Sample records for draperies

  1. Discrete modelling of drapery systems (United States)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna


    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  2. Diagenesis of a drapery speleothem from Castañar Cave: from dissolution to dolomitization

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    Martín-Pérez A.


    Full Text Available A drapery speleothem (DRA-1 from Castañar Cave in Spain was subjected to a detailed petrographical study in order to identify its primary and diagenetic features. The drapery’s present day characteristics are the result of the combined effects of the primary and diagenetic processes that DRA-1 underwent. Its primary minerals are calcite, aragonite and huntite. Calcite is the main constituent of the speleothem, whereas aragonite forms as frostwork over the calcite. Huntite is the main mineral of moonmilk which covers the tips of aragonite. These primary minerals have undergone a set of diagenetic processes, which include: 1 partial dissolution or corrosion that produces the formation of powdery matt-white coatings on the surface of the speleothem. These are seen under the microscope as dark and highly porous microcrystalline aggregates; 2 total dissolution produces pores of few cm2 in size; 3 calcitization and dolomitization of aragonite result in the thickening and lost of shine of the aragonite fibres. Microscopically, calcitization is seen as rhombohedral crystals which cover and replace aragonite forming mosaics that preserve relics of aragonite precursor. Dolomitization results in the formation of microcrystalline rounded aggregates over aragonite fibres. These aggregates are formed by dolomite crystals of around 1 μm size. The sequence of diagenetic processes follows two main pathways. Pathway 1 is driven by the increase of saturation degree and Mg/Ca ratio of the karstic waters and is visible in the NW side of the drapery. This sequence of processes includes: 1 aragonite and huntite primary precipitation and 2 dolomitization. Pathway 2 is driven by a decrease in the degree of saturation of calcite and aragonite and Mg/Ca ratio of the cave waters, and it is observed in the SE side of the drapery. The diagenetic processes of the second pathway include: 1 calcitization of aragonite; 2 incomplete dissolution (micritization of both

  3. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Wallez, Gilles; Mottin, Bruno


    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Département des Arts Graphiques, Musée du Louvre and in the Musée des Beaux- Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special µ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique.

  4. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

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    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Paris (France); Pichon, Laurent; Mottin, Bruno [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); Wallez, Gilles [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Paris (France); Sorbonne University, UPMC Univ., Paris 06 (France)


    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Departement des Arts Graphiques, Musee du Louvre and in the Musee des Beaux-Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special μ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique. (orig.)

  5. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Mottin, Bruno; Wallez, Gilles


    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Departement des Arts Graphiques, Musee du Louvre and in the Musee des Beaux-Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special μ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique. (orig.)

  6. 29 CFR 779.320 - Partial list of establishments whose sales or service may be recognized as retail. (United States)


    .... Confectionery stores. Crematories. Dance halls. Delicatessen stores. Department stores. Drapery stores. Dress.... Stationery stores. Taxidermists. Theatres. Tourist homes. Trailer camps. Undertakers. Variety shops. Watch...

  7. 46 CFR 169.323 - Furniture and furnishings. (United States)


    ... of fire resistant materials. (b) Existing solid wooden furniture may be retained on existing vessels. (c) Draperies must be fabricated of fire resistant fabrics. (d) Rugs and carpets must be of wool or other material having equivalent fire resistant qualities. (e) Trash receptacles must be constructed of...

  8. 77 FR 50084 - Notice of Scope Rulings (United States)


    ..., 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: 202-482-5047. SUPPLEMENTARY... January 1, 2012, and March 31, 2012 People's Republic of China A-570-967; C-570-968: Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China Requestor: The Rowley Company; drapery rail kits consisting of an...

  9. IRIS Health Assessment of 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-47) CASRN 5436-43-12,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-99) CASRN 60348-60-92,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-153) CASRN 68631-49-22,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) CASRN 1163-19-5 (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in furniture foam (pentaBDE), plastics for TV cabinets, consumer electronics, wire insulation, and backcoatings for draperies and upholstery (decaBDE), and plastics for personal computers and small appliances (oc...


