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Sample records for dresden felsenkeller underground

  1. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  2. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgner, Ch. [Nuclear Astrophysics group, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, protected from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance. Recently, a muon background study and geodetic measurements were carried out by the REGARD group. It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to 130 m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2.5 m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} s{sup -1}, in the direction of the tunnel entrance. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem accelerator with 250 μA up-charge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the

  3. Parameters of a simple whole body counter and thyroid monitor established at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Schoenmuth, T [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    At the Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. a simple whole body counter and an iodine-thyroid monitor are used for measuring the internal contamination of workers. There is no shielding chamber in both cases. By using the chamber at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory the lower limit of detection could be improved by a factor of about 3 for whole body counting and by a factor of 2,5 for thyroid monitoring (I 131, I 125). Concerning the lower limit of detection the applicability of the German standard DIN 25 482 implemented in the Gamma-Vision software packadge is discussed in the paper. (orig.)

  4. Low-level counting techniques in the underground laboratory `Felsenkeller` in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niese, S [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Koehler, M [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Low radioactivity measurements are characterized by low detection limits. They are mainly determined by the background. The contribution of cosmic rays may be reduced drastically by installation of measurement devices in an underground laboratory. In 1982 we installed a chamber with a shield of ultramafic rock for low-level measurements within a cave of an old brewery named `Felsenkeller`. In this laboratory we used low-level {gamma}-spectrometry for the measurement of neutron activated samples of semiconductor silicon (Niese (1986)), of cosmic induced radioactivity in meteorites, chemically separated long-lived nuclides in low-level wastes, contaminated materials and of environmental samples. (orig./DG)

  5. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  6. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemmerer D.

    2015-01-01

    Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  7. Progress of the Felsenkeller Shallow-Underground Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cowan, T. E.; Grieger, M.; Hensel, T.; Junghans, A. R.; Ludwig, F.; Müller, S. E.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Schulz, S.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    Low-background experiments with stable ion beams are an important tool for putting the model of stellar hydrogen, helium, and carbon burning on a solid experimental foundation. The pioneering work in this regard has been done by the LUNA collaboration at Gran Sasso, using a 0.4 MV accelerator. In the present contribution, the status of the project for a higher-energy underground accelerator is reviewed. Two tunnels of the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, Germany, are currently being refurbished for the installation of a 5 MV high-current Pelletron accelerator. Construction work is on schedule and expected to complete in August 2017. The accelerator will provide intense, 50 µA, beams of 1H+, 4He+, and 12C+ ions, enabling research on astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions with unprecedented sensitivity.

  8. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator providing {sup 1}H{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, and {sup 12}C{sup +} beams for underground nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, Stefan; Cowan, Thomas E.; Grieger, Marcel; Ludwig, Felix; Rath, Ferdinand; Roeder, Marko; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Bemmerer, Daniel; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan E.; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Accelerator-based experiments at the 0.4 MV LUNA underground accelerator at Gran Sasso have enabled great progress for studies of Big Bang and solar fusion reactions. However, to complete the picture of solar fusion reactions and open up helium and carbon burning reactions to study, higher beam energies are required. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator will be installed in the Felsenkeller underground laboratory in Dresden. It will allow both, tandem mode operations for {sup 12}C{sup +} beams and the use of a radio frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal for {sup 1}H{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} beams. The beam from the RF ion source is fed in with a remotely controlled electrostatic deflector. In addition, a large, ultra-sensitive high-purity germanium detector for offline measurements will be installed at Felsenkeller. The final timeline of the project will be shown, as well as the science case for in-house research and the capabilities available to external scientific users.

  9. Background intercomparison with escape-suppressed germanium detectors in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuecs, Tamas; Bemmerer, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A key requirement for underground nuclear astrophysics experiments is the very low background level in germanium detectors underground. The reference for these purposes is the world's so far only underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics, LUNA. LUNA is located deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, shielded from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. The background at LUNA was studied in detail using an escape-suppressed Clover-type HPGe detector. Exactly the same detector was subsequently transported to the Felsenkeller underground laboratory in Dresden, shielded by 45 m of rock, and the background was shown to be only a factor of three higher than at LUNA when comparing the escape-suppressed spectra, with interesting consequences for underground nuclear astrophysics. As the next step of a systematic study of the effects of a combination of active and passive shielding on the cosmic ray induced background, this detector is now being brought to the ''Reiche Zeche'' mine in Freiberg/Sachsen, shielded by 150 m of rock. The data from the Freiberg measurement are shown and discussed.

  10. Pegida. Warum Dresden?

    OpenAIRE

    Troland, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit den Ursachen von Dresdens Sonderweg in Bezug auf Pegida (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes). Im Winter 2014/2015 weckte dieses schnell wachsende Phänomen großes Interesse im In- und Ausland und viele Ableger wurden gegründet. Wirklich erfolgreich war Pegida jedoch nur in Sachsens Landeshauptstadt. Im Jahre 2016 ist diese Bewegung weit von den alten Teilnehmerzahlen entfernt, die Organisatoren geben aber nicht auf und die Kundgebungen w...

  11. UNDERGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-11-15

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  12. UNDERGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  13. Entscheidungsprozesse und Partizipation in der Stadtentwicklung Dresdens

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Lerm, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Untersucht wurde die Auseinandersetzung um das Autobahnbauvorhaben A 17 Dresden - Prag zwischen 1990 und 1995 als ein Beispiel der Stadtentwicklung Dresdens. Seit 1935 als Reichsautobahn ins Sudetenland geplant, sollte dieses Verkehrsprojekt nach 1990 als „Lückenschluß im europäischen Autobahnnetz“ umgesetzt werden. Angesichts des hohen Konfliktpotentials erlangte der Fall überregionale Aufmerksamkeit und Beispielcharakter für die neuen Bundesländer. Die Kontroverse gipfelte im ersten Bürgere...

  14. Dresden 1 plutonium recycle program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. It covers the work performed from July 1, 1978 to completion, which includes in-pool inspection of two fuel assemblies, removal of two fuel rods, and post-irradiation examination (PIE) of six fuel rods. Appendix A describes the inspection and rod removal operations, and Appendix B describes the PIE work

  15. Hamlet, iscenesættelse Roger Vontobel, Staatsschauspiel Dresden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Annelis

    2015-01-01

    Hamlet iscenesat af Roger Vontobel, Staatsschauspiel Dresden. Gæstespil på Kronborg Slot under Hamletscenens Shakespearefestival 1.-4. august 2015......Hamlet iscenesat af Roger Vontobel, Staatsschauspiel Dresden. Gæstespil på Kronborg Slot under Hamletscenens Shakespearefestival 1.-4. august 2015...

  16. Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden (IFW). Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This annual report of the IFW (Institute of Solid State Physics and Materials Research), Dresden, presents the research fields and subjects investigated in 1999. It is structured as follows: Highlights, Techonology transfer, Reports from Research areas, Publications, Patents, PhD Theses, Awards, Conferences and Colloquia, Organisation of the IFW Dresden, and the new structure of the IFW's Research Programme from 2000 on. Two of the nine highlight topics are separately analysed for this database.

  17. New training reactor at Dresden Technical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.; Knorr, J.; Wolf, T.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 14 low-power (up to 10 W) training reactors have been operated at German universities, 9 of them officially classified as being operational in 2004, though for very different uses. This number is expected to drop sharply. The only comprehensive upgrading of a training reactor took place at Dresden Technical University: AKR-2, the most modern facility in Germany, started routine operation in April 2005, under a newly granted license pursuant to Sec. 7, Subsec. 1 of the German Atomic Energy Act, for training students in nuclear technology, for suitable research projects, and a a center of information about reactor technology and nuclear technology for the interested public. One special aspect of this refurbishment was the installation of digital safety I and C systems of the TELEPERM XS line, which are used also in other modern plants. This fact, plus the easy possibility to use the plant for many basic experiments in reactor physics and radiation protection, make the AKR-2 attractive also to other users (e.g. for training reactor personnel or other persons working in nuclear technology). (orig.)

  18. Cold weather effects on Dresden Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostopoulos, H. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Morris, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Dresden Unit 1 is in the final stages of a decommissioning effort directed at preparing the unit to enter a SAFSTOR status. Following an extended sub-zero cold wave, about 55,000 gallons of water were discovered in the lowest elevation of the spherical reactor enclosure. Cold weather had caused the freezing and breaking of several service water lines that had not been completely isolated. Two days later, at a regularly scheduled decommissioning meeting, the event was communicated to the decommissioning team, who quickly recognized the potential for freezing of a 42 inches diameter Fuel Transfer Tube that connects the sphere to the Spent Fuel Pool. The team directed that the pool gates between the adjacent Spent Fuel Pool and the Fuel Transfer Pool be installed, and a portable source of heat was installed on the Fuel Transfer Tube. It was later determined that, with the fuel pool gates removed, and with a worst case freeze break at the 502 elevation on the Fuel Transfer Tube (in the Sphere), the fuel in the Spent Fuel Pool could be uncovered to a level 3 below the top of active fuel.

  19. Radiation level assessment of the Dresden-1 decontamination pilot loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    The radionuclide concentrations of the Dresden-1 decontamination pilot loop were determined by gamma spectroscopy. The General Electric Ge(Li)pipe gamma scanning system was utilized to take measurements at eight locations both before and after the pilot demonstration of decontamination process. Dose rate measrurements were taken with a portable gamma monitor at 30 additional locations. The percentage of Co-60 removed was calculated and the results were interpreted

  20. Contamination awareness at the Dresden Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, D.J.; Rath, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Dresden Nuclear Power Station, which is located ∼ 60 miles southwest of Chicago near Morris, Illinois, has been generating electricity since 1960. Owned by Commonwealth Edison, Dresden was the nation's first privately financed nuclear station. On its site are three boiling water reactors (BWRs). Due to the contamination potential inherent with a reactor, a contamination trending program was created at the station. Studies had indicated a rise in contamination events during refueling outages. Further increases were due to specific work projects such as hydrolyzing operations. The investigations suggested that contract personnel also increased the number of events. In 1983, a contamination awareness program was created. The 1984 contamination awareness program was comprised of the following: (1) a statistical review in which trended contamination events were discussed. (2) A demonstration of protective clothing removal by an individual making various mistakes. (3) Scenarios were developed for use in mock work areas. (4) Upper management involvement. Because of the 1984 program, favorable attention has been focused on Dresden from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

  1. Dresden 2020. Development of an urban energy supplier. Power supply concept DREWAG; Dresden 2020. Entwicklung eines staedtischen Energieversorgers. Energienkonzeption DREWAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wustmann, Frank; Maier, Juergen [DREWAG-Stadtwerke Dresden GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    DREWAG is the most prominent service provider for electricity, gas, warmth, coldness and water in Dresden (Federal Republic of Germany). DREWAG is entitled to a reliable, inexpensive, customer-oriented, environmentally friendly and sustainable supply. This requirement must be realized in a strongly changing environment. Under this aspect, DREWAG developed the 'energy concept Dresden 2020' with the following targets: (a) Long-term securing of a positive profit development and the demands for net yield with consideration of economic and ecological factors; (b) Conservation and promotion of the long-distance heating and combined heat and power; (c) Realization of an integrated advisory approach according to the entire added value chain; (d) Examination of new business approaches within the range of renewable energies and customer-orientated complex supply services.

  2. The new 6 MV AMS-facility DREAMS at Dresden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Heller, René; Hanf, Daniel; Rugel, Georg; Merchel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► New 6 MV tandem accelerator in operation in Germany for AMS, IBA and HE-implantation. ► DREsden AMS (DREAMS) primarily used for radionuclides 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 41 Ca and 129 I. ► Quality assurance by traceable calibration materials and interlaboratory comparisons. High accuracy data for future DREAMS users. ► Energy calibration of accelerator by 1 H( 15 N,γα) 12 C yield correction factor of 1.019. - Abstract: A new 6 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator has been put into operation at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). The system is equipped for accelerator mass spectrometry and opens a new research field at HZDR and the Helmholtz Association. It will be also used for ion beam analysis as well as for material modification via high-energy ion implantation. The research activity at the DREsden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility (DREAMS) based on a 6 MV Tandetron is primarily dedicated to the long-lived radioisotopes of 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 41 Ca, and 129 I. DREAMS background levels have been found to be at 4.5 × 10 −16 for 10 Be/ 9 Be, 8 × 10 −16 for 26 Al/ 27 Al, 3 × 10 −15 for 36 Cl/ 35 Cl and 8 × 10 −15 for 41 Ca/ 40 Ca, respectively. The observed background of 2 × 10 −13 for 129 I/ 127 I originates from intrinsic 129 I from AgI produced from commercial KI. The introduction of quality assurance approaches for AMS, such as the use of traceable calibration materials and taking part in interlaboratory comparisons, guarantees high accuracy data for future DREAMS users. During first experiments an energy calibration of the accelerator has been carried out using the nuclear reaction 1 H( 15 N,γα) 12 C yielding an energy correction factor of 1.019.

  3. Decommissioning the Dresden Unit 1 Spent Fuel Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.L.; Bargelt, R.J.; Panozzo, J.B.; Christensen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) (Exelon Generation Co.) was decommissioned using a new underwater coating strategy developed in cooperation with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This was the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating approach. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and in safer, more cost effective deactivation. The process was pioneered at the INL and used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. The INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by the INL and Exelon on the pathway for this activity. The rationale used to select the underwater coating option and the advantages and disadvantages are shown. Special circumstances, such as the use of a remotely operated underwater vehicle to map (visually and radiologically) the pool areas that were not readily accessible, are discussed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are given and a lessons learned evaluation is included. (authors)

  4. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – A Case Series from Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is world-wide one of the most common infectious disorders caused by protozoa. Due to the climate change, there is a risk of further spread of the disease to central and northern Europe. Another important issue is the high number of refugees from Syria since Syria is one of the hot spots of Old World leishmaniasis. We report on single-centre experience with leishmaniasis in the capital of Saxony, Dresden, during the years 2001 to 2017. We noted a substantial increase in the last five years. Once a very rare exotic disorder in Germany, cutaneous leishmaniasis has become a reality and physicians should be aware of it. A significant number of cases are from Syrian refugees; other cases had been acquired by tourists in the Mediterranean region!

  5. The intensive DT neutron generator of TU Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klix, Axel; DÖring, Toralf; Domula, Alexander; Zuber, Kai

    2018-01-01

    TU Dresden operates an accelerator-based intensive DT neutron generator. Experimental activities comprise investigation into material activation and decay, neutron and photon transport in matter and R&D work on radiation detectors for harsh environments. The intense DT neutron generator is capable to produce a maximum of 1012 n/s. The neutron source is a solid-type water-cooled tritium target based on a titanium matrix on a copper carrier. The neutron yield at a typical deuteron beam current of 1 mA is of the order of 1011 n/s in 4Π. A pneumatic sample transport system is available for short-time irradiations and connected to wo high-purity germanium detector spectrometers for the measurement of induced activities. The overall design of the experimental hall with the neutron generator allows a flexible setup of experiments including the possibility of investigating larger structures and cooled samples or samples at high temperatures.

  6. Chemical cleaning of Dresden Unit 1: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The introduction of NS-1 solvent into the full primary system of Dresden Unit-1 nuclear power reactor on September 12, 1984, represented the culmination of several years of development, testing, planning, and construction. The requirement was to dissolve the highly radioactive deposits of primarily nickel ferrite without any corrosion which might compromise the reactor systems. During the actual cleaning with the NS-1 solvent, the chemical condition of the circulating solvent was measured. Iron, nickel, and radioactive cobalt all dissolved smoothly. The amount of copper in solution decreased in concentration, verifying expectations that metallic copper would plate on to clean metal surfaces. A special rinse formulation was employed after the primary cleaning steps and the ''lost'' copper was thus redissolved and removed from the system. After the cleaning was complete and the reactor had been refilled with pure water, radiation levels were measured. The most accurate of these measurements gave decontamination factors ranging well above 100, which indicated a significant removal of the radioactive deposits, and demonstrated the success of this project. Treatment of the radioactive liquid wastes from this operation required volume reduction and water purification. The primary method of processing the spent cleaning solvent and rinse water was evaporation. The resulting concentrate has been stored as a liquid, awaiting solidification to allow burial at a designated site. Water which was separated during evaporation, along with the dilute rinses, was processed by various chemical means, reevaporated, treated with activated carbon, and/or demineralized before its radionuclide and chemical content was low enough to allow it to be returned to Dresden Station for treatment or disposal. 60 figs., 31 tabs

  7. Deeper underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brearley, D. [Pantek Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The paper describes how efficient data gathering has led to production and uptime improvements in UK Coal's Daw Mill colliery in Warwickshire. Software called FactorySuite A{sup 2} from Wonderware is being used to control and monitor all underground production and conveying. 3 photos.

  8. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  9. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  10. Underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)

    2011-01-21

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.

  11. Performance of 9 x 9 demonstration assemblies in Dresden-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, G.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute, Empire State Electric energy Research Corporation and Siemens Nuclear Power corporation jointly sponsored a program to monitor the in-reactor performance of 9x9 BWR fuel. The program was conducted in Dresden-2, with four 9x9 lead assemblies and one 8x8 reference assembly. These assemblies were loaded at the beginning of reactor Cycle 9 and completed four cycles of operation. All five assemblies were discharged after reactor Cycle 12 (EOC12) in September 1990. the 9x9 assemblies reached an average exposure of 35.7 GWd/MTU and the 8x8 reference assembly reached a burnup of 34.2 GWd/MTU. This final program report evaluates the performance of the 9x9 and 8x8 fuel assemblies, based on results from all four poolside examinations, analysis of the operating histories, and ramp tests conducted on rod segments under another program. Overall, both 9x9 and 8x assemblies performed well during the four cycles of irradiation

  12. 10. Biogas conference Dresden. Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornack, Christina; Liebetrau, Jan; Fassauer, Burkhardt; Nelles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The biogas conference in Dresden will be held for the tenth time and is still the only conference in Germany, which focuses on the production of biogas solely from waste. This year, the implementation of paragraph 11 of the Recycling and Waste Management Act and the amendment of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) in 2014, the chances of the waste management biogas technology will be spotlighted here. The efficiency and wise use of the end products of the biogas production - the biogas and fermentation residues are equally critical for the success of biogas technology as the emission reduction of biogas plants. In this context, the biogas technology will also be dependent in the future on legal requirements and funding instruments such as the EEG. For the technical implementation, the development of reliable system concepts with specific sinking biogas and electricity supply costs and with greater flexibility in terms of launching needs-based biogas and electricity production. The contributions in this paper discuss possible solutions and implementations from the perspective of politics, associations, research and practice. Innovative topics will be discussed, which will be decisive for the future of biogas production from organic wastes. [de

  13. The intensive DT neutron generator of TU Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klix Axel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TU Dresden operates an accelerator-based intensive DT neutron generator. Experimental activities comprise investigation into material activation and decay, neutron and photon transport in matter and R&D work on radiation detectors for harsh environments. The intense DT neutron generator is capable to produce a maximum of 1012 n/s. The neutron source is a solid-type water-cooled tritium target based on a titanium matrix on a copper carrier. The neutron yield at a typical deuteron beam current of 1 mA is of the order of 1011 n/s in 4Π. A pneumatic sample transport system is available for short-time irradiations and connected to wo high-purity germanium detector spectrometers for the measurement of induced activities. The overall design of the experimental hall with the neutron generator allows a flexible setup of experiments including the possibility of investigating larger structures and cooled samples or samples at high temperatures.

  14. 10. Biogas conference Dresden. Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes. Proceedings; 10. Biogastagung Dresden. Anaerobe biologische Abfallbehandlung. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornack, Christina [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten; Scholwin, Frank [Institut fuer Biogas, Kreislaufwirtschaft und Energie, Weimar (Germany); Liebetrau, Jan [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany); Fassauer, Burkhardt [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Systeme (IKTS), Hermsdorf (Germany); Nelles, Michael (ed.) [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft

    2015-07-01

    The biogas conference in Dresden will be held for the tenth time and is still the only conference in Germany, which focuses on the production of biogas solely from waste. This year, the implementation of paragraph 11 of the Recycling and Waste Management Act and the amendment of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) in 2014, the chances of the waste management biogas technology will be spotlighted here. The efficiency and wise use of the end products of the biogas production - the biogas and fermentation residues are equally critical for the success of biogas technology as the emission reduction of biogas plants. In this context, the biogas technology will also be dependent in the future on legal requirements and funding instruments such as the EEG. For the technical implementation, the development of reliable system concepts with specific sinking biogas and electricity supply costs and with greater flexibility in terms of launching needs-based biogas and electricity production. The contributions in this paper discuss possible solutions and implementations from the perspective of politics, associations, research and practice. Innovative topics will be discussed, which will be decisive for the future of biogas production from organic wastes. [German] Die Biogastagung in Dresden findet zum zehnten Mal statt und ist nach wie vor die einzige Tagung in Deutschland, welche die Biogaserzeugung ausschliesslich aus Reststoffen thematisiert. In diesem Jahr sollen vor dem Hintergrund der Umsetzung des paragraph 11 des Kreislaufwirtschaftswirtschaftsgesetzes und der Novellierung des EEG 2014 die Chancen der abfallwirtschaftlichen Biogastechnologie beleuchtet werden. Die effiziente und sinnvolle Nutzung der Endprodukte der Biogaserzeugung - des Biogases und des Gaerrests sind ebenso entscheidend fuer den Erfolg der Biogastechnologie wie die Emissionsminderung aus Biogasanlagen. In diesem Zusammenhang wird die Biogastechnologie auch zukuenftig auf gesetzliche Vorgaben und

  15. Seepage water balance of the mixed tailings site IAA Dresden-Coschuetz/Gittersee by means of the two-dimensional model BOWAHALD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helling, C.; Dunger, V.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings were deposited in a section of the Kaitzbach valley which was closed by tow dams. The Kaitzbach creek was cased in the area. After the uranium ore processing was finish the dump was used as a municipal waste deposit. The water balance of the IAA Dresden-Coschuetz/Gittersee was only estimated in former works. In this case a modeling of the water balance is very useful in regard to a process orientated quantification of the contaminant transport within the dump as well as into the underground. Simplified and rough estimating methods such as the runoff coefficient concept or rating curves are less suited because of the complexity of the processes. That's why we tried to get a runoff and seepage water balance by means of a two-dimensional water balance model for waste heaps called BOWAHALD. The tailings site IAA Dresden-Coschuetz/Gittersee was divited into several hydrotopes (areas with similar hydrological characteristics). Different exposition and slopes as well as different soils and vegetation were taken into account. The parameter verification is possible due to comparison with available data such hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of seepage water and groundwater. (orig.)

  16. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  17. Innovative utilization concept at water-water-heat pump plants in Dresden; Innovatives Nutzkonzept bei Wasser-Wasser-Waermepumpenanlagen in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschaetzsch, Barbara [ARCADIS Deutschland GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    In suitable hydro-geological conditions, the cooling of buildings using ground water is a good option. In Dresden (Federal Republic of Germany), climate wells were realized which can do more than only cooling. Except for cooling, climate wells are used for flood protection, removal of precipitation water and for heating during the winter.

  18. Water underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  19. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories

  20. Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Program report, January 1, 1976--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, M.Y.

    1977-01-01

    This report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program covers the period from January 1, 1976 through June 30, 1976. Included are a summary of reactor operations, power and exposure histories for each mixed-oxide assembly, and the plans and schedule for the remainder of the program

  1. Update on materials performance and electrochemistry in hydrogen water chemistry at Dresden-2 BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indig, M.E.; Weber, J.E.; Davis, R.B.; Gordon, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies performed in 1982 indicated that if sufficient hydrogen was injected into the Dresden-2 BWR, IGSCC of sensitized austenitic stainless steel was mitigated. The present series of experiments were aimed at verification of the above finding, determining how much time off hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) could be tolerated and how HWC affected pre-existing cracks

  2. Investigations of the reactivity temperature coefficient of the Dresden Technical University training and research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, E.; Knorr, J.

    1982-01-01

    Approximate formulas are derived for determining the temperature coefficient of reactivity of the training and research reactor (AKR) of the Dresden Technical University. Values calculated on the basis of these approximations show good agreement with experimentally obtained results, thus confirming the applicability of the formulas to simple systems

  3. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  4. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  5. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  6. New control and safety rod unit for the training reactor of the Dresden Technical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, E.; Schab, J.; Knorr, J.

