carbohydrate hydrolysis and methanogenesis during AD process. The mathematical modified first order model was applied to estimate substrate biodegradability and methane production potential well with conversion constant ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0953 1/day, which indicated that co-digestion increased hydrolysis efficiency and metabolic activity. This work provides useful information to improve the utilization and stability of digestion using SPV and livestock or poultry manure as substrates.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from dung pats vary with dung beetle species and with assemblage composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Piccini

    Full Text Available Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species, we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles. In this setting, the overall presence of beetles significantly affected the gas fluxes, but different species contributed unequally to GHG emissions. When compared to the control with dung, we detected an overall reduction in the total cumulative CO2 flux from all treatments with beetles and a reduction in N2O flux from the treatments with the three most abundant dung beetle species. These reductions can be seen as beneficial ecosystem services. Nonetheless, we also observed a disservice provided by the large tunneler, Copris lunaris, which significantly increased the CH4 flux-an effect potentially traceable to the species' nesting strategy involving the construction of large brood balls. When fluxes were summed into CO2-equivalents across individual GHG compounds, dung with beetles proved to emit less GHGs than did beetle-free dung, with the mix of the three most abundant species providing the highest reduction (-32%. As the mix of multiple species proved the most effective in reducing CO2-equivalents, the conservation of diverse assemblages of dung beetles emerges as a priority in agro-pastoral ecosystems.

  7. Evaluation of biogas production potential by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass--animal manure mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Smith, M C; Kondrad, S L; White, J W

    2010-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application with reduced environmental impacts. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion [>15% total solid (TS)] has an advantage over wet digestion (anaerobic digestion of animal manure-switchgrass mixture was evaluated under dry (15% TS) and thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C). Three different mixtures of animal manure (swine, poultry, and dairy) and switchgrass were digested using batch-operated 1-L reactors. The swine manure test units showed 52.9% volatile solids (VS) removal during the 62-day trial, while dairy and poultry manure test units showed 9.3% and 20.2%, respectively. Over the 62 day digestion, the swine manure test units yielded the highest amount of methane 0.337 L CH4/g VS, while the dairy and poultry manure test units showed very poor methane yield 0.028 L CH4/g VS and 0.002 L CH4/g VS, respectively. Although dairy and poultry manure performed poorly, they may still have high potential as biomass for dry anaerobic digestion if appropriate designs are developed to prevent significant volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and pH drop.

  8. The Gut Microbiomes of Two Pachysoma MacLeay Desert Dung Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae Feeding on Different Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Z N Franzini

    Full Text Available Micro-organisms inhabiting animal guts benefit from a protected and nutrient-rich environment while assisting the host with digestion and nutrition. In this study we compare, for the first time, the bacterial and fungal gut communities of two species of the small desert dung beetle genus Pachysoma feeding on different diets: the detritivorous P. endroedyi and the dry-dung-feeding P. striatum. Whole-gut microbial communities from 5 individuals of each species were assessed using 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS gene regions. The two bacterial communities were significantly different, with only 3.7% of operational taxonomic units shared, and displayed intra-specific variation. The number of bacterial phyla present within the guts of P. endroedyi and P. striatum individuals ranged from 6-11 and 4-7, respectively. Fungal phylotypes could only be detected within the gut of P. striatum. Although the role of host phylogeny in Pachysoma microbiome assembly remains unknown, evidence presented in this study suggests that host diet may be a deterministic factor.

  9. Effects of initiating anaerobic digestion of layer-hen poultry dung at sub-atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Ngumah, Chima C.; Ogbulie, Jude N.; Orji, Justina C.; Amadi, Ekperechi S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initiating anaerobic digestion (AD) of dry layer-hen poultry dung at the sub-atmospheric pressure of -30 cmHg on biodegradation, biogasification, and biomethanation. The setup was performed as a batch process at an average ambient temperature of 29±2 ºC and a retention time of 15 days. Comparisons were made with two other experiments which were both begun at ambient atmospheric pressure; one was inoculated with digestate from a previous layer-hen dung AD...

  10. Comparison of in vivo efficacy of different ocular lubricants in dry eye animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Goto, Tomoko; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-04-29

    To compare the efficacy of three types of ocular lubricants in protecting corneal epithelial cells in dry eye animal models. Ocular lubricants containing 0.1% or 0.3% sodium hyaluronate (SH), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were tested. First, ocular lubricant containing 0.002% fluorescein was dropped onto the rabbit corneas. The fluorescein intensity as an index of retention was measured. Second, a rabbit dry eye model was made by holding the eye open with a speculum, and 50 μL of each ocular lubricant was dropped onto the cornea. After 3 hours, the corneas were stained with 1% methylene blue (MB), and the absorbance of MB was measured. Third, a rat dry eye model was treated with the ocular lubricants for 4 weeks, and the corneal fluorescein staining was scored. Eyes treated with physiological saline were used as controls. Finally, immunohistochemistry was used to analyze occludin, an epithelial barrier protein, in cultured human corneal epithelial cells pretreated with ocular lubricants and desiccated for 20 or 60 minutes. Our results showed that 0.3% SH had a significantly longer retention time than the other lubricants (all P eye syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Cow-dung gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C N

    1953-12-01

    A description of experimental work in India and a variety of digesters is given. A small plant at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, was built in 1941 and has been operating on 4.5 kg of manure/day for 12 years. A plant capable of handling 1800--2300 kg of cow dung per day was built by Prof. V. N. Joshi on the sugarcane estate of Walchandnagar Industries. Shri Chandra Das Gupta experimented with bamboo thatch cylinders sunk into the ground to form tanks, and with bamboo thatch plastered with earth and cement to form gasholders. The West Bengal Government Farm at Harenghatta houses a digestion plant consisting of a series of crude-oil drums through which the slurry passes, gas being collected from all drums.

  12. [Effects of fermented cattle dung on the growth and development of Tenebrio molitor larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Wang, Xia; Guo, Li-Yue; Zhan, Li-Jie; Bo, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhan; Wu, Guang-Lei; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2012-07-01

    In order to make use of and industrialize the animal dung from large cattle farms, this paper explored the feasibility of using Tenebrio molitor to digest and utilize cattle dung. Cattle dung was mixed with the conventional feed (65% wheat bran, 30% corn flour, and 5% bean pulp) of T. molitor in definite proportions, and fermented with effective microorganisms (EM). The fermented products containing 60% and 80% of cattle dung (FD1 and FD2, respectively) were selected to feed T. molitor larvae, and the effects of the fermented products on the growth curve, death rate, pupation rate, and antioxidant system of the larvae were compared. Compared with CK (conventional deed), the FD1 made the developmental duration of the larvae prolonged by 10 days and the larvae's death rate upraised somewhat, but made the single larva's total food intake, average body mass, crude fat content, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat acids increased by 49%, 28%, 26%, and 32%, respectively (P molitor larvae had weak adaptability to FD2. Our findings suggested that using FD1 to feed the 3rd instar of T. molitor larvae would have good practical prospects in industrializing cattle dung.

  13. Microbial safety control of compost material with cow dung by heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun-ming

    2007-01-01

    Various kinds of pathogenic bacteria derived from the intestinal tract of animals exist in compost material like cow dung. In order to sterilize the pathogenic bacteria completely in compost material, the cow dung was put into a heat treatment machine in pilot plan, and harmless condition in short time was examined. The results indicated, pathogenic indicator bacteria such as coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and salmonella were all 106 cfu/g dw at the beginning, died rapidly when cow dung temperature rose to above 50 degrees C, and not detected at 54-68 degrees C for 6-24 h heat treatment. Coliform bacteria and salmonella in heated cow dung were not detected by re-growth culture and enrichment culture examination. Moreover, it was hardly influenced on the fermentation ability of composting microbe, organic decomposition bacteria. During heat treatment, the mesophile decreased rapidly and the thermophile stabilized or increased, and the most of composting microbe were bacillus in cow dung by fluorescence microscope, this indicated that bacillus was dominator and composting microbe in composting process.

  14. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  16. A review on the effect of macrocyclic lactones on dung-dwelling insects: Toxicity of macrocyclic lactones to dung beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen T. Jacobs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Avermectins and milbemycins are commonly used in agro-ecosystems for the control of parasites in domestic livestock. As integral members of agro-ecosystems with importance in maintaining pasture health through dung burial behaviour, dung beetles are an excellent nontarget bio-indicator taxon for examining potential detrimental effects of pesticide application. The current review focuses on the relative toxicity of four different anthelmintics (ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin and moxidectin in dung residues using dung beetles as a bioindicator species. One of the implications of this review is that there could be an effect that extends to the entire natural assemblage of insects inhabiting and feeding on the dung of cattle treated with avermectin or milbemycin products. Over time, reduced reproductive rate would result in decreased dung beetle populations and ultimately, a decrease in the rate of dung degradation and dung burial.

  17. The materiality of dung: the manipulation of dung in Neolithic Mediterranean caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the formation of layers of burnt herbivore dung in Neolithic, Eneolithic and Bronze Age Mediterranean caves. While these layers are clearly connected with transhumant pastoralism and the practice of keeping herds in the caves, their formation should not be seen as the result of purely practical and ‘rational’ reasons. In this paper, I develop an argument that they are remnants of a complex manipulation of substances which includes burning dung to make white ash. Thus instead of seeing dung as a culturally neutral refuse which has to be disposed of, we might see its burning and deposition as the cultural manipulation of potent substance.

  18. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review articles should cover new development in a field of livestock production. ... of earthworm (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos) cultured in different animal dung media ... of commercial layer feeds and their impact on performance and egg quality ...

  19. Priming of soil carbon decomposition in two inner Mongolia grassland soils following sheep dung addition: A study using13C natural abundance approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per; Wang, Shiping

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content) and a heav......To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content......) and a heavily degraded Artemisia frigida dominated community (1.3% organic matter content). Dung was collected from sheep either fed on L. chinensis (C3 plant with δ13C = -26.8‰; dung δ13C = -26.2‰) or Cleistogenes squarrosa (C4 plant with δ13C = -14.6‰; dung δ13C = -15.7‰). Fresh C3 and C4 sheep dung was mixed......-amended controls. In both grassland soils, ca. 60% of the evolved CO2 originated from the decomposing sheep dung and 40% from the native soil C. Priming effects of soil C decomposition were observed in both soils, i.e. 1.4 g and 1.6 g additional soil C kg-1 dry soil had been emitted as CO2 for the L. chinensis...

  20. Impact of animal density on cattle nutrition in dry Mediterranean rangelands: a faecal near-IR spectroscopy-aided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Yehuda, Y; Muklada, H; Peleg, G; Henkin, Z; Voet, H; Ungar, E D

    2018-02-01

    In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement. In each season, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict the chemical composition of herbage samples (ash, NDF, CP, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) content from IVDMD). Near-IR spectroscopy was applied also to faecal samples to determine the chemical composition of the diet selected by the animal, as well as the contents of ash, NDF and CP in the faeces themselves. A faecal-NIRS equation was applied to estimate the dietary proportion of PL. Seasonal categories were green, dry without PL supplementation and dry with it. We found no effects of animal density on nutrition during the green season but effects were apparent when cows consumed dry pasture. Ash content predicted by faecal NIRS was higher in the diet than in plant samples clipped from pasture, which infers that cows ingested soil. Dietary and faecal ash contents were higher (Panimals. During the dry period, dietary contents of ME were higher in L than in H (Panimal health, the above results cast doubts on the long-term sustainability of the higher of the animal densities tested. Although it may be sustainable vis-à-vis the vegetation, treatment H may have exceeded the boundaries of what is acceptable for cow health. Chemical information revealed with NIRS can be used to evaluate whether animal densities are compatible with animal health and welfare standards and can play a role in determining the carrying capacity of Mediterranean rangelands.

  1. Bioconversion of Radiation Processed Dried Tomato Pomace to High Protein Animal Fee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Diaa El-Din, M.; El-Niely, H. F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing expansion of agro-industrial activity over the last 50 years has led to the accumulation of a large quantity of organic residues all over the world that they have become a threat to the environment. Bioconversion of these wastes seems to be a practical and promising alternative for increasing their nutritional value, transforming them into animal feed and thus producing a value added product. Radiation processing has the capability to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria, insects and parasites, thereby increasing the utilization and sustainable management of waste organic matter from food production and processing while contributing to improve food quality and reducing the environmental impact of the wastes. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiation treatment at 25 kGy and fermentation process by Aspergillus niger, on crude and soluble protein, amino acid profile, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of dried tomato pomace (DTP), the by-product of the tomato canning industry. The study has also, investigated the effect of supplementation of 30% of raw or processed DTP meal in food of male Albino rats for six weeks on body and liver weight evaluation and the effect on blood lipid pattern. The work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of DTP at 25 kGy and fermentation process has increased the nutritional value of treated DTP meal and improved the plasma and liver lipid pattern of rats. Therefore, the combination treatment has beneficial effects on recycling of DTP and permits it to be included in monogastric animals' food without any health hazard or nutritional problem

  2. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct in dried blood spot samples of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kathy S; Cai, Wenjie; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) were proposed as potentially viable method for exposure assessment of environmental toxicants in infant and young children. For this study, we validated an experimental protocol to quantify AFB 1 -lysine adduct in DBS samples of AFB 1 -treated F344 rats, as well as samples from human field study. Significant dose-response relationships in AFB 1 -lysine adduct formation were found in DBS samples of rats treated with single- and repeated-dose AFB 1 . AFB 1 -lysine levels in DBS samples were highly correlated with corresponding serum sample levels. The Person coefficients were 0.997 for the single-dose exposure, and 0.996 for the repeated-dose exposure. Levels of AFB 1 -lysine adduct had also good agreement between DBS and serum samples as shown by Bland-Altman plot analysis. For human field study samples (n = 36), a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.784 was found between AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels of DBS and corresponding serum samples. Bland-Altman plots showed the distribution of the log differences between DBS and serum AFB 1 -lysine levels are within 95% confidence intervals. These results showed AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels in DBS cards and serum samples from animals and human samples are comparable, and the DBS technique and analytical protocol is a good means to assess AFB 1 exposure in infant and children populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  5. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Newcombe

    Full Text Available Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  6. effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    dung/poultry manure supplemented with 25 kg of urea (CDPMU) and (iii) cattle dung (CD) as ... Key words: Nitrogen Enrichment, Heavy Metals, Cattle Dung, Poultry Manure, Compost. .... available phosphorus, exchangeable bases and base.

  7. High-fat diet based on dried bovine brain: an effective animal model of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tiago Gomes; Leite, Ana Catarina Rezende; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira; Carvalho, Bruno Melo; Schuler, Alexandre Ricardo Pereira; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes

    2011-09-01

    Currently, there are no reports in the literature demonstrating any animal model that ingests one of the fattiest animal food source, the bovine brain. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet (HFD), based on dried bovine brain, could be used to develop an animal model possessing a spectrum of insulin resistance-related features. The HFD was formulated with 40% dried bovine brain plus 16.4% butter fat, prepared in-house. Furthermore, the diet contained 52% calories as fat and 73% of total fatty acids were saturated. Swiss mice weighing about 40 g were assigned to two dietary groups (n=6/group), one group received a standard chow diet and the other was given HFD for 3 months. The body weight and biochemical parameters of the animals were measured initially and at monthly intervals until the end of the experiment. Animals fed on a HFD showed a significant increase in the body and adipose tissue weight, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, when compared with mice fed on the control diet. Additionally, the HFD group showed higher circulating levels of liver transaminases, such as alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, compared with the control group. Finally, to illustrate the usefulness of this model, we report that the HFD induced mild hyperglycemia, fasting hyperinsulinemia, and increased the homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR), in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, our results show that HFD, based on dried bovine brain, causes insulin resistance-related metabolic disturbances. Thus, this may be a suitable model to study disturbances in energy metabolism and their consequences.

  8. Status of the Dungeness B project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algar, T.H.; Slack, M.R.; Sheppard, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The commissioning of the two reactors at Dungeness B station, the first year's operation of the first unit and the work carried out in the statutory outage at the end of this period are described. The principal problems encountered and the means of overcoming them are discussed. The behaviour of the boiler penetrations was a major obstacle to output, and necessitated extensive modifications and the introduction of several novel features. These are described in some detail. (author)

  9. Vermicomposting of Vegetable Wastes Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthukumaravel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid wastes are mainly from domestic and commercial areas containing recyclable toxic substances, compostable organic matter and others. With rapid increase in population, the generation of municipal solid wastes has increased several folds during last few years. Disposal of solid wastes can be done by methods like land filling, incineration, recycling, conversion into biogas, disposal into sea and composting. Vermicomposting is one of the recycling technologies which will improve the quality of the products. The present study aims to find out the possibility of utilization of vegetable wastes for vermiculture. Earthworm Megascolex mauritii cultured in plastic trays (45 x 30 x 30 cm containing soil alone (control (T1, soil + cow dung (T2, soil + vegetable waste (T3 and soil + vegetable waste + cow dung (T4 for 60 days. Nutrient values were determined from the compost and compared with that of the control. From these results, it was found that NPK values were maximum in compost obtained from vegetable waste with the use of cow dung.

  10. Priming of soil carbon decomposition in two Inner Mongolia grassland soils following sheep dung addition: a study using ¹³C natural abundance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Yanfen; Wang, Chengjie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content) and a heavily degraded Artemisia frigida dominated community (1.3% organic matter content). Dung was collected from sheep either fed on L. chinensis (C3 plant with δ¹³C = -26.8‰; dung δ¹³C = -26.2‰) or Cleistogenes squarrosa (C₄ plant with δ¹³C = -14.6‰; dung δ¹³C = -15.7‰). Fresh C₃ and C₄ sheep dung was mixed with the two grassland soils and incubated under controlled conditions for analysis of ¹³C-CO₂ emissions. Soil samples were taken at days 17, 43, 86, 127 and 152 after sheep dung addition to detect the δ¹³C signal in soil and dung components. Analysis revealed that 16.9% and 16.6% of the sheep dung C had decomposed, of which 3.5% and 2.8% was sequestrated in the soils of L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands, respectively, while the remaining decomposed sheep dung was emitted as CO₂. The cumulative amounts of C respired from dung treated soils during 152 days were 7-8 times higher than in the un-amended controls. In both grassland soils, ca. 60% of the evolved CO₂ originated from the decomposing sheep dung and 40% from the native soil C. Priming effects of soil C decomposition were observed in both soils, i.e. 1.4 g and 1.6 g additional soil C kg⁻¹ dry soil had been emitted as CO₂ for the L. chinensis and A. frigida soils, respectively. Hence, the net C losses from L. chinensis and A. frigida soils were 0.6 g and 0.9 g C kg⁻¹ soil, which was 2.6% and 7.0% of the total C in L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands soils, respectively. Our results suggest that grazing of degraded Inner Mongolian pastures may cause a net soil C loss due to the positive priming effect, thereby accelerating soil deterioration.

  11. Molecular composition of particulate matter emissions from dung and brushwood burning household cookstoves in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lauren T.; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Weltman, Robert; Edwards, Rufus D.; Arora, Narendra K.; Yadav, Ankit; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R.; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Smith, Kirk R.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2018-02-01

    Emissions of airborne particles from biomass burning are a significant source of black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) in rural areas of developing countries where biomass is the predominant energy source for cooking and heating. This study explores the molecular composition of organic aerosols from household cooking emissions with a focus on identifying fuel-specific compounds and BrC chromophores. Traditional meals were prepared by a local cook with dung and brushwood-fueled cookstoves in a village in Palwal district, Haryana, India. Cooking was done in a village kitchen while controlling for variables including stove type, fuel moisture, and meal. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were collected on filters, and then analyzed via nanospray desorption electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (nano-DESI-HRMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-HRMS) techniques. The nano-DESI-HRMS analysis provided an inventory of numerous compounds present in the particle phase. Although several compounds observed in this study have been previously characterized using gas chromatography methods a majority of the species in the nano-DESI spectra were newly observed biomass burning compounds. Both the stove (chulha or angithi) and the fuel (brushwood or dung) affected the composition of organic aerosols. The geometric mean of the PM2.5 emission factor and the observed molecular complexity increased in the following order: brushwood-chulha (7.3 ± 1.8 g kg-1 dry fuel, 93 compounds), dung-chulha (21.1 ± 4.2 g kg-1 dry fuel, 212 compounds), and dung-angithi (29.8 ± 11.5 g kg-1 dry fuel, 262 compounds). The mass-normalized absorption coefficient (MACbulk) for the organic-solvent extractable material for brushwood PM2.5 was 3.7 ± 1.5 and 1.9 ± 0.8 m2 g-1 at 360 and 405 nm, respectively, which was approximately a factor of two higher than that for dung PM2.5. The HPLC-PDA-HRMS analysis

  12. Evaluation of biogas production by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass-animal manure mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application without adverse environmental effects. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion (> 15% TS; total solid) has an advantage ov...

  13. Effect of abdominal waste on biogas production from cow dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been carried out on the production of biogas from mixture of cow abdominal waste and its dung. The rate of biogas production and cumulative volume of the gas produced was compared with that of pure cow dung under the same experimental conditions. The result shows that the mixture of the cow abdominal ...

  14. Preliminary biological screening of microbes isolated from cow dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary biological screening of microbes isolated from cow dung in Kampar. KC Teo, SM Teoh. Abstract. Five distinct morphologically and physiologically isolates were isolated from cow dung at Kampar, Perak, Malaysia and cultured on nutrient agar (NA) plates. Morphological studies including microscopic examination ...

  15. Comparative study of biogas from cattle dung and mixture of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares the rate of biogas production of cattle dung and a mixture of plantain peels with cattle dung. 18kg of cattle dung mixed with 36kg of water were charged to a digester while 9kg each of cattle dung and plantain peels mixed together with 36kg of water were charged to a separate digester. Both digesters ...

  16. Report on intercomparison A-13 of the determination of trace elements in freeze dried animal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.; Suschny, O.

    1983-03-01

    This document deals with the comparative evaluation of the analytical data on the trace elements in beef blood obtained by 38 laboratories in 23 countries. The evaluations were based on 799 laboratory mean values of concentration of 41 elements. It was one of the series of IAEA intercomparisons on the determination of trace elements in animal materials. It was organized for the purpose of assisting the participating laboratories to check the accuracy of their work and to prepare a new reference material

  17. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaya, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  18. Dung-inhabiting fungi: a potential reservoir of novel secondary metabolites for the control of plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrocco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Coprophilous fungi are a large group of saprotrophic fungi mostly found in herbivore dung. The number of these fungi undergoing investigation is continually increasing, and new species and genera continue to be described. Dung-inhabiting fungi play an important ecological role in decomposing and recycling nutrients from animal dung. They produce a large array of bioactive secondary metabolites and have a potent enzymatic arsenal able to utilise even complex molecules. Bioactive secondary metabolites are actively involved in interaction with and defence against other organisms whose growth can be inhibited, resulting in an enhanced ecological fitness of producer strains. Currently, these antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites are of interest in medicine in particular, while very little information is available concerning their potential use in agriculture. This review introduces the ecology of dung-inhabiting fungi, with particular emphasis on the production of antibiotic compounds as a means to compete with other microorganisms. Owing to the fast pace of technological progress, new approaches to predicting the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites are proposed. Coprophilous fungi should be considered as elite candidate organisms for the discovery of novel antifungal compounds, above all in view of their exploitation for crop protection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (δ 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (δ 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ŧ = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using Δ 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil δ 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and

  20. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth Performance of Quality Protein Maize in ... worldwide on over 159.5 million hectares in the year. 2010. ...... Fertilizer company of Nigeria, NAFCON, Port. Harcourt.

  1. Biodigestion of cassava peels blended with pig dung for methane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKOROIGWE

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Biogas production from cassava (Manihot esculentus) peels and pig dung under a mesophilic ... is a gap to be filled up by further investigation. Ezekoye ..... Biofertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer Application on Maize Production.

  2. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  3. Accuracies of breeding values for dry matter intake using nongenotyped animals and predictor traits in different lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Calus, M P L; Ten Napel, J

    2017-11-01

    Given the interest of including dry matter intake (DMI) in the breeding goal, accurate estimated breeding values (EBV) for DMI are needed, preferably for separate lactations. Due to the limited amount of records available on DMI, 2 main approaches have been suggested to compute those EBV: (1) the inclusion of predictor traits, such as fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and live weight (LW), and (2) the addition of genomic information of animals using what is called genomic prediction. Recently, several methodologies to estimate EBV utilizing genomic information (EBV) have become available. In this study, a new method known as single-step ridge-regression BLUP (SSRR-BLUP) is suggested. The SSRR-BLUP method does not have an imposed limit on the number of genotyped animals, as the commonly used methods do. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters using a relatively large data set with DMI records, as well as compare the accuracies of the EBV for DMI. These accuracies were obtained using 4 different methods: BLUP (using pedigree for all animals with phenotypes), genomic BLUP (GBLUP; only for genotyped animals), single-step GBLUP (SS-GBLUP), and SSRR-BLUP (for genotyped and nongenotyped animals). Records from different lactations, with or without predictor traits (FPCM and LW), were used in the model. Accuracies of EBV for DMI (defined as the correlation between the EBV and pre-adjusted DMI phenotypes divided by the average accuracy of those phenotypes) ranged between 0.21 and 0.38 across methods and scenarios. Accuracies of EBV for DMI using BLUP were the lowest accuracies obtained across methods. Meanwhile, accuracies of EBV for DMI were similar in SS-GBLUP and SSRR-BLUP, and lower for the GBLUP method. Hence, SSRR-BLUP could be used when the number of genotyped animals is large, avoiding the construction of the inverse genomic relationship matrix. Adding information on DMI from different lactations in the reference population gave higher

  4. Quantifying responses of dung beetles to fire disturbance in tropical forests: the importance of trapping method and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rafael Barreto; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Souza, Mateus; Silveira, Juliana M; Cochrane, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how biodiversity responds to environmental changes is essential to provide the evidence-base that underpins conservation initiatives. The present study provides a standardized comparison between unbaited flight intercept traps (FIT) and baited pitfall traps (BPT) for sampling dung beetles. We examine the effectiveness of the two to assess fire disturbance effects and how trap performance is affected by seasonality. The study was carried out in a transitional forest between Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) and Amazon Forest. Dung beetles were collected during one wet and one dry sampling season. The two methods sampled different portions of the local beetle assemblage. Both FIT and BPT were sensitive to fire disturbance during the wet season, but only BPT detected community differences during the dry season. Both traps showed similar correlation with environmental factors. Our results indicate that seasonality had a stronger effect than trap type, with BPT more effective and robust under low population numbers, and FIT more sensitive to fine scale heterogeneity patterns. This study shows the strengths and weaknesses of two commonly used methodologies for sampling dung beetles in tropical forests, as well as highlighting the importance of seasonality in shaping the results obtained by both sampling strategies.

  5. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  6. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  7. Using Dried Blood Spot Sampling to Improve Data Quality and Reduce Animal Use in Mouse Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R; Perkins, Everett J

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pharmacokinetic analysis in nonclinical studies is based on the concentration of a test compound in plasma and requires approximately 100 to 200 µL blood collected per time point. However, the total blood volume of mice limits the number of samples that can be collected from an individual animal—often to a single collection per mouse—thus necessitating dosing multiple mice to generate a pharmacokinetic profile in a sparse-sampling design. Compared with traditional methods, dried blood spot (DBS) analysis requires smaller volumes of blood (15 to 20 µL), thus supporting serial blood sampling and the generation of a complete pharmacokinetic profile from a single mouse. Here we compare plasma-derived data with DBS-derived data, explain how to adopt DBS sampling to support discovery mouse studies, and describe how to generate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data from a single mouse. Executing novel study designs that use DBS enhances the ability to identify and streamline better drug candidates during drug discovery. Implementing DBS sampling can reduce the number of mice needed in a drug discovery program. In addition, the simplicity of DBS sampling and the smaller numbers of mice needed translate to decreased study costs. Overall, DBS sampling is consistent with 3Rs principles by achieving reductions in the number of animals used, decreased restraint-associated stress, improved data quality, direct comparison of interanimal variability, and the generation of multiple endpoints from a single study. PMID:25836959

  8. State Equation Determination of Cow Dung Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Wicaksono, L. B.

    2017-08-01

    A state function is a thermodynamic function which relates various macroscopically measurable properties of a system (state variable) describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. A good understanding of a biogas state function plays a very important role in an effort to maximize biogas processes and to help predicting combation performance. This paper presents a step by step process of an experimental study aimed at determining the equation of state of cow dung biogas. The equation was derived from the data obtained from the experimental results of compressibility (κ) and expansivity (β) following the general form of gas state equation dV = βdT + κdP. In this equation, dV is gas volume variation, dT is temperature variation, and dP is pressure variation. From these results, we formulated a unique state equation from which the biogas critical temperature (Tc) and critical pressure were then determined (Tc = 266.7 K, Pc = 5096647.5 Pa).

  9. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  10. Preliminary Diversity Of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae Attracting By Human Dung (Calvario, Meta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Mariela Castillo Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Private Reserve, Refugio del Oso de Anteojos (El Calvario-Meta, the diversity of dung beetles was studied (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae, grouped around different types of vegetation (Montane Rain Forest, Rainforest Premontane, Lower Montane Rain Forest, by using pitfall traps baited with human dung. During the samplings carried out in the rainy station on 2008, were captured a total of 177 individuals belonging to 9 species. The tribe Canthonini was the most representative with 87.5%, of the described species, followed by Aechini 10.8%, and Onthophagini 1.7%. The dominant species was Canthon lituratus in the three vegetation units: Lower montane rain forest was the richest (9 species and abundance (86 individuals, compared with other environments sampled. By calculating the complementarity index, shows a similar species composition in the three habitats sampled, possibly, related to the floristic composition presented in each one of them.