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    Hedy C. Indrani


    Full Text Available Fields survey showed that multi-function auditorium design was done without involving acoustic expert. In this case, acoustic condition is not proper that cannot perform a good acoustic quality (Reverberation Time and Early Decay Time, as a result audiences are disturbed by over reverberation and echoes. The results of experimental simulation using the ECOTECT v5.20 program on multi-function auditorium at Petra Christian University showed that utilizing absorptive flexible material and easily adjusted such as baffle on the ceiling with 5% of covered area and drapery on the wall with 25% of covered area can adapt speech character. The dismantling of baffle from ceiling, the opening of drapery from the wall, and the adding of reflective material with 10% of covered area can adapt music character. Besides fulfilling design and acoustic criteria, both acoustic materials can be used practically for they can adapt functional changes and are also easily applied, short period and few labors consuming for implementation, mainly for existing multi-function auditorium. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pengamatan lapangan menunjukkan bahwa perancangan auditorium multi-fungsi seringkali dibuat tanpa melibatkan ahli akustik. Hal ini menyebabkan kondisi akustik tidak memadai sehingga tidak mampu menampilkan kualitas akustik (Reverberation Time dan Early Decay Time yang baik, akibatnya penikmat merasa terganggu oleh dengung yang berlebihan dan echo. Hasil simulasi eksperimental menggunakan program ECOTECT v5.20, untuk meningkatkan kualitas akustik pada auditorium multi-fungsi Universitas Kristen Petra, menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan bahan absorbtif yang fleksibel dan mudah disesuaikan seperti baffle di plafon seluas 5% dan drapery di dinding seluas 25% mampu mengadaptasi karakter speech. Penurunan baffle dari plafon dan penyingkapan drapery di dinding serta penambahan bahan reflektif seluas 10% mampu mengadaptasi karakter music. Selain memenuhi kriteria desain dan


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    Regiane Regina Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Displayed by Globo TV since the year 2012, the tv show “Esquenta!” airs on Sundays as a popular attraction of drapery and dedicated to present on national television which is typical of the culture of Brazilian periphery. His introductory video clip, the object of analysis of this research, based on the use of some aesthetic elements to communicate to the Brazilian population that purpose to make the program into a showcase of the periphery on television. Based on image analysis, this article identifies framework elements, Figure and background, perspective and image composition that contribute to the identification of elements of popular within the program and the connection between this and your audience.

  12. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process (United States)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.


    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  13. Effect of structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics having flame retardancy property (United States)

    Çeven, E. K.; Günaydın, G. K.


    The aim of this study is filling the gap in the literature about investigating the effect of yarn and fabric structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics. According to the experimental design three different fabric types, three different weft densities and two different weave types were selected and a total of eighteen different polyester drapery fabrics were produced. All statistical procedures were conducted using the SPSS Statistical software package. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests indicated that; there were statistically significant (5% significance level) differences between the mass loss ratios (%) in weft and mass loss ratios (%) in warp direction of different fabrics calculated after the flammability test. The Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) results for mass loss ratios (%) both in weft and warp directions revealed that the mass loss ratios (%) of fabrics containing Trevira CS type polyester were lower than the mass loss ratios of polyester fabrics subjected to washing treatment and flame retardancy treatment.

  14. Designing fire safe interiors. (United States)

    Belles, D W


    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Rescue of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-mediated Sertoli cell injury by overexpression of gap junction protein connexin 43 (United States)

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D.; Chen, Haiqi; Wong, Chris K. C.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan


    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental toxicant used in developing countries, including China, as a stain repellent for clothing, carpets and draperies, but it has been banned in the U.S. and Canada since the late 2000s. PFOS perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, causing disruption of actin microfilaments in cell cytosol, perturbing the localization of cell junction proteins (e.g., occluden-ZO-1, N-cadherin-ß-catenin). These changes destabilized Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. These findings suggest that human exposure to PFOS might induce BTB dysfunction and infertility. Interestingly, PFOS-induced Sertoli cell injury associated with a down-regulation of the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43). We next investigated if overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells could rescue the PFOS-induced cell injury. Indeed, overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells with an established TJ-barrier blocked the disruption in PFOS-induced GJ-intercellular communication, resulting in the re-organization of actin microfilaments, which rendered them similar to those in control cells. Furthermore, cell adhesion proteins that utilized F-actin for attachment became properly distributed at the cell-cell interface, resealing the disrupted TJ-barrier. In summary, Cx43 is a good target that might be used to manage PFOS-induced reproductive dysfunction.

  16. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church (United States)

    Love, J. J.