    1983-01-01

    The extension of the experimental training of students at the training reactor AKR of the Dresden Technical University requires the reconstruction of the reactor with a new control and safety rod unit. The specific conditions at the AKR led to a new variant. Results of preliminary experiments, design and mode of operation of the first unit as well as hitherto gained operation experiences are presented. (author)

  7. The Power of Photographs of Buildings in the Dresden Urban Discourse. Towards a Visual Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B. Christmann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "Old Dresden" which is known worldwide as a symbol for inept destruction in World War II stopped existing in its physical form in February 1945. The image of "old Dresden," however, has been maintained in the minds of its citizens. This is as results of the visualization of historical buildings. Buildings are artifacts that can be experienced visually and aesthetically. Thus, it is not surprising that in the context of public discourses they "demand" an appropriate representation in a visual and in an aesthetic respect. In the urban discourse of Dresden the visualization of buildings plays an important role. In the article the author exemplifies her methodical approach to visual discourse analysis. She acts on the assumption that three levels of analyzing images must be taken into consideration: 1. the composition of the image, with its content and design, 2. the context of production and publication, including the horizon of historic events, and 3. the mode of reception, with respect to communicative processes. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803115

  8. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  9. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  10. Education and research when dismantling nuclear plants at the Technical University Dresden; Lehre und Forschung beim Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen an der Technischen Universitaet Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, A.; Anthofer, A.; Cloppenborg, T.; Schreier, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    2013-08-15

    With the decision by the German government in 2011 to revoke the operating permission from 8 of the existing 17 German nuclear power plants, the responsibility of decommissioning and dismantling these plants has moved back into the focus of public awareness. Under the current legal conditions, the last nuclear plant will be disconnected from the grid on 31.12.2022 and this will create an enormous challenge for all the involved approving authorities, expert organisations, as well as companies involved in dismantling the plants. The development of new and efficient dismantling technologies and strategies is required to perform these highly responsible tasks. On the other hand, the nuclear competence and knowhow, as well as the promotion of young talents in the relevant scientific fields must be preserved. Technological and economic solutions are in demand for the various plants due to the different specifics of nuclear power plants. This will still require e.g. in the field of radiation protection highly qualified and well trained staff in future. The training of these skilled employees will require expanding the subject matter taught at universities, colleges and polytechnics to suit the changed parameters. The chair for hydrogen and nuclear energy technology at the TU Dresden will in future offer lectures as part of a new teaching discipline with the focus on dismantling and disposal. The course 'Dismantling nuclear power plants' took place for the first time in the summer semester 2013. It is organised as a three-day block seminar with an excursion to the company NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH in Alzenau. The company NIS is a subsidiary of the Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH. This article intends to provide an overview of the contents of the courses and the impressions of the participants. In this way the TU Dresden is making a further contribution to preserving nuclear competence and inter-disciplinary dialogue. (orig.)

  11. First results with the novel petawatt laser acceleration facility in Dresden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, U; Bussmann, M; Irman, A; Siebold, M; Zeil, K; Albach, D; Bernert, C; Bock, S; Brack, F; Branco, J; Couperus, JP; Cowan, TE; Debus, A; Eisenmann, C; Garten, M; Gebhardt, R; Grams, S; Helbig, U; Huebl, A; Kluge, T

    2017-01-01

    We report on first commissioning results of the DRACO Petawatt ultra-short pulse laser system implemented at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. Key parameters of the laser system essential for efficient and reproducible performance of plasma accelerators are presented and discussed with the demonstration of 40 MeV proton acceleration under TNSA conditions as well as peaked electron spectra with unprecedented bunch charge in the 0.5 nC range. (paper)

  12. Study of pellet clad interaction defects in Dresden-3 fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasupathi, V.; Perrin, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    During Cycle-3 operation of Dresden-3, fuel rod failures occurred following a transient power increase. Ten fuel rods from five of the leaking fuel assemblies were examined at Battelle's Columbus Laboratory and General Electric-Vallecitos Nuclear Center. Examinations consisted of nondestructive and destructive methods including metallography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed the cause of fuel rod failure to be pellet clad interaction involving stress corrosion cracking. Results of SEM studies of the cladding crack surfaces and deposits on clad inner surfaces were in agreement with those reported by other investigators

  13. Retrofitting and operation solid radwaste system Dresden Station, Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, J.; Homer, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Units 2 and 3 at Dresden Station are twin 794 MW (net) BWR units that became operational in 1970 and 1971. The waste streams are typical of BWR stations, namely, bead resin and filter sludge (powdered resins and diatomaceous earth), evaporator concentrate containing approximately 25% dissolved solids and dry active waste. The original solid radwaste system utilized cement for solidification in open top 55 gallon drums. Remote handling was provided by means of a monorail with moving platforms supporting the drums. A relatively light-weight compactor was used to compact DAW into 55 gallon drums. Difficulties were experienced with this system

  14. Cooperation agreement between the Technical University Dresden and AREVA NP GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Hansen, V.; Druschel, R.; Heyer, J.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the complete refurbishment of the Technical University Dresden (TUD) training reactor AKR and its equipment with the digital safety system TELEPERM XS by AREVA NP it is actually the most advanced facility in this category in Germany. Following the positive experience gained during project execution an agreement between AREVA NP and TUD was signed to bundle each organizations competence's in the interest of new recruits in the field of nuclear technology in 2006. The content and the experience with the cooperation are described in this paper. Conclusions show that both parties found an attractive way to support fellow young nuclear engineers. (authors)

  15. Nuclear technology education at the new AKR-2 of the technical university Dresden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.; Wolf, T.; Hurtado, A.

    2009-01-01

    The former research and training reactor AKR-1 was completely renewed, including the peripheral technical systems and the modernization of the reactor instrumentation with digital control technology. After licensing by the local authorities the technical University Dresden has Germany's latest training reactor. Basic experiments are performed for the following disciplines: nuclear energy technology, physics, teacher training, industrial engineering, nuclear medicine. Training courses cover nuclear medicine, nuclear physics, radiation protection and reactor physics. Further tasks include research program on neutron detectors, neutron physics, radiation spectroscopy, nuclear data bases.

  16. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  17. [The prevalence of Parkinson's disease, associated dementia, and depression in Dresden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, O; Schneider, C; Klotsche, J; Reichmann, H; Storch, A; Wittchen, H-U

    2013-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently compounded by dementia and depression. Yet local total estimates on the prevalence of PD with dementia/depression are still lacking. These are socioeconomically important, especially for the eastern federal states in Germany due to the demographic structures. We conducted a two-staged total estimation in the area of Dresden. First, all local office-based neurologists, hospitals and retirement homes were asked to list their patients/residents with PD on a single study day. Then a random sample of patients/home residents was neuropsycholoigcally examined, including the Mini-mental-state exam and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression rating scale. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Overall, 886 PD cases (95 % CI: 809 - 926) were estimated, of which 252 (95 % CI: 226 - 279) suffered from dementia and 216 (95 % CI: 191 - 242) from depression. Dementia rates increased by age with 13.8 % (≤ 65 years) to 40.2 % (≥ 76 years). Depression rates ranged from 23.3 % to 28.0 %. Overall, 20.6 % of all ambulatory treated PD patients and 85.7 % of all home residents with PD had dementia. The prevalence of PD in Dresden dovetails with previous reported estimates. Dementia and depression are frequent complications in outpatients as well as home residents with PD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. AKR-1 nuclear training reactor of Dresden Technical University turns twenty-five

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, in the night of July 27 to 28, 1978, the AKR-1 nuclear training reactor of the Dresden Technical University went critical for the first time and was commissioned. On the occasion of this anniversary, a colloquy was arranged with representatives from science, politics and industry, at which the reactor's history, the excellent achievements in research and training with the reactor, and the status and perspectives of this research facility were described. The AKR-1 had been built within the framework of the Nuclear Development Program of the then German Democratic Republic (GDR). The Nuclear Power Scientific Division of the Dresden Technical University had been entrusted with the responsibility, among other things, to train university personnel for the GDR Nuclear Power Program. The review by an expert group in 1996 of this plant had resulted in a recommendation in favor of long-term plant operation. A nuclear licensing procedure to this effect was initiated, and the necessary technical backfitting measures were implemented. The AKR-1 plant now equally serves for the specialized training of students and for research. (orig.) [de

  19. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  20. Locating underground uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Underground uranium deposits are located by placing wires of dosimeters each about 5 to 18 mg/cm 2 thick underground in a grid pattern. Each dosimeter contains a phosphor which is capable of storing the energy of alpha particles. In each pair one dosimeter is shielded from alpha particles with more than 18 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material but not gamma and beta rays and the other dosimeter is shielded with less than 1 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material to exclude dust. After a period underground the dosimeters are heated which releases the stored energy as light. The amount of light produced from the heavily shielded dosimeter is subtracted from the amount of light produced from the thinly shielded dosimeter to give an indication of the location and quantity of uranium underground

  1. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  2. Failure analysis of cracked head spray piping from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Dragel, G.M.

    1983-07-01

    Several sections of Type 304 stainless steel head spray piping, 6.25 cm (2.5 in.) in diameter, from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor were examined to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages detected during hydrostatic tests. Extensive pitting was observed on the outside surface of the piping, and three cracks, all located at a helical stripe apparently rubbed onto the outer surface of the piping, were also noted. Metallographic examination revealed that the cracking had initiated at the outer surface of the pipe, and showed it to be transgranular and highly branched, characteristic of chloride stress corrosion cracking. The surface pitting also appeared to have been caused by chlorides. A scanning electron microprobe x-ray analysis of the corrosion product in the cracks confirmed the presence of chlorides and also indicated the presence of calcium

  3. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, Gunter; Schaefer, Frank (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The Institute of Safety Research (ISR) was over the past 20 years one of the six Research Institutes of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (FZD), which in 2010 belonged to the Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Together with the Institutes of Radiochemistry and Radiation Physics, ISR implements the research programme ''Nuclear Safety Research'' (NSR), which was during last years one of the three scientific programmes of FZD. NSR involves two main topics, i.e. ''Safety Research for Radioactive Waste Disposal'' and ''Safety Research for Nuclear Reactors''. The research of ISR aims at assessing and enhancing the safety of current and future reactors, the development of advanced simulation tools including their validation against experimental data, and the development of the appropriate measuring techniques for multi-phase flows and liquid metals.

  4. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbeth, Gunter; Schaefer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Safety Research (ISR) was over the past 20 years one of the six Research Institutes of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (FZD), which in 2010 belonged to the Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Together with the Institutes of Radiochemistry and Radiation Physics, ISR implements the research programme ''Nuclear Safety Research'' (NSR), which was during last years one of the three scientific programmes of FZD. NSR involves two main topics, i.e. ''Safety Research for Radioactive Waste Disposal'' and ''Safety Research for Nuclear Reactors''. The research of ISR aims at assessing and enhancing the safety of current and future reactors, the development of advanced simulation tools including their validation against experimental data, and the development of the appropriate measuring techniques for multi-phase flows and liquid metals.

  5. Radiation field studies at the training and research reactor AKR of the Dresden Technical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuschner, A.; Reiss, U.; Pretzsch, G.

    1983-01-01

    Results of radiation field studies in the experimental channels of the training and research reactor of the Technical University of Dresden are presented. The flux densities of thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined by means of activation detectors., Gamma dose rates have been measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measured results show symmetry with respect to the vertical axis of the reactor and allow to draw conclusions with regard to the efficiency of the individual layers of the shield. They are an essential basis of performing irradiation experiments in the experimental channels. The results of measurements were compared with those of shielding and design calculations. Taking into account the measuring errors and the approximations used in the computational models, no unexpected deviations have been observed. Hence, the measured and calculated results can be assessed to be in good agreement. (author)

  6. Exploration of Pixelated detectors for double beta decay searches within the COBRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenke, M., E-mail: schwenke@asp.tu-dresden.de [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Zuber, K.; Janutta, B. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany); He, Z.; Zeng, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Anton, G.; Michel, T.; Durst, J.; Lueck, F.; Gleixner, T. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Goessling, C.; Schulz, O.; Koettig, T. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Physik E IV, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Krawczynski, H.; Martin, J. [Department of Physics, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1105, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 (United States); Stekl, I.; Cermak, P. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-11

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay events in Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) room temperature semiconductor detectors. The development of pixelated detectors provides the potential for clear event identification and thus major background reduction. The tracking option of a semiconductor is a unique approach in this field. For initial studies, several possible detector systems are considered with a special regard for low background applications: the large volume system Polaris with a pixelated CdZnTe sensor, Timepix detectors with Si and enriched CdTe sensor material and a CdZnTe pixel system developed at the Washington University in St. Louis, USA. For all detector systems first experimental background measurements taken at underground laboratories (Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy, LNGS and the Niederniveau Messlabor Felsenkeller in Dresden, Germany) and additionally for the Timepix detectors simulation results are presented.

  7. Education and research when dismantling nuclear plants at the Technical University Dresden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Anthofer, A.; Cloppenborg, T.; Schreier, M.

    2013-01-01

    With the decision by the German government in 2011 to revoke the operating permission from 8 of the existing 17 German nuclear power plants, the responsibility of decommissioning and dismantling these plants has moved back into the focus of public awareness. Under the current legal conditions, the last nuclear plant will be disconnected from the grid on 31.12.2022 and this will create an enormous challenge for all the involved approving authorities, expert organisations, as well as companies involved in dismantling the plants. The development of new and efficient dismantling technologies and strategies is required to perform these highly responsible tasks. On the other hand, the nuclear competence and knowhow, as well as the promotion of young talents in the relevant scientific fields must be preserved. Technological and economic solutions are in demand for the various plants due to the different specifics of nuclear power plants. This will still require e.g. in the field of radiation protection highly qualified and well trained staff in future. The training of these skilled employees will require expanding the subject matter taught at universities, colleges and polytechnics to suit the changed parameters. The chair for hydrogen and nuclear energy technology at the TU Dresden will in future offer lectures as part of a new teaching discipline with the focus on dismantling and disposal. The course 'Dismantling nuclear power plants' took place for the first time in the summer semester 2013. It is organised as a three-day block seminar with an excursion to the company NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH in Alzenau. The company NIS is a subsidiary of the Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH. This article intends to provide an overview of the contents of the courses and the impressions of the participants. In this way the TU Dresden is making a further contribution to preserving nuclear competence and inter-disciplinary dialogue. (orig.)

  8. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  9. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  10. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  11. Underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo.

    1997-01-01

    In an underground-type nuclear power plant, groups of containing cavities comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally by way of partition walls are disposed in parallel underground. Controlled communication tunnels for communicating the containing cavities belonging to a control region to each other, and non-controlled communication tunnels for communicating containing cavities belonging to a non-controlled area to each other are disposed underground. A controlled corridor tunnel and a non-controlled corridor tunnel extended so as to surround the containing cavity groups are disposed underground, and the containing cavities belonging to the controlled area are connected to the controlled corridor tunnel respectively, and the containing cavities belonging to the non-controlled area are connected to the non-controlled corridor tunnel respectively. The excavating amount of earth and sand upon construction can be reduced by disposing the containing cavity groups comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally. The time and the cost for the construction can be reduced, and various excellent effects can be provided. (N.H.)

  12. Underground neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium

  13. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  14. Integrated plant safety assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program: Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-237)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared Supplement 1 to the final Integrated Plant Safety Assessment Report (IPSAR) (NUREG-0823), under the scope of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP), for the Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2 located in Grundy County, Illinois. The NRC initiated the SEP to provide the framework for reviewing the design of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. This report documents the review completed by means of the SEP for those issues that required refined engineering evaluations or the continuation of ongoing evaluations subsequent to issuing the final IPSAR for Dresden Unit 2. The review was provided for (1) an assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on selected issues and those that existed when Dresden Unit 2 was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. The final IPSAR and this supplement forms part of the bases for considering the conversion of the existing provisional operating license to a full-term operating license. 83 refs., 9 tabs

  15. The Dresden 100 T/10 ms project a high magnetic field facility at an IR-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Dorr, M; Eschrig, H; Fischer, F; Fulde, P; Groessinger, R; Grunberger, W; Handstein, A; Hinz, D; Kratz, R; Krug, H; Loewenhaupt, M; Müller, K H; Pobell, F; Schultz, L; Siegel, H; Steglich, F; Vergés, P

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. We have proposed to build a 100 T/10 ms, 70 T/100 ms, 60 T/1 s pulsed field user facility with a 50 MJ capacitor bank at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf near Dresden. This would provide the appealing possibility to have access to Zeeman energies in the energy range of the infrared free-electron-lasers (5 mu m to 150 mu m; 2 ps; cw; >10 W) now under construction at the radiation source ELBE (superconducting electron linear accelerator; 40 MeV; 1 m A; 2 ps; cw) in Rossendorf. The work is accompanied by computer simulations of the planned coil systems, of the power supply, and by the development of high-strength conductors aiming at a tensile strength of about 1.5 GPa at sigma approximately= sigma /sub Cu//2 (microcomposite CuAg alloys and Cu-steel macro compounds). With a view of gaining experience in the construction and operation of pulsed magnets, a pilot pulsed field laboratory was established at the Institute of Solid State and Materials Research Dresden (IFW Dresden). The laborat...

  16. The underground research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This educational booklet is a general presentation of the selected sites for the installation of underground research laboratories devoted to the feasibility studies of deep repositories for long-life radioactive wastes. It describes the different type of wastes and their management, the management of long life radioactive wastes, the site selection and the 4 sites retained, the preliminary research studies, and the other researches carried out in deep disposal facilities worldwide. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  18. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  19. Mit Informationskompetenz im Forschungsprozess die Zukunft an der SLUB Dresden gestalten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam, Michaele

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Information literacy is a key skill for students and researchers. In an increasingly digital world, the scope of this skill is changing fundamentally. The establishment of e-sciences and the development of new information demands prove to be a great challenge for academic libraries. Traditional concepts of teaching information literacy need to be revised if libraries want to continue to be assistants and stewards in the entire research cycle.At the SLUB Dresden we pragmatically distinguish five phases of the research cycle correlating with five different areas of competence. Among these competencies are – apart from information retrieval skills – methodological, technological, and analytical skills as well as publication skills. The first part of this article examines these skills and shows how the SLUB tries to provide adequate services. The second part looks at information literacy in the context of the research cycle in the field of medicine. The quadripartite subject-specific concept of teaching information literacy in medicine is presented.To be able to continually adjust to the ever-changing information needs, it is a prerequisite that libraries increase their networking efforts and reach out to the faculties. Internal networking is also necessary in order to exchange expert knowledge. The role of the library in general and of the branch library of medicine with its faculty specificity is becoming more important.

  20. Continuous high-temperature surveillance instrumentation for Dresden-2 hydrogen water chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, M.F.; Mitchell, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program (under EPRI Contract RP1930-11) is to install and operate a high-temperature surveillance instrumentation system capable of monitoring the length of cracks in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping during plant operation. The ability to measure crack growth in BWR power plant piping welds is important to rapidly identify the effectiveness of repairs (such as the Hydrogen Water Chemistry Program). The feasibility of a system capable of continuous ultrasonic instrumentation at 600 0 F (288 0 C) was successfully demonstrated at the Dresden-2 suction line known as N1B. This intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) surveillance instrumentation is sound in principal, because it survived on N1B for a time period of more than nine months from April 1985 to January 1986 (the last time data were recorded). The redesigned low-profile transducer system used for this system operated successfully for the same nine-month time period. This low profile transducer fits in the two-inch space normally occupied by insulation. As a result of poor routing of the coaxial cables running from the low-profile transducer to the electrical feed-throughs between the drywell and containment, these cables melted. Other instrument cables nearby were not damaged

  1. Fencing as a Part of the Urban Context of the District Blasewitz in Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Potapova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Every city has its unique urban context including the objects that form the historical environment of the city; the material elements represented by buildings, constructions, sculptural and architectural forms, elements of spatial surroundings of monuments and terraced houses; the atmosphere, the landscape elements, and the visage as an element expressing the real nature of the visual object, that is the city space (the open space “enclosed” by material elements.The city of Dresden is not an exception. In its district Blasewitz, one of the most important aspects of urban context is expressed by the fences of the Gründer Epoch. These pompous and fine constructions separating the street space from the park villas have remained since the middle of the XIX century.The article explores the origin of villas as an urban ensemble of the Italian architecture, the development of this type of architecture in the 18-19th centuries and the methods of preservation of all the elements of this structure, including fences. It describes the fences remained in the district Blasewitz and their unique features.

  2. SEP operating history of the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.; Harrington, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    206 forced shutdowns and power reductions were reviewed, along with 631 reportable events and other miscellaneous documentation concerning the operation of Dresden-2, in order to indicate those areas of plant operation that compromised plant safety. The most serious plant challenge to plant safety occurred on June 5, 1970; while undergoing power testing at 75% power, a spurious signal in the reactor pressure control system caused a turbine trip followed by a reactor scram. Subsequent erratic water level and pressure control in the reactor vessel, compounded by a stuck indicator pen on a water level monitor-recorder and inability of the isolation condenser to function, led to discharge of steam and water through safety valves into the reactor drywell. No significant contamination was discharged. There was no pressure damage or the reactor vessel of the drywell containment walls. Six areas of operation that should be of continued concern are diesel generator failures, control rod and rod drive malfunctions, radioactive waste management/health physics program problems, operator errors, turbine control valve and EHC problems, and HPCI failures. All six event types have continued to recur

  3. Preliminary study of the relationship between surface and bulk water temperatures at the Dresden cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesely, M.L.; Hicks, B.B.; Hess, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    Successful application of bulk aerodynamic formulae to determine the vertical sensible and latent heat fluxes above a cooling lake requires accurate estimates of water surface temperature. Because of the heat loss at the surface and partial insulation by the poorly-mixed outer skin of water in contact with the air-water interface, the surface temperature is usually 0.1 to 2.0 C less than the temperature at a depth greater than 1 cm. For engineering applications requiring estimates of the total heat dissipation capacity of a particular cooling lake, the bulk temperature of the entire mixed layer of subsurface water is more important than the surface temperature. Therefore, in order to simulate the thermal performance of a cooling pond, both the surface temperature and the bulk temperature should be estimated. In the case of cooling ponds, the total heat transfer through the uppermost layer is extremely large and the water beneath the surface is strongly mixed by circulation currents within the pond. The purpose of this report is to describe the magnitude of the temperature difference across the surface skin at the Dresden nuclear power plant cooling pond and to relate this difference to variables used in modeling the thermal performance of cooling ponds

  4. MRPC prototypes for NeuLAND tested using the single electron mode of ELBE/Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, Dmitry; Bemmerer, Daniel; Elekes, Zoltan; Kempe, Mathias; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, Tom; Boretzky, Konstanze; Caesar, Christoph; Ciobanu, Mircea; Hehner, Joerg; Heil, Michael; Nusair, Omar; Reifarth, Rene; Simon, Haik [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Elvers, Michael; Maroussov, Vassili; Zilges, Andreas [Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The NeuLAND detector at the R{sup 3}B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2-1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100 ps, {sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1 cm). Prototypes for the NeuLAND detector have been built at FZD and GSI and then studied using the 32 MeV pulsed electron beam at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE in Dresden, Germany. Owing to the new, single-electron per bunch mode of operation, a rapid validation of the design criteria ({>=}90% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles, {sigma} {<=} 100 ps time resolution) was possible. Tested properties of the prototypes include glass thickness, spacing of the central anode, and a comparison of single-ended and differential readout. Tested frontend electronics schemes include FOPI (single-ended), PADI-based (both single-ended and differential mode tested), and ALICE (differential).

  5. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bartl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  6. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, S.; Schümberg, S.; Deutsch, M.

    2009-11-01

    The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  7. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  8. Underground engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  9. Underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1969-01-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  10. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  11. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  12. PREFACE: EUCAS '09: The 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (Dresden, Germany, 13-17 September 2009) EUCAS '09: The 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (Dresden, Germany, 13-17 September 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Schlörb, Heike

    2010-03-01

    During the 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity, 6 plenary, 22 invited, 206 oral and 429 poster contributions were presented on recent developments in the field of applied superconductivity. This issue of Superconductor Science and Technology contains plenary, invited and a selection of contributed oral papers of the four main EUCAS areas: materials, wires and tapes, large scale applications and electronics. The remaining contributed papers that were selected for the conference proceedings will be published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Dresden EUCAS conference, with 712 participants from 43 countries, continued the tradition of preceding EUCAS conferences of combining basic superconductivity research contributions with the discussion of recent material advances and new developments in large scale and electronic applications. In Dresden, contributions on the recently discovered Fe-based superconductors were presented for the first time during a EUCAS conference and their potential for applications was intensively discussed. Among all the high level papers of this issue we particularly want to highlight the plenary contribution of Praveen Chaudhari on grain boundaries in cuprate superconductors. In his paper Praveen discusses the Jc limitation in HTSC tapes and tunnelling spectroscopy in LSCO thin film bicrystals. Just a few weeks ago we received the sad news that Praveen had passed away on 13 January 2010. Already fighting with his serious illness, Praveen spent all his efforts last fall finishing his plenary talk and paper. This paper will remind us always of his contributions to basic and applied aspects of superconductivity in general and especially his important work on HTSC grain boundaries. Finally we want to acknowledge the help of the International Advisory and National Committees in setting up the scientific program and we would especially like to express our gratitude to all the members of the Local Organization

  13. RP delves underground

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  14. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  15. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  16. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarath, Chamaka; Caspar Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The CASPAR mainly focuses on Stellar Nucleosynthesis, its impact on the production of heavy elements and study the strength of stellar neutron sources that propels the s-process, 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg. Currently, implementation of a 1MV fully refurbished Van de Graaff accelerator that can provide a high intensity Î+/- beam, is being done at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). The accelerator is built among a collaboration of South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, University of Notre Dame and Colorado School of Mines. It is understood that cosmic ray neutron background radiation hampers experimental Nucleosynthesis studies, hence the need to go underground in search for a neutron free environment, to study these reactions at low energies is evident. The first beam was produced in the middle of summer 2017. The entire accelerator will be run before the end of this year. A detailed overview of goals of CASPAR will be presented. NFS Grant-1615197.