  11. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Miraldo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species. Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

  12. Ammonia volatilization from artificial dung and urine patches measured by the equilibrium concentration technique (JTI method)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarijärvi, K.; Mattila, P. K.; Virkajärvi, P.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of ammonia (NH 3) volatilization from intensively managed pastures on a soil type typical of the dairy production area in Finland and to clarify the effect of rainfall on NH 3 volatilization. The study included two experiments. In Experiment 1 the total amount of NH 3-N emitted was calculated based on the annual surface coverage of dung (4%) and urine (17%). The application rate of total N in the simulated dung and urine patches was approximately 47 g N m -2 and 113 g N m -2, respectively. In Experiment 1 the general level of NH 3 emissions from the urine patches was high and the peak volatilization rate was 0.54 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1. As expected, emissions from the dung pats were clearly lower with a maximum rate of 0.10 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1. The total emission calculated for the whole pasture area (stocking rate four cows ha -1 y -1, urine coverage 17% and dung coverage 4%) was 16.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1. Approximately 96% of the total emission originated from urine. In Experiment 2 we measured the emissions from urine only and the treatments on the urine patches were: (1) no irrigation, (2) 5+5 mm and (3) 20 mm irrigation. The peak emission rates were 0.13, 0.09 and 0.04 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1 and the total emissions were 6.9, 3.0 and 1.7 kg NH 3-N ha -1, for treatments (1), (2) and (3), respectively. In both measurements over 80% of the total emission occurred during the first 48 h and there was a clear diurnal rhythm. Increasing rainfall markedly decreased NH 3 emission. Volatilization was highest with dry and warm soil. The JTI method appeared to be suitable for measuring NH 3 volatilization in this kind of experiment. According to our results, the importance of pastures as a source of NH 3 emission in Finland is minor.

  13. A novel approach in red mud neutralization using cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sucharita; Pal, Bhatu Kumar; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2018-05-01

    In this study, cow dung was identified as a neutralizing agent for red mud (RM). Present research estimated a significant reduction in pH value of red mud (10 g) from 10.28 to 8.15 and reduction in alkalinity of ~148 mg/L from ~488 mg/L by adding 80 g of cow dung in 40 days of anaerobic condition. XRD results exhibit a high intensity of quartz and found new compound, the calcium carbide. The acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of NRM reduces to ~0.87 from ~1.506 mol H + /kg. Based on the resultant research, present study proposes cow dung as an efficient neutralizing agent for reducing the pH and alkalinity in the red mud.

  14. Generation of biogas from coffee-pulp and cow-dung co-digestion: Infrared studies of postcombustion emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corro, Grisel; Paniagua, Laura; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino; Rosas, Minerva

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Batch digester with coffee pulp/cow dung produced high amounts of methane for 8 months. The FTIR gas spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of over 70 chemical compounds in biogas generated after 4 months of coffee pulp and cow dung mixture co-digestion, several being hazardous to environment and human and animal health (e.g. isocyanic acid, bromomethane). Biogas produced was burned in a laboratory combustor. The FTIR gas spectroscopy analysis showed that combustion emissions contained: CH 4 , C 3 H 8 , CO, SO 2 , HI, and probably Br 2 which are strongly harmful to human and animal health. - Highlights: • Batch digester with coffee pulp/cow dung produced high amounts of methane for 8 months. • Biogas from coffee pulp/cow dung codigestion contained 60% methane and 20% propane. • Biogas FTIR analysis revealed the presence of isocyanic acid and bromomethane. • Biogas FTIR analysis showed also the presence of HI. • Biogas combustion emissions contained CH 4 , HI, SO 2 and probably Br 2 . - Abstract: Biogas could be produced by the co-digestion of coffee-pulp and cow-dung mixture under solar radiation. Gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical compositions of the generated biogas and its postcombustion emissions. From the first month of co-digestion at mesophylic conditions, methane content in the biogas attains 50% of the yield. This content increased up to 60% and remained almost constant for at least 8 months of further digestion. The FTIR gas spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of over 70 chemical compounds in the biogas generated after 4 months of co-digestion along with several compounds hazardous to environment and animal health like isocyanic acid, and bromomethane. Combustion emission of the biogas contained several components like CH 4 , C 3 H 8 , CO, SO 2 , HI, and probably Br 2 which are strongly harmful to human and animal health. Results presented in this work indicate that if the

  15. Nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on earthworms and springtails dwelling beneath dung of treated cattle in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffczyk, Adam; Floate, Kevin D; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Klockner, Andrea; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Salamon, Jörg-Alfred; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The authorization of veterinary medicinal products requires that they be assessed for nontarget effects in the environment. Numerous field studies have assessed these effects on dung organisms. However, few studies have examined effects on soil-dwelling organisms, which might be exposed to veterinary medicinal product residues released during dung degradation. The authors compared the abundance of earthworms and springtails in soil beneath dung from untreated cattle and from cattle treated 0 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d previously with ivermectin. Study sites were located in different ecoregions in Switzerland (Continental), The Netherlands (Atlantic), France (Mediterranean), and Canada (Northern Mixed Grassland). Samples were collected using standard methods from 1 mo to 12 mo after pat deposition. Ivermectin concentrations in soil beneath dung pats ranged from 0.02 mg/kg dry weight (3 mo) to typically Earthworms were abundant and species-rich at the Swiss and Dutch sites, less common with fewer species at the French site, and essentially absent at the Canadian site. Diverse but highly variable communities of springtails were present at all sites. Overall, results showed little effect of residues on either earthworms or springtails. The authors recommend that inclusion of soil organisms in field studies to assess the nontarget effects of veterinary medicinal products be required only if earthworms or springtails exhibit sensitivity to the product in laboratory tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1959-1969. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. On the road of dung: hypothetical dispersal routes of dung beetles in the circum–Sicilian volcanic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, M.; Agoglitta, R.; Dawson, H.; Zunino, M.

    2016-07-01

    We analysed dung beetle communities on ten volcanic islands located around Sicily (Italy) to identify the most probable dispersal routes in the colonization of these islands. Assuming two scenarios, we analysed the dung beetle communities through the coefficient of dispersal direction DD2. Our results suggest that dispersal fluxes do not strictly follow the ‘stepping stone’ dynamic. Lipari and Vulcano are the likely core source areas for the north–of–Sicily area. In the Sicily Channel, Linosa appears to have been the main target area with three equivalent fluxes from Tunisia, Sicily, and Malta, while the fauna of Pantelleria resulted from their interchange and proximity to Tunisian fauna. In light of the congruence of our results with the known history of human movements and colonization, we propose a likely human contribution to the genesis of the dung beetle fauna of the circum–Sicilian volcanic islands. (Author)

  17. Can the trees save the soil? Biomass fuel consumption and dung use as manure in highland Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekonnen Getnet, Alemu (Addis Ababa Univ., Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)); Koehlin, Gunnar (Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Dung use as manure is limited partly because of dung consumption as fuel. Plantations are assumed to substitute fuelwood for dung as fuel. This study examines the determinants of: (1) decision to use dung as fuel and as manure and (2) woody biomass and dung consumption as fuel. The results suggest roles of credit, factor and product market imperfections and indicate wood and dung are complements as fuel. Implications include the need to focus on the asset poor and use of appropriate stove/energy types in attempts to address issues of limited manure use and significant dung use as fuel

  18. Anatomical organization of the brain of a diurnal and a nocturnal dung beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Dacke, Marie; Heinze, Stanley; El Jundi, Basil

    2017-06-01

    To avoid the fierce competition for food, South African ball-rolling dung beetles carve a piece of dung off a dung-pile, shape it into a ball and roll it away along a straight line path. For this unidirectional exit from the busy dung pile, at night and day, the beetles use a wide repertoire of celestial compass cues. This robust and relatively easily measurable orientation behavior has made ball-rolling dung beetles an attractive model organism for the study of the neuroethology behind insect orientation and sensory ecology. Although there is already some knowledge emerging concerning how celestial cues are processed in the dung beetle brain, little is known about its general neural layout. Mapping the neuropils of the dung beetle brain is thus a prerequisite to understand the neuronal network that underlies celestial compass orientation. Here, we describe and compare the brains of a day-active and a night-active dung beetle species based on immunostainings against synapsin and serotonin. We also provide 3D reconstructions for all brain areas and many of the fiber bundles in the brain of the day-active dung beetle. Comparison of neuropil structures between the two dung beetle species revealed differences that reflect adaptations to different light conditions. Altogether, our results provide a reference framework for future studies on the neuroethology of insects in general and dung beetles in particular. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Gefarnate stimulates mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dota A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atsuyoshi Dota, Yuko Takaoka-Shichijo, Masatsugu NakamuraOphthalmic Research and Development Center, Santen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Ikoma-shi, Nara, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gefarnate on mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in isolated rabbit conjunctival tissue, and on corneal epithelial damage in rabbit and cat dry-eye models.Methods: Conjunctival tissue isolated from rabbits was treated with gefarnate. Mucin-like glycoprotein was detected in the culture supernatant by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Gefarnate ointment was topically applied to eyes once daily for 7 days in the rabbit dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal glands, Harderian gland, and nictitating membrane were removed, or for 4 weeks in the cat dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal gland and nictitating membrane were removed. Corneal epithelial damage was evaluated by measurement of corneal permeability by rose bengal in the rabbit model or by fluorescein staining in the cat model.Results: Gefarnate stimulated mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue in a dose-dependent manner. In the rabbit dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment to the eyes resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in rose bengal permeability in the cornea, with the effect being significant at concentrations of ≥0.3%. In the cat dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment resulted in a significant decrease in the corneal fluorescein staining score.Conclusion: These results suggest that gefarnate stimulates in vitro secretion of mucin-like glycoprotein in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models. Gefarnate may therefore be effective for treating dry eye.Keywords: gefarnate, fluorescein staining, rose bengal permeability, rabbit, cat, dry eye

  20. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Wen Wang; Shean-Shong Tzean

    2015-01-01

    To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum); a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila); and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora). Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared ...

  1. Absence of endothermy in flightless dung beetles from southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-19

    Jun 19, 1987 ... Bartholomew & Heinrich (1978) found that when the diurnal species were rolling dung balls their Tmth was increased by endothermic means and then further elevated by solar radiation. However, these beetles still. Table 1 Metathoracic temperatures of Circe/lium bacchus during various activities. Activity.

  2. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ...

  3. PRODUCTION OF BIOG S FROM COW DUNG, WEEDS ND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-05-26

    May 26, 2017 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 10(4): 482 – 491, 2017. ISSN:1998- ... Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, ... Biogas production was carried out using cow dung, weeds, orange peelings and corn cob. ... This work is therefore aimed to.

  4. Effect of pig dung fertilizer on zooplankton production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-12-29

    Dec 29, 2014 ... Key-words: pig dung, fertilization, zooplankton production. ... an already widespread practice in many Asian countries (fukusho, et al., ..... Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company,. New York ... Effect on Water Quality, pond productivity and. Growth of ... McQueen DJ, Johannes MRS, Post JR, Stewart TJ, Lean.

  5. Rates of wood and dung disintegration in arid South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead shrubs lying on the soil surface in an arid shrubland in the southern Karoo have half-lives of 9 to 18 years depending on wood density which varies among species. Dung pellets of sheep and springbok can remain intact on the soil surface in Karoo shrubland and desert grassland for five years or more. Highlights the ...

  6. Dung matters : An experimental study into the effectiveness of using dung from hay-fed livestock to reconstruct local vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Mans; Van Haaster, Henk

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between standing vegetation and dung from hay-fed cattle and sheep. In an experimental study, hay is retrieved from a known hay field, surrounded by a semi-open landscape of hedgerows, forests and heather fields. The hay is fed to cattle and sheep, after which

  7. Impacts of feedlot floor condition, deposition frequency, and inhibitors on N2O and CH4 emissions from feedlot dung and urine patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenhua; Liu, Chunjing; Gao, Zhiling

    2018-04-09

    Patches of dung and urine are major contributors to the feedlot gas emissions. This study investigated the impacts of dung deposition frequency (partly reflecting animal stocking density of a feedlot), dairy feedlot floor conditions (old floor indicated with the presence of consolidated manure pad [CMP] vs. new floor with the absence of consolidated manure pad [CMPn]), and application of dicyandiamide (DCD) and hydroquinone (HQ) on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions from patches in the laboratory, and the integrative impacts were expressed in terms of global warming potential (CO 2 -equivalent). Dung deposition frequency, feedlot floor condition, and application of inhibitors showed inverse impacts on N 2 O and CH 4 emissions from patches. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the dung, urine, and dung+urine patches on the CMP feedlot surface were approximately 7.48, 87.35, and 7.10 times those on the CMPn feedlot surface (P emissions from CMP and CMPn feedlot surfaces under high deposition frequency condition were approximately 10 and 1.7 times those under low-frequency condition. Moreover, application of HQ slightly reduced the GHG emission from urine patches, by 14.9% (P > 0.05), while applying DCD or DCD+HQ significantly reduced the GHG, by 60.3% and 65.0%, respectively (P emission factors for feedlots. In the future, field measurements to quantitatively evaluate the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to the N 2 O emissions of feedlot surfaces are highly required for effective N 2 O control. This study shows that feedlot CH 4 and N 2 O emissions inversely respond to the dicyandiamide (DCD) application. Applying DCD significantly reduces GHG emissions of feedlot urine patches. Feedlot floor condition and stocking density strongly impact feedlot GHG emissions. Including feedlot floor condition and stocking density in the feedlot EF determining process is necessary.

  8. Evaluation of a Novel Artificial Tear in the Prevention and Treatment of Dry Eye in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Yujing; Li, Jinyang; Xiao, Bing; Lu, Huihui; Liu, Haixia; Simmons, Peter A; Vehige, Joseph G; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate effects of a novel multi-ingredient artificial tear formulation containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in a murine dry eye model. Dry eye was induced in mice (C57BL/6) using an intelligently controlled environmental system (ICES). CMC+HA (Optive Fusion™), CMC-only (Refresh Tears(®)), and HA-only (Hycosan(®)) artificial tears and control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were administered 4 times daily and compared with no treatment (n = 64 eyes per group). During regimen 1 (prevention regimen), mice were administered artificial tears or PBS for 14 days (starting day 0) while they were exposed to ICES, and assessed on days 0 and 14. During regimen 2 (treatment regimen), mice exposed to ICES for 14 days with no intervention were administered artificial tears or PBS for 14 days (starting day 14) while continuing exposure to ICES, and assessed on days 0, 14, and 28. Corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell density were measured. Artificial tear-treated mice had significantly better outcomes than control groups on corneal staining and goblet cell density (P dry eye. Improvements observed for corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell retention suggest that this combination may be a viable treatment option for dry eye disease.

  9. Effect of volatile and acid accumulation in dung digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, G; Pathak, B N

    1966-01-01

    In continuation of laboratory experiments on the anaerobic digestion of cow dung experiments were carried out to determine the limiting concentrations of volatile acids and to investigate methods of regenerating digestion after failure. Volatile acids were increased by adding acetic acid to digesting dung slurry; digestion failed completely when volatile-acid concentration was 6194 mg per litre, at pH 4.4. Attempts were made to regenerate digestion by adding lime, after dilution with water, but although over a period the volatile-acid content was reduced from 5650 to 3730 mg per litre, and the pH value rose on average from 4.5 to 6.3, gas production remained at a low value until additional digested slurry was introduced, leading to resumption of normal digestion.

  10. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Wen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum; a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila; and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora. Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared with allied fungal taxa.

  11. Dungeness Power Station off-site emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This off-site Emergency Plan in the event of an accidental release of radioactivity at the Dungeness Nuclear power station sets out the necessary management and coordination processes between Nuclear Electric, operators of the site, the emergency services and relevant local authorities. The objectives promoting the aim are identified and the activities which will be undertaken to protect the public and the environment in the event of an emergency are outlined. (UK)

  12. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L

    2016-01-05

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results, [corrected] and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  13. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  14. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  15. Co-Digestion of Napier Grass and Its Silage with Cow Dung for Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipa Prapinagsorn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methane production from co-digestion of grass with cow dung and silage with cow dung was conducted by a bioaugmentation technique. For self-fermentation, maximum methane yield (MY of 176.66 and 184.94 mL CH4/g-VSadded were achieved at a ratio of grass to cow dung and silage to cow dung of 1:1, respectively. A higher maximum MY of 179.59 and 208.11 mL CH4/g-VSadded was obtained from co-digestion of grass with cow dung and silage with cow dung bioaugmented with anaerobic sludge at a ratio of 3:1. The solid residue left over after co-digestion at a ratio of 3:1 was pretreated by alkaline plus enzyme before used to produce methane and a maximum MY of 333.63 and 301.38 mL CH4/g-VSadded, respectively, was achieved. Overall power generated from co-digestion of grass with cow dung plus pretreated solid residues and co-digestion of silage with cow dung plus pretreated solid residues were 0.0397 and 0.007 watt, respectively.

  16. effect of combined use of urea and goat dung manure on celosia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three field experiments were conducted to investigate the separate and combined effects of urea and goat dung manure on leaf nutrient contents, growth and yield of Celosia argentea in southwest Nigeria. Each experiment involved 7 treatments namely: no treatment, 10t/ha goat dung, 125 kg/ha urea, 125 kg/ha urea + ...

  17. POTENCY OF LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BUFFALO AND HORSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ELEPHANT DUNG FOR FEED FIBER DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wahyudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is limiting factor for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in rumen. Isolation andselection bacteria from buffalo and horse gastrointestinal tract and elephant dung could be foundbacteria that have superiority to degrade lignin, xylan, and cellulose. Those animals were chosenbecause they were herbivores that consume low quality crude fiber as their main energy sources.Lignocellulose degrading bacteria were isolated by Hungate selective media, by using lignin (tannicacid, xylan, and cellulose as selective substrates. The morphological identification used an enrichmentmedia by measuring color, colony size, diffusion zone, clear zone, and biochemical identification usingproduction of ligninase, xylanase, and cellulase enzymes. The best lignocellulose degrading bacteriathen was determined by the morphological and biochemical character. This study showed thatlignocellulose degrading bacteria could be found in gastrointestinal tract of buffalo and horse, andelephant dung. Highest number colony was found in samples from buffalo's colon (376, followed byhorse's cecum (203, elephant’s dung (46, buffalo’s cecum (23, buffalo's rumen (9 and horse’s colon(7. The highest isolates activity of lignolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic were reached by buffalo’scecum (7.64, horse's cecum (6.27, and buffalo’s colon (2.48. Meanwhile the highest enzymesproductivities were: buffalo’s cecum (0.0400 µmol, horse’s cecum (1.3912 µmol and buffalo’s colon(0.1971 µmol. Based on morphologycal character and biochemical test, it could be concluded thatlignolytic from buffalo’s cecum, xylanolytic from horse’s cecum, and cellulolytic from buffalo’s colonwere the superior isolates and they were 99% analyzed as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarumspecies.

  18. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  19. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

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    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  20. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung.

  1. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Scarabaeinae (dung beetles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Michael T; Inward, Daegan J G; Hunt, Toby; Vogler, Alfried P

    2007-11-01

    The dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) include ca. 5000 species and exhibit a diverse array of morphologies and behaviors. This variation presumably reflects the adaptation to a diversity of food types and the different strategies used to avoid competition for vertebrate dung, which is the primary breeding environment for most species. The current classification gives great weight to the major behavioral types, separating the ball rollers and the tunnelers, but existing phylogenetic studies have been based on limited taxonomic or biogeographic sampling and have been contradictory. Here, we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 214 species of Scarabaeinae, representing all 12 traditionally recognized tribes and six biogeographical regions, using partial gene sequences from one nuclear (28S) and two mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL) genes. Length variation in 28S (588-621 bp) and rrnL (514-523 bp) was subjected to a thorough evaluation of alternative alignments, gap-coding methods, and tree searches using model-based (Bayesian and likelihood), maximum parsimony, and direct optimization analyses. The small-bodied, non-dung-feeding Sarophorus+Coptorhina were basal in all reconstructions. These were closely related to rolling Odontoloma+Dicranocara, suggesting an early acquisition of rolling behavior. Smaller tribes and most genera were monophyletic, while Canthonini and Dichotomiini each consisted of multiple paraphyletic lineages at hierarchical levels equivalent to the smaller tribes. Plasticity of rolling and tunneling was evidenced by a lack of monophyly (S-H test, p > 0.05) and several reversals within clades. The majority of previously unrecognized clades were geographical, including the well-supported Neotropical Phanaeini+Eucraniini, and a large Australian clade of rollers as well as tunneling Coptodactyla and Demarziella. Only three lineages, Gymnopleurini, Copris+Microcopris and Onthophagus, were widespread and therefore appear to be dispersive at a global scale. A

  2. Collagen type I from bovine bone. Effect of animal age, bone anatomy and drying methodology on extraction yield, self-assembly, thermal behaviour and electrokinetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Sayd, Thierry; Chambon, Christophe; Anton, Marc; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2017-04-01

    Natural collagen is easily available from animal tissues such as bones. Main limitations reported in the use of natural collagen are heterogeneity and loss of integrity during recovery. However, its natural complexity, functionality and bioactivity still remain to be achieved through synthetic and recombinant ways. Variability of physicochemical properties of collagen extracted from bovine bone by acetic acid was then investigated taking into account endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous: bovine's bones age (4 and 7 years) and anatomy (femur and tibia); exogenous: thermal treatments (spray-drying and lyophilisation). Scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy (EDS, FTIR, UV/Vis and CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), centesimal composition, mass spectrometry, amino acids and zeta-potential analysis were used for the purpose. Age correlated negatively with yield of recovery and positively with minerals and proteoglycans content. Comparing the anatomy, higher yields were found for tibias, and higher stability of tibias collagen in solution was noticed. Whatever the age and the anatomy, collagens were able to renature and to self-assemble into tri-dimensional structures. Nonetheless thermal stability and kinetics of renaturation were different. Variability of natural collagen with bone age and anatomy, and drying methodology, may be a crucial advantage to conceive tailor-made applications in either the biological or technical sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance of the Nemertean Worm Carcinonemertes errans, an Egg Predator of the Dungeness Crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Paul H; Young, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries can be harsh habitats for the marine animals that enter them, but they may also provide these species with sub-saline refuges from their parasites. The nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans is known to occur less frequently and in smaller numbers on its host, the Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister, when the hosts are found within estuaries. We examined the temperature and salinity tolerances of C. errans to determine if this observed distribution represents a true salinity refuge. We monitored the survival of juvenile and larval worms exposed to ecologically relevant salinities (5-30) and temperatures (8-20 °C) over the course of several days under laboratory conditions. Juvenile worms were unaffected by the experimental temperature levels and exhibited robustness to salinity treatments 25 and 30. However, significant mortality was seen at salinity treatments 20 and below. Larvae were less tolerant than juveniles to lowered salinity and were also somewhat more susceptible to the higher temperatures tested. Given that the Dungeness crab can tolerate forays into mesohaline (salinity 5-18) waters for several days at a time, our findings suggest that salinity gradients play an important role in creating a parasite refuge for this species within the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  4. Eco-friendly waste water treatment by cow dung powder (adsorption studies of Cr(III), Cr(VI) and Cd(II) using tracer technique)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2010-01-01

    A rising quality of life with high rate of resource consumption have an unintended and negative impact on environment, generating waste hulk with far beyond handling capacities of mankind. The threat of water famine looms greatest as our rivers are poisoned due to urbanization and industrialization. To combat against water pollution and to find sustainable solution for the same, globally, we have embraced Green chemistry approach which is one of the Waste Management and Treatment Strategies. In the present investigation we have studied different parameters for the effective adsorption of heavy metal pollutant employing dry cow dung powder as a natural adsorbent. (author)

  5. Bearing selection in ball-rolling dung beetles: is it constant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

    2010-11-01

    Ball rolling in dung beetles is thought to have evolved as a means to escape intense inter- and intra-specific competition at the dung pile. Accordingly, dung beetles typically roll along a straight-line path away from the pile, this being the most effective escape strategy for transporting dung to a suitable burial site. In this study, we investigate how individual diurnal dung beetles, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus, select the compass bearing of their straight-line rolls. In particular, we examine whether roll bearings are constant with respect to geographic cues, celestial cues, or other environmental cues (such as wind direction). Our results reveal that the roll bearings taken by individual beetles are not constant with respect to geographic or celestial references. Environmental cues appear to have some influence over bearing selection, although the relationship is not strong. Furthermore, the variance in roll bearing that we observe is not affected by the presence or absence of other beetles. Thus, rather than being constant for individual beetles, bearing selection varies each time a beetle makes a ball and rolls it away from the dung pile. This strategy allows beetles to make an efficient escape from the dung pile while minimizing the chance of encountering competition.

  6. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José R.; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J.; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin’s effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung.

  7. Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

    2012-12-01

    Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P pastures (P dairy heifers can be co-grazed with goats without negative effects on ADG or feed efficiency.

  8. Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles: experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHABUDDIN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Shahabuddin (2011 Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles: experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 177-181. The deforestation of tropical forests and their subsequent conversion to human-dominated land-use systems is one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss. However clear understanding of the links between ecological functions and biodiversity is needed to evaluate and predict the true environmental consequences of human activities. This study provided experimental evidence comparing ecosystem function of dung beetles across a land use gradient ranging from natural tropical forest and agroforestry systems to open cultivated areas in Central Sulawesi. Therefore, standardized dung pats were exposed at each land-use type to assess dung removal and parasite suppression activity by dung beetles. The results showed that ecosystem function of dung beetles especially dung burial activity were remarkably disrupted by land use changes from natural forest to open agricultural area. Dung beetles presence enhanced about 53% of the total dung removed and reduced about 83% and 63% of fly population and species number respectively, indicating a pronounce contribution of dung beetles in our ecosystem.

  9. Animal models to assess the therapeutic efficacy of human serum and serum-converted platelet lysates for dry eye syndrome: Seeing is believing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    There is much interest in the clinical use of serum-converted human blood or platelet concentrates in regenerative medicine, most specifically for wound healing and tissue repair of soft and hard tissues. The scientific rationale supporting the clinical efficacy of these preparations is based on the expectation that their physiological mixture of natural growth factors can orchestrate cell expansion and differentiation in vivo. However, a lack of standardization and regulatory oversight of these blood materials maintain a perception of uncertainty in the scientific and medical community on the value of these preparations for some clinical indications. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism of action underlying their expected efficacy and standardize their use, and benefit from their biological versatility. One application of serum is as eye drop for treating dry eye syndrome (DES), a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface, which has a prevalence of 15% of more in the population. DES can lead to chronic inflammation of the ocular surface, surface impairment in the cornea and conjunctiva, and, in patients with Sjogren syndrome, result in a disruption of the ocular surface epithelium. Objective experimental assessment of safety and efficacy of serum eye drops can help establish scientific rationale in optimal product composition and use. This can be achieved, first, through cell cultures with relevant cell models, before considering, then, animal studies using DES animal models. Several models have been evaluated and are reported in this concise review. The model we have developed encompasses the use of rabbits, where their eyes are treated with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a common preservative in ophthalmic agents, 3 times daily for 4 weeks. This relatively mild treatment results in moderate DES pathology, with a stable shortage of tear secretion throughout a 7-week study period, which we found suitable for assessing efficacy of serum eye

  10. Quantifying Beetle-Mediated Effects on Gas Fluxes from Dung Pats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Atte; Slade, Eleanor M.; Simojoki, Asko; Riutta, Terhi; Minkkinen, Kari; Roslin, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest contributors of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) responsible for global warming. Measurements of gas fluxes from dung pats suggest that dung is a source of GHGs, but whether these emissions are modified by arthropods has not been studied. A closed chamber system was used to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from dung pats with and without dung beetles on a grass sward. The presence of dung beetles significantly affected the fluxes of GHGs from dung pats. Most importantly, fresh dung pats emitted higher amounts of CO2 and lower amounts of CH4 per day in the presence than absence of beetles. Emissions of N2O showed a distinct peak three weeks after the start of the experiment – a pattern detected only in the presence of beetles. When summed over the main grazing season (June–July), total emissions of CH4 proved significantly lower, and total emissions of N2O significantly higher in the presence than absence of beetles. While clearly conditional on the experimental conditions, the patterns observed here reveal a potential impact of dung beetles on gas fluxes realized at a small spatial scale, and thereby suggest that arthropods may have an overall effect on gas fluxes from agriculture. Dissecting the exact mechanisms behind these effects, mapping out the range of conditions under which they occur, and quantifying effect sizes under variable environmental conditions emerge as key priorities for further research. PMID:23940758

  11. Development of bio-gas using crop wastes and pig dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crop wastes on the production of pig dung bio-gas was investigated. Beans husks, peels of cassava, plantain and yam were processed with fresh dung of pig. Bacterial and fungal counts in the digesting materials ranged from 1.5 x 1011cfu/ml to 3.5 x 1011cfu/ml and 0.8 x 1011sfu/ml to 1.4 x1011sfu/ml respectively.