    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  17. Sick building syndrome

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    Eyre, S


    Recently, there has been an upsurge in public awareness about the hazards of indoor air pollution. It is documented that respiratory tract infections, a common result of poor air quality, account for approximately 150 million lost work days, $15-billion of direct medical costs, and at least $59-billion of indirect costs of absenteeism per year. Indoor air pollutants result from a number of different sources including common office supplies and equipment, cleaning supplies, pesticides, clothing, furnishings, draperies and carpets. A recent summary of findings by Healthy Buildings International has found the three most common problems to be: poor ventilation, inadequate filtration and lack of hygiene. Only 25% of the buildings studied were well ventilated and 75% of the problems with contaminated air were due to ignorance of correct operating practices. Currently, there are no uniformly accepted regulations for environmental quality in buildings in Canada. Some approaches to this problem are discussed and it is noted that the solution to indoor air quality problems is prevention or proactive monitoring. The key to a successful monitoring program is that improvements made by implementing remedial actions can be quantified, and to place the focus of the program on the ventilation system. 1 fig.

  18. The Influence of Textile Materials Mechanical Properties upon Virtual Garment Fit

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    Kristina ANCUTIENĖ


    Full Text Available 3D virtual representation of garment provides high potential for design, product development and marketing processes, especially in mass customization strategies implementation. Clothing industry rapidly turns to virtual simulation which not only presents realistic 3D view of garment but also simulates mechanical behaviour of materials. 3D CAD systems can be used to define strain distribution in virtual garment which describes garment fit without actually producing the garment. Strain and distance ease between body and garment depends not only upon body measurements and garment construction, but also on mechanical and structural properties of selected material. The aim of this research was to investigate virtual garment fit using "Modaris 3D Fit" (Lectra software subjected to fabrics mechanical (tensile, bending, shear and structural (composition, thickness, area density properties investigating strain distribution in garment and distance ease between garment and human body. It was defined that for diagonal cut garments the highest influence upon garment fit has fabric tensile properties in weft direction. The highest influence is obtained at high distance ease and small strain values zones and at negative distance ease and high strain values zones. Therefore, presented method could be used for tight-fitted garments also for garments with draperies on purpose to investigate garment fit upon fabrics used.

  19. Calculating the vulnerability of synthetic polymers to autoignition during nuclear flash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.; Reitter, T.


    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the rapid progression of fire to flashover conditions in a furnished room, observed in a 1953 nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site (the Encore Event), might be typical behavior rather than an aberration. If flashover under such conditions is indeed likely, this phenomenon is worth pursuing in view of the increased threat to buildings and human life from possible large-scale fires. We placed special emphasis on fires that occurred in modern rooms, i.e., ones furnished with upholstery and drapery materials made from synthetic polymers. Examination of photochemical processes showed them to be an unlikely explanation, either in Encore or in the future. Our calculation of rapid radiant-heating behavior of a few materials demonstrated that fabrics and fabric-covered foams would exceed their autoignition temperature when exposed to a 25-cal/cm 2 fluence from a 1-Mt air burst weapon. Because synthetic polymers have higher heating values and release heat faster during combustion than do the cellulosics used in the Encore experiment, early flashover should not be unexpected in contemporary households. However, the far-field thermal fluence required would be higher because of the absorption of thermal energy by windows and window coverings. Because of the complexity of the problem, carefully planned, full-scale experiments will be needed to finally answer the question. 39 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Real Fábrica de Paños Superfinos de la Compañía y Fábrica Real de Paños de Ortiz de Paz

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    Francisco Javier Mosácula María


    Full Text Available La industria textil lanera segoviana, cuya época de mayor esplendor se desarrolla a finales del siglo xvi, cayó lenta, pero paulatinamente, hasta la segunda mitad del siglo xviii en que presenta síntomas de franca recuperación, para precipitarse hasta su desaparición en el siglo xix. Primeramente, se analiza la política industrial llevada a cabo por el Estado y su incidencia en Segovia, con el fin de comprender mejor las causas que llevaron a la Corona y a la iniciativa privada a fundar la primera realización fabril de la historia de la pañería segoviana. Las manufacturas reales habían comenzado a funcionar desde primeros de siglo.The wool textile Segovian industry, whose most magnificent period takes place during the last years of the 16th century, fell down, slowly but gradually, till the second half of the 18th century, when it presents symptoms of full recovering, to rush towards its extinction in the 19th century. First, the industrial politics carried out by the Government and its influence in Segovia are analized, in order to understand the reasons which made the Crown and the prívate enterprise found the first manufacturing achievement in the history of the Segovian drapery. The Royal manufacturing had started to work from the beginning of the century.

  1. Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room

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    Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.


    We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m{sup 3} room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C{sub 8}-C{sub 10} aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h{sup -1} and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium.