  17. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  18. The four step axial flow compressor of the Technical University of Dresden - development concept and results of flow measurements; Der vierstufige Axialverdichter der TU Dresden - Entwicklungskonzeption und Ergebnisse von Stroemungsmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, P.; Moeeckel, H.; Mueller, R.; Sauer, H.; Wolf, E. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    In this paper the results obtained from flow-technical investigations at low velocity compressor in Dresden were presented. They were supposed to give little insight on the focus of current research works in the field of axial flow compressors. A detailed solution of the flow structure applying the conventional pneumatic measuring technology as well as the hot-wire, microphone, culite, laser and light-section measuring technology enables to understand flow parameter better and to find approaches for improving power density, efficiency, environmental friendliness and operational stability. The large-scale research plant was constructed in approximately Two and a half years. The low velocity compressor in Dresden constitutes a tool in Germany and Europe that enables the manufacturers of stationary gas turbine plants and steel jet engines to improve various parameters of their products. The MTU in Munich already pointed out this fact in its contribution to the final report on the construction phase. It noted that this plant is going to extend the possibilities of research and development in Europe in the field of aerodynamics of axial flow compressors in an excellent way. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Vortrag wurden beispielhaft erreichte Ergebnisse stroemungstechnischer Untersuchungen am Niedergeschwindigkeitsverdichter in Dresden dargestellt. Sie sollten einen kleinen Einblick in die Moeglichkeiten der Bearbeitung von Forschungsschwerpunkten geben, die gegenwaertig fuer Axialverdichter bedeutungsvoll sind. Eine detaillierte messtechnische Aufloesung der Stroemungsstrukturen unter Anwendung der konventionellen pneumatischen Messtechnik sowie der Hitzdraht-, Mikrofon-, Kulite-, Laser- und Lichtschnittmesstechnik schafft die Voraussetzung, die Stroemungsphaenomene besser zu verstehen und Ansatzpunkte fuer Verbesserungen der Leistungsdichte, des Wirkungsgrades, der Umweltvertraeglichkeit und der Betriebsstabilitaet zu finden. In ca. 2 1/2 Jahren konnte die Grossforschungsanlage

  19. Regulating and Combating Underground Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In combating and regulating underground banking, a choice can be made of roughly two models, the risk model and the assimilation model. The risk model comes down to a complete prohibition of underground banking combined with an active investigation and prosecution policy. In the assimilation model,

  20. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1: Primary cooling system chemical decontamination: Draft environmental statement (Docket No. 50-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The staff has considered the environmental impact and economic costs of the proposed primary cooling system chemical decontamination at Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. The staff has focused this statement on the occupational radiation exposure associated with the proposed Unit 1 decontamination program, on alternatives to chemical decontamination, and on the environmental impact of the disposal of the solid radioactive waste generated by this decontamination. The staff has concluded that the proposed decontamination will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Furthermore, any impacts from the decontamination program are outweighed by its benefits. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Fabrication and loading of long-term stress corrosion cracking surveillance specimens for the Dresden 1 decontamination program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, W.L.

    1979-10-01

    Stress-corrosion cracking test specimens were prepared for Dow Nuclear Services for insertion in the Dresden 1 reactor during the chemical decontamination of the primary system, and for subsequent exposure under operating conditions when the station returns to service. The specimens consist of pressurized tubes fabricated from Type-304 and -304L stainless steel, Inconel 600, Incoloy 800, and Zircaloy 2. In addition, constant radius bent-beam specimens of 3/4 hard Type-410 stainless steel were also included. All specimens were stressed to, or slightly above, their respective 0.2% offset yield strengths at the temperatures of interest

  2. Implementation of a digital feedwater control system at Dresden Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapotocky, A.; Popovic, J.R.; Fournier, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the Digital Feedwater Control System Implementation at the Dresden 2 or 3 Units of the BWR Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Commonwealth Edison Company. The digital system has been operational in Unit 3 since August 1986, and in Unit 2 since April 1987. The Bailey Control's Network 90 based digital control system replaced the obsolete GE/MAC 5000 analog control system in the reactor feedwater control loop as a ''like-for-like'' replacement. Operational experience from the Digital Feedwater Control installations has been good and the system demonstrated better performance than the old analog systems. 14 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

  3. Between history, art and medicine: the Dresden-Friedrichstadt hospital, its Neptune fountain and connections to Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Hunger, Sabine; Koch, André; França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello; Fioranelli, Massimo; Roccia, Maria Grazia

    2017-10-01

    The Dresden-Friedrichstadt hospital originated from Marcolini's summer palace. It was founded in 1845 and opened in 1849. It is a place where history and art of European importance mixes with technical and medical innovations. We reflect on the meetings of Napoleon Bonaparte and Metternich in 1812, the creation of the famous Neptune fountain by Longuelune and Matielli and two outstanding physicians of the 19 th  century, the surgeon Eduard Zeis, who coined the medical term "plastic surgery", and Maximilian Nitze, inventor of the first "modern" cystoscope and the father of urology.

  4. The underground economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica LITRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at covering issues related to the underground economy, activities that compound this phenomenon, its magnitude in Romania and reported to the European average. Underground economy in Romania consists of undeclared work (2/3 from the total and unreported income; it decreased from 33.6% of GDP in 2003 to 28% in 2014, but remained over EU-28 average with about 10 p.p. Among EU-28 countries, only Bulgaria exceeds the size of the underground economy of Romania. The underground economy is a challenge for the leadership of the state which must act simultaneously to stop illegal activities, and to discourage non-declaration of the legal activities. Corruption favours maintaining the underground economy, delays economic development, obstructs democratic processes and affects justice and the law state.

  5. Underground risk management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakai, T.

    2006-03-15

    JCOAL has conducted Joint Research on an Underground Communication and Risk Management Information System with CSIRO of Australia under a commissioned study project for the promotion of coal use starting in fiscal 2002. The goal of this research project is the establishment of a new Safety System focusing on the comprehensive risk management information system by the name of Nexsys. The main components of the system are the Ethernet type underground communication system that represents the data communication base, and the risk management information system that permits risk analysis in real-time and provides decision support based on the collected data. The Nexsys is an open system and is a core element of the underground monitoring system. Using a vast amount of underground data, it is capable of accommodating a wide range of functions that were not available in the past. Because of it, it is possible to construct an advanced underground safety system. 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Underground gasification in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    A paper in Pravda by the Deputy Chief Engineer of the Underground Gasification Department indicates that there are at least three or four pilot plants in operation; one plant near Moscow has operated for 14 years and one in the Donbas for 8 years. The first plant has a daily output of gas corresponding to 400 tons of coal a day and produces a gas of low calorific value. A plant opened in 1956 in the Kuzbas to produce gas of a higher quality. A plant, being built near Moscow in conjunction with a gas turbine electrical power station, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 220,000 tons of coal a year. A larger plant, being built at Angren in central Asia, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 700,000 tons of coal a year.

  7. Underground transmission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geibka, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several underground tomographic transmission surveys have been carried out. Targets were cavities, ore veins and fault zones. Examples from measurements in a german heavy/fluor spar mine a lead/zinc mine and a rock laboratory of the Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive waste are presented. Measurements were carried out between boreholes and road ways. The recording equipment was the intrinsically safe SEAMEX85 system built and sold by WBK. Receivers were mounted in a chain of 6 two-component probes. Sources were an inhole hammer a sledge hammer a sparker and explosives from a single detonator to 180 g depending on the distance and absorption of the rock material. Cavities showed very distinct velocity reductions between 30 and 50%. Different vein material showed velocity reduction as well as velocity increase relative to the surrounding rock

  8. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  10. The four step axial flow compressor of the Technical University of Dresden - development concept and results of flow measurements. Der vierstufige Axialverdichter der TU Dresden - Entwicklungskonzeption und Ergebnisse von Stroemungsmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, P.; Moeeckel, H.; Mueller, R.; Sauer, H.; Wolf, E. (Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany))

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the results obtained from flow-technical investigations at low velocity compressor in Dresden were presented. They were supposed to give little insight on the focus of current research works in the field of axial flow compressors. A detailed solution of the flow structure applying the conventional pneumatic measuring technology as well as the hot-wire, microphone, culite, laser and light-section measuring technology enables to understand flow parameter better and to find approaches for improving power density, efficiency, environmental friendliness and operational stability. The large-scale research plant was constructed in approximately Two and a half years. The low velocity compressor in Dresden constitutes a tool in Germany and Europe that enables the manufacturers of stationary gas turbine plants and steel jet engines to improve various parameters of their products. The MTU in Munich already pointed out this fact in its contribution to the final report on the construction phase. It noted that this plant is going to extend the possibilities of research and development in Europe in the field of aerodynamics of axial flow compressors in an excellent way. (orig.)

  11. Quality management of medical education at the Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Peter Erich

    2008-12-01

    The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International. The traditional teacher and discipline-centred curriculum was replaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum which has been named DIPOL (Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem- Oriented Learning). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany. The students played a very important strategic role in all processes. They were/are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. Students are the only ones who experience all years of the curriculum and are capable of detecting, for example gaps, overlaps, inconsistencies of the curriculum and assessments. Therefore, the in-depth knowledge of students about the medical school's curriculum is a very helpful and essential tool in curriculum reform processes and Quality Management Programs of medical education. The reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification resulted in an improvement of quality and output of medical education and medical research.

  12. Design study of underground facility of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiya, Keisuke; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Ishizuka, Mineo; Anezaki, Susumu

    1998-03-01

    Geoscientific research program to study deep geological environment has been performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). This research is supported by 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. An Underground Research Laboratory is planned to be constructed at Shoma-sama Hora in the research area belonging to PNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously studied at the Tono Area is planned in the laboratory. The Underground Research Laboratory is consisted of Surface Laboratory and Underground Research Facility located from the surface down to depth between several hundreds and 1,000 meters. Based on the results of design study in last year, the design study performed in this year is to investigate the followings in advance of studies for basic design and practical design: concept, design procedure, design flow and total layout. As a study for the concept of the underground facility, items required for the facility are investigated and factors to design the primary form of the underground facility are extracted. Continuously, design methods for the vault and the underground facility are summarized. Furthermore, design procedures of the extracted factors are summarized and total layout is studied considering the results to be obtained from the laboratory. (author)

  13. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  14. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  15. FAST goes underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridlund, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The FAST-M Cost Estimating Model is a parametric model designed to determine the costs associated with mining and subterranean operations. It is part of the FAST (Freiman Analysis of Systems Techniques) series of parametric models developed by Freiman Parametric Systems, Inc. The rising cost of fossil fuels has created a need for a method which could be used to determine and control costs in mining and subterranean operations. FAST-M fills this need and also provides scheduling information. The model works equally well for a variety of situations including underground vaults for hazardous waste storage, highway tunnels, and mass transit tunnels. In addition, costs for above ground structures and equipment can be calculated. The input for the model may be on a macro or a micro level. This allows the model to be used at various stages in a project. On the macro level, only general conditions and specifications need to be known. On the micro level, the smallest details may be included. As with other FAST models, reference cases are used to more accurately predict costs and scheduling. This paper will address how the model can be used for a variety of subterranean purposes

  16. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  17. Das Qualitätsmanagementsystem für die Lehre an der Medizinischen Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus der Technischen Universität Dresden [Quality Management System of Education at Dresden Faculty of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiebel, Margret

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Within two years the Faculty of Medicine Dresden introduced a quality management system (QMS for educational processes. The system underwent a certificational procedure and was certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. The QMS is based on a manual describing all educational processes. It serves visualization of these processes, identification of links between them and a clear definition of responsibilities. All involved employees of Faculty of Medicine can use the manual to optimize and improve the educational system. Leadership-, core- and supporting processes are described. Procedure instructions and further applicable documents are included. The manual is accessible via Intranet to all employees and "clients" of the Faculty of Medicine. The QMS is a leadership instrument. It relies on the vision of the Dresden Faculty of Medicine which defines short and long term goals and strategies to reach them. Certification procedure was completed with handing over of the certificate to the dean. It is valid for three years and the Faculty of Medicine will be under yearly supervision of certification agency. [german] Nach zweijähriger Einführungszeit führte die Medizinische Fakultät Dresden als erste medizinische Fakultät Deutschlands ein Qualitätsmanagementsystem (QMS für die Lehre ein und ließ es nach der DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 Norm zertifizieren. Das QMS beruht auf einem Handbuch, welches die wesentlichsten mit der Lehre verbundenen Prozesse beschreibt. Es dient der klaren Prozessvisualisierung, Identifikation der Vernetzungen zwischen den Abläufen und einer ebenso klaren Definition der Verantwortlichkeiten mit Verbindlichkeitscharakter. Es ist eine Handlungsanleitung, auf die alle in die Prozesse der Ausbildung involvierten Kollegen Zugriff haben, mit dem Ziel, alle sich aufzeichnenden Möglichkeiten zur Optimierung zu nutzen und eine Verbesserung des Gesamtsystems kontinuierlich voranzutreiben. Beschrieben werden F

  18. Underground treatment of combustible minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapuu, E

    1954-10-14

    A process is described for treating oil underground, consisting in introducing several electrodes spaced one from the other in a bed of combustibles underground so that they come in electric contact with this bed of combustibles remaining insulated from the ground, and applying to the electrodes a voltage sufficient to produce an electric current across the bed of combustibles, so as to heat it and create an electric connection between the electrodes on traversing the bed of combustibles.

  19. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  20. Analysis of application of alternative drive systems for international heavy-duty transport on Wroclaw-Dresden-Prague routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Sroka, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The depletion of the fossil fuels resources, significant increase of the air pollution caused by the use of internal combustion engines, and emission of carbon dioxide which is responsible for the greenhouse effect escalates the development of vehicle's alternative drive systems. Generally, the emphasis is given to the alternative fuels (natural gas CNG, mixture of propane-butane gases LPG, hydrogen, alcohol fuels, biofuels) and hybrid or electric vehicles. Roads between large industrial and commercial centres, i.e. Wroclaw - Dresden - Prague, are used mainly by heavy-duty vehicles. Consequently, the contribution of the road transport to the ecological threat in this realm is significant. The objectives of this research were the assessment of the traffic volume and emission rate of exhaust gases caused by heavy-duty vehicles on the analysed roads and evaluation of the possibility of using existing and alternative drive systems in vehicles driving on the roads in the analysed region.

  1. Final status report in preparation for the chemical cleaning of Dresden-1, DNS-D1-034

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report discusses the status of all of the activities conducted in preparation for the chemical cleaning of the Dresden-1 Nuclear Power Plant of Commonwealth Edison of Illinois. The metallurgical testing of a solvent and its ability to remove radioactivity are reviewed. Included are all engineering details relating to the modifications to the primary system to be able to perform the chemical cleaning and to rinse the cleaning solvent out of the equipment. A facility to store and process spent cleaning solutions is described in detail. Construction activities and preoperational activities are recounted. Licensing activities, quality assurance, safety, and radiation protection are discussed. The report includes recommendations for future actions for restarting the project when approval is received. All of the efforts discussed in this Final Status Report led to the conclusion that the chemical cleaning, as planned, was feasible. All of the necessary modifications and new equipment are in place and are operational

  2. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  3. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  4. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  5. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  6. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  7. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  8. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  9. [Carl Gustav Carus, the first director of the newly established maternity institute of the Dresden Royal Surgical-Medical Academy 1814-1827].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarembe, B

    1989-01-01

    Carl Gustav Carus was born in 1789 in Leipzig. He studied at the University of Leipzig. His specialization in Gynecology and Obstetrics took place at the Triersches Maternity Hospital. In 1814 he was named Professor for Obstetrics in Dresden at the Royal-Surgical-Medical-Academy. He was the head of the Maternity Hospital till 1827. Under his direction many midwives, students and physicians were educated. He published numerous articles and books on medical and philosophical-psychological topics. He was a talented artist of the Romantic especially in painting landscapes. He was a friend of Caspar David Friedrich and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. After 1827 he was the physician in ordinary to 3 saxonian kings. He died in 1869. The Medical Academy in Dresden bears his name "Carl Gustav Carus" since its foundation.

  10. Safety Evaluation Report related to the full-term operating license for Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2 ( Docket No. 50-237)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Safety Evaluation Report for the full-term operating license application filed by Commonwealth Edison Company for the Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Grundy County, Illinois. Subject to favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the staff concludes that the facility can continue to be operated without endangering the health and safety of the public. 72 refs

  11. Concrete and Rock Tests, Major Rehabilitation of Dresden Island Lock and Dam, Illinois Waterway, Chicago District. Phase II. Compliance, Scour Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    uwniin SHUAR STMSS AREA ________________________ URINO NO. GW-5 S AMPLE NO. DEPTH 33 OIRECT SHEAR TEST REPORT (ROCK) WES AR11490 EDITION oP JUNf4 SIs...28 " 24 -T2. 70 ILVAMO DRESDEN ISWIDM W)C AND DAM ANA *am* M E-1 ~N L15 .4-15.9/494.1-494.6 IDM2" FB7 NVJG WUCT SHUAR TT ROem -񓡌 (IM 10 1" IO-j Ml

  12. Learning from and for rare floods in Dresden – how public officials interpret damage simulation results at the building type level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public officials in Dresden are concerned about learning from and for rare flood events like the Elbe river flood in August 2002. This is interesting because research on individual as well as organizational learning from rare events indicates that this kind of learning faces significant difficulties (e.g., overestimation of rare events for decision-making based on “emotionalized event experience”. Up to now, only little is known what and how public officials in Dresden specifically learn from and for rare floods. Therefore, the paper follows an exploratory purpose in line with principles of qualitative social research. Firstly, the paper explores dealing with rare floods with reference to a conceptual framework that highlights relations between regulative, normative, and cognitive institutions on the one hand and learning of public officials on the other. Secondly, it adopts a single case study design in Dresden with embedded sub-cases that are defined with reference to organizations of FRM. The case study shows, among others, that regulations like the Floods Directive are important for justifying FRM with regard to rare flood events which is less obvious than it sounds. However, public officials display different interpretations of the term “rare flood event”, for instance, in the context of analysing the consequences of floods on the building stock. Furthermore, the case study findings indicate that public officials may follow alternative approaches to sustain commitment in the context of rare flood events (systematic versus pragmatic approach.

  13. Is the Dresden technique a mechanical design of choice suitable for the repair of middle third Achilles tendon ruptures? A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, C; Carreño-Zillmann, G; Marambio, H; Henríquez, H

    2016-01-01

    To compare the mechanical failure of the Dresden technique for Achilles tendon repair with the double modified Kessler technique controlled repair technique. The maximum resistance of the two repair techniques are also compared. A total of 30 Achilles tendon ruptures in bovine specimens were repaired with an Ethibond(®) suture to 4.5cm from the calcaneal insertion. Each rupture was randomly distributed into one of two surgical groups. After repair, each specimen was subjected to a maximum traction test. The mechanical failure (tendon, suture, or knot) rates (proportions) were compared using the exact Fisher test (α=.05), and the maximum resistances using the Student t test (α=.05). There was a difference in the proportions of mechanical failures, with the most frequent being a tendon tear in the Dresden technique, and a rupture of the suture in the Kessler technique. The repair using the Dresden technique performed in the open mode, compared to the Kessler technique, has a more suitable mechanical design for the repair of middle third Achilles tendon ruptures on developing a higher tensile resistance in 58.7%. However, its most common mechanical failure was a tendon tear, which due to inappropriate loads could lead to lengthening of the Achilles tendon. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground...

  15. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  16. Study of underground radon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hakl, J.; Lenart, L.

    1990-01-01

    The soil gas radon content measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are widely used in geoscience, for instance in uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. In these applications the radon frequently is used as a natural tracer of underground fluid transport processes. Obviously, to get the soil radon measuring method more and more effective the study of these transport processes in deeper part of the Earth is fundamental. The Track Detector Group in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Debrecen has been performing environmental radon activity concentration measurements since 1977 with alpha sensitive SSNTDs. These types of measurements were initiated and widely used by the late head of the group Dr. G. Somogyi, who devoted his life to better understanding of the nature. The measurements in caves, springs and drilled wells proved to be effective to study these underground radon transport processes. We are glad to present some results of our investigations. 7 refs, 7 figs

  17. The Dresden Burnout Study: Protocol of a prospective cohort study for the bio-psychological investigation of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, Marlene; Wekenborg, Magdalena K; Pieper, Lars; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Walther, Andreas; Miller, Robert; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2018-06-01

    The Dresden Burnout Study (DBS) is a 12-year longitudinal cohort study that aims to provide a description of the burnout syndrome on the basis of time and symptom criteria with a special focus on the search for biomarkers. Biological and psychosocial approaches are applied to examine the long-term course and consequences of burnout within a population-based German-speaking sample aged 18 to 68 years. Demographics and psychosocial data are generated by online assessments, including demographics and questionnaires on burnout, burnout-related constructs, work-environment, and health-related factors. The lab-based biomarker assessment includes endocrine, physiological, immunological, and epigenetic markers obtained from blood and hair samples. In addition, heart rate variability is also measured repeatedly. Within the first 2 years, the DBS collected psychosocial data from over 7,600 participants with biological data obtained from more than 800 individuals. During the following 10 years, detailed assessments of biomarkers and psychosocial factors will be collected in annual study waves. Results will be generated during the following decade. The findings of the DBS are expected to pave the road for an in-depth biopsychosocial characterization of burnout and to give insight into the long-term course and potential mental and physical health consequences of the burnout syndrome. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Extent, perception and mitigation of damage due to high groundwater levels in the city of Dresden, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk analysis and management plans mostly neglect groundwater flooding, i.e. high groundwater levels. However, rising groundwater may cause considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. To improve the knowledge about groundwater flooding and support risk management, a survey was undertaken in the city of Dresden (Saxony, Germany, resulting in 605 completed interviews with private households endangered by high groundwater levels. The reported relatively low flood impact and damage of groundwater floods in comparison with mixed floods was reflected by its scarce perception: Hardly anybody thinks about the risk of groundwater flooding. The interviewees thought that public authorities and not themselves, should be mainly responsible for preparedness and emergency response. Up to now, people do not include groundwater risk in their decision processes on self protection. The implementation of precautionary measures does not differ between households with groundwater or with mixed flood experience. However, less households undertake emergency measures when expecting a groundwater flood only. The state of preparedness should be further improved via an intensified risk communication about groundwater flooding by the authorities. Conditions to reach the endangered population are good, since 70% of the interviewed people are willing to inform themselves about groundwater floods. Recommendations for an improved risk communication are given.

  19. Gonorrhea: Data on antibiotic resistance and accompanying infections at the University Hospital Dresden over a 10-year time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Susanne; Poehlmann, Christoph; Spornraft-Ragaller, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Over the last years, growing resistance of gonorrhea to quinolones has emerged worldwide. Currently, cases with resistance to oral and parenteral third-generation cephalosporins are increasingly reported. Because gonorrhea is not a notifiable infection in Germany, data on epidemiology and antimicrobial surveillance of gonorrhea are scarce. We present the results of N. gonorrhoea testing at the University Hospital Dresden over the course of ten years. The results of cultural and nucleic acid amplification testing of gonorrhea and accompanying infections of 1,850 smears between 2001 and 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 181 patients (mean age 30.4 years) 159 had positive PCR analyses for gonorrhea and 50 positive cultures of Neisseria gonorrhoea. The rate of ciprofloxacin resistance was high (in 46% of all isolates), primarily in men. Resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone could not be detected so far. In 40% of the cases at least one accompanying urogenital infection occurred, predominantly with Chlamydia trachomatis. Similar to other regions of Germany, a high percentage of resistance to quinolones was found in gonorrhea, but not to cephalosporins. Additionally, accompanying infections were frequent and warrant screening. In the light of recent cases of resistance to cephalosporins currently emerging in Europe, cultural diagnosis of gonorrhea should definitely be intensified by all means. The results should be integrated into a surveillance system. © The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  20. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  1. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  2. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  3. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  4. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  5. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  6. Experiments on the formation of titanium-44 in supernovae; Experimente zur Entstehung von Titan-44 in Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Konrad

    2012-11-01

    In this thesis the astrophysically interesting resonance triplet of the {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction at 4.5 MeV has been studied. For this purpose energies of proton and {alpha} beams provided by 3 MV Tandetron at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf have been calibrated. Excitation functions of energy regions near the resonances and in-beam spectra of four different targets have been measured. The {sup 40}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 41}Sc reaction has been used to scan the structure of the activated targets. Afterwards their activity has been measured in the underground laboratory Felsenkeller Dresden. Hence the sum of resonance strengths at laboratory {alpha} energies of 4497 and 4510 keV of (12.8{+-}2.3) eV has been determined as well as the sum of the total triplet strength, including 4523 keV, of (12.0{+-}2.0) eV. In the case of the first resonance, the uncertainty was decreased from 19% to 18 %. Furthermore the results of this work establish a basis for reaching much lower uncertainties in the future.