  12. Biogas production enhancement by soya sludge amendment in cattle dung digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyanarayan, Shanta; Ramakant; Shivayogi [WWT Division, NEERI, Nagpur 400 020 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Biogas energy production from cattle dung is an economically feasible and eco-friendly in nature. But dependence only on cattle dung is a limiting factor. Rich nitrogen containing substrate addition to extra carbohydrate digester like cattle dung could improve the biogas production. Detailed performance of the digesters at different ratios of cattle dung and soya sludge has been discussed in this paper considering the cold countries climate. Soya sludge substrate not only has high nitrogen content of 4.0-4.8% but it also has high percentage of volatile solids content in the range of 97.8-98.8%. Soya sludge addition also improved the manurial value of the digested slurry and also improved the dewater-ability of the sludge. Results indicated an increment of 27.0% gas production at 25.0% amendment of soya sludge in non-homogenized cattle dung (NCD) digester. The amount of gas production increased to 46.4% in case of homogenized cattle dung (HCD) with respect to NCD feed at the same amendment. (author)

  13. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value–added chemical levulinic acid (LA in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg, mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  14. Succession and Abundance of Staphylinidae in Cattle Dung in Uberlândia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Anderson Guimarães

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fimicolous Staphylinidae prey on rearing dipterous in cattle dung, acting as their natural controllers, including pests such as horn fly. To survey the abundance and succession of these coleopterans in cattle dung deposited in pasture, six experiments were conducted from March to October 1995 in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cattle dung pats were exposed at a pasture for 1 hr, 8 hr, 24 hr, 2, 3, 7 and 10 days and were than taken to laboratory separate from each other, for Staphylinidae extraction. A total of 156 dung pats were exposed at pasture, from which 6225 Staphylinidae were recovered. Representing at least 30 species. Staphylinidae sp.1 (29.6%, Philonthus flavolimbatus (22.2%, Heterothops sp.1 (16.6%, Oxytelus sp.2 (7.6%, Aleochara sp.2 (7.6% and Criptobium sp.1 (4.4% were the most abundant, representing 87.8% from the total. The increased frequency of the majority of these species along the dung exposition time at pasture, indicated tha, they would be preying on at all the immature stages of the dipterous, or eggs and first instar larvae of species that lay eggs on the dung after its second exposition day at the pasture

  15. Selenium-binding lactoferrin is taken into corneal epithelial cells by a receptor and prevents corneal damage in dry eye model animals

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiro Higuchi; Hiroyoshi Inoue; Yoshio Kaneko; Erina Oonishi; Kazuo Tsubota

    2016-01-01

    The ocular surface is strongly affected by oxidative stress, which causes many ocular diseases including dry eye. Previously, we showed that selenium compounds, e.g., selenoprotein P and Se-lactoferrin, were candidates for treatment of dry eye. This paper shows the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin for the treatment of dry eye compared with Diquas as a control drug using two dry eye models and incorporation of lactoferrin into corneal epithelial cells via lactoferrin receptors. We show the efficacy ...

  16. Topical treatment of calves with synthetic pyrethroids: effects on the non-target dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    2001-01-01

    from calves dosed with topical preparations of deltamethrin, flumethrin, cyfluthrin, and - cypermethrin. Larval mortality was significantly increased in dung collected up to at least seven days after treatment with deltamethrin, -cypermethrin and cyfluthrin. Alpha-cypermethrin caused significant......). Fluctuating asymmetry of a wing vein character did not reflect the anticipated levels of exposure. The study strongly indicated that the use of synthetic pyrethroids affected the insect dung fauna and that such use may reduce dung decomposition....

  17. Analysis of the efficacy of Taiwanese freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom against Naja kaouthia, Naja siamensis and Ophiophagus hannah through proteomics and animal model approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chun; You, Chen-Hsien; Wang, Po-Jung; Yu, Jau-Song; Huang, Guo-Jen; Liu, Chien-Hsin; Hsieh, Wen-Chin; Lin, Chih-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    In Southeast Asia, envenoming resulting from cobra snakebites is an important public health issue in many regions, and antivenom therapy is the standard treatment for the snakebite. Because these cobras share a close evolutionary history, the amino acid sequences of major venom components in different snakes are very similar. Therefore, either monovalent or polyvalent antivenoms may offer paraspecific protection against envenomation of humans by several different snakes. In Taiwan, a bivalent antivenom-freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom (FNAV)-against Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra is available. However, whether this antivenom is also capable of neutralizing the venom of other species of snakes is not known. Here, to expand the clinical application of Taiwanese FNAV, we used an animal model to evaluate the neutralizing ability of FNAV against the venoms of three common snakes in Southeast Asia, including two 'true' cobras Naja kaouthia (Thailand) and Naja siamensis (Thailand), and the king cobra Ophiophagus hannah (Indonesia). We further applied mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic techniques to characterize venom proteomes and identify FNAV-recognizable antigens in the venoms of these Asian snakes. Neutralization assays in a mouse model showed that FNAV effectively neutralized the lethality of N. kaouthia and N. siamensis venoms, but not O. hannah venom. MS-based venom protein identification results further revealed that FNAV strongly recognized three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2, the major protein components of N. kaouthia and N. siamensis venoms. The characterization of venom proteomes and identification of FNAV-recognizable venom antigens may help researchers to further develop more effective antivenom designed to block the toxicity of dominant toxic proteins, with the ultimate goal of achieving broadly therapeutic effects against these cobra snakebites.

  18. Selenium-binding lactoferrin is taken into corneal epithelial cells by a receptor and prevents corneal damage in dry eye model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Akihiro; Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kaneko, Yoshio; Oonishi, Erina; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-11-11

    The ocular surface is strongly affected by oxidative stress, which causes many ocular diseases including dry eye. Previously, we showed that selenium compounds, e.g., selenoprotein P and Se-lactoferrin, were candidates for treatment of dry eye. This paper shows the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin for the treatment of dry eye compared with Diquas as a control drug using two dry eye models and incorporation of lactoferrin into corneal epithelial cells via lactoferrin receptors. We show the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin eye drops in the tobacco smoke exposure rat dry eye model and short-term rabbit dry eye model, although Diquas eye drops were only effective in the short-term rabbit dry eye model. These results indicate that Se-lactoferrin was useful in the oxidative stress-causing dry eye model. Se-lactoferrin was taken into corneal epithelium cells via lactoferrin receptors. We identified LRP1 as the lactoferrin receptor in the corneal epithelium involved in lactoferrin uptake. Se-lactoferrin eye drops did not irritate the ocular surface of rabbits. Se-lactoferrin was an excellent candidate for treatment of dry eye, reducing oxidative stress by a novel mechanism.

  19. [Research on compatibility of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung based on complex network analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Wen; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Ling-Shan; Wang, Cong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    The applications of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung in contemporary literatures from 1949 to 2016 are compiled and the data mining techniques containing scale-free complex network method are utilized to explore its practical characteristics, with comparison between modern and ancient ones. The results indicate that malignant neoplasms, coronary heart disease which present Qi deficiency and blood stasis type are the main diseases treated by prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung according to the reports during 1949 to 2016. The complex network connection shows that Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma are the primary drugs related to Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. The next are Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Persicae Semen, Foria, et al. Carthami Flos, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Cyperi Rhizoma, Bupleuri Radix are the peripheral ones. Also, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Astragali Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix are the main paired drugs. The paired drugs including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Typhae Pollen have a higher support degree. The main compatible drugs are different in ancient and modern prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix are utilized frequently in modern prescriptions while less used in ancient ones. It is also shown

  20. Anaerobic digestion of buffalo dung: simulation of process kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of kinetic of AD (Anaerobic Digestion) is a beneficial practice to forecast the performance of the process. It is helpful in the design of AD vessels, substrate feeding and digestate exit systems. The aim of this work was to assess the kinetics of anaerobically digested buffalo dung at different quantities of water added. It comprises the assessment of the specific methane production on the basis of VS (Volatile Solids) added in each reactor by using three first order models, i.e. the modified Gompertz model, the Cone model and the Exponential Curve Factor model. The analysis was tested by using the three statistical parameters, i.e. the coefficient of multiple determinations, the standard deviation of residuals and the Akaike's Information Criteria. The result reveals that the Exponential Curve Factor model was the best model that described the experimental data well. Moreover, there was not a direct or indirect relation between the kinetic coefficients of the AD process with the varying total or volatile solid content. (author)

  1. The effect of a nematode parasite on feeding and dung-burying behavior of an ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boze, Broox G V; Moore, Janice

    2014-07-01

    Dung beetles (genus Phanaeus) consume feces in both their larval and adults forms and because of their unique dietary niche, and behaviors associated with the burial of feces, are considered ecosystem engineers. In addition, because these insects subsist on a diet composed exclusively of feces, it is likely they encounter parasitic propagules more frequently than other animals do. Parasites often alter their host's behavior, so we set out to test whether Physocephalus sexalatus (a cosmopolitan nematode parasite of ungulates) does so in ways that affect the dung beetle's role as an ecosystem engineer and/or its predator-prey relationships (transmission of the parasite). Classic tests of anti-predator behavior did not reveal behavioral differences based on the beetles' infection status. However, this parasite did alter the beetles' behaviors in ways that could be critical for its role in fecal processing and therefore ecosystem engineering. Infected beetles exhibited anorexic behavior and consumed only half the amount of feces ingested by similar uninfected beetles. Infected beetles also buried less feces and did so in tunnels that were significantly shorter than those created by uninfected beetles. Fecal burial is naturally beneficial because it aerates the soil, incorporates nitrogenous compounds, and increases the flow of water thereby making soil and pastureland more productive. We showed that the nematode parasite P. sexalatus itself becomes an ecosystem engineer as it modifies the behavior of its already influential intermediate host. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A comparison of the effects of dietary spray-dried bovine colostrum and animal plasma on growth and intestinal histology in weaner pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, M.R.; Morel, P.C.H.; Pluske, J.R.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary spray-dried bovine and porcine plasma and spray-dried bovine colostrum on growth performance and intestinal histology in weaner pigs. Thirty-two 21-day-old piglets (6.65 ± 0.14 kg) were allocated to receive one of four dietary

  3. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Calixto Campos

    Full Text Available Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h, a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  4. Diurnal dung beetles use the intensity gradient and the polarization pattern of the sky for orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Jundi, Basil; Smolka, Jochen; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie

    2014-07-01

    To escape competition at the dung pile, a ball-rolling dung beetle forms a piece of dung into a ball and rolls it away. To ensure their efficient escape from the dung pile, beetles rely on a 'celestial compass' to move along a straight path. Here, we analyzed the reliability of different skylight cues for this compass and found that dung beetles rely not only on the sun but also on the skylight polarization pattern. Moreover, we show the first evidence of an insect using the celestial light-intensity gradient for orientation. Using a polarizer, we manipulated skylight so that the polarization pattern appeared to turn by 90 deg. The beetles then changed their bearing close to the expected 90 deg. This behavior was abolished if the sun was visible to the beetle, suggesting that polarized light is hierarchically subordinate to the sun. When the sky was depolarized and the sun was invisible, the beetles could still move along straight paths. Therefore, we analyzed the use of the celestial light-intensity gradient for orientation. Artificial rotation of the intensity pattern by 180 deg caused beetles to orient in the opposite direction. This light-intensity cue was also found to be subordinate to the sun and could play a role in disambiguating the polarization signal, especially at low sun elevations. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Renata Calixto; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h), a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional) associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  6. Bio-Inspired Design and Kinematic Analysis of Dung Beetle-Like Legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aditya, Sai Krishna Venkata; Ignasov, Jevgeni; Filonenko, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    The African dung beetle Scarabaeus galenus can use its front legs to walk and manipulate or form a dung ball. The interesting multifunctional legs have not been fully investigated or even used as inspiration for robot leg design. Thus, in this paper, we present the development of real dung beetle......-like front legs based on biological investigation. As a result, each leg consists of three main segments which were built using 3D printing. The segments were combined with in total four active DOFs in order to mimic locomotion and object manipulation of the beetle. Kinematics analysis of the leg was also...... performed to identify its workspace as well as to design its trajectory. To this end, the study contributes not only novel multifunctional robotic legs but also the methodology of the bio-inspired leg design....

  7. The veterinary drug ivermectin influences immune response in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Helen M.; Tracy, Saoirse R.

    2009-01-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme involved in the immune response of insects. We show that egg-to-adult exposure to residues of 0.001, but not 0.0005 mg kg -1 ivermectin elevated PO activity in yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) developing in cattle dung. Fly fat content was unaffected by the treatments. Therefore, the response of PO was a direct effect of ivermectin and not an indirect one caused by an alteration in body 'condition'. This supports the non-intuitive conclusion that flies surviving exposure to faecal residues may have enhanced immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effects on PO activity of insecticidal residues in livestock dung. The non-target effects of such residues are of wide interest, given the global use of veterinary products. - Phenoloxidase activity in Scathophaga stercoraria is enhanced by ivermectin and that effect is transferred to the adult fly from the larval stage

  8. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  9. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  10. Isolation and determination of ivermectin in post-mortem and in vivo tissues of dung beetles using a continuous solid phase extraction method followed by LC-ESI+-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J Ortiz

    Full Text Available A new analytical method based on solvent extraction, followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE clean-up using a polymeric sorbent, was demonstrated to be applicable for the detection of ivermectin in complex biological matrices of dung beetles (hemolymph, excreta or dry tissues using liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI+-MS/MS. Using a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD in the insect matrices at trace levels was 0.01 ng g-1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ was 0.1 ng g-1. The proposed method was successfully used to quantitatively determine the levels of ivermectin in the analysis of small samples in in vivo and post mortem samples, demonstrating the usefulness for quantitative analyses that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects and the establishment of a new protocol to study the impact of ivermectin on non-target arthropods such as dung beetles and other insects that are related with the "dung community". Because satisfactory precision and accuracy values were obtained in both in vivo matrices, we suggest that the method can be consistently used for quantitative determinations that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects. Furthermore, this new analytical method was successfully applied to biological samples of dead dung beetles from the field suggesting that the method can be used to establish a new routine analysis of ivermectin residues in insect carcasses that is applied to complement typical mortality tests.

  11. Effects of initiating anaerobic digestion of layer-hen poultry dung at sub-atmospheric pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of initiating anaerobic digestion (AD of dry layer-hen poultry dung at the sub-atmospheric pressure of -30 cmHg on biodegradation, biogasification, and biomethanation. The setup was performed as a batch process at an average ambient temperature of 29±2 0C and a retention time of 15 days. Comparisons were made with two other experiments which were both begun at ambient atmospheric pressure; one was inoculated with digestate from a previous layer-hen dung AD, while the other was not inoculated. The bioreactors initiated at sub-atmospheric pressure, ambient atmospheric pressure without inoculum, and ambient atmospheric pressure with inoculum showed the following for biogas and biomethane yields respectively: 16.8 cm3 g-1 VS and 15.46 cm3 g 1 VS, 25.10 cm3 g-1 VS and 12.85 cm3 g-1 VS, 21.44 cm3 g-1 VS and 14.88 cm3 g 1 VS. In the same order, after AD, the following values were recorded for volatile solids and total viable counts (prokaryotes and fungi in the digestates: 40.33% and 23.22 x 106 cfu mL-1, 43.42% and 22.17 x 106 cfu mL-1, 41.11% and 13.3 x 106 cfu mL-1. The feedstock showed values of 83.93% and 3.98 x 106 cfu mL-1 for volatile solids and total viable count respectively. There was a slight difference in the volatile solids of the digestates of the three bioreactors after AD. The pH recorded for the feedstock slurry before AD was 7.9 at 30oC, while after AD, the digestates from all the three bioreactors showed the same pH of 5.9 at 29 0C. Statistical analysis using ANOVA showed no significant difference in biogas yields of the feedstock for the three bioreactors (A, B, C. ANOVA showed no significant difference for biomethane yields in the bioreactors initiated at sub-atmospheric pressure and for those initiated at ambient atmospheric pressure with inoculums. However, it showed significant difference in the bioreactor initiated at sub-atmospheric pressure and that initiated at ambient atmospheric

  12. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scaraebidae) at several different ecosystem functions in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    Dung beetles has known for its bioindicator characteristic. Sensitive towards forest disturbance, dung beetles population and diversity will be less in disturbed and modified area. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diversity and distribution of dung beetles in different type of ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen baited pitfall traps aligned in three transects were used in this study. Samples were collected after 24 h and repeated three time collections and identified afterwards. Two ecosystem types were selected, which are forested and agricultural ecosystem (livestock and plantation). A total of 4249 individuals, 47 species, in 11 genera was successfully collected from all localities. The H' index for Fraser Hill, Langkawi, Bangi Reserve Forest, Selangor (HSB), Sungkai Reserve Forest, Perak (SRF), Chini Lake, Bera Lake, chicken farm, goat farm, Longan plantation, and palm oil plantation were 1.58, 1.74, 2.17, 2.63, 1.80, 1.52, 1.63, 0.46, 0.00 and 1.98 respectively.Forest ecosystem, SRF shows the highest abundance (1486 individuals) and diversity, while for agricultural ecosystem,palm oil plantation shows the highest with 273 individuals and 16 species. Based onDetrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) shows two groups that separate forest ecosystem with the agricultural ecosystem, with palm oil is the nearest to the forest. Palm oil ecosystem can sustain a dung beetles population due to the area can provide the requirements for the dung beetles to survive, such as food which comes from local domestic cows, shade from sunlight provide by the palm oil trees, and ground cover from small plants and shrubs.Even though modified ecosystem should have lower diversity of dung beetles, but some factors must be measured as well in order to have a better point of view.

  13. Cow dung: a potential biomass substrate for the production of detergent-stable dehairing protease by alkaliphilic Bacillus subtilis strain VV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Ponnuswamy; Vijayan, Aija; Arun, Arumugaperumal; Jenisha, John Kennady; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Cow dung, a cheap and easily available source of energy, was used as the substrate for the production of alkaline protease by solid-state fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis strain VV. In order to achieve the maximum yield of this enzyme, the following optimum process parameters are needed: fermentation period (72 h), pH (10.0), moisture content (140%), inoculum (25%), temperature (30-40°C), carbon source (2% (w/w) maltose) and nitrogen source (1% (w/w) urea). The protease was stable over a broad temperature range (30-50°C) and pH (8.0-10.0), with maximum activity at 50°C and pH 10.0. Among the divalent ions tested, Ca(2+) (0.01 M) increased enzyme activity. The purified protease, after being subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was found to have a molecular mass of 38.5 kDa. The enzyme was solvent-and surfactant-stable and showed activity even after 24 h incubation along with various commercially available detergents. This enzyme possessed dehairing properties for animal hide after 16 h of incubation at room temperature. From these results it is evident that cow dung is a potential substrate for the production of a detergent-stable, dehairing protease by B. subtilis. This enzyme has a lot of potential applications in the detergent and leather-processing industries.

  14. effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... ABSTRACT. Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for. Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The.

  15. Effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The trials consisted of factorial ...

  16. Response of fed dung composted with rock phosphate on yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted on silty clay loam soil at the research farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar to study the effect of RP fed dung composted with RP on the yield, yield components and P uptake of maize (Zea mays. L. Azam). The fertilizers, N, P and K, were applied at the rate of 120- ...

  17. Annotated checklist of dung-associated beetles of the Savanna Ecosystem Project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Endrody-Younga, S

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the composition, biology and impact of the arthropod fauna associated with dung and other decaying matter was carried out on the Nylsvley Nature Reserve and on a neighbouring farm from June 1975 to July 1976. A total of 100 638 specimens...

  18. Effect of composting of palm oil mill wastes and cow dung or poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of shelter and different type of manure on degradation of palm oil mills wastes during composting and on growth and yield of African spinach (Amaranthus hybridus) grown on acrisol . Methodology and results: Palm oil mills wastes were composted, with poultry manure or cow dung with and ...

  19. Effect of Temperature and PH on Biogas Production from Cow Dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feed, temperature and pH on biogas production was investigated using 500 ml small scale laboratory flasks. Feed containing cow dung and dog faeces produced the most biogas for small scale experiments. The combinations were scaled up to assess the feasibility of producing biogas from two 150 L ...

  20. Biogas from mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cow dung using gelatin as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Bodius; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Sikder, Md Asif R.; Islam, Majedul

    2017-06-01

    A research work was conducted to investigate the enhanced production ability of biogas from mesophilic anaerobic digestions of cow dung (CD) using gelatin as additive. Five laboratory scale digesters were constructed to digest cow dung, where one set up was used for digestion of cow dung without additive and the other set up were used for digestion with additive. Gelatin additive was added in the slurry of amount 0.29, 0,57, 0.85 and 1.14% (wt.). The digesters were made of glass conical flask of 1-liter capacity each. Cow dung was used 335 gm and water was used 365 gm in each experiment. In the slurry, total solid content was maintained 8% (wt.) for all the observations. The digesters were fed on batch basis. The digesters were operated at ambient temperatures of 26 - 35°C. The total gas yield was obtained about 14.4 L/kg CD for digestion without additive and about 65% more biogas for digestion with 0.29% gelatin additive. The retention time for digestion without additive was 38 days and with additive retention time varied between 24 and 52 days.

  1. Assessment of Mesophilic Co-Digestion of Cow Dung with Lemon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scarcity of energy (fossil) and its attendant pollution menace have provided the avenue to consider alternative sources of energy. A study was carried out on the design and construction of an Anaerobic Digester system using 1mm galvanized steel for the production of biogas from co-digestion of Cow dung and Lemon ...

  2. Effects of poultry manure and cow dung on the physical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted in the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria to investigate the potentials of using poultry manure and cow dung as bioremediants for crude oil polluted soils. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized ...

  3. Ivermectin excreted in cattle dung after subcutaneous injection or pour-on treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Steffansen, B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1992-01-01

    Heifers were treated with the recommended doses of ivermectin: 0.2 mg/kg bw by subcutaneous injection or 0.5 mg/kg bw by pour-on. An analytic procedure is described and used for the detection of ivermectin residues excreted in dung. A large amount of the higher pour-on dose was excreted during th...

  4. Benzene bioremediation using cow dung microflora in two phase partitioning bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dipty [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098 (India); Fulekar, M.H., E-mail: mhfulekar@yahoo.com [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Bioremediation of benzene has been carried out using cow dung microflora in a bioreactor. The bioremediation of benzene under the influence of cow dung microflora was found to be 100% and 67.5%, at initial concentrations of 100 mg/l and 250 mg/l within 72 h and 168 h respectively; where as at higher concentration (500 mg/l), benzene was found to be inhibitory. Hence the two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) has been designed and developed to carryout biodegradation at higher concentration. In TPPB 5000 mg/l benzene was biodegraded up to 50.17% over a period of 168 h. Further the Pseudomonas putida MHF 7109 was isolated from cow dung microflora as potential benzene degrader and its ability to degrade benzene at various concentrations was evaluated. The data indicates 100%, 81% and 65% degradation at the concentrations of 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l, 250 mg/l within the time period of 24 h, 96 h and 168 h respectively. The GC-MS data also shows the presence of catechol and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which confirms the established pathway of benzene biodegradation. The present research proves the potential of cow dung microflora as a source of biomass for benzene biodegradation in TPPB.

  5. Biogas from mesophilic digestion of cow dung using charcoal and gelatin as additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Salam, Bodius; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2017-06-01

    Biogas, a source of renewable energy is produced from bacteria in the process of biodegradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. A research work was performed to find out the production of biogas from cow dung using charcoal and gelatin as additives. Five laboatory scale experimental set-up were constructed using 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% gelatin with cow dung as additive to perform the research work. For all the set-up 0.5% charcoal was also added. All the set-ups were made from 1-liter capacity conical flask. The amount of water and cow dung was used respectively 382 gm. and 318 gm. in every set-up. Total solid content was maintained 8% throughout all set-ups. The digesters were operated at ambient temperature of 26°-32°C. The total gas yield without using gelatin additive was found to be 12 L/kg cow dung. The maximum gas yield was found from 0.2% gelatin additive and 23% more as compared to without gelatin gas production. The retention time varied from 28 to 79 days for the experiments.

  6. A field test of the effect of spiked ivermectin concentrations on the biodiversity of coprophagous dung insects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, Ralf; Lipkow, Erhard; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2016-08-01

    Veterinary medical product residues can cause severe damage in the dung ecosystem. Depending on the manner of application and the time after treatment, the excreted concentration of a given pharmaceutical varies. The popular anthelmintic drug ivermectin can be applied to livestock in several different ways and is fecally excreted over a period of days to months after application. In a field experiment replicated in summer and autumn, the authors mixed 6 ivermectin concentrations plus a null control into fresh cow dung to assess the reaction of the dung insect community. Taxon richness of the insect dung fauna emerging from the dung, but not Hill diversity ((1) D) or the total number of individuals (abundance), decreased as ivermectin concentration increased. Corresponding declines in the number of emerging insects were found for most larger brachyceran flies and hymenopteran parasitoids, but not for most smaller nematoceran flies or beetles (except Hydrophilidae). Parallel pitfall traps recovered all major dung organism groups that emerged from the experimental dung, although at times in vastly different numbers. Ivermectin generally did not change the attractiveness of dung: differences in emergence therefore reflect differences in survival of coprophagous offspring of colonizing insects. Because sample size was limited to 6 replicates, the authors generally recommend more than 10 (seasonal) replicates and also testing higher concentrations than used in the present study as positive controls in future studies. Results accord with parallel experiments in which the substance was applied and passed through the cow's digestive system. In principle, therefore, the authors' experimental design is suitable for such higher-tier field tests of the response of the entire dung community to pharmaceutical residues, at least for ivermectin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1947-1952. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Dung Beetles Associated with Agroecosystems of Southern Brazil: Relationship with Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Menegaz de Farias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the biodiversity of dung beetles in agricultural and livestock environments is the basis for understanding the contribution that these organisms make in nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of copronecrophagous dung beetle communities inhabiting the main agroecosystems in southern Brazil and correlate the presence of these organisms with soil properties. From December 2012 to April 2013, samples of dung beetles were taken in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil (28° 28’ S; 48° 56’ W in corn, bean, and sugarcane crops, and in cattle pastures. Beetles were captured in 16 sampling sites, four from each agroecosystem, following a standardized methodology: 10 baited pitfall traps (feces and rotting meat at a spacing of 50 m with exposure for 48 h. The beetles were identified, weighed, and measured. Soil analyses were performed in order to correlate data on organic matter, texture, macro and micronutrients, and pH with data on the abundance of beetle species using canonical correspondence analysis. A total of 110 individuals belonging to 10 species of dung beetles was found. Twenty-four individuals from seven species (with total biomass of 2.4 g were found in the corn crop; five individuals from three species (1.8 g were found in the bean crop; 81 individuals from nine species (30.3 g were found in cattle pasture areas; and lastly, there were no dung beetles recorded in the sugarcane crop. In areas of cattle grazing, the tunnelers Dichotomius nisus and Trichillum externepunctatum correlated positively with organic matter content, whereas the roller species Canthon chalybaeus correlated positively with soil texture, preferring sandier soils. In corn crop areas, D. nisus was again correlated with organic matter content. Paracoprid dung beetle species were correlated with organic matter content in the soil, and species belonging to the roller

  8. Using cow dung and spent coffee grounds to enhance the two-stage co-composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cow dung (CD) (at 0%, 20%, and 35%) and/or spent coffee grounds (SCGs) (at 0%, 30%, and 45%) as amendments in the two-stage co-composting of green waste (GW); the percentages refer to grams of amendment per 100g of GW based on dry weights. The combined addition of CD and SCGs improved the conditions during co-composting and the quality of the compost product in terms of composting temperature; particle-size distribution; mechanical properties; nitrogen changes; low-molecular weight compounds; humic substances; the degradation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose; enzyme activities; the contents of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium; and the toxicity to germinating seeds. The combined addition of 20% CD and 45% SCGs to GW resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product and did so in only 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The novel kinetics expression of Cadmium (II) removal using green adsorbent horse dung humic acid (Hd-Ha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Rahmat; Santosa, Sri Juari; Rusdiarso, Bambang

    2017-03-01

    Humic acid from dry horse dung powder has been prepared and this horse dung humic acid (HD-HA) was then applied as a sorbent to adsorb Cadmium(II) from a solution. Characterization of HD-HA was conducted by detection of its functional group, UV-Vis spectra, ash level, and total acidity. Result of the work showed that HD-HA had similar character compared with peat soil humic acid (PS-HA) and previous researchers. The adsorption study of this work was investigated by batch experiment in pH 5. The thermodynamics parameters in this work were determined by the Langmuir isotherm model for monolayer sorption and Freundlich isotherm model multilayer sorption. Monolayer sorption capacity (b) for HD-HA was 1.329 × 10-3 mol g-1, equilibrium constant (K) was 5.651 (mol/L)-1, and multilayer sorption capacity was 2.646 × 10-2 mol g-1. The kinetics parameters investigated in this work were determined by the novel kinetics expression resulted from the mathematical derivation the availability of binding sites of sorbent. Adsorption rate constant (ka) from this novel expression was 43.178 min-1 (mol/L)-1 and desorption rate constant (kd) was 1.250 × 10-2 min-1. Application of the kinetics model on sorption Cd(II) onto HD-HA showed the nearly all of models gave a good linearity. However, only this proposed kinetics expression has good relation with Langmuir model. The novel kinetics expression proposed in this paper seems to be more realistic and reasonable and close to the experimental real condition because the value of ka/kd (3452 (mol/L)-1) was fairly close with K from Langmuir isotherm model (5651 (mol/L)-1). Comparison of this novel kinetics expression with well-known Lagergren pseudo-first order kinetics and Ho pseudo-second order kinetics was also critically discussed in this paper.

  10. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  11. Laboratory Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon – Polluted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory–scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients.Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.

  12. Collagen type I from bovine bone. Effect of animal age, bone anatomy and drying methodology on extraction yield, self-assembly, thermal behaviour and electrokinetic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Sayd, Thierry; Chambon, Christophe; Anton, Marc; Sante-Lhoutellier, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    Natural collagen is easily available from animal tissues such as bones. Main limitations reported in the use of natural collagen are heterogeneity and loss of integrity during recovery. However, its natural complexity, functionality and bioactivity still remain to be achieved through synthetic and recombinant ways. Variability of physicochemical prope...