  2. Laser light-section sensor automating the production of textile-reinforced composites (United States)

    Schmitt, R.; Niggemann, C.; Mersmann, C.


    . First tests under industrial conditions showed that applying this sensor after the drapery of each textile layer reduces the scrap quota by approximately 30%.

  3. Desenvolvimento de um sistema alternativo de trocador de calor para climatização de construções agroindustriais Development of an alternative heat exchange system for climatization of agroindustry facilities

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    Milton Soares


    Full Text Available No manejo de animais em propriedades rurais, é necessário o desenvolvimento de equipamentos de climatização de ambientes, tais como os resfriadores evaporativos. No presente estudo, foi construído e testado um resfriador evaporativo alternativo. O sistema é composto por um circuito de circulação de água impulsionada por uma bomba hidráulica e uma rede de tubulação em PVC formadora de uma cortina de água, uma calha condutora de água e um reservatório. A temperatura e a umidade relativa foram medidas na entrada e saída do equipamento, utilizando-se de termo-higrômetro digital, no período de 28 de novembro a 14 de dezembro de 2006 (dias quentes e secos do início de verão e entre 6 e 13 de março de 2007 (dias quentes e úmidos. Associado a um sistema de ventilação forçada, o dispositivo apresentou, em três testes, resultados que indicaram que a temperatura do ambiente pode ser reduzida na faixa de 3 a 4 ºC e com acréscimo de 10 a 12% de umidade relativa. A máxima eficiência evaporativa obtida foi de 47,6%.In the management of animals in rural areas, it is necessary the development of environment climatization devices, such as the evaporative coolings. In this study it was set up and tested an alternative evaporative cooling. The system consists in one circuit of water circulation pumped from a hydraulic pump and a net of PVC pipe which makes a water drapery, a water conductor gutter and a reservoir. The temperature and relative humidity were measured in the inlet and outlet of the device, with a digital hygrothermometer between November 28th and December 14th, 2006 (warm and dry days at the beginning of the summer and between March 6th and 13th, 2007 (warm and humid days. Associated to a ventilation system, the device presented, in three complete phases of tests, results that indicated that the temperature of the environment can be limited to 3 to 4ºC and with addition of 10 to 12% of relative humidity. The greatest

  4. Escuela para señoritas, Inglaterra

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    Stillman y Eastwlck-Field, Arquitectos


    Full Text Available The object was to design part of a new building which had been seriously damaged during the war, so that the old and new parts would blend into a pleasant whole, with a capacity for 600 girls. The new designs avoid the glass box style of school buildings, and glass walls have been adopted only on the ground floor, thus giving an impression of light and airiness to what used to be a partial basement. Classrooms have been designed in a simple manner, and give the impression of conventional rooms. Simple lines and materials have been chosen throughout. Strong contrasts in the external finish have been avoided, and colours provide a relaxing background to the intensive activities of the students. A constructional feature is the use of prefabricated concrete joists and supports. Outer walls consist of brick panels filling in the space between the visible concrete framework. Ceilings are of insulating boards, and the floors are covered with linoleum. Special attention has been devoted to the hall. In this case the roof is of white gypsum, and the only features are the grills covering the fluorescent lighting. The walls of this hall are of glass, and are covered with heavy velvet curtains. A balcony with hardwood posts adds a simple and friendly feature to the building. The furniture and drapery have been carefully chosen. Camden school has a rigid tradition of individualism and fine education, and the new building has succeeded in maintaining the exclusive quality of the older parts, as well as offering an overall impression of up to date construction.El problema consistía en proyectar un nuevo núcleo para un edificio que había sido seriamente bombardeado durante la guerra, de tal modo que las partes antiguas y nuevas formasen un conjunto agradable y con capacidad para más de 600 chicas. En la nueva construcción se ha evitado el carácter de «cajas de cristal» de las nuevas escuelas ordinarias y se han empleado muros de cristal solamente en la

  5. [Intramedullary nailing of the distal tibia illustrated with the Expert(TM) tibia nail]. (United States)