  7. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  8. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  9. Process for fracturing underground formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O M

    1974-01-25

    This invention concerns a process for fracturing underground formations and has as one object the mixing of viscous compositions. Through a borehole, a fluid is injected into the formation. This fluid contains a complex prepared by the reaction of an aliphatic quaternary ammonium compound with a water-soluble compound chosen from monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, polysaccharides, and synthetic hydroxylated polymers with long chains. These complexes are formed at temperatures between 20/sup 0/ and 205/sup 0/C. The process also includes production of formation fluid into the borehole.

  10. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  11. Proposed underground gasification. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An underground coal gasification experiment which could provide the key to recovering the energy in millions of tonnes of otherwise inaccessible undersea coal reserves is proposed by the NCB. The Board's Headquarters Technical Department hope to carry out a field trial in a six foot thick coal seam about 2000 feet beneath a former wartime airfield near the hamlet of Ossington near Newark, Notts, UK. This paper describes briefly the proposed project, which could cost up to 15 million pounds over five years. It has the backing and financial support of the European Economic Community.

  12. Intensive use of diesels underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R W

    1980-07-01

    At a US mine, coal is extracted by room and pillar mining. Tyred diesel vehicles are used to transport men and materials, to spread gravel on the roadway, and to tow and provide hydraulic power to rock dusting machines. Hydraulic power take-offs from the vehicles are used to operate equipment such as drills and chain saws. A deisel ambulance is kept underground, and diesel lubrication units and maintenance tracks are used. A diesel generator provides electrical power when or where no permanent electricity supply is available e.g. for tramming continuous miners in to or out of the mine.

  13. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J E

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commercial radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects.

  14. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, GDP AND STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caus Vasile Aurel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is affected by the size and dynamics of underground economy. Determining this size is a subject of research for many authors. In this paper we present the relationship between underground economy dynamics and the dynamics of stock markets. The observations are based on regression used by Tanzi (1983 and the relationship between GDP and stock market presented in Tudor (2008. The conclusion of this paper is that the dynamics of underground economy is influenced by dynamic of financial markets. Thus, using specific stock market mathematical tools analysis, one can analyze the dynamic of underground economy

  15. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is able...... allocation in the underground production. In fact, a strong and inverse relationship is found, and tax reduction is the best policy to reduce the convenience to produce underground. Wealso confirm the depressing effect on investment of taxation (see, for instance, Summers,1981), so that tax reduction has...

  16. Cathode protection for underground steel tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelovski, Zoran

    1998-01-01

    Cathodic protection of underground petroleum storage tanks and piping systems is acceptable for both economic and ecological reasons. With out the cathodic protection of underground steel reservoirs, short time after the exploitation, there was a bore as a result of underground corrosion. The bore causes ecological consequences and at the same time its repair needs big investments. Furthermore, there are great number of tanks placed near cities, so in the future this problem needs a special attention in order to preserve ecological surrounding. The topic of this paper is underground corrosion as well as cathodic protection of steel tanks for oil derivatives storage. (author)

  17. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section...

  18. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  19. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  20. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  1. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Scheffers

    Full Text Available Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL in a non-clinical sample.The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses.Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory.Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the

  2. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Bosscher, Ruud J; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire) particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL) in a non-clinical sample. The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory. Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the DBIQ-NL in a

  3. Underground laboratories in Japan and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, Henry W

    2006-01-01

    There is a blossoming demand for deep underground laboratory space to satisfy the expanding interest in experiments that require significant cosmic-ray shielding. I'll briefly describe the existing deep facilities and their plans for expansion. I will also discuss the planning for a new major underground facility in the U.S

  4. Concept of underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Sotoaki

    1976-01-01

    The concept of constructing nuclear power plants on the sea or underground as the future sitting is based on moving the present power plants on the ground with actual results to the sea or underground without changing the design. The underground nuclear power plants have many similar points to underground hydro-electric power stations with many achievements in the construction viewpoint, though they have their proper difficult problems. Of course, it requires to excavate larger underground caves than the case of underground hydro-electric power plants. The maximum dimensions of the caves have been determined through experience in practice. Therefore the developments of design theory and construction technique are desirable in this field. In discussing underground construction, two evaluating methods are considered for the shielding effect of base rocks. The minimum vertical distance up to ground surface from the center of the cave differs depending upon the in-cave pressure, and the conditions of base rock, soil and underground water in case of the accident assumed in the design, and is approximately 60m, if the cave is assumed to be an indefinite cylindrical shape, by the safer side calculation in the above two evaluations. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  6. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  7. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... toxic gases from a fire originating in an underground shop where maintenance work is routinely done on...

  8. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  9. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  10. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  11. Radiogenic cancer in underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple studies have yielded remarkably consistent results relating radon daughter exposure to lung cancer risk in underground mining populations. The U.S. uranium miner study appears to be at variance with the other results. The primary reason is that the doses in the U.S. miner study were systematically overestimated, resulting in a risk coefficient that is lower than all the others. The significance of these findings for radiogenic lung cancer goes well beyond mining populations, because one is now aware of the implications of radon daughters detected in homes. The highest cumulative levels from radon exposures within homes have been found in Sweden, evidently because of their unusual geology with uranium-bearing ores near the surface. The Swedish authorities view this as a major public health problem that needs to be addressed

  12. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  13. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  14. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  15. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  16. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  17. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  18. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.; Pratt, H.R.; Wahi, K.K.; Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, CA; Science Applications, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  19. Integrated-plant-safety assessment Systematic Evaluation Program. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Commonwealth Edison Company, Docket No. 50-237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues; (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review; and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Dresden Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 2 owned and operated by the Commonwealth Edison Company and located in Grundy County, Illinois. Dresden Unit 2 is one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program, which indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review. It is expected that this report will be one of the bases in considering the issuance of a full-term operating license in place of the existing provisional operating license

  20. Kinokompleks i Dresden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Nils-Ole

    2001-01-01

    Velillustreret introduktion til biografpalads med syv sale samlet omkring en krystalagtig, glasbeklædt foyer. Bygningen er et eksplicit udtryk for Coop Himmelb(l)aus ekspressive arkitekturudtryk.......Velillustreret introduktion til biografpalads med syv sale samlet omkring en krystalagtig, glasbeklædt foyer. Bygningen er et eksplicit udtryk for Coop Himmelb(l)aus ekspressive arkitekturudtryk....

  1. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  2. Underground science initiatives at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed two major new initiatives in underground science. Following the dissolution of the original gallium solar neutrino collaboration, Los Alamos has formed a new North American collaboration. We briefly review the rationale for solar neutrino research, outline the proposal and new Monte Carlo simulations, and describe the candidate locations for the experiment. Because there is no dedicated deep underground site in North America suitable for a wide range of experiments, Los Alamos has conducted a survey of possible sites and developed a proposal to create a new National Underground Science Facility. This paper also reviews that proposal

  3. Age of underground waters: isotopes contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chery, L.; Olive, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Does water has an age? The age of underground waters can be the duration of their underground travel between their infiltration inside the ground and their captation at a spring or a drilled well. The isotopic geochemistry comes to the support of classical geochemistry to estimate these residence times. Radio-isotopes, like tritium for young waters or carbon 14 for old waters, are used as chronometers to interpret the recharge ways, the flow mechanisms and the residence times of underground waters. Their use is presented in this article with some theoretical recalls and some examples of application. (J.S.)

  4. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  5. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  6. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  7. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable... manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and privileges for the...

  8. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... The audit was performed in response to a Senate Armed Services Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks...

  9. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  10. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  11. Improving underground ventilation conditions in coal mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, CF

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available projects could be initiated by miningtek in co-operation with different mines. This report deals with the findings of this project and also deals with the future of research within Miningtek with regard to underground ventilation....

  12. Giant Magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "At 5:00 am GMT, 28th February 2007, the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) particle detector began a momentous journey into its experimental cavern, 100 metres underground at CERN, Geneva

  13. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  14. GPS-deprived localisation for underground mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available robots. Opencast mines utilise the global positioning system (GPS) to obtain location information. The unavailability of this technology in underground mining has actuated numerous researchers to investigate possible alternatives. These attempts exploit...

  15. System for remote control of underground device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics

  16. Posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Page 1 of 8 25th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 13-16 July 2010, Pretoria, South Africa A POSTURE ESTIMATION SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINE VEHICLES Khonzumusa Hlophe1, Gideon Ferreira2... and the transmitter. The main difference between the three systems is their implementation. This paper describes an implementation of a posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, a brief...

  17. System for remote control of underground device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  18. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  19. Physics of multiple muons in underground detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, T.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize results of Monte Carlo simulations of underground muons with a set of parametrizations for number and lateral distribution of muons at various detector depths. We also describe the size distributions of accompanying showers at the surface. We give some illustrations of the use of these results to study the surface-underground correlation and to interpret preliminary results of the Soudan-I detector presented at this conference

  20. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  1. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  2. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC Safety Topic VI-7.3 associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the ECCS actuation system for the Dresden II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VI-7.A.3, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the classification of the ECCS actuation system for the Dresden II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  3. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC safety topic VII-2 associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the ESF system control logic and design for the Dresden Station, Unit II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VII-2, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the ESF system control logic and design for the Dresden Station Unit II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  4. Construction and maintenance of underground mine roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, A.S.; Seedsman, R.W. [Coffey Partners International Pty. Ltd. (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Good roads are essential in moving men and materials to and from the underground workplace. An underground coal industry funded project was recently completed on underground mine road construction and maintenance. This paper discusses practical approaches to construction and maintenance of underground mine roads using transferable civil technologies and innovative techniques. Mine pavements are generally low-cost (relative to civil roads), constructed to varying standards using locally available materials to best meet the mobility needs of the mine. Performance of pavements is thus largely dependent on the environmental conditions, quality of the available road making materials, maintenance policies and available resources. This paper explains the causes of bad roads in various underground environments. It details available management strategies, construction and water control techniques, road maintenance and vehicle considerations. It concludes that the trend to larger rubber tires mining equipment needs to be matched with construction and maintenance of high quality road surfaces. For large operations, the total cost due to poor roads may equate to in excess of $A1 million per annum. The strategies outlined in this paper provide the basis for construction and maintenance of underground mine roads to help achieve desired production targets. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs.

  5. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  6. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  7. Studies on muon showers underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; Castagnoli, C; Dardo, M; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Picchi, P; Visentin, R [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Sitte, K [Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1976-08-21

    The 4 m/sup 2/ spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, and to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm/sup 2/ of rock.

  8. Studies on muon showers underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, L.; Castagnoli, C.; Dardo, M.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Visentin, R.; Sitte, K.

    1976-01-01

    The 4 m 2 spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, adn to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm 2 of rock

  9. [Release of antibiotics into urban wastewater: A secondary-data based analysis for the input assessment using the city of Dresden as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpel, Patrick; Gurke, Robert; Marx, Conrad; Knoth, Holger; Fauler, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotics are essential for the successful treatment of bacterial infections. Recently, the increasing number of resistant bacteria and the occurrence of residues of antibiotics in the environment has become the focus of scientific interest. The aim of the cooperative project ANTI-Resist was to investigate the release of antibiotics and the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance in the urban waste water system of the city of Dresden.This article presents the main results of the secondary data analysis for the determination of outpatient and inpatient antibiotic consumption and provides an insight into the complexity of the topic antibiotics in waste water.Based on the data of outpatient prescriptions provided by the AOK PLUS for the period 2005 to 2013, thirteen focus substances were identified to estimate antibiotic consumption. Furthermore, delivery data from the pharmacies of three hospitals in Dresden were available.Depending on the substances investigated, seasonality and age dependency were determined. The results at a regional level were mostly in good accordance with general trends throughout Germany. It should be noted that the total amount of antibiotics used remained nearly constant over the whole period investigated, but the prescription of fluoroquinolones increased. This must be questioned when taking into account the increasingly critical situation in the treatment of Gram-negative bacteria in particular. Examinations of waste water conducted indicated that sewage treatment plants are not able to remove antibiotics or their metabolites completely from waste water. The residues are released into surface waters via the treatment plants. The impact cannot be assessed at the moment and further investigations are necessary.

  10. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  11. Behaviors of radionuclides in wet underground soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Morisawa, S.

    Experimental studies were made of the variations of the distribution coefficient of 65 Zn, 60 Co, and /sup 110 m/Ag with Ca ion contents in sand--water and resin--water systems. It is concluded that: (1) The distribution coefficient of a radionuclide is not constant but varies greatly especially with calcium ion concentration in underground water. (2) The Saturation Index I=pH-pHs can be used as a parameter to indicate such variations. (3) Some radionuclides, existing as radiocolloids like (sup 110m/Ag and 59 Fe, are inactive toward ion exchange reactions as with hydroxide. In such cases, the nuclides migrate underground as fast as underground water

  12. Radon Progeny in Egyptian Underground Phosphate Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hady, M.A.; Mohammed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ali, A.E.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to the workers in uranium mines, the staff of other underground mines, such as workers in underground phosphate mines, can be exposed to 222 Rn and its progeny. In this study the individual radon progeny concentrations were measured in three Egyptian underground phosphate mines to estimate the occupational exposure of the workers at those sites. A filter method was used to measure individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po). The reported mean values of radon progeny concentrations exceed the action levels which are recommended by ICRP 65 (1993). Based on the measured individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po) in these mines, the annual effective dose for the workers has been calculated using the lung dose model of ICRP 66 (1994). According to the obtained results, some countermeasures were recommended in this study to minimise these exposure levels. (author)

  13. The Mimetic Principle in the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Voicu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been in the recent years an increased preoccupation at international level for the research of the mechanism of development of the underground economy. The numerous vain attempts to measure the dimension of the underground economy persuaded us to embark on a qualitative research of this economic phenomenon. In our investigation on the roots of the underground economy we drew very close to the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon itself. The process of humanizing that has at its origin components of the mimetic principle, like acquisitive mimesis, prompt us to ponder over J.M. Keynes’ words: „The avoidance of taxes is the only intellectual ambition that one feels rewarded for.”

  14. Location of leaks in pressurized underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, E.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Millions of underground storage tanks (UST) are used to store petroleum and other chemicals. The pressurized underground pipelines associated with USTs containing petroleum motor fuels are typically 2 in. in diameter and 50 to 200 ft in length. These pipelines typically operate at pressures of 20 to 30 psi. Longer lines, with diameters up to 4 in., are found in some high-volume facilities. There are many systems that can be used to detect leaks in pressurized underground pipelines. When a leak is detected, the first step in the remediation process is to find its location. Passive-acoustic measurements, combined with advanced signal-processing techniques, provide a nondestructive method of leak location that is accurate and relatively simple, and that can be applied to a wide variety of pipelines and pipeline products

  15. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  16. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  17. Underground gasification of coal. [Newman Spinney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-06-16

    This article gives an account of the experimental work on underground gasification at Newman Spinney near Sheffield, England. An attempt was made to develop the percolation technique in flat coal seams but to demonstrate first that gas can be made underground. A borehole system was created on an opencast site where an exposed seam face would allow horizontal drilling to be carried out. Details of trails are given, and drilling techniques, electromagnetic device developed by the Great Britain Post Office Research Branch and radioactive location developed by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. An account is given of the inauguration of a series of experiments on May 22, 1950.

  18. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  19. Background Models for Muons and Neutrons Underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic-induced activity is an issue of great concern for many sensitive experiments sited underground. A variety of different arch-type experiments - such as those geared toward the detection of dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and solar neutrinos - have reached levels of cleanliness and sensitivity that warrant careful consideration of secondary activity induced by cosmic rays. This paper reviews some of the main issues associated with the modeling of cosmogenic activity underground. Comparison with data, when such data is available, is also presented

  20. Underground openings production line 2012. Design, production and initial state of the underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    The Underground Openings Line Production Line report describes the design requirements, the design principles, the methods of construction and the target properties for the underground rooms required for the final repository. It is one of five Production Line reports, namely the: Underground Openings Line report, Canister report, Buffer report, Backfill report, Closure report. Together, these reports cover the lifespan of the underground phases of the final repository from the start of construction of the underground rooms to their closure. Posiva has developed reference methods for constructing the underground rooms. Tunnels will be constructed using the drill and blast technique, shafts will be constructed using raise boring and the deposition holes will be constructed by reverse down reaming. Underground openings will be made safe by reinforcement by using rock bolts, net or shotcrete, depending on which type of opening is being considered, and groundwater inflows will be limited by grouting. Posiva's requirements management system (VAHA) sets out the specifications for the enactment of the disposal concept at Olkiluoto under five Levels - 1 to 5, from the most generic to the most specific. In this report, the focus is on Level 4 and 5 requirements, which provide practical guidance for the construction of the underground openings. The design requirements are presented in Level 4 and the design specification in Level 5 In addition to the long-term safety-related requirements included in VAHA, there are additional requirements regarding the operation of underground openings, e.g. space requirements due to the equipment used and its maintenance, operational and fire safety. The current reference design for the disposal facility is presented based on the design requirements and design specifications. During the lifespan of the repository the reference design will be revised and updated according to the design principles as new information is available. Reference

  1. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  2. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  3. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  4. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mary; Ruthsdotter, Mary

    Suitable for elementary level students, this study unit helps increase students' comprehension of the risks involved in a black person's flight from slavery and of Harriet Tubman's success in leading more than 300 slaves to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Five activity suggestions are followed by a reading on the life of Harriet Tubman.…

  5. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  6. A Walk on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Describes one historian's search for information on the Underground Railroad, retracing on foot one of the routes formerly traveled by fugitives, seeking historical societies and libraries in each town, and interviewing descendants of slaves. He also had himself boxed up and smuggled onto a train to simulate the situation of one fugitive. A…

  7. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Underground mining robot: a CSIR project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa is currently developing a robot for the inspection of the ceiling (hanging-wall) in an underground gold mine. The robot autonomously navigates the 30 meter long by 3 meter...

  9. US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  10. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless forced...

  11. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.; Telleschi, P.

    1978-10-01

    Two of the main underground siting alternatives, the rock cavity plant and the pit siting, have been investigated in detail and two layouts, developed for specific sites, have been proposed. The influence of this type of siting on normal operating conditions and during abnormal occurences have been investigated. (Auth.)

  12. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  13. Electromagnetic signals from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.; Fitzhugh, R.; Homuth, F.

    1985-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields and ground currents resulting from underground nuclear explosions have been observed since the first such event. A few measurements have been reported, but most have not. There also have been some speculations as to their origin; the two most generally proposed are the magnetic bubble and the seismoelectric effect. The evidence seems to favor the latter mechanism. 15 refs., 36 figs

  14. Dresden 1 Radiation Level Reduction Program. Intergranular corrosion tests of sensitized Type-304 stainless steel in Dow NS-1, and stress corrosion cracking tests of Type-304 stainless steel and carbon and low alloy steels in Dow copper rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, W.L.

    1978-09-01

    Corrosion tests were performed to evaluate the extent of intergranular attack on sensitized Type-304 stainless steel by a proprietary Dow Chemical solvent, NS-1, which is to be used in the chemical cleaning of the Dresden 1 primary system. In addition, tests were performed to evaluate stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Type-304 stainless steel and post-weld heat-treated ASTM A336-F1, A302-B, and A106-B carbon and low alloy steels in a solution to be used to remove residual metallic copper from the Dresden 1 primary system surfaces following the chemical cleaning. No evidence of deleterious corrosion was observed in either set of tests

  15. Organ nic pollutants in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Many organic compounds have been diagnosed in underground and surface waters, and there are many theories that explain the source of the dangerous materials on Punic health. The source of pollution could be the underground stored fuel or the polluted water in farms saturated with agricultural insecticides and chemical fertilizers, or there could be leaks in sewage water wastes. The source of pollution could also be the water surfaces in the areas of garbage disposal or industrial and home waste discharge. Due to the fact that the underground water is separated from oxygen in the air, its ability on self-purification is very low, in that the micro-organism that will do the dismantling and decomposition of the organic materials that pollute the water are in need for oxygen. In the event that underground water is subject to pollution m there are many methods for t resting the polluted water including the chemical decomposition method by injecting the polluted areas with neutralizing or oxidizing chemicals, such as Ozone, Chlorine or Hydrogen Peroxide. The mechanical methods could be used for getting rid of the volatile organic materials. As to biological decomposition, it is done with the use of bacteria in dismantling the poisonous materials into un poisonous materials. The preliminary analysis of water samples in one of the water wells in Sar ir and Tazarbo in Great Jamahirieh indicated that the concentration of total organic compounds (TOC) exceeded the internationally allowed limits. This indicates a deterioration of quality of some of underground water resources. It is well known that some of the organic pollutants have a great role in causing dangerous diseases, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some halogenated compounds that cause cancer. Therefore, much research is required in this field for diagnosing the polluting organic compounds and determining the suitability of this water for drinking or for human consumption. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  16. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  17. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  18. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  19. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  20. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013...

  1. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  2. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension...), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI...

  3. IT security analysis of the scada-system in the Nossener Bruecke power plant GT-HKW; IT-Sicherheitsbetrachtung fuer die leittechnische Anlage des GT-HKW Nossener Bruecke in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, Martin [Drewag Stadtwerke Dresden GmbH, Dresden (Germany). Abt. Kraftwerkstechnik; Schaeffer, Philippe A.R. [Jester Secure iT GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Drewag Stadtwerke Dresden GmbH operates the Nossener Bruecke gas turbine combined cycle power plant. The I and C systems were subjected to an IT safety check in order to guarantee the high availability. Measures increasing security were derived. These were implemented after having assessed the risks and feasibility. A PDCA cycle is integrated to guarantee and improve long-term IT security. (orig.)

  4. Review: Dominik Schrage (Ed. (2005. Die Flut. Diskursanalysen zum Dresdner Hochwasser im August 2002 [The Flood. Discourse Analyses on the Dresden Flood in August 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Mattissek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The volume edited by Dominik SCHRAGE documents the results of a research seminar held by the editor at the Department of Sociology, Technical University of Dresden, in the spring term of 2004 and fall term of 2004/05. The contributions are based mainly on discourse analysis of print media coverage of the Elbe flood in the summer of 2002. Topics include a reflection on the possibilities of implementing FOUCAULTian discourse theory within empirical research projects, as well as formal characteristics of the flood discourse, the mutual interference between the reports on the election campaigns for the Bundestag and on the flood, and finally the image of nature emerging within the flood discourse. The volume shows the potential of FOUCAULT's discourse analysis for current social events and outlines possible methodological implementations. Moreover, it is a recommended reading for those who are interested in changes in discursive structures within exceptional social circumstances in general and in the social framing of natural disaster in particular. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070252

  5. Pulsed power magnet technology for laser particle acceleration and laser plasma physics - a survey of developments at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Joost, Martin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Burris-Mog, Trevor; Herrmannsdoerfer, Thomas; Kraft, Stephan; Masood, Umar; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Sobiella, Manfred; Wustmann, Bernd; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Cowan, Thomas; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Since the mid-1950s, pulsed high-field magnets have become a common, versatile research tool with application mostly in solid state physics and material research. Recently developed pulsed power magnet technology, specifically designed to meet the demands of laser acceleration and laser plasma experiments, open up new research opportunities: We present a pulsed air core solenoid (up to 20 T) for effective collection and focusing of laser accelerated particles. It could function as a crucial part of a compact, laser-based ion source (pursued by the LIGHT collaboration) or of beam guidance systems. Furthermore, the poster shows a split pair coil, utterly compact and with optical access in between the coil pairs and on axis, to study laser-driven plasma expansion under high magnetic fields (30 T). To power such devices, portable capacitor-based pulse generators have been developed at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. We present first results of the functional testing of our third-generation pulse generator. Looking forward, we outline a concept for a medical gantry based on pulsed high field beam optics.