  13. Evaluation palm empty fruit bunch and its fermented products as feed for ruminant animal by nutritional values characterisation and in-vitro dry matter digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husain; Tajuddin Osman; Mohd Sukri Mahmood; Norihan Zainal; Zal U'yun Wan Mahmod; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Yusri Atan

    1995-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermented by Pleurotus sajor caju as ruminant feed has been investigated extensively. This paper evaluates products obtained from several manipulation. The manipulation includes pretreatment (soaked and mixed) of EFB with lime, variation of fermentation conditions: prolonged incubation period, varied incubation temperature and addition Palm Oil Sludge (POS) as additive; and post-fermentation manipulation such as harvesting mushroom out of the substratum. The fermented products from each of those manipulation were evaluated based on nutritional values and the pertinent in-vitro dry matter digestibility, whenever appropriate. The evaluated products were compared and discussed. 8 tabs

  14. Reduced germination success of temperate grassland seeds sown in dung: consequences for post-dispersal seed fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotić, T; Hoffmann, M

    2016-11-01

    Endozoochory is one of the main drivers shaping temperate grassland communities by maintaining plant populations of its constituents and enabling plants to colonize new habitats. Successful endozoochorous dispersal implies that seeds not only get consumed and survive the digestive tract but are also able to develop into viable seedlings in a dung environment. We experimentally assessed the germination probability and timing of 15 annual and perennial temperate European grassland species in cattle and horse dung and in different climatic conditions (greenhouse and outdoor conditions). Interspecific variation in germinability and germination timing are found, while life strategy had only an effect on germination timing. We found adverse effects of both cattle and horse dung on the germination characteristics of all tested grassland species, but the effects of cattle dung were more pronounced. In comparison with the control treatment, fewer seeds emerged in dung and more time was needed to germinate. Also, germination metrics clearly differed between the artificial greenhouse and outdoor conditions, with generally a lower germinability in outdoor conditions. According to our results, a large cost seems to be associated with endozoochorous dispersal in this stage of the life cycle, as seed dispersal effectiveness strongly depends on the quality of the deposition site with a lowered survival and germination probability when seeds are deposited in dung. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Habitat differences in dung beetle assemblages in an African savanna-forest ecotone: implications for secondary seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta K; Krell, Frank-Thorsten

    2011-06-01

    The probability and pattern of secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) depend on their community structure and composition at the site of primary deposition, which, in turn, seem to be strongly determined by vegetation. Consequently, we expected pronounced differences in secondary seed dispersal between forest and savanna in the northern Ivory Coast, West Africa. We found 99 dung beetle species at experimentally exposed dung piles of the olive baboon (Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827)), an important primary seed disperser in West Africa. Seventy-six species belonged to the roller and tunneler guilds, which are relevant for secondary seed dispersal. Most species showed a clear habitat preference. Contrary to the Neotropics, species number and abundance were much higher in the savanna than in the forest. Rollers and tunnelers each accounted for approximately 50% of the individuals in the savanna, but in the forest rollers made up only 4%. Seeds deposited into the savanna by an omnivorous primary disperser generally have a higher overall probability of being more rapidly dispersed secondarily by dung beetles than seeds in the forest. Also, rollers disperse seeds over larger distances. In contrast to other studies, small rollers were active in dispersal of large seeds, which were seemingly mistaken for dung balls. Our results suggest that rollers can remove seeds from any plant dispersed in primate dung in this ecosystem. © 2011 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  16. Decline of Ecological Functions Performed by Dung Beetles in Areas of Atlantic Forest and Contribution of Rollers and Tunnellers in Organic Matter Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batilani-Filho, M; Hernandez, M I M

    2017-08-01

    The feeding behavior of the Scarabaeinae subfamily has positive implications on ecosystem functioning. We characterize the necrophagous and coprophagous dung beetle assemblages, and we quantify the removal of swine carrion and domestic dog dung in two areas with different degrees of environmental disturbance in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. The experiment was setup at eight sampling points in each area, by installing one control and two collection and removal assessment arenas for collecting necrophagous dung beetles while simultaneously evaluating the removal of carrion (50 g of rotting pork for 48 h). We used the same sample design with 50 g of domestic dog dung for evaluating the coprophagous dung beetle assemblage and dung removal. Our results indicated that necrophagous dung beetles were more sensitive to environmental disturbance owing to a lower richness and changes in species dominance, which resulted in a lower removal in the areas with greater disturbance and lower environmental quality (39.6% carrion removal) in relation to less disturbed areas (75.1% carrion removal). The dung beetle assemblages were similar in structure and removal rates between areas (80% of dung was removed). In assessing the influence of richness, abundance, and biomass of dung beetles on resource removal both for the whole assemblage and for each separate functional guild, only the abundance and biomass of rollers contributed significantly to dung removal. These results highlight the implications of environmental disturbances on the functions of dung beetles, which respond differently according to the resource they use. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The effects of fouled anion resin on condensate polishing plant performance at Dungeness B power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The return to power, after an outage, at Dungeness B Power Station was delayed because of problems in achieving an in-specification feedwater acid conductivity. Dungeness B has a full flow cation/mixed bed condensate polishing plant (CPP). Investigations showed that the acid conductivity was produced by carbon dioxide and organic impurities both by-passing the CPP and slipping through it. Resin analysis showed that the anion resin had severely impaired sulfate removal kinetics. The paper covers the work done to try and identify the nature and source of the organics and their effect on the anion resin. One significant finding was that the carbonate removal kinetics were as impaired as those for sulfate removal; this had not been previously experienced in the CPP at any British Energy plant. (orig.)

  18. Evolutionary constraints in hind wing shape in Chinese dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Bai

    Full Text Available This study examines the evolution hindwing shape in Chinese dung beetle species using morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Previous studies have analyzed the evolution of wing shape within a single or very few species, or by comparing only a few wing traits. No study has analyzed wing shape evolution of a large number of species, or quantitatively compared morphological variation of wings with proposed phylogenetic relationships. This study examines the morphological variation of hindwings based on 19 landmarks, 119 morphological characters, and 81 beetle species. Only one most parsimonious tree (MPT was found based on 119 wing and body characters. To better understand the possible role of the hindwing in the evolution of Scarabaeinae, additional phylogenetic analyses were proposed based on the only body features (106 characters, wing characters excluded. Two MPT were found based on 106 body characters, and five nodes were collapsed in a strict consensus. There was a strong correlation between the morphometric tree and all phylogenetic trees (r>0.5. Reconstructions of the ancestral wing forms suggest that Scarabaeinae hindwing morphology has not changed substantially over time, but the morphological changes that do occur are focused at the base of the wing. These results suggest that flight has been important since the origin of Scarabaeinae, and that variation in hindwing morphology has been limited by functional constraints. Comparison of metric disparity values and relative evolutionary sequences among Scarabaeinae tribes suggest that the primitive dung beetles had relatively diverse hindwing morphologies, while advanced dung beetles have relatively similar wing morphologies. The strong correlation between the morphometric tree and phylogenetic trees suggest that hindwing features reflect the evolution of whole body morphology and that wing characters are suitable for the phylogenetic analyses. By integrating morphometric and cladistic

  19. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria

    OpenAIRE

    Blanckenhorn Wolf U.; Gautier Roland; Nick Marcel; Puniamoorthy Nalini; Schäfer Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species populations individuals and even within individuals. Age or developmental stage and sex specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage and sex specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae) a...

  20. Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae across a habitat disturbance gradient in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHABUDDIN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Shahabuddin (2010 Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae across habitat disturbance gradient in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi. Biodiversitas 11: 29-33. Dung beetles are important component of most terrestrial ecosystems and used to assess the effects of habitat disturbance and deforestation. This study aimed at comparing dung beetle assemblages among several habitat types ranging from natural tropical forest and agroforestry systems to open cultivated areas at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, Central Sulawesi (one of Indonesia’s biodiversity hotspots. Therefore, 10 pitfall traps baited with cattle dung were exposed at each habitat type (n = 4 replicate sites per habitat type to collect the dung beetles. The results showed that species richness of dung beetles declined significantly from natural forest to open area. However cacao agroforestry systems seemed to be capable of maintaining a high portion of dung beetle species inhabiting at forest sites. The closer relationship between dung beetle assemblages recorded at forest and agroforestry sites reflects the high similarity of some measured habitat parameters (e.g. vegetation structure and microclimate between both habitat types, while species assemblages at open areas differed significantly from both other habitat groups. These results indicated that habitat type has importance effect on determining the species richness and community structure of dung beetles at the margin of LLNP.

  1. Production of biogas from poultry litter mixed with the co-substrate cow dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Roman Miah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter (a mixture of rice hulls, sawdust and chicken excreta of broilers mixed with the co-substrate cow dung and poultry droppings was evaluated under anaerobic conditions for the production of biogas (methane. Four laboratory scale reactors, R1, R2, R3 and R4, were set up with different proportions of waste poultry litter, cow dung and poultry droppings and had a 6% total solid concentration. Digestion was carried out for 50 days at room temperature, 32 ± 3 °C. Volatile solid degradation and specific gas production in the four reactors was 46%, 51.99%, 51.96%, 43% and 0.263, 0.469, 0.419, 0.221 l/g, respectively, based on the volatile solid (VS feed. The methane yields were 71%, 72.5%, 72.6% and 70%, respectively. The COD reductions were 46.1%, 50.76%, 48.23% and 45.12%, respectively. A kinetic analysis showed that the anaerobic digestion of poultry litter with a co-substrate followed first order kinetics. Among the experimental reactors, R2 (25% cow dung, 75% poultry litter gave the optimum results: a VS reduction of 51.99%, a specific gas yield of 0.469 l/g and a methane yield of 72.5%.

  2. Acorn consumption improves the immune response of the dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Thorectes lusitanicus, a typically coprophagous species is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming, burying them, and conferring ecophysiological and reproductive advantages to both the beetle and the tree. In this study, we explored the possible relation between diet shift and the health status of T. lusitanicus using a generalist entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae as a natural pathogen. To measure the health condition and immune response of beetles, we analysed the protein content in the haemolymph, prophenoloxidase (proPO content, phenoloxidase (PO activity and mortality of beetles with diets based on either acorns or cow dung. Protein content, proPO levels and PO levels in the haemolymph of T. lusitanicus were found to be dependent on the type of diet. Furthermore, the beetles fed with acorns developed a more effective proPO-PO system than the beetles fed with cow dung. Furthermore, a significant decrease in mortality was observed when infected individuals were submitted to an acorn-based diet. In addition to enhancing an understanding of the relevance of dietary change to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results provide a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection in the context of fitness.

  3. Rooting area and drinker affect dunging behaviour of organic pics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, H.M.; Altena, H.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Bracke, M.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Hygiene is a common problem on outdoor runs of growing organic pigs. Manure and urine are mainly excreted outdoors and tend to spread all over the run. Reducing the soiled surface area may be beneficial to animal welfare, hygiene, ammonia emissions and labour, not only in organic but also in

  4. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  5. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Evans, Ursula; Purnell, R E

    2004-12-01

    Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective larvae on the pastures.

  6. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung: optimization of methane production in batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability). The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO/sub 3/ gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size. (author)

  8. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung: Optimization of Methane Production in Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops' residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability. The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO3 / gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size.

  9. Spatial variation of dung beetle assemblages associated with forest structure in remnants of southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and is currently highly fragmented and disturbed due to human activities. Variation in environmental conditions in the Atlantic Forest can influence the distribution of species, which may show associations with some environmental features. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae are insects that act in nutrient cycling via organic matter decomposition and have been used for monitoring environmental changes. The aim of this study is to identify associations between the spatial distribution of dung beetle species and Atlantic Forest structure. The spatial distribution of some dung beetle species was associated with structural forest features. The number of species among the sampling sites ranged widely, and few species were found in all remnant areas. Principal coordinates analysis indicated that species composition, abundance and biomass showed a spatially structured distribution, and these results were corroborated by permutational multivariate analysis of variance. The indicator value index and redundancy analysis showed an association of several dung beetle species with some explanatory environmental variables related to Atlantic Forest structure. This work demonstrated the existence of a spatially structured distribution of dung beetles, with significant associations between several species and forest structure in Atlantic Forest remnants from Southern Brazil. Keywords: Beta diversity, Species composition, Species diversity, Spatial distribution, Tropical forest

  10. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Role of dung beetle feeding mechanisms in limiting the suitability of species as hosts for the nematode Spirocerca lupi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Toit, C. A.; Holter, P.; Lutermann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Various species of dung beetle serve as intermediate hosts after ingesting the embryonated eggs (1115 x 3037 mu m) of Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Spirocercidae) in dog faeces. The feeding mechanisms of coprophagous dung beetles restrict the size of the food particles they can ingest and hence may...

  12. Avaliação de pastagem diferida de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. 2. Disponibilidade de forragem e desempenho animal durante a seca Evaluation of a signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf postponed pasture. 2. Availability of herbage and animal performance, during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Destéfani Guimarães Santos

    2004-02-01

    herbage, green leaf, green stem, dead leaf and dead stem components was evaluated in the Signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season, and after postponement period, from July to October 1997. The pasture characteristics were correlated with the average daily weight gain (ADG of crossbred Limousin-Nelore males, aging 19 months and 374 kg body weight on average, from July to September 1997. The average availability of herbage was 7.568 kg dry matter (DM/hectare (AH, green herbage (AGH 3,834 kg DM/ha, and dead herbage (ADH 3,734, in early July, after the postponement period of the Signalgrass pasture. The continuous utilization during the dry period of the postponed pasture, and stocking rate .75 animal units, did not affect AH and ADH, respectively, 7,902 and 4,637 kg/ha on average; nevertheless, diminished the availability of green herbage and green leaf dry matter (AGL. The availability of green herbage and of green leaf component increased in July and October, and reduced at crescent rate from August to September. In late September, the average availability of green herbage reached least value, 2,540 kg DM/ha. The availability and proportion of green leaf component in total herbage were greatest in early August, respectively, 1,517 kg DM/ha and 18.5%, and were least in late September, respectively, 480 kg DM/ha and 5.7%. The tropical pasture postponement warranted the maintenance of the animals, and leaded at a minimum average daily gain (ADG (104 g/d, during the dry season. In September, the animals loosed body weight. ADG was linearly and negatively correlated with availability of dead dry matter, and it was linearly and positively correlated with the availability of green dry matter/dead dry matter ratio and green leaf dry matter/dead dry matter plus green stem dry matter ratio. Had no correlation between the ADG and availability of green leaf, and between the ADG and availability of green herbage. ADG did not correlated with grazing pressure or

  13. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  14. Innovative Bayesian and Parsimony Phylogeny of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae) Enhanced by Ontology-Based Partitioning of Morphological Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Sergei; Génier, François

    2015-01-01

    Scarabaeine dung beetles are the dominant dung feeding group of insects and are widely used as model organisms in conservation, ecology and developmental biology. Due to the conflicts among 13 recently published phylogenies dealing with the higher-level relationships of dung beetles, the phylogeny of this lineage remains largely unresolved. In this study, we conduct rigorous phylogenetic analyses of dung beetles, based on an unprecedented taxon sample (110 taxa) and detailed investigation of morphology (205 characters). We provide the description of morphology and thoroughly illustrate the used characters. Along with parsimony, traditionally used in the analysis of morphological data, we also apply the Bayesian method with a novel approach that uses anatomy ontology for matrix partitioning. This approach allows for heterogeneity in evolutionary rates among characters from different anatomical regions. Anatomy ontology generates a number of parameter-partition schemes which we compare using Bayes factor. We also test the effect of inclusion of autapomorphies in the morphological analysis, which hitherto has not been examined. Generally, schemes with more parameters were favored in the Bayesian comparison suggesting that characters located on different body regions evolve at different rates and that partitioning of the data matrix using anatomy ontology is reasonable; however, trees from the parsimony and all the Bayesian analyses were quite consistent. The hypothesized phylogeny reveals many novel clades and provides additional support for some clades recovered in previous analyses. Our results provide a solid basis for a new classification of dung beetles, in which the taxonomic limits of the tribes Dichotomiini, Deltochilini and Coprini are restricted and many new tribes must be described. Based on the consistency of the phylogeny with biogeography, we speculate that dung beetles may have originated in the Mesozoic contrary to the traditional view pointing to a

  15. If Dung Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae Arose in Association with Dinosaurs, Did They Also Suffer a Mass Co-Extinction at the K-Pg Boundary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Gunter

    Full Text Available The evolutionary success of beetles and numerous other terrestrial insects is generally attributed to co-radiation with flowering plants but most studies have focused on herbivorous or pollinating insects. Non-herbivores represent a significant proportion of beetle diversity yet potential factors that influence their diversification have been largely unexamined. In the present study, we examine the factors driving diversification within the Scarabaeidae, a speciose beetle family with a range of both herbivorous and non-herbivorous ecologies. In particular, it has been long debated whether the key event in the evolution of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae was an adaptation to feeding on dinosaur or mammalian dung. Here we present molecular evidence to show that the origin of dung beetles occurred in the middle of the Cretaceous, likely in association with dinosaur dung, but more surprisingly the timing is consistent with the rise of the angiosperms. We hypothesize that the switch in dinosaur diet to incorporate more nutritious and less fibrous angiosperm foliage provided a palatable dung source that ultimately created a new niche for diversification. Given the well-accepted mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, we examine a potential co-extinction of dung beetles due to the loss of an important evolutionary resource, i.e., dinosaur dung. The biogeography of dung beetles is also examined to explore the previously proposed "out of Africa" hypothesis. Given the inferred age of Scarabaeinae as originating in the Lower Cretaceous, the major radiation of dung feeders prior to the Cenomanian, and the early divergence of both African and Gondwanan lineages, we hypothesise that that faunal exchange between Africa and Gondwanaland occurred during the earliest evolution of the Scarabaeinae. Therefore we propose that both Gondwanan vicariance and dispersal of African lineages is responsible for present day

  16. If Dung Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) Arose in Association with Dinosaurs, Did They Also Suffer a Mass Co-Extinction at the K-Pg Boundary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Nicole L; Weir, Tom A; Slipinksi, Adam; Bocak, Ladislav; Cameron, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary success of beetles and numerous other terrestrial insects is generally attributed to co-radiation with flowering plants but most studies have focused on herbivorous or pollinating insects. Non-herbivores represent a significant proportion of beetle diversity yet potential factors that influence their diversification have been largely unexamined. In the present study, we examine the factors driving diversification within the Scarabaeidae, a speciose beetle family with a range of both herbivorous and non-herbivorous ecologies. In particular, it has been long debated whether the key event in the evolution of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) was an adaptation to feeding on dinosaur or mammalian dung. Here we present molecular evidence to show that the origin of dung beetles occurred in the middle of the Cretaceous, likely in association with dinosaur dung, but more surprisingly the timing is consistent with the rise of the angiosperms. We hypothesize that the switch in dinosaur diet to incorporate more nutritious and less fibrous angiosperm foliage provided a palatable dung source that ultimately created a new niche for diversification. Given the well-accepted mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, we examine a potential co-extinction of dung beetles due to the loss of an important evolutionary resource, i.e., dinosaur dung. The biogeography of dung beetles is also examined to explore the previously proposed "out of Africa" hypothesis. Given the inferred age of Scarabaeinae as originating in the Lower Cretaceous, the major radiation of dung feeders prior to the Cenomanian, and the early divergence of both African and Gondwanan lineages, we hypothesise that that faunal exchange between Africa and Gondwanaland occurred during the earliest evolution of the Scarabaeinae. Therefore we propose that both Gondwanan vicariance and dispersal of African lineages is responsible for present day distribution of

  17. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Dung Beetle Glycosaminoglycan on db Mice and Gene Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Ban Ji; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Park, Kun-Koo

    2018-04-01

    Anti-diabetes activity of Catharsius molossus (Ca, a type of dung beetle) glycosaminoglycan (G) was evaluated to reduce glucose, creatinine kinase, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in db mice. Diabetic mice in six groups were administrated intraperitoneally: Db heterozygous (Normal), Db homozygous (CON), Heuchys sanguinea glycosaminoglycan (HEG, 5 mg/kg), dung beetle glycosaminoglycan (CaG, 5 mg/kg), bumblebee ( Bombus ignitus ) queen glycosaminoglycan (IQG, 5 mg/kg) and metformin (10 mg/kg), for 1 month. Biochemical analyses in the serum were evaluated to determine their anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory actions in db mice after 1 month treatment with HEG, CaG or IQG treatments. Blood glucose level was decreased by treatment with CaG. CaG produced significant anti-diabetic actions by inhiting creatinine kinase and alkaline phosphatase levels. As diabetic parameters, serum glucose level, total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in CaG5-treated group compared to the controls. Dung beetle glycosaminoglycan, compared to the control, could be a potential therapeutic agent with anti-diabetic activity in diabetic mice. CaG5-treated group, compared to the control, showed the up-regulation of 48 genes including mitochondrial yen coded tRNA lysine (mt-TK), cytochrome P450, family 8/2, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (Cyp8b1), and down-regulation of 79 genes including S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100a9) and immunoglobulin kappa chain complex (Igk), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoenzymeAsynthase1 (Hmgcs1). Moreover, mitochondrial thymidine kinase (mt-TK), was up-regulated, and calgranulin A (S100a9) were down-regulated by CaG5 treatment, indicating a potential therapeutic use for anti-diabetic agent.

  18. Scale-Dependence of Processes Structuring Dung Beetle Metacommunities Using Functional Diversity and Community Deconstruction Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  19. Variations in dung beetles assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae within two rain forest habitats in French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Feer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of dung beetle communities inhabiting tropical forests are known to be sensitive to many kinds of environmental changes such as microclimate related to vegetation structure. I examined Scarabaeinae assemblages in two sites of undisturbed high forest and two sites of low forest forming a transitional zone with the open habitat of an inselberg in French Guiana. Sampling was made with pitfall and flight interception traps during 2003 and 2004. The driest and warmest conditions characterized the low forest sites. Across two years we obtained 2 927 individuals from 61 species with pitfall traps and 1 431 individuals from 85 species with flight interception traps. Greater species richness and abundance characterized all sites sampled with pitfall traps during 2003 more than 2004. In 2003 no differences were detected among sites by rarefaction analyses. In 2004 the species richest high forest site was significantly different from one of the low forest sites. For both years Clench model asymptotes for species richness were greater in high forest than in low forest sites. For both years, mean per-trap species richness, abundance and biomass among high forest sites were similar and higher than in low forest sites, especially where the lowest humidity and the highest temperature were recorded. Within the two low forest sites, species richness and abundance recorded during the second year, decreased with distance to edge. Different dominant roller species characterized the pitfall samples in one site of low forest and in other sites. Small variations in microclimatic conditions correlated to canopy height and openness likely affected dung beetle assemblages but soil depth and the presence of large mammals providing dung resource may also play a significant role.

  20. A Dung Beetle-like Leg and its Adaptive Neural Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Canio, Giuliano; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetles show fascinating locomotion abilities. They can use their legs to not only walk but also manipulate objects. Furthermore, they can perform their leg movements at a proper frequency with respect to their biomechanical properties and quickly adapt the movements to deal with external pe...... also apply adaptive neural control, based on a central pattern generator (CPG) circuit with synaptic plasticity, to autonomously generate a proper stepping frequency of the leg. The controller can also adapt the leg movement to deal with external perturbations within a few steps....

  1. Pyrolysis of attapulgite clay blended with yak dung enhances pasture growth and soil health: Characterization and initial field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Joseph, Stephen D; Li, Fei; Bai, Yanfu; Shang, Zhanhuan; Rawal, Aditya; Hook, James M; Munroe, Paul R; Donne, Scott; Taherymoosavi, Sara; Mitchell, David R G; Pace, Ben; Mohammed, Mohanad; Horvat, Joseph; Marjo, Christopher E; Wagner, Avital; Wang, Yanlong; Ye, Jun; Long, Rui-Jun

    2017-12-31

    Recent studies have shown that the pyrolysis of biomass combined with clay can result in both lower cost and increase in plant yields. One of the major sources of nutrients for pasture growth, as well as fuel and building materials in Tibet is yak dung. This paper reports on the initial field testing in a pasture setting in Tibet using yak dung, biochar, and attapulgite clay/yak dung biochars produced at ratios of 10/90 and 50/50 clay to dung. We found that the treatment with attapulgite clay/yak dung (50/50) biochar resulted in the highest pasture yields and grass nutrition quality. We also measured the properties and yields of mixtures of clay/yak dung biochar used in the field trials produced at 400°C and 500°C to help determine a possible optimum final pyrolysis temperature and dung/clay ratio. It was observed that increasing clay content increased carbon stability, overall biochar yield, pore size, carboxyl and ketone/aldehyde functional groups, hematite and ferrous/ferric sulphate/thiosulphate concentration, surface area and magnetic moment. Decreasing clay content resulted in higher pH, CEC, N content and an enhanced ability to accept and donate electrons. The resulting properties were a complex function of both processing temperature and the percentage of clay for the biochars processed at both 400°C and 500°C. It is possible that the increase in yield and nutrient uptake in the field trial is related to the higher concentration of C/O functional groups, higher surface area and pore volume and higher content of Fe/O/S nanoparticles of multiple oxidation state in the 50/50 clay/dung. These properties have been found to significantly increase the abundance of beneficial microorganisms and hence improve the nutrient cycling and availability in soil. Further field trials are required to determine the optimum pyrolysis production conditions and application rate on the abundance of beneficial microorganisms, yields and nutrient quality. Copyright © 2017

  2. Regional and local influence of grazing activity on the diversity of a semi-arid dung beetle community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Jorge M.; Hortal, Joaquín; Cabrero-Sañudo, Francisco J.

    2006-01-01

    richness variance. A cluster analysis of localities identified two main groups, one characterized by a lower abundance and species richness that can be considered a nested subsample of the species-rich group. The mean and maximum amount of sheep dung in the sites separated by less than 2 km are the only...... could be affecting the population dynamics and dispersion of dung beetles within a locality, sites with larger populations, and greater species numbers would not be able to exercise enough influence as to bring about a complete local faunistic homogenization....

  3. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  4. [Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) of the northwestern slope of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Neis J; García, Héctor; Pulido, Luz A; Ospino, Deibi; Harváez, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles in the middle and lower river basin of the Gaira river, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described. Four sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient of 50-940 m for sampling from June to October, 2004. Dung beetles were captured using modified pitfall traps and manual recollections. We captured 7,872 individuals belonging to 29 species, distributed in 15 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Canthon and Onthophagus were the most diverse genera, each represented by six species. The sampled sites shared the following species: Onthophagus acuminatus Harold, O. clypeatus Blanchard, O. marginicollis Harold. Bocatoma was the most diverse site with 23 species; whereas Port Mosquito presented the highest abundance, with 3,262 individuals. Seven species represented 89% of all captures: Canthidium sp., Dichotomius sp., Uroxys sp. 1, Uroxys sp. 2, O. marginicollis, O. clypeatus and O. acuminatus. Of the 29 captured species, 17 belonged to the functional group of diggers and 10 were ball-rollers. We did not observe significant among-site differences in community structure. Abiotic factors such as altitude, temperature and humidity cannot explain observed variation in community structure across sites, indicating other variables such as vegetation cover, density of the vegetation and soil type may play a role in the community structure of these insects.

  5. Composting of cow dung and crop residues using termite mounds as bulking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit K; Das, Sampa; Boruah, R K; Dutta, Amrit K; Das, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    The present study reports the suitability of termite mounds as a bulking agent for composting with crop residues and cow dung in pit method. Use of 50 kg termite mound with the crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65 kg; soybean: 354.59 kg; potato: 357.67 kg and mustard: 373.19 kg) and cow dung (84.90 kg) formed a good quality compost within 70 days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 20.19, 3.78 and 32.77 g kg(-1) respectively with a bulk density of 0.85 g cm(-3). Other physico-chemical and germination parameters of the compost were within Indian standard, which had been confirmed by the application of multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate contrast analysis. Principal component analysis was applied in order to gain insight into the characteristic variables. Four composting treatments formed two different groups when hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic biodegradability and methane potential of crop residue co-digested with buffalo dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Mahar, R.B.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability) and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential) of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System). The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids), ultimate analysis (CHONS), pH and TA (Total Alkalinity). The BMP/sub observed/ during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37+-0.2+-degree C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVS/sub add/ for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane. (author)

  7. Anaerobic Biodegradability and Methane Potential of Crop Residue Co-Digested with Buffalo Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System. The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids and VS (Volatile Solids, ultimate analysis (CHONS, pH and TA (Total Alkalinity. The BMPobserved during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37±0.2°C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVSadd for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH4/gVSadd for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH4/gVSadd for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane

  8. Tubers, grains, dung and wood: studying hearth contents at the early Natufian Shubayqa 1 (north-eastern Jordan)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Richter, Tobias

    macroremains found in situ in two stone-made hearth structures dating to the early Natufian. The content of the hearths includes a large variety of plant macroremains comprising more than 45,000 rhizome tuber remains, wild plant seeds, including wild wheat and barley, dung remains and large numbers of wood...

  9. Compositional and functional features of humic acid-like fractions from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xing Meiyan, E-mail: xmy5000@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yang Jian; Huang Zhidong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The chemical changes occurring in five different substrates of sewage sludge spiked with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida for 90 days were investigated. Their humic acid-like (HAL) fractions were isolated to determine the elemental and functional composition, and structural and functional characteristics using ultraviolet/visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and fluorescence spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. After vermicomposting, the total organic C and C/N ratio decreased, and the total extractable C and humic acid (HA) C increased in all substrates. In the HAL fractions, the C and H contents, C/N and C/O and aliphatic structures, proteinaceous components and carbohydrates decreased, while the O and N and acidic functional group contents and C/H ratio, aromaticity and polycondensation structures increased. Further, the results suggest that the addition of cow dung to sewage sludge could improve the quality of organic matter humification of the substrates. The structures of HAL fractions in vermicomposts resembled those typical of soil HA, especially the vermicompost of cow dung alone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of HAL fraction in final product became close-grained and lumpy. Overall results indicate that vermicomposting was an efficient technology for promoting organic matter (OM) humification in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, improving their quality and environmental safety as a soil OM resource for utilization as soil amendments.