    El Attal, R; Hansen, M; Rosenberger, R; Smekal, V; Rommens, P M; Blauth, M


    Restoration of axis, length, and rotation of the lower leg. Sufficient primary stability of the osteosynthesis for functional aftercare and to maintain joint mobility. Good bony healing in closed and open fractures. Closed and open fractures of the tibia and complete lower leg fractures distal to the isthmus (AO 42), extraarticular fractures of the distal tibia (AO 43 A1/A2/A3), segmental fractures of the tibia with a fracture in the distal tibia, and certain intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia without impression of the joint line with the use of additional implants (AO 43 C1) Patient in reduced general condition (e.g., bed ridden), flexion of the knee of less than 90°, patients with knee arthroplasty of the affected leg, infection in the area of the nail's insertion, infection of the tibial cavity, complex articular fractures of the proximal or distal tibia with joint depression. Closed reduction of the fracture preferably on a fracture table or using a distractor or an external fixation frame. If necessary, use pointed reduction clamps or sterile drapery. In some cases, additional implants like percutaneous small fragment screws, poller screws or k-wires are helpful. Open reduction is rarely necessary and must be avoided. Opening of the proximal tibia in line with the medullary canal. Canulated insertion of the Expert(TM) tibia nail (ETN; Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) with reaming of the medullary canal. Control of axis, length, and rotation. Distal interlocking with the radiolucent drill and proximal interlocking with the targeting device. Immediate mobilization of ankle and knee joint. Mobilization with 20 kg weight-bearing with crutches. X-ray control 6 weeks postoperatively and increased weight-bearing depending on the fracture status. In cases with simple fractures, good bony contact, or transverse fracture pattern, full weight-bearing at the end of week 6 is targeted. Between July 2004 and May 2005, 180 patients were included in a

  6. Landslide databases for applied landslide impact research: the example of the landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany (United States)

    Damm, Bodo; Klose, Martin


    running on PostgreSQL/PostGIS. This provides advanced functionality for spatial data analysis and forms the basis for future data provision and visualization using a WebGIS application. Analysis of landslide database contents shows that in most parts of Germany landslides primarily affect transportation infrastructures. Although with distinct lower frequency, recent landslides are also recorded to cause serious damage to hydraulic facilities and waterways, supply and disposal infrastructures, sites of cultural heritage, as well as forest, agricultural, and mining areas. The main types of landslide damage are failure of cut and fill slopes, destruction of retaining walls, street lights, and forest stocks, burial of roads, backyards, and garden areas, as well as crack formation in foundations, sewer lines, and building walls. Landslide repair and mitigation at transportation infrastructures is dominated by simple solutions such as catch barriers or rock fall drapery. These solutions are often undersized and fail under stress. The use of costly slope stabilization or protection systems is proven to reduce these risks effectively over longer maintenance cycles. The right balancing of landslide mitigation is thus a crucial problem in managing landslide risks. Development and analysis of such landslide databases helps to support decision-makers in finding efficient solutions to minimize landslide risks for human beings, infrastructures, and financial assets.

  7. Unknown Angels by Giuseppe Groppelli in Zadar and the Former Altar of St Anastasia in the Cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Tulić


    Full Text Available As the former capital of Dalmatia, Zadar abounded in monuments produced during the 17th and 18th century, especially altars, statues, and paintings. Most of this cultural heritage had been lost by the late 18th and the first decades of the 19th century, when the former Venetian Dalmatia was taken over by Austrian administration, followed by the French and then again by the Austrian one. Many churches were closed down, their furnishings were sold away or lost, and the buildings were either repurposed or demolished. One of them had been home to two hitherto unpublished angels-putti located on the top of the inner side of the arch in the sanctuary of Zadar’s church of Our Lady of Health (Kaštel at the end of Kalelarga (Fig. 1. Both marble statues were obviously adjusted and then placed next to the marble cartouche with a subsequently added inscription from 1938, which tells of a reconstruction of the church during the time it was administered by the Capuchins. The drapery of the right angel-putto bears the initials I. G., which should be interpreted as the signature of the Venetian sculptor Giuseppe Groppelli (Venice, 1675-1735. This master signed his full name as IOSEPH GROPPELLI on the base of a statue of St Chrysogonus, now preserved in the Permanent Exhibition of Religious Art in Zadar (Fig. 2. Same as the signed statue of St Anastasia by master Antonio Corradini (Fig. 3, it used to form part of the main altar in Zadar’s monumental church of St Donatus, desacralized in 1798. Recently, two more angels have been discovered, inserted in the tympanum of the main altar in the church of Madonna of Loreto in Zadar’s district of Arbanasi, the one to the right likewise bearing the initials I. G. (Fig. 4. Undoubtedly, these two artworks were once part of a single composition: the abovementioned former altar in the church of St Donatus, transferred to the cathedral in 1822 and reconstructed to become the new altar in the chapel of St Anastasia