  6. Measurement of age of underground water, using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Kunio; Kagami, Tadaaki; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Onuma, Akiko; Shoka, Yasushi

    1978-01-01

    Age of four kinds of underground water in Aichi prefecture was estimated by measuring a concentration of tritium. The tritium concentration was measured by the usual method. The first water-bearing zone of the shallow part, about 50m in depth, of Nobi plain is a new underground water cultivated within 20 years, whereas second water-bearing zone is an old underground water of 20 years old or more. No relationship of water flow between the first and the second water-bearing zone was observed. A very deep underground about 100m or more in depth, of the Nobi plain is confirmed to be infinite years old fossil water by measuring of tritium. The underground water in Atsumi peninsula is mostly a new underground water within 20 years. Only one out of eight showed the existence of old underground water before 20 years or more. The underground water of the granite area at Mikawa district is confirmed to be old underground water before 20 years or more. Alkaline underground water in the granite zone is considered to be very old in view of composition of water. The origin of underground water can be learned by tritium concentration, which shows whether the water is new water in the neighborhood of earth's surface or very old cultivated water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  8. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  9. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Lawrence D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  10. Control of radon daughters in underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swent, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses technical developments that may enable uranium mine operators to improve engineering controls of radon daughter concentrations in mines, and developments in regulatory controls. The origin of radon daughters in underground mines is explained. The procedure for sampling and determining the concentration of alpha radiation in sampled air is reviewed. The principal technical development in the last few years has been the perfection and use of a class of meters which determine radon daughter concentrations in an air sample in a matter of two or three minutes without any aging period. A number of underground uranium mine operators are now using ''instant'' type meters and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has approved their use in a number of mines. The difficulty experienced by uranium mine operators in complying with a MSHA regulation which requires that no person be exposed to radon daughter concentrations exceeding 1 Working Level (WL) in any active working place is discussed

  11. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  12. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  13. The Sanford underground research facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    2014-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability

  14. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  15. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties

  16. The first underground low radioactivity bolometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Camin, D.V.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.

    1990-01-01

    A dilution refrigerator was installed in an underground location for the first time. The cryostat is made of as clean as possible material from the radioactivity point of view, with the aim to measure rare events like double beta decay or 'dark matter' interactions via coherent nuclear scattering. It is also planned to surround all the cryostat frame with lead and with a specially built Faraday cage. All the experimental apparatus involved have to be tested to obtain a very good background rejection. An 11g Ge bolometer, already tested on surface coupled with a 4.2 K GaAs preamplifier was built to measure the effective bolometer background in this new experimental area and to check the experimental set-up for double beta decay experiment. The present performance of the underground bolometric system is reported. (R.P.) 8 refs.; 7 figs

  17. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewes, H A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  18. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E [Durham, CT; Perry, Carl A [Middletown, CT; Wassell, Mark E [Kingwood, TX; Barbely, Jason R [Middletown, CT; Burgess, Daniel E [Middletown, CT; Cobern, Martin E [Cheshire, CT

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  19. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Charles R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  20. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  1. Underground mining of aggregates. Main report

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Teresa J.; Coggan, John S.; Evans, David J.; Foster, Patrick J.; Hewitt, Jeremy; Kruyswijk, Jacob B.; Smith, Nigel; Steadman, Ellie J.

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the economic feasibility of underground mining for crushed rock aggregates in the UK, but particularly in the London, South East and East of England regions (the South East area of England). These regions import substantial volumes of crushed rock, primarily from the East Midlands and South West regions, requiring relatively long transport distances to market for this bulk commodity. A key part of the research was to determine whether or not aggregate could be produced an...

  2. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  3. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewes, H.A.

    1969-01-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  4. Underground laboratories: Cosmic silence, loud science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Eugenio, E-mail: coccia@lngs.infn.i [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' and INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to host key experiments in the field of particle and astroparticle physics, nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines that can profit of their characteristics and of their infrastructures. The cosmic silence condition existing in these laboratories allows the search for extremely rare phenomena and the exploration of the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators. I briefly describe all the facilities that are presently in operation around the world.

  5. Giant CMS magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists of the US CMS collaboration joined colleagues around the world in announcing today (February 28) that the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid particle detector has begun the momentous journey into its experimental cavern 100 meters underground. A huge gantry crne is slowly lowering the CMS detector's preassembled central section into place in the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland." (1 page)

  6. Underground large scale test facility for rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    This brief note discusses two advantages of locating the facility for testing rock specimens of large dimensions in an underground space. Such an environment can be made to contribute part of the enormous axial load and stiffness requirements needed to get complete stress-strain behavior. The high pressure vessel may also be located below the floor level since the lateral confinement afforded by the rock mass may help to reduce the thickness of the vessel

  7. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, N M [Morwijk Enterprises Ltd., (Canada); Morin, K A [Normar Enterprises, (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs.

  8. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  9. Underground communications and tracking technology advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S

    2007-03-15

    As the June 2009 deadline set by the MINER Act grows near, several technologies have emerged as possible options for communicating and tracking underground coal miners in the event of an emergency or disaster. NIOSH is currently deciding how best to invest $10 million assigned by Congress under an Emergency Supplementary Appropriations Act (ESA) to research and develop mine safety technology. Medium and ultra high frequency (UHF) systems seem to be leading the pack with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags serving as the tracking system. Wireless mesh systems can serve as a communications infrastructure and they can do much more. Even more technologies continue to emerge, such as inertial navigation tracking systems. Mines are discovering the wonders of modern voice and data communications underground. Still no one know if it is economically practical to design a system that will function after a coal mine explosion. From the nineteen systems submitted to MSHA's request for information (RFI), six systems were selected that represented most of the technologies that had been proposed: the Rajant Breadcrumb, Innovative Wireless, Concurrent Technologies/Time Domain, Transtek, Gamma Services, and the Kutta Consulting systems. They were tested at CONSOL Energy's McElroy mine in April 2006. MSHA felt that all of those systems needed a significant amount of work before they were ready for use in a underground coal mining environment. The agency continues to work with these, and other manufacturers, to assist in arranging for field demonstration and then to gain MSHA approval.

  10. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  11. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  12. Recovery of oil from underground drill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.; Hutchinson, T.S.; Ameri, S.; Wasson, J.A.; Aminian, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a significant quantity of oil is left in reservoirs after conventional oil recovery techniques have been applied. In West Virginia and Pennsylvania alone, this oil has been estimated at over 4.5 billion barrels (0.72 billion m 3 ). Conventional recovery methods are already being used when applicable. But a new recovery method is needed for use in reservoirs that have been abandoned. One alternative method for recovery of the residual oil is known as oil recovery from underground drill sites. This recovery technology is a combination of proven methods and equipment from the petroleum, mining, and civil construction industries. Underground oil recovery can be an economically viable method of producing oil. This has been shown in producing fields, field tests, and feasibility, studies. Faced with decreasing domestic oil production, the petroleum industry should give serious consideration to the use of oil recovery from underground drill sites as a safe, practical, and environmentally sensitive alternative method of producing oil from many reservoirs

  13. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.; Orrell, John L.

    2018-03-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discovery of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.

  14. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability

  15. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestakegold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinolessdouble-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low- background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long- baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability. (paper)

  16. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  17. Design study of underground facility of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU is consisted of surface and underground facilities down to the depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program which includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed last year, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  18. Potential Advantages of Underground Nuclear Parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Carl W.; Elkins, Ned Z.; Kunze, Jay F.; Mahar, James M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that an underground nuclear park (UNP) could potentially lead to lower capital and operating cost for the reactors installed in the UNP compared to the traditional approach, which would be to site the reactors at the earth's surface at distributed locations. The UNP approach could also lead to lower waste management cost. A secondary benefit would be the increased margins of safety and security that would be realized simply as a consequence of siting the reactors underground. Lowered capital and operating cost for a UNP relative to traditional reactor siting is possible through the aggregate effect of the elimination of containment structures, in-place decommissioning, reduced physical security costs, reduced weather-related costs, reduced cost of liability insurance and reduced unit-cost for the nth reactor made possible through the continuous construction of multiple reactors at the same underground location. Other cost reductions might be possible through the transfer of the capital cost for part of the underground construction from the reactor owners to the owners of the UNP. Lower waste management cost is possible by siting the UNP at a location where there are geological and hydrological conditions suitable for hosting both the reactors and the repository for the waste from those reactors. After adequate storage and cooling, and assuming direct disposal, this would enable the spent fuel from the reactors to be transported directly to the repository and remain entirely underground during the transport process. Community concerns and transportation costs would be significantly reduced relative to current situations where the reactors are separated from the repository by long distances and populated areas. The concept for a UNP in bedded salt is used to develop a rough order of magnitude cost estimate for excavation of the reactor array portion of a UNP. Excavation costs appear to be only a small fraction of the overall power plant costs

  19. Legal considerations for urban underground space development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Malaysia land code, named the National Land Code 1965 (NLC 1965, was amended to add Part Five (A to deal with the disposal of underground space. In addition, the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008 was issued to assist the application of Part Five (A of the NLC 1965. However, the legislation is still questionable and has instigated many arguments among numerous actors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to examine legal considerations for the development of underground space. The focus is on four legal considerations, namely underground space ownership, the bundle of rights, depth, and underground space utilization. Rooted in qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with respondents involved in the development of underground space in Malaysia. The obtained data were then analyzed descriptively. The findings differentiated the rights of landowners for surface land and underground space, and their liability for damages and the depth. It was indicated that the current legislation in Malaysia, namely Part Five (A of the NLC 1965 and the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008, is adequate to facilitate the development of underground space in terms of legal considerations. However, to further facilitate the development of underground land in the future, based on the research, four enhancements are recommended for legal considerations pertaining to the development of underground space in Malaysia. Keywords: Underground space, Legal consideration, Land right, Urban development

  20. Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy for Determination of the Riboflavin Concentration in the Anterior Corneal Stroma When Using the Dresden Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Theo G; Ehmke, Tobias; Fischinger, Isaak; Zapp, Daniel; Stachs, Oliver; Seiler, Theo; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    To determine the riboflavin concentration gradient in the anterior corneal stroma when using the Dresden protocol with different dextran solutions. Three different groups of porcine corneas, five each, were compared regarding the riboflavin concentration in the anterior stroma. Before all experiments, stable hydration conditions were established for the corresponding solution. All groups were treated with 0.1% riboflavin in different dextran solutions (15%, 16%, 20%). After imbibition, two-photon microscopy was used to determine fluorescence intensity. For signal attenuation and concentration determination corneas were saturated and measured a second time by two-photon microscopy. Additionally, the distribution was calculated mathematically and compared to the empiric results. Riboflavin concentration is decreasing with depth for all dextran solutions. A nearly constant concentration could be determined over the first 75 μm. Analysis of the fit functions leads to diffusion coefficients of D = 2.97 × 10-7 cm2/s for the 15% dextran solution, D = 2.34 × 10-7 cm2/s for the 16% dextran solution, and D = 1.28 × 10-7 cm2/s for the 20% dextran solution. The riboflavin gradients of the 20% dextran group were statistically significantly different from 15% dextran starting at a depth of 220 μm and deeper (P = 0.047). The 16% dextran group differed statistically at a depth of 250 μm and deeper (P = 0.047). These results show a significant difference to those published previously. With correct settings two-photon microscopy is a precise way to determine the concentration of riboflavin in cornea. The measured gradient is excellently fit by a Gaussian distribution, which comes out as a solution of Fick's second law.

  1. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  2. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  3. Design Criteria for Wireless Mesh Communications in Underground Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Kenneth Reed

    2009-01-01

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act of 2006 was enacted in response to several coal mining accidents that occurred in the beginning of 2006. The MINER Act does not just require underground mines to integrate wireless communication and tracking systems, but aims to overall enhance health and safety in mining at both surface and underground operations. In 2006, the underground communication technologies available to the mining industry had inherent problems that limited ...

  4. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  5. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  6. Neutrino burst identification in underground detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulgione, W.; Mengotti-Silva, N.; Panaro, L.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the problem of neutrino burst identification in underground ν-telescopes. First the usual statistical analysis based on the time structure of the events is reviewed, with special attention to the statistical significance of burst candidates. Next, we propose a second level analysis that can provide independent confirmation of burst detection. This exploits the spatial distribution of the single events of a burst candidate, and uses the formalism of the entropy of information. Examples of both techniques are shown, based on the LVD experiment at Gran Sasso. (orig.)

  7. Does underground storage still require sophisticated studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1997-01-01

    Most countries agree to the necessity of burying high or medium-level wastes in geological layers situated at a few hundred meters below the ground level. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of rock such as salt, clay, granite and volcanic material are examined. Sophisticated studies are lead to determine the best geological confinement but questions arise about the time for which safety must be ensured. France has chosen 3 possible sites. These sites are geologically described in the article. The final place will be proposed after a testing phase of about 5 years in an underground facility. (A.C.)

  8. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Fire extinguishing system in large underground garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Antonov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work is considered an acceptable constructive scheme from a practical point of view at fire extinguishing in underground garages. The garage space is divided into quadrants which covering, for example, 2 cars. In case of ignition on one of them, a sprinkler nozzle system is triggered by the effect of the vertical convective jet. A protective curtain preventing the spread of fire to adjacent vehicles is realized. The solution is based on an integrated method which allows the calculation from hydrodynamic point of view on extinguishing time of the fire extinguishing system.

  10. Forest as Underground-Closed Dendrocenoecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of quantitative «microecosystem» analysis of structural and functional relationships between biogeocenosis components in coniferous forests, the leading role of stand-edificator's root competition factor has been identified in determining the undergrowth and lower layer plant’s growth, compared with its «light» competition. Considering the dominant role of a tree stand root competition in the formation of other forest biogeocenosis components, new definition of «forest» as «underground-closed dendrocenoecosystem» have been proposed.

  11. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  12. Research on prognostics and health management of underground pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangdi; Yang, Meng; Yang, Fan; Ni, Na

    2018-04-01

    With the development of the city, the construction of the underground pipeline is more and more complex, which has relation to the safety and normal operation of the city, known as "the lifeline of the city". First of all, this paper introduces the principle of PHM (Prognostics and Health Management) technology, then proposed for fault diagnosis, prognostics and health management in view of underground pipeline, make a diagnosis and prognostics for the faults appearing in the operation of the underground pipeline, and then make a health assessment of the whole underground pipe network in order to ensure the operation of the pipeline safely. Finally, summarize and prospect the future research direction.

  13. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.best@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Görres, Joachim [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Junker, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Kratz, Karl-Ludwig [Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Long, Alexander [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nisi, Stefano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of {sup 3}He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  14. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  15. Underground coal mining technology - the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lama, R P [Kembla Coal and Coke Pty Limited, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    1989-01-01

    Discusses development of underground coal mining in Australia in the last four decades. The following aspects are reviewed: technology for underground mining (longwall mining, unidirectional cutting, bidirectional cutting, operation of more than one shearer on a working face, optimum dimensions of longwall blocks), longwall productivity (productivity increase will depend on increasing the availability factor of equipment, reducing failures due to human errors, organizational models, improving on-site decision making, improving monitoring, maintenance, planning and scheduling, concept of 'Transparent Mine'), roadway development systems (types of heading machines, standard systems for mine drivage and roof bolting and their productivity), size of coal mines, man and material transport systems (20,000-30,000 t/d from a single longwall face, mine shafts with a diameter 9-10 m), mine layout design (layout of longwall blocks, main intakes and returns situated in rock layers), mine environmental systems (ventilation systems, gas control), management, training and interpersonal relationships. Future coal mines will be developed with an integral capacity of 8-10 Mt/a from a single longwall operation with main development arteries placed in rocks. Development of gate roadways will require novel solutions with continuous cutting, loading and bolting. Information technology, with the concept of 'transparent mine', will form the backbone of decision making.

  16. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  17. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  18. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  19. Siting technology of underground nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, M.; Hibino, S.

    1989-01-01

    For the site of a nuclear power station, it may be possible to select a seaside mountain area, if the condition is suitable to excavate large rock caverns in which a reactor and other equipments are installed. As the case study on the siting technology for an underground nuclear power station, the following example was investigated. The site is a seaside steep mountain area, and almost all the equipments are installed in plural tunnel type caverns. The depth from the ground surface to the top of the reactor cavern is about 150 m, and the thickness of the rock pillar between the reactor cavern of 33 m W x 82 mH x 79 mD and the neighboring turbine cavern is 60 m. In this paper, the stability of rock caverns in this example, evaluated by numerical analysis, is described. The numerical analysis was carried out on the central cross section of the reactor cavern, taking the turbine cavern, geostress, the mechanical properties of rock mass and the process of excavation works in consideration. By the analysis, the underground caverns in this example were evaluated as stable, if the rock quality is equivalent to C H class or better according to the CRIEPI rock classification. (K.I.)

  20. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M.; Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are 40 K, as well as, 238 U and 232 Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The 238 U and 232 Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  1. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  2. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  3. Concept Design and Development Model of Underground Villas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of society, modern buildings have been consuming excessive amount of energy and resources. Eco-friendly building is going to be the leading style of architecture in the future. Underground villa, as a type of energy efficient architecture, has widely drawn humans’ attention. However, Chinese are still at an exploratory stage in terms of the development of underground construction. This paper describes several typical underground villas in western developed countries; briefly states the advantages and shortcomings of underground villas; discusses the design of style-planning, inner-space design, lighting and ventilation, and waterproof and fireproof of underground villas; also puts forward how to improve the living environment of underground villas. Besides, the paper suggests an innovative concept of underground living that best suits China’s market based on the merits of underground villas and the analysis upon China’s traditional cave-house. In addition, it roughly analyzes the prospect of this innovate style of dwelling in China.

  4. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  5. Connected Cities : Guide to good practice underground space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Hobma, W.

    2007-01-01

    This guide to good practice underground space is developed within the framework of the EU-funded INTERREG IIIC project ‘Connected Cities’. It focuses on how a strategic use of underground space can facilitate sustainable modes of transportation and mobility in urban and rural areas. Twelve strategic

  6. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4263 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57.4161 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  8. Review of underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A review of the potential for the underground siting of nuclear power generating plants has been undertaken. The review comprised a survey and assessment of relevant published documents currently available, together with discussions with Government sponsored agencies and other bodies, to evaluate the current status of technology related to the design and construction of underground nuclear power plants. It includes a review of previous work related to the underground siting of power plants and other facilities; a preliminary evaluation of the relative merits of the various concepts of undergrounding which have been proposed or constructed; a review of current technology as it relates to the requirements for the design, construction and operation of underground nuclear power plants; an examination of the safety and environmental aspects; and the identification of areas of further study which will be required if the underground is to be established as a fully viable alternative to surface siting. No attempt has been made to draw final conclusions at this stage. Nothing has been found to suggest that the underground siting concept could not provide a viable alternative to the surface concept. It is also apparent that no major technological developments are required. It is not clear, however, whether the improvements in safety and containment postulated for the underground can be realized at an economic cost; or even whether any additional cost is in fact involved. The problem is essentially site dependent and requires further study for which recommendations are made. (auth)

  9. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...

  10. Spent fuel disposal: is the underground the sole solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachmilner, L.

    1997-01-01

    The following 4 major approaches to spent fuel disposal are discussed: permanent storage in an underground repository, reprocessing, partitioning and transmutation, and accelerator driven transmutation. It is concluded that underground disposal will remain the basic option for the near future, although pursuing the other methods is certainly worth while. (P.A.)

  11. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  12. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  13. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  14. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; "2"2"6Ra ("2"1"4Bi), "2"3"2Th e "4"0K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m"-"3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m"-"3. The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a"-"1 (mean 10 mSv.a"-"1). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  15. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program under the Safe Drinking Water Act established a Federal and State... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program AGENCY... Water Protection Division/Underground Injection Control Program, Mailcode: 4606M, Environmental...

  16. An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Dana, Léo-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety...

  17. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  18. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  19. Structural design and dynamic analysis of underground nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.W.; Reddy, D.V.; Heale, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Present actual experience in the structural design of undeground containments is limited to only four rather small reactors all located in Europe. Thus proposals for future underground reactors depend on the transposition of applicable design specifications, constraints and criteria from existing surface nuclear power plants to underground, and the use of many years of experience in the structural design of large underground cavities and cavity complexes for other purposes such as mining, hydropower stations etc. An application of such considerations in a recent input for the Underground Containment sub-section of the Seismic Task Group Report to the ASCE Committee for Nuclear Structures and Materials is presented as follows: underground concept considerations, siting criteria and structural selection, structural types, analytical and semi-analytical approaches, design and other miscellaneous considerations

  20. CC City Center in Dresden; CC City Center in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-09-01

    In the course of an optimisation process, it was attempted to meet both the requirements of a shopping mall and an administrative building. The new building is the representative administrative building of the ESAG and also houses several shops with a total floor space of 6000 m{sup 2}. (orig.) [Deutsch] In einem Optimierungsprozess wurde versucht, die Anforderungen eines Handelszentrums genauso wie die eines Verwaltungsgebaeudes zu erfuellen. Das daraus entstandene Gebaeude dient der ESAG als repraesentative Hauptverwaltung. Zusaetzlich fanden auf 6000 m{sup 2} mehrere Geschaefte Platz. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of slifer data from underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusinkveld, M.

    1979-01-01

    A formula describing the distance--time relationship of a shock wave moving outward from an underground explosion is derived. Calculated results are compared with those computed using the LASL and BOTE formulas and with slifer data obtained from field experiments. For many of the field events, the derived curve provides a better fit than do the LASL or BOTE formulas. Methods are presented for the determination of the detonation energy W under three conditions: (a) where time and distance are known accurately; (b) where there is an unknown offset of time and distance; and (c) where there is an unknown offset of both time and distance. These methods are applied with moderate success to a set of (t,r) data supplied by Goldwire

  2. Underground storage tanks cause environmental chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruver, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during the 1950s and the subsequent three decades, petroleum products were stored in single-walled steel underground tanks; an out-of-sight, out-of-mind philosophy prevailed. Unfathomable amounts of toxic petroleum products leaking into the nation's ground water supplies has prompted enactment of recent and much needed legislation and regulation to remedy this major problem. Is the public aware of this serious ecological imbroglio? No, not as yet; except for the closing of many rural service stations and the plethora of dug-up, exposed tanks at urban stations, one could never imagine the severity of this debacle confronting the petroleum industry and the nation's environment

  3. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  4. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  5. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  6. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  7. Cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    This investigation studied the displacement of rock that formerly occupied cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions. There are three possible explanations for this displacement: the volume could be displaced to the free surface; it could occupy previously air-filled pores removed from the surrounding rock through compaction; or it could be accounted for by persisting compressive stresses induced by the outgoing shock wave. The analysis shows it unlikely that stored residual elastic stresses account for large fractions of cavity volumes. There is limited experimental evidence that free surface displacement accounts for a significant portion of this volume. Whenever the explosion mediums contain air-filled pores, the compaction of these pores most likely accounts for all the volume. Calculations show that 4 percent air-filled porosity can account for all the cavity volume within about 4 cavity radii and that even 1 percent can account for a significant fraction of the volume

  8. Homestake surface-underground scintillators: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E.J.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    The first 70 tons of the 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) have been operating since Jan. 1985 at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, S.D. A total of 4 x 10(4) high-energy muons (E sub mu is approx. 2.7 TeV at the surface) have been detected. The remainder of the detector is scheduled to be in operation by the Fall of 1985. In addition, a surface air shower array is under construction. The first 27 surface counters, spaced out over an area of 270' x 500', began running in June, 1985. The LASD performance, the potential of the combined shower array and underground muon experiment for detecting point sources, and the initial results of a search for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 are discussed

  9. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S.B.; Camp, C.; Carmona-Benitez, M.C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J.J.; Chiller, A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Coffey, T.; Curioni, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross-section per nucleon of 2×10 −46 cm 2 , equivalent to ∼1event/100kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have <1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector

  10. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  11. METHODS TO QUANTIFY THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona HUDEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground economy issue has raised in time miscellaneous discussions, it representing a large interest problem that affects the nations all over the world, without exception and, thereby, the well—being of stand—alone individuals. Although also treated in some previous works of the author, this topic in herein approached from a different perspective, namely the one related to distinct methods to be used in order to capture, by quantification, this undesirable economic form. Such methods, empirically tested or just imposed, based on arguments, by the researchers having launched the same, are rendered while considering their pluses and minuses in revealing, with a reasonable accuracy, the level of the above—mentioned informal economy.

  12. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  13. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi-Jafari, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  14. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Overhead mining railway, particularly for underground use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, L

    1976-05-20

    Overhead mining railways are usually equipped with a friction wheel drive in underground use. This drive has the advantage over a gear drive that it is more robust and therefore more economic. However, it produces unsatisfactory running for difficult sections with steep gradients up or down or places where deposits of grease and dirt are inevitable. It is proposed to change over to a gear drive at such sections. The high degree of wear, which is characteristic of this type of drive, can be reduced if the drive is only used in difficult sections. It is proposed that the gear drive should be automatically switched on and off by means of stops or contacts on the rails.

  16. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  17. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  18. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, G H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  20. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1969-01-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  1. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  2. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  3. Comprehensive understanding of mole concept subject matter according to the tetrahedral chemistry education (empirical study on the first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, D. W.; Mulyani, S.; van Pée, K.-H.; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to apprehend: (1) the shape of tetrahedral chemistry education which is called the future of chemistry education, (2) comprehensive understanding of chemistry first-year students of Technische Universität Dresden according to the chemistry education’s tetrahedral shape on mole concept subject matter. This research used quantitative and qualitative; paper and pencil test and interview. The former was conducted in the form of test containing objective test instrument. The results of this study are (1) learning based on tetrahedral shape of chemistry education put the chemical substance (macroscopic), symbolic representation (symbol), and its process (molecular) in the context of human beings (human element) by integrating content and context, without emphasis on one thing and weaken another, (2) first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden have comprehensively understood the mole concept associated with the context of everyday life, whereby students are able to find out macroscopic information from statements that are contextual to human life and then by using symbols and formulas are able to comprehend the molecular components as well as to interpret and analyse problems effectively.