  10. Compositional and functional features of humic acid-like fractions from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong

    2011-01-30

    The chemical changes occurring in five different substrates of sewage sludge spiked with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida for 90 days were investigated. Their humic acid-like (HAL) fractions were isolated to determine the elemental and functional composition, and structural and functional characteristics using ultraviolet/visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and fluorescence spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. After vermicomposting, the total organic C and C/N ratio decreased, and the total extractable C and humic acid (HA) C increased in all substrates. In the HAL fractions, the C and H contents, C/N and C/O and aliphatic structures, proteinaceous components and carbohydrates decreased, while the O and N and acidic functional group contents and C/H ratio, aromaticity and polycondensation structures increased. Further, the results suggest that the addition of cow dung to sewage sludge could improve the quality of organic matter humification of the substrates. The structures of HAL fractions in vermicomposts resembled those typical of soil HA, especially the vermicompost of cow dung alone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of HAL fraction in final product became close-grained and lumpy. Overall results indicate that vermicomposting was an efficient technology for promoting organic matter (OM) humification in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, improving their quality and environmental safety as a soil OM resource for utilization as soil amendments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Compositional and functional features of humic acid-like fractions from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei; Xing Meiyan; Yang Jian; Huang Zhidong

    2011-01-01

    The chemical changes occurring in five different substrates of sewage sludge spiked with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida for 90 days were investigated. Their humic acid-like (HAL) fractions were isolated to determine the elemental and functional composition, and structural and functional characteristics using ultraviolet/visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and fluorescence spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. After vermicomposting, the total organic C and C/N ratio decreased, and the total extractable C and humic acid (HA) C increased in all substrates. In the HAL fractions, the C and H contents, C/N and C/O and aliphatic structures, proteinaceous components and carbohydrates decreased, while the O and N and acidic functional group contents and C/H ratio, aromaticity and polycondensation structures increased. Further, the results suggest that the addition of cow dung to sewage sludge could improve the quality of organic matter humification of the substrates. The structures of HAL fractions in vermicomposts resembled those typical of soil HA, especially the vermicompost of cow dung alone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of HAL fraction in final product became close-grained and lumpy. Overall results indicate that vermicomposting was an efficient technology for promoting organic matter (OM) humification in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, improving their quality and environmental safety as a soil OM resource for utilization as soil amendments.

  12. Cow dung extract: a medium for the growth of pseudomonads enhancing their efficiency as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Aragno, Michel; Sharma, A K

    2010-09-01

    Some pseudomands are being utilized as biofertilizers and biopesticides because of their role in plant growth promotion and plant protection against root parasites, respectively. Two strains of Pseudomonas, P. jessenii LHRE62 and P. synxantha HHRE81, recovered from wheat rhizosphere, have shown their potential in field bioinoculation tests under rice-wheat and pulse-wheat rotation systems. Normally, pseudomonads are cultivated on synthetic media-like King's B and used for inoculation on seeds/soil drench with talcum or charcoal as carrier material. Cow dung is being used for different purposes from the ancient time and has a significant role in crop growth because of the content in humic compounds and fertilizing bioelements available in it. Here, cow dung extract was tested as a growth medium for strains LHRE62 and HHRE81, in comparison with growth in King's B medium. The log phase was delayed by 2 h as compared to growth in King's B medium. The bacterial growth yield, lower in plain cow dung extract as compared to King's B medium, was improved upon addition of different carbon substrates. Growth of rice var. Pant Dhan 4 in pot cultures was increased using liquid formulation of cow dung extract and bacteria as foliar spray, compared to their respective controls. Biocontrol efficacy of the bioagents was assessed by challenging rice crop with Rhizoctonia solani, a sheath blight pathogen. The growth promotion and biocontrol efficiencies were more pronounced in the case of mixed inocula of strains LHRE62 and HHRE81.

  13. What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest area to the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae assemblage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio C. Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest to the dung beetle assemblage? The Atlantic Forest in Brazil is one of the most highly disturbed ecosystems and is mainly represented by fragmented areas. However, in places where human disturbances have ceased, certain areas are showing a natural regeneration pattern. The aim of the present study was to determine how the dung beetle assemblage responds to distinct habitat structures in a fragment of Atlantic Forest. For such, open and closed forest areas were sampled in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in the northeastern region of Brazil. Pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion were used to collect the beetles. A total of 7,267 individuals belonging to 35 species were captured. Canthon chalybaeus and C. mutabilis were restricted to open areas. Nearly 90% of the individuals of C. aff. simulans and Deltochilum aff. irroratum were identified in these areas. A higher percentage (> 50% of Canthon staigi, Dichotomius aff. depressicolis and D. aff. sericeus occurred in closed areas. Abundance differed between areas, with higher values in closed areas. Richness was not influenced by the habitat structure. NMDS ordination exhibited the segregation of areas and ANOSIM confirmed that this variable explained the assemblage of dung beetle species. The findings of the present study validate that open areas are associated to more restrictive conditions, limiting a higher abundance of dung beetle. Although situated near preserved fragments, the studied open areas increase the heterogeneity of the general landscape.

  14. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: composição da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal Evaluation of three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. under grazing: diet composition, dry matter intake and animal weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidos a pastejo rotativo foram avaliados ao longo do ano, antes e após o período de pastejo, quanto à composição botânica e química da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal. Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1 cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2 cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3 cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4 cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. As dietas selecionadas pelos animais na cv. Massai tenderam a apresentar os menores valores de digestibilidade e proteína bruta e os maiores de fibra em detergente neutro, enquanto na cv. Mombaça as dietas continham, em geral, maiores teores de sílica. Os animais selecionaram, em média, 92,4% de folhas verdes, independentemente do tratamento e da época de amostragem. Os animais consumiram semelhantes quantidades de forragem nos diversos tratamentos, apresentando, em média, consumos de 1,9; 2,8; 3,4; e 2,3 kgMS/100kgPV, respectivamente, em junho, setembro e novembro de 1998 e março de 1999. Os piores resultados quanto ao ganho de peso por animal foram verificados na cv. Massai, mas, devido a sua alta capacidade de suporte na época chuvosa, superou a cv. Mombaça e cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, em termos de ganho de peso por área. A participação de folhas, a altura do pasto, o teor de proteína bruta da dieta selecionada pelos animais e o tamanho de bocado foram os fatores que mais influenciaram positivamente o ganho de peso animal.Three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. were evaluated by measuring the botanical and chemical composition of the diet, and the dry matter intake and weight gain of the animal under rotational grazing, before and after a period of grazing. The treatments were: 1 v. Tanzânia + 50 kg N/ha, 2 v. Tanzânia + 100 kg N/ha, 3 v. Mombaça + 50 kg N/ha, and 4 v. Massai + 50 kg N/ha. Of the diets selected by the animals, v. Massai tended to show lower values for digestibility and crude protein, and higher values

  15. Evaluation of Lagergren Kinetics Equation by Using Novel Kinetics Expression of Sorption of Zn2+ onto Horse Dung Humic Acid (HD-HA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Rusdiarso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and purification of humic acid from dry horse dung powder (HD-HA was performed successfully and the purified HD-HA was then applied as sorbent to adsorb Zn2+. Extraction and purification were performed based on procedure of Stevenson (1994 under atmospheric air. Parameters investigated in this work consist of effect of medium sorption acidity, sorption rate (ka and desorption rate constant (kd, Langmuir (monolayer and Freundlich (multilayer sorption capacities, and energy (E of sorption. The ka and kd were determined according to the kinetic model of second order sorption reaching equilibrium, monolayer sorption capacity (b and energy (E were determined according to Langmuir isotherm model, and multilayer sorption capacity (B was determined based on Freundlich isotherm model. Sorption of Zn2+ on purified HD-HA was maximum at pH 5.0. The novel kinetic expression resulted from proposed kinetic model has been shown to be more applicable than the commonly known Lagergren equation obtained from the pseudo-first order sorption model. The application of the equation revealed that the intercept of Lagergren equation, ln qe was more complex function of initial concentration of Zn2+ (a, Langmuir sorption capacity (b, and sorbed Zn2+ at equilibrium (xe.

  16. Changes in Soil Chemical Properties and Lettuce Yield Response Following Incorporation of Biochar and Cow Dung to Highly Weathered Acidic Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyei Frimpong, Kwame; Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Osei, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    imposed on two highly weathered, acidic soils from the coastal savanna and tropical rainforest agroecological zones of Ghana, respectively, to elucidate their effect on yield of lettuce. The study showed that application of biochar solely or in combination with cow dung increased soil pH, total organic...... carbon, and cation exchange capacity, and temporarily increased soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon. Further, incorporation of combined application of cow dung and biochar increased lettuce yield more than sole incorporation of either amendment. The study demonstrated that corn cob biochar can...... improve soil chemical properties and lettuce yield if applied solely or in combination with cow dung....

  17. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... free of flies, insects, and rodents. (b) Drying units, racks, and trucks shall be kept in a clean and...

  18. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying facilities. 590.546 Section 590.546 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.546 Albumen flake process drying...

  19. 9 CFR 590.540 - Spray process drying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying facilities. 590.540 Section 590.540 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.540 Spray process drying facilities. (a) Driers shall be of a...

  20. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  1. [Sampling optimization for tropical invertebrates: an example using dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Paris, José Rafael; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

    2013-03-01

    The development of efficient sampling protocols is an essential prerequisite to evaluate and identify priority conservation areas. There are f ew protocols for fauna inventory and monitoring in wide geographical scales for the tropics, where the complexity of communities and high biodiversity levels, make the implementation of efficient protocols more difficult. We proposed here a simple strategy to optimize the capture of dung beetles, applied to sampling with baited traps and generalizable to other sampling methods. We analyzed data from eight transects sampled between 2006-2008 withthe aim to develop an uniform sampling design, that allows to confidently estimate species richness, abundance and composition at wide geographical scales. We examined four characteristics of any sampling design that affect the effectiveness of the sampling effort: the number of traps, sampling duration, type and proportion of bait, and spatial arrangement of the traps along transects. We used species accumulation curves, rank-abundance plots, indicator species analysis, and multivariate correlograms. We captured 40 337 individuals (115 species/morphospecies of 23 genera). Most species were attracted by both dung and carrion, but two thirds had greater relative abundance in traps baited with human dung. Different aspects of the sampling design influenced each diversity attribute in different ways. To obtain reliable richness estimates, the number of traps was the most important aspect. Accurate abundance estimates were obtained when the sampling period was increased, while the spatial arrangement of traps was determinant to capture the species composition pattern. An optimum sampling strategy for accurate estimates of richness, abundance and diversity should: (1) set 50-70 traps to maximize the number of species detected, (2) get samples during 48-72 hours and set trap groups along the transect to reliably estimate species abundance, (3) set traps in groups of at least 10 traps to

  2. Effects of Aging in Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye affects millions of people worldwide and causes eye well recognized risk factors for dry eye. Anatomical and inflammation-induced age-related changes affect all components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, inclusive of lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, meibomian gland and compromise ocular surface health. There is increased evidence that inflammation plays a role in dry eye. This review will summarize the current knowledge about aging and dry eye, inclusive of lessons learned from animal models and promising therapies. PMID:28282314

  3. Species of Spalangia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae collected from buffalo dung in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. V. Milhomem

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of determining the species of Spalangia in pupae of muscoid Diptera present in buffalo dung, collected in the municipality of Itumbiara, GO, from May to December 2003. The dipterous pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the flies and/or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 2.59%. The prevalences of parasitism presented by the parasitoid species Spalangia cameroni (Perkins, Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead, Spalangia endius (Walker, Spalangia nigra (Letraille and Spalangia nigroaenea (Curtis were 0.53%, 1.37%, 0.15%, 0.04% and 0.49%, respectively.

  4. Changes with time after treatment in the concentrations of ivermectin in fresh cow dung and in cow pats aged in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C; Steffansen, B

    1993-01-01

    An analytical procedure for detection of ivermectin in plasma samples was modified and used for measuring ivermectin concentrations in dung samples. The residues were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection after extraction, purification, and derivatization...

  5. Elevational Distribution and Conservation Biogeography of Phanaeine Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K.; Hamel-Leigue, A. Caroli; Larsen, Trond H.; Mann, Darren J.; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W.; Gill, Bruce D.; Edmonds, W. D.; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann’s and Rapoport’s rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann’s rule. Rapoport’s rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport’s and refutation of Bergmann’s rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for

  6. Rapid recovery of Dungeness crab within spatial fishery closures declared under indigenous law in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Frid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s constitution grants indigenous people priority access to marine resources, yet indigenous, commercial and recreational fishers target the same species. Avoiding conflict between different users, therefore, requires evidence-based policies that manage fisheries for conservation while respecting indigenous rights. From 2006 to 2015, Canada’s Conservative government demoted the role of science in resource management, stifling research by federal agencies like Fisheries and Oceans Canada. To address ensuing data gaps, during 2014–2015 the Heiltsuk, Kitasoo/Xai’Xais, Nuxalk, and Wuikinuxv First Nations conducted coordinated research on Dungeness crab (Cancer magister, a culturally-significant resource. These indigenous groups are experiencing declining catch rates of Dungeness crab and postulate that commercial and recreational fisheries are primary causes of local declines. Accordingly, they applied indigenous laws and declared spatial fishery closures for commercial and recreational fishers at 10 sites (closed while allowing exploitation by all users to continue at 10 other sites (open. Sampling occurred repeatedly over time and analyses compared temporal trends in population characteristics between closed and open sites. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that fisheries decrease the abundance and size of exploited species, but spatial protection can reverse these effects. The body size and catch-per-unit effort of legal-sized males increased over time at closed sites but declined at open sites. Importantly, fishery status did not affect temporal changes in the relative abundance of unfished classes of crab–sublegal males and females–which is logically consistent with the hypothesis. Our study demonstrates that indigenous governance can create spatial closures for conservation and research when Canada’s government fails to do so. Long-term solutions, however, require collaboration in research and management between

  7. Sorption of activation products on London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Littleboy, A.K.; Pilkington, N.J. (AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The sortpion of a series of activation-product radionuclides onto London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel from the nuclear reactor sites at Bradwell and Dungeness, has been examined. Batch sorption and through-diffusion experiments with clay determined chlorine as the chloride ion to be effectively non-sorbing; calcium to be weakly sorbing, whereas cobalt, nickel, niobium and samarium were moderately to strongly sorbing and silver was strongly sorbing. Distribution ratios (R[sub D] values) for Nb, Sm and Ag were found to have a strong dependence on the liquid-solid separation technique employed. The presence of high concentrations of calcium hydroxide led to lower values of R[sub D] for radioactive Ca but higher R[sub D] values for Sm and Ag. The sorption of Ni showed no apparent dependence on groundwater composition at low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The values of R[sub D] for Co decreased as the DOC content was increased by addition of humic materials. Batch sorption studies with aquifer gravel demonstrated that Ca is weakly sorbing whereas Nb, Ag and Eu are moderately to strongly sorbing. R[sub D] values for Ca and for Ag under neutral pH conditions show little sensitivity to the liquid/solid separation technique used. However, R[sub D] values for Nb and Eu under neutral pH conditions and for Ag in alkaline solution (pH = 11 - 12) show a marked effect. The aquifer gravel was found to be highly inhomogeneous unlike the clay and sorption was greatest on samples with a high proportion of sand, reflecting the clay mineral content. (orig.).

  8. Sorption of activation products on London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Littleboy, A.K.; Pilkington, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    The sortpion of a series of activation-product radionuclides onto London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel from the nuclear reactor sites at Bradwell and Dungeness, has been examined. Batch sorption and through-diffusion experiments with clay determined chlorine as the chloride ion to be effectively non-sorbing; calcium to be weakly sorbing, whereas cobalt, nickel, niobium and samarium were moderately to strongly sorbing and silver was strongly sorbing. Distribution ratios (R D values) for Nb, Sm and Ag were found to have a strong dependence on the liquid-solid separation technique employed. The presence of high concentrations of calcium hydroxide led to lower values of R D for radioactive Ca but higher R D values for Sm and Ag. The sorption of Ni showed no apparent dependence on groundwater composition at low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The values of R D for Co decreased as the DOC content was increased by addition of humic materials. Batch sorption studies with aquifer gravel demonstrated that Ca is weakly sorbing whereas Nb, Ag and Eu are moderately to strongly sorbing. R D values for Ca and for Ag under neutral pH conditions show little sensitivity to the liquid/solid separation technique used. However, R D values for Nb and Eu under neutral pH conditions and for Ag in alkaline solution (pH = 11 - 12) show a marked effect. The aquifer gravel was found to be highly inhomogeneous unlike the clay and sorption was greatest on samples with a high proportion of sand, reflecting the clay mineral content. (orig.)

  9. Geographic variation in responses of European yellow dung flies to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Sørensen, Jesper G; Loeschcke, Volker; Berger, David; Broder, E Dale; Geiger, Madeleine; Ferrari, Manuela; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2018-04-01

    Climatic conditions can be very heterogeneous even over small geographic scales, and are believed to be major determinants of the abundance and distribution of species and populations. Organisms are expected to evolve in response to the frequency and magnitude of local thermal extremes, resulting in local adaptation. Using replicate yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae) populations from cold (northern Europe) and warm climates (southern Europe), we compared 1) responses to short-term heat and cold shocks in both sexes, 2) heat shock protein (Hsp70) expression in adults and eggs, and 3) female reproductive traits when facing short-term heat stress during egg maturation. Contrary to expectations, thermal traits showed minor geographic differentiation, with weak evidence for greater heat resistance of southern flies but no differentiation in cold resistance. Hsp70 protein expression was little affected by heat stress, indicating systemic rather than induced regulation of the heat stress response, possibly related to this fly group's preference for cold climes. In contrast, sex differences were pronounced: males (which are larger) endured hot temperatures longer, while females featured higher Hsp70 expression. Heat stress negatively affected various female reproductive traits, reducing first clutch size, overall reproductive investment, egg lipid content, and subsequent larval hatching. These responses varied little across latitude but somewhat among populations in terms of egg size, protein content, and larval hatching success. Several reproductive parameters, but not Hsp70 expression, exhibited heritable variation among full-sib families. Rather than large-scale clinal geographic variation, our study suggests some local geographic population differentiation in the ability of yellow dung flies to buffer the impact of heat stress on reproductive performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites. We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal

  11. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  12. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  13. A four-country ring test of nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on the function of coprophilous communities of arthropods in breaking down livestock dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Thomas; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Lahr, Joost; Floate, Kevin; Scheffczyk, Adam; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    By degrading the dung of livestock that graze on pastures, coprophilous arthropods accelerate the cycling of nutrients to maintain pasture quality. Many veterinary medicinal products, such as ivermectin, are excreted unchanged in the dung of treated livestock. These residues can be insecticidal and may reduce the function (i.e., dung-degradation) of the coprophilous community. In the present study, we used a standard method to monitor the degradation of dung from cattle treated with ivermectin. The present study was performed during a 1-yr period on pastures in Canada, France, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. Large effects of residue were detected on the coprophilous community, but degradation of dung was not significantly hampered. The results emphasize that failure to detect an effect of veterinary medicinal product residues on dung-degradation does not mean that the residues do not affect the coprophilous community. Rather, insect activity is only one of many factors that affect degradation, and these other factors may mask the nontarget effect of residues. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1953-1958. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation of...

  15. Pilobolus species found on herbivore dung from the São Paulo Zoological Park, Brazil Espécies de Pilobolus encontradas em fezes de herbívoros do Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aírton Viriato

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of Pilobolus species from 168 dung samples of various herbivoresous animals, collected in the São Paulo Zoological Park, was carried out. Ten species were found, illustrated, described, and a key for their identification is provided.Para o estudo de espécies de Pilobolus, foram coletadas 168 amostras de fezes de animais herbívoros no Parque Zoológico da cidade de São Paulo. Dez espécies foram verificadas, ilustradas e descritas e uma chave de identificação é apresentada.

  16. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Nicole; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Bachmann, Jean

    2016-01-01

    for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research...... on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure...... project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal...

  17. Finding refuge: the estuarine distribution of the nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans on the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Paul; Young, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Parasites can significantly impact ecosystems by altering the distributions and population sizes of their host organisms. Some hosts are thought to find refuge from parasitism by entering habitats where their parasites cannot survive. The nemertean worm Carcinonemertes errans is an egg predator...... that infects the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, throughout the host’s range. To determine if C. magister experiences a refuge from C. errans within estuarine environments, we examined the distribution of C. errans on Dungeness crabs within Oregon’s Coos Bay Estuary. Year-round sampling over a three......-year period also allowed us to test for temporal variation in the parasite’s distribution.We found that parasite prevalence, mean intensity, and parasite density of C. errans infecting C. magister varied along a clear estuarine gradient, with crabs nearest the ocean carrying the heaviest parasite loads...

  18. Effects of maternal and offspring environmental conditions on growth, development and diapause in latitudinal yellow dung fly populations

    OpenAIRE

    Scharf, Inon; Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Schäfer, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    Extensive phenotypic plasticity can allow populations to persist in changing environments. Maternal effects represent one important but often neglected source of phenotypic plasticity. Mothers and offspring of 2 high- (northern Norway and central Sweden) and 2 low- (northern and southern Spain) latitude yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae) populations were exposed to cold (12 degrees C) and warm (18 degrees C) temperatures and to short (8 h light: 16 h dark) and l...

  19. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takaku, Gen; Katakura, Haruo; Yoshida, Nobuyo

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i.e., ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus carab...

  20. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Gen, Takaku; Haruo, Katakura; Nobuyo, Yoshida; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Tohoku Agricultural Experiment Station

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i. e. , ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus car...

  1. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region. PMID:22690160

  2. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K A; Mamta; Rao, R J

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste.

  3. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K.A.; Mamta; Rao, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste. PMID:23961230

  4. Experimental studies on effect of cow dung ash (pozzolanic binder) and coconut fiber on strengthproperties of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, C.; Muthu, D.; Aswini, G.; Nandhini, G.; Muhilini, K.

    2017-07-01

    The studies on durability of concrete have attracted attention in the recent years and its long term strength depends on quality of ingredients used in production of concrete. Now a days, the availability of ingredients is limited and in order to overcome this problem, research studies focuses on some alternate materials in the concrete production process. Also, Incorporation of waste materials consumes less energy leading to reduction of emission of green house gases. The application of fly ash and cow dung ash as a pozzolanic binder instead of cement and coir fibers finds extensive application in the manufacturing process of building materials. In this project an attempt has been made to utilize cow dung ash and coconut fiber as a replacement material of cement in the production of concrete. The cement is partially replaced with cow dung ash by about 2.5, 3 & 3.5 % by weight and with 1% of coconut fiber. The Compressive and Tensile strengths of concrete were found at different curing periods (7,14 & 28 days). From this study, it is inferred that these replacements will have a reasonable improvement in the strength properties of concrete by about 55-70%. The substitution of CDA, CF is economical in terms of cost and this usage eliminates the problem of landfills, reducing the environmental risk, maintaining the ecological balance, which is very much required for our nation.

  5. Does selective logging stress tropical forest invertebrates? Using fat stores to examine sublethal responses in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Filipe; Barlow, Jos; Araújo, Bárbara; Louzada, Julio

    2016-12-01

    The increased global demand for tropical timber has driven vast expanses of tropical forests to be selectively logged worldwide. While logging impacts on wildlife are predicted to change species distribution and abundance, the underlying physiological responses are poorly understood. Although there is a growing consensus that selective logging impacts on natural populations start with individual stress-induced sublethal responses, this literature is dominated by investigations conducted with vertebrates from temperate zones. Moreover, the sublethal effects of human-induced forest disturbance on tropical invertebrates have never been examined. To help address this knowledge gap, we examined the body fat content and relative abundance of three dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) with minimum abundance of 40 individuals within each examined treatment level. These were sampled across 34 plots in a before-after control-impact design (BACI) in a timber concession area of the Brazilian Amazon. For the first time, we present evidence of logging-induced physiological stress responses in tropical invertebrates. Selective logging increased the individual levels of fat storage and reduced the relative abundance of two dung beetle species. Given this qualitative similarity, we support the measurement of body fat content as reliable biomarker to assess stress-induced sublethal effects on dung beetles. Understanding how environmental modification impacts the wildlife has never been more important. Our novel approach provides new insights into the mechanisms through which forest disturbances impose population-level impacts on tropical invertebrates.

  6. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen

    2012-02-29

    The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10(3) and 10(6) Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  8. Attractivity of omnivore, carnivore and herbivore mammalian dung to Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in a tropical Atlantic rainforest remnant Atratividade de Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae por fezes de mamíferos onívoros, carnívoros e herbívoros em um remanescente de Floresta Tropical Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno K. C. Filgueiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in a remnant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest, three types of dung from animals with distinct alimentary habits were utilized, in order to verify possible differences of attractivity of these dungs to the Scarabaeinae and the influence of seasonality in the attractivity. Three habitats were sampled: edge, clearing and forest core, each with 40 pitfall traps. A total of 2,137 beetles were collected from August 2005 to July 2006. Canthidium sp. 1 (43% and Dichotomius sericeus (41% were the most abundant species. From the total number of beetles collected, 80.5% were attracted to human dung, 11% to jaguar dung, 7.8% to waterbuck dung and 0.7% to the control. The species Canthidium sp.1, Canthidium sp. 2, Ateuchus sp., Canthon nigripenne, Canthonella sp. and D. sericeus came to all three bait types. Eight species were found in the baits with human dung, where Canthidium sp.1 (49% and D. sericeus (39% were the most common. A significant difference in attractiveness of the different baits was observed; the highest abundance found in traps baited with human dung (F = 36.59; g.l. = 3; p Nesse estudo, realizado em um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica Brasileira, três tipos de fezes de animais com distintos hábitos alimentares foram utilizados para verificar possíveis diferenças de atratividade dessas fezes por Scarabaeinae e a influência da sazonalidade nessa atratividade. Três habitats foram amostrados: borda, clareira e núcleo da floresta, cada um com 40 armadilhas de queda ("pitfall". Um total de 2137 besouros foi coletado de agosto de 2005 a julho de 2006. Canthidium sp. 1 (43% e Dichotomius sericeus (41% foram as espécies mais abundantes. Do número total de besouros coletados, 80,5% foram atraídos para fezes humanas, 11% para fezes de jaguar, 7,8% para fezes de cobo e 0,7% para o controle. As espécies Canthidium sp.1, Canthidium sp. 2, Ateuchus sp., Canthon nigripenne, Canthonella sp. e D. sericeus foram aos tr

  9. A review and phylogeny of Scarabaeine dung beetle fossils (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae, with the description of two Canthochilum species from Dominican amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Tarasov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae, their fossil record has remained largely unrevised. In this paper, we review all 33 named scarabaeine fossils and describe two new species from Dominican amber (Canthochilum alleni sp.n., Canthochilum philipsivieorum sp.n.. We provide a catalogue of all fossil Scarabaeinae and evaluate their assignment to this subfamily, based primarily on the original descriptions but also, where possible, by examining the type specimens. We suggest that only 21 fossil taxa can be reliably assigned to the Scarabaeinae, while the remaining 14 should be treated as doubtful Scarabaeinae. The doubtful scarabaeines include the two oldest dung beetle fossils known from the Cretaceous and we suggest excluding them from any assessments of the minimum age of scarabaeine dung beetles. The earliest reliably described scarabaeine fossil appears to be Lobateuchus parisii, known from Oise amber (France, which shifts the minimum age of the Scarabaeinae to the Eocene (53 Ma. We scored the best-preserved fossils, namely Lobateuchus and the two Canthochilum species described herein, into the character matrix used in a recent morphology-based study of dung beetles, and then inferred their phylogenetic relationships with Bayesian and parsimony methods. All analyses yielded consistent phylogenies where the two fossil Canthochilum are placed in a clade with the extant species of Canthochilum, and Lobateuchus is recovered in a clade with the extant genera Ateuchus and Aphengium. Additionally, we evaluated the distribution of dung beetle fossils in the light of current global dung beetle phylogenetic hypotheses, geological time and biogeography. The presence of only extant genera in the late Oligocene and all later records suggests that the main present-day dung beetle lineages had already been established by the late Oligocene–mid Miocene.