  4. Ecology and economic estimate of using of the underground excavation space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umnov, V.A.; Tarasov, V.F.; Tret'yakov, I.O.; Sheloumov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Stages of ecological and economic estimates of utilizing underground space, including evaluation of underground space resources, selection of its utilization trends and substantiation of optimal parameters for selected trends, are considered. Certain directions of possible repeated utilization of mining excavations are shown, including underground hydropower stations, underground energy storages, underground nuclear stations. Underground waste disposal is one of the most available directions in utilization of the underground space presently. Evaluation of the underground space utilization at all stages envisages complete account of all economical, social and ecological results

  5. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Kress, T.

    1997-01-01

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action

  6. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  7. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  8. Solution of tasks concerning protection of underground waters and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.T.; Polyakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Use of environment isotopes and indicators in solving problems concerning protection of underground waters and environment is discussed. The applied methods permit to study dynamics of underground waters and to estimate risk of their contamination; to follow the surface and underground waters interrelations using data on infiltration recharge estimation etc. Complex nuclear-geophysical and isotope studies may be applied to detect hindered water exchange zones where liquid industrial waste disposals could be placed with minimum damage to environment. 48 refs.; 74 figs.; 22 tabs

  9. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knights, P F; Kairouz, J; Daneshmend, L K; Pathak, J [McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Canadian Centre for Automation and Robotics in Mining

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in underground hardrock mines. The operating principles and some of the applications of RDIF systems are described. The system operates by the exchange of information between transponder tags and an antenna and controller device. The suitability of RFID systems for process control, inventory control, materials handling, control of access, security, and transportation in underground coal and hardrock mines is discussed. An ore tonnage tracking system is under development that uses RDIF transponder tags to locate vehicles in an underground mine. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Underground nuclear energy complexes - technical and economic advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kunze, Jay F [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Giraud, Kellen M [BABECOCK AND WILCOX; Mahar, James M [IDAHO STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plant parks have been projected to be economically feasible compared to above ground instalIations. This paper includes a thorough cost analysis of the savings, compared to above ground facilities, resulting from in-place entombment (decommissioning) of facilities at the end of their life. reduced costs of security for the lifetime of the various facilities in the underground park. reduced transportation costs. and reduced costs in the operation of the waste storage complex (also underground). compared to the fair share of the costs of operating a national waste repository.

  11. Design of underground layout and their maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Layout of underground structure has to be designed based on rock mechanical analysis and the concept of active support has to be adopted considering the large openings are requested to accommodate heavy duty diesel equipment in underground. Rock bolt and shotcrete will be the most applicable method to support such a large dimensional tunnels. 1) Direction: The main haulage way of the mines where diesel equipment are operating is ramp way system. For optimizing safety measures, and minimizing maintenance cost of the tunnels, it is strongly recommended that all the tunnels including ramp way, rooms and sublevels should be designed in parallel to the direction of principal stress and perpendicular to the direction of major discontinuity. 2) Inclination: Basically, the inclination of the ramp way depends on the specification of the equipment, but 10-15% is usual. The steep inclination needs less initial investment but there will be an adverse effects such as higher operating and maintenance costs. 3) Profile (Cross section): The maximum dimension of the equipment operating in local mines appeared 12.8m long, 3.705m wide and 3.68m high. Considering the dimension, the requested profile simply can be calculated to 4m x 4m, but it should be decided according to the regulated minimum clearances from the walls and roof. The minimum inner curvature radius of the tunnels should be more than 5.2m, and in this case, the tunnel width of the curved zone should be more than 5.5m. 4) Sight distance and braking distance: For the safe operation of the equipment, the sight distance must be longer than braking distance, so that the driver can hold up the equipment safely after finding the obstacles in front of him. The maximum braking distance without heating of brake shoe is 60m. 5) Support and maintenance: Due to the large dimensional tunnels where diesel equipment are operating, the conventional supporting system is not applicable. Therefore, the active support concept should be

  12. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  13. Underground storage touted as CO2 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-01-01

    As power generating companies weigh the merits of switching from coal to natural gas in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere, energy analysts predict that coal will remain a major contributor to world energy supplies well into the 21st century. For example, the Electric Power Institute estimates that a new 1,000 MW power plant need to be built somewhere in the world every two days for the next fifty years to meet the global demand for energy, and that in major emerging economies such as India and China, many of those plants will be fueled by coal. Various methods already are being tried to safely contain the carbon dioxide resulting from this vastly carbon-intensive economy. One of the more promising approaches involves burying the gas deep in the ground where it will stay safely for hundreds, if not thousands of years. Burial underground may take the form of burial in deep exhausted oil or gas formations, or burial in the deep ocean. Injection into exhausted oil and gas formations is favoured because of the ready availability of thousands of gigatonnes of underground formations and because of the extensive knowledge base already in existence regarding the size and geological properties of oil and gas reservoirs and the behaviour of carbon dioxide under these conditions. Injecting carbon dioxide into unmineable coal seams could replace methane bound to the coal; it is already being done in Alberta as one of the two pilot projects in North America, the other being in Mexico. Carbon dioxide injection to stimulate enhanced oil recovery is also being experimented with, among others by PanCanadian Resources Ltd at its Weyburn reservoir in Saskatchewan. Injection into salt domes and deep saline aquifers is another alternative. Sequestration in the ocean in a variety of forms is also the subject of several experiments. To illustrate the attractiveness of deep ocean storage, it is stated that the ocean contains at least 50 times more carbon than the

  14. ONKALO. Underground characterisation and research programme (UCRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the ONKALO Underground Characterisation and Research Programme (UCRP) is to explore Olkiluoto rock conditions and thereby enhance the current geoscientific understanding of the site, to allow the submission of an application for a construction licence for the deep repository. The characterisation programme has the following geoscientific goals: to develop and demonstrate techniques for detailed characterising volumes of rock from the underground, to update the current descriptive model of Olkiluoto bedrock and to increase confidence in this model such that it will serve the needs of construction and the Preliminary Safety Assessment Report (PSAR) in the construction licence application, and to identify volumes of rock that could be suitable for housing parts of the repository. The development of ONKALO will be based on coordinated investigation, design and construction activities. Mapping data from the tunnel front and data obtained from short probe holes will constitute most of the data needed to control the construction of ONKALO. Pilot holes will be drilled along the tunnel profile as the excavation proceeds and investigations will be carried out for geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterisation. Investigations cover more detailed mapping and sampling in parts of the tunnel, mapping and sampling of potential groundwater inflows to the tunnel and investigations from characterisation bore holes drilled from ONKALO. In addition, monitoring is planned in surface-drilled boreholes, in boreholes drilled from ONKALO, and in ONKALO itself. Monitoring will reveal changes in bedrock conditions and thus provide important information for site characterisation. The information collected by characterisation and monitoring will all be assessed in an integrated modelling effort. The aim of this modelling is both to successively enhance the description and understanding of the rock volume around ONKALO and to assess potential

  15. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  16. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  17. Underground Storage Alternative To Nigeria's Gas Flaring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, A.I

    2004-01-01

    Energy demands are increasing as the world's population of energy users grows. At the same time many nations want to decommission nuclear plants in support of a cleaner environment. Clean burning natural gas is the fuel most likely to meet society's complex requirements. Demand for natural gas will rise more strongly than for any fossil fuel. The utilization of the huge gas resources form the petroleum deposit in the Niger Delta area is the major problem confronting the oil/gas industry in Nigeria and the disposal of associated gas has been a major challenge for the barrel of oil; hence with oil production of about 2.0 million barrels per day, some 2.0 billion standard cubic feet of AG is producing everyday. An alarming proportion of the gas is wasted by flaring, while very small proportion is used by oil-producing companies and other most alarming rate of flaring in the world compared with other oil/gas producing countries. This paper highlights the numerous benefits accruing from proper utilization of natural gas using SASOL of South Africa as an example and recommends underground storage of natural gas as an industry that will help check flaring, meet fluctuating demand and create wealth for the nation

  18. Underground characterisation and research facility ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, Antti; Ylae-Mella, Mia; Aeikaes, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Posiva's repository for geological disposal of the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors will be constructed at Olkiluoto. The selection of Olkiluoto was made based on site selection research programme conducted between 1987-2001. The next step is to carry out complementary investigations of the site and apply for the construction license for the disposal facility. The license application will be submitted in 2012. To collect detailed information of the geological environment at planned disposal depth an underground characterisation and research facility will be built at the site. This facility, named as ONKALO, will comprise a spiral access tunnel and two vertical shafts. The excavation of ONKALO is in progress and planned depth (400 m) will be reached in 2009. During the course of the excavation Posiva will conduct site characterisation activities to assess the structure and other properties of the site geology. The aim is that construction will not compromise the favourable conditions of the planned disposal depth or introduce harmful effects in the surrounding bedrock which could jeopardize the long-term safety of the geological disposal. (author)

  19. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  20. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  1. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  2. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  3. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.

  4. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  5. Remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.L.; Martinson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy. The ICPP's mission is to process government-owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel, extracting off uranium, and calcining the waste to a solid form for storage, Prior to calcining, WINCO temporarily stores the liquid waste from this process in eleven 1,135,600-l(300,000-gal), 15,2-m (50-ft)-diam, high-level liquid waste tanks. Each of these stainless steel tanks is contained within an underground concrete vault. The only access to the interior of the tanks is through risers that extend from ground level to the dome of the tanks. WINCO is replacing these tanks because of their age and the fact that they do not meet all of the current design requirements. The tanks will be replaced in two phases. WINCO is now in the Title I design stage for four new tank and vault systems to replace five of the existing systems. The integrity of the six remaining tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced in the second phase. To perform any integrity analysis, the inner surface of the tanks must be inspected. The remote tank inspection (RTI) robotic system, designed by RedZone Robotics of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was developed to access the interior of the tanks and position various end effectors required to perform tank wall inspections

  6. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  7. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  8. Study of the Pasquasia underground cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes have to be verified both by laboratory and on site research, under both surface and underground conditions. The tests carried out under high lithostatic stress can allow extrapolations to be made having absolute value at the depths planned for the construction of the repository. On the area around the Pasquasia mine, a detailed geological mapping (1: 5000 scale) has been carried out. For the purpose of studying the effects induced by the advancement of the excavation's face into the clayey mass and over the cross section of the transversal tunnel, several measurement stations were installed (multibase straingauges, convergency rods, pressure cells, centering and concrete straingauges). Structural observations were made on both the fronts and the walls of the tunnel for the purpose of characterizing the mechanical behaviour of a clayey mass. The 37 cubic blocks, their sides measuring measurement 30cm, along 72 samples collected during the excavation, have been analyzed from different point of view (sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, micropaleontological, interstitial water content, thermal properties, etc). After the excavation of the tunnel and the installation of the geotechnical stations, the measurements have been carried on up to March 1987. At this date the work programme has been unfortunately stopped by local authorities unfoundly suspecting Pasquasia mine would be used as waste repository

  9. Radiological modeling software for underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, B.; Moridi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has developed computer simulation software for modeling radiological parameters in underground uranium mines. The computer program, called 3d RAD, allows radiation protection professionals and mine ventilation engineers to quickly simulate radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and potential alpha energy concentrations in complex mine networks. The simulation component of 3d RAD, called RSOLVER, is an adaptation of an existing modeling program called VENTRAD, originally developed at Queen's University, Ontario. Based on user defined radiation source terms and network physical properties, radiological parameters in the network are calculated iteratively by solving Bateman's Equations in differential form. The 3d RAD user interface was designed in cooperation with the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to improve program functionality and to make 3d RAD compatible with the CANMET ventilation simulation program, 3d CANVENT. The 3d RAD program was tested using physical data collected in Canadian uranium mines. 3d RAD predictions were found to agree well with theoretical calculations and simulation results obtained from other modeling programs such as VENTRAD. Agreement with measured radon and radon progeny levels was also observed. However, the level of agreement was found to depend heavily on the precision of source term data, and on the measurement protocol used to collect radon and radon progeny levels for comparison with the simulation results. The design and development of 3d RAD was carried out under contract with the Saskatchewan government

  10. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  11. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks.

  12. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks

  13. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the testing of reactor trip system and engineered safety features, including response time for the Dresden station, Unit II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the testing of reactor trip systems and engineered safety features including response time for the Dresden II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  14. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  15. Method of treating non-supporting underground formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.W.; Trotty, K.D.

    1977-01-01

    Method of treating non-supporting underground formations, through which passes a borehole, aimed at preventing the transport of sand particles from the formation into the borehole during conveyance of liquids. (orig./RW) [de

  16. Horonobe underground research program. Research report of 2002 FY investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Main results of investigation about Horonobe deep underground research center in 2002 FY were reported. It consists of six chapters: introduction, main results, selection of research center area, underground science research, R and D of geological disposal, and the environmental survey and research center on the ground. The research center area at about 3 km north of Horonobe (B1) was selected in the four areas: A, B1, B2 and C on the basis of data, researches in the sky, aboveground and underground and other conditions. The model of geological environment was constructed by physical, geological, surface water supply researches. Development of geological environment monitoring techniques, investigation of long stabilization of geological environment and design of underground facilities are reported. The basic design of preparation of research center was investigated. (S.Y.)

  17. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.; Sokolova, O.I.

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  18. New advances in processing ore and minerals underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, P.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    An outline of the basis for the design of a process for the efficient concentration of gold, uranium and pyrite is carried out underground. Practical steps of comminution, concentration and classification are described and probable further development is considered

  19. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  20. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... dangerous accumulations of water, gas, mud, or fire atmosphere could be encountered, persons shall be...

  1. VT VEC Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc. (VEC) Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines. VEC’s Distribution lines were drawn from pole to...

  2. Development of a smart rock bolt for underground monitoring operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moema, JS

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available of magnetic methods in measuring the stress or microstructural transformation in an individual bolt in both laboratory and underground environment. The corrosion performance of the smart bolt alloy was evaluated in synthetic mine water and compared...

  3. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J; Bauluz, B; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; GarcIa, E; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; MartInez, M; Morales, J; Solorzano, A Ortiz de; Pobes, C; Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A; Ruz, J; Sarsa, M L; Torres, L; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions are given

  4. Sebuah Kajian Cultural Criminology Atas Moshing di dalam Konser Underground

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad Robbyansyah

    2011-01-01

    This minithesis discussed about moshing phenomenon in an underground music concert as a considerable study about criminalization of popular culture’s product in society, and how to deconstruct the meaning of it. This study has been done in qualitative approach with researcher being a medium for data references to get the ”first person” view for seeing the true meaning of moshing in an underground community. They are suffered with culture constructiont made by the dominant cu...

  5. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  6. Underground economy modelling: simple models with complicated dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, Lucian-Liviu

    2003-01-01

    The paper aims to model the underground economy using two different models: one based on the labor supply method and a generalized model for the allocation of time. The model based on the labor supply method is conceived as a simulating one in order to determine some reasonable thresholds of the underground sector extension based only on the available macroeconomic statistical data. The generalized model for the allocation of time is a model based on direct approach which estimates the underg...

  7. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  8. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  9. Case study of siting technology for underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Komada, Hiroya; Honsho, Shizumitsu; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Motojima, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Kameichiro; Nosaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Underground siting method is one of new feasible siting methods for nuclear power plants. This report presents the results on case studies on underground siting. Two sites of a steeply inclined and plateau like configurations were selected. 'Tunnel type cavern; all underground siting' method was applied for the steeply inclined configuration, and 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was applied for the plateau like configuration. The following designs were carried out for these two sites as case studies; (1) conceptual designs, (2) geological surveys and rock mechanics tests, (3) stability analysis during cavern excavations, (4) seismic stability analysis of caverns during earthquake, (5) reinforcement designs for caverns, (6) drainage designs. The case studies showed that these two cases were fully feasible, and comparison between two cases revealed that the 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was more suitable for Japanese islands. As a first step of underground siting, therefore, the authors recommend to construct a nuclear power plant by this method. (author)

  10. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  11. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  12. About working of the research program on development of underground space of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartoziya, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Basic proposition relative to the developed federal program on scientific research in the area of assimilating underground space in Russia are presented. The underground objects are divided by their purpose into four groups: 1) underground objects of house-hold purpose (energy and mining complex, industrial enterprises, storages, garages, etc); 2) underground objects of social purpose (libraries, shops, restaurants, etc); 3) underground objects of ecological purpose (storages, disposal sites for radioactive wastes and hazardous substances, dangerous productions, etc); 4) underground objects of defense purpose. Trends in the scientific-research program formation, relative to underground space assimilation are enumerated. 7 refs

  13. Characteristic behavior of underground and semi-underground structure at earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Yoshihiro; Komada, Hiroya

    1985-01-01

    An appropriate earthquake-resistant repository design is required to ensure the safety of the radioactive wastes (shallow or deep ground disposal of low- and high-level wastes, respectively). It is particularly important to understand the propagation characteristics of seismic waves and the behaviors of underground hollow structures at the time of an earthquake. This report deals with seismologic observations of rock beds and undergound structures. The maximum acceleration deep under the ground is found to be about 1/2 - 1/3 of that at the ground surface or along the rock bed in the horizontal direction and about 1/1 - 1/2 in the longitudinal direction. A large attenuation cannot be expected in shallow ground. The decrease in displacement amplitude is small compared to that in acceleration. The attenuation effect is larger for a small earthquake and at a short hypocentral distance. The attenuation factor reaches a maximum at a depth of several tens of meters. The seismic spectrum under the ground is flatter than that at the surface. The maximum acceleration along the side wall of a cavity is almost the same as that in the surrounding rock bed. An underground cavity shows complicated phase characteristics at the time of a small earthquake at a short hypocentral distance. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Using underground mine Karst water to solve water supply problem in underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [Wanbei Mining Administration (China). Liuqiao No. 2 Mine

    1995-05-01

    There is a very rich karst water resource under the Liuqiao No. 2 underground mine. Under normal mining conditions the drainage is 546 m{sup 3}/h while the maximum drainage is up to 819 m{sup 3}/h. If water inrush occurred from a broken zone of a fault or a sinkhole of the karst, the flow could be up to 3269 m{sup 3}/h. The karst water is of good quality and high in pressure. The water head pressure at -400 m level is about 3.5 MPa. To save mine construction cost, it was decided that the water supply for coal production equipment, mining operation and mine fire control was to be changed from the surface to the underground by drilling a water well to tap the karst water resource. A water well with a depth of 63.3 m was drilled in the -400 m transportation roadway. The diameter of the well is 127 mm and it has a casing pipe with a diameter of 108 mm which is connected to the water supply pipeline. The pressure of the water supply is measured at 23.5 MPa and the water flow rate is 252 m{sup 3}/h. The establishment of the water supply system has achieved great cost saving for Liuqiao No. 2 Mine. 2 figs.

  15. UNDERGROUND-1: ICARUS prepares to fly; UNDERGROUND-2: New Soudan detector nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Operating at CERN since 1991 is a 3-tonne liquid argon time projection chamber, a detector breakthrough which combines the visual advantages of bubble chamber tracks with the flexibility of fully electronic data acquisition. The 3-tonne chamber is a prototype for a much larger configuration for the ICARUS* solar neutrino and proton decay detector to be installed in the Italian Gran Sasso underground laboratory. ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) is built around the cryogenic imaging chamber idea initially proposed by Carlo Rubbia in 1977. With electrons drifting for a relatively long time (several milliseconds) and with sensitive amplifiers picking up the ionization from just a few millimetres of track, events can be imaged inside the cryogenic volume. A special arrangement of readout wires provides drift time measurements and ensures simultaneous imaging in several different views. The prototype has shown that the challenges of obtaining ultra-pure argon and operating readout techniques for large sensitive volumes have been met. The full ICARUS detector (with three liquid argon modules each containing 5,000 tonnes) will be able to detect low energy electrons (down to a few MeV) emerging from solar neutrino interactions, proton decays, or other rare events over a large volume

  16. UNDERGROUND-1: ICARUS prepares to fly; UNDERGROUND-2: New Soudan detector nears completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-04-15

    Operating at CERN since 1991 is a 3-tonne liquid argon time projection chamber, a detector breakthrough which combines the visual advantages of bubble chamber tracks with the flexibility of fully electronic data acquisition. The 3-tonne chamber is a prototype for a much larger configuration for the ICARUS* solar neutrino and proton decay detector to be installed in the Italian Gran Sasso underground laboratory. ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) is built around the cryogenic imaging chamber idea initially proposed by Carlo Rubbia in 1977. With electrons drifting for a relatively long time (several milliseconds) and with sensitive amplifiers picking up the ionization from just a few millimetres of track, events can be imaged inside the cryogenic volume. A special arrangement of readout wires provides drift time measurements and ensures simultaneous imaging in several different views. The prototype has shown that the challenges of obtaining ultra-pure argon and operating readout techniques for large sensitive volumes have been met. The full ICARUS detector (with three liquid argon modules each containing 5,000 tonnes) will be able to detect low energy electrons (down to a few MeV) emerging from solar neutrino interactions, proton decays, or other rare events over a large volume.

  17. Geological investigations for geological model of deep underground geoenvironment at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Tagami, Masahiko; Amano, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Arata; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Koike, Katsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing a geoscientific research project, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project, in order to establish scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The MIU is located in crystalline rock environment, in Mizunami City, central Japan. Field investigations include geological mapping, reflection seismic surveys, several borehole investigations and geological investigations in the research galleries to identify the distribution and heterogeneity of fractures and faults that are potential major flowpaths for groundwater. The results of these field investigations are synthesized and compiled for the purpose of geological modeling. The field investigations indicate that the Main Shaft at the MIU intersected low permeability NNW oriented faults. A high permeability fracture zone in the granite, a significant water inflow point, was observed in the Ventilation Shaft. Development of the geological model focusing 3D spatial relationships at different scales and evolution of the geoenvironment are underway. This paper describes geological investigations applied in the MIU project, focusing on the evaluation of their effectiveness to understand for deep underground geoenvironment. (author)

  18. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  19. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  20. Multidimensional Risk Management for Underground Electricity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcez Thalles V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we consider an electricity provider company that makes decision on allocating resources on electric network maintenance. The investments decrease malfunction rate of network nodes. An accidental event (explosion, fire, etc. or a malfunctioning on underground system can have various consequences and in different perspectives, such as deaths and injuries of pedestrians, fires in nearby locations, disturbances in the flow of vehicular traffic, loss to the company image, operating and financial losses, etc. For this reason it is necessary to apply an approach of the risk management that considers the multidimensional view of the consequences. Furthermore an analysis of decision making should consider network dependencies between the nodes of the electricity distribution system. In the paper we propose the use of the simulation to assess the network effects (such as the increase of the probability of other accidental event and the occurrence of blackouts of the dependent nodes in the multidimensional risk assessment in electricity grid. The analyzed effects include node overloading due to malfunction of adjacent nodes and blackouts that take place where there is temporarily no path in the grid between the power plant and a node. The simulation results show that network effects have crucial role for decisions in the network maintenance – outcomes of decisions to repair a particular node in the network can have significant influence on performance of other nodes. However, those dependencies are non-linear. The effects of network connectivity (number of connections between nodes on its multidimensional performance assessment depend heavily on the overloading effect level. The simulation results do not depend on network type structure (random or small world – however simulation outcomes for random networks have shown higher variance compared to small-world networks.

  1. Summary of results of underground engineering experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Results pertinent to the use of nuclear explosives in underground engineering applications have been accumulating for the past 10 years from the Plowshare and Weapons tests of the AEC. Thus, predictive and measurement techniques of shock effects and chimney formation were developed in the course of analyzing explosions in granite, salt, and dolomite. The ability to predict effects related specifically to safety has resulted from many measurements on detonations at the Nevada Test Site, where also many of the techniques for handling, emplacing, and firing the explosive have been developed. This gestation period culminated in the execution of Project Gasbuggy, jointly sponsored by industry and government, and the first nuclear explosion in a gasbearing formation. The Gasbuggy explosive had a nominal yield of 25 kt and was detonated 4240 ft below the surface in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico on December 10, 1967. The shot point was 40 ft below the lower boundary of a 285-ft-thick gas-bearing sandstone formation of very low permeability. No radioactive venting occurred, and no damage to surrounding gas wells or structures resulted. Post-shot geophysical exploration and gas production tests have revealed that the nuclear explosion created a subsurface chimney approximately 160 ft in diameter and 335 ft high. Fractures appear to extend to about 400 ft symmetrically from the detonation point, with shifts or offsets along geological weaknesses extending out to perhaps 750 ft. Presently, radioactive constituents in the gas consist of tritium and krypton-85, with concentrations of approximately 10 {mu}Ci/ft{sup 3} and 1.5 {mu}Ci/ft{sup 3} respectively. These concentrations are decreasing a gas withdrawn from the chimney is replaced by formation gas. Tests to evaluate the increase in productivity and ultimate recovery are currently in progress. (author)

  2. Subsidence caused by an underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, W W [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    An underground nuclear detonation creates a cavity, which may be followed by the formation of a rubble chimney and possibly by a surface subsidence crater. A knowledge of the mechanisms of surface and subsurface subsidence is valuable not only because of the potential engineering uses of the chimneys and craters that may form, but also for the prevention of surface damage. Some of the parameters that are of interest in the subsidence phenomenon are the height and volume of the chimney, the porosity of the chimney, the crater size (depth and radius) and shape, and the time required after detonation for formation of the chimney or crater. The influence of the properties of the subsidence medium on the geometry of the subsidence crater must be considered. The conditions under which partial or complete subsidence is prevented must also be studied. The applicability of the relations that have been developed for the flow of bulk solids for relatively small masses and low pressures to the subsidence problem associated with nuclear explosions is examined. Rational modifications are made to describe the subsidence problem. Sensitivity of the subsidence parameters to material properties and the prevailing geometry is shown. Comparison with observed results at the Nevada Test Site is made and the variations encountered are found to be within reasonable limits. The chimney size and subsidence crater dimensions are found to be a function of the bulking characteristics of the medium, the strength parameters, the dimensions of the subsurface cavity, and the depth of the cavity. The great influence of the strength parameters on the collapse times is shown. For a given medium, the prevention of subsidence is dependent on the cavity size. (author)

  3. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  4. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  5. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  6. Summary of results of underground engineering experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, F.

    1969-01-01

    Results pertinent to the use of nuclear explosives in underground engineering applications have been accumulating for the past 10 years from the Plowshare and Weapons tests of the AEC. Thus, predictive and measurement techniques of shock effects and chimney formation were developed in the course of analyzing explosions in granite, salt, and dolomite. The ability to predict effects related specifically to safety has resulted from many measurements on detonations at the Nevada Test Site, where also many of the techniques for handling, emplacing, and firing the explosive have been developed. This gestation period culminated in the execution of Project Gasbuggy, jointly sponsored by industry and government, and the first nuclear explosion in a gasbearing formation. The Gasbuggy explosive had a nominal yield of 25 kt and was detonated 4240 ft below the surface in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico on December 10, 1967. The shot point was 40 ft below the lower boundary of a 285-ft-thick gas-bearing sandstone formation of very low permeability. No radioactive venting occurred, and no damage to surrounding gas wells or structures resulted. Post-shot geophysical exploration and gas production tests have revealed that the nuclear explosion created a subsurface chimney approximately 160 ft in diameter and 335 ft high. Fractures appear to extend to about 400 ft symmetrically from the detonation point, with shifts or offsets along geological weaknesses extending out to perhaps 750 ft. Presently, radioactive constituents in the gas consist of tritium and krypton-85, with concentrations of approximately 10 μCi/ft 3 and 1.5 μCi/ft 3 respectively. These concentrations are decreasing a gas withdrawn from the chimney is replaced by formation gas. Tests to evaluate the increase in productivity and ultimate recovery are currently in progress. (author)

  7. [German translation of the syphilis poem by Girolamo Fracastoro by the Essling wound physician Ernst Philipp Heinrich Späth (1809-1856). An unpublished hanwritten document of Dresden historical collection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidel, Caris-Petra

    2004-01-01

    In 1840 the Dresden physician and professor at the Chirurgisch-medicinischen Akademie Johann Ludwig Choulant (1791-1861)--at that time one of the most well-known experts in history of medicine--received a German translation of the Fracastoro syphilis poem. This philological piece goes back to the physician and surgeon Ernst Philipp Heinrich Späth (1809-1856) who had already worked on the poem of Girolamo Fracastoro (1478-1553) and its translation in the 1830s. Späth referred to the 1830 Latin publication of Choulant's syphilis poem--which he later used as the literary basis for his adaptation. Späth had acquired his knowledge of philology at a theology seminar in Urach and during his theology studies inTübingen. However, he quit his theology studies to switch to medicine. In 1832 he took the state examination and received a doctorate of medicine and surgery. In the very same year he established a practice as general practitioner, surgeon and obstetrician in Esslingen to eventually be appointed chief surgeon at the Esslingen hospital. Besides his work as a physician Späth was also a publisher, e.g. he also became the editor of the first local Esslingen newspaper. Späth's translation, apparently finished almost completely already in 1837, was sent to Choulant to ask his opinion in 1840. This version seems to be not only one of the rarest but also earliest German adaptations. Although hardly any other medical poem was so often translated into modern languages as Fracastoro's "Syphilidis sive morbi gallici libri III", there are only three German publications mentioned in a 1935 bibliography with the first complete German translation being published in 1858. Späth's script, however, has never been published and has remained in the handwritten estate of Choulant in Dresden ever since.

  8. Prediction of underground argon content for dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, D.-M.; Spaans, J.; Keller, C.; Yin, Z.-B.; Koppang, M.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of physical models to evaluate the production of 39 Ar and 40 Ar underground. Considering both cosmogenic 39 Ar production and radiogenic 40 Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of 39 Ar to 40 Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that the 39 Ar production underground is dominated by stopping negative muon capture on 39 K and (α,n) induced subsequent 39 K(n,p) 39 Ar reactions. The production of 39 Ar is shown as a function of depth. We demonstrate that argon depleted in 39 Ar can be obtained only if the depth of the underground resources is greater than 500 m.w.e. below the surface. Stopping negative muon capture on 39 K dominates over radiogenic production at depths of less than 2000 m.w.e., and that production by muon-induced neutrons is subdominant at any depth. The depletion factor depends strongly on both radioactivity level and potassium content in the rock. We measure the radioactivity concentration and potassium concentration in the rock for a potential site of an underground argon source in South Dakota. Depending on the probability of 39 Ar and 40 Ar produced underground being dissolved in the water, the upper limit of the concentration of 39 Ar in the underground water at this site is estimated to be in a range of a factor of 1.6 to 155 less than the 39 Ar concentration in the atmosphere. The calculation tools presented in this paper are also critical to the dating method with 39 Ar.

  9. Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground facility is considered in the evaluation of its location and design. The possible damage resulting from either large-scale displacements or high accelerations should be considered in evaluating potential sites of underground facilities. Scattered through the available literature are statements to the effect that below a few hundred meters shaking and damage in mines is less than at the surface; however, data for decreased damage underground have not been completely reported or explained. In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  10. Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013 (fifth edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. The study builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. This document summarizes the key findings of the Survey which includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries are surveyed with 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned

  11. MINING SECURITY PIPE© (TSM© WITH UNDERGROUND GPS GLOBAL© (RSPG© ESCAPE SECURITY DEVICE IN UNDERGROUND MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barrionuevo GIMÉNEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available TSM is escape pipe in case of collapse of terrain. The TSM is a passive security tool placed underground to connect the work area with secure area (mining gallery mainly. TSM is light and hand able pipe made with aramid (Kevlar, carbon fibre, or other kind of new material. The TSM will be placed as a pipe line network with many in/out entrances/exits to rich and connect problem work areas with another parts in a safe mode. Different levels of instrumentation could be added inside such as micro-led escape way suggested, temperature, humidity, level of oxygen, etc.. The open hardware and software like Arduino will be the heart of control and automation system.

  12. Henderson Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: Unearthing the secrets of the Universe, underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Henderson Mine near Empire, Colorado is proposed to be the site to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which will have a rich program for forefront research in physics, biology, geosciences, and mining engineering. The mine is owned by the Climax Molybdenum Company (CMC). It is located about 50 miles west of Denver and is easily accessible via major highways. The mine is modern and has extensive infrastructure with reserve capacity well-suited to the demands of DUSEL. CMC owns all land required for DUSEL, including the tailings site. It also has all environmental and mining permits required for DUSEL excavation, core drilling, and rock disposal. The mine owners are enthusiastic supporters of this initiative. In support of the Henderson DUSEL project, the State of Colorado has pledged substantial funding for surface construction.

  13. Dynamic response of underground openings in discontinuous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, H.W.

    1984-02-01

    This report examines the behaviour of underground openings in discontinuous rock in response to seismic waves associated with either earthquakes or rock bursts. A literature search revealed that well-constructed underground structures, such as would be expected for nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults, underground pumped-storage or nuclear plants, have an extremely high resistance to damage from seismic motion. To complement these qualitative results, it was necessary to examine the basic mechanisms of the entire progression of seismic motion, from wave generation and propagation, to wave interaction with the underground opening. From these investigations, it was found that unless a seismic event occurs very close to the installation, the stresses generated will be low with respect to the excavation stresses, because high stress waves are rapidly attenuated in travelling through rock. As well, an earthquake may generate extremely high accelerations, but is limited in the maximum amount of stress that it can create. The question, however, of the actual specific nature of underground seismic motions still remains essentially unanswered, although it is expected that there is a reduction in peak motions with depth due to the effect of the free surface of the earth

  14. Pro and con decision criteria to underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchhardt, F.

    1981-01-01

    In general, basic design criteria for underground siting define increased safety margins which are mostly step-wise augmentated. The larger those postulated additional impacts become, the more the general concept might already be previously determined. Depending on site availability in general two ways may be practised - the berm-contained concept as well as mined rock caverns. According to the present technical feasibility the cut-and-cover burial seems to be favoured more. If increased external (artificial) impacts are postulated underground facilities have considerable advantages since the earth coverage provides an excellent stopping medium. In case of internal influences the features suggested mostly are additional pressure relief systems which cannot be considered typical for undergrounding. The problem of the access-way sealing is a key-point of a 'real' supplemental underground containment. With a very high safety degree a reliable closure of the penetrations must be guaranteed in case extreme external as well as internal events occur. To come to a final conclusion wheter the benefits or penalties predominate, valuation criteria and matrices are elaborated from the view of different initial points. At this time period it still seems too early to give a definite judgement of pro or con for the underground concept. (orig./HP)

  15. Status and prospects of a deep underground laboratory in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K J; Cheng, J P; Li, Y J; Yue, Q; Chen, Y H; Shen, M B; Wu, S Y

    2010-01-01

    An excellent candidate location for a deep underground laboratory with more than 2500 m of rock overburden has been identified at Sichuan Province in China. It can be accessed through a road tunnel of length 17.5 km, and is supported by services and amenities near the entrance provided by the local Ertan Hydropower Plant. The particle physics community in China is actively pursuing the construction of an underground laboratory at this location, under the leadership of Tsinghua University. Memorandum has been signed with Ertan Hydropower Plant which permits access to and construction of the underground laboratory - China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The basic features of this underground site, as well as the status and schedules of the construction of the first laboratory cavern are presented. The immediate goal is to have the first experiment operational in 2010, deploying an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium detector for WIMP dark matter searches, with emphasis on the mass range of 1-10 GeV. The conceptual design of the experiment, as well as the future plans and prospects of the laboratory, will be surveyed.

  16. Evaluation method of radon preventing effect in underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shaodong; Deng Yuequan; Dong Faqin; Qu Ruixue; Xie Zhonglei

    2014-01-01

    Background: It's difficult to evaluate the radon prevention effect because of the short operating time of measuring instrument under the circumstances of high humidity in underground construction. Purpose: A new rapid method to evaluate the radon prevention efficiency of underground construction was introduced. Methods: The radon concentrations before and after shielding operation were determined, and according to the regularity of radon decay, the shielding rate can be calculated. Results: The results showed that radon shielding rate in underground construction remains generally stable with variation of time, and the actual relatively standard deviation was 3.95%. So the rapid determination and evaluation of radon preventing effect under special conditions in underground construction can be realized by taking shielding rate in a short time for the final shielding rate. Compared with those by the local static method in ground lab, the results were similar. Conclusion: This paper provided a prompt, accurate and practicable way for the evaluation of radon prevention in underground construction, having a certain reference value. (authors)

  17. Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodym Oldøich

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process focuses on methods of presentation of an underground mine technologies in intranet technology. It shows usage of platform independent VRML client for presentation of static and dynamic information about technological process. Bi-directional interactions between client and process information database are solved.Based on analysis of technological process of underground mine a database structure was designed. It is skeleton for storing all information about any underground mine. This skeleton can be modified in any direction. Data in this "static model" of underground mine can be applied for visualization in VRML environment. In this way it is possible to simplify and unify a user's front-end for all kinds of tasks.All designed scenes can be interactively displayed in full view or in any detail view, so that a user is able to recognize every important part of installed equipment, its stage, technical parameters and other information. If manufacturers of mining equipment will supply VRML model of their real products everybody would be able to place it into VRML scene and learn everything about it.This work explores and tries to enlighten some of the areas and available approaches compliant with VRML 97 specification of modifying static scene by its browser. Concepts of animation pipeline, inside and outside scripting in scene displayed and authoring of VRML targeted geometry are discussed including database connectivity.

  18. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  19. THE GENERATING AND COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS OF THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the informal sector, an analysis addressing the relationships and links between the morphology and etiology of the underground economy, on the one hand, and its effects on the economic, social or legal, on the other hand is required. The double identity, that of cause phenomenon and effect phenomenon, that the underground economy has, gives it a special status in explaining certain phenomena which vitiates the economic and social life. The generating and complementary effects of the underground area covered in this study are analyzed in terms of the following vectors of analysis: tax evasion, illegal work and money laundering. Tax evasion represents the central core of the underground economy and faithfully expresses the fiscal monetary policies ,the fiscal mortality and the degree of compliance of the taxpayer. Undeclared work is an indicator of the labor market in the informal economy and is a good barometer for analyzing the demand and supply of labor in the visible economy. Money laundering defines the level of economic and financial crime and reflects the level of illegal use of capital on the black market. Tax evasion, money laundering and illegal work can only develop on a framework provided by illicit markets for goods, services and labor. Beyond the, unidirectional or bidirectional relationships between phenomena, the paper consists in a plea for an interdependent, multi-causal analysis of the phenomena and operating mechanisms of the relationships within and outside the underground economy.

  20. THE JOSEF REGIONAL UNDERGROUND RESEARCH CENTRE (JOSEF URC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pacovská

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Josef Gallery, located in the central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic was first excavated in 1981 as an exploration complex for the potential mining of gold. In 2007, the gallery was substantially reconstructed to house the Josef Underground Educational Facility (Josef UEF, which subsequently became an autonomous workplace under the direction of the Czech Technical University in Prague. At the beginning of 2010, the UEF was renamed the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre (Josef URC which, along with the extensive underground complex, features modern above-ground facilities. One of the most important roles of this research center is to provide practical in-situ instruction in the fields of geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, radiochemistry and radioecology. The training of future experts in this authentic underground setting involves the participation of several other Czech universities and numerous experienced specialists from outside the academic sphere. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency has added the Josef URC to its prestigious list of international training canters involved in the “Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities – A Network of Centers of Excellence” project.

  1. WASTAGE OF UNDERGROUND WATER - STEPS TOWARDS A TRAP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground water is used indiscriminately for the purposes like agriculture, serving purposes of urban people, cold drink and mineral water manufacturing etc. As a matter of policy, the rural areas are supplied with underground water in India without considering the factors like actual requirement of water in a particular area, season of scarcity of water etc. It is very common to see the ever open taps of water supplying lines in rural India thronging water continuously and nobody is there to use it. The discharge rate of underground water is far more than the charging rate. This may lead to a very serious condition of water scarcity in near future. Various steps like holding of rain water in the water bodies, selection of crop with requirement of lesser amount of water during the dry months as well as use of Forward Osmosis (FO technology for Cold drinks or Bottled Drinking Water manufacturing from the sea water are advocated.

  2. War protected underground siting of nuclear power plants -a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-06-01

    In connection with studies concerning the need of war protected nuclear power production the technical and economical conditions with war protection of nuclear power plants have been studied within CDL. Comprehensively one have shown that no technical construction obstacles for siting a nuclear power plant underground exist that the additional costs for underground siting with price level mid 1973 are some 175-250 MSwCr (In today's price level 250 MSwCr will probably correspond to some 300 MSwCr per unit) and that the construction time is some one year longer than for an above ground plant. A study ought to examine more closely the consequences of underground siting from a radiological point of view and what demands on that occasion ought to be put on the technical design. (author)

  3. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  4. Conceptual study on deep-underground energy generation base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, M.; Okawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc. (MAPI) and Taisei Corporation have started a conceptual study on a deep-underground energy generation base for future cities in the 21st century around the metropolitan area, which will be increasingly important from viewpoints of the autonomy and sharing of the energy supply to the future cities. The energy generation base consists of a gas cooled reactor with naturally safety features as the energy source, an electric generation base using the Alkali Metal Thermo-electric Converter (AMTEC), a hydrogen production plant with the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE), a hydrogen storage plant with the Metal Hydride (MH), and a desalination plant. This paper describes a concept of the energy generation base and the structure in the deep-underground, in soft soil, then the basic system of each plant, and finally discusses the feasibility of the deep-underground energy generation base. (author)

  5. Performance of underground coal mines during the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Tangshan earthquake of 1976 costs 242 000 lives and was responsible for 164 000 serious injuries and structural damage of immense proportion. The area has eight coal mines, which together form the largest underground coal mining operation in China. Approximately 10 000 miners were working underground at the time of the earthquake. With few exceptions they survived and returned safely to the surface, only to find their families and belongings largely destroyed. Based on a comprehensive survey of the miners' observations, subsurface intensity profiles were drawn up. The profiles clearly indicated that seismic damage in the underground mines was far less severe than at the surface. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Solubility studies of Np(V) in simulated underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Ren Lilong; Jiao Haiyang; Yao Jun; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2004-01-01

    The solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water has been measured with the variation of pH, storage time (0-100 days). All experiments were performed in an Ar glove box which contained high purity Ar, with an oxygen content of less than 5ppm. Experimental results show that the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water decreased with increasing pH value of solution; the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water determined at different pH is : pH=6.96, [Np(V)]=(3.52±0.37) x 10 -4 mol/L; pH=8.04, [Np(V)]=(8.24±0.32) x 10 -5 mol/L; pH=9.01, [Np(V)]=(3.04±0.48) x 10'- 5 mol/L, respectively. (author)

  7. Glimos Instructions for CMS Underground Guiding - in english

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dupont, Niels; Esposito, William

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation in english, the basic safety rules for CMS underground visits are explained. The trainees are taught how to plan/organize a CMS underground visit along important safety aspects of the CMS underground (Point 5). Content owners and presenters (CMS safety team) : Niels Dupont (in french), Michael Brodski (in german), William Esposito (in english) A pdf document on the subject is available as material from the indico event page. (TO BE DONE from https://twiki.cern.ch/Edutech/CMSGlimosInstructions!)   Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) http://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  8. Glimos Instructions for CMS Underground Guiding - in french

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dupont, Niels; Brodski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation in french, the basic safety rules for CMS underground visits are explained. The trainees are taught how to plan/organize a CMS underground visit along important safety aspects of the CMS underground (Point 5). Content owners and presenters (CMS safety team) : Niels Dupont (in french), Michael Brodski (in german), William Esposito (in english) A pdf document on the subject is available as material from the indico event page. (TO BE DONE from https://twiki.cern.ch/Edutech/CMSGlimosInstructions!)   Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) http://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  9. A survey of the underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.

    1979-12-01

    The idea of locating nuclear power plants underground is not new, since in the period of time between the late fifties and the early sixties, four small nuclear plants have been built in Europe in rock cavities. Safety has been, in general, the main motivation for such a siting solution. In the last years several factors such as increasing power transmission costs, decreasing number of suitable sites above ground, increased difficulties in obtaining site approval by the licensing authorities, increasing opposition to nuclear power, increasing concern for extreme - but highly improbable - accidents, together with the possibility of utilizing the waste heat and the urban siting concept have renewed the interest for the underground siting as an alternative to surface siting. The author presents a survey of the main studies carried out on the subject of underground siting. (Auth.)

  10. Proceedings of the 6th underground operators conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosinski, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    This conference presents recent development in underground mining operations. A large number of papers reported on underground mining practice in the Eastern Goldfields area of Western Australia and in the traditional mining centres of Mount Isa and Broken Hill. These are supplemented by papers reporting on other underground mining developments all throughout Australia and in several overseas countries known for advanced mining expertise. Apart from papers dealing with metalliferous mining, a number of papers related to coal mining present recent developments related to the topic. The papers are grouped into sessions relating to ground control, rock mechanics, management and human resources, mining methods, mining equipment, control and communications, mine backfill, mining operations, drilling and blasting and coal mining. Relevant papers have been individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  11. The underground storages of carbon dioxide. Juridical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani, F.

    2006-04-01

    In the framework of the reduction of the carbon dioxide emissions in the air, the underground storage of the CO 2 is studied. Some experimentation are already realized in the world and envisaged in France. This document aims to study the juridical aspects of these first works in France. After a presentation of the realization conditions and some recalls on the carbon dioxide its capture and storage, the natural CO 2 underground storages and the first artificial storages are discussed. The CO 2 waste qualification, in the framework of the environmental legislation is then detailed with a special task on the Lacq region. The problem of the sea underground storages is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  12. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Underground laboratories for rock mechanics before radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffaut, P.

    1985-01-01

    Many rock mechanics tests are performed in situ, most of them underground since 1936 at the Beni Bahdel dam. The chief tests for understanding the rock mass behaviour are deformability tests (plate test and pressure cavern test, including creep experiments) and strength tests (compression of a mine pillar, shear test on rock mass or joint). Influence of moisture, heat, cold and freeze are other fields of investigation which deserve underground laboratories. Behaviour of test galleries, either unsupported or with various kinds of support, often is studied along time, and along the work progression, tunnel face advance, enlargement or deepening of the cross section. The examples given here help to clarify the concept of underground laboratory in spite of its many different objectives. 38 refs.; 1 figure; 1 table

  14. The hazardous nature of small scale underground mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Bansah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small scale mining continues to contribute significantly to the growth of Ghana's economy. However, the sector poses serious dangers to human health and the environment. Ground failures resulting from poorly supported stopes have led to injuries and fatalities in recent times. Dust and fumes from drilling and blasting of ore present health threats due to poor ventilation. Four prominent small scale underground mines were studied to identify the safety issues associated with small scale underground mining in Ghana. It is recognized that small scale underground mining in Ghana is inundated with unsafe acts and conditions including stope collapse, improper choice of working tools, absence of personal protective equipment and land degradation. Inadequate monitoring of the operations and lack of regulatory enforcement by the Minerals Commission of Ghana are major contributing factors to the environmental, safety and national security issues of the operations.

  15. Impact of climate change on the stability of underground cavities. Status of knowledge. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, C.; Al Heib, M.; Gombert, P.; Charmoille, A.; Watelet, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    After having described the impact of global warming on climate parameters (possible climate evolution, impact on temperatures and precipitations in France) and presented underground cavities in France (nature and localisation, expected instability), this report discusses the impact of climate change on underground waters: impact on water cycle, on underground water level variation, and on the power of dissolution by underground waters. Then, it more particularly addresses the impact of water on underground cavity stability: impact of water on the behaviour of underground works, examples (iron mines, water sheet rising, quarry collapsing, and so on, in France, Belgium and USA), development of natural cavities. It finally outlines the perspectives, knowledge gaps, and required researches

  16. International activities concerning seismic effects on underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    At the 5th Annual Meeting of the ITA in Atlanta, Georgia, on June 15-17, 1979, the General Assembly approved the formation of the Working Group Seismic Effects on Underground Structures. The objectives of this Working Group are to: (1) collect data on earthquake damage to underground facilities throughout the world; (2) collect information on aseismic design procedures used within the various countries; and (3) synthesize the information and disseminate the results to the member nations of ITA. William W. Hakala of the US was designated the Animateur of the Working Group. The Working Group decided on the following sequential course of action to achieve the stated objectives: (1) continue to develop a bibliograhy on damages to underground structures by dynamic forces. This will be an ongoing activity of the Working Group; (2) each country is to develop a summary of case histories of earthquake damage to underground structures. These case histories will be discussed at the next meeting of the Working Group in order to identify those parameters that permit or prevent such damage; (3) the state-of-the-art paper on earthquake damage to underground opening being prepared in the US (John A. Blume and Associates, Engineers) is presently being printed and will then be distributed to the membership for comment. This report will form the basis for the activities described below; (4) the above activities should lead to a textbook - like document that provides a design philosophy for underground structures subjected to seismic forces; (5) the work tasks will suggest needed research to solve the identified problems. At each Working Group meeting the member nation delegates will provide a summary of research progress in their countries. These research needs will be documented, reviewed, revised, and disseminated on an annual basis

  17. Reducing lighting electricity use in underground metro stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casals, Miquel; Gangolells, Marta; Forcada, Núria; Macarulla, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Lighting systems are big energy consumers in underground metro stations. • An adaptive lighting system strategy is developed for underground stations. • Dimming controls are based on station occupancy levels and maintenance cycles. • The k-means clustering technique is used to identify stations’ occupancy patterns. • Savings were found to amount to 255.47 MW h in 2 years for a case study metro network. - Abstract: Lighting systems are usually one of the largest electrical end-uses in underground metro stations. Taking into account that budget restrictions in publicly owned companies hinder energy efficiency retrofit projects that require high initial investments, affordable energy saving strategies are needed. This paper presents a low-cost approach for reducing lighting electricity use in underground stations, without affecting passengers’ comfort or the metro operator’s service. For this purpose, an adaptive lighting strategy of dimming the illuminance levels of artificial light sources has been developed. Dimming controls are based on the occupancy of the station, and the preventive maintenance and cleaning cycles of the luminaires. The stations’ monthly occupancy patterns are defined through the k-means clustering technique. To illustrate its effectiveness, the method was applied to 115 underground stations of the Barcelona metro network. The results revealed overall electricity savings of 255.47 MW h on a biannual basis, which represents 36.22% of the stations’ baseline lighting consumption. Individual energy savings were found to range from 25 to 87.5 MW h/year in the stations of the Barcelona metro network, depending on the number and profile of station users. The research findings will undoubtedly be useful for the future energy efficiency project plans of worldwide metro operators and managers of other underground spaces.