  10. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  11. Isolation of fungi from dung of wild herbivores for application in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhuvele, Rhulani; Ncube, Ignatious; Jansen van Rensburg, Elbert Lukas; La Grange, Daniël Coenrad

    Producing biofuels such as ethanol from non-food plant material has the potential to meet transportation fuel requirements in many African countries without impacting directly on food security. The current shortcomings in biomass processing are inefficient fermentation of plant sugars, such as xylose, especially at high temperatures, lack of fermenting microbes that are able to resist inhibitors associated with pre-treated plant material and lack of effective lignocellulolytic enzymes for complete hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides. Due to the presence of residual partially degraded lignocellulose in the gut, the dung of herbivores can be considered as a natural source of pre-treated lignocellulose. A total of 101 fungi were isolated (36 yeast and 65 mould isolates). Six yeast isolates produced ethanol during growth on xylose while three were able to grow at 42°C. This is a desirable growth temperature as it is closer to that which is used during the cellulose hydrolysis process. From the yeast isolates, six isolates were able to tolerate 2g/L acetic acid and one tolerated 2g/L furfural in the growth media. These inhibitors are normally generated during the pre-treatment step. When grown on pre-treated thatch grass, Aspergillus species were dominant in secretion of endo-glucanase, xylanase and mannanase. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. An assessment of noise and vibration measurements taken during the commissioning of Dungeness B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickers, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Dungeness B Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor took into account, from an early stage, the vibrational response of structures within the pressure vessel to noise generated by the gas circulators. Theoretical estimates indicated that the circulators, which absorb 13000HP each in circulating the CO 2 coolant at 30 atmospheres around the gas circuit, could produce potentially damaging noise levels. These estimates were backed up with scale model circulator tests and at a later stage with noise transmission tests in the actual reactor vessel and finally by running the circulators in air under atmospheric conditions. The response of the structural components was predicted initially by theoretical methods, such as the Statistical Energy Method, which was used basically as a sorting technique to identify problem areas which could then be tested in acoustic chambers using representative test specimens to give a more reliable estimate of response. Any items of structure for which a significant level of response was predicted, or where representative testing was not possible, were instrumented so that the vibrational response could be measured during the unfuelled pressurized commissioning tests. Some of the more interesting aspects of the results of these tests are discussed together with a comparison of the results with predictions. (author)

  14. Isolation and evaluation of a high H{sub 2}-producing lab isolate from cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Anjana; Sinha, Pallavi [Nanotechnology and Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, Uttar Pradesh (India); Kotay, Shireen Meher; Das, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India)

    2009-09-15

    Hydrogen producing bacterial strain was isolated from Indian cow dung and identified of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae. This lab isolate was differentiated from Citrobacter Y-19 at molecular level by using RAPD, PCR based technique, and OPO-03{sub 460} and OPO-17{sub 800} RAPD marker for this specific strain (lab isolate) was identified. Fermentative studies were investigated for important parameters, starting with pH of the culture, temperature, inoculum age and inoculum volume, initial substrate concentration and different substrates. Among different substrates, dextrose and sucrose were the preferred substrates for hydrogen production. The optimal starting pH of the culture was found to be 5.0. The H{sub 2} production increased with increase in temperature up to 30 C. The maximum value of H{sub 2} production was recorded when inoculum volume was 12.5% of the culture broth and inoculum age was 14 h. Under batch fermentation conditions, the maximum hydrogen production rate and yield were 355.2 ml l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 2.1 mol/mol glucose (conversion 35%), respectively. These results indicate that this lab isolate is an ideal hydrogen producer. (author)

  15. Isolation and partial purification of antimicrobial peptides/proteins from dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus immune hemolymph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanth Patil, H.B.; Sathish Kumar, B.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important in the first line of the host defense system of all insect species. In the present study antimicrobial peptide(s) were isolated from the hemolymph of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Both non induced and immune induced hemolymphs were tested for their antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains and C. albicans. Induction was done by injecting E. coli into the abdominal cavity of the O. taurus. The non induced hemolymph did not show activity against any of the tested fungal and bacterial strains where as induced hemolymph showed activity against all tested bacterial strains but no activity against C. albicans. The induced hemolymph was subjected to non reducing SDS-PAGE and UV wavelength scan was performed to detect the presence of peptides. The immune induced hemolymph was purified by gel filtration chromatography to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity. The fractions within the peak were tested against those bacteria which previously showed sensitivity to the crude immune induced hemolymph. All fractions were found to be active against all tested bacteria with difference in zone of inhibition. The peptides are active against prokaryotes and not against eukaryotes. These properties reveal its unique characteristics and therapeutic application. (author)

  16. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CPM-2) with fibrinolytic activity from the dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mi Young; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Ryu, Kang Sun; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2005-07-01

    Catharsius protease-2 (CPM-2) was isolated from the body of dung beetles, Catharsius molossus, using a three step purification process (ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-60, and affinity chromatography on DEAE Affi-Gel blue). The purified CPM-2, having a molecular weight of 24 kDa, was assessed homogeneously by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of CPM-2 was composed of X Val Gln Asp Phe Val Glu Glu Ile Leu. CPM-2 was inactivated by Cu2+ and Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by typical serine proteinase inhibitors such as TLCK, soybean trypsin inhibitor, aprotinin, benzamidine, and alpha1-antitrypsin. However, EDTA, EGTA, cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol, E64, and elastatinal had little effect on enzyme activity. In addition, antiplasmin and antithrombin III were not sensitive to CPM-2. Based on the results of a fibrinolytic activity test, CPM-2 readily cleaved Aalpha- and Bbeta-chains of fibrinogen and fibrin, and gamma-chain of fibrinogen more slowly. The nonspecific action of the enzyme resulted in extensive hydrolysis, releasing a variety of fibrinopeptides of fibrinogen and fibrin. Polyclonal antibodies of CPM-2 were reactive to the native form of antigen. The ELISA was applied to detect quantities, in nanograms, of the antigen in CPM-2 protein.

  17. [Effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in Huangfuchuan watershed, Inner Mongolia of North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Run-Run; Liu, Xin-Min

    2013-03-01

    By using pitfall trap method, and taking the croplands and natural grasslands under different soil and water loss control measures as sampling plots, an investigation was conducted on the dung beetle assemblages in the Huangfuchuan watershed of Inner Mongolia from September 2007 to September 2008, aimed to understand the effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed. A total of 6169 dung beetles were captured, belonging to 15 species, 5 genus, and 2 families. The dominant species were Aphodius rectus and Onthophagus gibbulus, accounting for 66. 54% and 13. 26% of the total captured beetles, respectively. A lack of the species suitable for living in woodland habitats was the basic feature of the dung beetle assemblages. As compared with the control, all test soil and water loss control measures did not cause an obvious increase of species richness, biomass, and abundance of the dung beetle assemblages. The biomass and species richness of the assemblages as well as the abundance of the functional groups II and III had a significant negative correlation with the average tree (grass) height. Under the effects of long-term agricultural cultivation and the lack of large herbivores, the species richness and abundance of the functional group I (larger paracoprids and telocoprids) were lower than those of the functional groups II (relatively smaller paracoprids) and II (endocoprids), the main components of the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed. The faeces of the residents and livestock in the study region provided abundant foods for the dung beetle assemblages, inducing the relatively high abundance and spices richness of the assemblages occurred in the croplands nearby the villages. Our results suggested that natural grasslands were the suitable habitats for the dung beetles in Huangfuchuan watershed. At regional scale, to popularize the successful experiences of comprehensive soil and water loss control

  18. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  1. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  2. Effect of the application of cattle urine with or without the nitrification inhibitor DCD, and dung on greenhouse gas emissions from a UK grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, L M; Misselbrook, T M; Hodgson, C; Donovan, N; Gilhespy, S; Smith, K A; Dhanoa, M S; Chadwick, D

    2016-11-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from soils from grazed grasslands have large uncertainty due to the great spatial variability of excreta deposition, resulting in heterogeneous distribution of nutrients. The contribution of urine to the labile N pool, much larger than that from dung, is likely to be a major source of emissions so efforts to determine N 2 O emission factors (EFs) from urine and dung deposition are required to improve the inventory of greenhouse gases from agriculture. We investigated the effect of the application of cattle urine and dung at different times of the grazing season on N 2 O emissions from a grassland clay loam soil. Methane emissions were also quantified. We assessed the effect of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), on N 2 O emissions from urine application and also included an artificial urine treatment. There were significant differences in N 2 O EFs between treatments in the spring (largest from urine and lowest from dung) but not in the summer and autumn applications. We also found that there was a significant effect of season (largest in spring) but not of treatment on the N 2 O EFs. The resulting EF values were 2.96, 0.56 and 0.11% of applied N for urine for spring, summer and autumn applications, respectively. The N 2 O EF values for dung were 0.14, 0.39 and 0.10% for spring, summer and autumn applications, respectively. The inhibitor was effective in reducing N 2 O emissions for the spring application only. Methane emissions were larger from the dung application but there were no significant differences between treatments across season of application.

  3. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Meiyan, E-mail: xingmeiyan@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vermicomposting causes an increase in the aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vermicomposting homogenizes the molecular weight of WEOM from the substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM from the vermicompost is characterized by high O-containing groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM from the vermicompost includes small aliphatic and protein-like groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM test is a good way to evaluate the biological maturity of vermicompost. - Abstract: The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and

  4. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vermicomposting causes an increase in the aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates. ► Vermicomposting homogenizes the molecular weight of WEOM from the substrates. ► The WEOM from the vermicompost is characterized by high O-containing groups. ► The WEOM from the vermicompost includes small aliphatic and protein-like groups. ► The WEOM test is a good way to evaluate the biological maturity of vermicompost. - Abstract: The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10 3 and 10 6 Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00–3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00–4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost.

  5. Exoskeleton may influence the internal body temperatures of Neotropical dung beetles (Col. Scarabaeinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Amore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The insect exoskeleton is a multifunctional coat with a continuum of mechanical and structural properties constituting the barrier between electromagnetic waves and the internal body parts. This paper examines the ability of beetle exoskeleton to regulate internal body temperature considering its thermal permeability or isolation to simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation. Seven Neotropical species of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae differing in colour, surface sculptures, size, sexual dimorphism, period of activity, guild category and altitudinal distribution were studied. Specimens were repeatedly subjected to heating trials under simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation using a halogen neodymium bulb light with a balanced daylight spectrum and a ceramic infrared heat emitter. The volume of exoskeleton and its weight per volume unit were significantly more important for the heating rate at the beginning of the heating process than for the asymptotic maximum temperature reached at the end of the trials: larger beetles with relatively thicker exoskeletons heated more slowly. The source of radiation greatly influences the asymptotic temperature reached, but has a negligible effect in determining the rate of heat gain by beetles: they reached higher temperatures under artificial sunlight than under infrared radiation. Interspecific differences were negligible in the heating rate but had a large magnitude effect on the asymptotic temperature, only detectable under simulated sun irradiance. The fact that sun irradiance is differentially absorbed dorsally and transformed into heat among species opens the possibility that differences in dorsal exoskeleton would facilitate the heat gain under restrictive environmental temperatures below the preferred ones. The findings provided by this study support the important role played by the exoskeleton in the heating process of beetles, a cuticle able to act passively in the thermal

  6. Exoskeleton may influence the internal body temperatures of Neotropical dung beetles (Col. Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Valentina; Hernández, Malva I M; Carrascal, Luis M; Lobo, Jorge M

    2017-01-01

    The insect exoskeleton is a multifunctional coat with a continuum of mechanical and structural properties constituting the barrier between electromagnetic waves and the internal body parts. This paper examines the ability of beetle exoskeleton to regulate internal body temperature considering its thermal permeability or isolation to simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation. Seven Neotropical species of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) differing in colour, surface sculptures, size, sexual dimorphism, period of activity, guild category and altitudinal distribution were studied. Specimens were repeatedly subjected to heating trials under simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation using a halogen neodymium bulb light with a balanced daylight spectrum and a ceramic infrared heat emitter. The volume of exoskeleton and its weight per volume unit were significantly more important for the heating rate at the beginning of the heating process than for the asymptotic maximum temperature reached at the end of the trials: larger beetles with relatively thicker exoskeletons heated more slowly. The source of radiation greatly influences the asymptotic temperature reached, but has a negligible effect in determining the rate of heat gain by beetles: they reached higher temperatures under artificial sunlight than under infrared radiation. Interspecific differences were negligible in the heating rate but had a large magnitude effect on the asymptotic temperature, only detectable under simulated sun irradiance. The fact that sun irradiance is differentially absorbed dorsally and transformed into heat among species opens the possibility that differences in dorsal exoskeleton would facilitate the heat gain under restrictive environmental temperatures below the preferred ones. The findings provided by this study support the important role played by the exoskeleton in the heating process of beetles, a cuticle able to act passively in the thermal control of body

  7. Evidence for environmental conditions during the last 20 000 years in Southern Africa from C-13 in fossil hyrax dung

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, L

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available .elsevier.comrlocatergloplacha Evidence for environmental conditions during the last 20 000 years in Southern Africa from 13C in fossil hyrax dung L. Scott a,), J.C. Vogel b a Department of Botany and Genetics, Uni?ersity of the Orange Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South... in the studied hyrax middens, provide evidence that changes oc- curred on a regional scale. This is partly supported 13 by the d C sequences in stalagmite Talma and .Vogel, 1992 . In areas with summer-rains where AsweetB grass is likely to develop, d13C values...

  8. Dungeness Crab Dredging Entrainment Studies in the Lower Columbia River, 2002 – 2004: Loss Projections, Salinity Model, and Scenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Dungeness crab studies conducted in 2002 for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) constituted a major step forward in quantifying crab entrainment through statistical projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) and loss to the fishery (LF) from proposed construction and maintenance dredging in the Columbia River navigation channel (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). These studies also examined the influence of bottom salinity on crab abundance and entrainment rates. Additional sampling was conducted in 2004 to tighten loss projections, further develop the crab salinity model, and apply the model to assess correlations of entrainment rates and projected losses with seasonal salinity changes.

  9. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Tonelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy. Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity—related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming—is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0 and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant than the main effects (each factor separately for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  12. 77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug... amending the animal drug regulations to remove a warning for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot and to... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA has noticed that the animal drug regulations for certain monensin free-choice...

  13. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  14. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Nava, Alessandra; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.

  15. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  17. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  18. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  19. Finding refuge: The estuarine distribution of the nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans on the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Paul H.; Young, Craig M.

    2013-12-01

    Parasites can significantly impact ecosystems by altering the distributions and population sizes of their host organisms. Some hosts are thought to find refuge from parasitism by entering habitats where their parasites cannot survive. The nemertean worm Carcinonemertes errans is an egg predator that infects the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, throughout the host's range. To determine if C. magister experiences a refuge from C. errans within estuarine environments, we examined the distribution of C. errans on Dungeness crabs within Oregon's Coos Bay Estuary. Year-round sampling over a three-year period also allowed us to test for temporal variation in the parasite's distribution. We found that parasite prevalence, mean intensity, and parasite density of C. errans infecting C. magister varied along a clear estuarine gradient, with crabs nearest the ocean carrying the heaviest parasite loads. Larger crabs were more heavily infected with worms, and seasonal infection patterns were observed at some sites within the bay. Crabs sampled from coastal waters near the estuary carried significantly more worms than did crabs from the bay, suggesting that the estuary is acting as a spatiotemporal parasite refuge for this important fishery species.

  20. Investigation of Vermiwash Obtained from California Red Worm Which Fed Cow Dung in terms of Trace and Nutrient Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Yüksek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems facing sustainable agriculture is the supply of quality fertilizers and the problems encountered in the application of fertilizers. In the last years, while trying to increase the amount of fertilizers obtained by natural methods, On the other hand it has been observed that studies for obtaining different types (solid natural, liquid natural, bio-natural etc. of fertilizer have continued increasing. The aim of this study is to determine time depend (30 days, 31-60 days changes of some nutrients and metals in vermiwash obtained from Eisenia fetida fed with fermented natural cow dung. For this purpose, Eisenia fetida were fed with fermented cow dung which obtained from cows grazing in natural habitat and obtained vermiwash were analyzed to determined some macro and micronutrient elements. As a result of the study, while the values of N, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Sb in vermiwash decreased at a statistically significant level depending on the time; Co, As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Se, Mo, Li and Be were increased at statistically significant levels.

  1. Cow dung is an ideal fermentation medium for amylase production in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylase production by Bacillus cereus IND4 was investigated by solid state fermentation (SSF using cow dung substrate. The SSF conditions were optimized by using one-variable-at-a-time approach and two level full factorial design. Two level full factorial design demonstrated that moisture, pH, fructose, yeast extract and ammonium sulphate have significantly influenced enzyme production (p < 0.05. A central composite design was employed to investigate the optimum concentration of these variables affecting amylase production. Maximal amylase production of 464 units/ml of enzyme was observed in the presence of 100% moisture, 0.1% fructose and 0.01% ammonium sulphate. The enzyme production increased three fold compared to the original medium. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of amylase were found to be 8.0 and 50 °C, respectively. This enzyme was highly stable at wide pH range (7.0–9.0 and showed 32% enzyme activity after initial denaturation at 50 °C for 1 h. This is the first detailed report on the production of amylase by microorganisms using cow dung as the low cost medium.

  2. Dungeness 'A' Nuclear Power Station. The findings of NII's assessment of Nuclear Electric's long term safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The assessment is reported of Nuclear Electrics' Long Term Safety Reviews (LTSR) of the Dungeness A magnox reactors. The assessment was undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) which is responsible for regulating the safety of nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. This was one of a programme of LTSRs for all the UK magnox reactors. The LTSR for each plant was proceeded by a Generic Issues programme. The results of both the LTSR and the Generic Issues programme have been used by NII in forming the conclusions of this assessment. Overall the safety case for Dungeness A is satisfactory for continued operation. A programme of additional modifications and inspections has been put in place which further enhances the safety justification. Reactor operations will continue to be monitored and regulated in accordance with the inspections required under the licensing arrangements. Provided these requirements and the agreed further analysis, improvements and inspections give satisfactory results it is expected that the station will be able to operate safely till each reactor is at least 30 years old. Beyond this point a further Periodic Safety Review will be required. (UK)

  3. Nutrient intake in the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea and Protaetia orientalis submarmorea (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips: Results from stable isotope analyses of nitrogen and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masahito; Iwata, Ryutaro; Yamane, Akiomi; Katase, Takao; Ueda, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    The nutrient intake of the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea (Ac) and Protaerita orientalis submarmorea (Pos) (Colepotera: Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips of two wood species (Cryptomeria japonica and Quercus mongolica), was assayed by the stable isotope technique. The values of δ 15 N and δ 13 C (deviations of 15 N/ 14 N and 13 C/ 12 C from the standard materials) were measured in the following samples: (1) the integument plus the head of the 3rd instar larvae of both species reared in 1999 autumn fed with a mixture of cow dung and wood chips or with leaf mold, (2) cow dung, (3) wood ships, and (4) leaf mold as the larval food before onset of rearing. The δ values of bodies of larvae fed with leaf mold differed with the beetle species. The δ 15 N values of the larval bodies of both species fed with the mixture were close to those of cow dung, whereas the δ 13 C values were in between those of cow dung and wood chips. Therefore, both species were presumed to obtain almost all their nitrogen from cow dung, and their carbon from both dung and wood chips. (author)

  4. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Gautier, Roland; Nick, Marcel; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species, populations, individuals, and even within individuals. Age- or developmental stage- and sex-specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature, despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage- and sex- specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), a species common throughout the northern hemisphere that generally favours cool climates. Exposure of eggs to temperatures up to 32°C did not affect larval hatching rate, but subsequent egg-to-adult survival at a benign temperature was reduced. Permanent transfer from benign (18°C) to hot temperatures (up to 31°C) at different larval and pupal stages strongly decreased egg-to-adult survival, though survival continuously improved the later the transfer occurred. Temporary transfer for only two days increased mortality more weakly, survival being lowest when temperature stress was imposed early during the larval or pupal stages. Adult flies provided with sugar and water tolerated 31°C longer than previously thought (5 days in males to 9 days in females). Eggs were thus less susceptible to thermal stress than larvae, pupae or adults, in agreement with the hypothesis that more mobile stages require less physiological protection against heat because they can behaviourally thermoregulate. The probability of mating, of laying a clutch, and hatching success were generally independently reduced by exposure of females or males to warm temperatures (24°C) during the juvenile or adult stages, with some interactions evident. High temperature stress thus affects survival differentially depending on when it occurs during the juvenile or the pre-reproductive adult life stage, and affects reproductive success via the mating behaviour of both sexes, female physiology in terms of

  5. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  6. The effects of seed ingestion by livestock, dung fertilization, trampling, grass competition and fire on seedling establishment of two woody plant species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tjelele, J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available the objectives of an agricultural enterprise. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of gut passage (goats, cattle), dung (nutrients), fire, grass competition and trampling on establishment of A. nilotica and D. cinerea seedlings. Germination...

  7. Short-term effects of a dung pat on N2 fixation and total N uptake in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The short-term effects of a simulated cattle dung pat on N-2 fixation and total uptake of N in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture was studied in a container experiment using sheep faeces mixed with water to a DM content of 13%. We used a new N-15 cross-labelling technique to determine...

  8. Correlations between physicochemical properties of PAHs and their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhen; Ma Xindong; Na Guangshui; Lin Zhongsheng [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Ding Qian [Environmental Science and Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Yao Ziwei, E-mail: zwyao@nmemc.gov.c [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, moss and reindeer dung collected at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic were measured to investigate their accumulation trends and distribution in the three compartments. Compared with the other regions, the proportions of 2 + 3 ring PAHs to the total PAHs were higher, whereas the proportions of 5 + 6 ring PAHs were lower in the three compartments at Ny-Alesund. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (p{sub L}{sup o}) and the soil/moss quotient (Q{sub SM}). The relation was similar to the relationship between the gas/particle partition coefficient (K{sub P}) and p{sub L}{sup o} of PAHs, implying Q{sub SM} would be a 'mirror image' of K{sub P}. Excellent log/log-linear relationships were observed between Q{sub SM} and K{sub OA} as well as between the moss/dung quotient (Q{sub MD}) and K{sub OW}. The results presented here indicate the physicochemical properties are suitable for characterizing the distribution of PAHs in soil, moss and reindeer dung. - The physicochemical properties of PAHs are suitable for characterizing their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung.

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  10. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  11. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S [Research Foundation, Third Cross Street, Taramani Institutional Area, Chennai - 600 113 (India); net, mssrfed@vsnl

    2003-07-01

    Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring

  12. Biogas production from pretreated coffee-pulp waste by mixture of cow dung and rumen fluid in co-digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Iswanto, Toto

    2017-05-01

    Coffee is an excellent commodity in Indonesia that has big problem in utilizing its wastes. As the solution, the abundant coffee pulp waste from processing of coffee bean industry has been used as a substrate of biogas production. Coffee pulp waste (CPW) was approximately 48% of total weight, consisting 42% of the coffee pulp and 6% of the seed coat. CPW holds good composition as biogas substrate that is consist of cellulose (63%), hemicellulose (2.3%) and protein (11.5%). Methane production from coffee pulp waste still has much problems because of toxic chemicals content such as caffeine, tannin, and total phenol which can inhibit the biogas production. In this case, CPW was pretreated by ethanol/water (50/50, v/v) at room temperature to remove those inhibitors. This study was to compare the methane production by microbial consortium of cow dung and rumen fluid mixture coffee pulp waste as a substrate with and without pretreatment. The pretreated CPW was fermented with mixture of Cow Dung (CD) and Rumen Fluid (RF) in anaerobic co-digestion for 30 days at mesophilic temperature (30-40°C) and the pH was maintained from 6.8 to 7.2 on a reactor with working volume of 3.6 liters. There were two reactors with each containing the mixture of CPW without pretreatment, cow dung and rumen fluid (CD+RF+CPW) and then compared with the CPW with pretreatment (CD+RF+PCPW) reactor. The measured parameters included the decreasing of inhibitor compound concentration, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Solid (TS), Volatile Solid (VS), Methane and the Calorific value of gas (heating value) were studied as well. The result showed a decrease in inhibitor component concentration due to methanol pretreatment was 90% of caffeine; 78% of polyphenols (total phenol) and 66% of tannins. The highest methane content in biogas was produced in CD+RF+PCPW digester with concentration amounted of 44.56% with heating value of 27,770 BTU/gal.

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-02-01

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short

  14. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  15. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  16. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  17. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  18. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  19. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  20. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  1. Domoic acid toxicokinetics in Dungeness crabs: New insights into mechanisms that regulate bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irvin R., E-mail: ir_schultz@pnl.gov; Skillman, Ann; Sloan-Evans, Siobhan; Woodruff, Dana

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Domoic acid is retained in the hepatopancreas after oral dosing but not after intravascular dosing. •Localization of domoic acid in the hepatopancreas is extracellular, likely in the lumen of tubules. •Isolated hepatopancreas cells do not absorb domoic acid from culture media. •Domoic acid is eliminated through urinary excretion. -- Abstract: Domoic acid (DA) is an excitatory neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species and is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning. Profound differences in the toxicokinetics of DA have been identified in a wide variety of shellfish. We characterized the toxicokinetics of DA in Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister) after oral and intravascular dosing (IV) using a variety of doses ranging from 0.1 to 20 mg/kg. After a 1 mg/kg oral dose, DA disappeared from the foregut within 2 h and largely accumulated in the hepatopancreas, with hemolymph and other tissues having 100–1000 times lower concentrations. After IV dosing, hemolymph concentrations of DA were unexpectedly high and toxicokinetic analysis indicated the steady-state volume of distribution (V{sub ss}) was 123–197 ml/kg, which is well below the hemolymph volume of 350 ml/kg for crabs. This indicated only limited extravascular distribution of DA was occurring after IV injection, which is surprising considering the capacity of the hepatopancreas to sequester DA after oral dosing. Additional studies measured the partitioning of DA in hepatopancreas cellular and subcellular fractions. The subcellular distribution of DA was primarily associated with the S8 fraction and could be filtered through a 30,000 MW cut-off filter, indicating DA was not appreciably bound to macromolecules. Interestingly, very little (<0.4%) of the total hepatopancreas DA tissue content was associated with the cellular fraction isolated after dissociation and separation from tissue fragments. The in vivo and in vitro results led us to hypothesize that DA

  2. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  3. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  4. Optimization of fly ash incorporation into cow dung-waste paper mixtures for enhanced vermidegradation and nutrient release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupambwa, Hupenyu A; Mnkeni, Pearson N S

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to establish an appropriate mixture ratio of fly ash (F) to optimized cow dung-waste paper mixtures (CP) to develop a high-quality vermicompost using earthworms (). Fly ash was mixed with cow dung-waste paper mixtures at ratios of (F:CP) 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1, and 3:1 or CP alone and composted for 14 wk. Olsen P, inorganic N (NO, NO, and NH), C:N ratio, ash content, microbial biomass C, and humification parameters were measured together with scanning electron micrograph images to determine compost maturity. Based on C:N ratio, the extent of vermidegradation of the waste mixtures followed the decreasing order (F:CP) of 1:3 > 1:2 > 1:1 > CP alone > 2:1 > 3:1. Similarly, Olsen P was significantly higher ( percentage increase in extractable P was in the order CP alone > 1:2 > 1:3 > 1:1 > 2:1 > 3:1, with earthworm addition almost doubling P release across the 1:1, 1:2, and CP alone treatments. Fly ash incorporation enhanced conversion of organic N to the plant-available inorganic forms, with the 1:3 treatment resulting in the highest conversion. Scanning electron micrograph images confirmed the extent of vermidegradation reflected by the various humification parameters determined. Fly ash incorporation at the 1:2 ratio proved to be the most appropriate because it allows processing of more fly ash while giving a vermicompost with desirable maturity and nutritional properties. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  6. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  7. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  8. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  9. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  10. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  13. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  14. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  15. Effect of sun drying on microbes in non-conventional agricultural by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, dried beetroot contained significantly more yeast and moulds. ... The sun drying process is thus an efficient processing method for resource poor ... to reduce the microbial load in these animal feed sources and improve their shelf life.

  16. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  17. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  18. Distribution and Abundance of Dungeness Crab and Crangon Shrimp and Dredging-Related Mortality of Invertebrates and Fish in Grays Harbor, Washington,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    to this evidence, crabs may have been more abundant in samples taken from high salinity areas. In this respect the buoy 13 site was an anomaly ...in 1-2 hr. Continued respiration and branchial water movement by Dungeness crab caught in impacted areas of slurried sediment could cause loading of...particulate material among branchial filaments, resulting in impeded oxygen transport and physical abrasion and damage to gills. To 304 our knowledge

  19. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  20. The night and day of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in the Serra do Japi, Brazil: elytra colour related to daily activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malva Isabel Medina Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study 387 dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae were surveyed at the Serra do Japi, in the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, with four baited pitfall traps during the months of December, 1998, and January, 1999 during eight 24 hour cycles. A total of 30 species were identified and temporal variation in activity patterns among the species shows a specialization in the use of food resources: 9 species were classified as nocturnal and 13 as diurnal. The daily activity pattern of dung beetles does not necessarily correspond to the taxonomic classification, but is strongly related to the colouring of species, determined by predominant elytra colour: nocturnal species have 89 % more chances of being black as opposed to colourful. Black nocturnal species might have evolved as an interspecific adaptation to avoid predation (cryptic colouring. Among the colourful diurnal dung beetles, measure of body length of each species shows that development of bright colouring was more often found in medium to large species, which suggests that colouring evolved as a response to intraspecific pressures, important in agonistic encounters among males.

  1. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F Braga

    Full Text Available Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal, to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics, species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics.

  2. Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae associated with semi-urban fragmented agricultural land in the Malabar coast in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Venugopal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the diversity and community structure of dung beetles associated with semiurban agricultural land in the Malabar coast of southern India revealed that urbanization has led to decreased diversity compared to regional forests, and has affected the community status of dung beetles. However, contrary to expectations, species richness was observed to be equivalent to rural agricultural fields in the region. Low abundance of prominent agricultural habitat species indicates that the study area has changed as a result of habitat modification/urbanization, and the prevailing conditions are not ideal for the establishment of the most common species in agriculture belts. Prominence of two less common species, Tiniocellus spinipes and Caccobius vulcanus, indicates these generalist urban adaptable (synanthropic species have become increasingly widespread and locally abundant. The low abundance of tunnelers and rollers is attributed to fragmentation of the urban agricultural belt, low mammalian diversity and dung availability, and the hard nature of the laterite soil in the Malabar coast region.

  3. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest.

  4. Contribution of Alpha and Beta Diversity Across Land-Use Type to the Regional Diversity of Dung Beetles in Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHABUDDIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of spatial scale has been acknowledged as one of determining factors of species diversity in local and regional diversity. The aim of this study was to evaluate contribution of alpha (α and beta (β diversity across land-use type to gamma (γ diversity at the margins of tropical forest in Central Sulawesi using dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae as a focal group. Baited pitfall traps set in four land-use types ranging from natural forest through cacao agroforestry systems to open areas during two years of sampling (2009 and 2012. A total of 28 dung beetle species belonging to four genera were captured during the study period. The results showed that contribution of β diversity was higher than that of α diversity of dung beetles. Each land-use type contributed about 56.5 to 62.5% of the total species richness (γ diversity. The similar pattern of biodiversity between each spatial scale and during the two sampling years emphasized the large contribution of each land-use type to maintaining a high portion of the regional species richness. It suggests the importance of managing other land-use types, such as secondary forest and agroforestry as well as protecting the remaining natural forests.

  5. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  6. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  7. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  8. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  9. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  10. High variability of dung beetle diversity patterns at four mountains of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Arriaga-Jiménez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insect diversity patterns of high mountain ecosystems remain poorly studied in the tropics. Sampling dung beetles of the subfamilies Aphodiinae, Scarabaeinae, and Geotrupinae was carried out at four volcanoes in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB in the Mexican transition zone at 2,700 and 3,400 MASL, and on the windward and leeward sides. Sampling units represented a forest–shrubland–pasture (FSP mosaic typical of this mountain region. A total of 3,430 individuals of 29 dung beetle species were collected. Diversity, abundance and compositional similarity (CS displayed a high variability at all scales; elevation, cardinal direction, or FSP mosaics did not show any patterns of higher or lower values of those measures. The four mountains were different regarding dispersion patterns and taxonomic groups, both for species and individuals. Onthophagus chevrolati dominated all four mountains with an overall relative abundance of 63%. CS was not related to distance among mountains, but when O. chevrolati was excluded from the analysis, CS values based on species abundance decreased with increasing distance. Speciation, dispersion, and environmental instability are suggested as the main drivers of high mountain diversity patterns, acting together at different spatial and temporal scales. Three species new to science were collected (>10% of all species sampled. These discoveries may indicate that speciation rate is high among these volcanoes—a hypothesis that is also supported by the elevated number of collected species with a restricted montane distribution. Dispersion is an important factor in driving species composition, although naturally limited between high mountains; horizontal colonization events at different time scales may best explain the observed species composition in the TMVB, complemented by vertical colonization events to a lesser extent. Environmental instability may be the main factor causing the high variability of diversity

  11. High variability of dung beetle diversity patterns at four mountains of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Jiménez, Alfonsina; Rös, Matthias; Halffter, Gonzalo

    2018-01-01

    Insect diversity patterns of high mountain ecosystems remain poorly studied in the tropics. Sampling dung beetles of the subfamilies Aphodiinae, Scarabaeinae, and Geotrupinae was carried out at four volcanoes in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) in the Mexican transition zone at 2,700 and 3,400 MASL, and on the windward and leeward sides. Sampling units represented a forest-shrubland-pasture (FSP) mosaic typical of this mountain region. A total of 3,430 individuals of 29 dung beetle species were collected. Diversity, abundance and compositional similarity (CS) displayed a high variability at all scales; elevation, cardinal direction, or FSP mosaics did not show any patterns of higher or lower values of those measures. The four mountains were different regarding dispersion patterns and taxonomic groups, both for species and individuals. Onthophagus chevrolati dominated all four mountains with an overall relative abundance of 63%. CS was not related to distance among mountains, but when O. chevrolati was excluded from the analysis, CS values based on species abundance decreased with increasing distance. Speciation, dispersion, and environmental instability are suggested as the main drivers of high mountain diversity patterns, acting together at different spatial and temporal scales. Three species new to science were collected (>10% of all species sampled). These discoveries may indicate that speciation rate is high among these volcanoes-a hypothesis that is also supported by the elevated number of collected species with a restricted montane distribution. Dispersion is an important factor in driving species composition, although naturally limited between high mountains; horizontal colonization events at different time scales may best explain the observed species composition in the TMVB, complemented by vertical colonization events to a lesser extent. Environmental instability may be the main factor causing the high variability of diversity and abundance patterns

  12. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  13. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  14. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  15. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  16. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  17. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  18. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Good genes and sexual selection in dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus: genetic variance in egg-to-adult and adult viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether species exhibit significant heritable variation in fitness is central for sexual selection. According to good genes models there must be genetic variation in males leading to variation in offspring fitness if females are to obtain genetic benefits from exercising mate preferences, or by mating multiply. However, sexual selection based on genetic benefits is controversial, and there is limited unambiguous support for the notion that choosy or polyandrous females can increase the chances of producing offspring with high viability. Here we examine the levels of additive genetic variance in two fitness components in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We found significant sire effects on egg-to-adult viability and on son, but not daughter, survival to sexual maturity, as well as moderate coefficients of additive variance in these traits. Moreover, we do not find evidence for sexual antagonism influencing genetic variation for fitness. Our results are consistent with good genes sexual selection, and suggest that both pre- and postcopulatory mate choice, and male competition could provide indirect benefits to females.

  20. Extracellular digestion during hyposaline exposure in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Daniel L; van Breukelen, Frank; McGaw, Iain J

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular digestive processes were examined in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, during hyposaline exposure. Both species are found in estuaries as adults, but vary in their ability to balance the cardiovascular and respiratory demands of concurrent osmoregulation and digestion. The weak osmoregulator, C. magister, is unable to balance the demands of osmoregulation and digestion. Concordant with observed decreases in oxygen consumption and mechanical digestion, proteolytic digestion within the foregut and hepatopancreas was delayed, resulting in a relative reduction of circulating amino acids post-feeding in low salinity. In contrast, the efficient osmoregulator, C. sapidus, balances the demands of osmoregulation and digestion, and mechanical digestion continues unabated in low salinity. Protease activity in the gut fluid and hepatopancreas showed either no change or a reduction over time. The transport of amino acids into the cells post-feeding is opposed by an efflux of amino acids at the cellular level, and resulted in a build up of amino acids in the hemolymph. Despite differences in the extracellular responses to low salinity exposure following feeding, both species were able to maintain high digestive efficiencies. © 2013.

  1. Electricity generation from cattle dung using microbial fuel cell technology during anaerobic acidogenesis and the development of microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Ma, Fang; Wei, Li; Chua, Hong; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2012-09-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) was constructed to investigate the possible generation of electricity using cattle dung as a substrate. After 30 days of operation, stable electricity was generated, and the maximum volumetric power density was 0.220 W/m(3). The total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal and coulombic efficiency (CE) of the MFC reached 73.9±1.8% and 2.79±0.6%, respectively, after 120 days of operation. Acetate was the main metabolite in the anolyte, and other volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (propionate and butyrate) were present in minor amounts. The PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that the following five groups of microbes were present: Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in the sample; specifically, 36.3% and 24.2% of the sequences obtained were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, respectively. Clostridium sp., Pseudomonas luteola and Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense were the most dominant groups during the electricity generation process. The diversity of archaea dramatically decreased after 20 days of operation. The detected archaea were hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and the Methanobacterium genus disappeared during the periods of stable electricity generation via acidogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of Biogas from wastes Blended with CowDung for Electricity generation-A Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Sasidhar, Jaladanki

    2017-07-01

    The country’s production of solid waste generation is piling up year after year and the generation of Bio-Gas finds a fruitful solution to overcome this problem. This technology can contribute to energy conservation if the economic viability and social acceptance of this technology are favorable. Our campus has a number of hostel buildings which generates large quantum of kitchen waste and sewage per day. This research will have process ofcarrying out survey, characterization of kitchen waste from several kitchens & Canteens and knowing the potential for biogas production. The waste generated from kitchen and sewage from the hostels is given as feedstock to produce 600 m3 of biogas per day with cow dung as byproduct. The methane gas generated from Biogas is purified and this is used for power generation. Two biogas engine generators of 30 kVA and 50 kVA were installed. This power is used for backup power for girl’s hostel lighting load. From this study it is concluded that the generation of Biogas production and its usage for power production is the best option to handle these large quantum of sewage, kitchen waste generated from various buildings and also treated effluent from biogas plant and the biomass generated is a wealth for doing agriculture for any community ultimately it protects the environment.

  3. Sexual selection accounts for the geographic reversal of sexual size dimorphism in the dung fly, sepsis punctum (Diptera: Sepsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2012-07-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) varies widely across and within species. The differential equilibrium model of SSD explains dimorphism as the evolutionary outcome of consistent differences in natural and sexual selection between the sexes. Here, we comprehensively examine a unique cross-continental reversal in SSD in the dung fly, Sepsis punctum. Using common garden laboratory experiments, we establish that SSD is male-biased in Europe and female-biased in North America. When estimating sexual (pairing success) and fecundity selection (clutch size of female partner) on males under three operational sex ratios (OSRs), we find that the intensity of sexual selection is significantly stronger in European versus North American populations, increasing with male body size and OSR in the former only. Fecundity selection on female body size also increases strongly with egg number and weakly with egg volume, however, equally on both continents. Finally, viability selection on body size in terms of intrinsic (physiological) adult life span in the laboratory is overall nil and does not vary significantly across all seven populations. Although it is impossible to prove causality, our results confirm the differential equilibrium model of SSD in that differences in sexual selection intensity account for the reversal in SSD in European versus North American populations, presumably mediating the ongoing speciation process in S. punctum. © 2012 The Author(s).

  4. Improving Methane Production through Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung by H2O2 Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALTAF ALAM NOONARI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study an effect of acidic pre-treatment on the CS (Canola Straw and BD (Buffalo Dung by anaerobic co-digestion was investigated. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide is a mainly accustomed reagent, used as a bleaching agent in the different industries such as paper and wood. In the present study, it was used as a pre-treatment chemical at varying concentrations in batch reactors. The co-digestion of CS and BD was carried out in SAMPTS (Semi-Automatic Methane Potential Test System at mesophilic (37±1oC conditions. The CS was pretreated in glass bottles with different concentrations of the H2O2 for seven days. The inoculum used in the present study was an effluent of the CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which was treating BD at mesophilic conditions. The specific methane production from the codigestion of canola straw and BD, by the pre-treatment of H2O2 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% were 530.8, 544.5, and 510.3 NmL CH4 g/VS, respectively. The significant reduction in the volatile solids of CS was observed at the optimum pre-treatment of 1.0% H2O2.

  5. Biogas properties and enzymatic analysis during anaerobic fermentation of Phragmites australis straw and cow dung: influence of nickel chloride supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yonglan; Zhang, Huayong; Chai, Yang; Wang, Lijun; Mi, Xueyue; Zhang, Luyi; Ware, Maxwell Adam

    2017-02-01

    The importance of nickel (added as NiCl 2 ) on mesophilic anaerobic fermentation of Phragmites australis straw and cow dung was demonstrated by investigating the biogas properties, pH values, organic matter degradation [chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and enzyme activities (cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase) during the fermentation process. The results showed that Ni 2+ addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by >18 % by improving the efficiency of first peak stage and bringing forward the second peak stage. The pH values were not significantly influenced by Ni 2+ addition (p > 0.05). Biogas yields were associated with variations in COD concentrations rather than momentary concentrations. At the start-up stage of fermentation (4th day), the biogas yields increased gradually together with the increase of dehydrogenase activities at elevated Ni 2+ concentrations when cellulase and protease activities were similar in all test groups. It is suggested that Ni 2+ addition was mainly dependent on the methanogenic stage. After the start-up stage, the impact of Ni 2+ addition on biogas production was mainly dependent on its effect on cellulase activities, rather than protease or dehydrogenase activities.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  8. Dry Eye Disease and Microbial Keratitis: Is There a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Srihari; Redfern, Rachel L.; Miller, William L.; Nichols, Kelly K.; McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is a common ocular surface disease of multifactorial etiology characterized by elevated tear osmolality and inflammation leading to a disrupted ocular surface. The latter is a risk factor for ocular surface infection, yet overt infection is not commonly seen clinically in the typical dry eye patient. This suggests that important innate mechanisms operate to protect the dry eye from invading pathogens. This article reviews the current literature on epidemiology of ocular surface infection in dry eye patients and laboratory-based studies on innate immune mechanisms operating at the ocular surface and their alterations in human dry eye and animal models. The review highlights current understanding of innate immunity in dry eye and identifies gaps in our knowledge to help direct future studies to further unravel the complexities of dry eye disease and its sequelae. PMID:23583043

  9. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  11. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  12. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in the mouth A dry feeling in the throat Cracked lips ... Food and Drug Administration provides information on dry mouth and offers advice for ... Syndrome Clinic NIDCR Sjogren’s Syndrome Clinic develops new therapies ...

  13. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

  14. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  15. Rationale for anti-inflammatory therapy in dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, C S; Pflugfelder, S C

    2008-01-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial condition that results in a dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Changes in tear composition including increased cytokines, chemokines, metalloproteinases and the number of T cells in the conjunctiva are found in dry eye patients and in animal models. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. There are several anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye that target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified and are discussed in detail.

  16. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabidin Zairul Amin; Seng Gan Kee; Wahab Mohd Jamil Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be ac...

  17. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  18. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  19. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  20. Suppression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) using the lowbush blueberry agroecosystem as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew S; Tadepalli, Shravani; Bridges, David F; Wu, Vivian C H; Drummond, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife as a source of microbial contamination is a food safety concern. Deer feces (scat) have been determined as a point source for Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh produce. The ecological role of the scooped scarab (Onthophagus hecate (Panzer)), a generalist dung beetle species common in Maine blueberry fields, was explored as a biological control agent and alternatively as a pathogen vector between deer scat and food. A large-scale field survey of wildlife scat indicated that pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 was present, albeit at a low prevalence (1.9% of samples, n = 318), in the Maine lowbush blueberry agroecosystem. A manipulative field experiment verified that, should contact occur between deer scat and blueberry plants and fruit during the summer, contamination with E. coli O157:H7 can occur and persist for more than 72 h. For both the positive control and an experimental scat inoculation treatment, the levels of the bacterial population decreased over time, but at different rates (treatment x time interaction: F (1.9,18.8) = 358.486, P blueberry fruit. In both experiments, dung beetles buried the same amount of scat whether or not the scat was inoculated with the pathogen (F(1,6) = 0.001; P = 0.999 and (F (2,17) = 4.10, P = 0.147). Beetles feeding on E. coli inoculated deer scat were not found to vector the pathogen to fruit. In two studies, beetles lowered the amount of pathogenic E. coli persisting in soils compared to soils without beetles (F (2,9) = 7.757; P = 0.05 and F (2,17) = 8.0621, P = 0.004). Our study suggests that the dung beetle species, Onthophagus hecate, has the potential to contribute to the suppression of E. coli O157:H7 in agricultural landscapes.

  1. Exergy Steam Drying and Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prem; Muenter, Claes (Exergy Engineering and Consulting, SE-417 55 Goeteborg (Sweden)). e-mail: verma@exergyse.com

    2008-10-15

    Exergy Steam Drying technology has existed for past 28 years and many new applications have been developed during this period. But during past few years the real benefits have been exploited in connection with bio-fuel production and energy integration. The steam dryer consists of a closed loop system, where the product is conveyed by superheated and pressurised carrier steam. The carrier steam is generated by the water vapours from the product being dried, and is indirectly superheated by another higher temperature energy source such as steam, flue gas, thermal oil etc. Besides the superior heat transfer advantages of using pressurised steam as a drying medium, the energy recovery is efficient and simple as the recovered energy (80-90%) is available in the form of steam. In some applications the product quality is significantly improved. Examples presented in this paper: Bio-Combine for pellets production: Through integration of the Exergy Steam Dryer for wood with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, together with HP steam turbine, the excess carrier steam can be utilised for district heating and/or electrical power production in a condensing turbine. Bio-ethanol production: Both for first and second generation of ethanol can the Exergy process be integrated for treatment of raw material and by-products. Exergy Steam Dryer can dry the distillers dark grains and solubles (DDGS), wood, bagasse and lignin. Bio-diesel production: Oil containing seeds and fruits can be treated in order to improve both the quality of oil and animal feed protein, thus minimizing further oil processing costs and increasing the sales revenues. Sewage sludge as bio-mass: Municipal sewage sludge can be considered as a renewable bio-fuel. By drying and incineration, the combustion heat value of the sludge is sufficient for the drying process, generation of electrical energy and production of district heat. Keywords; Exergy, bio-fuel, bio-mass, pellets, bio-ethanol, biodiesel, bio

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... month dissolvable punctal plug be removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  4. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  5. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  6. Freeze drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  9. Biodiversity and functional regeneration during secondary succession in a tropical dry forest: from microorganisms to mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Espírito Santo, M. M.; Neves, F. S.; Valério, H. M.; Leite, L. O.; Falcão, L. A.; Borges, M.; Beirão, M.; Reis, R., Jr.; Berbara, R.; Nunes, Y. R.; Silva, A.; Silva, L. F.; Siqueira, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the changes on soil traits, forest structure and species richness and composition of multiple groups of organisms along secondary succession in a tropical dry forest (TDF) in southeastern Brazil. We defined three successional stages based in forest vertical and horizontal structure and age: early (18-25 years), intermediate (50-60 years) and late (no records of clearing). Five plots of 50 x 20 m were established per stage, and the following groups were sampled using specific techniques: rhizobacteria, mycorrhiza, trees and lianas, butterflies, ants, dung beetles, mosquitoes (Culicidae), birds and bats. We also determined soil chemical and physical characteristics and forest structure (tree height, density and basal area). Soil fertility increased along the successional gradient, and the same pattern was observed for all the forest structure variables. However, species richness and composition showed mixed results depending on the organism group. Three groups usually considered as good bioindicators of habitat quality did not differ in species richness and composition between stages: butterflies, ants and dung beetles. On the other hand, rizhobacteria and mycorrhiza differed both in species richness and composition between stages and may be more sensitive to changes in environmental conditions in TDFs. The other five groups differed either in species richness or composition between one or two pairs of successional stages. Although changes in abiotic conditions and forest structure match the predictions of classical successional models, the response of each group of organism is idiosyncratic in terms of diversity and ecological function, as a consequence of specific resource requirements and life-history traits. In general, diversity increased and functional groups changed mostly from early to intermediate-late stages, strengthening the importance of secondary forests to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity of TDFs.

  10. Effect of ferrous chloride on biogas production and enzymatic activities during anaerobic fermentation of cow dung and Phragmites straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huayong; Tian, Yonglan; Wang, Lijun; Mi, Xueyue; Chai, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The effect of ferrous (added as FeCl2) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied by investigating the biogas properties, pH values, organic matter degradation (COD) and enzyme activities (cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase) at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that Fe(2+) addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by 18.1 % by extending the peak period with high daily biogas yields. Meanwhile, the methane (CH4) contents in the Fe(2+) added groups were generally higher than the control group before the 15th day. The pH values were not significantly impacted by Fe(2+) concentrations during the fermentation process. The COD concentrations, cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase activities varied with the added Fe(2+) concentrations and the stages of the fermentation process. At the beginning stage of fermentation (4th day), Fe(2+) addition increased the biogas production by improving the cellulase and dehydrogenase activities which caused a decline in COD. At the peak stage of fermentation (8th day), Fe(2+) addition enhanced the cellulase and protease activities, and resulted in lower COD contents than the control group. When the biogas yields decreased again (13th day), the COD contents varied similar with the protease and dehydrogenase activities, whilst cellulase activities were not sensitive to Fe(2+) concentrations. At the end of fermentation (26th day), Fe(2+) addition decreased the cellulase activities, led to lower COD contents and finally resulted the lower biogas yields than the control group. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Fe(2+) addition on biogas yields was mainly attributed to the extension of the gas production peak stage and the improvement of cellulase activities.

  11. Novel Bacillus subtilis IND19 cell factory for the simultaneous production of carboxy methyl cellulase and protease using cow dung substrate in solid-substrate fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Ponnuswamy; Arun, Arumugaperumal; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes, such as cellulases and proteases, have various applications, including bioethanol production, extraction of fruit and vegetable juice, detergent formulation, and leather processing. Solid-substrate fermentation has been an emerging method to utilize low-cost agricultural residues for the production of these enzymes. Although the production of carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) and protease in solid state fermentation (SSF) have been studied extensively, research investigating multienzyme production in a single fermentation process is limited. The production of multienzymes from a single fermentation system could reduce the overall production cost of enzymes. In order to achieve enhanced production of enzymes, the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. Bacillus subtilis IND19 utilized cow dung substrates for the production of CMCase and protease. A central composite design and a RSM were used to determine the optimal concentrations of peptone, NaH2PO4, and medium pH. Maximum productions of CMCase and protease were observed at 0.9 % peptone, 0.78 % NaH2PO4, and medium pH of 8.41, and 1 % peptone, 0.72 % NaH2PO4, and medium pH of 8.11, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the experimental yield of CMCase and protease reached 473.01 and 4643 U/g, which were notably close to the predicted response (485.05 and 4710 U/g). These findings corresponded to an overall increase of 2.1- and 2.5-fold in CMCase and protease productions, respectively. Utilization of cow dung for the production of enzymes is critical to producing multienzymes in a single fermentation step. Cow dung is available in large quantity throughout the year. This report is the first to describe simultaneous production of CMCase and protease using cow dung. This substrate could be directly used as the culture medium without any pretreatment for the production of these enzymes at an industrial scale.

  12. Suppression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae using the lowbush blueberry agroecosystem as a model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Jones

    Full Text Available Wildlife as a source of microbial contamination is a food safety concern. Deer feces (scat have been determined as a point source for Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh produce. The ecological role of the scooped scarab (Onthophagus hecate (Panzer, a generalist dung beetle species common in Maine blueberry fields, was explored as a biological control agent and alternatively as a pathogen vector between deer scat and food. A large-scale field survey of wildlife scat indicated that pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 was present, albeit at a low prevalence (1.9% of samples, n = 318, in the Maine lowbush blueberry agroecosystem. A manipulative field experiment verified that, should contact occur between deer scat and blueberry plants and fruit during the summer, contamination with E. coli O157:H7 can occur and persist for more than 72 h. For both the positive control and an experimental scat inoculation treatment, the levels of the bacterial population decreased over time, but at different rates (treatment x time interaction: F (1.9,18.8 = 358.486, P < 0.0001. The positive control inoculation, which resulted in a higher initial E. coli level on fruit, decayed at a faster rate than inoculation of fruit via scat in the experimental treatment. We conducted 2 laboratory studies to elucidate aspects of dung beetle feeding ecology as it relates to suppression of E. coli O157:H7 from deer scat to lowbush blueberry fruit. In both experiments, dung beetles buried the same amount of scat whether or not the scat was inoculated with the pathogen (F(1,6 = 0.001; P = 0.999 and (F (2,17 = 4.10, P = 0.147. Beetles feeding on E. coli inoculated deer scat were not found to vector the pathogen to fruit. In two studies, beetles lowered the amount of pathogenic E. coli persisting in soils compared to soils without beetles (F (2,9 = 7.757; P = 0.05 and F (2,17 = 8.0621, P = 0.004. Our study suggests that the dung beetle species, Onthophagus hecate, has the potential

  13. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of biogas generated from co-digestion of cow dung, municipal sewage and kitchen waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahmoodi-Eshkaftaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction As reported by Sabetghadam (2005, 53.4, 36.3, 1.1, 8.9, and 0.2% of total energy consumption in Iran consisted of oil products, natural gas, coal, electricity energy, and modern energy sources, respectively. The modern energies included solar, biomass, wind and nuclear. The energy mix has been evolving towards clean energies. From 1966–2005, the contribution of natural gas increased from 1.3% to 36.3% and the contribution of electricity was doubled from 4.1% to 8.9%. The share of oil products in domestic consumption has dropped from 84.3% to 53.4%. Iran has abundant renewable energy resources, including solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, and biomass, as well as the ability to manufacture the relatively labor-intensive systems that harness these. By developing such energy sources developing countries can reduce their dependence on oil and natural gas, creating energy portfolios that are less vulnerable to price rises. In many circumstances, these investments can be less expensive than fossil fuel energy systems. Over the past ten years some researches on solar and biomass energy have resulted in development and the establishment of a few small- and medium-scale electricity generation plants, powered via solar and biomass energy. There has also been the development of digesters to increase biogas production. Renewable energy is new to Iran and there is a long way to go. Except for the few afore mentioned projects, small-scale technologies to bring power to remote villages have a better chance of being adopted than those implemented at the national level. Materials and Methods In this research the amount of generated methane (methane content of biogas % from co-digestion of municipal sewage, kitchen waste, and cow dung was measured in 7 different combinations (treatment. Two important parameters affecting methane production such as volatile solid (VS and total solid (TS were measured according to Method 1684 and CEN

  15. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.516 Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray rinsed...

  16. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  18. North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.; Douglas, David C.; Shirley, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997–2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7°C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska.

  19. Integrated biological and advanced oxidation based treatment of hexamine bearing wastewater: Effect of cow-dung as a co-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Mandeep Kumar; Mittal, Atul K., E-mail: akmittal@civil.iitd.ac.in

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Treatment by biological process and Fenton’s reagent. • Cow dung as co-substrate. • Hydrolysis of wastewater improved treatment. - Abstract: This work examines the treatment of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) bearing effluent from N, N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetra-mine producing industrial plants in India. Chemical treatment using Fenton’s reagent and aerobic treatment using batch reactors with co-substrate were investigated. Aerobic batch reactors integrated with advanced oxidation process of Fenton’s reagent provides effective treatment of HMT effluents. Influence of Fenton’s reagent dose reaction/contact and effect of varying co-substrate with effluent initial concentration was observed. Higher dose 100 mL of Fenton’s reagent with higher reaction time 20 h resulted better degradation (34.88%) of wastewater. HMT hydrolyzes in acidic environment to ammonia and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde under normal conditions is toxic for biological treatment processes. When hydrolysis and acidification in the reactors are accompanied by low pH, aerobic batch reactors with use of co-substrates glucose, sucrose, and cow-dung extract separately in different proportion to wastewater ranging from 0.67 to 4.00, degraded wastewater effectively. Higher proportion of co-substrate to wastewater resulted better degradation. The relationships between nitrate, pH, turbidity and COD are discussed.

  20. Integrated biological and advanced oxidation based treatment of hexamine bearing wastewater: Effect of cow-dung as a co-substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mandeep Kumar; Mittal, Atul K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatment by biological process and Fenton’s reagent. • Cow dung as co-substrate. • Hydrolysis of wastewater improved treatment. - Abstract: This work examines the treatment of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) bearing effluent from N, N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetra-mine producing industrial plants in India. Chemical treatment using Fenton’s reagent and aerobic treatment using batch reactors with co-substrate were investigated. Aerobic batch reactors integrated with advanced oxidation process of Fenton’s reagent provides effective treatment of HMT effluents. Influence of Fenton’s reagent dose reaction/contact and effect of varying co-substrate with effluent initial concentration was observed. Higher dose 100 mL of Fenton’s reagent with higher reaction time 20 h resulted better degradation (34.88%) of wastewater. HMT hydrolyzes in acidic environment to ammonia and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde under normal conditions is toxic for biological treatment processes. When hydrolysis and acidification in the reactors are accompanied by low pH, aerobic batch reactors with use of co-substrates glucose, sucrose, and cow-dung extract separately in different proportion to wastewater ranging from 0.67 to 4.00, degraded wastewater effectively. Higher proportion of co-substrate to wastewater resulted better degradation. The relationships between nitrate, pH, turbidity and COD are discussed.

  1. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  2. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  5. Pecan drying with silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, S.R.; Chhinnan, M.S.

    1983-07-01

    High moisture in-shell pecans were dried by keeping them in direct and indirect contact with silica gel to investigate their drying characteristics. In-shell pecans were also dried with ambient air from a controlled environment chamber and with air dehumidified by silica gel. Direct contact and dehumidified air drying seemed feasible approaches.

  6. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  7. Duckweed cultures in animal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradi, M; Copelli, M; Ghetti, P F

    1981-01-01

    Cultures of duckweed (Lemna gibba and L. minor) were made for 2 months in 2 ponds fed by a semicontinuous flow of partially treated animal wastewaters. The growth rate of the organic load were obtained from weekly data and the rate of removal of N and P was evaluated. At high loads (concentrations greater than 400 COD, 60 NH/sub 4/+, 10 mg/L PO/sub 4/ to the power of 3-) an average yield (dry weight) of approximately 7 g/square meters/day was established. The mean dry weight of biomass was 6%. The N and P content in duckweed was 1.1 and 4.7%, respective, and the daily absorption rates were 415 N and 97 mg/square meters/day P. The technique of skimming biomass at a rate proportional to the growth rate is useful to maintain duckweed cultures in continuous active growth conditions.

  8. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabidin Zairul Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be achieved in artificial drying kilns such as conventional kiln, dehumidification kiln, solar kiln, radio frequency-vacuum, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of 30 mm and 50 mm thick kekatong (Cynometra spp. timber dried using kiln drying (KD and radio frequency-vacuum drying (RFV system. The investigation involved drying time, moisture content (MC variations between and within boards, drying defects, shrinkage, and drying stress. Drying defects include checks (surface, end, and internal checks and warping (bowing, cuping, spring, and twisting. The results showed that RFV drying time was reduced to 50% compared to the KD. RFV dried boards demonstrated a more uniform MC between and within boards. Shrinkage in width and thickness, as well as tangential/radial and volumetric shrinkages were substantially less in RFV boards. The amount of cupping, bowing and spring were very low and negligible in all drying runs. There was no twisting observed in all drying methods. The number of stress-free RFV board was higher than KD. With proper procedure, the RFV technology could be used for drying heavy hardwoods which are difficult to dry in conventional kilns due to excessive drying times and degradation.