  18. Utilization of stable isotopes for characterizing an underground gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirard, J.P.; Antenucci, D.; Renard, X.; Letolle, R.

    1994-01-01

    The principles of isotopic exchange and isotope ratio result interpretation are first reviewed; then, in the framework of an underground coal gasification project in Belgium, experiments and modelling of the underground gas generator have been carried out: isotopic abundances of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen have been measured in the gasifying agent (O 2 , H 2 O) and in the effluent (CO 2 , CO, H 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 , O 2 , heavy oils and various organic and mineral substances). Gasification kinetics and temperatures have been evaluated and isotope application to thermometry is discussed. 1 fig., 9 refs

  19. Discrete Wavelet Transform for Fault Locations in Underground Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisit, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a technique for detecting faults in underground distribution system is presented. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based on traveling wave is employed in order to detect the high frequency components and to identify fault locations in the underground distribution system. The first peak time obtained from the faulty bus is employed for calculating the distance of fault from sending end. The validity of the proposed technique is tested with various fault inception angles, fault locations and faulty phases. The result is found that the proposed technique provides satisfactory result and will be very useful in the development of power systems protection scheme.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES ON THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fight against shadow economy must be addressed not only as a permanent concern of economic analysts and decision-makers, but rather as a problematic ethical-moral nature affecting economic and interpersonal relations, as strategic and operational object. The authors attempt outline an institutional management strategy geared towards underground economy combating has as objective the strands establishment without having exhaustiveness claim. We make a case for extending the implementation of a coherent program, strategic and operational, and its adoption as a way of institutional management in the context it really wants to launch a concerted offensive to combat the underground economy.

  1. Optimization Design and Application of Underground Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe is an important part of conveyance structure. During construction, the workload of excavation and concrete pouring can be significantly decreased according to optimized pipe structure, and the engineering quality can be improved. This paper presents an optimization mathematical model of underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe structure according to real working status of several common pipe structures from real cases. Then, an optimization design system was developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Furthermore, take the bifurcation pipe of one hydropower station as an example: optimization analysis was conducted, and accuracy and stability of the optimization design system were verified successfully.

  2. Underground Milling of High-Grade Uranium Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, C., E-mail: chuck.edwards@amec.com [AMEC Americas Limited, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    There are many safety and technical issues involved in the mining and progressing of high grade uranium ores such as those exploited in Northern Canada at present. With more of this type of mine due to commence production in the near future, operators have been looking at ways to better manage the situation. The paper describes underground milling of high-grade uranium ore as a means of optimising production costs and managing safety issues. In addition the paper presents some examples of possible process flowsheets and plant layouts that could be applicable to such operations. Finally an assessment of potential benefits from underground milling from a variety of viewpoints is provided. (author)

  3. Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. 'Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013' builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. The Survey includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries surveyed, 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned. The document includes 70 tables, 72 charts and figures, 44 country maps. The countries surveyed are: Europe : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland

  4. Assessment of the mechanical stability of underground excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Shigemori; Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-01-01

    Each tunnel in the underground high level radioactive waste repository must be mechanically stable to maintain safety throughout the construction, emplacement operations and closure phase. The mechanical stability of underground excavations were assessed using a theoretical analysis and a finite element method taking a wide range of geological environment in Japan into consideration to establish confidence in the construction of disposal facilities. The results show that it is possible to maintain the mechanical stability with adequate tunnel spacing and disposal pit pitch and proper mechanical support. The procedure used for the analysis of the mechanical stability in the H12 report and the results are described in this report. (author)

  5. Underground nuclear explosions. Study of the cavity radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, L.

    1968-11-01

    An underground nuclear explosion creates a cavity due to the expansion of the surrounding medium vaporized by the shot. The cavity radius is related to the energy of explosion and to the overburden pressure of the medium. The introduction of new elements such as the environment of the device (in a deep hole or in a tunnel) and the cohesion of the medium leads to a relationship which determines this radius. The known French and American underground explosions performed in various media, energy and overburden conditions, satisfy this relationship with a good precision. (author) [fr

  6. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  7. Regulatory approaches to hydrocarbon contamination from underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Action or lack of action by the appropriate regulatory agency is often the most important factor in determining remedial action or closure requirements for hydrocarbon contaminated sites. This paper reports that the diversity of regulatory criteria is well known statewide and well documented nationally. In California, the diversity of approaches is due to: that very lack of a clear understanding of the true impact of hydrocarbon contamination: lack of state or federal standards for soil cleanup, and state water quality objectives that are not always achievable; vagueness in the underground storage tank law; and the number and diversity of agencies enforcing the underground storage tank regulations

  8. Context of surveillance of underground and surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document briefly describes the evolutions of regulations on site liquid effluents and of guideline values concerning radioactive wastes, briefly presents the surveillance of underground and surface waters of CEA sites, comments the guideline values of the radiological quality of waters aimed at human consumption, and gives an overview of information which are brought to public's attention. Then, for different CEA sites (Cadarache, Marcoule, Saclay, Grenoble, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Valduc, DIF), this document proposes a presentation of the hydrological context, regulatory context, the surface and underground water surveillance process and values, the storing zones of old wastes

  9. Radon in an underground excavation site in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venelampi, E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports on radon measurements and actions taken in a large underground excavation site in Helsinki, where a coal store was excavated underneath an existing power plant. The measurements were carried out by taking grab samples using Lucas type scintillation cells. Large variations in radon concentrations were observed during the three-year study. The reasons for variations are discussed and recommendations are given for radon monitoring procedures in underground excavation sites. The importance of ventilation to reduce the radon level is stressed. (P.A.)

  10. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Plans of investigations during shaft and drift excavation (Construction of underground facilities: Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned for over 20 years to establish the scientific and technical basis for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The investigations are conducted by JNC in three phases, from the surface (Phase I), during the construction of the underground facilities (Phase II), and using the facilities (Phase III). This report concerns the investigation plans for Phase II. During excavation of shafts and drifts, detailed geological and borehole investigation will be conducted and the geological model constructed in Phase I is evaluated and revised by newly acquired data of geophysical and geological environment. Detailed in-situ experiments, as well as the effects of shaft excavation, are also done to study long-term changes, rock properties, groundwater flow and chemistry to ensure the reliability of repository technology and establish safety assessment methodology. (S. Ohno)

  11. Heating and cooling energy demand in underground buildings : potential for saving in various climates and functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dronkelaar, C.; Costola, D.; Mangkuto, R.A.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Underground buildings are pointed out as alternatives to conventional aboveground buildings for reducing total energy requirements, while alleviating land use and location problems. This paper investigates the potential in reducing the heating and cooling energy demand of underground buildings

  12. THE STATE AND PERSPECTIVE OF HERMETIZATION OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES WITH USE OF RUBBER SEALANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Leshchenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The works on creation of effective rubber sealants for hermetic sealing of joints of underground structures from modular ferroconcrete and pig-iron, including tunnel elements for the underground, are carried out.

  13. THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE USE OF ELASTOMER SEALS FOR SEALING OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Politikova

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The research work on creation of effective rubber sealants for hermetic sealing of joints of underground structures from modular ferro-concrete and pig-iron including the underground tunnel casings is carried out.

  14. Human detection for underground autonomous mine vehicles using thermal imaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground mine automation has the potential to increase safety, productivity and allow the mining of lower-grade resources. In a mining environment with both autonomous robots and humans, it is essential that the robots are able to detect...

  15. Underground gasification. New experiments in Worchestershire. [Newman Spinney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-06-02

    Trials were begun in Worcestershire, near Kidderminster. At Newman Spinney two new systems are described. These trials aim to discover what changes in gas quality or output and in the spread of the reaction underground result when air rate, pressure, use of steam, and other factors under manual control change.

  16. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible.

  17. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems whe...

  18. An Innovative Summer Institute for Teachers: Examining the Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmer, Denise

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the summer institute which she planned through her involvement with the Institute for Freedom Studies at Northern Kentucky University, whose purpose is to promote interdisciplinary research, teaching and community outreach grounded in the study of the Underground Railroad. The purpose of the institute was to…

  19. The Underground Railroad: Developing a Literary Track to Slave Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Wande Knox

    This paper offers a method of bringing to third-grade students an understanding of African-American contributions to the United States, the experience of slavery, and the struggle for freedom on the secretive Underground Railroad. The paper contains a list of eight primary sources to be used. Its lessons focus specifically on the skills necessary…

  20. Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Although the Underground Railroad has been an integral part of U.S. history and folklore for well over 150 years, the recent past has seen an increased public interest in the identification of historic sites associated with the experiences of fugitive slaves. This booklet is part of a National Park Service initiative to design research methods…

  1. Second-Grade Journeys on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Stenberg, Linda; Beilke, Patricia F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a curriculum used in a second grade classroom to expose the predominantly white students to the culture and experiences of African Americans through a study of slavery and the Underground Railroad. Includes a bibliography of African folk tales and literature related to the African American experience. (SLD)

  2. An ultrasonic-based localization system for underground mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jordaan, JP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available -based localization system for underground mines 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 24-26 July 2017, Emden, Germany JP Jordaan, CP Kruger, BJ Silva and GP Hancke Abstract: Localization is important for a wide range...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system checked weekly to detect any failures which may constitute an electrical hazard. A certification record which... powered by the truck's electrical system, shall be prohibited. (g) Explosives and blasting agents shall be...

  4. Tax Evasion and Work in the Underground Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, Nina; Graversen, E. K.

    2005-01-01

    A bivariate random effect panel data model is estimated for male labour supply in the taxable and the non-taxable sectors in Denmark. The wage rates and non-labour income have significant effects on labour supply in both sectors. The average own wage elasticity with respect to underground labour ...

  5. In-Pipe Wireless Communication for Underground Sampling and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhan D.T.; Le, Duc V.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and low- cost wireless communication system for extremely long and narrow pipes that can replay the extant wire system in underground sensor network applications such as soil sampling and testing with the Cone Penetration Test (CPT), the most widely used

  6. Revaluating the Tanzi-Model to Estimate the Underground Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.; Deleanu, I.; Unger, B.

    Since the early 1980s, the interest in the nature and size of the non-measured economy (both the informal and the illegal one) was born among researchers in the US. Since then, several models to estimate the shadow and/or the underground economy appeared in the literature, each with its own

  7. Analysis of an Underground Structure Settlement Risk due to Tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Ghodrat, Hadi; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    of the underground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlement risk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification of various types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes...

  8. Slowly does it as giant magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Ormrod, Gill

    2007-01-01

    "At 5:00 am GMT this morning (28th February 2007) the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) particle detector began a momentous journey into its experimental cavern, 100 metres underground at CERN, Geneva." (1,5 page)

  9. Development of excavation technologies at the Canadian underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, Gregory W.; Martino, Jason B.

    2008-01-01

    Several countries, Canada being among them, are developing concepts for disposal of used fuel from power generating nuclear reactors. As in underground mining operations, the disposal facilities will require excavation of many kilometres of shafts and tunnels through the host rock mass. The need to maintain the stability of excavations and safety of workers will be of paramount importance. Also, excavations required for many radioactive waste repositories will ultimately need to be backfilled and sealed to maintain stability and minimize any potential for migration of radionuclides, should they escape their disposal containers. The method used to excavate the tunnels and shafts, and the rock damage that occurs due to excavation, will greatly affect the performance characteristics of repository sealing systems. The underground rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering work performed at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has led to the development of excavation technologies that reduce rock damage in subsurface excavations. This paper discusses the excavation methods used to construct the URL and their application in planning for the construction of similar underground laboratories and repositories for radioactive wastes. (author)

  10. The Underground Economy and GDP Estimation in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) in most developing countries portrays a lot of meaning; most often it is very low. This could be true or false. The existence of underground economy in this economies tend to undermine the estimation of GDP in developing economies, because the size of such economy is ...

  11. Aims, organization and activities of the consortium for underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, G.

    1977-01-01

    The consortium of Swiss authorities interested in underground storage (the petroleum oil and gas industries, for fuel storage; the nuclear industry for radioactive waste disposal), was initiated in 1972. The author outlines the motives behind the formation of the consortium and outlines its structure and objectives. The envisaged projects are outlined. (F.Q.)

  12. Realization of a simulator for radon-222 underground migration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidjani, A.; Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Isabelle, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    To study under controlled conditions the underground movements of radon gas a simulator has been built. It was designed in order to vary independently the different geophysical parameters such as pressure, temperature, humidity, type of soil and its granulometry, etc.. The first tests, described in this paper, have demonstrated the usefullness of such a simulator. (orig.)

  13. Underground Coal Gasification: Rates of Post Processing Gas Transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2014), s. 1707-1715 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7C12017 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gas ification * gas transport * textural properties Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  14. Thermal interaction of underground pipeline with freezing heaving soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podorozhnikov, S. Y.; Mikhailov, P.; Puldas, L.; Shabarov, A.

    2018-05-01

    A mathematical model and a method for calculating the stress-strain state of a pipeline describing the heat-power interaction in the "underground pipeline - soil" system in the conditions of negative temperatures in the soils of soils are offered. Some results of computational-parametric research are presented.

  15. Habitat features and distribution of Salamandra salamandra in underground springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean habitats are among the less known terrestrial habitats, but can reveal an unexpected biodiversity, and can play an underestimated role for amphibians. The fire salamander Salamandra salamandra is sometimes found in underground environments, but the factors affecting its distribution in subterranean spaces remain substantially unexplored. We repeatedly surveyed some hypogeous springs, such as draining galleries and “bottini” in NW Italy, in order to evaluate the relationship between environmental features and distribution of S. salamandra in these underground springs. We performed visual encounter surveys to assess the occurrence of larvae, juveniles or adults in springs. We also recorded four habitat variables: easy of access, isolation, macrobenthos richness and forest cover of the surrounding landscape. We used generalized linear models to evaluate the relationships between habitat features and occurrence of larvae. We observed larvae of S. salamandra in 13 out of 22 springs; their presence was associated to springs with high easy of access and with relatively rich macrobenthos communities. In underground springs, larval development apparently required longer time than in nearby epigeous streams. Nevertheless, S. salamandra can attain metamorphosis in this environment. The occurrence of S. salamandra in underground environments was not accidental, but repeated in the time and interesting from an ecological point of view, confirming the high plasticity of the species.

  16. Adaptation of magnesian cements to underground storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufournet, F.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the experimental study of magnesium oxychloride cements as filling materials for underground granitic cavities containing high level radioactive wastes. After a bibliographic study, mechanical properties are examined before and after setting, in function of the ratio MgO/MgCl 2 . Then behavior with water is investigated: swelling, cracking and leaching [fr

  17. Risk analysis of underground infrastructures in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; De Ambroggi, Massimiliano; Grande, Ottavio; Trucco, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated approach for vulnerability and resilience analysis for underground infrastructures, i.e. a societal risk analysis of the failures of underground services for an urban area. The approach is based on the detailed study of (1) domino-effects for the components of a single infrastructure and for a given set of infrastructures interoperated and/or belonging to the same area; (2) risk and vulnerability analysis of a given area; (3) identification of a set of intervention guidelines, in order to improve the overall system resilience. The use of an integrated (interoperability and area) approach, breaking down the analysis area extent into sub-areas and assessing the dependencies among sub-areas both in terms of interoperability and damage propagation of critical infrastructures, demonstrates a useful advantage in terms of resilience analysis, more consistent with the 'zoned' nature of failures of the underground infrastructures. An applied case, describing the interoperability and damage propagation analysis with the evaluation of time-dependency for the infrastructures and targets and of different kinds of interventions of the underground infrastructures of a town, is presented for this purpose.

  18. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Christiansson, Rolf

    2007-02-01

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible

  19. Arrangement for underground storage of materials of every kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, O.; Seisenbacher, H.; Toth, L.

    1982-01-01

    Construction of a spheroidal tank, made of two sheets of concrete, used for underground storage. Space between inner and outer sheet is filled with a vibration absorbing material. The bottom of the outer sheet is made of material with lower rigidness, which allows the line of fault in cases of tectonic motions to slide off. (J.K.) [de

  20. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... information regarding whether the use of proximity detection systems would reduce the risk of accidents where... . Information on MSHA-approved proximity detection systems is available on the Internet at http://www.msha.gov...

  1. Specific features of auxiliary water supply at underground NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pergamenshchik, B.K.; Pavlov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Specific features of auxiliary water supply systems for underground NPPs related to peculiarities of NPP basis equipment arrangement, are considered. Circulation water supply scheme, in which water cooling storage basin (cooling towers) with operational area corresponding to NPP power is on the surface and has traditional design, is proposed. Sufficiently high efficiency of the arrangement proposed is proved

  2. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V; Koifman, S; Amaral, E C S

    2004-01-01

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m -3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  3. An Optimization Routing Algorithm for Green Communication in Underground Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the long-term dependence of humans on ore-based energy, underground mines are utilized around the world, and underground mining is often dangerous. Therefore, many underground mines have established networks that manage and acquire information from sensor nodes deployed on miners and in other places. Since the power supplies of many mobile sensor nodes are batteries, green communication is an effective approach of reducing the energy consumption of a network and extending its longevity. To reduce the energy consumption of networks, all factors that negatively influence the lifetime should be considered. The degree constraint minimum spanning tree (DCMST is introduced in this study to consider all the heterogeneous factors and assign weights for the next step of the evaluation. Then, a genetic algorithm (GA is introduced to cluster sensor nodes in the network and balance energy consumption according to several heterogeneous factors and routing paths from DCMST. Based on a comparison of the simulation results, the optimization routing algorithm proposed in this study for use in green communication in underground mines can effectively reduce the network energy consumption and extend the lifetimes of networks.

  4. Natural convection and vapor loss during underground waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plys, M.G.; Epstein, M.; Turner, D.

    1996-01-01

    Natural convection and vapor loss from underground waste storage tanks is examined here. Stability criteria are provided for the onset of natural convection flow within the headspace of a tank, and between tanks and the environment. The flowrate is quantified and used to predict vapor losses during storage

  5. 3D Approach for Representing Uncertainties of Underground Utility Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Zlatanova, S.; den Duijn, Xander; Lin, Ken-Yu; El-Gohary, Nora; Tang, Pingbo

    Availability of 3D underground information models is key to designing and managing urban infrastructure construction projects. Buried utilities information is often registered by using different types of location data with different uncertainties. These data variances are, however, not considered in

  6. Effect of repository underground ventilation on emplacement drift temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.; Sun, Y.; McKenzie, D.G.; Bhattacharyya, K.K.

    1996-01-01

    The repository advanced conceptual design (ACD) is being conducted by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Management ampersand Operating Contractor. Underground ventilation analyses during ACD have resulted in preliminary ventilation concepts and design methodologies. This paper discusses one of the recent evaluations -- effects of ventilation on emplacement drift temperature management

  7. A Corrosion Risk Assessment Model for Underground Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik; Fraser, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pressure Systems Manager at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has embarked on a project to collect data and develop risk assessment models to support risk-informed decision making regarding future inspections of underground pipes at ARC. This paper shows progress in one area of this project - a corrosion risk assessment model for the underground high-pressure air distribution piping system at ARC. It consists of a Corrosion Model of pipe-segments, a Pipe Wrap Protection Model; and a Pipe Stress Model for a pipe segment. A Monte Carlo simulation of the combined models provides a distribution of the failure probabilities. Sensitivity study results show that the model uncertainty, or lack of knowledge, is the dominant contributor to the calculated unreliability of the underground piping system. As a result, the Pressure Systems Manager may consider investing resources specifically focused on reducing these uncertainties. Future work includes completing the data collection effort for the existing ground based pressure systems and applying the risk models to risk-based inspection strategies of the underground pipes at ARC.

  8. Moura tragedy the model for this year's underground exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Mines Rescue teams in the 1991 E.K. Healy cup competition handled an underground exercise based on the Moura No. 4 colliery explosion which killed 12 miners on July 16, 1986. The contest organisers and hosts went to great lengths to achieve realism. This included underground water barriers and ventilation tubes being tossed around, meat, offal and bullock's blood being strewn and using trickel dusters to produce a smoke effect restricting visibility to 20 metres. The other exercises in the contest were: a theory test; and exercise involving gas monitoring, power isolation and fire fighting; and a first aid section dealt with an electrical accident near water. The task in the underground exercise was to retrieve information. The Chairman of the Assessors reported that the theory and fire fighting were handled fairly well. Handling of the electrical incident was not too bad, with the life saving techniques being very well done. The underground exercise revealed different ways of gathering information. While leadership styles and team member interaction varied this was not detrimental to efficiency. 9 photos.

  9. The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Kevin T [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley and the Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS50R5239, Berkeley, CA 94720-8146 (United States)], E-mail: KTLesko@lbl.gov

    2008-11-01

    The National Science Foundation and the international underground science community are well into establishing a world-class, multidisciplinary Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the former Homestake mine in Lead South Dakota. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected the Homestake Proposal and site as the prime location to be developed into an international research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at several different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota has demonstrated remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer from the Homestake Mining Corp. The State, through its Science and Technology Authority with state funds and those of a philanthropic donor has initiated rehabilitation of the surface and underground infrastructure including the Ross and Yates hoists accessing the 4850 Level (feet below ground, 4100 to 4200 mwe). The scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in establishing the preliminary design of the facility and the associated suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility by the NSF are presented.

  10. Decision analysis of Hanford underground storage tank waste retrieval systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Bitz, D.A.; Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    A decision analysis approach has been proposed for planning the retrieval of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes from underground storage tanks. This paper describes the proposed approach and illustrates its application to the single-shell storage tanks (SSTs) at Hanford, Washington

  11. Dimensional analysis for the mechanical effects of some underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, Francis [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-15

    The influence of the medium properties upon the effects of underground nuclear and high explosive explosions is studied by dimensional analysis methods. A comparison is made with the experimental data from the Hoggar contained nuclear shots, specially with the particle motion data and the cavity radii. Furthermore, for example, crater data from explosions in Nevada have been examined by statistical methods. (author)

  12. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS

  13. Regulatory mechanisms for underground waste disposal in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground ... dead, domestic waste and, excrement in this manner. The soil and geological formations that are the waste ... waste water daily is presently seeking partnerships with the ... role in ground water quality protection from.

  14. Hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation affected by underground hydrocarbon gas seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous concentrations of natural gas in the soil may be sourced from leaking underground gas pipelines or from natural microseepages. Due to the explosive nature of hydrocarbon gases, early detection of these gases is essential to avoid dangerous situations. It is known that natural gas in the

  15. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in granitic underground caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1984-01-01

    To date, the disposal of radioactive wastes is one of the major problems faced by the nuclear industry. The utilization of granitic underground caves surrounded by a clay envelope is suggested as a safe alternative for such disposal. A preliminary analysis of the dimensions of those deposits is done. (Author) [pt

  16. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...

  17. Ground model and computer complex for designing underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashurov, V.V.; Vakhrameev, Yu.S.; Dem' yanovskii, S.V.; Ignatenko, V.V.; Simonova, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of a ground model that accounts for large deformations, their irreversibility, loose rock, breakdown, resistance to internal friction, and other factors. Calculations from the American Sulky explosion and camouflage detonations of two spaced explosive charges are cited as examples illustrating the possibility of design methods and the suitability of ground state equations for describing underground detonations.

  18. Does the Underground Sidewall Station Survey Method Meet MHSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grobler, Hendrik

    The underground survey network in a deep level platinum mine in ... The time duration for peg installation during the initial phase of learning the method was ..... changes to the survey “hardware” including prisms, stems and attachment points ...

  19. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79 Section 816.79 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING...

  20. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    underground nuclear explosion event in a composite media with faults and complex ... faults, in situ stresses and tectonic strains, location of the free surface with respect .... at the elastic radius are the local geological formations, porosity, water con- ... the problem for a longer duration Sommerfeld (1949) radiation boundary ...