  9. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  10. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  11. Dry Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination of heredity and environmental factors, including smoking and diet. The condition develops as the eye ages. Dry ... nonsmokers. Ask your doctor for help to stop smoking. Maintain a ... controlling your diet. Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. ...

  12. Essays on Dry Ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Chandrakant (Gujar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDue to several reasons, currently the global supply chains are getting stretched further away into the hinterlands from the gateway seaports. This single fact enhances the importance of dry ports. It would not be against logic, to state that in coming times, as a result of ever-growing

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  14. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  15. Rationale for anti-inflammatory therapy in dry eye syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    De Paiva,CS; Pflugfelder,SC

    2008-01-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial condition that results in a dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Changes in tear composition including increased cytokines, chemokines, metalloproteinases and the number of T cells in the conjunctiva are found in dry eye patients and in animal models. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epith...

  16. Comparison of postoperative corneal changes between dry eye and non-dry eye in a murine cataract surgery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin Woo; Chung, Yeon Woong; Choi, Jin A; La, Tae Yoon; Jee, Dong Hyun; Cho, Yang Kyung

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects of the surgical insult of cataract surgery on corneal inflammatory infiltration, neovascularization (NV) and lymphangiogenesis (LY) between the dry eye and non-dry eye in murine cataract surgery models. We established two groups of animals, one with normal eyes (non-dry eye) and the second with induced dry eyes. In both groups, we used surgical insults to mimic human cataract surgery, which consisted of lens extraction, corneal incision and suture. After harvesting of corneas on the 9(th) postoperative day and immunohistochemical staining, we compared NV, LY and CD11b+ cell infiltration in the corneas. Dry eye group had significantly more inflammatory infiltration (21.75%±7.17% vs 3.65%±1.49%; P=0.049). The dry eye group showed significantly more NV (48.21%±4.02% vs 26.24%±6.01%; P=0.016) and greater levels of LY (9.27%±0.48% vs 4.84%±1.15%; P=0.007). In corneas on which no surgery was performed, there was no induction of NV in both the dry and non-dry group, but dry eye group demonstrated more CD11b+ cells infiltration than the non-dry eye group (0.360%±0.160% vs 0.023%±0.006%; P=0.068). Dry eye group showed more NV than non-dry eye group in both topical PBS application and subconjunctival PBS injection (P=0.020 and 0.000, respectively). In a murine cataract surgery model, preexisting dry eye can induce more postoperative NV, LY, and inflammation in corneal tissue.

  17. Comparison of postoperative corneal changes between dry eye and non-dry eye in a murine cataract surgery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin Woo; Chung, Yeon Woong; Choi, Jin A; La, Tae Yoon; Jee, Dong Hyun; Cho, Yang Kyung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the effects of the surgical insult of cataract surgery on corneal inflammatory infiltration, neovascularization (NV) and lymphangiogenesis (LY) between the dry eye and non-dry eye in murine cataract surgery models. METHODS We established two groups of animals, one with normal eyes (non-dry eye) and the second with induced dry eyes. In both groups, we used surgical insults to mimic human cataract surgery, which consisted of lens extraction, corneal incision and suture. After harvesting of corneas on the 9th postoperative day and immunohistochemical staining, we compared NV, LY and CD11b+ cell infiltration in the corneas. RESULTS Dry eye group had significantly more inflammatory infiltration (21.75%±7.17% vs 3.65%±1.49%; P=0.049). The dry eye group showed significantly more NV (48.21%±4.02% vs 26.24%±6.01%; P=0.016) and greater levels of LY (9.27%±0.48% vs 4.84%±1.15%; P=0.007). In corneas on which no surgery was performed, there was no induction of NV in both the dry and non-dry group, but dry eye group demonstrated more CD11b+ cells infiltration than the non-dry eye group (0.360%±0.160% vs 0.023%±0.006%; P=0.068). Dry eye group showed more NV than non-dry eye group in both topical PBS application and subconjunctival PBS injection (P=0.020 and 0.000, respectively). CONCLUSION In a murine cataract surgery model, preexisting dry eye can induce more postoperative NV, LY, and inflammation in corneal tissue. PMID:26949638

  18. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  19. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional processing methods that include ... The traditional sun drying method is very inefficient as the product can take 2-. 3 days to dry. .... using a digital balance (Ohaus Corporation type). The same applied .... preservation and marketing.

  20. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O.

    2011-01-01

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 o C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 o C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 o C to 80 o C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively.

  1. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2011-02-15

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 C to 80 C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively. (author)

  2. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  3. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  4. Stabilization of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines by Freeze Drying, Spray Drying, and Foam Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovalenti, Phillip M; Anderl, Jeff; Yee, Luisa; Nguyen, Van; Ghavami, Behnaz; Ohtake, Satoshi; Saxena, Atul; Voss, Thomas; Truong-Le, Vu

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop stable formulations for live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by employing the drying methods freeze drying, spray drying, and foam drying. Formulated live attenuated Type-A H1N1 and B-strain influenza vaccines with a variety of excipient combinations were dried using one of the three drying methods. Process and storage stability at 4, 25 and 37°C of the LAIV in these formulations was monitored using a TCID50 potency assay. Their immunogenicity was also evaluated in a ferret model. The thermal stability of H1N1 vaccine was significantly enhanced through application of unique formulation combinations and drying processes. Foam dried formulations were as much as an order of magnitude more stable than either spray dried or freeze dried formulations, while exhibiting low process loss and full retention of immunogenicity. Based on long-term stability data, foam dried formulations exhibited a shelf life at 4, 25 and 37°C of >2, 1.5 years and 4.5 months, respectively. Foam dried LAIV Type-B manufactured using the same formulation and process parameters as H1N1 were imparted with a similar level of stability. Foam drying processing methods with appropriate selection of formulation components can produce an order of magnitude improvement in LAIV stability over other drying methods.

  5. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  6. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  7. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis LM2303, a biocontrol strain isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang

    2017-06-10

    Bacillus velezensis LM2303 is a biocontrol strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against plant pathogens, isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. Here we present its complete genome sequence, which consists of a single, circular chromosome of 3,989,393bp with a 46.68% G+C content. Genome analysis revealed genes encoding specialized functions for the biosynthesis of antifungal metabolites and antibacterial metabolites, the promotion of plant growth, the alleviation of oxidative stress and nutrient utilization. And the biosynthesis of antimicrobial metabolites in strain LM2303 was confirmed by biochemical analysis, while its plant growth promoting traits were confirmed by inoculation tests. Our results will establish a better foundation for further studies and biocontrol application of B. velezensis LM2303. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced biohydrogen production from oat straw co-digested with cow dung / sewage sludge by combined aerobic digestion and anaerobic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen was produced from oat straw by combined aerobic and anaerobic fermentation with fungi and cow dung. With aerobic pre-digestion, the maximum hydrogen production rate reached 133 ml/g volatile suspended solids per hour. The maximum hydrogen yield was 71.5 ml/g straw in 6 days by biological process. The lignocellulosic conversion of oak-straw waste was 39%, with the complex component converting 68% of the hemi-cellulose and 61% of the cellulose, but only 34% of lignin conversion. Aerobic pre-digestion by Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was significantly effective for lignin degradation.  Combining aerobic and anaerobic fermentation is a promising low-cost efficient and environmentally friendly method, compared with hydrogen fermentation, not only for hydrogen production, but also for converting straw biomass.

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  13. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  14. Analysis of Drying Process Quality in Conventional Dry-Kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar Tomislav; Pervan Stjepan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents testing results of drying quality in a conventional dry kiln. Testing is based on a new methodology that will show the level of success of the drying process management by analyzing the quality of drying process in a conventional dry kiln, using a scientifi cally improved version of the check list in everyday practical applications. A company that specializes in lamel and classic parquet production was chosen so as to verify the new testing methodology. A total of 56 m3 of...

  15. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  16. Co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung to supply cooking fuel and fertilizers in rural India: Impact on human health, resource flows and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfez, Sophie; De Meester, Steven; Dewulf, Jo

    2017-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally. Not only the technical and economical feasibility but also the environmental sustainability of such systems needs to be assessed. The potential effects of implementing community digesters co-digesting cow dung and rice straw on carbon and nutrients flows, human health, resource efficiency and climate change are analyzed by conducting a Substance Flow Analysis and a Life Cycle Assessment. The implementation of the technology is considered at the level of the state of Chhattisgarh. Implementing this scenario reduces the dependency of the rural community to nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers only by 0.1 and 1.6%, respectively, but the dependency of farmers to potassium from synthetic fertilizers by 31%. The prospective scenario returns more organic carbon to agricultural land and thus has a potential positive effect on soil quality. The implementation of the prospective scenario can reduce the health impact of the local population by 48%, increase the resource efficiency of the system by 60% and lower the impact on climate change by 13%. This study highlights the large potential of anaerobic digestion to overcome the aforementioned issues faced by India. It demonstrates the need to couple local and global assessments and to conduct analyses at the substance level to assess the sustainability of such systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also

  18. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  19. A review of dry ports

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Roso; Kent Lumsden

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the previous research on the dry port concept and to review the world's existing dry ports, that is freight terminals that use the term ‘dry port’ in their name. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the concept by showing potential discrepancies or agreements between theory and practice. Starting from a literature review on the dry port concept, this article presents a review of existing dry ports in the world. A number of qualitativ...

  20. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  1. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  2. Effect of paddy drying depth using open-sun drying on drying time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smallholder rice farmers in the Uganda dry their paddy using open-sun drying method. In most cases the paddy is badly dried and has very high fissure levels. Such paddy on milling contributes to low levels of mill recovery and whole grain in the milled rice. This study was therefore done to find a recommendable ...

  3. The evaluation of kikuyu foggage for maintaining dry ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DeVilliersJ

    flow programme to maintain dry ewes during the winter in a system where their lambs were weaned onto .... IVDOM of the combined values of the January and February oesophageal and hand-cut foggage samples and ... The ability of the grazing animal to select material of higher quality than hand-cut samples of the.

  4. Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke-dried

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-16

    Jan 16, 2013 ... spoilage thus limiting economic loss and possible heath risk to consumers ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.1 2013. 1Department of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, ..... Molluscs by Major Fishing Areas. ... Microbiological quality of smoke-dried mangrove.

  5. Preliminary observations on the use of dry urea treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw unprocessed jackbean contains 28 - 30% crude protein but also contains toxic elements that limit its use as feed ingredient for nionogastric animals. A 21 - day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dry urea treatment prior to toasting on its nutritive value for young broiler chicks. One of two batches of raw ...

  6. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  7. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  8. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  10. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...

  11. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  12. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  13. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  14. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  15. Animal experiments in radiotherapy. II. Large animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, J C; Hughes, D B

    1975-03-01

    A review has been made of factors of importance when using large animals for organ or partial body irradiation research. The problem has been considered from the viewpoint of the clinician. The rabbit, cat, dog, pig and monkey have been examined in detail for suitability as laboratory animals. Dosimetric and volume features have been reviewed.

  16. Design of solar drying-plant for bulk material drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A generally well-known high energy requirement for technological processes of drying and the fact that the world’s supplyof the conventional energy sources has considerably decreased are the decisive factors forcing us to look for some new, if possible,renewable energy sources for this process by emphasising their environmental reliability. One of the possibilities how to replace, atleast partly, the conventional energy sources – heat in a drying process is solar energy.Air-drying of bulk materials usually has a series of disadvantages such as time expenditure, drying defects in the bulk materialand inadequate final moisture content. A method that obviates or reduces the disadvantages of air-drying and, at the same time, reducesthe costs of kiln drying, is drying with solar heat. Solar energy can replace a large part of this depletable energy since solar energy cansupply heat at the temperatures most often used to dry bulk material. Solar drying-plant offer an attractive solution.

  17. Additional danger of arsenic exposure through inhalation from burning of cow dung cakes laced with arsenic as a fuel in arsenic affected villages in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arup; Nayak, Bishwajit; Das, Bhaskar; Hossain, M Amir; Ahamed, Sad; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2007-10-01

    In arsenic contaminated areas of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) plain (area 569,749 sq. km; population over 500 million) where traditionally cow dung cake is used as a fuel in unventilated ovens for cooking purposes, people are simply exposed to 1859.2 ng arsenic per day through direct inhalation, of which 464.8 ng could be absorbed in respiratory tract.

  18. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Decision tree analysis to evaluate dry cow strategies under UK conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, E.A.; Hogeveen, H.; Hillerton, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Economic decisions on animal health strategies address the cost-benefit aspect along with animal welfare and public health concerns. Decision tree analysis at an individual cow level highlighted that there is little economic difference between the use of either dry cow antibiotic or an internal teat sealant in preventing a new intramammary infection in a cow free of infection in all quarters of the mammary gland at drying off. However, a potential net loss of over pound20 per cow might occur ...

  20. Neuropathic pain and dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Lee, Charity; Rodriguez, Adriana; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Post-LASIK dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding of the development of dry eyes after LASIK will advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of dry eye disease. PMID:22174730

  2. Quality of dry chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Tatsumi, N

    1999-01-01

    Since the development of the qualitative test paper for urine in 1950s, several kinds of dry-state-reagents and their automated analyzers have been developed. "Dry chemistry" has become to be called since the report on the development of quantitative test paper for serum bilirubin with reflectometer in the end of 1960s and dry chemistry has been world widely known since the presentation on the development of multilayer film reagent for serum biochemical analytes by Eastman Kodak Co at the 10th IFCC Meeting in the end of 1970s. We have reported test menu, results in external quality assessment, merits and demerits, and the future possibilities of dry chemistry.

  3. Laboratory and greenhouse assessment of plant availability of organic N in animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antil, R.S.; Janssen, B.H.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory data (thermal fractionation, pepsin extraction, C:No ratio) of dung and manure were mutually compared and contrasted with plant-availability of organic N (No) as found in a greenhouse experiment according to the double-pot technique. Two types of fresh cow dung (one with a relatively wide

  4. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying rate constants for the solar dryer and open- air sun dried bitter leaf were 0.8 and ... of cost benefit but the poorest when other considerations ... J. I. Eze, National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of ...

  5. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  6. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and

  7. The antisickling effects of dried fish (tilapia) And dried prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antisickling effect of dried fish (Tilapia) and dried prawn (Astacus red) were investigated to ascertain the ability of the extracts of these samples to inhibit polymerisation of sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS), improve the Fe 2+/Fe 3+ ratio and lower the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood plasma. The samples ...

  8. Generalized drying curves in conductive/convective paper drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Motta Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to conductive/convective drying of paper (cellulose sheets over heated surfaces, under natural and forced air conditions. The experimental apparatus consists in a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the paper samples (about 1 mm thick are placed. The system is submitted to ambient air under two different conditions: natural convection and forced convection provide by an adjustable blower. The influence of initial paper moisture content, drying (heated surface temperature and air velocity on drying curves behavior is observed under different drying conditions. Hence, these influence is studied through the proposal of generalized drying curves. Those curves are analyzed individually for each air condition exposed above and for both together. A set of equations to fit them is proposed and discussed.

  9. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  10. Refining Bio-Gas Produced from Biomass: An Alternative to Cooking Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. ABDULKAREEM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Our life is completely dependent on a reliable and adequate supply of energy. In other to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, the use of animal dung in producing a renewable alternative source of energy has been proved using cow dung. This work is aimed at produced and refined bio - gas from animal dung by reduces the H2S and CO2 content of bio - gas in other to improved the quality of the bio - gas to be used as an alternative to the petroleum based produces in use now. The sample of gas produced was passed through the gas chromatography to determine the percentage composition (mol % dry basis of the bio - gas contents. The results of the bio - gas before refinement were 54.09% mole dry CH4, 40.02mole % dry CO2 and 0.80mole % dry H2S which conformed with the literature values of 50 - 65 % mole dry CH4, 35 - 50 % mole dry CO2 and 0.1 - 1.0 % mole dry H2S. After refining, the composition of bio - gas on dry basis were 54.09% mole dry CH4, 4.01% mole dry CO2, 0.02% mole dry O2, 0.05% mole dry NH3, 0.01% mole dry H2S, 0.5% mole dry H2 and 2.54% mole dry N2. Analysis of the remnant indicated that it could be used for plant nutrient.

  11. Effect of remediation on growth parameters, grain and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of cow dung, poultry manure, NPK (mineral fertilizers) and municipal waste compost which were the easily accessible materials in the remediation of crude oil polluted soils in Ogoni, Rivers state was assessed using soybean as a test crop. A simple factorial field experiment arranged into a randomized ...

  12. Market opportunities for solar drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskens, R.G.J.H.; Out, P.G.; Schulte, B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising applications for solar heating is the drying of agricultural products. The drying of agricultural products requires large quantities of low temperature air, in many cases, on a year-round basis. Low cost air-based collectors can provide heated air at solar collection efficiencies of 30 to 70%. In 1998/1999 a study was commissioned to better understand the technical and economic potential for solar drying of agricultural products in the world. The practical potential for solar drying was then determined for 59 crops and 22 regions. The world market for solar drying can be divided into three market segments: 1) mechanical drying T 50 deg. C; 3) sun drying. The most promising market for solar drying is generally market segment 1. For this segment the potential amount of energy displaced by solar is in between 216 770 PJ (World-wide). For Western Europe this potential is estimated between 23 88 PJ and for Eastern Europe between 7 and 13 PJ. A different market introduction strategy is required for each market segment. A total of 13 combinations of crops and regions are selected that appear to have the highest practical potential for solar drying. In the Netherlands a programme of activities was carried out by Ecofys and other organisations, to identify and develop the market potential for solar (assisted) drying of agricultural products. A promotional campaign for the use of renewable energy in the (promising) flower bulb sector is planned on a short-term basis to speed up market developments. It can be concluded that there is a large market for solar drying in the World as well as in Europe. (au)

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  15. Occupational Animal Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, Gregg M

    2018-02-16

    This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention. (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and public transportation where allergens are brought into or are present in the workplace. Exposure to animal allergens can result in allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Animal allergy has been most studied in the research laboratory setting, where exposure reduction can prevent the development of allergy. Similar prevention approaches need to be considered for other animal work environments and in all settings where animal allergens are present.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  17. Animal Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Animal Science Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise : immunology and animal nutrition. Tracer techniques are employed in this study. (M.A.) [pt

  18. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  19. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yours Today » Give the Gift of Health to Animals This Holiday Season. Until December 31, your gift ... bizarre molecules. Learn More » A Tireless Advocate for Animals and Science. “If it has a heartbeat, I ...

  20. Dry wall Kras 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the modesty of hiska, they show a simple understanding of corbelling technique. One could say they are all examples of human landscape cultivation. Although there is no evident common line when comparing all types of hiska, the cunning eye may observe one shared feature: the positioning of the entrance. More or less all the documented shelters have south or south-western facing entrances. The burja is a cold northerly wind; from the south (Adriatic Sea the winds are warmer. When resting, the setting sun is taken as a sign of the ending of the working day and a reward for the whole day’s efforts. Entrances are the only openings to these structures, and they should serve as well as possible - to watch over the crops, to wait when hunting, to enjoy the calm of evening light, to breathe the sea wind.The syntax of the architectural language of layering stone and shaping the pattern of the landscape remain an inventive realisation of spatial ideas from the past until today. Not only ideas of shaping space - these ideas are basic interventions in the natural habitat which contribute to survival. Culture and an awareness of its values are the origins of local development and reasonable heritage preservation. The next step are tutorial days with workshops on how to build dry stone structures, walls and other stone architecture, as the DSWA organisation in the UK is doing.

  1. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  2. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  3. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  6. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  7. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  8. Energy cost of seed drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachet Jittanit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the energy costs of drying corn, rice and wheat seeds between 3 drying options were compared. They consisted of 1 two-stage drying by using fluidised bed dryer (FBD in the 1st stage and in-store dryer (ISD in the 2nd stage, 2 single-stage drying by fixed bed dryer (FXD and 3 two-stage drying by using FXD in the 1st  stage and ISD in the 2nd  stage. The drying conditions selected for comparison were proved to be safe for seed viability by the previous studies. The results showed that the drying options 2 and 3 consumed less energy than option 1. However, the benefits from lower energy cost must be weighed against some advantages of using FBD. Furthermore, it appeared that running the burners of FXD and ISD for warming up the ambient air during humid weather condition could shorten drying time significantly with a little higher energy cost.

  9. Dry eyes: etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkany, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Until recently, the cause of dry eye syndrome was uncertain and the treatment was palliative. Since discovering that dry eyes are caused by inflammation, there has been an abundance of research focusing on anti-inflammatory therapies, other contributing causes, and better diagnostic testing. This review summarizes some of the interesting published research on ocular surface disease over the past year. The definition of dry eye now highlights the omnipresent symptom of blurry vision. The re-evaluation of ocular surface staining, tear meniscus height, and visual change will allow for a better diagnosis and understanding of dry eyes. Punctal plugs, and oral and topical anti-inflammatory use will strengthen our arsenal against ocular surface disease. Major progress has occurred in the past few years in gaining a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye syndrome, which will inevitably lead to more effective therapeutic options.

  10. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  11. Emergência de Haematobia irritans em fezes bovinas no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro Emergence of Haematobia irritans in cattle dung pats in Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Marques de Macedo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a emergência de Haematobia irritans em fezes de bovinos mantidas a campo e em laboratório, além de observar a presença de outros dípteros associados às massas fecais. Foram utilizados dois grupos de fezes bovinas, um à campo e outro em laboratório, sendo cada grupo formado por cinco bolos fecais frescos de tamanho mediano (cerca de 30 cm de diâmetro, aparência opaca, cor esverdeada, presença de fina crosta externa e consistência firme. As fezes foram cobertas com gaiolas de emergência de formato piramidal, apresentando na parte superior um orifício onde foi acoplado um frasco removível; a substituição das fezes foi realizada quinzenalmente. Foram coletados um total de 355 espécimens de H. irritans, sendo 151 provenientes das gaiolas mantidas no campo e 204 em laboratório. Estas diferenças deveram-se provavelmente à menores oscilações de temperatura verificadas no laboratório do que àquelas ocorridas no campo, além da ação de artrópodes predadores, competidores e parasitóides que, provavelmente, interferiram na emergência de H. irritans nas fezes bovinas mantidas no campo. Foi observado maior número de fêmeas em comparação com machos em ambas as condições investigadas. Além de H. irritans, obteve-se outros dípteros associados às fezes bovinas, pertencentes as seguintes famílias: Aulacigastridae, Muscidae, Psychodidae, Sarcophagidae, Sepsidae, Tachinidae e Ulidiidae. Sepsidae foi a mais abundante, com 5.224 exemplares do total de 8.928 dípteros obtidos, seguida por Sarcophagidae com 2.235 espécimens coletados, Muscidae com 1.357, Aulacigastridae com 54, Psychodidae com 46, Ulidiidae com 6 e Tachinidae com 5 exemplares.This study was carried out in order to investigate the emergence of adult flies of Haematobia irritans in cattle dung maintained in the field and in the laboratory, as well as other flies associated with dung pats. Two groups of cattle dung were

  12. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  13. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  14. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  15. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  16. Improving methane production through co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonari, A.A.; Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study an effect of acidic pre-treatment on the CS (Canola Straw) and BD (Buffalo Dung) by anaerobic co-digestion was investigated. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) is a mainly accustomed reagent, used as a bleaching agent in the different industries such as paper and wood. In the present study, it was used as a pre-treatment chemical at varying concentrations in batch reactors. The co-digestion of CS and BD was carried out in SAMPTS (Semi-Automatic Methane Potential Test System) at mesophilic (37+-1oC) conditions. The CS was pretreated in glass bottles with different concentrations of the H2O2 for seven days. The inoculum used in the present study was an effluent of the CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor), which was treating BD at mesophilic conditions. The specific methane production from the codigestion of canola straw and BD, by the pre-treatment of H2O2 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% were 530.8, 544.5, and 510.3 NmL CH4 g/VS, respectively. The significant reduction in the volatile solids of CS was observed at the optimum pre-treatment of 1.0% H2O2. (author)

  17. Biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects and oxidative potentials of commercial edible dung beetles (Onitis sp.), grasshopper (Caelifera sp.) and mole crickets (Gryllotalpa sp.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Kubra; Incekara, Umit; Turkez, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    In this investigation, the genotoxic and oxidative effects of water soluble extracts of dung beetles, flying grasshopper and mole crickets have been assessed on cultured human blood cells. The extracts were added to the culture tubes at 12 different concentrations (0-2000 ppm). Micronucleus test was used to monitor the DNA and the chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. In addition, to assess the oxidative effects, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were also measured. Our results indicated that these extracts did not show genotoxic effects at the tested concentrations. However, the extracts caused dose-dependent alterations in both TAC and TOS levels. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the studied insects can be consumed safely, but it is necessary to consider the cellular damages which are likely to appear depending on oxidative stress at higher concentrations. It has also been suggested that this in vitro approach for oxidative and genotoxicity assessments may be useful to evaluate the potential health risks of edible insects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  19. Pump out the volume--The effect of tracheal and subelytral pressure pulses on convective gas exchange in a dung beetle, Circellium bacchus (Fabricus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Frances D; Förster, Thomas D; Hetz, Stefan K

    2010-05-01

    Many flightless beetles like the large apterous dung beetle Circellium bacchus, possess a subelytral cavity (SEC) providing an extra air space below the elytra which connects to the tracheal system (TS) via metathoracic and abdominal spiracles. By measuring subelytral and intratracheal pressure as well as body movements and gas exchange simultaneously in a flow-through setup, we investigated the contribution of convection on Circellium respiratory gas exchange. No constriction phase was observed. TS and SEC pressures were always around atmospheric values. During interburst phase open abdominal spiracles and a leaky SEC led to small CO(2)-peaks on a continuous CO(2) baseline, driven by intermittent positive tracheal pressure peaks in anti-phase with small negative subelytral pressure peaks caused by dorso-ventral tergite action. Spiracle opening was accompanied by two types of body movements. Higher frequency telescoping body movements at the beginning of opening resulted in high amplitude SEC and TS pressure peaks. High frequency tergite movements caused subelytral pressure peaks and led to a saw tooth like CO(2) release pattern in a burst. We propose that during the burst open mesothoracic spiracles increase the compliance of the subelytral cavity allowing big volumes of tracheal air being pulled out by convection. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  1. Decision tree analysis to evaluate dry cow strategies under UK conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, E.A.; Hogeveen, H.; Hillerton, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Economic decisions on animal health strategies address the cost-benefit aspect along with animal welfare and public health concerns. Decision tree analysis at an individual cow level highlighted that there is little economic difference between the use of either dry cow antibiotic or an internal teat

  2. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouthwashes that contain alcohol because they can be drying. Stop all tobacco use if you smoke or ... also help your condition: Avoid sugary or acidic foods and drinks because they increase your risk of ...

  3. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  4. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0

  5. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  6. Draught animals and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda.

  7. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  8. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  9. ANIMALS IN RESOCIALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Czerw, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of relations between humans and animals have encouraged both scientists and members of other communities to popularize the knowledge in the field of animal-assisted therapy. Currently, animal-assisted therapy has been used not only in therapy, but also in resocialization. The increasing popularity of this form of supporting maladjusted people who are isolated from society or people with disabilities encouraged both practitioners and researchers to organize knowledge, thus reducin...

  10. Comparison between freeze and spray drying to obtain powder Rubrivivax gelatinosus biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Francisco do Espírito Santo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of colorants in products of animal origin is justified by the improvement in the color of foods since this attribute is considered a quality criterion. These additives can be produced using industrial effluents as substrates and appropriate organisms, such as Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Oxycarotenoids represent a class of carotenes responsible for the pigmentation of animals and vegetables. R. gelatinosus grows in fish industry effluent with the resulting production of a bacterial biomass containing oxycarotenoids. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two drying processes - spray and freeze drying - to obtain powder biomass in terms of the process parameters (yield, productivity, and product recovery and the product characteristics (color, proximate composition, and oxycarotenoids. No difference was detected in the yield between these techniques, while productivity was higher using spray drying. Higher product recovery and moisture were achieved with freeze drying, while ash was higher with spray drying. The freeze dried biomass was redder, darker and less saturated than the spray dried biomass. No difference in oxycarotenoids was detected between the biomasses. Although it results in lower recovery rate, spray drying was faster and more productive, and it provided the same yield as freeze drying, which makes it the method of choice for obtaining R. gelatinosus biomass.

  11. Air dehumidification and drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, R.

    1988-07-01

    Details are given on the physical principles of air dehumidification and drying as well as on appropriate systems available on the market. Reference is made to dehumidification through condensation (intermittent compressor or electric auxiliary heater defrosting, reversible-circuit hot gas bypass defrosting), air drying through sorption (sorbents, regeneration through heat inputs), the operation of absorptive dryers (schematic sketches), and the change of state of air (Mollier h,x-diagramm). Practical examples refer to the dehumidification of storage rooms, archives, and waterworks as well as to air drying in the pharmaceutical industry, the pastry and candy industry, the food industry, and the drying (preservation) of turbines and generators during long standstill periods. A diagramm shows that while adsorption processes are efficient at temperatures below 80/sup 0/C, low-temperature dehumidification is efficient at temperatures above. (HWJ).

  12. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...

  13. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  14. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  15. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille [AREVA, Paris (France)

    2012-03-15

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different.

  17. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille

    2012-01-01

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different

  18. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  19. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  20. Post-LASIK dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding...