Sample records for drainage irrigation sewage-disposal

  1. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal. (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  2. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. (United States)

    Ayotamuno, M. J.


    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  3. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  4. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212. (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  5. Numerical convergence for a sewage disposal problem


    Alvarez-Vázquez, L.J.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, C.; Vázquez-Méndez, M.E.


    The management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems can be formulated as a constrained pointwise optimal control problem. In this paper we study the convergence of the numerical resolution for the corresponding state system by means of a characteristics Galerkin method. The main difficulty of the problem is due to the existence of Radon measures in the right-hand side of the state system. Finally, we present numerical results for a realistic problem posed in a ria...

  6. Agriculture and wildlife: ecological implications of subsurface irrigation drainage (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly


    Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage is a wastewater with the potential to severely impact wetlands and wildlife populations. Widespread poisoning of migratory birds by drainwater contaminants has occurred in the western United States and waterfowl populations are threatened in the Pacific and Central flyways. Irrigated agriculture could produce subsurface...

  7. [Analysis on relationship between regional economic development and sewage disposal]. (United States)

    Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Zhu, Ji-Ye; Li, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Chao


    Based on the relationship between district GDP and sewage disposal, the water environment protection effect in 3 cities, Suzhou, Nanjing and Xuzhou, with different economic development degrees in Jiangsu Province was dynamically analyzed. The economy in Suzhou was well developed, where the foreign capital proportion was in a high level. Its GDP per capita was 53,800 yuan in 2005 and the sewage disposal grew linearly when its GDP increased in the study time period. Nanjing was less developed than Suzhou, and the state-owned enterprises in large and medium sizes were in a high percentage. Its GDP per capita was 37,100 yuan in 2005, while the sewage disposal reduced linearly when its GDP increased in the study time period. The economy in Xuzhou is under-developed, where coal-based heavy industry was the most important one. The GDP per capita in this city was 13,200 yuan in 2005 and the sewage disposal fluctuated when its GDP increased in the study time period. According to the relationship between economic development and sewage disposal in different cities, we suggested that the water environment protection in Suzhou should focus on the control of both water pollutant total emission and emission concentration, the major work in Nanjing should focus on adjusting the industrial structure and meanwhile controlling the total emission of water pollutants, while in Xuzhou the water pollutant emission concentration should be firstly controlled.

  8. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willardson, L.S.; Boels, D.; Smedema, L.K.


    Increasing competition for water of good quality and the expectation that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world's irrigated land requires to produce more food by converting more of the diverted water into food. Reuse of the

  9. Irrigation and drainage in agriculture: a salinity and environmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Stofberg, S.F.; Yang, X.; Liu, Y.; Islam, M.N.; Hu, Yin Fei


    Whereas irrigation and drainage are intended to address the shortage and surplus of soil water, respectively, an important aspect to address is also the management of salinity. Plants have a limited tolerance for soil water salinity, and despite significant gaps in our practical knowledge, an

  10. Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community of Jos South LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: Despite the commendable findings in this community, the community is still at risk due to the poor practices of a few that were persisting in the community. Both government and community efforts are ...

  11. Groundwater pollution by nitrates in irrigated areas with drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandio, B.M.; Azam, M.; Abdullah, M.


    Field studies were conducted at three selected sites in irrigated areas of Pakistan to assess magnitude and severity of groundwater pollution by nitrates. The results of these studies indicate that concentration of nitrates in most of the samples collected from irrigated areas having drainage facility is much lower than threshold limit. The nitrate-nitrogen level within drainage projects ranges from 0.01-9.00 mg/l and in the area without drainage system ranges from 10.1-12.5 mg/l. The mineral fertilizers though are making contribution of NO3-N to the groundwater sources but that is much lower than threshold limits. The presence of septic tanks or farmyard manure dumps is also significant contributors of NO3-N to the groundwater. Thus drinking water sources near these polluting points are probable danger to human health. It is, therefore, concluded that still there is a lot of potential for fertilizer use in the agriculture but proper drainage facilities should be provided to minimize the potential threat of NO/sub 3/ pollution. (author)

  12. Irrigation ponds: Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MAO Zhi; BROWN Larry; CHEN XiuHong; PENG LiYuan; WANG JianZhang


    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and un-recycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China.With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious.Traditional ir-rigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e.the capacity of irri-gation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality im-provement, how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irriga-tion and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning.Pond is an important irrigation facil-ity in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use.Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treat-ment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system.To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site.The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water.Other issues, to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  13. Irrigation ponds:Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BROWN; Larry


    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and unrecycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China. With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious. Traditional irrigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e. the capacity of irrigation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality improvement. how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irrigation and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning. Pond is an important irrigation facility in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use. Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treatment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system. To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site. The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water. Other issues, e.g. how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  14. Reasonable management plan of sludge in sewage disposal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Kyu Jin; Koo, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    The compost method, which is widely used as a sewage disposal recycling in Korea, is now basically impossible to recycle sludge to compost by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry announcement. Therefore, the disposal of sludge will be much harder with reducing the amount of sludge used as compost. The amount of sludge other than using as compost is very small, so the development of various sludge recycling and use will be needed with regulations. This study was implemented to help the establishment of sewage sludge recycling policy in Korea. 30 refs., 17 figs., 58 tabs.

  15. Borehole drilling for sewage disposal at Asuka Station, East Antarctica


    Ishizawa,Kenji; Takahashi,Akiyoshi


    A borehole for sewage disposal was drilled at Asuka Station (71°31′34″S, 24°08′17″E, 930m a. s. l.) in January 1987. The borehole, 400mm in diameter and 27.5m in depth, was drilled 50m distant from the main hut using a steam drilling system. The drilling speed was 4m/h between the snow surface and 20m depth. The total amount of kerosene used for melting snow and steam generation was 110/. Sewage stored in the tank was directed to the borehole through a heated pipe. The cumulative amount of se...

  16. Integrating irrigation and drainage management to sustain agriculture in northern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darzi-Naftchali, Abdullah; Ritzema, Henk


    In Iran, as in the rest of the world, land and water for agricultural production is under pressure. Integrating irrigation and drainage management may help sustain intensified agriculture in irrigated paddy fields. This study was aimed to investigate the long-term effects of such management

  17. Local Commune Administration as a Regulator of the Local Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Services Market


    Małysko, Jacek


    In this article the author discusses problems related to the regulation of water and sewage disposal services market. In the beginning he describes the processes of water supply and sewage disposal taken by the local commune administration as a natural monopoly. Next he characterizes the structure of this market in Poland. Then he presents the role of local commune administration as a regulator. The author concludes by evaluating the existing Polish system of regulating wate...

  18. Wildlife health implications of sewage disposal in wetlands (United States)

    Friend, M.; Godfrey, P.J.; Kaynor, E.R.; Pelczarski, S.


    Wildlife health concerns associated with disposal of sewage effluent in wetlands are of three primary types: (1) introduction of pathogens, (2) introduction of pollutants that adversely impact on host body defense mechanisms, and (3) changes in the physical and chemical properties of wetlands that favor the development and maintenance of disease problems. Unlike the situation with human health concerns, introduction of pathogens is not the major concern regarding wildlife health. Instead, the focus of attention needs to be directed at environmental changes likely to take place as a result of effluent discharges into different types of wetlands. Unless these changes are adequately addressed from a disease perspective, marshes utilized for sewage disposal could become disease incubators and wildlife death traps. This result would be unfortunate because the backlash would likely negate the potentially beneficial aspects of the use of sewage wastewater for the creation of new wetlands and have a severe impact on progress being made towards evaluation of the compatibility of wildlife and sewage effluents.

  19. Water sensors with cellular system eliminate tail water drainage in alfalfa irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Saha


    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the largest consumer of water among all crops in California. It is generally flood-irrigated, so any system that decreases runoff can improve irrigation efficiency and conserve water. To more accurately manage the water flow at the tail (bottom end of the field in surface-irrigated alfalfa crops, we developed a system that consists of wetting-front sensors, a cellular communication system and a water advance model. This system detects the wetting front, determines its advance rate and generates a cell-phone alert to the irrigator when the water supply needs to be cut off, so that tail water drainage is minimized. To test its feasibility, we conducted field tests during the 2008 and 2009 alfalfa growing seasons. The field experiments successfully validated the methodology, producing zero tail water drainage.

  20. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  1. Towards sustainable irrigation and drainage through capacity building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, M.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.


    Capacity building is not something new, it has been a leading issue in development for many years. But despite all the commotion, capacity building remains a concept of enormous generality and vagueness. The calls for capacity building in irrigated agriculture suffer from these same vague

  2. Application of Canal Automation at the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (United States)

    The Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD) began delivering water to users in 1987. Although designed for automatic control, the system was run manually until a homemade SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system was developed by a district employee. In 2002, problem...

  3. Barriers to Implementing Irrigation and Drainage Policies in An Giang Province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, D.D.; Weger, J.


    Water management in delta floodplains worldwide faces many challenges due to the changing climate and increasing human intervention in the hydrological regimes of rivers. Irrigation and drainage systems are necessary components of a water management strategy that aims to support human habitation and

  4. Irrigation management to optimize controlled drainage in a semi-arid area


    Soppe, R.W.O.; Ayars, J.E.; Christen, E.W.; Shouse, P.J.


    On the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California, groundwater tables have risen after several decades of irrigation. A regional semi-permeable layer at 100 m depth (Corcoran Clay) combined with over-irrigation and leaching is the major cause of the groundwater rise. Subsurface drain systems were installed from the 60¿s to the 80¿s to remove excess water and maintain an aerated root zone. However, drainage water resulting from these subsurface systems contained trace elements like seleni...

  5. Roles of the combined irrigation, drainage, and storage of the canal network in improving water reuse in the irrigation districts along the lower Yellow River, China (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Luo, Yi; He, Chansheng; Lai, Jianbin; Li, Xiubin


    SummaryThe commonly used irrigation system in the irrigation districts (with a combined irrigation area of 3.334 × 10 6 ha) along the lower Yellow River of China is canal network. It delivers water from the Yellow River to the fields, collects surface runoff and drainage from cropland, and stores both of them for subsequent irrigation uses. This paper developed a new combined irrigation, drainage, and storage (CIDS) module for the SWAT2000 model, simulated the multiple roles of the CIDS canal system, and estimated its performance in improving water reuse in the irrigation districts under different irrigation and water diversion scenarios. The simulation results show that the annual evapotranspiration (ET) of the double-cropping winter wheat and summer maize was the highest under the full irrigation scenario (automatic irrigation), and the lowest under the no irrigation scenario. It varied between these two values when different irrigation schedules were adopted. Precipitation could only meet the water requirement of the double-cropping system by 62-96% on an annual basis; that of the winter wheat by 32-36%, summer maize by 92-123%, and cotton by 87-98% on a seasonal basis. Hence, effective irrigation management for winter wheat is critical to ensure high wheat yield in the study area. Runoff generation was closely related to precipitation and influenced by irrigation. The highest and lowest annual runoff accounted for 19% and 11% of the annual precipitation under the full irrigation and no irrigation scenarios, respectively. Nearly 70% of the annual runoff occurred during months of July and August due to the concentrated precipitation in these 2 months. The CIDS canals play an important role in delivering the diversion water from the Yellow River, intercepting the surface runoff and drainage from cropland (inflow of the CIDS canal) and recharging the shallow aquifer for later use. Roughly 14-26% of the simulated total flow in the CIDS canal system recharged

  6. A dynamic model of soil salinity and drainage generation in irrigated agriculture: A framework for policy analysis (United States)

    Dinar, Ariel; Aillery, Marcel P.; Moore, Michael R.


    This paper presents a dynamic model of irrigated agriculture that accounts for drainage generation and salinity accumulation. Critical model relationships involving crop production, soil salinity, and irrigation drainage are based on newly estimated functions derived from lysimeter field tests. The model allocates land and water inputs over time based on an intertemporal profit maximization objective function and soil salinity accumulation process. The model is applied to conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, where environmental degradation from irrigation drainage has become a policy issue. Findings indicate that in the absence of regulation, drainage volumes increase over time before reaching a steady state as increased quantities of water are allocated to leaching soil salts. The model is used to evaluate alternative drainage abatement scenarios involving drainage quotas and taxes, water supply quotas and taxes, and irrigation technology subsidies. In our example, direct drainage policies are more cost-effective in reducing drainage than policies operating indirectly through surface water use, although differences in cost efficiency are relatively small. In some cases, efforts to control drainage may result in increased soil salinity accumulation, with implications for long-term cropland productivity. While policy adjustments may alter the direction and duration of convergence to a steady state, findings suggest that a dynamic model specification may not be necessary due to rapid convergence to a comon steady state under selected scenarios.

  7. Study on algorithm of process neural network for soft sensing in sewage disposal system (United States)

    Liu, Zaiwen; Xue, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Lu, Siying


    A new method of soft sensing based on process neural network (PNN) for sewage disposal system is represented in the paper. PNN is an extension of traditional neural network, in which the inputs and outputs are time-variation. An aggregation operator is introduced to process neuron, and it makes the neuron network has the ability to deal with the information of space-time two dimensions at the same time, so the data processing enginery of biological neuron is imitated better than traditional neuron. Process neural network with the structure of three layers in which hidden layer is process neuron and input and output are common neurons for soft sensing is discussed. The intelligent soft sensing based on PNN may be used to fulfill measurement of the effluent BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) from sewage disposal system, and a good training result of soft sensing was obtained by the method.

  8. Ammonia volatilization losses from paddy fields under controlled irrigation with different drainage treatments. (United States)

    He, Yupu; Yang, Shihong; Xu, Junzeng; Wang, Yijiang; Peng, Shizhang


    The effect of controlled drainage (CD) on ammonia volatilization (AV) losses from paddy fields under controlled irrigation (CI) was investigated by managing water table control levels using a lysimeter. Three drainage treatments were implemented, namely, controlled water table depth 1 (CWT1), controlled water table depth 2 (CWT2), and controlled water table depth 3 (CWT3). As the water table control levels increased, irrigation water volumes in the CI paddy fields decreased. AV losses from paddy fields reduced due to the increases in water table control levels. Seasonal AV losses from CWT1, CWT2, and CWT3 were 59.8, 56.7, and 53.0 kg N ha(-1), respectively. AV losses from CWT3 were 13.1% and 8.4% lower than those from CWT1 and CWT2, respectively. A significant difference in the seasonal AV losses was confirmed between CWT1 and CWT3. Less weekly AV losses followed by TF and PF were also observed as the water table control levels increased. The application of CD by increasing water table control levels to a suitable level could effectively reduce irrigation water volumes and AV losses from CI paddy fields. The combination of CI and CD may be a feasible water management method of reducing AV losses from paddy fields.

  9. Technical and Sociological Investigation of Impacts in Using Lignite Mine Drainage for Irrigation - A Case Study (United States)

    Murugappan, A.; Manoharan, A.; Senthilkumar, G.; Krishnamurthy, J.


    Irrigated farming depends on an ample supply of water compatible quality. Presently, a lot of irrigation projects have to depend on inferior quality and not so enviable sources of water supply. In order to prevent troubles during usage of such water supplies of poor quality, there must be meticulous preparation to ensure that the water available with such quality characteristics is put to best use. The effect of water quality upon soil and crops must be better understood in choosing fitting options to manage with impending water quality associated troubles that might decrease soil and crop productivity under existing circumstances of water use. Two tanks (small sized reservoirs) namely, Walajah Tank and Perumal Tank in Cuddalore District, used for irrigation, receive mine drainage water pumped out continuously from the open cast lignite mines of the NLC India Limited, Neyveli, Tamilnadu State. This water has been used by the farmers in the irrigated commands of both Walajah Tank and Perumal Tank for more than three decades. Recently, the beneficiaries had raised fears on the quality of mine drainage waters they had been using for raising crops in the commands of both the tanks. They opined that the coal dust laden mine water used for irrigation had affected the crop yields. This incited us to take up a study to (i) assess the status of quality of surface waters released from the two tanks for irrigation in the respective command areas and (ii) assess the likely impacts of quality of water on soil and on growth and productivity of crops cultivated in the command areas. Further to the technical evaluation of the impacts, a structured questionnaire survey was also conducted among the farmers and the common public in the study area. The findings of the survey confirmed with the outcome of the technical assessment in that the mine drainage had a poor impact in the cultivable command area of Walajah tank system while such impacts were less significant in most parts of

  10. An economic case for drainage for sustainable irrigation: Case studies in the lower Vaal and Riet catchments


    RJ Armour; MF Viljoen


    Where evaporation exceeds precipitation salinisation is inevitable. This paper presents a multidisciplinary framework of the dynamic interactions between the hydrology, bio-physical and economics of irrigated agriculture in a semi arid area. Status quo drainage and cropping situations are compared to a scenario of increased drainage and leaching and subsequent higher value crops. Stochastically generated hydrology data fitted to a salinisation:yield production function is inputted in a crop e...

  11. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José


    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  12. Constructed wetland attenuation of nitrogen exported in subsurface drainage from irrigated and rain-fed dairy pastures. (United States)

    Tanner, C C; Nguyen, M L; Sukias, J P S


    Nitrogen removal performance is reported for constructed wetlands treating subsurface drainage from irrigated and rain-fed dairy pastures in North Island, New Zealand. Flow-proportional sampling of inflow and outflow concentrations were combined with continuous flow records to calculate mass balances for the wetlands. Drainage flows from the irrigated catchment were 2.5-4 fold higher and N exports up to 5 fold higher per unit area than for the rain-fed catchment. Hydraulic and associated N loadings to the wetlands were highly pulsed, associated with rainfall, soil water status, and irrigation events. Transient pulses of organic nitrogen were an important form of N loss from the rain-fed landscape in the first year, and were very effectively removed in the wetland (> 90%). Median nitrate concentrations of approximately 10 g m(-3) in the drainage inflows were reduced by 15-67% during passage through the wetlands and annual nitrate-N loads by 16-61% (38-31 7 g N m(-2)y(-1)). Generation in the wetlands of net ammoniacal-N and organic-N (irrigated site) partially negated reduction in nitrate-N loads. The results show that constructed wetlands comprising 1-2% of catchment area can provide moderate reductions in TN export via pastoral drainage, but performance is markedly influenced by variations in seasonal loading and establishment/maturation factors.

  13. Simulation-based optimization framework for reuse of agricultural drainage water in irrigation. (United States)

    Allam, A; Tawfik, A; Yoshimura, C; Fleifle, A


    A simulation-based optimization framework for agricultural drainage water (ADW) reuse has been developed through the integration of a water quality model (QUAL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm. This framework was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in summer and winter 2012. First, the water quantity and quality of the drain was simulated using the QUAL2Kw model. Second, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess QUAL2Kw's performance and to identify the most critical variables for determination of water quality, respectively. Finally, a genetic algorithm was applied to maximize the total reuse quantity from seven reuse locations with the condition not to violate the standards for using mixed water in irrigation. The water quality simulations showed that organic matter concentrations are critical management variables in the Gharbia drain. The uncertainty analysis showed the reliability of QUAL2Kw to simulate water quality and quantity along the drain. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorous are highly sensitive to point source flow and quality. Additionally, the optimization results revealed that the reuse quantities of ADW can reach 36.3% and 40.4% of the available ADW in the drain during summer and winter, respectively. These quantities meet 30.8% and 29.1% of the drainage basin requirements for fresh irrigation water in the respective seasons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of Proposed Code Changes Regarding Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems in Suffolk County, NY (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of proposed code changes regarding residential onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDS) in Suffolk County, New York. Of the approximately 569,000 housing units in Suffolk County, 365,000 are no...

  15. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, A.L.


    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  16. Drainage estimation to aquifer and water use irrigation efficiency in semi-arid zone for a long period of time (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Molinero-Huguet, J.; Candela, L.


    Water requirements for different crop types according to soil type and climate conditions play not only an important role in agricultural efficiency production, though also for water resources management and control of pollutants in drainage water. The key issue to attain these objectives is the irrigation efficiency. Application of computer codes for irrigation simulation constitutes a fast and inexpensive approach to study optimal agricultural management practices. To simulate daily water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer the VisualBALAN V. 2.0 code was applied to an experimental area under irrigation characterized by its aridity. The test was carried out in three experimental plots for annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke), and fruit trees (citrus) under common agricultural practices in open air for October 1999-September 2008. Drip irrigation was applied to crops production due to the scarcity of water resources and the need for water conservation. Water level change was monitored in the top unconfined aquifer for each experimental plot. Results of water balance modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated water level values. For the study period, mean drainage obtained values were 343 mm, 261 mm and 205 mm for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus respectively. Assessment of water use efficiency was based on the IE indicator proposed by the ASCE Task Committee. For the modelled period, water use efficiency was estimated as 73, 71 and 78 % of the applied dose (irrigation + precipitation) for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus, respectively.

  17. Microbial community analysis in rice paddy soils irrigated by acid mine drainage contaminated water. (United States)

    Sun, Min; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Enzong; Sun, Weimin


    Five rice paddy soils located in southwest China were selected for geochemical and microbial community analysis. These rice fields were irrigated with river water which was contaminated by Fe-S-rich acid mine drainage. Microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing, which showed 39 different phyla/groups in these samples. Among these phyla/groups, Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in all samples. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Bacteroidetes exhibited higher relative abundances than other phyla. A number of rare and candidate phyla were also detected. Moreover, canonical correspondence analysis suggested that pH, sulfate, and nitrate were significant factors that shaped the microbial community structure. In addition, a wide diversity of Fe- and S-related bacteria, such as GOUTA19, Shewanella, Geobacter, Desulfobacca, Thiobacillus, Desulfobacterium, and Anaeromyxobacter, might be responsible for biogeochemical Fe and S cycles in the tested rice paddy soils. Among the dominant genera, GOUTA19 and Shewanella were seldom detected in rice paddy soils.

  18. Water quality in irrigation and drainage networks of Thessaloniki plain in Greece related to land use, water management, and agroecosystem protection. (United States)

    Litskas, Vassilis D; Aschonitis, Vassilis G; Antonopoulos, Vassilis Z


    A representative agricultural area of 150 ha located in a protected ecosystem (Axios River Delta, Thermaikos Gulf-N. Aegean, Greece) was selected in order to investigate water quality parameters [pH, electrical conductivity (EC(w)), NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, total phosphorus (TP)] in irrigation and drainage water. In the study area, the cultivated crops are mainly rice, maize, cotton, and fodder. Surface irrigation methods are applied using open channels network, and irrigation water is supplied by Axios River, which is facing pollution problems. The return flow from surface runoff and the surplus of irrigation water are collected to drainage network and disposed to Thermaikos Gulf. A 2-year study (2006-2007) was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of land use and irrigation water management on the drainage water quality. The average pH and NO(3)-N concentration was higher in the irrigation water (8.0 and 1.3 mg/L, respectively) than that in the drainage water (7.6 and 1.0 mg/L, respectively). The average EC(W), NH(4)-N, and TP concentration was higher in the drainage water (1,754 muS/cm, 90.3 microg/L, and 0.2 mg/L, respectively) than that in the irrigation water (477.1 muS/cm, 46.7 microg/L, and 0.1 mg/L, respectively). Average irrigation efficiency was estimated at 47% and 51% in 2006 and 2007 growing seasons (April-October), respectively. The loads of NO(3)-N in both seasons were higher in the irrigation water (35.1 kg/ha in 2006 and 24.9 kg/ha in 2007) than those in the drainage water (8.1 kg/ha in 2006 and 7.6 kg/ha in 2007). The load of TP was higher in the irrigation water in season 2006 (2.8 kg/ha) than that in the drainage water (1.1 kg/ha). Total phosphorus load in 2007 was equal in irrigation and drainage water (1.2 kg/ha). Wetland conditions, due to rice irrigation regime, drainage network characteristics, and the crop distribution in the study area, affect the drainage water ending in the protected ecosystem of Thermaikos Gulf.

  19. An economic case for drainage for sustainable irrigation: Case studies in the lower Vaal and Riet catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Armour


    Full Text Available Where evaporation exceeds precipitation salinisation is inevitable. This paper presents a multidisciplinary framework of the dynamic interactions between the hydrology, bio-physical and economics of irrigated agriculture in a semi arid area. Status quo drainage and cropping situations are compared to a scenario of increased drainage and leaching and subsequent higher value crops. Stochastically generated hydrology data fitted to a salinisation:yield production function is inputted in a crop enterprise budget (CEB simulation model.Results show losses due to salinisation of up to R6 962/ha, which exceed the direct costs of installing drainage to control salinisation. Although feasible, farmers at this stage of degradation often do not have the financial ability to repay the loans. Where losses do not exceed the financial costs of drainage, soils are further degrading, higher value crops cannot be planted and potential benefits are lost to society, motivating a green box grant. A macro-economic analysis reveals that the potential benefits to society of drainage can repay the total cost of all necessary drainage in a short period of time.

  20. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii. (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H


    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  1. Sewage disposal using anaerobic membrane reactor. Kenkiseimaku reactor ni yoru gesui shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y. (Dic-Degremont Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Discussions were given on a small-scale sewage disposal of about bod 200 mg/l, for which no many examples of use have been hitherto available, using a system combining an anaerobic reactor and membrane modules. Experiments had been carried out from 1988 through 1990 as a part of the Aqua-Renaissance Project. The test equipment wza installed in the premises of the Chigasaki Coastal Research Facilities operated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which used sewage flowing from the adjoining sewage treatment plant for the southern area of the Fujisawa City. The test facility consisted of a system comprising a pretreatment facility, SS decomposing reactor, fluid-bed reactor, separation membrane modules, nitrogen removing facility and micro-organism activity measurement. The test facility was constucted assuming a treatment of 10 m{sup 3} a day. The system was divided into a composite system, A system and B system to operate the system in simplified flows. As a result of comparing the composite system, A system and B system, it was found that B system can deal with wider range of disposal for a small-scale sewage treatment of about 1000 m{sup 3} a day. 6 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Fate of individual sewage disposal system wastewater within regolith in mountainous terrain (United States)

    Dano, Kathleen; Poeter, Eileen; Thyne, Geoff


    In order to improve understanding of the fate of septic tank or individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent in regolith overlying fractured-rock aquifers, effluent from an ISDS in such a setting was tracked via geophysical, hydrological, and geochemical methods. Under typical precipitation conditions, the effluent entered the fractured bedrock within 5 m of the boundary of the constructed infiltration area. During a period of unusually high spring recharge, the plume migrated between 50 and 100 m within the regolith before infiltrating the fractured bedrock. The chemical signature of the effluent is similar to that required to account for the decline in water quality, suggesting a causative relationship (as estimated from mass-balance models of the surface-water chemistry near the mouth of the basin). The elevated salt content of the effluent during periods of high natural recharge to the infiltration area correlates with elevated salt concentrations in surface and groundwater at the basin scale, suggesting that some of the effluent salt load may be stored in the unsaturated zone during dry periods and flushed during periods of elevated natural recharge.

  3. An assessment study of septic tank based sewage disposal system on quality of underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, A.A.; Lisa, M.; Boustani, M.; Jaffar, M.; Masud, K.


    An assessment of septic tank based sewage disposal system made on the basis of quality of underground water is presented. Machrala village is selected as the case study area where an ever-increasing number of septic tanks are posing great health threat to the inhabitants. Both hand pump and tube well water samples are analyzed for toxic trace metals (Mn, Fe, Cd and Co), physico-chemical parameters (pH, turbidity, conductance, total dissolved salts, Ca, Mg, Cl/sup-/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/) and micro-organism population in terms of total viable count, coliform count, MPN coliform. The metals were analyzed by the flame atomic absorption method using standard procedure. The study shows that the local underground water of the village is being adversely affected by toxic metals and coliform bacteria. In most cases, the latter parameter exceeds 240 counts/ml. Besides, tube well water were found to have higher Pb concentration (0.200 mg/ml) and the overall assessment renders more than 50% of the water samples as unsatisfactory for human consumption. (author)

  4. Effect of the foliar enrichment and herbicides on maize and associated weeds irrigated with drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy M.H. Tagour


    Full Text Available A two-year field experiment was conducted during summer seasons of 2013 and 2014, which were irrigated by drainage water which belong to salinity class (C3S1 to C4S2, to study the effect of the foliar enrichment namely (Anti-stress and weed management treatments (some pre and post-emergence herbicides and two-hand hoeing on maize growth, yield, yield components and chemical composition of maize grains and associated weeds (Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa colonum. The results illustrated that application of the foliar enrichment enhanced the dry weight of weeds and increased maize growth characters, yield and yield components and total crude protein and total oil percentage of grain maize, as compared with untreated treatment. All weed management treatments caused a significant reduction in total dry weight of weeds at 60 and 80 days after sowing in both seasons. Two-hand hoeing treatment exerted the highest decrease in total dry weight of weeds followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively at 60 and 80 days after sowing compared with other weed management treatments. While, the highest values of maize growth, yield, yield components and maize grains' content of protein and oil was obtained with two-hand hoeing followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively. While, two hands hoeing produced the maximum values of leaf area, ear length, the weight of kernels plant−1, but applying of metribuzin treatment gave the highest values of total oil percentage of grain maize when the foliar enrichment was used.

  5. Estimating the burden of illness in an Ontario community with untreated drinking water and sewage disposal problems. (United States)

    Chambers, L W; Shimoda, F; Walter, S D; Pickard, L; Hunter, B; Ford, J; Deivanayagam, N; Cunningham, I


    The Hamilton-Wentworth regional health department was asked by one of its municipalities to determine whether the present water supply and sewage disposal methods used in a community without piped water and regional sewage disposal posed a threat to the health of its residents. Three approaches were used: assessments by public health inspectors of all households; bacteriological and chemical analyses of water samples; and completion of a specially designed questionnaire by residents in the target community and a control community. 89% of the 227 residences in the target community were found to have a drinking water supply that, according to the Ministry of Environment guidelines, was unsafe and/or unsatisfactory. According to on-site inspections, 32% of households had sewage disposal problems. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that the target community residents reported more symptoms associated with enteric infections due to the water supply. Two of these symptoms, diarrhea and stomach cramps, had a relative risk of 2.2 when compared to the control community (p less than 0.05). The study was successfully used by the municipality to argue for provincial funding of piped water.

  6. Policy Incentives for Reducing Nitrate Leaching in Agricultural Lands: A Case Study of Irrigation and Drainage Dorudzan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhzeinoddin, A.; Esmaeili, A.; Zibaei, M.


    Agricultural activities increasingly use water, fertilizers and pesticides, which may generate negative impacts on environment. Nowadays, nitrogen leaching from agricultural lands is a widespread global problem. Therefore, alternative land management practices such as nutrient management (rate, method and time of application), tillage operations (conservation and no-tillage), and irrigation management are routinely used to reduce non-point source pollution and improve water quality. In fact, a number of studies have illustrated the positive effects of best management practices on water and nutrient losses. The objective of this paper is to develop a bio-economic model and introducing the policy instrument for reducing nitrate from irrigation and drainage Dorudzan. We aim to identify ‘‘win–win’’ opportunities for improving farm profitability and reducing nitrate leaching.

  7. A sewage disposal failure as a cause of ascariasis and giardiasis epidemic in a family. (United States)

    Totkova, A; Klobusicky, M; Holkova, R; Valent, M; Stojkovicova, H


    In monitoring the incidence of intestinal parasites in children and employees of a nursery the authors examined 31 children with 8 (25.81%) and 16 employees with 3 (18.75%) positive results. The authors wanted to examine also the family members of 8 positive children and 3 positive employees but except from the cleaner's family, (Ascaris lumburicoides, Enterobius vermicularis and Entamoeba coli) nobody accepted the offer. All 8 members of a large family except for Patient 1 (a cleaner) and her grandson were without clinical and laboratory findings. They constitute 3 independent families who lived in 1st category flats. On August 31 there was an extensive sewage disposal failure in the ground floor flat of Family II and the flat was flooded by sewage. All family members worked solidarily on cleaning and also the members of Family IV who are friends of Family II. As shown by clinical symptoms of 'virosis', during the pre-patent period and after an outbreak within 73-78 days, laboratory findings of the family members demonstrated a severe family infection equal to a epidemic of intestinal parasitosis. Ascaris lumbricoides was diagnosed in 8 family members (61.54%) and Giardia intestinalis in 7 family members (53.85%) involved in cleaning. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 2 and Etamoeba coli in 1 family member. In monitored persons, in extreme hygienic conditions during the failure and later, a mass contraction arose on the basis of infection. The fact, that family epidemic arose subsequently, proved, in contrast to sporadic findings in children and adults, a 6.4 and 3.3 times higher incidence of Ascaris lumbricoides and a 5.6 and 8.6 times higher incidence of Giardia intestinalis. The authors discus the reasons of incidence and also preventive measures in population. (Tab. 3, Ref. 29.).

  8. Pseudoclavibacter caeni sp. nov., isolated from sludge of a sewage disposal plant. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin


    A Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterial strain, designated MJ28T, was isolated from a sludge sample from the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was applied to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ28T. Strain MJ28T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pseudoclavibacter soli KP02T (95.2 %). Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of other Pseudoclavibacter species were less than 94.0 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ28T belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Pseudoclavibacter in the family Microbacteriaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ28T was 65.8 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain MJ28T showed features typical of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, with MK-9 as the predominant respiratory quinone, 2,4-diaminobutryic acid as the diamino acid in the peptidoglycan, and anteiso-C17:0 (44.6 %), anteiso-C15:0 (35.7 %) and C16:0 (9.5 %) as the major fatty acids. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ28T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, for which the name Pseudoclavibacter caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ28T (=KCTC 19773T=JCM 16921T).

  9. Nocardioides daejeonensis sp. nov., a denitrifying bacterium isolated from sludge in a sewage-disposal plant. (United States)

    Woo, Sung-Geun; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Yang, Jihoon; Jung, Yong-An; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin


    Strain MJ31(T), a gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from a sludge sample collected at the Daejeon sewage-disposal plant, in South Korea, and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MJ31(T) belonged to the genus Nocardioides, appearing most closely related to Nocardioides dubius KSL-104(T) (98.6 % sequence similarity), Nocardioides jensenii DSM 20641(T) (97.6 %), Nocardioides daedukensis MDN22(T) (97.2 %) and Nocardioides mesophilus MSL-22(T) (97.0 %). The chemotaxonomic properties of strain MJ31(T) were consistent with those of the genus Nocardioides: MK-8(H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone, iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and C(18 : 1)ω9c were the predominant cellular fatty acids, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was based on LL-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain MJ31(T) was 71.2 mol%. Some differential phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values (<28 %) with the type strains of closely related species indicated that strain MJ31(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Nocardioides daejeonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ31(T) ( = KCTC 19772(T) = JCM 16922(T)).

  10. Rhodanobacter caeni sp. nov., isolated from sludge from a sewage disposal plant. (United States)

    Woo, Sung-Geun; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin


    Two Gram-reaction-negative, motile bacteria, designated strains MJ01(T) and MJ14, were isolated from sludge collected from the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. The taxonomic positions of both strains were determined using a polyphasic approach. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strains MJ01(T) and MJ14 appeared indistinguishable and to be most closely related to members of the genus Rhodanobacter in the family Xanthomonadaceae of the Gammaproteobacteria (96.4-98.8% sequence similarity). Strain MJ01(T) exhibited a relatively high level of DNA-DNA relatedness with strain MJ14 (89.3 %) but relatively low DNA-DNA relatedness values with established species in the genus Rhodanobacter (<60 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains MJ01(T) and MJ14 were 65.3 and 64.8 mol%, respectively. The major respiratory quinone of both novel strains was the ubiquinone Q-8. The major fatty acids of both strains were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17:0) and iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c, and the polar lipid profiles of the two strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and minor amounts of unidentified aminophospholipids and phospholipids. Based on the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic evidence, strains MJ01(T) and MJ14 represent a single novel species in the genus Rhodanobacter, for which the name Rhodanobacter caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ01(T) ( = KCTC 22449(T) = JCM 16242(T)), with MJ14 ( = KCTC 22460 = JCM 16243) as a reference strain.

  11. Gordonia caeni sp. nov., isolated from sludge of a sewage disposal plant. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Park, Giho; Yang, Hyejin; Hwang, Supyong; Bae, Yoonjung; Jung, Yong-An; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin


    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, short-rod-shaped, non-motile strain (designated MJ32(T)) was isolated from a sludge sample of the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was applied to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ32(T). Strain MJ32(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gordonia hirsuta DSM 44140(T) (98.1%) and Gordonia hydrophobica DSM 44015(T) (97.0%); levels of sequence similarity to the type strains of other recognized Gordonia species were less than 97.0%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ32(T) belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Gordonia in the family Gordoniaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ32(T) was 69.2 mol%. Chemotaxonomically, strain MJ32(T) showed features typical of the genus Gordonia. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-9(H(2)), the mycolic acids present had C(56)-C(60) carbon atoms, and the major fatty acids were C(16:0) (34.6%), tuberculostearic acid (21.8%), C(16:1)ω7c (19.5%) and C(18:1)ω9c (12.7%). The peptidoglycan type was based on meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid with glycolated sugars. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ32(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gordonia, for which the name Gordonia caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ32(T) (=KCTC 19771(T)=JCM 16923(T)).

  12. Predicting Nitrogen Transport From Individual Sewage Disposal Systems for a Proposed Development in Adams County, Colorado (United States)

    Heatwole, K. K.; McCray, J.; Lowe, K.


    Individual sewage disposal systems (ISDS) have demonstrated the capability to be an effective method of treatment for domestic wastewater. They also are advantageous from a water resources standpoint because there is little water leaving the local hydrologic system. However, if unfavorable settings exist, ISDS can have a detrimental effect on local water-quality. This presentation will focus on assessing the potential impacts of a large housing development to area water quality. The residential development plans to utilize ISDS to accommodate all domestic wastewater generated within the development. The area of interest is located just west of Brighton, Colorado, on the northwestern margin of the Denver Basin. Efforts of this research will focus on impacts of ISDS to local groundwater and surface water systems. The Arapahoe Aquifer, which exists at relatively shallow depths in the area of proposed development, is suspected to be vulnerable to contamination from ISDS. Additionally, the local water quality of the Arapahoe Aquifer was not well known at the start of the study. As a result, nitrate was selected as a fo-cus water quality parameter because it is easily produced through nitrification of septic tank effluent and because of the previous agricultural practices that could be another potential source of nitrate. Several different predictive tools were used to attempt to predict the potential impacts of ISDS to water quality in the Arapahoe Aquifer. The objectives of these tools were to 1) assess the vulnerability of the Arapahoe Aquifer to ni-trate contamination, 2) predict the nitrate load to the aquifer, and 3) determine the sensitivity of different parameter inputs and the overall prediction uncertainty. These predictive tools began with very simple mass-loading calcula-tions and progressed to more complex, vadose-zone numerical contaminant transport modeling.

  13. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation Types (1997) (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.


    This tabular dataset represents the estimated area of artificial drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source datasets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) datasets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 1997). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others 2007) The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that

  14. Irrigation management to optimize controlled drainage in a semi-arid area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soppe, R.W.O.; Ayars, J.E.; Christen, E.W.; Shouse, P.J.


    On the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California, groundwater tables have risen after several decades of irrigation. A regional semi-permeable layer at 100 m depth (Corcoran Clay) combined with over-irrigation and leaching is the major cause of the groundwater rise. Subsurface drain systems

  15. Shigellosis on Indian reserves in Manitoba, Canada: its relationship to crowded housing, lack of running water, and inadequate sewage disposal. (United States)

    Rosenberg, T; Kendall, O; Blanchard, J; Martel, S; Wakelin, C; Fast, M


    This study compares incidence and hospitalization rates for shigellosis between Indians and the rest of the population in Manitoba, Canada. It examines the relationship between shigellosis and environmental conditions on reserves. Rates were calculated with surveillance data and a survey of environmental infrastructure was done. Indians had shigellosis incidence and hospitalization rates that were 29 and 12 times as high, respectively, as those of the rest of the population. Household crowding, lack of piped water, and inadequate sewage disposal were significantly associated with an increased incidence of shigellosis on reserves. Many cases of shigellosis may be prevented by improving living conditions on Indian reserves.

  16. Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.


    Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R


    Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perf...

  17. Deinococcus daejeonensis sp. nov., isolated from sludge in a sewage disposal plant. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Lee, Myungjin


    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, spherical, non-motile red-pigmented bacterial strain, designated MJ27(T), was isolated from a sludge sample of the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was used to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ27(T). Strain MJ27(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Deinococcus grandis DSM 3963(T) (98.8 %), Deinococcus caeni Ho-08(T) (97.5 %) and Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (96.6 %.); levels of sequence similarity with the type strains of other Deinococcus species were less than 96.0 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ27(T) belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Deinococcus in the family Deinococcaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ27(T) was 67.6 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain MJ27(T) were typical of members of the genus Deinococcus, with MK-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C(16:1)ω7c, C(15:1)ω6c, C(16:0) and C(15:0) as major fatty acids (>12 %), ornithine as the diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and resistance to gamma radiation [D(10) (dose required to reduce the bacterial population by tenfold) >9 kGy]. The low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness reported here (5.3±1.5-29.2±2.3 %) indicate that strain MJ27(T) represents a species that is separate from its closest relatives in the genus Deinococcus. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ27(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus daejeonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ27(T) ( = KCTC 13751(T) = JCM 16918(T)).

  18. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997) (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.


    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  19. Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal. (United States)

    Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R


    Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

  20. An Easy Method for Drainage of Fluid in Cases of Continuous Irrigation of the Hand (United States)

    Makhijani, Sumeet


    Summary: Description of a novel method to perform continuous irrigation for flexor tenosynovitis in a way that is comfortable for the patient and convenient for nursing staff by placing the hand in the suction pouch of a lithotomy style drape attached to wall suction. PMID:28293498

  1. The socio-economic base line survey; first chapter of the handbook under preparation: "Managing farmers: a handbook for working with farmers in irrigation and drainage projects"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrevel, A.


    The text The socio-economic base line survey is the first chapter of a book under preparation meant to instruct senior staff of irrigation and drainage projects on techniques to work with farmers. It informs the reader of best practices to set up and execute a socio-economic baseline survey. The

  2. Multi-objective models of waste load allocation toward a sustainable reuse of drainage water in irrigation. (United States)

    Allam, Ayman; Tawfik, Ahmed; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Fleifle, Amr


    The present study proposes a waste load allocation (WLA) framework for a sustainable quality management of agricultural drainage water (ADW). Two multi-objective models, namely, abatement-performance and abatement-equity-performance, were developed through the integration of a water quality model (QAUL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm, by considering (1) the total waste load abatement, and (2) the inequity among waste dischargers. For successfully accomplishing modeling tasks, we developed a comprehensive overall performance measure (E wla ) reflecting possible violations of Egyptian standards for ADW reuse in irrigation. This methodology was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, during both summer and winter seasons of 2012. Abatement-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 100 % corresponded to the abatement ratio of the dischargers ranging from 20.7 to 75.6 % and 29.5 to 78.5 % in summer and in winter, respectively, alongside highly shifting inequity values. Abatement-equity-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 90 % unraveled the necessity of increasing treatment efforts in three out of five dischargers during summer, and four out of five in winter. The trade-off curves obtained from WLA models proved their reliability in selecting appropriate WLA procedures as a function of budget constraints, principles of social equity, and desired overall performance level. Hence, the proposed framework of methodologies is of great importance to decision makers working toward a sustainable reuse of the ADW in irrigation.

  3. Novel application of vacuum sealing drainage with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate for managing infective wounds of gas gangrene. (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Wu, Xing-Huo; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Wu, Qiang; Xia, Tian; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Ye, Zhe-Wei


    Traumatic gas gangrene is a fatal infection mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens. It is a challenge to manage gas gangrene in open wounds and control infection after debridement or amputation. The aim of the present study was to use vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate to manage infective wounds of gas gangrene and observe its clinical efficacy. A total of 48 patients with open traumatic gas gangrene infection were included in this study. Amputations were done for 27 patients, and limb salvage procedures were performed for the others. After amputation or aggressive debridement, the VSD system, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam dressing and polyurethane (PU) film, with continuous irrigation of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solutions, was applied to the wounds. During the follow-up, all the patients healed without recurrence within 8-18 months. There were four complications. Cardiac arrest during amputation surgery occurred in one patient who suffered from severe septic shock. Emergent resuscitation was performed and the patient returned to stable condition. One patient suffered from mixed infection of Staphylococcal aureus, and a second-stage debridement was performed. One patient suffered from severe pain of the limb after the debridement. Exploratory operation was done and the possible reason was trauma of a local peripheral nerve. Three cases of crush syndrome had dialysis treatment for concomitant renal failure. In conclusion, VSD can convert open wound to closed wound, and evacuate necrotic tissues. Furthermore, potassium permanganate solutions help eliminate anaerobic microenvironment and achieve good therapeutic effect on gas gangrene and mixed infection. VSD with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate is a novel, simple and feasible alternative for severe traumatic open wounds with gas gangrene infection.

  4. Macroscopic anatomy, irrigation and venous drainage of female reproductive apparatus of llama (Lama glama)


    León M., Eric; Sato S., Alberto; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Cisneros S., Jannet


    The anatomical description of the reproductive tract of the female llama was studied in four animals. Macroscopically, the reproductive system is morphologically similar to the cow. However, the difference is the absence of intercornual ligament and cotyledons, and the presence of an intercornual septum, as in the alpaca. The distribution of the arteries and veins that irrigated and drained the blood to and from the pelvic cavity and reproductive system presented a vascular distribution almos...

  5. Percutaneous transgastric irrigation drainage in combination with endoscopic necrosectomy in necrotizing pancreatitis (with videos). (United States)

    Raczynski, Susanne; Teich, Niels; Borte, Gudrun; Wittenburg, Henning; Mössner, Joachim; Caca, Karel


    Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic acute and chronic pseudocysts and pancreatic necrosectomy have been shown to be beneficial for critically ill patients, with complete endoscopic resolution rates of around 80%. Our purpose was to describe an improved endoscopic technique used to treat pancreatic necrosis. Case report. University hospital. Two patients with large retroperitoneal necroses were treated with percutaneous transgastric retroperitoneal flushing tubes and a percutaneous transgastric jejunal feeding tube by standard percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy access in addition to endoscopic necrosectomy. Intensive percutaneous transgastric flushing in combination with percutaneous normocaloric enteral nutrition and repeated endoscopic necrosectomy led to excellent outcomes in both patients. Small number of patients. The "double percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy" approach for simultaneous transgastric drainage and normocaloric enteral nutrition in severe cases of pancreatic necroses is safe and effective. It could be a promising improvement to endoscopic transgastric treatment options in necrotizing pancreatitis.

  6. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nasr


    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L, Ca (175.00 mg/L, Cd (1.87 mg/L, Co (2.23 mg/L, Cu (1.71 mg/L, Fe (1.64 mg/L, K (20.50 mg/L, and Pb (2.81 mg/L. According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  7. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91 (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.


    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  8. The strategies of local farmers' water management and the eco-hydrological effects of irrigation-drainage engineering systems in world heritage of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces (United States)

    Gao, Xuan


    Terraces are built in mountainous regions to provide larger area for cultivation,in which the hydrological and geomorphological processes are impacted by local farmers' water management strategies and are modified by manmade irrigation-drainage engineering systems.The Honghe Hani Rice Terraces is a 1300a history of traditional agricultural landscape that was inscribed in the 2013 World Heritage List.The local farmers had developed systematic water management strategies and built perfect irrigation-drainage engineering systems to adapt the local rainfall pattern and rice farming activities.Through field investigation,interviews,combined with Geographic Information Systems,Remote Sensing images and Global Positioning Systems technology,the water management strategies as well as the irrigation-drainage systems and their impacts on eco-hydrological process were studied,the results indicate:Firstly,the local people created and maintained an unique woodcarving allocating management system of irrigating water over hundreds years,which aids distributing water and natural nutrition to each terrace field evenly,and regularly according to cultivation schedule.Secondly,the management of local people play an essential role in effective irrigation-drainage engineering system.A ditch leader takes charge of managing the ditch of their village,keeping ample amount of irrigation water,repairing broken parts of ditches,dealing with unfair water using issues,and so on.Meanwhile,some traditional leaders of minority also take part in.Thus, this traditional way of irrigation-drainage engineering has bringed Hani people around 1300 years of rice harvest for its eco-hydrological effects.Lastly we discuss the future of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces,the traditional cultivation pattern has been influenced by the rapid development of modern civilization,in which some related changes such as the new equipment of county roads and plastic channels and the water overusing by tourism are not totally

  9. Management of Water and Fertilizer Consumption Using Bio-Economic Approach: A Case Study of Irrigation and Drainage Dorudzan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhzeinoddin, A.; Esmaeili, A.; Zibaei, M.


    Today keep increasing the use of chemical fertilizer and water is an effort to improve yield, while overuse of fertilizer is making formerly arable land unusable but led to degrading the quality of water and serious problems for environmental. Hence, for accurate management, we require comprehensive and complete information on the economic and environmental impacts of different management methods. So, by using SWAT model were simulated the economic and environmental effects of each management strategies. Then, mathematical programming was used to determine the optimal cropping pattern subject to resources and environmental constraints in irrigation and Drainage Dorudzan. Based on the findings of this study, we can improve the economic and environmental benefits by moving from current status to economic or bio-economic pattern. Also, by moving from economic pattern to bio-economic pattern, 0.31 percent reduction of economic benefit is leading to improve nitrogen losses by 6.58 percent. In other words, we incur the cost equal to 64.5 thousand rials for reduction per kg nitrogen losses.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Manning's roughness Coefficients in Non-vegetated Canals for Irrigation and Drainage Network of Moghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Nasseri


    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to sensitiveness of flow to roughness coefficient (RC, selection of this coefficient is important in earth canals designing purposes. Precision selection of this coefficient is necessary for design and operation of earthen canals purposes. Overestimation of the actual amount of this coefficient will cause an underestimation for flow velocity. Accordingly, sedimentation in the earth canals will reduce canals’ capacitances. Adversely, underestimation of this coefficient will cause an overestimation for flow velocity and water flux in the earth canals. It will also increase the risk of soil erosion in the channels. This coefficient is expressed by Manning, Chezy and Darcy Weisbach equations. While, hydraulic engineers have selected Manning equation to estimate the flow rate in open channels due to ease of use and acceptable precision in the application of this equation. Water for crop production in Moghan, as one of the most important agricultural centers in Iran, is supplied from Moghan-Meel diversion dam via main canal of irrigation and drainage network with a capacity of 80 m3 s-1 with a length of 116 km. All of the branched 63-channel from the main channel are earthen. Continual sedimentation in the earth canals reduced the capacity of them and re-estimation the capacity of this canals needs to the precise quantities of variables such as roughness coefficient. Because the overestimation of the actual value of the coefficient would reduce the canals’ capacity and underestimation of the coefficient increase the risk of erosion in earth canals. The analysis of the correlation among variables, regression, analysis of statistical distribution of variables, analysis of variance of variables and the analysis of the events probabilities for stochastic variables can be made by statistical methods. Therefore, these methods were applied to analysis of roughness coefficient in the earth canals. Also, due to the importance of roughness

  11. Risk assessment and vertical distribution of thallium in paddy soils and uptake in rice plants irrigated with acid mine drainage. (United States)

    Huang, Xuexia; Li, Ning; Wu, Qihang; Long, Jianyou; Luo, Dinggui; Zhang, Ping; Yao, Yan; Huang, Xiaowu; Li, Dongmei; Lu, Yayin; Liang, Jianfeng


    The objective of this paper is to assess the influence of irritating paddy fields with acid mine drainage containing thallium (Tl) to rice plant-soil system and potential health risks for local residents. Vertical distribution of Tl, pH, organic matter (OM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in 24 paddy soil profiles around Yunfu pyrite mine area was investigated. Rice plant samples were collected from the corresponding soil sampling site. The results showed that Tl concentrations in paddy soils at 0-60 cm depth range from 3.07 to 9.42 mg kg -1 , with a mean of 5.74 mg kg -1 , which were significantly higher than the background value of soil in China (0.58 mg kg -1 ). On the whole, Tl contents in paddy soil profiles increased quickly with soil depth from 0 to 30 cm and decreased slowly with soil depth from 30 to 60 cm. The soil Tl content was significant negatively correlated with soil pH. The mean content of Tl in the root, stem, leaf, and rice was 4.36, 1.83, 2.74, and 1.42 mg kg -1 , respectively, which exceeded the proposed permissible limits for foods and feedstuffs in Germany. The Tl content in various tissues of the rice plants followed the order root > leaf > stem (rice), which suggested that most Tl taken up by rice plants retained in the root, and a little migrated to the leaf, stem, and rice. Correlation analysis showed that Tl content in root was significant positively correlated with Tl content in leaf and rice. The ranges of hazard quotient (HQ) values were 4.08∼24.50 and 3.84∼22.38 for males and females, respectively. Males have higher health risk than females in the same age group. In childhood age groups (2 to <21 years) and adult age groups (21 to <70 years), the highest health risk level was observed in the 11 to 16 age group and 21 to 50 age group, respectively. The findings indicated that regular irrigation with Tl-bearing acid mine drainage led to considerable contamination of Tl in paddy soil and rice plant. Local government

  12. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada 1994-95 (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.; Tuttle, Peter L.


    A study was begun in 1994 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage from the Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or on fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of the Walker River for other beneficial uses. Samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected during June-August 1994 (during a drought year) from sites upstream from and on the Walker River Indian Reservation for analyses of trace elements. Other analyses included physical characteristics, major dissolved constituents, selected species of water-soluble nitrogen and phosphorus, and selected pesticides in bottom sediment. Water samples were collected again from four sites on the Reservation in August 1995 (during a wetterthan- average year) to provide data for comparing extreme climatic conditions. Water samples collected from the Walker River Indian Reservation in 1994 equaled or exceeded the Nevada water-quality standard or level of concern for at least one of the following: water temperature, pH, dissolved solids, unionized ammonia, phosphate, arsenic, boron, chromium, lead, and molybdenum; in 1995, only a single sample from one site exceeded a Nevada water-quality standard for molybdenum. Levels of concern for trace elements in bottom sediment collected in 1994 were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, iron, manganese, and zinc. Concentrations of organochiorine pesticide residues in bottom sediment were below analytical reporting limits. Levels of concern for trace-elements in samples of biota were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, boron, copper, and mercury. Results of toxicity testing indicate that only water samples from Walker Lake caused a toxic response in test bacteria. Arsenic and boron concentrations in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue exceeded levels of concern throughout the Walker River Basin, but most commonly in the lower Walker River Basin. Mercury also was elevated

  13. The impact of informal irrigation practices on soil drainage condition, soil pollution and land suitability for agriculture in El Saf area of El Giza Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan E.M. El Azab


    Full Text Available The study area was selected in El Saf District of El Giza Governorate in Egypt, covering 21461.4 ha of Nile sediments and their outskirts of alluvial higher and lower terraces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of informal irrigation practices on drainage deterioration, soil pollution and land suitability for agricultural use using the satellite LDCM data 2013. From the lower alluvial terraces (partly cultivated using wastewater, the drainage flows westward via descending slopes resulting in land deterioration in both the alluvial lower terraces and alluvial plain of River Nile. The drainage conditions are excessively drained soils in the alluvial upper terraces within soils of Typic Haplocalcids, sandy skeletal, but in the lower terraces it partly occurred within soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal. Moderately well drained soils occurred in soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy in the alluvial lower terraces, while in the alluvial plain of Nile sediments are Sodic Haplotorrerts, fine. Poorly drained soils in the lower alluvial terraces have soils of Typic Epiaquents, sandy associated with Sodic Psammaquents and Aquic Haplocalcids, coarse loamy, while in the alluvial plain of River Nile the soils are Halic Epiaquerts, fine. Very poorly drained soils (submerged areas are scattered spots in both the lower alluvial terraces and the alluvial plain. In the alluvial plain of River Nile, 1967.1 ha become not suitable for the traditional cultivated crops, while in the alluvial terraces 3251.0 ha are not suitable for the proposed cultivation of Jojoba plants. Heavy metals of Cadmium (Cd, Cobalt (Co, Lead (Pb and Nickel (Ni were added to the soil surface and sub-surface in the irrigated areas by wastewater in the lower alluvial terraces (moderately well drained soils, but Cd and Co exceeded the standards of permissible total concentrations in these soils. The same metals were added to soil sub-surface layers in the alluvial plain

  14. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87 (United States)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.


    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  15. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.


    An investigation was initiated to determine whether irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert and were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements, including selenium. Other analyses included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediments and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, concentrations of the following constituents commonly were found to exceed baseline concentrations or federal and state criteria for the protection of aquatic life or the propagation of wildlife: in water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appear to be biomagnified whereas arsenic is bioaccumulated. Some radioactive substances were substantially higher at the downstream sites compared with upstream background sites, but the significance of this to wildlife is unknown at present. 88 refs., 32 figs., 19 tabs

  16. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1986-87 (United States)

    Setmire, J.G.; Wolfe, J.C.; Stroud, R.K.


    Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled during 1986 and 1987 in the Salton Sea area to determine concentrations of trace elements and pesticides as part of the Department of Interior Irrigation Drainage Program. The sampling sites (12 water, 15 bottom sediment, and 5 biota) were located in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The focus of sampling was to determine the current or potential threat to the wildlife of the Salton National Wildlife Refuge from irrigation projects sponsored or operated by the Department of the Interior. Results of the investigation indicate that selenium is the major element of concern. Elevated concentrations of selenium in water were restricted to tile-drain effluent. The maximum selenium concentration of 300 microg/L was detected in a tile-drain sample, and the minimum concentration of 1 microg/L was detected in a composite sample of Salton Sea water. The median selenium concentration was 19 microg/L. In contrast to the water, the highest bottom-sediment selenium concentration of 3.3 mg/kg was in a composite sample from the Salton Sea. The selenium detected in samples of waterfowl and fish also are of concern, but, to date, no studies have been done in the Salton Sea area to determine if selenium has caused adverse biological effects. Concentrations of boron and manganese were elevated in tile-drain samples throughout the Imperial Valley. Boron concentrations in migratory waterfowl were at levels that could cause reproduction impairment. Elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel, and zinc were detected in the Whitewater River , but they were not associated with irrigation drainage. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in bottom sediment throughout the study area at levels approaching those measured more than 10 years ago. More detailed studies would be needed to determine if these residues are affecting the waterfowl. (USGS)

  17. Subsurface drainage of valley bottom irrigated rice schemes in tropical savannah : case studies of Tiefora and Moussodougou in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keïta, A.



    The contrasted global population growth with the multiplication of the constraints to developing new irrigation systems puts a special challenge upon human crop production systems that needs to be taken up.

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, 1988-89 (United States)

    Low, Walton H.; Mullins, William H.


    Increased concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish, and wildlife prompted the Department of the Interior to begin a program during late 1985 to identify irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the Western States. During `988, the Task Group on Irrigation Drainage selected the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, for study to determine whether potentially toxic concentrations of trace elements or organochlorine compounds existed in water, bottom sediment, and biota. The 91-square mile American Falls Reservoir has a total capacity of 1.7 million acre-feet and is used primarily for irrigation-water supply and power generation. Irrigated land upstream from the reservoir totals about 550,000 acres. Total water inflow to the reservoir is about 5.8 million acre-feet per year, of which about 63 percent is from surface-water runoff, 33 percent is from ground-water discharge, and about 4 percent is from ungaged tributaries, canals, ditches, sloughs, and precipitation. Ground-water discharge to the reservoir originates, in part, from irrigation of land upstream from and adjacent to the reservoir. The 1988 water year was a drought year, and water discharge was about 34 percent less than during 1939-88. Water samples were collected during the post-irrigation (October 1987) and irrigation (July 1988) seasons and were analyzed for major ions and trace elements. Bottom-sediment samples were collected during the irrigation season and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Biota samples were collected during May, June, July, and August 1988 and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water ranged from 216 to 561 milligrams per liter. The similarity of dissolved-solids concentrations between the irrigation and post-irrigation seasons can be attributed to the large volume of ground-water discharge in the study area. Most trace

  19. A water-budget approach to estimating potential groundwater recharge from two domestic sewage disposal fields in eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2011-12 (United States)

    Crilley, Dianna M.; Collison, Jake W.


    Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, is a historically rural area that in recent years has experienced an increase in population and in the construction of new housing units, most of which are not connected to a centralized wastewater treatment system. Increasing water use has raised concerns about the effect of development on the available groundwater resources in the area. During 2011–12, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Bernalillo County Public Works Natural Resource Services, used a water-budget approach to quantify the amount of potential groundwater recharge occurring from the domestic sewage (effluent) dosed to the sewage disposal field at two locations—sites A and B—in eastern Bernalillo County, N. Mex. The amount of effluent that is potentially available for groundwater recharge was determined as the mean daily volume of effluent dosed to the disposal field in excess of the mean daily volume of effluent loss from evapotranspiration from the disposal field.

  20. Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93 (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.


    In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for

  1. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.


    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  2. Occurrence, distribution, and transport of pesticides in agricultural irrigation-return flow from four drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project, Washington, 2002-04, and comparison with historical data (United States)

    Wagner, Richard J.; Frans, Lonna M.; Huffman, Raegan L.


    Water-quality samples were collected from sites in four irrigation return-flow drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project from July 2002 through October 2004. Ten samples were collected throughout the irrigation season (generally April through October) and two samples were collected during the non-irrigation season. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and a suite of 107 pesticides and pesticide metabolites (pesticide transformation products) and to document the occurrence, distribution, and pesticides transport and pesticide metabolites. The four drainage basins vary in size from 19 to 710 square miles. Percentage of agricultural cropland ranges from about 35 percent in Crab Creek drainage basin to a maximum of 75 percent in Lind Coulee drainage basin. More than 95 percent of cropland in Red Rock Coulee, Crab Creek, and Sand Hollow drainage basins is irrigated, whereas only 30 percent of cropland in Lind Coulee is irrigated. Forty-two pesticides and five metabolites were detected in samples from the four irrigation return-flow drainage basins. The most compounds detected were in samples from Sand Hollow with 37, followed by Lind Coulee with 33, Red Rock Coulee with 30, and Crab Creek with 28. Herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides, followed by insecticides, metabolites, and fungicides. Atrazine, bentazon, diuron, and 2,4-D were the most frequently detected herbicides and chlorpyrifos and azinphos-methyl were the most frequently detected insecticides. A statistical comparison of pesticide concentrations in surface-water samples collected in the mid-1990s at Crab Creek and Sand Hollow with those collected in this study showed a statistically significant increase in concentrations for diuron and a statistically significant decrease for ethoprophos and atrazine in Crab Creek. Statistically significant increases were in concentrations of bromacil, diuron, and

  3. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia. (United States)

    Kenea, Oljira; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome


    Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia and elsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables (water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized and analyzed. Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout the study period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only 3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logistic regression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vector species. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquatic vegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly and positively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies. Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintained by perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vector control operations.

  4. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Pine River Project area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89 (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Thompson, A.L.; Formea, J.J.; Wickman, D.W.


    During 1988-89, water, bottom sediment, biota, soil, and plants were sampled for a reconnaissance investigation of the Pine River Project area in southwestern Colorado. Irrigation drainage does not seem to be a major source of dissolved solids in streams. Concentrations of manganese, mercury, and selenium exceeded drinking-water regulations in some streams. The maximum selenium concentration in a stream sample was 94 microg/L in Rock Creek. Irrigation drainage and natural groundwater are sources of some trace elements to streams. Water from a well in a nonirrigated area had 4,800 microg/L of selenium. Selenium concentrations in soil on the Oxford Tract were greater in areas previously or presently irrigated than in areas never irrigated. Some forage plants on the Oxford Tract had large selenium concentrations, including 180 mg/km in alfalfa. Most fish samples had selenium concentrations greater than the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile. Selenium concentrations in aquatic plants, aquatic inverte- brates, and small mammals may be of concern to fish and wildlife because of possible food-chain bioconcentration. Selenium concentrations in bird samples indicate selenium contamination of biota on the Oxford Tract. Mallard breasts had selenium concentrations exceeding a guideline for human consumption. The maximum selenium concentration in biota was 50 microg/g dry weight in a bird liver from the Oxford Tract. In some fish samples, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc exceeded background concentrations, but concentrations were not toxic. Mercury concentrations in 16 fish samples exceeded the background concentration. Ten mercury concentrations in fish exceeded a guideline for mercury in food for consumption by pregnant women.

  5. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Vermejo Project area and the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge, Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, 1993 (United States)

    Bartolino, J.R.; Garrabrant, L.A.; Wilson, Mark; Lusk, J.D.


    Based on findings of limited studies during 1989-92, a reconnaissance investigation was conducted in 1993 to assess the effects of the Vermejo Irrigation Project on water quality in the area of the project, including the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. This project was part of a U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife and whether irrigation drainage may adversely affect the suitability of water for other beneficial uses. For this study, samples of water, sediment, and biota were collected from 16 sites in and around the Vermejo Irrigation Project prior to, during the latter part of, and after the 1993 irrigation season (April, August-September, and November, respectively). No inorganic constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The State of New Mexico standard of 750 micrograms per liter for boron in irrigation water was exceeded at three sites (five samples), though none exceeded the livestock water standard of 5,000 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the State of New Mexico chronic standard of 2 micrograms per liter for wildlife and fisheries water in at least eight samples from five sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected and analyzed for trace elements and compared to concentrations of trace elements in soils of the Western United States. Concentrations of three trace elements at eight sites exceeded the upper values of the expected 95-percent ranges for Western U.S. soils. These included molybdenum at one site, selenium at seven sites, and uranium at four sites. Cadmium and copper concentrations exceeded the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile in fish from six sites. Average concentrations of selenium in adult brine flies (33.7 mg/g dry weight) were elevated above concentrations in other

  6. Drainage under increasing and changing requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, E.; Zimmer, D.; Vlotman, W.F.


    This year the Working Group on Drainage of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) celebrates its 25th anniversary. This paper reviews the development of drainage for three different agro-climatic zones, i.e. the temperate (humid), the arid/semi-arid and the humid/semi-humid

  7. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1988-90 (United States)

    Setmire, J.G.; Schroeder, R.A.; Densmore, J.N.; Goodbred, S.O.; Audet, D.J.; Radke, W.R.


    Results of a detailed study by the National Irrigation Water-Quality Program (NIWQP), U.S. Department of the Interior, indicate that factors controlling contaminant concentrations in subsurface irrigation drainwater in the Imperial Valley are soil characteristics, hydrology, and agricultural practices. Higher contaminant concentrations commonly were associated with clayey soils, which retard the movement of irrigation water and thus increase the degree of evaporative concentration. Regression of hydrogen- and oxygen-isotope ratios in samples collected from sumps yields a linear drainwater evaporation line that extrapolates through the isotopic composition of Colorado River water, thus demonstrating that Colorado River water is the sole source of subsurface drainwater in the Imperial Valley. Ratios of selenium to chloride indicate that selenium present in subsurface drainwater throughout the Imperial Valley originates from the Colorado River. The selenium load discharged to the Salton Sea from the Alamo River, the largest contributor, is about 6.5 tons/yr. Biological sampling and analysis showed that drainwater contaminants, including selenium, boron, and DDE, are accumulating in tissues of migratory and resident birds that use food sources in the Imperial Valley and the Salton Sea. Selenium concentration in fish-eating birds, shorebirds, and the endangered Yuma clapper rail were at levels that could affect reproduction. Boron concentrations in migratory waterfowl and resident shorebirds were at levels that potentially could cause reduced growth in young. As a result of DDE contamination of food sources, waterfowl and fish-eating birds in the Imperial Valley may be experiencing reproductive impairment.

  8. Is the Revitalisation of Smallholder Irrigation Schemes (RESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 30, 2013 ... including rainwater harvesting, flood recession, flood water spreading, river ... Smallholder irrigation systems can comprise farmers who use shared or ...... on Irrigation and Drainage, 15-17 November 2006, Aventura. Swadini.

  9. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River basin, northeastern Montana, 1986-87 (United States)

    Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.


    Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic (47 micrograms/L), uranium (43 microg/L), and vanadium (51 microg/L) in Dry Lake Unit, and boron (1,000 microg/L) in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain (56 microg/L) and two shallow domestic wells (40 and 47 microg/L) were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation (64 picocuries/L) and gross beta radiation (71 picocuries/L) were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediments of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium (99 micrograms/g), copper (37 microg/g), nickel (37 microg/g), vanadium (160 microg/g), and zinc (120 microg/g) that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. With few exceptions, concentrations of trace elements and pesticides in biota generally were less than values known to produce harmful effects on growth or reproduction. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Effects of shallow groundwater management on the spatial and temporal variability of boron and salinity in an irrigated field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shouse, P.J.; Goldberg, S.; Skaggs, T.H.; Soppe, R.W.O.; Ayars, J.E.


    In some irrigated regions, the disposal of agricultural drainage waters poses significant environmental challenges. Efforts are underway to develop irrigation water management practices that reduce the volume of drainage generated. One such management strategy involves restricting flow in subsurface

  11. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda


    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  12. Minimization of costs and fees in municipal sewage disposal. Legal bases, scope for action and reports of experience. PC information system AquaArgument; Kosten- und Abgabenminimierung in der kommunalen Abwasserentsorgung. Rechtliche Grundlagen, Handlungsspielraeume und Erfahrungsberichte. PC-Informationssystem AquaArgument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, R. [Saarberg Hoelter Wassertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany); Knust, M. [Saarberg Hoelter Wassertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany); Wittenberg, D. [Kanzlei Zenk Tippenhauer Osmer Schroeter Schmidt-Decker Bergmann, Hamburg (Germany); Rehr-Zimmermann, M. [Kanzlei Zenk Tippenhauer Osmer Schroeter Schmidt-Decker Bergmann, Hamburg (Germany); Hueting, R. [Kanzlei Zenk Tippenhauer Osmer Schroeter Schmidt-Decker Bergmann, Hamburg (Germany); Vogel, H.J. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)


    One of the many tasks of local government is to make provision for sewage disposal. In many towns, necessary investments, the installation of further technical systems, and reconstructions entail a rise in sewage disposal fees. These measures, whose justification can hardly be denied for ecological reasons, and the resulting cost are more and more the object of long-term economic analysis and broad public debate. The brochure points out possibilities for minimizing the costs of, and fees for, municipal sewage disposal. Of course it is up to each municipal administration to decide in favour of or against their implementation (orig.). [Deutsch] Eine von vielen Aufgaben in der Kommune ist die Sicherstellung der Abwasserentsorgung. Die notwendigen Investitionen, technischen Erweiterungen und Rekonstruktionen fuehren vielerorts zu steigenden Abwassergebuehren. Die aus oekologischen Gesichtspunkten kaum in Abrede gestellten Massnahmen und die daraus resultierenden Kosten unterliegen in ihrer Entwicklung immer mehr einer langfristig orientierten wirtschaftlichen Betrachtung und einer damit verbundenen breiten oeffentlichen Diskussion. In dieser Broschuere werden einige Hinweise und Moeglichkeiten zur Kosten- und Abgabenminimierung in der kommunalen Abwasserentsorgung aufgezeigt, deren Umsetzung selbstverstaendlich der Entscheidung der einzelnen Kommune unterliegt. (orig./SR)

  13. The use of hydrological models in the irrigated areas of Mendoza, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Morábito, J.A.; Manzanera, M.; Pazos, J.A.; Ciancaglini, N.C.; Menenti, M.


    A proper understanding of the interaction of irrigation and drainage canals with an aquifer system is necessary to improve the performance of irrigation. This mechanism must be studied with a detail sufficient to identify operational guidelines for specific portions of an irrigation and drainage

  14. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for sustainable rice production in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Since rice can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, the need for soil suitability evaluation becomes very necessary in order for supply to meet up with demand. Six land qualities viz; climate, soil physical properties, drainage, ...

  15. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B


    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  16. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Perirectal Abscess Drainage without Drainage Catheter: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kwang Choi


    Full Text Available A perirectal abscess is a relatively common disease entity that occurs as a postsurgical complication or as a result of various medical conditions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-guided drainage was recently described as a promising alternative treatment. Previous reports have recommended placement of a drainage catheter through the anus for irrigation, which is inconvenient to the patient and carries a risk of accidental dislodgement. We report four cases of perirectal abscess that were successfully treated with only one or two 7 F double pigtail plastic stent placements and without a drainage catheter for irrigation.

  17. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.


    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  18. A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow model, the SEAWAT model, was used to assess the influence of subsurface drain spacing, evapotranspiration and irrigation water quality on salt concentration at the base of the root zone, leaching and drainage in salt affected irrigated land. The study was carried out ...

  19. Subsurface drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Der


    Full Text Available and long term behavior were evaluated. Laboratory tests for geotextile selection are recommended and tentative criteria given. The use of fin drains was evaluated in the laboratory and a field study to monitor the efficacy of drainage systems was started...

  20. Evaluation of soil and water salinity for irrigation in North-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For sound land use and water management in irrigated area, knowledge of the chemical composition of soils, water, climate, drainage condition and irrigation methods before action are crucial for sustainability of irrigation projects. The study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of soils and water for intended ...

  1. Reuse of drainage water model : calculation method of drainage water and watertable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, C.W.J.; Rijtema, P.E.; Abdel Khalik, M.A.


    The main objective of the project is to assist the Ministry of Irrigation in Egypt in the planning of future watermanagement strategies incorporating reuse of drainage water practices. In order to achieve this main objective a comprehensive measurement programme has been initiated and a mathematical

  2. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns]. (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun


    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage.

  3. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation pot...

  4. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  5. Transient drainage summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage

  6. Mine drainage treatment


    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar


    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  7. Drainage system maintenance problems in the melioration region of VDP Juzni Banat


    Rudić Dragan; Đurović Nevenka; Pivić Radmila N.


    The aim of this paper is a case study of a melioration region, which will show the state of the channel network, as well as the scope of the implemented maintenance measures, which resulted in the reduced functionality of the drainage system. Melioration channels are in most cases in the function of drainage, and a minor number has a double function (drainage and irrigation). The dense network of channels, erected throughout the catchment area, is capable of receiving all the design surplus w...

  8. Social impact assessment of subsurface drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, A.H.; Rafiq, M.; Alam, M.M.


    Social impact assessment of four drainage projects namely; Mardan SCARP Project (MSP), Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad (FDP), Chashma Command Area Development Project (CCADP) and Mirpurkhas Tile Drainage Project (MKOP) has been done. For this purpose, a socio-technical survey was carried out in which randomly selected farmers were interviewed. The investigations revealed that although significant population (-77%) at four study sites was educated, yet, the farmers were not satisfactorily educated to understand the operation and maintenance of drainage systems. The perusal of data revealed that 14%, 17% and 25% respondents from MSP, FOP and MKDP respectively had to migrate from their villages mainly due to pre-project water logging problem. However, installation of drainage systems in those areas improved the situation resulting in the increase of farm income, which was an attraction for them to return to their villages. The analysis of farm mechanization revealed that at MSP, FDP, CCADP and MKOP sites 71%, 42%, 40% and 75% respondents respectively were tractor owners and owners of some kind of other farm implements, whereas, remaining respondents were performing their farm operations on hire basis. Although, hire operation basis is much better than traditional ways, however, improving the farm mechanization could further enhance the benefits of drainage systems. The investigations revealed that a significant majority of respondents at four project sites had never met the Agricultural Extension Officer. The farmers' access to financing institutions such as ZTB was also negligible. There was lack of coordination among various departments such as WAPDA, Agriculture Extension and Irrigation and Power Department at four study sites. Nevertheless, the overall social impact investigations did reveal that the objectives of drainage systems installation have been achieved in terms of uplifting the socio-economic conditions of drainage areas. To make the efficient use of

  9. The full financial costs of irrigation services: A discussion on existing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering water as an economic good entails, among other requisites, properly assessing the cost incurred by supplying and managing the resource, and the required infrastructure thereof. Regarding irrigation, the International Commission for Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) set up a method for assessing the full financial ...

  10. Water quality issues associated with agricultural drainage in semiarid regions (United States)

    Sylvester, Marc A.

    High incidences of mortality, birth defects, and reproductive failure in waterfowl using Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif., have occurred because of the bioaccumulation of selenium from irrigation drainage. These circumstances have prompted concern about the quality of agriculture drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish and wildlife, and beneficial uses of water. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) organized a 1-day session at the 1986 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., to provide an interdisciplinary forum for hydrologists, geochemists, and aquatic chemists to discuss the processes controlling the distribution, mobilization, transport, and fate of trace elements in source rocks, soils, water, and biota in semiarid regions in which irrigated agriculture occurs. The focus of t h e session was the presentation of research results on the source, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in agricultural drainage.

  11. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation. (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba


    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  12. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  13. 'Irrigation by night' in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2017 ... tions in irrigation systems in the night: 'It is common place that the night is the time ..... roads and rainwater tanks ('JoJo's') to water the gardens. The ..... drainage system throughout the home garden, but also directly from the ...

  14. Root canal irrigants


    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu


    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...



    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2


    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.


    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M andO, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case

  17. Environment-oriented private house of Mr.K in Kyushu. Self-sufficing concept of the entire house demands for heating and cooling by natural energy, including the sewage disposal; Kyushu ni tatsu kankyo kyoseigata jutaku (K tei). Danbo/ryobo/seikatsu haisui no subete wo teinai deno shizen energy wo mochiite jusoku/shorisuru konseputo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A case study for a natural energy system serving for a private house is reported with the outline of the system and the measurement results of the temperature and heat environments both in summer and winter. A 2-story house with an area of 141m{sup 2} and a total floor area of 186m{sup 2} is introduced including the site where it stands. Then, it is described on a floor heating system by circulating warm water through pipings embedded in the structural bodies, made of reinforced concrete from a solar heat collector consisted of 20 galvanized steel pipes of 100mm in diameter and 7m in length, a wall and ceiling cooling system with well water that gushes out at a rate of about 2 tons/min, and also the use of 20 amorphous solar cell panels as the source of electric power generation of about 17W capacity for these 2 systems, a house sewage disposal after the first stage treatment into the soil of kicken garden and so forth. Upon these system installed, 50 measurement items such as temperatures of outdoor and each room, humidity, quantity of sunshine and so on were measured for 1 year, and the instrumentation data were collected. From various analytical results, it was revealed that the highest temperature of warm water pipings in winter was 32{degree}C, while the lowest temperature of 17{degree}C was recorded in the morning and the surface temperature in the structural bodies of a room located at the south-east corner remained stable in summer more or less at 27{degree}C and so forth. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Irrigation in endodontic treatment. (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina


    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  19. Pleural fluid drainage: Percutaneous catheter drainage versus surgical chest tube drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illescas, F.F.; Reinhold, C.; Atri, M.; Bret, P.M.


    Over the past 4 years, 55 cases (one transudate, 28 exudates, and 26 empymas) were drained. Surgical chest tubes alone were used in 35 drainages, percutaneous catheters alone in five drainages, and both types in 15 drainages. Percutaneous catheter drainage was successful in 12 of 20 drainages (60%). Surgical tube drainage was successful in 18 of 50 drainages (36%). The success rate for the nonempyema group was 45% with both types of drainage. For the empyema group, the success rate for percutaneous catheter drainage was 66% vs 23% for surgical tube drainage. Seven major complications occurred with surgical tube drainage, but only one major complication occurred with percutaneous catheter drainage. Radiologically guided percutaneous catheter drainage should be the procedure of choice for pleural fluid drainage. It has a higher success rate for empyemas and is associated with less complications

  20. Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashari, B.K.


    Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

  1. [Ascites drainage at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutjeboer, J.; Erkel, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Meer, R.W. van der


    Ascites can lead to many symptoms, and often occurs in patients with an end-stage malignancy such as ovarian, pancreatic, colonic, or gastric cancer. Intermittent ascites drainage is applied in these patients as a palliative measure. As frequent drainage is necessary, a subcutaneously tunnelled

  2. Water economy in the irrigation of family farmland in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhiri, A.; Elloumi, M.J.; Laouini, M.


    A simple irrigation technique based on the use of polyethylene bags was developed and tested so as to achieve maximum water economy in family-scale farming in arid zones. It simulates localized irrigation and eliminates water losses due to evaporation and drainage. The method was tried out in the cultivation of tomatoes in glasshouses. In comparison with the control experiment in the field with furrow irrigation, the saving of water was 60%, with a 30% drop in production. There was thus a net improvement in efficiency in the utilization of the irrigation water. (author)

  3. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Hong, Seong Mo; Han, Man Chung


    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was successfully made 20 times on 17 patients of obstructive jaundice for recent 1 year since June 1981 at Department of Radiology in Seoul National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice was CBD Ca in 13 cases, metastasis in 2 cases, pancreatic cancer in 1 case and CBD stone in 1 case. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a relatively ease, safe and effective method which can be done after PTC by radiologist. It is expected that percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be done as an essential procedure for transient permanent palliation of obstructive jaundice

  4. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  5. Seasonal changes of fertilizer impacts on agricultural drainage in a salinized area in Adana, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Akca, E.; Nakano, T.; Nagano, T.; Kapur, S.; Watanabe, T.


    Seasonal changes in the impacts of fertilizer on the composition of agricultural drainage water were examined by analyzing the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotope ratio and chemical composition of drainage water samples. Samples of drainage water were taken from the main drainage canals of the Lower Seyhan Irrigation Project, at sites designated as D10, D11, and D12. Plots of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr vs. 1/Sr indicated that the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of drainage water was positively related to those of fertilizer and irrigation water. The origins of Sr in two of the end-components were fertilizer and irrigation water. The data from the end-drain in winter suggested that the origin of Sr in the third end-component was fossil seawater. Analysis of a mixing model incorporating these three end-components showed that the origins of Sr in drainage differed markedly between summer and winter. Fertilizer made the greatest contribution to Sr in drainage water both in summer and winter, contributing 38-72% of total Sr in summer and 64-87% of total Sr in winter. In summer, fertilizer contributed 72% of total Sr in drainage water in D12, 44% in D10, and 38% in D11. This result implies that fertilizer was applied excessively at the D12 site. In winter, seawater accounted for 10% of Sr in drainage water in D12, whereas it accounted for 19-27% of Sr in drainage water in D10 and D11. Therefore, at least 70% of the salt in drainage water originates from fertilizer and irrigation water. At this study site, the salt originating from seawater is replaced by that from fertilizer and irrigation water, due to intensive agricultural management. The study site is a delta that lay on the ocean subsurface at least 3000 years ago, and therefore, was originally a primary salinization area. This result suggests that anthropogenic secondary salinization progressed over time via fertilizer and irrigation applications.

  6. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon


    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  7. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  8. Surface Water & Surface Drainage (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  9. The operation and monitoring of sewage disposal by stack injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.A. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. (United States)


    A system that uses turbine exhaust to evaporate sewage, was described. The Alyeska Pipeline Service developed the system for isolated pump stations located in permafrost areas. The pumps moving the crude oil in the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were driven by simple cycle gas turbine engines which produce large amounts of waste heat. The waste heat was used to evaporate the sewage effluent, effectively destroying all pathogens in it. The process, known as `stack injection`, was recently upgraded to increase efficiency and safety. Stack injection was being used at five pump stations. Methods used to control operation of the stack injection system, and field data used to redesign the system were reviewed. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Survey of the home sewage disposal systems in northeast Ohio. (United States)

    Tumeo, Mark A; Newland, Juliet


    This article reports on failure rates in onsite sewage treatment systems (STS) that were found as part of a comprehensive seven-county survey that was performed under the auspices of the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) during the summer of 2000. The goal was to determine the percentage of onsite, individual home wastewater systems that were "failing." A system was identified as "failing" if, upon inspection, it had observable surfacing of effluent from the treatment system. A certified soil scientist conducted each on-site investigation to ensure consistency in methodology and to provide verification of soil types for each installation. The survey revealed that between 12.7% and 19.7% of the onsite wastewater treatment systems are allowing wastewater to surface as opposed to infiltrate (at the 95% confidence interval). The rate of failure does not vary significantly between aerobic and septic systems or between systems with or without filters.

  11. Domestic Sewage Disposal and Quality of Water from Hand Dug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results shows that wells located close to septic tanks and pit latrines were more polluted in terms of acidity, conductivity, CaCO3, NO3, ammonia, Pb and bacteriological quality. These results shows that unless there is proper education of the populace in this area, the continued use of water from these wells could lead to ...

  12. Water and solute balances as a basis for sustainable irrigation agriculture (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso


    The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.

  13. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll


    . We argue that the effect has historical origins: irrigation allowed landed elites in arid areas to monopolize water and arable land. This made elites more powerful and better able to oppose democratization. Consistent with this conjecture, we show that irrigation dependence predicts land inequality...

  14. Effective colostomy irrigation. (United States)

    Mazier, W P; Dignan, R D; Capehart, R J; Smith, B G


    The ultimate goal of the cone method of colostomy irrigation is to return patients with colostomies to their former role in society with confidence in themselves to the extent that having a colostomy is not considered a handicap. The results have generally been excellent. We believe all patients with stomas should be afforded the opportunity to attempt colostomy irrigation.

  15. [Ascites drainage at home]. (United States)

    Lutjeboer, Jacob; van Erkel, Arian R; van der Hoeven, J J M Koos; van der Meer, Rutger W


    Ascites can lead to many symptoms, and often occurs in patients with an end-stage malignancy such as ovarian, pancreatic, colonic, or gastric cancer. Intermittent ascites drainage is applied in these patients as a palliative measure. As frequent drainage is necessary, a subcutaneously tunnelled permanent ascites catheter is a good alternative for intermittent drainage. The patient can open - and then re-close - the catheter when abdominal pressure increases. We inserted 35 subcutaneously permanent ascites catheters in the course of the past 3.5 years in the Leiden University Medical Centre. The success rate was 100% and the complication risk was 2.9%. A subcutaneously tunnelled ascites catheter is an effective and safe palliative treatment for patients with end-stage malignant disease and suffering from ascites.

  16. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Gordon, R.


    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  17. Impact of different irrigation systems on water quality in peri-urban areas of Gujarat, India


    Vangani, Ruchi; Saxena, Deepak; Gerber, Nikolaus; Mavalankar, Dileep; von Braun, Joachim


    The ever-growing population of India, along with the increasing competition for water for productive uses in different sectors - especially irrigated agriculture and related local water systems and drainage - poses a challenge in an effort to improve water quality and sanitation. In rural and peri-urban settings, where agriculture is one of the main sources of livelihood, the type of water use in irrigated agriculture has complex interactions with drinking water and sanitation. In particular,...

  18. L'irrigation Avec Des Eaux Usées Et La Santé

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les méthodes et les stratégies pour le contrôle et l'atténuation des risques ..... Irrigation, drainage et gestion de la salinité de la zone racinaire ...... Le traitement des eaux usées comme mesure d'atténuation des risques a donc été ...... objectif de performance sécuritaire pour une irrigation non restreinte (voir le chapitre 2).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin AYDIN


    Full Text Available The main drainage channel of Konya collects drainage waters from farmlands of Konya and discharges to the salt lake. Since there is not any city municipal sewarage system in Konya sewage of the city also discharged to the main drainage channel. Along the channel, farmers use the channels water for irrigation purposes. Therefore a through examination of wastewater and determination of chlorinated compounds were necessary. In this research, analyses were carried by gas chromatography (GC on water samples collected hourly, daily and monthly from the channel.

  20. Drainage Water Filtration (United States)

    Tile drainage discharge from managed turf is known to carry elevated concentrations of agronomic fertilizers and chemicals. One approach being considered to reduce the transport is end-of-tile-filters. Laboratory and field studies have been initiated to address the efficacy of this approach. Result...

  1. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth / For Parents / Wound Drainage Culture What's in ...

  2. Conjunctive irrigation through groundwater for crop production in Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.S.; Singh, J.P.; Singh, S.R.; Khan, A.R.


    Ground water is the most reliable source for irrigation, quantum of which varies from place to place, rainfall, infiltration, geographical strata and surface ecology. The development of ground water in conjunction with surface within canal commands not only assures a reliable source of irrigation, it also helps in alleviation of water logging in the command due to excess seepage and unscientific water use by facilitating vertical drainage mechanism. The ground water resource needs to be developed in order to enhance area and timeliness of irrigation supply and overall agricultural productivity of land. In the high potential - low productivity areas in Assam, Bihar and West Bengal, A.P. and NE states, there is an immense potential to improve agricultural productivity through systematic groundwater exploitation. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Critical Parameters to Improve Slope Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Weng Long


    Full Text Available This study focuses on identifying and evaluating critical parameters of various drainage configurations, arrangement, and filter which affect the efficiency of water draining system in slopes. There are a total of seven experiments with different types of homogeneous soil, drainage envelope, filter material, and quantity of pipes performed utilizing a model box with a dimension of 0.8 m × 0.8 m × 0.6 m. The pipes were orientated at 5 degrees from the horizontal. Rainfall event was introduced via a rainfall simulator with rainfall intensity of 434.1 mm/h. From the experiments performed, the expected outcomes when utilizing double pipes and geotextile as envelope filter were verified in this study. The results obtained from these experiments were reviewed and compared with Chapter 14 “Subsurface Drainage Systems” of DID’s Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage Manual of Malaysia and the European standard. It is recommended that the pipe installed in the slope could be wrapped with geotextile and in tandem with application of granular filter to minimize clogging without affecting the water discharge rate. Terzaghi’s filter criteria could be followed closely when deciding on new materials to act as aggregate filter. A caging system could be introduced as it could maintain the integrity of the drainage system and could ease installation.

  4. Biofuel as an Integrated Farm Drainage Management crop: A bioeconomic analysis (United States)

    Levers, L. R.; Schwabe, K. A.


    Irrigated agricultural lands in arid regions often suffer from soil salinization and lack of drainage, which affect environmental quality and productivity. Integrated Farm Drainage Management (IFDM) systems, where drainage water generated from higher-valued crops grown on high quality soils are used to irrigate salt-tolerant crops grown on marginal soils, is one possible strategy for managing salinity and drainage problems. If the IFDM crop were a biofuel crop, both environmental and private benefits may be generated; however, little is known about this possibility. As such, we develop a bioeconomic programming model of irrigated agricultural production to examine the role salt-tolerant biofuel crops might play within an IFDM system. Our results, generated by optimizing profits over land, water, and crop choice decisions subject to resource constraints, suggest that based on the private profits alone, biofuel crops can be a competitive alternative to the common practices of land retirement and nonbiofuel crop production under both low to high drainage water salinity. Yet IFDM biofuel crop production generates 30-35% fewer GHG emissions than the other strategies. The private market competitiveness coupled with the public good benefits may justify policy changes encouraging the growth of IFDM biofuel crops in arid agricultural areas globally.

  5. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; D'Agostino, H.; Casola, G.; Vatney, R.R.; Wittich, G.R.; Harker, C.


    The authors performed percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses in 12 patients. Indications for drainage were septicemia and persistence or worsening of radiographic findings. These lung abscesses were refractory to intravenous antibiotics and to bronchial toilet. Etiology of the abscesses included pneumonia (most frequently), trauma, postoperative development, infected necrotic neoplasm, and infected sequestration. Guidelines for drainage included passage of the catheter through contiguously abnormal lung and pleura, inability of the patient to cough, and/or bronchial obstruction precluding bronchial drainage. Cure was achieved in 11 of 12 patients. Catheters were removed on an average of 16 days after insertion. Antibiotics were administered an average of 18 days before drainage. No major complications occurred

  6. Acid mine drainage (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  7. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system


    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.


    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  8. Subdural drainage versus subperiosteal drainage in burr-hole trepanation for symptomatic chronic subdural hematomas. (United States)

    Bellut, David; Woernle, Christoph Michael; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Kockro, Ralf Alfons; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Krayenbühl, Niklaus


    Symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (scSDH) is one of the most frequent diseases in neurosurgical practice, and its incidence is increasing. However, treatment modalities are still controversial. The aim of this retrospective single-center study is to compare for the first time two surgical methods in the treatment of subdural hematoma that have been proven to be efficient in previous studies in a direct comparison. We analyzed the data of 143 scSDHs in 113 patients undergoing surgery for subdural hematoma with placement of subperiosteal or subdural drainage after double burr-hole trepanation for hematoma evacuation. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences regarding general patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative symptoms, postoperative hematoma remnant, rates of recurrences, mortality, complications, and outcome at discharge and at 3-month follow up between the groups. There was a close to significant tendency of lower mortality after placement of subperiosteal drainage system and a tendency towards lower rate of recurrent hematoma after placement of subdural drainage system. Our study shows for the first time a direct comparison of two mainly used surgical techniques in the treatment of scSDH. Both methods proved to be highly effective, and general patient data, complications, outcome and mortality of both groups are equal or superior compared with previously published series. Because there is a clear tendency to less mortality and fewer serious complications, treatment with double burr-hole trepanation, irrigation, and placement of subperiosteal drainage is our treatment of choice in patients with predictable high risk of complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using the SIMGRO regional hydrological model to evaluate salinity control measures in an irrigation area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, E.; Querner, E.P.; Morábito, J.A.; Menenti, M.


    In irrigated areas with drainage and an important interaction with the groundwater system, it is often difficult to predict effects of measures to control salinity. Therefore, in order to evaluate measures to control salinity the SIMGRO integrated regional hydrological model was extended with a

  10. Management systems in irrigated rice affect physical and chemical soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Pauletto, E.A.; Pinto, L.F.S.


    Lowland soils are commonly found in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern of Brazil, where they represent around 20% of the total area. Deficient drainage is the most important natural characteristic of these soils which therefore are mainly in use for irrigated rice (Oriza sativa). Degradation

  11. Influence of irrigation on the level, salinity and flow of groundwater at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 31, 2010 ... piezometers had to be measured, all readings were taken within 3 days. Water levels were measured to estab- lish the effect of rainfall, drainage and irrigation on the groundwater level. These levels were also used to gener- ate groundwater contour maps and to determine the groundwater flow directions.

  12. Influence of irrigation on the level, salinity and flow of groundwater at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective drainage would minimise the salt build-up in the soil, have a positive influence on the sustainability of irrigation farming and improve crop yields and quality in the area. The drained water can be reticulated into an evaporation pond to confine the salt mass, thus preventing it from influencing the environment and ...

  13. An assessment of colostomy irrigation. (United States)

    Laucks, S S; Mazier, W P; Milsom, J W; Buffin, S E; Anderson, J M; Warwick, M K; Surrell, J A


    One hundred patients with permanent sigmoid colostomies were surveyed to determine their satisfaction and success with the "irrigation" technique of colostomy management. Most patients who irrigate their colostomies achieve continence. Odors and skin irritation are minimized. The irrigation method is economical, time efficient, and allows a reasonably liberal diet. It avoids bulky appliances and is safe. In appropriately selected patients, the irrigation technique is the method of choice for management of an end-sigmoid colostomy.

  14. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.


    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  15. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.


    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  16. Irrigation management in Mediterranean salt affected agriculture: how leaching operates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Libutti


    Full Text Available In the frame of a crop rotation currently applied in a farm of the Apulian Tavoliere (Southern Italy, this paper reports the effect of brackish water irrigation on soil, outlines the corresponding salinity balance, formulates quantitative relations to model salt outflow below the soil root-layer and defines operational criteria to optimize irrigation management at farm level in order to control soil salinity through leaching. The general aim is to contribute to a sustainable use of the available water resources and a proper soil fertility conservation. A three-year trial (2007-2010 was carried out on a farm located close to the coast of the Manfredonia gulf (Mediterranean - Adriatic sea, where irrigation with brackish water is frequently practiced due to seawater intrusion into the groundwater. An especially designed experimental field-unit was set-up: the bottom of three hydraulically insulated plots was covered with a plastic sheet to intercept the percolating water and collect it into tanks by means of drain tubes. Each year a double crop cycle was applied to the soil; a spring-summer crop (tomato, zucchini and pepper, respectively was followed by a fall-winter crop (spinach, broccoli and wheat. Short “fallow” periods (completely bare soil were inserted between two crop cycles. Irrigation or rain completely restored crop water consumptions (with the exception of wheat, considered a rainfed crop and leaching was performed both unintentionally (by rainfalls or intentionally (supplying higher irrigation volumes whenever the soil electrical conductivity exceeded a fixed threshold. The soil electrical conductivity was periodically measured together with volume and electrical conductivity of irrigation and drainage water. All these measures allowed to draw-up the salt-balance of the soil, respectively at the beginning and the end of each crop cycle. Absolute and relative variations in soil salt content were interpreted with respect to absolute

  17. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi


    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  18. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture. (United States)

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D


    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  19. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna


    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  20. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz


    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  1. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.


    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  2. Subperiosteal Drainage versus Subdural Drainage in the management of Chronic Subdural Hematoma (A Comparative Study). (United States)

    Chih, Adrian Ng Wei; Hieng, Albert Wong Sii; Rahman, Noor Azman A; Abdullah, Jafri Malin


    Symptomatic chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) remain one of the most frequent diagnoses in current neurosurgical practice. Burr-hole craniostomy with irrigation and placement of close-system drainage is the current recommended surgery for symptomatic CSDH. The aim of this study is to perform a direct comparison between two surgical techniques in the treatment of symptomatic CSDH, which have been proven in previous studies to be efficient. Our main objective was to compare the efficacy of placement of a subperiosteal drain (SPD) and a subdural drain (SDD) following single burr-hole craniostomy and irrigation, and to demonstrate any significant differences in terms of overall surgical complications, functional outcome at three months and mortality rate. The study was carried out in two local neurosurgical centres. The SPD group was performed in Hospital Umum Sarawak (HUS) and the SDD group was performed in Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru (HSAJB), from 1 January 2012 till 30 January 2014 with a total of 30 patients in both treatment groups. Overall, there were no statistically significant difference in terms of patient general characteristics, pre-operative and post-operative symptoms, Markwalder grades, post-operative hematoma volume and recurrence, mortality and functional outcome at discharge and at three month follow-up between both groups. Albeit not achieving statistical significance, we observed a lower rate of surgical complication especially for post-operative intracranial hematoma with placement of the SPD system. Our study concludes that both treatment methods proved to be highly effective in the treatment of CSDH. However, with a lower overall surgical complication rate, treatment with single burr-hole craniostomy, irrigation and placement of the SPD system can be considered a treatment of choice for the management of symptomatic CSDH.

  3. [Irrigation in colostomies]. (United States)

    Campo, Juana; Lecona, Ana; Caparrós, M Rosario; Barbero, M Antonia; Javier Cerdán, F


    The degree of acceptation of irrigation from a colostomy varies ostensibly from some cases to others, therefore, we study what occurs in our medium, separating those patients which have previously undergone other procedures (Group A) from those patients who have been informed and trained about the immediate postoperative period (Group B). 48 patients, 22 or 46% of these patients were considered not apt for irrigation. Of the 26 to whom this procedure was proposed, 14 or 54% accepted. Of these, 5 or 36% abandoned its use while 9 continued its use; this is 64% of those who accepted this procedure, 35% of those to whom it was proposed and 19% of the total study group. 189 patients. This procedure was not recommended to 95 patients, 50%. Of the 94 patients to whom this procedure was proposed, 65 or 69% accepted. Of these, 22 or 34% abandoned its use while 43 continued its use; this is 66% of those; who accepted this procedure, 46% of those to whom it was proposed and 23% of the total study group. In our medium, the practice of irrigation oscillates between 19 and 23% of patients who have undergone a colostomy, without any significant difference referring to the moment when a patient started this procedure. A first report on this study was submitted in the III National Congress for Nursing in Colostomies.



    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul


    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  5. Assessment of irrigation performance: contribution to improve water management in a small catchment in the Brazilian savannas (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Marioti, Juliana; Steenhuis, Tammo; Wallender, Wesley


    Irrigated agriculture is the major consumer of surface water in Brazil using over 70% of the total supply. Due to the growing competition for water among different sectors of the economy, sustainable water use can only be achieved by decreasing the portion of water used by the irrigated agriculture. Thus, in order to maintain yield, farmers need to irrigate more efficiently. There is little known on irrigation efficiency in Brazil. Therefore a study was carried out in the Buriti Vermelho basin to assess the irrigation performance of existing system. The experimental basin has a drainage area of 940 hectares and is located in the eastern part of the Federal District, in the Brazilian savanna region. Agriculture is the main activity. There is a dominance of red latosols. Several types of land use and crop cover are encountered in the basin. Conflicts among farmers for water are increasing. As water, in quality and quantity, is crucial to maintain the livelihood of the population in the basin, concern about risk of water lack due to climatic and land use change is in place. Once irrigation is the main water user in the basin, to increase water availability and reduce conflicts a water resource management plan has to be established. For this purpose, irrigation system performance has to be understood. The objective of this work was to assess the performance and the management of irrigation (small and big) that has been carried out by farmers in the Buriti Vermelho experimental watershed. A survey undertaken in 2007 was used to identify the irrigation systems in the basin. It was verified that irrigation is practiced by both small (area up to 6 hectare) and big farmers. Small farmers usually crop limes and vegetables and use micro-irrigation, drip, sprinkler, guns or furrow to irrigate them. Big farmers plant annual crops and use center pivot as irrigation system. In this first assessment 13 irrigation systems were evaluated: five conventional sprinklers, four drip

  6. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.


    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  7. Chemical oxifertigation through the irrigation of greenhouse hydroponic tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Bravo, Freddy


    Evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) as an oxygen source in the rhizosphere, in grafted tomato (cv. Durinta/cv Maxifor) and using coconut fiber as substrate. The study was conducted form 2009 to 2010 the study. Two treatments were used: a control without (H_2O_2) (T_0) and the other with used: a control without (H_2O_2) (T_1) applied in each irrigation. The parameters evaluated were: i- fertigation: oxygen concentration ([O_2]). pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and drainage percentage; ii- growth: basal diameter and plant height; iii- yield and iv- fruit quality: firmness, Brix degrees, dry weight, and pH. The average value of [O_2] in the irrigation solution through out the crop cycle increased from 9,92 mg/l at T_0 to 12,1 mg/ at T_1 (P [es

  8. An Integrated Approach for the Improvement of Flood Control and Drainage Schemes in the Coastal Belt of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, L.


    During the past decades huge investments have been made in flood protection, drainage and irrigation schemes to reclaim and develop many polder areas in Bangladesh. In these areas a careful water management is required to get optimal results from the investments in the physical infrastructure and

  9. An integrated approach for the improvement of flood control and drainage schemes in the coastal belt of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liakath Ali, M.


    During the past decades huge investments have been made in flood protection, drainage and irrigation schemes to reclaim and develop many polder areas in Bangladesh. In these areas a careful water management is required to

  10. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications


    Ella, Victor B.


    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  11. Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas. (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús


    Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas.

  12. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use


    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service


    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  13. Irrigation management of sigmoid colostomy. (United States)

    Jao, S W; Beart, R W; Wendorf, L J; Ilstrup, D M


    Questionnaires were sent to 270 patients who had undergone abdominoperineal resection and sigmoid colostomy at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the ten years from 1972 to 1982; 223 patients returned their questionnaires with evaluable data. Sixty percent of the patients were continent with irrigation, and 22% were incontinent with irrigation. Eighteen percent had discontinued irrigation for various reasons. The proportion continent was higher in women, younger patients, and previously constipated patients. A poorly constructed colostomy may cause acute angle, parastoma hernia, stomal prolapse, or stenosis and thus be the cause of failure of irrigation.

  14. adequacy of drainage channels f drainage channels in a small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The area upon which waterfalls and the netw through ... ls were determined using the rational model and manning's equation. A .... runoff, including roads, culverts and drainage systems. ... hence, detailed design information of the drain is.

  15. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ri, Jong Min; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik [Kyung-Pook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Medical treatment using antibiotics and postural drainage has been widely adopted as a treatment method of pulmonary abscess, accompanied by surgical methods in cases intractable to drug therapy. However long-term therapy may be required, and the tolerance of organisms to antibiotics or other complications are apt to be encountered, during medical treatment. To shorten the convalescent period or to decrease the risk of invasive procedures, rather simple and relatively easy interventional techniques such as transbronchial or percutaneous catheter drainage have been successfully tried. We have performed 12 cases of percutaneous drainages of lung abscesses under fluoroscope guidance. This report is on the results of this procedure.

  16. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri, Jong Min; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik


    Medical treatment using antibiotics and postural drainage has been widely adopted as a treatment method of pulmonary abscess, accompanied by surgical methods in cases intractable to drug therapy. However long-term therapy may be required, and the tolerance of organisms to antibiotics or other complications are apt to be encountered, during medical treatment. To shorten the convalescent period or to decrease the risk of invasive procedures, rather simple and relatively easy interventional techniques such as transbronchial or percutaneous catheter drainage have been successfully tried. We have performed 12 cases of percutaneous drainages of lung abscesses under fluoroscope guidance. This report is on the results of this procedure

  17. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationship for a drained agricultural field in Eastern North Carolina Plain (United States)

    Liu, W.; Youssef, M.; Birgand, F.; Chescheir, G. M.; Maxwell, B.; Tian, S.


    Agricultural drainage is a practice used to artificially enhance drainage characteristics of naturally poorly drained soils via subsurface drain tubing or open-ditch systems. Approximately 25% of the U.S. agricultural land requires improved drainage for economic crop production. However, drainage increases the transport of dissolved agricultural chemicals, particularly nitrates to downstream surface waters. Nutrient export from artificially drained agricultural landscapes has been identified as the leading source of elevated nutrient levels in major surface water bodies in the U.S. Controlled drainage has long been practiced to reduce nitrogen export from agricultural fields to downstream receiving waters. It has been hypothesized that controlled drainage reduces nitrogen losses by promoting denitrification, reducing drainage outflow from the field, and increasing plant uptake. The documented performance of the practice was widely variable as it depends on several site-specific factors. The goal of this research was to utilize high frequency measurements to investigate the effect of agricultural drainage and related management practices on nitrate fate and transport for an artificially drained agricultural field in eastern North Carolina. We deployed a field spectrophotometer to measure nitrate concentration every 45 minutes and measured drainage flow rate using a V-notch weir every 15 minutes. Furthermore, we measured groundwater level, precipitation, irrigation amount, temperature to characterize antecedent conditions for each event. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationships generated from the high frequency measurements illustrated anti-clockwise hysteresis loops and nitrate flushing mechanism in response to most precipitation and irrigation events. Statistical evaluation will be carried out for the C-Q relationships. The results of our analysis, combined with numerical modeling, will provide a better understanding of hydrological and

  18. Peritoneal Drainage Versus Pleural Drainage After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. (United States)

    Gowda, Keshava Murty Narayana; Zidan, Marwan; Walters, Henry L; Delius, Ralph E; Mastropietro, Christopher W


    We aimed to determine whether infants undergoing cardiac surgery would more efficiently attain negative fluid balance postoperatively with passive peritoneal drainage as compared to traditional pleural drainage. A prospective, randomized study including children undergoing repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) was completed between September 2011 and June 2013. Patients were randomized to intraoperative placement of peritoneal catheter or right pleural tube in addition to the requisite mediastinal tube. The primary outcome measure was fluid balance at 48 hours postoperatively. Variables were compared using t tests or Fisher exact tests as appropriate. A total of 24 patients were enrolled (14 TOF and 10 AVSD), with 12 patients in each study group. Mean fluid balance at 48 hours was not significantly different between study groups, -41 ± 53 mL/kg in patients with periteonal drainage and -9 ± 40 mL/kg in patients with pleural drainage (P = .10). At 72 hours however, postoperative fluid balance was significantly more negative with peritoneal drainage, -52.4 ± 71.6 versus +2.0 ± 50.6 (P = .04). On subset analysis, fluid balance at 48 hours in patients with AVSD was more negative with peritoneal drainage as compared to pleural, -82 ± 51 versus -1 ± 38 mL/kg, respectively (P = .02). Fluid balance at 48 hours in patients with TOF was not significantly different between study groups. Passive peritoneal drainage may more effectively facilitate negative fluid balance when compared to pleural drainage after pediatric cardiac surgery, although this benefit is not likely universal but rather dependent on the patient's underlying physiology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Integrated water-crop-soil-management system for evaluating the quality of irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Sentis, I.


    The authors make use of an independent balance of the salts and ions present in the water available for irrigation, based on the residence times in the soil solution that are allowed by solubility limits and drainage conditions, to develop an efficient system for evaluating the quality of such water which combines the factors: water, crop, soil and management. The system is based on the principle that such quality depends not only on the concentration and composition of the salts dissolved in the water, but also on existing possibilities and limitations in using and managing it in respect of the soil and crops, with allowance for the crop's tolerance of salinity, drainage conditions and hydrological properties of the soils, climate and current or potential practices for the management of the irrigation. If this system is used to quantify approximately the time behaviour of the concentration and composition of the salts in the soil solution, it is possible not only to predict the effects on soil, crops and drainage water, but also to evaluate the various combinations of irrigation water, soil, crops and management and to select the most suitable. It is also useful for fairly accurately diagnosing current problems of salinity and for identifying alternatives and possibilities for reclamation. Examples of its use for these purposes in Venezuela are presented with particular reference to the diagnosis of the present and future development of ''salino-sodic'' and ''sodic'' soils by means of low-salt irrigation water spread over agricultural soils with very poor drainage in a sub-humid or semi-arid tropical climate. The authors also describe the use of radiation techniques for gaining an understanding of the relations between the factors making up the system and for improving the quantitative evaluations required to diagnose problems and to select the best management methods for the available irrigation water. (author)

  20. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  1. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.


    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  2. Nonsurgical drainage of splenic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkman, W.A.; Harris, S.A. Jr.; Bernardino, M.E.


    The mortality associated with intraabdominal abscess remains high despite modern surgical methods and antibiotics. Draingae of abscesses of the abdomen, retroperitoneum, pelvis, pancreatic pseudocyst, mediastinum, and lung may be treated effectively by percutaneous catheter placement. In several reports of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, only three cases of splenic abscess drainage have been reported. The authors have recently drained two splenic abscesses with the aid of computed tomography (CT) and emphasize several advantages of the percutaneous guided approach

  3. How Patients Experience Antral Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blomgren


    Full Text Available Background Antral irrigation earlier had an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Nowadays, it is often considered too unpleasant. However, the experience of patients of this procedure has been very seldom evaluated. Nor has the effect on pain in rhinosinusitis been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ experience of discomfort and pain during antral irrigation. We also assessed facial pain caused by rhinosinusitis before the procedure and pain soon after the procedure. Methods Doctors and 121 patients completed their questionnaires independently after antral irrigation in a university clinic, in a private hospital, and at a communal health center. Results Patients experienced mild pain during antral irrigation (mean and median visual analog scale score: <3. Their experience of pain during antral irrigation was closely comparable to pain during dental calculus scaling. Facial pain assessed before antral irrigation decreased quickly after the procedure. Conclusions Antral irrigation was well tolerated as an outpatient procedure. The procedure seems to relieve facial pain caused by the disease quickly. The role of antral irrigation in the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis will need further investigation.

  4. Irrigation management in organic greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Balendonck, J.; Berkelmans, R.; Enthoven, N.


    Irrigation in protected cultivation is essential due to the absence of natural precipitation. High evapotranspiration, due to higher temperature and prolonged cropping period, requires ample an adequate supply of water. The water supply in a greenhouse is solely carried out by irrigation and thus

  5. Scintigraphic assessment of colostomy irrigation. (United States)

    Christensen, P.; Olsen, N.; Krogh, K.; Laurberg, S.


    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate colonic transport following colostomy irrigation with a new scintigraphic technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To label the bowel contents 19 patients (11 uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, 8 complicated colostomy irrigation) took 111In-labelled polystyrene pellets one and two days before investigation. 99mTc-DTPA was mixed with the irrigation fluid to assess its extent within the bowel. Scintigraphy was performed before and after a standardized washout procedure. The colon was divided into three segments 1: the caecum andascending colon; 2: the transverse colon; 3: the descending and sigmoid colon. Assuming ordered evacuation of the colon, the contribution of each colonic segment to the total evacuation was expressed as a percentage of the original segmental counts. These were added to reach a total defaecation score (range: 0-300). RESULTS: In uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, the median defaecation score was 235 (range: 145-289) corresponding to complete evacuation of the descending and transverse colon and 35% evacuation of the caecum/ascending colon. In complicated colostomy irrigation it was possible to distinguish specific emptying patterns. The retained irrigation fluid reached the caecum in all but one patient. CONCLUSION: Scintigraphy can be used to evaluate colonic emptying following colostomy irrigation.

  6. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees? (United States)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.


    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  7. Nutrient management and institutional cooperation as conditions for environmentally safe wastewater irrigation: the case of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.G.; Huibers, F.P.; van Vliet, Bas J.M.; Dung, N.V.; Van, D.T.H.; Ragab, Ragab; Koo-Oshima, Sasha


    Hanoi is rapidly growing in population and in economic activities. Increasing volumes of domestic and industrial wastewater flows are discharged mostly untreated into the drainage system. At downstream level, these polluted, nutrient rich waters are used for irrigation. Nutrient concentrations in

  8. Enhancing the Productivity of High Value Crops and Income Generation with Small-Scale Irrigation Technologies in Kenya. Final Report 2009-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The project was implemented by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute in collaboration with key irrigation stakeholders including Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA), G North and Son limited, Kenya Irrigation and Drainage Association (KIDA), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Greenbelt Movement and Ministry of Agriculture. The objective was to develop and pilot test appropriate irrigation systems (methods and related water/nutrient management practices) for small-scale farmers for increasing yield, quality of high value crops and farmers income to improved livelihood. The project built on earlier work on low head drip irrigation in Kenya involving KARI led promotion among the peri-urban and rural communities. The Equipment used include Neutron Probe Hydroprobe, Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizers (5% a.e), drip irrigation kits, MoneyMaker irrigation pumps, Pessl imetos weather station, SDEC tensimetre and tensiometers), Venturi injectors, among others.

  9. Irrigating The Environment (United States)

    Adamson, D.


    Water insecurity and water inequality are international issues that reduce economic growth. Countries are adopting alternative approaches to rebalance the share of water between all users to mitigate economic loss for this and future generations. However, recent reforms have struggled to provide the necessary arguments to obtain political protection of the process. In the absence of proof, rent-seeking arguments have challenged the benefit of restoring environmental flows by arguing that policy design fails to maximise the environmental benefits. This is a problem in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), where despite establishing 3,200GL of environmental water, the policy is still under threat. Applied water economic policy advice fails, when it does not deal with uncertainty. The state-contingent analysis approach can map how individual decision makers can adapt to alternative states of water supply (i.e. drought, normal and wet) by reallocating inputs to obtain state-described outputs. By modelling changes to the states, or the frequency of the states occurring, climate change can modelled, and decision management responses explored. By treating the environment as another set of production systems, lessons learnt from managing perennial and annual agricultural production systems during the Millennium Drought in the MDB can be applied to explore the limits of irrigating the environment. The demand for water by a production system is a combination of state-general (must be irrigated every year e.g. perennial crop or permanent wetland) and state specific inputs (irrigate in response to the realise state). In simple terms, the greater the component of state-general water requirements a production system has, the less resilience it has when water supply is highly variable and if water is not available then production systems are irreversibly lost. While production systems that only need state-allocable water can adapt to alternative levels of scarcity without

  10. A comparative study on drip and furrow irrigation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, M.M.; Shaikh, A.


    This study was conducted at Field Laboratory of the IIDE-MUET (Institute of lrrigation and Drainage Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), Jamshoro in April 2007 and completed in October 2007. The soil was out-wash of the surrounding hilly tracts. Thus, the texture of the soil was sandy loam mixed with various sizes of gravels. Consequently, its water holding capacity was low and drainability high. The field capacity, wilting point and available moisture of the soil were found to be 10.35, 5.56 and 4.79%, respectively. The soil was moderate (ECe 8-16 dS/m) to strongly saline (ECe> 16 dS/m) and slightly sodic in nature in drip and furrow irrigated plots under study before start of vegetable crops. Three summer vegetables, i.e. okra, long gourd and ridge gourd were cultivated under drip and furrow systems of irrigation. Tap water was used for irrigation, which was class-I quality water i.e. nonsaline and non-sodic. Yields of the three respective vegetables were 25, 16.5 and 7.9% higher than the yields obtained from furrow method. Likewise, WUE (Water Use Efficiency) was higher in drip at 1.27, 3.19 and 2.28 Kg/m/sup 3/ against 0.59, 1.46 and 1.16 Kg/m/sup 3/ in furrow for the respective vegetables. The water saving in drip over furrow method for okra, long gourd and ridge gourd was estimated at 42.2, 46.9 and 45.0%, respectively. The soil salinity and sodicity decreased and did not develop within wetted zone under drip irrigation method and at furrow beds. However the same increased at the wetted periphery and at tops of the ridges under drip and furrow methods of irrigation respectively. (author)

  11. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  12. Utilizing on-farm best management practices: Managing Nitrate Leaching Using Evapotranspiration Based Irrigation Methods (United States)

    Zaragosa, I.; Melton, F. S.; Dexter, J.; Post, K.; Haffa, A.; Kortman, S.; Spellenberg, R.; Cahn, M.


    In efforts to provide tools to allow farmers to optimize and quantify water usage and fertilizer applications, University of California Cooperative Extension (UCCE) developed the CropManage irrigation and nitrogen scheduling tool that provides real time evapotranspiration (ETc) based irrigation recommendations and fertilizer recommendations on a per field basis. CropManage incorporates satellite based estimates of fractional cover from web data services from the Satellite Irrigation Management Information Support (SIMS) system developed by NASA Ames Research Center in collaboration with California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB). In this study, we conducted field trials to quantify the benefits of using these tools to support best management practices (BMPs) for irrigation and nutrient management in strawberries and lettuce in the Salinas Valley, California. We applied two different irrigation treatments based on full replacement (100%) of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and irrigation at 130% of ETc replacement to approximate irrigation under business as usual irrigation management. Both field studies used a randomized block design with four replicates each. We used CropManage to calculate the 100% and 130% ETc replacement requirements prior to each irrigation event. We collected drainage volume and samples and analyzed them for 8500 to nitrate as (NO3-) concentrations. Experimental results for both strawberries and lettuce showed a significant decrease in the percentage of applied nitrogen leached for the 100% ETc replacement treatment against the 130% ETc replacement treatment. For strawberries, we observed that 24% of applied nitrogen was leached under the 100% ETc replacement treatment, versus 51% of applied nitrogen that was leached under the 130% ETc replacement treatment. For lettuce, we observe that 2% of the applied nitrogen leached bellow the soil profile, versus 6% of the applied nitrogen for the 130%ETc replacement treatment. In both experiments

  13. Drainage or Packing of the Sella? Transsphenoidal Surgery for Primary Pituitary Abscess: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Oya


    Full Text Available The detailed surgical procedure of the transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary abscess has scarcely been described previously because it is a very rare clinical entity. The authors reported two cases of primary pituitary abscess. In case 1, the anterior wall of the sella turcica was reconstructed with the vomer bone after irrigating the abscess cavity, but the sella was not packed by fat for fear of the persistent infection by devascularized tissues. This led to the postoperative meningocele, the cerebrospinal fluid leak, and bacterial meningitis despite the successful abscess drainage. In case 2, tight sellar packing and reconstruction of the sellar wall were performed to avoid these postoperative complications, which resulted in complete drainage and uneventful postoperative course. Although accumulation of more cases is obviously needed to establish the definitive surgical technique in pituitary abscess surgery, our experience might suggest that packing of the sella is not impeditive for postoperative sufficient drainage.

  14. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir


    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  15. Colostomy irrigation: are we offering it enough? (United States)

    Woodhouse, Fran

    This article discusses the use of irrigation for suitable colostomists and reasons why it can have a very positive effect on lifestyle. While it is evidence-based it also includes anecdotal tips from patients who irrigate. The suitability of patients to irrigate and ways to 'get started' with irrigation are discussed.

  16. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. The. Blackburn Press, New Jersey, USA. Li JS, Rao MJ (1999). Evaluation method of sprinkler irrigation nonuniformity. Trans. CSAE. 15(4): 78-82. Lin Z, Merkley GP (2011). Relationships between common irrigation application uniformity indicators. Irrig Sci. Online First™, 27 January. 2011.

  17. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management (United States)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  18. An optimization model to design and manage subsurface drip irrigation system for alfalfa (United States)

    Kandelous, M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J. A.; Simunek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J. W.


    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods for watering alfalfa plants. Lateral installation depth and distance, emitter discharge, and irrigation time and frequency of SDI, in addition to soil and climatic conditions affect alfalfa’s root water uptake and yield. Here we use a multi-objective optimization approach to find optimal SDI strategies. Our approach uses the AMALGAM evolutionary search method, in combination with the HYDRUS-2D unsaturated flow model to maximize water uptake by alfalfa’s plant roots, and minimize loss of irrigation and drainage water to the atmosphere or groundwater. We use a variety of different objective functions to analyze SDI. These criteria include the lateral installation depth and distance, the lateral discharge, irrigation duration, and irrigation frequency. Our framework includes explicit recognition of the soil moisture status during the simulation period to make sure that the top soil is dry for harvesting during the growing season. Initial results show a wide spectrum of optimized SDI strategies for different root distributions, soil textures and climate conditions. The developed tool should be useful in helping farmers optimize their irrigation strategy and design.

  19. A coupled agronomic-economic model to consider allocation of brackish irrigation water (United States)

    Ben-Gal, Alon; Weikard, Hans-Peter; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.


    In arid and semiarid regions, irrigation water is scarce and often contains high concentrations of salts. To reduce negative effects on crop yields, the irrigated amounts must include water for leaching and therefore exceed evapotranspiration. The leachate (drainage) water returns to water sources such as rivers or groundwater aquifers and increases their level of salinity and the leaching requirement for irrigation water of any sequential user. We develop a conceptual sequential (upstream-downstream) model of irrigation that predicts crop yields and water consumption and tracks the water flow and level of salinity along a river dependent on irrigation management decisions. The model incorporates an agro-physical model of plant response to environmental conditions including feedbacks. For a system with limited water resources, the model examines the impacts of water scarcity, salinity and technically inefficient application on yields for specific crop, soil, and climate conditions. Moving beyond the formulation of a conceptual frame, we apply the model to the irrigation of Capsicum annum on Arava Sandy Loam soil. We show for this case how water application could be distributed between upstream and downstream plots or farms. We identify those situations where it is beneficial to trade water from upstream to downstream farms (assuming that the upstream farm holds the water rights). We find that water trade will improve efficiency except when loss levels are low. We compute the marginal value of water, i.e., the price water would command on a market, for different levels of water scarcity, salinity and levels of water loss.

  20. in remediating acid mine drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management and treatment of contaminated mine water is one of the most urgent problems facing the South African mining industry. The cost advantage of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) has seen their increased application as means of passively treating mine drainage. A PRB is built by placing a reactive material ...

  1. Definition of the drainage filter problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.


    It is common to consider the following: I. Retention of soil particles that may enter the drainage pipe and cause its clogging. For some sensitive structures it is important to prevent settlements due to soil transportation by drainage water.

  2. Effect of irrigation regimes on mobilization of nonreactive tracers and dissolved and particulate phosphorus in slurry-injected soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton


    affected by the irrigation regime. These results highlight that nonequilibrium exchange dynamics are important when evaluating processes affecting mobilization and transport in structured soils. Leaching experiments, including cycles of irrigation interruptions and gravitational drainage, thus, adds......Understanding the mobilization processes of phosphorus (P) in the plow layer are essential to quantify potential P losses and suggest management strategies to reduce P losses. This study is aimed at examining nonequilibrium exchange dynamics on the mobilization of slurry-amended Br−, and dissolved...... and particulate P in slurry-injected soils. We compared leaching from intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) under unsaturated flow (suction at the lower boundary of 5 hPa) subjected to continuous irrigation at 2 mm hr−1, and intermittent irrigation at 2 mm hr−1 and 10 mm hr−1 to with interruptions of 10 h...

  3. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard


    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  4. performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at mambilla

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ratio (DPR), irrigation productivity (IP), labour requirements and water quality. Standard procedure was ... The exchangeable cations analysis of Kakara irrigation ... Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  5. Colostomy and drainage for civilian rectal injuries: is that all? (United States)

    Burch, J M; Feliciano, D V; Mattox, K L


    One hundred consecutive patients with injuries to the extraperitoneal rectum were treated over a ten-year period at an urban trauma center. The mechanisms of injury included firearms in 82 patients, stab wounds in 3 patients, a variety of other penetrating injuries in 10 patients, and in 5 patients the injuries resulted from blunt trauma. Treatment of the rectal injury was determined by the bias of the operating surgeon, the condition of the patient, and the magnitude of the rectal injury. Proximal loop colostomies were performed in 44 patients, diverting colostomies in 51 patients, Hartmann's procedure in 4 patients, and an abdominoperineal resection in 1 patient. Extraperitoneal rectal perforations were closed in 21 patients and the rectum was irrigated free of feces in 46 patients. Transperineal, presacral drainage was used in 93 patients. Infectious complications potentially related to the management of the rectal wound occurred in 11 patients (11%) and included abdominal or pelvic abscesses (4 patients), wound infections (6 patients), rectocutaneous fistulas (3 patients), and missile tract infections (2 patients). Four patients (4%) died as a result of their injuries. Of the therapeutic options available, statistical analysis revealed that only the failure to drain the presacral space increased the likelihood of infectious complications (p = 0.03); however, as it could not be determined with certainty that the use of, or failure to use, any particular therapeutic option had an effect on the risk of death. It is concluded that colostomy and drainage are the foundations of the successful treatment of civilian injuries to the extraperitoneal rectum. The use of adjuncts such as diverting colostomies, repair of the rectal wound, and irrigation of the rectum has little effect on mortality and morbidity. PMID:2705824

  6. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H.


    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment

  7. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H. [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)


    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment.

  8. Modeling of drainage and hay production over the Crau aquifer for analyzing the impact of global change on aquifer recharge (United States)

    Olioso, Albert; Lecerf, Rémi; Baillieux, Antoine; Chanzy, André; Ruget, Françoise; Banton, Olivier; Lecharpentier, Patrice; Alkassem Alosman, Mohamed; Ruy, Stéphane; Gallego Elvira, Belen


    The recharge of the aquifer in the Crau plain (550 km2, Southern Rhone Valley, France) depends on the irrigation of 15000 ha of meadow using water withdrawn from the River Durance through a dense network of channels. Traditional irrigation practice, since the XVIth century, has consisted in flooding the grassland fields with a large amount of water, the excess being infiltrated toward the water table. Today, the Crau aquifer holds the main resource in water in the area (300 000 inhabitants) but changes in the agricultural practices and progressive replacement of the irrigated meadows by urbanized area threaten the sustainability of groundwater. The distributed modeling of irrigated meadows together with the modeling of groundwater has been undertaken for quantifying the contribution of the irrigation to the recharge of the aquifer and to investigate possible evolution of hay production, water drainage, evapotranspiration and water table under scenarios of climate and land-use changes. The model combines a crop model (STICS) that simulates hay production, evapotranspiration and water drainage, a multisimulation tool (MultiSimLib) that allows to run STICS over each agricultural field in the aquifer perimeter, a groundwater model MODFLOW to simulate the water table from recharge data (simulated drainage). Specific models were developed for simulating the spatial distribution of climate, including scenario of changes for the 2025 - 2035 time period, soil properties (influenced by irrigation), and agricultural practices (calendar and amount), in particular irrigation and hay cutting. This step was crucial for correctly simulating hay production level and amount of water used for irrigation. Model results were evaluated thanks to plot experiments and information from farmers (biomass production, downward water flow, quantity of irrigated water, cutting calendar...), a network of piezometers and remote sensing maps of evapotranspiration. Main results included: - the

  9. Field-scale monitoring of the long-term impact and sustainability of drainage water reuse on the west side of California’s San Joaquin Valley (United States)

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a potential water resource rather than as a disposal problem. Drainage water from tile-drained, irrigated agricultural land is degraded water that is often in large supply, but the long-term impact and sustain...

  10. Field-scale monitoring of the long-term impact and sustainability of drainage water reuse using ECa-directed soil sampling (United States)

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a water resource rather than a disposal problem. Drainage water from tile-drained, irrigated agricultural land is degraded water that is often in large supply, but the long-term impact and sustainability of it...

  11. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  12. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina


    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  13. Automated Passive Capillary Lysimeters for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone (United States)

    Jabro, J.; Evans, R.


    In this study, we demonstrated and evaluated the performance and accuracy of an automated PCAP lysimeters that we designed for in-situ continuous measuring and estimating of drainage water below the rootzone of a sugarbeet-potato-barley rotation under two irrigation frequencies. Twelve automated PCAPs with sampling surface dimensions of 31 cm width * 91 cm long and 87 cm in height were placed 90 cm below the soil surface in a Lihen sandy loam. Our state-of-the-art design incorporated Bluetooth wireless technology to enable an automated datalogger to transmit drainage water data simultaneously every 15 minutes to a remote host and had a greater efficiency than other types of lysimeters. It also offered a significantly larger coverage area (2700 cm2) than similarly designed vadose zone lysimeters. The cumulative manually extracted drainage water was compared with the cumulative volume of drainage water recorded by the datalogger from the tipping bucket using several statistical methods. Our results indicated that our automated PCAPs are accurate and provided convenient means for estimating water drainage in the vadose zone without the need for costly and manually time-consuming supportive systems.

  14. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation (United States)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.


    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  15. Rearrangement of land and water use system in polder and drainage improvement. Kantakuchi no tochiter dot mizu riyo taikei no saihensei to haisui kairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuno, T; Nagahori, K [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Yamamoto, T [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan)


    Polders have no basin of their own, and the supply of irrigation water in polders is always short and unstable. The irrigation water system is so structured that the conflicting objects of both the insurance of irrigation water and drainage of rainwater can be achieved. Quoting an example at the surrounding area of the Kojima Bay in the southern area of Okayaja Prefecture where inning (land reclamation by drainage) has been practiced for a long time, problems in drainage improvement required for better use of low-lying flat lands are discussed. There are complicate relations among the safety against flood, rainwater drainage capability, stock capacity, and critical leveling time, therefore, the basic operation which must be performed at first in making a drainage plan is to determine the basic framework of the plan taking those relations into consideration. In low-lying flat lands, safety of the total area against flood has been established basing on the stock capacity of the paddy fields, and it is important to secure paddy field areas to a certain extent. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  17. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis


    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  18. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  19. [Continent colostomy and colon irrigation]. (United States)

    Kostov, D; Temelkov, T; Kiriazov, E; Ivanov, K; Ignatov, V; Kobakov, G


    The authors have studied a functional activity of a continent colostomy at 20 patients, undergone an abdomeno-perineal extirpation of rectum and carried out periodic colonirrigations, during a period of 6 months. A conus type, closed irrigating system has been used. The degree of an incontinency at patients has been compared before and after the beginning of the colonirrigations. The irrigating procedures have reduced spontaneous defications at patients during a week 28 times and have improved the quality of life significantly. The application of colostomy bags has been restricted in 8 (40%) patients. An intraluminal ultrasonographic investigation has been done at 12 (60%) patients at the end of 6 month irrigating period. No changes of the ultrasonographic image of the precolostomic segment of colon has been observed.

  20. Exploring Agricultural Drainage's Influence on Wetland and ... (United States)

    Artificial agricultural drainage (i.e. surface ditches or subsurface tile) is an important agricultural management tool. Artificial drainage allows for timely fieldwork and adequate root aeration, resulting in greater crop yields for farmers. This practice is widespread throughout many regions of the United States and the network of artificial drainage is especially extensive in flat, poorly-drained regions like the glaciated Midwest. While beneficial for crop yields, agricultural drains often empty into streams within the natural drainage system. The increased network connectivity may lead to greater contributing area for watersheds, altered hydrology and increased conveyance of pollutants into natural water bodies. While studies and models at broader scales have implicated artificial drainage as an important driver of hydrological shifts and eutrophication, the actual spatial extent of artificial drainage is poorly known. Consequently, metrics of wetland and watershed connectivity within agricultural regions often fail to explicitly include artificial drainage. We use recent agricultural census data, soil drainage data, and land cover data to create estimates of potential agricultural drainage across the United States. We estimate that agricultural drainage in the US is greater than 31 million hectares and is concentrated in the upper Midwest Corn Belt, covering greater than 50% of available land for 114 counties. Estimated drainage values for numerous countie

  1. Appropriate rehabilitation strategy for a traditional irrigation supply system: a case from the Babai area in Nepal. (United States)

    Adhikari, B; Verhoeven, R; Troch, P


    This paper studies primary canals of three traditional irrigation systems in the southern plains of Nepal. It offers a scientific interpretation of the indigenous technology applied to the systems, which facilitates to use the same channel network for irrigation, drainage and flood management. The flood management technology of the farmers by diverting as much discharge as possible to the field channels results in the reduction of discharge towards the downstream part of the main channel. It is depicted in the simulation study that uses the river analysis program HEC-RAS 4.0. A cascade of weirs is found to be the most cost effective and user-friendly option to upgrade these systems preserving the existing irrigation, drainage as well as flood management functions. This study suggests that the conventional irrigation design principles should be applied very cautiously with full knowledge of the existing socio-institutional setting, hydro-ecological regime and indigenous technology for upgrading any traditional irrigation system successfully. The indigenous flood management technology strengthens the emerging concept that the floods in the Ganges plain are to be managed, not controlled.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Łabędzki


    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the so far used in Poland methods and criteria for assessing the needs of irrigation for planning purposes, the assessment because of the agroclimatic conditions and taking into account the soil water retention. Irrigation needs of the most are determined taking into account crop water deficits. This is the factor that is characterized by a shortage of precipitation in relation to the water requirements of crops. Some methods use only the meteorological parameters that determine the state of the atmosphere-soil-plant system, and some also take into account soil water retention and its availability for plants.

  3. Acceleration of selenium volatilization in seleniferous agricultural drainage sediments amended with methionine and casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banuelos, G.S.; Lin, Z.-Q.


    Phytoremediation is potentially effective for managing excessive selenium (Se) in drainage sediment residing in the San Luis Drain in central California. This 2-year field study examined the feasibility of amending drainage sediment (containing 4.78 μg Se g -1 ) with methionine and casein to enhance volatilization without or with vegetation of Sporobolus airoides. Results show that without organic amendments, rates of Se volatilization were less than 25 μg m -2 d -1 in all plots. After amending the sediment with 71.4 mg methionine kg -1 soil, Se volatilization rates were 434 ± 107 μg m -2 d -1 in vegetated plots and 289 ± 117 μg m -2 d -1 in irrigated bare plots. With the amendment of 572 mg casein kg -1 soil, rates increased to 346 ± 103 μg m -2 d -1 in irrigated bare plots and to 114 ± 55 μg m -2 d -1 in vegetated plots. Both methionine and casein promoted biological remediation of Se via volatilization most effectively during the warmest months. - Amending drainage sediment with either methionine or casein promotes the volatilization of selenium

  4. Acceleration of selenium volatilization in seleniferous agricultural drainage sediments amended with methionine and casein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuelos, G.S. [USDA-ARS, Water Management Research Laboratory, Parlier, CA 93648 (United States)], E-mail:; Lin, Z.-Q. [Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Sciences Program, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026-1651 (United States)


    Phytoremediation is potentially effective for managing excessive selenium (Se) in drainage sediment residing in the San Luis Drain in central California. This 2-year field study examined the feasibility of amending drainage sediment (containing 4.78 {mu}g Se g{sup -1}) with methionine and casein to enhance volatilization without or with vegetation of Sporobolus airoides. Results show that without organic amendments, rates of Se volatilization were less than 25 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in all plots. After amending the sediment with 71.4 mg methionine kg{sup -1} soil, Se volatilization rates were 434 {+-} 107 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in vegetated plots and 289 {+-} 117 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in irrigated bare plots. With the amendment of 572 mg casein kg{sup -1} soil, rates increased to 346 {+-} 103 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in irrigated bare plots and to 114 {+-} 55 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in vegetated plots. Both methionine and casein promoted biological remediation of Se via volatilization most effectively during the warmest months. - Amending drainage sediment with either methionine or casein promotes the volatilization of selenium.

  5. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.


    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  6. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.


    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands





    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  8. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University


    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  9. Comparative efficiency of trickle and furrow irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Qureshi, R.H.; Sandhu, G.R.


    Comparison of furrow and trickle methods of irrigation to know their relative efficiency with respect to water applied and fertilizer used on tomatoes, cauliflower and lettuce as test crops using canal water, showed a significant saving of about 44 and 41 per cent respectively for irrigation water and fertilizer applied with trickle as compared to furrow irrigation. Trickle irrigated crops also showed a better response as regards the rate of survival, crop growth and time of maturity

  10. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju


    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  11. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food... DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator. (a) Identification. An ostomy irrigator is a device that consists of a container for fluid, tubing with a cone-shaped...

  12. Speed control variable rate irrigation (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  13. Position paper : Whole bowel irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient. Although some volunteer studies have shown substantial decreases in the bioavailability of ingested drugs, no controlled clinical trials have been performed and there is no conclusive evidence that

  14. Assesing the suitability of water for irrigation theoretical and practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, A.; Javad, M.A.; Arif, M.; Rashid, A.


    Forced by the surface water shortage and prevalent drought like conditions in the country the farmers have started exploiting groundwater resource. On the other hand, seventy percent of the groundwater being marginal to unfit is a threat to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The judicious groundwater exploitation and application has also become imperative in context of ever increasing demographic pressure on soil, crop and water resources. Different classes of irrigation waters established by various research scientists / organizations within the country or abroad are not ultimate under all conditions but these serve as general guidelines. In some cases brackish water requires only minor modification under existing irrigation and ogronomic practices, while in most of the cases it requires major changes regarding type of crops grown, method of water application and the use of soil and water amendments. Therefore, before recommending water for irrigation. Soil characteristics, water management practices, drainage condition of the filed and climatic events must be taken into account as waters generally classified unsuitable for irrigation can be used successfully to grow crops without long term hazardous consequences to crops or soils. This can be attempted simply with the use of improved farming and management practices. Use of brackish water for irrigation may increase the resource base for irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. This article reviews various water classification schemes, salinity-crop yield interrelation with detailed discussion on brackish water application and associated problems. The article also covers a number of management options so as to mitigate the problem and sustain food security in the country. (author)

  15. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water. (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel


    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  16. Crop and Irrigation Management Systems under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro García-Caparrós


    Full Text Available Plants of Ruscus aculeatus, known as “butcher’s broom”, Maytenus senegalensis, known as “confetti tree”, and Juncus acutus, known as “spiny rush” were grown in pots with a mixture of sphagnum peat-moss and Perlite in order to determine the effect and evolution over time of three water use systems on plant growth, water saving and nutrient uptake. These were an open system (irrigated with standard nutrient solution and two closed systems (blended-water (drainage water blended with water of low electrical conductivity (EC and sequential reuse of drainage (sequential-reuse water, over a period of 8 weeks. Irrigation with blended- and sequential-reuse-water increased the biomass of all three species at the end of the experiment, compared to the open system. Overall, sequential-reuse-water treatment maximised biomass production. The application of blended- and sequential-reuse-water allowed savings of 17% of water in comparison to the open system. Regarding Cl, NO3− and H2PO4− loads, there was a removal of 5%, 32% and 32%; respectively in the blended-water treatment and 15%, 17% and 17% in the sequential-reuse water treatment compared to the open system. For the cation loads (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in these water treatments there was a removal of 10%, 32%, 7% and 18% respectively in the blended-water treatment, and 17%, 22%, 17% and 18% respectively in the sequential-reuse treatment, compared to the open system.

  17. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options. (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew


    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  18. [Endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous for biliary drainage]. (United States)

    Knudsen, Marie Høxbro; Vilmann, Peter; Hassan, Hazem; Karstensen, John Gésdal


    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is currently standard treatment for biliary drainage. Endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) is a novel method to overcome an unsuccessful biliary drainage procedure. Under endoscopic ultrasound guidance a guidewire is passed via a needle from the stomach or duodenum to the common bile duct and from there on to the duodenum enabling ERCP. With a relatively high rate of success EUS-RV should be considered as an alternative to biliary drainage and surgical intervention.

  19. Percutaneous drainage treatment of primary liver abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, H.; Pratschke, E.; Berr, F.; Fink, U.


    28 primary liver abscesses, including 9 amoebic abscesses, in 24 patients were drained percutaneously. Indication for drainage in amoebic abscesses was imminent rupture and clinical symptoms as pleural effusion, lung atelectasis and pain. 95% of the primary abscesses were cured by percutaneous drainage and systemic antibiotic treatment. There was one recurrence of abscess, which was managed surgically. Reasons for drainage failure were: tumour necrosis and tumour perforation with secondary liver abscess.

  20. Percutaneous drainage treatment of primary liver abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Pratschke, E.; Berr, F.; Fink, U.; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen


    28 primary liver abscesses, including 9 amoebic abscesses, in 24 patients were drained percutaneously. Indication for drainage in amoebic abscesses was imminent rupture and clinical symptoms as pleural effusion, lung atelectasis and pain. 95% of the primary abscesses were cured by percutaneous drainage and systemic antibiotic treatment. There was one recurrence of abscess, which was managed surgically. Reasons for drainage failure were: tumour necrosis and tumour perforation with secondary liver abscess. (orig.) [de

  1. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz


    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  2. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.


    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  3. Chemical oxifertigation through the irrigation of greenhouse hydroponic tomato crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Soto-Bravo


    Full Text Available   The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an oxygen source in the rhizosphere, in grafted tomato (cv. Durinta/cv Maxifor and using coconut fiber as substrate The study was conducted from 2009 to 2010. Two treatments were used: a control without (H2O2 (T0 and the other with H2O2 (T1 applied in each irrigation. The parameters evaluated were i- fertigation: oxygen concentration ([O2], pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and drainage percentage; ii- growth: basal diameter and plant height; iii- yield and iv- fruit quality: firmness, Brix degrees, dry weight, and pH. The average value of [O2] in the irrigation solution through out the crop cycle increased from 9,92 mg/l at T0 to 12,1 mg/l at T1 (P<0,05, meanwhile in the drained solution the value increased from 8,75 mg/l at T0 to 9,22 mg/l at T1 (P<0,05. Although significant differences (P<0.05 were reached in the [O2] between treatments during some periods of the crop cycle, the [O2] in the T0 did not reach a critical threshold that would affect the proper oxygenation of the roots. Therefore, there was no effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on the growth, productivity and quality of the fruit.

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Catheter Drainage of Large Breast Abscesses in Lactating Women: How to Preserve Breastfeeding Safely. (United States)

    Falco, Giuseppe; Foroni, Monica; Castagnetti, Fabio; Marano, Luigi; Bordoni, Daniele; Rocco, Nicola; Marchesi, Vanessa; Iotti, Valentina; Vacondio, Rita; Ferrari, Guglielmo


    Management of breast abscess in lactating women remains controversial. During pregnancy, women may develop different kinds of benign breast lesions that could require a surgical incision performed under general anesthesia with consequent breastfeeding interruption. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the management of large breast abscesses with ultrasound-assisted drainage aiming at breastfeeding preservation. 34 lactating women with a diagnosis of unilateral breast abscess have been treated with an ultrasound (US)-assisted drainage of the abscess. A pigtail catheter was inserted into the fluid collection using the Seldinger technique under US guide and connected to a three stop way to allow drainage and irrigation of the cavity until its resolution. All procedures have been found safe and well tolerated. No recurrence was observed and breastfeeding was never interrupted. The described technique allows to avoid surgery and to preserve breastfeeding in well-selected patients with a safe, well-tolerated and cost-effective procedure.

  5. Percutaneous catheter drainage of lung abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shin; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Hyo Sun; Ha, Hyun Kown; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University Medical college, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    From March 1987 to July 1989, six patients (five adults and one child) with lung abscess (size, 5-13 cm in diameter) were treated with percutaneous aspiration and drainage. In each case, the puncture was made where the wall of the abscess was in contact with the pleural surface. An 8 to 10 Fr cartheter was inserted for drainage. Five of 6 had a dynamatic clinical response within 24 hours of the drainage. Percutaneous drainage was successful with complete abscess resolution in four and partial resolution in one patient. No response was seen in the rest one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days(average, 15.5 days) in successful cases. One case of the failure in drainage was due tio persistent aspiration of the neurologically impaired patient. In one patient, the abscess resolved after drainage but recurred after inadvertent removal of the catheter 7 days after insertion. In two patients, concurrent pleural empyema was resolved completely by the drainage. Computed tomography provide anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding a puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is safe and effective method for treating patient with lung abscess.

  6. Percutaneous catheter drainage of lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Shin; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Hyo Sun; Ha, Hyun Kown; Shinn, Kyung Sub


    From March 1987 to July 1989, six patients (five adults and one child) with lung abscess (size, 5-13 cm in diameter) were treated with percutaneous aspiration and drainage. In each case, the puncture was made where the wall of the abscess was in contact with the pleural surface. An 8 to 10 Fr cartheter was inserted for drainage. Five of 6 had a dynamatic clinical response within 24 hours of the drainage. Percutaneous drainage was successful with complete abscess resolution in four and partial resolution in one patient. No response was seen in the rest one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days(average, 15.5 days) in successful cases. One case of the failure in drainage was due tio persistent aspiration of the neurologically impaired patient. In one patient, the abscess resolved after drainage but recurred after inadvertent removal of the catheter 7 days after insertion. In two patients, concurrent pleural empyema was resolved completely by the drainage. Computed tomography provide anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding a puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is safe and effective method for treating patient with lung abscess

  7. Composite fibrous glaucoma drainage implant (United States)

    Klapstova, A.; Horakova, J.; Shynkarenko, A.; Lukas, D.


    Glaucoma is a frequent reason of loss vision. It is usually caused by increased intraocular pressure leading to damage of optic nerve head. This work deals with the development of fibrous structure suitable for glaucoma drainage implants (GDI). Commercially produced metallic glaucoma implants are very effective in lowering intraocular pressure. However, these implants may cause adverse events such as damage to adjacent tissue, fibrosis, hypotony or many others [1]. The aim of this study is to reduce undesirable properties of currently produced drains and improve their properties by creating of the composite fibrous drain for achieve a normal intraocular pressure. Two types of electrospinning technologies were used for the production of very small tubular implants. First type was focused for production of outer part of tubular drain and the second type of electrospinning method made the inner part of shape follows the connections of both parts. Complete implant had a special properties suitable for drainage of fluid. Morphological parameters, liquid transport tests and in-vitro cell adhesion tests were detected.

  8. Evolution of the efficiency and agro-environmental impact of a traditional irrigation land in the middle Ebro Valley (2001-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Garizabal, I.; Causape Valenzuela, J.; Abrahao, R.


    Alternatives in irrigation management can lead to the creation of irrigation lands that are more efficient and more respectful towards the environment. The objective of this work is to analyze the evolution of the agro-environmental impact in a traditional irrigation land of the middle Ebro Valley (Spain) which has experienced changes in its management. For such, water, salt and nitrate balances were accomplished in a hydrological basin (95 ha) in 2001, 2005, 2006 and 2007. The drought of 2005 caused more intensive water use (86%), increasing in 33% the irrigation efficiency when compared to 2001 (53%), even though a high hydric deficit (24%) was caused. Changes in the flood irrigation system management (from rotation to on demand), maximum allocations of irrigation water, billing for the volume of irrigation water consumed and the expansion of crops with lower water and fertilization needs made it possible to achieve irrigation efficiencies of approximately 73% (an increase of 20%) and to halve salt (1.3 Mg ha{sup -}1 year-1) and nitrate (25 kg NO{sub 3} --N ha{sup -}1 year{sup -}1) loads exported in the drainage. The evaluated management changes have been efficient, but nevertheless, crops still suffer certain hydric stress and since 2005 a slight but worrying negative agro-environmental tendency has been observed and should be reversed. (Author)

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus changes and optimal drainage time of flooded paddy field based on environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-hua Xiao


    Full Text Available While many controlled irrigation and drainage techniques have been adopted in China, the environmental effects of these techniques require further investigation. This study was conducted to examine the changes of nitrogen and phosphorus of a flooded paddy water system after fertilizer application and at each growth stage so as to obtain the optimal drainage time at each growth stage. Four treatments with different water level management methods at each growth stage were conducted under the condition of ten-day continuous flooding. Results show that the ammonia nitrogen (NH+4-N concentration reached the peak value once the fertilizer was applied, and then decreased to a relatively low level seven to ten days later, and that the nitrate nitrogen (NO-3-N concentration gradually rose to its peak value, which appeared later in subsurface water than in surface water. Continuous flooding could effectively reduce the concentrations of NH+4-N, NO-3-N , and total phosphorus (TP in surface water. However, the paddy water disturbance, in the process of soil surface adsorption and nitrification, caused NH+4-N to be released and increased the concentrations of NH+4-N and NO-3-N in surface water. A multi-objective controlled drainage model based on environmental factors was established in order to obtain the optimal drainage time at each growth stage and better guide the drainage practices of farmers. The optimal times for surface drainage are the fourth, sixth, fifth, and sixth days after flooding at the tillering, jointing-booting, heading-flowering, and milking stages, respectively.

  10. Managing tile drainage, subirrigation, and nitrogen fertilization to enhance crop yields and reduce nitrate loss. (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Reynolds, W D; Welacky, T W; Oloya, T O; Gaynor, J D


    Improving field-crop use of fertilizer nitrogen is essential for protecting water quality and increasing crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlled tile drainage (CD) and controlled tile drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS) for mitigating off-field nitrate losses and enhancing crop yields. The CD and CDS systems were compared on a clay loam soil to traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD) under a corn (Zea Mays L.)-soybean (Glycine Max. (L.) Merr.) rotation at two nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (N1: 150 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, no N applied to soybean; N2: 200 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, 50 kg N ha(-1) applied to soybean). The N concentrations in tile flow events with the UTD treatment exceeded the provisional long-term aquatic life limit (LT-ALL) for freshwater (4.7 mg N L(-1)) 72% of the time at the N1 rate and 78% at the N2 rate, whereas only 24% of tile flow events at N1 and 40% at N2 exceeded the LT-ALL for the CDS treatment. Exceedances in N concentration for surface runoff and tile drainage were greater during the growing season than the non-growing season. At the N1 rate, CD and CDS reduced average annual N losses via tile drainage by 44 and 66%, respectively, relative to UTD. At the N2 rate, the average annual decreases in N loss were 31 and 68%, respectively. Crop yields from CDS were increased by an average of 2.8% relative to UTD at the N2 rate but were reduced by an average of 6.5% at the N1 rate. Hence, CD and CDS were effective for reducing average nitrate losses in tile drainage, but CDS increased average crop yields only when additional N fertilizer was applied.

  11. Effects of climatic factors, drought risk and irrigation requirement on maize yield in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Jabloun, Mohamed; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind


    Drought risk is considered to be among the main limiting factors for maize (Zea mays L.) production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR). Maize yield data from 44 stations over the period 1961–2010 were combined with data from weather stations to evaluate the effects of climatic factors...... drought and intense rainfall illustrate the importance of further development of irrigation and drainage systems for ensuring the stability of maize production in NFR....

  12. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA (United States)

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  13. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.


    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  14. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan


    Muhammad Afzal


    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto


    Full Text Available Airports consume significant amounts of water which can be compared to the volume consumed by mid-size cities, thus practices aimed at reducing water consumption are important and necessar y. The objective of this study was to assess the reuse potential of sewage effluent produced at a mid-size international airport for nursery irri gation. The sewage treatment system consisted of a facultative pond followed by a constructed wetland, which were monitored during one hydrological year a nd the parameters COD, pH, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and Escherichia coli we re analyzed. Removal efficiencies of 85% and 91% were achieved for C OD and solids, respectively. Removal efficiencies for ammonia nitrogen a nd total phosphorus were 77% and 59%, respectively. In terms of E. coli concen tration, the treated effluent met the recommendations by the World Health Organization for reuse in irrigation with the advantage of providing high levels of residual nutrient. The ornamental species Impatiens walleriana was irrigated with treated sewage effluent and plant growth characteristics were evalua ted. The experiment showed that reuse can enhance plant growth without signi ficantly affecting leaf tissue and soil characteristics. This study highlighted th e importance of simple technologies for sewage treatment especially in count ries which still do not present great investment in sanitation and proved that effluent reuse for landscape irrigation can provide great savings of water and financial resources for airport environments.

  16. Assessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Bastawesy


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of waterlogging in the cultivated and arable areas within typical dryland closed drainage basins (e.g. the Farafra and Baharia Oases, which are located in the Western Desert of Egypt. Multi-temporal remote sensing data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ were collected and processed to detect the land cover changes; cultivations, and the extent of water ponds and seepage channels. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM has been processed to delineate the catchment morphometrical parameters (i.e. drainage networks, catchment divides and surface areas of different basins and to examine the spatial distribution of cultivated fields and their relation to the extracted drainage networks. The soil of these closed drainage basins is mainly shallow and lithic with high calcium carbonate content; therefore, the downward percolation of excess irrigation water is limited by the development of subsurface hardpan, which also saturates the upper layer of soil with water. The subsurface seepage from the newly cultivated areas in the Farafra Oasis has revealed the pattern of buried alluvial channels, which are waterlogged and outlined by the growth of diagnostic saline shrubs. Furthermore, the courses of these waterlogged channels are coinciding with their counterparts of the SRTM DEM, and the recent satellite images show that the surface playas in the downstream of these channels are partially occupied by water ponds. On the other hand, a large water pond has occupied the main playa and submerged the surrounding fields, as a large area has been cultivated within a relatively small closed drainage basin in the Baharia Oasis. The geomorphology of closed drainage basins has to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dryland catchments to better control waterlogging hazards. The "dry-drainage" concept can be implemented as the drainage and

  17. Dynamic drainage of froth with wood fibers (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Freya Tan


    Understanding froth drainage with fibers (or simply called fiber drainage in froth) is important for improving fiber yield in the flotation deinking operation. In this study, the data of water and fiber mass in foams collected at different froth heights were used to reconstruct the time dependent and spatially resolved froth density and fiber volumetric concentration...

  18. Percutaneous catheter drainage of tuberculous psoas abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, F.; Martin-Egana, R.; Cela, A.; Diaz, J.L.; Linares-Mondejar, P.; Freire, M.


    Six patients with 7 tuberculous psoas or ilio-psoas abscesses were treated by CT-guided catheter drainage and chemotherapy. The abscesses (5 unilateral and 1 bilateral) were completely drained using a posterior or lateral approach. The abscess volume was 70 to 700 ml (mean 300 ml) and the duration of drainage 5 to 11 days (mean 7 days). Immediate local symptomatic improvement was achieved in all patients, and there were no procedural complications. CT follow-up at 3 to 9 months showed normalization in 5 patients, 2 of whom are still in medical therapy. One patient, who did not take the medication regularly, had a recurrent abscess requiring new catheter drainage after which the fluid collection disappeared. Percutaneous drainage represents an efficient and attractive alternative to surgical drainage as a supplement to medical therapy in the management of patients with large tuberculous psoas abscesses. (orig.)

  19. Quantification of the impacts of coalmine water irrigation on the underlying aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, D.; Usher, B.; van Tonder, G. [University of Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute of Groundwater Studies


    It is predicted that vast volumes of affected mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa, The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. Research over a period of more than 10 years has shown that this water can be used successfully for the irrigation of a range of crops. There is, however, continuing concern from the local regulators regarding the long-term impact that large-scale mine water irrigation may have on groundwater quality and quantity. Detailed research has been undertaken over the last three years to supplement the groundwater monitoring programme at five different pilot sites, on both virgin soils (greenfields) and in coalmining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The research has included soil moisture measurements, collection of in situ soil moisture over time, long-term laboratory studies of the leaching and attenuation properties of different soils and the impact of irrigation on acid rock drainage processes, and in depth determination of the hydraulic properties of the subsurface at each of these sites, including falling head tests, pumping tests and point dilution tests. This has been supported by geochemical modelling of these processes to quantify the impacts. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that in the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts have been contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From this mixing ratios have been calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers.

  20. Improved methods for irrigation and planting of major crops in waterlogged areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Raoof, A.


    The improved irrigation methods for wheat and cotton were evaluated in the fordwah Eastern Sadigia (South) Irrigation and Drainage Project area, during 1996-97 and 1997-98 cropping seasons, under three water table depths. Irrigation methods for wheat included 70, 95 and 120 cm Beds, with Flat Basin, as a check for comparative evaluation. Cotton had Ridge-planting on the top and side, Bed and Furrow, and Flat Basin as control. These irrigation methods were compared at water table depths of < 1 m, 1-2 and 2-3 m. The wheat variety inqalab-91, and cotton cultivar, CIM-109, were planted during the 3rd week of November and May every year. All the inputs and management practices, such as seed-rate, fertilizer, seeding method, weed control, plant-protection measures, etc. were kept common. The results on cotton indicated maximum water-use efficiency with the Bed and Furrow Method of irrigation Followed by ridge planting. The traditional Flat-planting had the lowest yield and the highest water-consumption, resulting in the minimum water-use efficiency. In harmony with cotton, the Flat Method of planting had maximum water-consumption. For wheat crop, the water-use efficiency was in descending order, with 120, 95 and 70 cm for Bed and Flat Methods. Bed planting of 95 cm had a fairly high water-use efficiency and yields were more were more comparable than Flat planting. This method had a high level of adaptabilities, especially when the groundwater was close to the root-zone and higher possibilities, especially when the groundwater was close to the root-zone and higher possibility of crop-submergence are existent during rainy spells. The results of the investigation strongly favoured the Bed and furrow methods to irrigate cotton and wheat. However, under well-drained soil conditions, Bed planting of wheat is not recommended. (author)

  1. Abdominal drainage versus no drainage post gastrectomy for gastric cancer. (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Junqiang; Su, Ka; Dong, Zhiyong


    Gastrectomy remains the primary therapeutic method for resectable gastric cancer. Thought of as an important measure to reduce post-operative complications and mortality, abdominal drainage was used widely after gastrectomy for gastric cancer in previous decades. The benefits of abdominal drainage have been questioned by researchers in recent years. The objectives of this review were to access the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage post gastrectomy for gastric cancer. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Central/CCTR) in The Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 10), including the Specialised Registers of the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Diseases (UGPD) Group; MEDLINE (via Pubmed, 1950 to October, 2010); EMBASE (1980 to October, 2010); and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database (1979 to October, 2010). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing abdominal drain versus no drain in patients who had undergone gastrectomy (not considering the scale of gastrectomy and the extent of lymphadenectomy; irrespective of language, publication status, and the type of drain). We excluded RCTs comparing one drain with another. From each trial, we extracted the data on the methodological quality and characteristics of the included studies, mortality (30-day mortality), re-operations, post-operative complications (pneumonia, wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leak, drain-related complications), operation time, length of post-operative hospital stay and initiation of soft diet. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CI. We tested heterogeneity using the Chi(2) test. We used a fixed-effect model for data analysis with RevMan software but we used a random-effects model if the P value of the Chi(2) test was less than 0.1. We included four RCTs involving 438 patients (220

  2. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of drainage wells in Florida (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.; Fayard, L.D.


    Drainage wells are used to inject surface waters directly into an aquifer, or shallow ground waters directly into a deeper aquifer, primarily by gravity. Such wells in Florida may be grouped into two broad types: (1) surface-water injection wells, and (2) interaquifer connector wells. Drainage wells of the first type are further categorized as either Floridan aquifer drainage wells or Biscayne aquifer drainage wells. Floridan aquifer drainage wells are commonly used to supplement drainage for urban areas in karst terranes of central and north Florida. Data are available for 25 wells in the Ocala, Live Oak, and Orlando areas that allow comparison of the quality of water samples from these Floridan aquifer drainage wells with allowable contaminant levels. Comparison indicates that maximum contaminant levels for turbidity, color, and iron, manganese, and lead concentrations are equaled or exceeded in some drainage-well samples, and relatively high counts for coliform bacteria are present in most wells. Biscayne aquifer drainage wells are used locally to dispose of stormwater runoff and other surplus water in southeast Florida, where large numbers of these wells have been permitted in Dade and Broward Counties. The majority of these wells are used to dispose of water from swimming pools or to dispose of heated water from air-conditioning units. The use of Biscayne aquifer drainage wells may have minimal effect on aquifer potability so long as injection of runoff and industrial wates is restricted to zones where chloride concentrations exceed 1,500 milligrams per liter. Interaquifer connector wells are used in the phosphate mining areas of Polk and Hillsborough Counties, to drain mines and recharge the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data available from 13 connector wells indicate that samples from most of these wells exceed standards values for iron concentration and turbidity. One well yielded a highly mineralized water, and samples from 6 of the other 12 wells exceed

  3. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment... (United States)


    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  4. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering...... cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples...... were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required...

  5. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.


    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  6. Salinity and cationic nature of irrigation water on castor bean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani S. de Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the water relations, cell damage percentage and growth of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ as a function of salinity and cationic nature of the water used in irrigation. The experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions in eutrophic Grey Argisol of sandy loam texture. Six combinations of water salinity and cations were studied (S1 - Control; S2 - Na+, S3 - Ca2+, S4 - Na+ + Ca2+; S5 - K+ and S6 - Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+, in a randomized block design with four replicates. In the control (S1, plants were irrigated with 0.6 dS m-1 water, whereas the other treatments received 4.5 dS m-1 water, obtained by adding different salts, all in the chloride form. Higher relative water content in the leaf blade of plants irrigated with K+-salinized water associated with leaf succulence are indicative of tolerance of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ to salinity. Saline stress negatively affected castor bean growth, regardless of cationic nature of water. Among the ions studied, ‘BRS Energia’ castor bean was more sensitive to the presence of sodium in the irrigation water, in terms of both water relations and leaf succulence.

  7. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)


    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  8. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.


    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  9. Radiologically-guided catheter drainage of intrathoracic abscesses and empyemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Steiner, W.; Bergman, C.; Anthuber, M.; Dienemann, H.


    Radiologically guided percutaneous catheter drainage was used in 38 patients to treat pleural empyemas (35 patients) and pulmonary abscesses (3 patients). Drainage was successful in 85.7% of empyemas including 11 cases with fistulous communications. Three percutaneously drained pulmonary abscesses required subsequent lobectomy. One patient died during the drainage procedure due to sepsis. No major complications related to the drainage procedure were observed. Guided percutaneous drainage proved to be a safe and successful alternative to closed drainage of pleural fluid collections. (orig.)

  10. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  11. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN. (United States)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.


    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  12. Modeling Soil Sodicity Problems under Dryland and Irrigated Conditions: Case Studies in Argentina and Colombia (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso


    Salt-affected soils, both saline and sodic, my develop both under dryland and irrigated conditions, affecting negatively the physical and chemical soil properties, the crop production and the animal and human health.Among the development processes of salt-affected soils, the processes of sodification have been generally received less attention and is less understood than the development of saline soils. Although in both of them, hydrological processes are involved in their development, in the case of sodic soils we have to consider some additional chemical and physicochemical reactions, making more difficult their modeling and prediction. In this contribution we present two case studies: one related to the development of sodic soils in the lowlands of the Argentina Pampas, under dryland conditions and sub-humid temperate climate, with pastures for cattle production; the other deals with the development of sodic soils in the Colombia Cauca Valley, under irrigated conditions and tropical sub-humid climate, in lands used for sugarcane cropping dedicated to sugar and ethanol production. In both cases the development of sodicity in the surface soil is mainly related to the effects of the composition and level of groundwater, affected in the case of Argentina Pampas by the off-site changes in dryland use and management in the upper zones and by the drainage conditions in the lowlands, and in the case of the Cauca Valley, by the on-site irrigation and drainage management in lands with sugarcane. There is shown how the model SALSODIMAR, developed by the main author, based on the balance of water and soluble componentes of both the irrigation water and groundwater under different water and land management conditions, may be adapted for the diagnosis and prediction of both problems, and for the selection of alternatives for their management and amelioration.

  13. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.


    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since

  14. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  15. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.


    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  16. Percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totev, M.


    Full text: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is an X-ray or US guided procedure that involves the injection of a contrast material directly into the bile ducts inside the liver to produce pictures of them. If a blockage or narrowing is found, additional procedures may be performed: 1. insertion of a catheter to drain excess bile out of the body or both - internal and external; 2. plastic endoprothesis placement; 3. self-expandable metal stents placement to help open bile ducts or to bypass an obstruction and allow fluids to drain. Current percutaneous biliary interventions include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and biliary drainage to manage benign and malignant obstructions. Internal biliary stents are either plastic or metallic, and various types of each kind are available. Internal biliary stents have several advantages. An external tube can be uncomfortable and have a psychological disadvantage. An internal stent prevents the problems related to external catheters, for example, pericatheter leakage of bile and the need for daily flushing. The disadvantages include having to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or new PTC procedures to obtain access in case of stent obstruction. Better patency rates are reported with metallic than with plastic stents in cases of malignant obstruction, though no effect on survival is noted. Plastic internal stents are the cheapest but reportedly prone to migration. Metallic stents are generally not used in the treatment of benign disease because studies have shown poor long-term patency rates. Limited applications may include the treatment of patients who are poor surgical candidates or of those in whom surgical treatment fails. Most postoperative strictures are treated surgically, though endoscopic and (less commonly) percutaneous placement of nonmetallic stents has increasingly been used in the past few years. Now there are some reports about use of biodegradable biliary

  17. Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and subsurface drainage systems: Key factors for determining drainage setback distances (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Wiltermuth, Mark T.


    Use of agricultural subsurface drainage systems in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America continues to increase, prompting concerns over potential negative effects to the Region's vital wetlands. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protects a large number of wetlands through conservation easements that often utilize standard lateral setback distances to provide buffers between wetlands and drainage systems. Because of a lack of information pertaining to the efficacy of these setback distances for protecting wetlands, information is required to support the decision making for placement of subsurface drainage systems adjacent to wetlands. We used qualitative graphical analyses and data comparisons to identify characteristics of subsurface drainage systems and wetland catchments that could be considered when assessing setback distances. We also compared setback distances with catchment slope lengths to determine if they typically exclude drainage systems from the catchment. We demonstrated that depth of a subsurface drainage system is a key factor for determining drainage setback distances. Drainage systems located closer to the surface (shallow) typically could be associated with shorter lateral setback distances compared with deeper systems. Subsurface drainage systems would be allowed within a wetland's catchment for 44–59% of catchments associated with wetland conservation easements in North Dakota. More specifically, results suggest that drainage setback distances generally would exclude drainage systems from catchments of the smaller wetlands that typically have shorter slopes in the adjacent upland contributing area. For larger wetlands, however, considerable areas of the catchment would be vulnerable to drainage that may affect wetland hydrology. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service easements are associated with > 2,000 km2 of wetlands in North Dakota, demonstrating great potential to protect these systems from drainage depending on policies for installing

  18. Soil salinization processes in rice irrigation schemes in the Senegal River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuppens, J.; Wopereis, M.C.S.; Miezan, K.M.


    Soil salinization constitutes a major threat to irrigated agriculture (mainly rice, Oryza sativa L.) in the Senegal River Delta. It is generally hypothesized that salinization is caused by (i) capillary rise from a saline water table and (ii) concentration of salts in the field due to lack of adequate drainage facilities. The impact of field water management and rice cropping intensity on salinization in the Delta was determined using an electromagnetic conductivity meter (Geonics EM38). More than 4000 measurements were made in 40 rice fields on a typical heavy clay soil (Vertic Xerofluvent). Thirty EM38 measurements per field (0.25 ha) estimated average field soil salinity with a relative error of 20%. A multiple linear regression model based on EM38 readings explained 60 to 75% of the variability in conductivity of 1:5 saturation extracts at 0- to 5-, 10- to 15-, and 30- to 35-cm depths. Higher cropping intensity limited upward salt transport from the water table. Average horizontal and vertical EM38 measurements increased in the following order two rice crops per year with drainage: 0.73 and 0.98 dS m -1 ; one rice crop per year with drainage: 1.26 and 1.76 dS m -1 ; one rice crop per year without drainage: 2.23 and 2.98 dS m -1 ; and abandoned fields: 4.77 and 4.29 dS m -1 . Results indicate a beneficial effect of flooded rice on salinity for this type of heavy clay soil. Irrigation development in the area needs to be accompanied by monitoring of water table depth. (author)

  19. Postoperative drainage in head and neck surgery. (United States)

    Amir, Ida; Morar, Pradeep; Belloso, Antonio


    A major factor affecting patients' length of hospitalisation following head and neck surgery remains the use of surgical drains. The optimal time to remove these drains has not been well defined. A routine practice is to measure the drainage every 24 h and remove the drain when daily drainage falls below 25 ml. This study aims to determine whether drainage measurement at shorter intervals decreases the time to drain removal and hence the length of in-patient stays. A 6-month prospective observational study was performed. The inclusion criteria were patients who underwent head and neck surgery without neck dissection and had a closed suction drain inserted. Drainage rates were measured at 8-hourly intervals. Drains were removed when drainage-rate was ≤ 1 ml/h over an 8-h period. A total of 43 patients were evaluated. The highest drainage rate occurred in the first 8 postoperative hours and decreased significantly in the subsequent hours. The median drainage rates at 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 postoperative hours were 3.375, 1, 0, 0 and 0 ml/h, respectively. Applying our new removal criteria of ≤ 1 ml/h drainage rate, the drains were removed in 22 (51%) patients at the 16th postoperative hour; 37 (86%) were removed by 24 h after operation. In comparison, only nine (20.9%) patients could potentially be discharged the day after surgery if previous criteria of ≤ 25 ml/24-h were used to decide on drain removal. Our 8-hourly drainage-rate monitoring has facilitated safe earlier discharge of an additional 28 (65%) patients on the day after surgery. This has led to improvement in patient care, better optimisation of hospital resources and resulted in positive economic implications to the department.

  20. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr


    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  1. Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in key largo, Florida. (United States)

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Brown, J; Shinn, E A; Miller, S; Farrah, S R


    Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys.

  2. Impact of sewage disposal on a nematode community of a tropical sandy beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    1: Map of the study area with sampling location MATERIALS AND METHODS Mandovi estuary, which opens into the Arabian Sea near Panjim city on the west coast of India with an average annual river discharge of 6004 Mm 3 (Suprit and Shankar, 2008... sediment was sampled with an acrylic core (4.5cm diameter) down to 5 cm depth in triplicates. Separate cores were taken for sediment organic carbon and grain size analysis. Organic carbon was analysed using wet Oxidation method (Wakeel and Riley, 1957...

  3. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage Disposal (United States)

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions,...

  4. Water Purification, Distribution and Sewage Disposal. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-29. (United States)


    This document, designed to serve as a training manual for technical instructors and as a field resource reference for Peace Corps volunteers, consists of nine units. Unit topics focus on: (1) water supply sources; (2) water treatment; (3) planning water distribution systems; (4) characteristics of an adequate system; (5) construction techniques;…

  5. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.


    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  6. improving of irrigation management: a learning based approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Irrigation farms are small businesses and like any other business, the managers or ... human factors and constraints that impact on the adoption of irrigation ... Informal interaction with other irrigation farmers and social networks played a ...

  7. Cholangitis following percutaneous biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audisio, R.A.; Bozzetti, F.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.; Belloni, M.; Friggerio, L.F.


    The binomial PTBD-cholangitis often stands under different and sometimes even opposite relations. Among its indications the procedure lists, the treatment of cholangitis which, on the other hand, may be itself a complication of biliary drainage. The present work proposes a critical review of cholangitis-PTBD correlations, from an ordinary clinical-radiological point of view. Different pathogenetic hypothesis of cholangitis (inflammation, cholestasis, surgical manipulation) are discussed together with risk factors (impaired macrophagic-phagocytic system, immunosuppresion, wide neoplastic liver involvement, multiple intrahepatic ductal obstructions, chronic liver diseases, aged patients, etc.). The authors also report about prevention and treatment of septic complications which must be carried out following technical and therapeutic strategies, such as chemoprophylaxis and focused antibiotic therapy according to coltural samples, slow injection of small amounts of contrast medium, peripheral branches approach, gentle handling of catheters and guidewires, flushing with saline solutions and brushing of the catheter itself, and finally use of large gauge catheters in the presence of bile sludge

  8. Solar system for soil drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, Z.R.; Stojanovic, J.B.; Antic, M.A.; Pavlovic, T.M.


    The paper reviews solar system for drainage of the cultivable agricultural surfaces which can be situated near the rivers in plains. These are usually very fertile surfaces which cannot be cultivated die to constant presence of the water. Using such solar systems should increase the percentage of cultivable surfaces. These systems can also be installed on the cultivable agricultural surfaces, where the water surfaces or so called still waters appear, which make impossible the application of agritechnical measures on these surfaces, significantly decreasing crops and creating conditions for the growth of pond plants and animals. Increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces would increase national agricultural income. At the same time, increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces decreases the surfaces of unhealthy bog, swamp and marshland soils, where many insect breed. They are the cause for soil spraying from the air, which causes the pollution of environment. Solar systems do not pollute the environment because they use solar energy as the purest source of energy. Their usage has special significance in the places where there is no electricity distribution network

  9. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.


    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  10. Modelling human agency in ancient irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.


    Human activity is key in understanding ancient irrigation systems. Results of short term actions build up over time, affecting civilizations on larger temporal and spatial scales. Irrigation systems, with their many entities, social and physical, their many interactions within a changing environment

  11. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  12. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  13. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management (United States)

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  14. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.


    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  15. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, Christos; van der Sluis, Lucas; Basrani, Bettina


    This book reviews the available information on bacterial disinfection in endodontics, with emphasis on the chemical treatment of root canals based on current understanding of the process of irrigation. It describes recent advances in knowledge of the chemistry associated with irrigants and delivery

  16. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))


    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author).

  17. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige


    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with 99m Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author)

  18. Irrigation scheduling with the neutron probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travers, P.


    The operational theory of the neutron probe is briefly outlined and its application and uses discussed in relation to determination of soil compaction and irrigation scheduling. Graphic examples are given of alluvial soil moisture profiles and how this information can be used to improve trickle irrigation in vineyards. 3 refs., 7 figs

  19. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen


    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  20. Basics of Postural Drainage and Percussion (United States)

    ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... care. Clinician Awards Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: ...

  1. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella


    Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to

  2. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics]. (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas


    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  3. Scintigraphy of the lacrimal drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denffer, H. von; Dressler, J.; Technische Univ. Muenchen


    A new scintigraphic method, the radionuclide dacryography, to evaluate lacrimal drainage and its disorders is described. A drop of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate is dropped onto the eyes and the transport of the nuclide is registered by a scintillation camera. By this method it is easy to verify, under physiological conditions, suspected obstructions of the lacrimal drainage system and to determine its localization. The absorbed radiation dose using radionuclide dacryography is very low as compared to radiological methods. (orig.) [de

  4. Pressure Jumps during Drainage in Macroporous Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soto, Diego; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Corral, A


    Tensiometer readings obtained at high resolution during drainage of structured soil columns revealed pressure jumps with long range correlations and burst sequences with a hierarchical structure. The statistical properties of jumps are similar to Haines jumps described in invasion percolation...... processes at pore scale, but they are much larger in amplitude and duration. Pressure jumps can result from transient redistribution of water potential in internal regions of soil and can be triggered during drainage by capillary displacements at the scale of structural pores....

  5. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota (United States)

    Maderak, Marion L.


    The Heart River drainage basin of southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  6. Are there still roles for exocrine bladder drainage and portal venous drainage for pancreatic allografts? (United States)

    Young, Carlton J


    Controversy remains regarding the best methodology of handling exocrine pancreatic fluid and pancreatic venous effluent. Bladder drainage has given way to enteric drainage. However, is there an instance in which bladder drainage is preferable? Also, hyperinsulinemia, as a result of systemic venous drainage (SVD), is claimed to be proatherosclerotic, whereas portal venous drainage (PVD) is more physiologic and less atherosclerotic. Bladder drainage remains a viable method of exocrine pancreas drainage, but evidence is sparse that measuring urinary amylase has a substantial benefit in the early detection of acute rejection in all types of pancreas transplants. Currently, there is no incontrovertible evidence that systemic hyperinsulinemia is proatherosclerotic, whereas recent metabolic studies on SVD and PVD showed that there was no benefit to PVD. Given the advent of newer immunosuppressive agents and overall lower acute rejection rates, the perceived benefit of bladder drainage as a means to measure urinary amylase as an early marker of rejection has not been substantiated. However, there may be a selective role for bladder drainage in 'high risk' pancreases. Also, without a clear-cut metabolic benefit to PVD over SVD, it remains the surgeon's choice as to which method to use.

  7. [Drainage of amoebic liver abscess by single incision laparoscopic surgery. Report of a case]. (United States)

    Telich-Tarriba, José Eduardo; Parrao-Alcántara, Iris Jocelyn; Montes-Hernández, Jesús Manuel; Vega-Pérez, Jesús


    Single incision laparoscopic surgery has increased recently due to successful results, achieved in several procedures. The aim of the present work is to present the first case in which single incision laparoscopy is used for the drainage of an amoebic liver abscess. A 44-year-old man presented with intense right upper quadrant pain, generalised jaundice, tachycardia, fever, hepatomegaly and a positive Murphy's sign. Laboratory results revealed an increased plasma bilirubin, elevated alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, leucocytosis, negative viral panel for hepatitis, and positive antibodies against Entamoeba histolytica. On an abdominal computed tomography a 15 × 12.1 cm hypodense lesion was observed in the patient's liver, identified as an amoebic liver abscess. Analgesics and antibiotics were started and subsequently the patient was submitted to laparoscopic drainage of the abscess using a single port approach. Drainage and irrigation of the abscess was performed. Four days later the patient was discharged without complications. Management of amoebic liver abscess is focused on the elimination of the infectious agent and obliteration of the abscess cavity in order to prevent its complications, especially rupture. Laparoscopic surgery has proved to be a safe and effective way to manage this entity. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct Open Venous Drainage: An Alternative Choice for Flap Congestion Salvage. (United States)

    Park, Su Han; Choi, Woo Young; Son, Kyung Min; Cheon, Ji Seon; Yang, Jeong Yeol


    In this report, we present a scalp defect reconstruction with lateral arm free flap. We highlight the difficulty in obtaining a recipient vein and the venous drainage managed through an open end of the donor vein. A 52-year-old woman presented with a pressure sore on the left scalp. A lateral arm free flap was transferred to cover this 8×6 cm defect. The arterial anastomosis was successful, but no recipient vein could be identified within the wound bed. Instead, we used a donor venous end for the direct open venous drainage. In order to keep this exposed venous end patent, we applied heparin-soaked gauze dressing to the wound. Also, the vein end was mechanically dilated and irrigated with heparin solution at two hour intervals. Along with fluid management and blood transfusion, this management was continued for the five days after the operation. The flap survived well without any complication. Through this case, we were able to demonstrate that venous congestion can be avoided by drainage of the venous blood through an open vessel without the use of leeches.

  9. Risk Factors in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Comparison of Irrigation with Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid and Normal Saline in a Cohort Analysis (United States)

    Adachi, Akihiko; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Fujikawa, Atsushi; Machida, Toshio; Sueyoshi, Shigeo; Harigaya, Kenichi; Ono, Junichi; Saeki, Naokatsu


    Background Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is known to have a substantial recurrence rate. Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACF) is an effective irrigation solution in general open craniotomy and endoneurosurgery, but no evidence of its use in burr-hole surgery exists. Objective To identify the potential of ACF irrigation to prevent CSDH recurrence. More specifically, to investigate the perioperative and intraoperative prognostic factors, and to identify controllable ones. Methods To examine various prognostic factors, 120 consecutive patients with unilateral CSDH treated with burr-hole drainage between September 2007 and March 2013 were analyzed. Intraoperative irrigation was performed with one of two irrigation solutions: normal saline (NS; n = 60) or ACF (n = 60). All patients were followed-up for at least 6 months postoperatively. We also examined the morphological alternations of the hematoma outer membranes after incubation with different solutions. Results Eleven patients (9.2%) had recurrence. Nine patients (15%) required additional surgery in the NS group, whereas only 2 patients (3.3%) in the ACF group required additional surgery. Among preoperative and intraoperative data, age (22.0, P = .037), laterality (right, P = .03), and irrigation solution (ACF, P = .027) were related to smaller recurrence rates by log-rank tests. Only the type of irrigation solution used significantly correlated with recurrence in favor of ACF in both Cox proportional hazards (relative hazard: 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04–0.99; P = .049) and logistic regression models (odds ratio, 0.17, 95% CI: 0.03–0.92; P = .04) using these factors. Histological examinations of the hematoma membranes showed that the membranes incubated with NS were loose and infiltrated by inflammatory cells compared with those incubated with ACF. Conclusion Irrigation with ACF decreased the rate of CSDH recurrence. PMID:25089621

  10. Effect of irrigation and winery waste compost rates in nitrate leaching in vulnerable zones (United States)

    Requejo, Maria Isabel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Ribas, Francisco; Jesús Cabello, Maria; Arce, Augusto; Cartagena, Maria Carmen


    The winery industry is widespread in Spain (3,610,000 tonnes of wine in 2010 (FAO, 2010)), and generates wastes characterized by a high content of organic matter, a notable content in macronutrients and low heavy-metals. These organic wastes could be used for agricultural purposes after a correct stabilization process (e.g. composting).The addition of these organic wastes requires a correct management, especially on semiarid cropped areas of central Spain where environmental degradation of water supplies with high N loads is observed. An integrated optimization of both applied compost dose and amount of irrigation is important to ensure optimum yields and minimum nitrate leaching losses. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the application of winery waste compost as fertilizer in a melon crop cultivated with different drip irrigation rates. The field experiment was carried out in Ciudad Real, designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. Beside the control treatment (D0), three doses of compost were applied: 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T/ha(D3).Irrigation treatments consisted of applying a 100% ETc and an excess irrigation of 120% ETc. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs), with 0.6 m depth and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.6 and 0.7 m. Drainage and nitrate concentration on the soil solution were measured weekly to determine N leached during the crop period. Crop yield was also followed by harvesting plots when a significant number of fruits were fully matured. A comparison between nitrate leached and crop production among different treatments and irrigation rates are presented. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  11. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad


    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  12. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, S.A.; Hasbini, B.


    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  13. Failures and complications of thoracic drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thoracic drainage is a surgical procedure for introducing a drain into the pleural space to drain its contents. Using this method, the pleura is discharged and set to the physiological state which enables the reexpansion of the lungs. The aim of the study was to prove that the use of modern principles and protocols of thoracic drainage significantly reduces the occurrence of failures and complications, rendering the treatment more efficient. Methods. The study included 967 patients treated by thoracic drainage within the period from January 1, 1989 to June 1, 2000. The studied patients were divided into 2 groups: group A of 463 patients treated in the period from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1994 in whom 386 pleural drainage (83.36% were performed, and group B of 602 patients treated form January 1, 1995 to June 1, 2000 in whom 581 pleural drainage (96.51% were performed. The patients of the group A were drained using the classical standards of thoracic drainage by the general surgeons. The patients of the group B, however, were drained using the modern standards of thoracic drainage by the thoracic surgeons, and the general surgeons trained for this kind of the surgery. Results. The study showed that better results were achieved in the treatment of the patients from the group B. The total incidence of the failures and complications of thoracic drainage decreased from 36.52% (group A to 12.73% (group B. The mean length of hospitalization of the patients without complications in the group A was 19.5 days versus 10 days in the group B. The mean length of the treatment of the patients with failures and complications of the drainage in the group A was 33.5 days versus 17.5 days in the group B. Conclusion. The shorter length of hospitalization and the lower morbidity of the studied patients were considered to be the result of the correct treatment using modern principles of thoracic drainage, a suitable surgical technique, and a

  14. Water movement through a shallow unsaturated zone in an inland arid region: Field drip irrigation experiment under matrix potential control (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Han, D.; Song, X.


    It is vital to study soil water movement in unsaturated zone for evaluating and improving current irrigation mode for prevention and control of soil secondary salinization, especially in inland arid area, where is characterized by strong evaporation, poor drainage system and shallow water table depth. In this study, we investigated the applicability of drip irrigation under matrix potential control during cotton growth seasons in an inland arid region of northwest China. Combined physical observation with stable isotopes tracing method, we studied soil water flow system and recharge sources of shallow groundwater in heavy (Pilot 1) and light (Pilot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. Evaporation depths (about 50-60 cm) are about the same for both pilots, but infiltration depths (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 150 cm for Pilot 2) are very different due to different soil texture, soil structure and soil salt content. Middle layer (about 100 cm thick) is a critical barrier for water exchange between surface and deep layer. Irrigation water is the major source (about 79.6% for Pilot 1 and 81.6% for Pilot 2), while evapotranspiration is the major sink (about 80.7% for Pilot 1 and 83.1% for Pilot 2) of unsaturated zone. The increase of soil water storage is not enough to make up the water shortage of middle layer and thus drip irrigation water doesn't recharge into groundwater for both pilots. Water table rise (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 50 cm for Pilot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. This irrigation mode could retard the water table rise in this region. However, improving horizontal drainage system may be indispensable for sustainable agriculture development. The study can provide important basis for soil secondary salinization prevention and agricultural water management in inland arid areas.

  15. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Aravind


    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  16. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AYDIN


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigation by using pressure chamber technique at the beginning, mid and end of irrigation season. According to the results obtained from measurements, the LWP value at the beginning of the irrigation season was -3.7 MPa at noon time due to relatively high temperature for both treatments. At the time of pre-dawn and sunset, this value increased and reached to - 1.6 MPa due to relatively low temperature. In general, the LWP values during the mid of irrigation season, in the irrigated treatments, reached to almost -2.5 MPa in the non-irrigated treatment and the value was measured as -3.68 MPa.

  17. Percutaneous drainage of abscesses associated with biliary fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Winter, T.; Pratschke, E.; Sauerbruch, T.; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen


    33 abdominal abscesses associated with fistulae in 31 patients were treated by percutaneous drainage. 19 of these patients had had surgery immediately preceding the drainage. In 64% the percutaneous drainage led to a diagnosis of an internal fistula. Additional therapeutic measures, because of the fistula, were necessary in 45% (operation, biliary drainage, repositioning of catheter). The average duration of drainage was 29 days. 77% of those abscesses which could be drained were treated successfully. Mortality in the entire series was 19%. (orig.) [de

  18. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Naydyonova


    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  19. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

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    Aureo S de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  20. Matching agricultural freshwater supply and demand: using industrial and domestic treated wastewater for sub-irrigation purposes (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Worm, Bas; Cirkel, Gijsbert; van Loon, Arnaut; Raat, Klaasjan


    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Climate change leads to more prolonged drought periods that alternate with more intensive rainfall events. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to drought stress will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities search for opportunities to manage risks of decreasing crop yields. Available groundwater sources for irrigation purposes are increasingly under pressure due to the regional coexistence of land use functions that are critical to groundwater levels or compete for available water. At the same time, treated wastewater from industries and domestic wastewater treatment plants are quickly discharged via surface waters towards sea. Exploitation of these freshwater sources may be an effective strategy to balance regional water supply and agricultural water demand. We present results of two pilot studies in drought sensitive regions in the Netherlands, concerning agricultural water supply through reuse of industrial and domestic treated wastewater. In these pilots, excess wastewater is delivered to the plant root zone through sub-irrigation by drainage systems. Sub-irrigation is a subsurface irrigation method that can be more efficient than classical, aboveground irrigation methods using sprinkler installations. Domestic wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands produce annually 40-50mm freshwater. A pilot project has been setup in the eastern part of the Netherlands, in which treated wastewater is applied to a corn field by sub-irrigation during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016, using a climate adaptive drainage system. The chemical composition of treated domestic wastewater is different from infiltrating excess rainfall water and natural groundwater. In the pilot project, the bromide-chloride ratio and traces of pharmaceuticals in the treated wastewater are used as a tracer to describe water and solute transport in the

  1. Nitrogen Balance During Sweet Sorghum Cropping Cycle as Affected by Irrigation and Fertilization Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    Full Text Available A two-year trial was carried out on sweet sorghum, grown in semi-arid environments of southern Europe. The trial was aimed to monitor the main components of the crop N-balance under different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilization rates, in factorial combination. A rainfed condition (only one watering soon after sowing was compared with a deficit irrigation regime and a full irrigation treatment (50 and 100% restoration of total crop water consumption, respectively. Crop nitrogen uptake always showed to be the highest N-balance components and was included in the range of 125-194 kg ha-1 during 1997-1998, with respect to the total shoot biomass, according to the nitrogen fertilization rate; consequently, it significantly reduced both nitrogen concentration in the soil solution and the total nitrogen loss due to drainage. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water didn’t result to be strictly dependent on the rate of fertiliser applied but on the actual soil nitrogen content; the maximum registered value of total nitrogen lost by leaching was 1.9 kg ha-1. Differently, total nitrogen loss due to volatilisation was proportional to the amount of fertilizer applied; irrigation favourably reduced this kind of loss. The limited amount of Nvolatilisation loss was probably due to the neutral pH soil conditions; as an order of magnitude, referring to the highest fertilized but rainfed treatment, the utmost N-volatilisation loss was equal to 5.5 Kg ha-1, as an average over the three years, that is to say less than the 5% of the fertilization rate. A fertilisation rate of 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, together with water application, generally produced a balance between crop N-uptake and total N-loss due to volatilisation and drainage (only the stalk biomass was considered in this calculation. Lower rates of fertilizing nitrogen, indeed, determined a depletion in the soil nitrogen content because of the high crop biomass and the strong N-uptake by the

  2. Nitrogen Balance During Sweet Sorghum Cropping Cycle as Affected by Irrigation and Fertilization Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola


    Full Text Available A two-year trial was carried out on sweet sorghum, grown in semi-arid environments of southern Europe. The trial was aimed to monitor the main components of the crop N-balance under different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilization rates, in factorial combination. A rainfed condition (only one watering soon after sowing was compared with a deficit irrigation regime and a full irrigation treatment (50 and 100% restoration of total crop water consumption, respectively. Crop nitrogen uptake always showed to be the highest N-balance components and was included in the range of 125-194 kg ha-1 during 1997-1998, with respect to the total shoot biomass, according to the nitrogen fertilization rate; consequently, it significantly reduced both nitrogen concentration in the soil solution and the total nitrogen loss due to drainage. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water didn’t result to be strictly dependent on the rate of fertiliser applied but on the actual soil nitrogen content; the maximum registered value of total nitrogen lost by leaching was 1.9 kg ha-1. Differently, total nitrogen loss due to volatilisation was proportional to the amount of fertilizer applied; irrigation favourably reduced this kind of loss. The limited amount of Nvolatilisation loss was probably due to the neutral pH soil conditions; as an order of magnitude, referring to the highest fertilized but rainfed treatment, the utmost N-volatilisation loss was equal to 5.5 Kg ha-1, as an average over the three years, that is to say less than the 5% of the fertilization rate. A fertilisation rate of 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, together with water application, generally produced a balance between crop N-uptake and total N-loss due to volatilisation and drainage (only the stalk biomass was considered in this calculation. Lower rates of fertilizing nitrogen, indeed, determined a depletion in the soil nitrogen content because of the high crop biomass and the strong N-uptake by the

  3. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia (United States)

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María


    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  4. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger


    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  5. effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of okro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    reduce the demand for irrigation water (Boland et al., 1993). Deficit irrigation is another way in which water use efficiency can be maximized for higher yields per unit of irrigation water. Stegman (1982) reported that the yield of maize, sprinkler irrigated to induce a 30 - 40 percent depletion of available water between.

  6. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto


    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  7. Mapping Soil hydrologic features in a semi-arid irrigated area in Spain (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguirre, M.° Teresa; Isidoro, Daniel; Usón, Asunción


    The lack of soil information is a managerial problem in irrigated areas in Spain. The Violada Irrigation District (VID; 5234 ha) is a gypsic, semi-arid region in the Middle Ebro River Basin, northeast Spain. VID is under irrigation since the 1940's. The implementation of the flood irrigation system gave rise to waterlogging problems, solved along the years with the installation of an artificial drainage network. Aggregated water balances have been performed in VID since the early 1980's considering average soil properties and aggregated irrigation data for the calculations (crop evapotranspiration, canal seepage, and soil drainage). In 2008-2009, 91% of the VID was modernized to sprinkler irrigation. This new system provides detailed irrigation management information that together with detailed soil information would allow for disaggregated water balances for a better understanding of the system. Our goal was to draw a semi-detailed soil map of VID presenting the main soil characteristics related to irrigation management. A second step of the work was to set up pedotransfer functions (PTF) to estimate the water content and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) from easily measurable parameters. Thirty four pits were opened, described and sampled for chemical and physical properties. Thirty three additional auger holes were sampled for water holding capacity (WHC; down to 60 cm), helping to draw the soil units boundaries. And 15 Ks tests (inverse auger hole method) were made. The WHC was determined as the difference between the field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) measured in samples dried at 40°C during 5 days. The comparison with old values dried at 105°C for 2 days highlighted the importance of the method when gypsum is present in order to avoid water removal from gypsum molecules. The soil map was drawn down to family level. Thirteen soil units were defined by the combination of five subgroups [Typic Calcixerept (A), Petrocalcic Calcixerept (B), Gypsic

  8. Improved drainage with active chest tube clearance. (United States)

    Shiose, Akira; Takaseya, Tohru; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Arakawa, Yoko; Horai, Tetsuya; Boyle, Edward M; Gillinov, A Marc; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka


    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel chest drainage system. This system employs guide wire-based active chest tube clearance to improve drainage and maintain patency. A 32 Fr chest tube was inserted into pleural cavities of five pigs. On the left, a tube was connected to the chest canister, and on the right, the new system was inserted between the chest tube and chest canister. Acute bleeding was mimicked by periodic infusion of blood. The amount of blood drained from each chest cavity was recorded every 15 min for 2 h. After completion of the procedure, all residual blood and clots in each chest cavity were assessed. The new system remained widely patent, and the amount of drainage achieved with this system (670+/-105 ml) was significantly (P=0.01) higher than that with the standard tube (239+/-131 ml). The amount of retained pleural blood and clots with this system (150+/-107 ml) was significantly (P=0.04) lower than that with the standard tube (571+/-248 ml). In conclusion, a novel chest drainage system with active tube clearance significantly improved drainage without tube manipulations. 2010 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Intraoperative Ultrasonography during Drainage for Chronic Subdural Hematomas: A Technique to Release Isolated Deep-seated Hematomas—Technical Note (United States)

    SHIMIZU, Satoru; MOCHIZUKI, Takahiro; OSAWA, Shigeyuki; KUMABE, Toshihiro


    After the drainage of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs), residual isolated deep-seated hematomas (IDHs) may recur. We introduce intraoperative ultrasonography to detect and remove such IDHs. Intra-operative ultrasonography is performed with fine transducers introduced via burr holes. Images obtained before dural opening show the CSDHs, hyper- and/or hypoechoic content, and mono- or multilayers. Images are also acquired after irrigation of the hematoma under the dura. Floating hyperechoic spots (cavitations) on the brain cortex created by irrigation confirm the release of all hematoma layers; areas without spots represent IDHs. Their overlying thin membranes are fenestrated with a dural hook for irrigation. Ultrasonographs were evaluated in 43 CSDHs (37 patients); 9 (21%) required IDH fenestration. On computed tomography scans, 17 were homogeneous-, 6 were laminar-, 16 were separated-, and 4 were trabecular type lesions. Of these, 2 (11.8%), 3 (50%), 4 (25%), and 0, respectively, manifested IDHs requiring fenestration. There were no technique-related complications. Patients subjected to IDH fenestration had lower recurrence rates (11.1% vs. 50%, p = 0.095) and required significantly less time for brain re-expansion (mean 3.78 ± 1.62 vs. 18 ± 5.54 weeks, p = 0.0009) than did 6 patients whose IDHs remained after 48 conventional irrigation and drainage procedures. Intraoperative ultrasonography in patients with CSDHs facilitates the safe release of hidden IDHs. It can be expected to reduce the risk of postoperative hematoma recurrence and to shorten the brain re-expansion time. PMID:26345671

  10. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.


    seek to reduce the amount of drainage water produced. One approach is to reduce the amount of drainage per irrigated acre. From modeling simulations performed for the SLDFRE EIS of the Westlands Area of the SLU, theoretical minimums that can be achieved range from approximately 0.16 to 0.25 acre-feet per acre per year (AF/acre/year). Minimum production rates from the Northerly Area of the SLU are theorized as being much higher, approximately 0. 42 to 0.28 AF/acre/year. Rates shown in the SLU Plans for drained acres from the two areas combined are 0.5 AF/acre/year at the subsurface drain stage and 0.37 AF/acre/year after a series of on-farm and regional measures are instituted. Land retirement is a key strategy to reduce drainage because it can effectively reduce drainage to zero if all drainage-impaired lands are retired. Land retirement alternatives considered in the SLDFRE EIS differ for the two areas analyzed in the SLU. The Northerly Area is to retire a nominal 10,000 acres and Westlands is to retire up to 300,000 acres. The initial land retirement option recently put forth in the SLU Plans predicted drainage volume reductions that are consistent with 200,000 acres of land retirement, but only 100,000 acres of land retirement was proposed. Within the proposed area of drainage there are, for all practical purposes, unlimited reservoirs of selenium and salt stored within the aquifers and soils of the valley and upslope in the Coast Ranges. Salt imported in irrigation water is estimated to be at least 1.5 million tons per year for the Westlands and Northerly Areas (SJVDIP, 1998). Analysis of the land retirement alternatives presented in the SLDFRE EIS indicates that land retirement of a minimum of only 100,000 acres results in the annual pumping to the surface of 20,142 pounds of selenium or about a million pounds of selenium over a 50 year period. Retiring 200,000 acres results in an annual pumping of 14,750 pounds of selenium; and reti

  11. Local land-atmosphere feedbacks limit irrigation demand (United States)

    Decker, Mark; Ma, Shaoxiu; Pitman, Andy


    Irrigation is known to influence regional climate but most studies forecast and simulate irrigation with offline (i.e. land only) models. Using south eastern Australia as a test bed, we demonstrate that irrigation demand is fundamentally different between land only and land-atmosphere simulations. While irrigation only has a small impact on maximum temperature, the semi-arid environment experiences near surface moistening in coupled simulations over the irrigated regions, a feedback that is prevented in offline simulations. In land only simulations that neglect the local feedbacks, the simulated irrigation demand is 25% higher and the standard deviation of the mean irrigation rate is 60% smaller. These local-scale irrigation-driven feedbacks are not resolved in coarse-resolution climate models implying that use of these tools will overestimate irrigation demand. Future studies of irrigation demand must therefore account for the local land-atmosphere interactions by using coupled frameworks, at a spatial resolution that captures the key feedbacks.

  12. Metal speciation and potential bioavailability changes during discharge and neutralisation of acidic drainage water. (United States)

    Simpson, Stuart L; Vardanega, Christopher R; Jarolimek, Chad; Jolley, Dianne F; Angel, Brad M; Mosley, Luke M


    The discharge of acid drainage from the farm irrigation areas to the Murray River in South Australia represents a potential risk to water quality. The drainage waters have low pH (2.9-5.7), high acidity (up to 1190 mg L(-1) CaCO3), high dissolved organic carbon (10-40 mg L(-1)), and high dissolved Al, Co, Ni and Zn (up to 55, 1.25, 1.30 and 1.10 mg L(-1), respectively) that represent the greatest concern relative to water quality guidelines (WQGs). To provide information on bioavailability, changes in metal speciation were assessed during mixing experiments using filtration (colloidal metals) and Chelex-lability (free metal ions and weak inorganic metal complexes) methods. Following mixing of drainage and river water, much of the dissolved aluminium and iron precipitated. The concentrations of other metals generally decreased conservatively in proportion to the dilution initially, but longer mixing periods caused increased precipitation or adsorption to particulate phases. Dissolved Co, Mn and Zn were typically 95-100% present in Chelex-labile forms, whereas 40-70% of the dissolved nickel was Chelex-labile and the remaining non-labile fraction of dissolved nickel was associated with fine colloids or complexed by organic ligands that increased with time. Despite the different kinetics of precipitation, adsorption and complexation reactions, the dissolved metal concentrations were generally highly correlated for the pooled data sets, indicating that the major factors controlling the concentrations were similar for each metal (pH, dilution, and time following mixing). For dilutions of the drainage waters of less than 1% with Murray River water, none of the metals should exceed the WQGs. However, the high concentrations of metals associated with fine precipitates within the receiving waters may represent a risk to some aquatic organisms. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drainage water management combined with cover crop enhances reduction of soil phosphorus loss. (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Welacky, T; Wang, Y T


    Integrating multiple practices for mitigation of phosphorus (P) loss from soils may enhance the reduction efficiency, but this has not been studied as much as individual ones. A four-year study was conducted to determine the effects of cover crop (CC) (CC vs. no CC, NCC) and drainage water management (DWM) (controlled drainage with sub-irrigation, CDS, vs. regular free tile drainage, RFD) and their interaction on P loss through both surface runoff (SR) and tile drainage (TD) water in a clay loam soil of the Lake Erie region. Cover crop reduced SR flow volume by 32% relative to NCC, regardless of DWM treatment. In contrast, CC increased TD flow volume by 57 and 9.4% with CDS and RFD, respectively, compared to the corresponding DWM treatment with NCC. The total (SR+TD) field water discharge volumes were comparable amongst all the treatments. Cover crop reduced flow-weighted mean (FWM) concentrations of particulate P (PP) by 26% and total P (TP) by 12% in SR, while it didn't affect the FWM dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentration, regardless of DWM treatments. Compared with RFD, CDS reduced FWM DRP concentration in TD water by 19%, while CC reduced FWM PP and TP concentrations in TD by 21 and 17%, respectively. Total (SR+TD) soil TP loss was the least with CDS-CC followed by RFD-CC, CDS-NCC, and RFD-NCC. Compared with RFD-NCC, currently popular practice in the region, total TP loss was reduced by 23% with CDS-CC. The CDS-CC system can be an effective practice to ultimately mitigate soil P loading to water resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage in the surgical treatment of acute severe pancreatitis]. (United States)

    Delattre, J-F; Levy Chazal, N; Lubrano, D; Flament, J-B


    To report results of percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage, performed by a surgeon, in the treatment of complications of acute pancreatitis (AP), and to determine the role of this technique in the therapeutic armamentarium of severe AP. From 1986 to 2001, 59 patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients initially had severe necrotizing AP (mean Ranson score = 4.1 ; range : 2-7). Anatomical lesions included pancreatic abscess in 6 patients and necrosis in 53 (17 stage D and 36 stage E according to Balthazar's classification). Necrosis was infected in 42 and sterile in 11 respectively. Drainage was performed under ultrasound guidance and local anaesthesia using small-diameter drains (7-14 French). Drainage was performed on average 23 days after onset of AP. Infection was proven by fine-needle aspiration in 47 (80 %) patients (41 infected necrosis and 6 localized abscess). In one patient, culture of aspirated fluid was negative but necrosis was infected (one false negative). Culture of aspirated fluid was negative and necrosis was sterile in 11 patients. Nineteen (32%) patients healed without subsequent surgery: 7 (16%) in the infected necrosis group, 6(55%) in the sterile necrosis group, and 6 (100%) in the abscess group. Forty (68%) patients had subsequent necrosectomy including 8 (14%) who died. Twenty (34 %) digestive fistulas healed spontaneously, except one treated by diversion stomia. Of the 16 (27 %) pancreatic fistulas, 6 needed subsequent interventional treatment. In selected patients, percutaneous drainage can represent an alternative to surgery with a 14% mortality rate. The high rate of subsequent necrosectomy suggests that drains with larger diameter, possibly associated with continuous irrigation, should be used.

  15. On the irrigation requirements of cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Populus deltoides var. wislizenii) and willow (Salix gooddingii) grown in a desert environment (United States)

    Hartwell, S.; Morino, K.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.


    Native tree plots have been established in river irrigation districts in the western U.S. to provide habitat for threatened and endangered birds. Information is needed on the effective irrigation requirements of the target species. Cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix gooddingii) trees were grown for seven years in an outdoor plot in a desert environment in Tucson, Arizona. Plants were allowed to achieve a nearly complete canopy cover over the first four years, then were subjected to three daily summer irrigation schedules of 6.20??mm??d-1; 8.26??mm??d-1 and 15.7??mm??d-1. The lowest irrigation rate was sufficient to maintain growth and high leaf area index for cottonwoods over three years, while willows suffered considerable die-back on this rate in years six and seven. These irrigation rates were applied April 15-September 15, but only 0.88??mm??d-1 was applied during the dormant period of the year. Expressed as a fraction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), recommended annual water applications plus precipitation (and including some deep drainage) were 0.83 ETo for cottonwood and 1.01 ETo for willow. Current practices tend to over-irrigate restoration plots, and this study can provide guidelines for more efficient water use. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Nicolescu


    Full Text Available In Romania the economically efficient irrigated area is estimated at 3.5 million hectares. On national scale there is nointegrated approach for monitoring the quantity and quality of the irrigation water, using adequate equipment at thepumping station. On international scale, in many countries the pumping stations are provided with equipment formonitoring, on real time, the quality or the pumped water and for warning about critical situations (emergencies.This paper describes a technical solution consisting of equipment which monitors the following parameters of waterpumped in irrigation systems: turbidity, pH, CE at 25 o C, Na+, Cl-. The lapse of time for monitoring is of 10 to 60 min.The main components are the following: the sampling pump (submersible the monitoring board, the repression pipe ofthe analyzed water. Warnings are made about values exceeding the programmed level for each monitored parameter,about the fact that the pump and agitator do not work or about any other source of damage.The technical solution and equipment were tested at a pumping station which uses water from Danube, in most casesmixed with water originating from drainage. Results showed a reduction of the total content of soluble salts from soiland of their negative impact upon the crops, a reduction of the degree of river alluvial deposits within the irrigationsystem and reduction of the energetic consumption required for pumping.

  17. Field note: irrigation of tree stands with groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane. (United States)

    Ferro, Ari M; Tammi, Carl E


    Coniferous and deciduous tree stands totaling 14 ha were recently planted on a closed landfill, and when mature, the stands are expected to be part of a natural treatment system for recovered groundwater. The trees would be irrigated at the rate of 189 L/min year-round with water containing 1,4-dioxane (trees. The water is moderately saline and contains elevated levels of manganese. This paper describes a concurrent series of preliminary studies, performed prior to the full-scale planting, to assess the feasibility of the phytoremediation system. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to identify tree species that can take up 1,4-dioxane and are tolerant of the water. Estimates were made of the area of the tree stand necessary to transpire the irrigation water plus precipitation. The landfill matrix was characterized in terms of its percolation rate and water holding capacity and based on those results salinity-modeling studies were carried out to estimate the fate and leaching potential of the various inorganic species that would accumulate in the root-zone of the trees. A pilot study, currently in progress on the landfill, suggested that the landfill cap is a suitable matrix for the establishment of large trees, and that the stands could be irrigated without the production of excess drainage.

  18. Monitoring soil moisture dynamics via ground-penetrating radar survey of agriculture fields after irrigation (United States)

    Muro, G.


    It is possible to examine the quality of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a measure of soil moisture content in the shallow vadose zone, where roots are most abundant and water conservation best management practices are critical in active agricultural fields. By analyzing temporal samplings of 100 Mhz reflection profiles and common-midpoint (CMP) soundings over a full growing season, the variability of vertical soil moisture distribution directly after irrigation events are characterized throughout the lifecycle of a production crop. Reflection profiles produce high-resolution travel time data and summed results of CMP sounding data provide sampling depth estimates for the weak, but coherent reflections amid strong point scatterers. The high ratio of clay in the soil limits the resolution of downward propagation of infiltrating moisture after irrigation; synthetic data analysis compared against soil moisture lysimeter logs throughout the profile allow identification of the discrete soil moisture content variation in the measured GPR data. The nature of short duration irrigation events, evapotranspiration, and drainage behavior in relation to root depths observed in the GPR temporal data allow further examination and comparison with the variable saturation model HYDRUS-1D. After retrieving soil hydraulic properties derived from laboratory measured soil samples and simplified assumptions about boundary conditions, the project aims to achieve good agreement between simulated and measured soil moisture profiles without the need for excessive model calibration for GPR-derived soil moisture estimates in an agricultural setting.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing ... consenting patient who presented to the department of surgery for open ..... infections in a tertiary care center in south-western. Nigeria. International ...

  20. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II ... is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. ... total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study.

  1. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  2. The Regularity of Optimal Irrigation Patterns (United States)

    Morel, Jean-Michel; Santambrogio, Filippo


    A branched structure is observable in draining and irrigation systems, in electric power supply systems, and in natural objects like blood vessels, the river basins or the trees. Recent approaches of these networks derive their branched structure from an energy functional whose essential feature is to favor wide routes. Given a flow s in a river, a road, a tube or a wire, the transportation cost per unit length is supposed in these models to be proportional to s α with 0 measure is the Lebesgue density on a smooth open set and the irrigating measure is a single source. In that case we prove that all branches of optimal irrigation trees satisfy an elliptic equation and that their curvature is a bounded measure. In consequence all branching points in the network have a tangent cone made of a finite number of segments, and all other points have a tangent. An explicit counterexample disproves these regularity properties for non-Lebesgue irrigated measures.

  3. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biliary Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla'vio C.; Sakai, Paulo


    To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

  4. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biliary Drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla& #x27; vio C.; Sakai, Paulo [University of Saeo Paulo, Saeo Paulo (Brazil)


    To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

  5. Bronchoscopic drainage of a malignant lung abscess. (United States)

    Katsenos, Stamatis; Psathakis, Konstantinos; Chatzivasiloglou, Fotini; Antonogiannaki, Elvira-Markela; Psara, Anthoula; Tsintiris, Konstantinos


    Bronchoscopic drainage of a pyogenic lung abscess is an established therapeutic approach in selected patients in whom conventional antibiotic therapy fails. This intervention has also been undertaken in patients with abscess owing to underlying lung cancer and prior combined radiochemotherapy. However, this procedure has rarely been performed in cavitary lesions of advanced tumor origin before initiating any chemotherapy/radiotherapy scheme. Herein, we describe a case of a 68-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma stage IIIB, who underwent bronchoscopic drainage of necrotizing tumor lesion, thus improving her initial poor clinical condition and rendering other treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy, more effective and beneficial. Bronchoscopic drainage of a symptomatic cancerous lung abscess should be considered as an alternative and palliative treatment approach in patients with advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer.

  6. Glaucoma Drainage Device Erosion Following Ptosis Surgery. (United States)

    Bae, Steven S; Campbell, Robert J


    To highlight the potential risk of glaucoma drainage device erosion following ptosis surgery. Case report. A 71-year-old man underwent uncomplicated superotemporal Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the left eye in 2008. Approximately 8 years later, the patient underwent bilateral ptosis repair, which successfully raised the upper eyelid position. Three months postoperatively, the patient's glaucoma drainage implant tube eroded through the corneal graft tissue and overlying conjunctiva to become exposed. A graft revision surgery was successfully performed with no further complications. Caution and conservative lid elevation may be warranted when performing ptosis repair in patients with a glaucoma drainage implant, and patients with a glaucoma implant undergoing ptosis surgery should be followed closely for signs of tube erosion.

  7. Managing a chest tube and drainage system. (United States)

    Durai, Rajaraman; Hoque, Happy; Davies, Tony W


    Intercostal drainage tubes (ie, chest tubes) are inserted to drain the pleural cavity of air, blood, pus, or lymph. The water-seal container connected to the chest tube allows one-way movement of air and liquid from the pleural cavity. The container should not be changed unless it is full, and the chest tube should not be clamped unnecessarily. After a chest tube is inserted, a nurse trained in chest-tube management is responsible for managing the chest tube and drainage system. This entails monitoring the chest-tube position, controlling fluid evacuation, identifying when to change or empty the containers, and caring for the tube and drainage system during patient transport. This article provides an overview of indications, insertion techniques, and management of chest tubes. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomass Development in SRI Field Under Unmaintained Alternate Wetting-Drying Irrigation (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Chusnul, A.; Krissandi, W.; Asna, M.


    The aim of this research is to observe biomass development of SRI on farmers practice in three plots with different level. This research observes the farmer practice of SRI and Non-SRI during the uncertainty of irrigation water supply and its effects on paddy biomass development during growth stages and final stage of crop. A farmer group that already understand the principle of SRI, applied this method into several plots of their rented paddy field. Researcher interventions were eliminated from their action, so it is purely on farmers decision on managing their SRI plots. Three plots from both SRI and Non-SRI were chosen based on the position of the plot related their access to water. First plots had direct access to water from tertiary irrigation channel (on farm). Second plots were received water from previous upper plots and drainage water into other plots. Third plots were in the bottom position, where they received water from upper plot, and drainage water into farm drainage channel. Result shows there are similar patterns of root, straw, and leaves of biomass during crop growth. On the other hand, during generative phase, grain development shows different pattern and resulting different biomass in harvest time. Second plot, (of SRI) that has water from first plot has the average of biomass grain per plant of 54.4, higher than first plot and third plot, which are 33.8 g and 38.4. Average biomass in second plot is 74.6 g, higher than first and third plot, which are 49.9 g and 52.3 g.

  9. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water


    Aboulila, Tarek Selim


    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  10. Decision support system for surface irrigation design


    Gonçalves, José M.; Pereira, L.S.


    The SADREG decision support system was developed to help decision makers in the process of design and selection of farm surface irrigation systems to respond to requirements of modernization of surface irrigation—furrow, basin, and border irrigation. It includes a database, simulation models, user-friendly interfaces, and multicriteria analysis models. SADREG is comprised of two components: design and selection. The first component applies database information, and through several si...

  11. System contemplations for precision irrigation in agriculture (United States)

    Schubert, Martin J. W.


    This communication contemplates political, biological and technical aspects for efficient and profitable irrigation in sustainable agriculture. A standard for irrigation components is proposed. The need for many, and three-dimensionally distributed, soil measurement points is explained, thus enabling the control of humidity in selected layers of earth. Combined wireless and wired data transmission is proposed. Energy harvesting and storage together with mechanical sensor construction are discussed.

  12. Can nitrate contaminated groundwater be remediated by optimizing flood irrigation rate with high nitrate water in a desert oasis using the WHCNS model? (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Qi, Zhiming; Hu, Kelin; Prasher, Shiv O; Zhang, Yuanpei


    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is an environmental concern in intensively cultivated desert oases where this polluted groundwater is in turn used as a major irrigation water resource. However, nitrate fluxes from root zone to groundwater are difficult to monitor in this complex system. The objectives of this study were to validate and apply the WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) model to simulate water drainage and nitrate leaching under different irrigation and nitrogen (N) management practices, and to assess the utilization of groundwater nitrate as an approach to remediate nitrate contaminated groundwater while maintain crop yield. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a corn field irrigated with high nitrate groundwater (20 mg N L(-1)) in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment consisted of two irrigation treatments (Istd, standard, 750 mm per season; Icsv, conservation, 570 mm per season) factorially combined with two N fertilization treatments (Nstd, standard, 138 kg ha(-1); Ncsv, conservation, 92 kg ha(-1)). The validated results showed that the WHCNS model simulated values of crop dry matter, yield, soil water content and soil N concentration in soil profile all agreed well with the observed values. Compared to the standard water management (Istd), the simulated drainage and nitrate leaching decreased about 65% and 59%, respectively, under the conservation water management (Icsv). Nearly 55% of input N was lost by leaching under the IstdNstd and IstdNcsv treatments, compared to only 26% under the IcsvNstd and IcsvNcsv treatments. Simulations with more than 240 scenarios combing different levels of irrigation and fertilization indicated that irrigation was the main reason leading to the high risk of nitrate leaching, and the nitrate in irrigation groundwater can be best utilized without corn yield loss when the total irrigation was reduced from the current 750 mm to 491 mm. This reduced irrigation rate facilitated

  13. CT-guided biopsies and drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppers, I.; Wollschlaeger, D.


    Following the implementation of computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound-guided biopsy of solid tumors and the puncture and drainage of liquid processes, the number of surgical open biopsies and curative operations for abscess drainage has declined. Such CT-guided interventions are performed in nearly every organ. Instead of aspiration biopsies, more and more core biopsies are being performed to allow histopathological evaluation and thus allowing targeted therapy. This article is intended to give a general overview of techniques, materials, indications and contraindications. Ultrasound-guided biopsies as well as large bore vacuum biopsies of the breast are not included in this review. (orig.) [de

  14. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Xiaojun; Jin Wenhui; Dai Dingke; Yu Ping; Gao Kun; Zhai Renyou


    Objective: To evaluate the effect of PTBD in treating malignant biliary obstruction caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 103 patients(M:62,F:41)with malignant obstructive jaundice caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. After taking percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, metallic stent or plastic external catheter or external-internal catheter for drainage was deployed and then followed up was undertaken with clinical and radiographic evaluation and laboratory. examination. Results: All patients went though PTBD successfully (100%). According to Bismuth classification, all 103 cases consisted of I type(N=30), II type (N=30), III type (N=26) and IV type (N=17). Thirty-nine cases were placed with 47 stents and 64 eases with drainage tubes. 4 cases installed two stems for bilateral drainage, 2 cases installed two stents because of long segmental strictures with stent in stent, 1 case was placed with three stents, and 3 cases installed stent and plastic catheter together. Sixty-four cases received plastic catheters in this series, 35 cases installed two or more catheters for bilateral drainage, 28 cases installed external and internal drainage catheters, 12 eases installed external drainage catheters, and 24 eases installed both of them. There were 17 patients involving incorporative infection before procedure, 13 cases cured after procedure, and 15 new patients got inflammation after procedure. 13 cases showed increase of amylase (from May, 2004), 8 eases had bloody bile drainage and 1 case with pyloric obstruction. Total serum bilirubin reduced from (386 ± 162) μmol/L to (161 ± 117) μmol/L, (P<0.01) short term curative effect was related with the type of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The survival time was 186 days(median), and 1, 3, 6, 12 month survival rate were 89.9%, 75.3%, 59.6%, 16.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Percutaneous transhepatic bile drainage is a safe and effective palliative therapy of malignant

  15. Urban drainage models - making uncertainty analysis simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Deletic, Ana


    in each measured/observed datapoint; an issue which is commonly overlook in the uncertainty analysis of urban drainage models. This comparison allows the user to intuitively estimate the optimum number of simulations required to conduct uncertainty analyses. The output of the method includes parameter......There is increasing awareness about uncertainties in modelling of urban drainage systems and, as such, many new methods for uncertainty analyses have been developed. Despite this, all available methods have limitations which restrict their widespread application among practitioners. Here...

  16. Percutaneous catheter drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnel, F.; Gebauer, A.; Jantsch, H.; Prayer, L.; Schurawitzki, H.; Feil, W.


    The results of CT/US-guided percutaneous drainage in 35 patients with pancreatic pseudocysts are reported. 27 patients recovered without surgery and no further treatment was required. 8 patients required a subsequent surgery due to recurrence. The role of CT/US-guided percutaneous drainage in pancreatic pseudocysts as well as an analysis of the technical aspects associated with a successful procedure are discussed. Although US may be used, we believe CT is safer and allows more precise localisation and guidance in the treatment of pseudocysts. (orig.) [de

  17. Transanal Drainage of Coloanal Anastomotic Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Sherman


    Full Text Available The conventional operative intervention for leaks following coloanal anastomoses has been proximal fecal diversion with or without take-down of anastomosis. A few of these cases are also amenable to percutaneous drainage. Ostomies created in this situation are often permanent, specifically in cases where coloanal anastomoses are taken down at the time of reoperation. We present two patients who developed perianastomotic pelvic abscesses that were treated with transanal large bore catheter drainage resulting in successful salvage of coloanal anastomoses without the need for a laparotomy or ostomy creation. We propose this to be an effective therapeutic approach to leaks involving low coloanal anastomoses in the absence of generalized peritonitis.

  18. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica


    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  19. Reclaiming agricultural drainage water with nanofiltration membranes: Imperial Valley, California, USA (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Schroeder, R.A.; Setmire, J.G.; ,


    We conducted pilot-scale field experiments using nanofiltration membranes to lower the salinity and remove Se, As and other toxic contaminants from saline agricultural wastewater in the Imperial Valley, California, USA. Farmlands in the desert climate (rainfall - 7.4 cm/a) of Imperial Valley cover -200,000 ha that are irrigated with water (-1.7 km3 annually) imported from the Colorado River. The salinity (-850 mg/L) and concentration of Se (-2.5 ??g/L) in the Colorado River water are high and evapotranpiration further concentrates salts in irrigation drainage water, reaching salinities of 3,000-15,000 mg/L TDS and a median Se value of -30 ??g/L. Experiments were conducted with two commercially available nanofiltration membranes, using drainage water of varying composition, and with or without the addition of organic precipitation inhibitors. Results show that these membranes selectively remove more than 95% of Se, SO4, Mo, U and DOC, and -30% of As from this wastewater. Low percentages of Cl, NO3 and HCO3, with enough cations to maintain electrical neutrality also were removed. The product water treated by these membranes comprised more than 90% of the wastewater tested. Results indicate that the treated product water from the Alamo River likely will have less than 0.2 ??g/L Se, salinity of 300-500 mg/L TDS and other chemical concentrations that meet the water quality criteria for irrigation and potable use. Because acceptability is a major issue for providing treated wastewater to urban centers, it may be prudent to use the reclaimed water for irrigation and creation of lower salinity wetlands near the Salton Sea; an equivalent volume of Colorado River water can then be diverted for the use of increasing populations of San Diego and other urban centers in southern California. Nanofiltration membranes yield greater reclaimed-water output and require lower pressure and less pretreatment, and therefore are generally more cost effective than traditional reverse

  20. Comparison of natural drainage group and negative drainage groups after total thyroidectomy: prospective randomized controlled study. (United States)

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Shim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Sang Ha; Lee, Ho Joong; Won, Seong Jun; Son, Hee Young; Kim, Rock Bum; Son, Young-Ik


    The aim of this study was to compare a negative pressure drain with a natural drain in order to determine whether a negative pressure drainage tube causes an increase in the drainage volume. Sixty-two patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were enrolled in the study between March 2010 and August 2010 at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. The patients were prospectively and randomly assigned to two groups, a negative pressure drainage group (n=32) and natural drainage group (n=30). Every 3 hours, the volume of drainage was checked in the two groups until the tube was removed. The amount of drainage during the first 24 hours postoperatively was 41.68 ± 3.93 mL in the negative drain group and 25.3 ± 2.68 mL in the natural drain group (pdrain group was 35.19 ± 4.26 mL and natural drain groups 21.53 ± 2.90 mL (pdrain may increase the amount of drainage during the first 24-48 hours postoperatively. Therefore, it is not necessary to place a closed suction drain when only a total thyroidectomy is done.

  1. Selenium and other elements in freshwater fishes from the irrigated San Joaquin Valley, California (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Jennings, M.R.; May, T.W.


    Arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) were measured in composite whole-body samples of five fishes — bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and Sacramento blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus) — from the San Joaquin River system to determine if concentrations were elevated from exposure to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainage. Except for Cr, the concentrations of these elements in fishes from one or more sites were elevated; however, only Se approached concentrations that may adversely affect survival, growth, or reproduction in warm water fishes. Moreover, only Se among the four measured elements exhibited a geographic (spatial) pattern that coincided with known inflows of tile drainage to the San Joaquin River and its tributaries. Historical data from the Grassland Water District (Grasslands; a region exposed to concentrated tile drainage) suggested that concentrations of Se in fishes were at maximum during or shortly after 1984 and have been slightly lower since then. The recent decline of Se concentrations in fishes from the Grasslands could be temporary if additional acreages of irrigated lands in this portion of the San Joaquin Valley must be tile-drained to protect agricultural crops from rising groundwater tables.

  2. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona

    in drainage. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2016) ( aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies for P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of implementing filter technologies including drainage well....... Targeting high risk areas of P loss and applying site-specific measures promises to be a cost-efficient approach. The Danish Commission for Nature and Agriculture has, therefore, now called for a paradigm shift towards targeted, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses...... environmental threshold values (

  3. Applicability of 87Sr/86Sr in examining return flow of irrigation water in highly agricultural watersheds in Japan (United States)

    Yoshida, T.; Nakano, T.; Shin, K. C.; Tsuchihara, T.; Miyazu, S.; Kubota, T.


    Water flows in watersheds containing extensive areas of irrigated paddies are complex because of the substantial volumes involved and the repeated cycles of water diversion from, and return to, streams. For better management of low-flow conditions, numerous studies have attempted to quantify the return flow using the stable isotopes of water; however, the temporal variation in these isotopic compositions due to fractionation during evaporation from water surfaces hinders their application to watersheds with extensive irrigated paddies. In this study, we tested the applicability of the strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr, hereafter Sr ratio) for studying hydrological processes in a typical agricultural watershed located on the alluvial fan of the Kinu River, namely the Gogyo River, in central Japan. The Sr ratio of water changes only because of interactions with the porous media it flows through, or because of mixing with water that has different Sr ratios. We sampled water both at a single rice paddy, and on the watershed scale in the irrigated and non-irrigated periods. The soil water under the paddy decreased as sampling depth increased, and the soil water at a depth of 1.5 m showed a similar Sr ratio to the spring. The water sampled in the drainage channel with a concrete lined bottom showed a similar Sr ratio to the irrigation water, whereas that with a soil bottom was plotted between the plots of the irrigation water and shallow aquifer. These results suggest the Sr ratio decreases as it mixes with the soil water through percolation; whereas the Sr ratio will be less likely to change when water drains from paddies via surface pathways. The streamflow samples were plotted linearly on the Sr ratio and 1/Sr plot, indicating that the streamflow was composed of two end-members; the irrigation water and the shallow aquifer. The continuous decline in the Sr ratio along the stream suggests an exfiltration of water from the shallow aquifers. The stream water during the non-irrigated

  4. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heek, N. T.; Busch, O. R.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gouma, D. J.


    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile

  5. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Van Heek, N T; Busch, O R; Van Gulik, T M; Gouma, D J


    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile salts, impaired liver function and altered nutritional status due to obstructive jaundice have been characterized as factors for development of complications after surgery. Whereas PBD was to yield beneficial effects in the experimental setting, conflicting results have been observed in clinical studies. The meta-analysis from relative older studies as well as more importantly a recent clinical trial showed that PBD should not be performed routinely. PBD for patients with a distal biliary obstruction is leading to more serious complications compared with early surgery. Arguments for PBD have shifted from a potential therapeutic benefit towards a logistic problem such as patients suffering from cholangitis and severe jaundice at admission or patients who need extra diagnostic tests, or delay in surgery due to a referral pattern or waiting list for surgery as well as candidates for neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. If drainage is indicated in these patients it should be performed with a metal stent to reduce complications after the drainage procedure such as stent occlusion and cholangitis. Considering a change towards more neoadjuvant therapy regimes improvement of the quality of the biliary drainage concept is still important.

  6. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intestinal perforation in newborn, necrotizing enterocolitis, primary peritoneal drainage. Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University. HSC, El Paso, Texas, USA. Correspondence to Donald E. Meier, MD, Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster. School of Medicine, Texas Tech ...

  7. Treatment of dyeing drainage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi


    Decolorization of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage by radiation treatment. Artifical dyeing drainage was prepared from water, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts, and artificial sewage, from water, peptone, broth, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts. The above mentioned sample liquors of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage were exposed to γ-radiation of 5 kCi of 60 Co source by aerating through a ball filter. Absorption spectra, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were determined after irradiation to evaluate radiation treatment effect. With the experimental data obtained, it was clarified that absorbance, COD and TOC was decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. Decoloring was made effectively and about 95 % of bleaching ratio was obtained at 5 kGy of radiation. COD was decreased also by irradiation rather slower decreasing rate than that of decolorization, and TOC decrease was very slow at the initial stage of radiation but 40 % of TOC was decomposed by 10 kGy radiation. Dye of chemically stable structure was found more resistant to radiation decolorization. Decomposition efficiency was found less for dyes in the artificial sewage but secondary treated sewage showed no adverse effect. With the obtained understandings, a tentative scheme was planned for the radiation decolorization of dyeing drainage after aeration treatment. (Takagi, S.)


    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  9. The Heimlich Valve for Pleural Cavity Drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY | The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. July 2016 Volume 13 Issue 2 45. The Heimlich Valve for Pleural Cavity Drainage. Winston Ominde Makanga1, Andrew Nyaoncha Nyangau2 , Benjamin Njoga Njihia3. 1. St Mary's Mission Hospital, Elementaita.

  10. 1 The Effect of Camber Bed Drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Effect of Camber Bed Drainage Landforms on Soil. Nutrient Distribution and Grain Yield of Maize on the Vertisols ... The Vertisols of the Accra Plains of Ghana are water logged after significant rainfall ... Excess application of 15-15-15 NPK and sulphate of ammonia fertilizers (150% .... beds, before planting and nutrient.

  11. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.


    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  12. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon


    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu


    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  14. Chemical colostomy irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution. (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Bossom, C; Gangoli, S; Green, C; Phillips, R K


    Colostomy irrigation may improve patient quality of life, but is time consuming. This study tests the hypothesis that irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution, by inducing gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation, may accelerate expulsion of stool by passive emptying, thereby reducing irrigation time. Fifteen colostomy irrigators(with more than 3 years' experience) performed washout with tap water compared with water containing 0.025 mg/kg glyceryl trinitrate. Fluid inflow time, total washout time, and hemodynamic changes occurring during glyceryl trinitrate irrigation were documented by an independent observer. Subjects recorded episodes of fecal leakage and overall satisfaction on a visual analog scale. Cramps, headaches, and whether or not a stoma bag was used were expressed as a percentage of number of irrigations. Comparison of fluid inflow time, total washout time, leakage, and satisfaction was by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and headaches, cramps, and stoma bag use was by McNemar's test. Pulse rate (paired t-test), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (Wilcoxon's test) at 20 and 240 minutes after washout with glyceryl trinitrate solution were compared with baseline. Fifteen patients (9 female), with a mean age of 53 (31-73) years, provided 30 sessions (15 with water and 15 with glyceryl trinitrate). Medians (interquartile ranges) for water vs. glyceryl trinitrate were fluid inflow time 7 (4-10) vs. 4, (3-5; P = 0.001); total washout time 40 (30-55) vs. 21, (15-24; P colostomy irrigation time compared with the generally recommended tap water. Patients suffer fewer leakages and are highly satisfied, but side effects are potential drawbacks. Other colonoplegic agent solutions should now be evaluated.

  15. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan


    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  16. Triple Pancreatic Walled-off Fluid Collections Treated Simultaneously with Endoscopic Transmural Drainage. (United States)

    Khalid, Sameen; Abbass, Aamer; Nellis, Eric; Shah, Shashin; Shah, Hiral


    Pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off pancreatic necrosis arise as a complication of pancreatitis. Multiple fluid collections are seen in 5-20% of the patients who have walled-off peripancreatic fluid collections. There is a paucity of data regarding the role of endoscopic transmural drainage in the management of multiple pancreatic fluid collections. In this case report, we present the case of a 72-year-old male with three walled-off pancreatic fluid collections in the setting of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The patient underwent simultaneous endoscopic ultrasound-assisted cyst gastrostomy and cyst duodenostomy and aggressive irrigation without index endoscopic necrosectomy of the three peripancreatic fluid collections. Significant improvement in the size of the fluid collections was seen on the computed tomography scan, as well as a remarkable immediate clinical improvement after 24 hours of the endoscopic intervention.

  17. [Postoperative implant-associated osteomyelitis of the shoulder: Hardware-retaining revision concept using temporary drainage]. (United States)

    Schnetzke, M; Aytac, S; Herrmann, P; Wölfl, C; Grützner, P A; Heppert, V; Guehring, T


    Posttraumatic and postoperative osteomyelitis (PPO) is a subgroup of bone infections with increasing importance. However, to date no standardized reoperation concept exists particularly for patients with PPO of the shoulder region. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate a revision concept including débridement, irrigation, and insertion of temporary drainage with hardware retention until healing. A total of 31 patients with PPO were included with a proximal humerus fracture (n = 14), clavicle fracture (n = 10), or AC-joint separation (n = 7). In all, 27 of these patients could be followed for > 1 year. Hardware retention until fracture or ligament healing could be achieved in > 83%. Six patients required follow-up débridement due to recurrent infections, but then were unremarkable. Clinical outcome showed excellent Constant scores (91.6 ± 2.8). A cost-efficient, simple, and successful revision concept for patients with PPO of the shoulder region is described.

  18. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S


    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    form and process of drainage basins that may be widely ... ferruginous tropical soil on basement complex rock (Areola ... landuse pattern control the infiltration loss, the distribution of ... the water intercepted by Ogbere drainage basin to longer ...

  20. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    2 Centre for Transportation Systems, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, INDIA ... parking lots that only allow cars, not trucks). ..... drainage section) and 2015 & 2019 (for poor drainage section) after the construction of an overlay, it was ...

  1. Internal drainage of infected pancreatic pseudocysts: safe or sorry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, D.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.


    BACKGROUND: External drainage is the traditional surgical therapy for infected pancreatic pseudocyst, although associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this study it was determined whether internal drainage is feasible with acceptable postoperative morbidity and recurrence rates.

  2. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems. (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  3. The effect of irrigation time and type of irrigation fluid on cartilage surface friction. (United States)

    Stärke, F; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Stärke, C


    It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution. The time of irrigation had a significant effect on the static and kinetic coefficient of friction (CoF), as had the type of fluid. Longer irrigation time with Ringer's solution was associated with increased friction coefficients (relative increase of the kinetic CoF compared to the control after 15, 60 and 120min: 16%, 76% and 88% respectively). The sorbitol/mannitol solution affected the static and kinetic CoF significantly less than either Ringer's or normal saline. The washout of lubricating glycoproteins from the cartilage surface and the associated increase of friction can be effectively influenced by controlling the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. The time of exposure to the irrigation fluid should be as short as possible and monosaccharide solutions might offer a benefit compared to salt solutions in terms of the resultant friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon and water footprints of irrigated corn and non-irrigated wheat in Northeast Spain. (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; Carvalho, Monica; Causapé, Jesús


    Irrigation increases yields and allows several crops to be produced in regions where it would be naturally impossible due to limited rainfall. However, irrigation can cause several negative environmental impacts, and it is important to understand these in depth for the correct application of mitigation measures. The life cycle assessment methodology was applied herein to compare the main irrigated and non-irrigated crops in Northeast Spain (corn and wheat, respectively), identifying those processes with greater contribution to environmental impacts (carbon and water footprint categories) and providing scientifically-sound information to facilitate government decisions. Due to concerns about climate change and water availability, the methods selected for evaluation of environmental impacts were IPCC 2013 GWP (carbon footprint) and water scarcity indicator (water footprint). The area studied, a 7.38-km 2 basin, was monitored for 12 years, including the period before, during, and after the implementation of irrigation. The functional unit, to which all material and energy flows were associated with, was the cultivation of 1 ha, throughout 1 year. The overall carbon footprint for irrigated corn was higher, but when considering the higher productivity achieved with irrigation, the emissions per kilogram of corn decrease and finally favor this irrigated crop. When considering the water footprint, the volumes of irrigation water applied were so high that productivity could not compensate for the negative impacts associated with water use in the case of corn. Nevertheless, consideration of productivities and gross incomes brings the results closer. Fertilizer use (carbon footprint) and irrigation water (water footprint) were the main contributors to the negative impacts detected.

  5. Routine Sub-hepatic Drainage versus No Drainage after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Open, Randomized, Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad


    Surgeons are still following the old habit of routine subhepatic drainage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This study aims to compare the outcome of subhepatic drainage with no drainage after LC. This prospective study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was open, randomized controlled trial (RCT), conducted in Civil Hospital Karachi, from August 2004 to June 2005. Phase II was descriptive case series, conducted in author's practice hospitals of Karachi, from July 2005 to December 2009. In phase I, 170 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis underwent LC. Patients were divided into two groups, subhepatic drainage (group A: 79 patients) or no drainage (group B: 76 patients). The rest 15 patients were excluded either due to conversion or elective subhepatic drainage. In phase II, 218 consecutive patients were enrolled, who underwent LC with no subhepatic drainage. Duration of operation, character, and amount of drain fluid (if placed), postoperative ultrasound for subhepatic collection, postoperative chest X-ray for the measurement of subdiaphragmatic air, postoperative pain, postoperative nausea/vomiting, duration of hospital stay, and preoperative or postoperative complications were noted and analyzed. Duration of operation and hospital stay was slightly longer in group A patients (P values 0.002 and 0.029, respectively); postoperative pain perception, nausea/vomiting, and postoperative complications were nearly same in both groups (P value 0.064, 0.078, and 0.003, respectively). Subhepatic fluid collection was more in group A (P = 0.002), whereas subdiaphragmatic air collection was more in group B (P = 0.003). Phase II results were nearly similar to group B patients in phase I. Routine subhepatic drainage after LC is not necessary in uncomplicated cases.

  6. Foamed emulsion drainage: flow and trapping of drops


    Schneider, Maxime; Zou, Ziqiang; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina


    Foamed emulsions are ubiquitous in our daily life but the ageing of such systems is still poorly understood. In this study we investigate foam drainage and measure the evolution of the gas, liquid and oil volume fractions inside the foam. We evidence three regimes of ageing. During an initial period of fast drainage, both bubbles and drops are very mobile. As the foam stabilises drainage proceeds leading to a gradual decrease of the liquid fraction and slowing down of drainage. Clusters of oi...

  7. Modes of supraglacial lake drainage and dynamic ice sheet response (United States)

    Das, S. B.; Behn, M. D.; Joughin, I. R.


    We investigate modes of supraglacial lake drainage using geophysical, ground, and remote sensing observations over the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Lakes exhibit a characteristic life cycle defined by a pre-drainage, drainage, and post-drainage phase. In the pre-drainage phase winter snow fills pre-existing cracks and stream channels, efficiently blocking past drainage conduits. As temperatures increase in the spring, surface melting commences, initially saturating the snow pack and subsequently forming a surface network of streams that fills the lake basins. Basins continue to fill until lake drainage commences, which for individual lakes occurs at different times depending on the previous winter snow accumulation and summer temperatures. Three styles of drainage behavior have been observed: (1) no drainage, (2) slow drainage over the side into an adjacent pre-existing crack, and (3) rapid drainage through a new crack formed beneath the lake basin. Moreover, from year-to-year individual lakes exhibit different drainage behaviors. Lakes that drain slowly often utilize the same outflow channel for multiple years, creating dramatic canyons in the ice. Ultimately, these surface channels are advected out of the lake basin and a new channel forms. In the post-drainage phase, melt water continues to access the bed typically through a small conduit (e.g. moulin) formed near a local topographic minimum along the main drainage crack, draining the lake catchment throughout the remainder of the melt season. This melt water input to the bed leads to continued basal lubrication and enhanced ice flow compared to background velocities. Lakes that do not completely drain freeze over to form a surface ice layer that persists into the following year. Our results show that supraglacial lakes show a spectrum of drainage behaviors and that these styles of drainage lead to varying rates and timing of surface meltwater delivery to the bed resulting in different dynamic ice

  8. An update on the drainage of pyogenic lung abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siraj O Wali


    Full Text Available Most lung abscesses (80-90% are now successfully treated with antibiotics; however, this conservative approach may occasionally fail. When medical treatment fails, pulmonary resection is usually advised. Alternatively, percutaneous transthoracic tube drainage or endoscopic drainage can be considered, though both remain controversial. In this communication, the medical literature focusing on percutaneous tube drainage efficacy, indications, techniques, complications, and mortality, as well as available data regarding endoscopic drainage are reviewed.

  9. Land drainage and restoration of land after NCB opencast mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg, N.

    The author outlines the MAFF Field Drainage Research Unit's research into drainage of reinstated land. Current investigations have aimed at identifying the problems of reinstated soil and how they affect drainage design. Experiments on efficiency of permeable field drains and non-permeable field drains are mentioned. Further work is needed to examine long-term effects of storage on soil structure and whether existing drainage can be revitalised by secondary treatment.

  10. The foam drainage equation for drainage dynamics in unsaturated porous media (United States)

    Lehmann, P.; Hoogland, F.; Assouline, S.; Or, D.


    Similarity in liquid-phase configuration and drainage dynamics of wet foam and gravity drainage from unsaturated porous media expands modeling capabilities for capillary flows and supplements the standard Richards equation representation. The governing equation for draining foam (or a soil variant termed the soil foam drainage equation—SFDE) obviates the need for macroscopic unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function by an explicit account of diminishing flow pathway sizes as the medium gradually drains. The study provides new and simple analytical expressions for drainage rates and volumes from unsaturated porous media subjected to different boundary conditions. Two novel analytical solutions for saturation profile evolution were derived and tested in good agreement with a numerical solution of the SFDE. The study and the proposed solutions rectify the original formulation of foam drainage dynamics of Or and Assouline (2013). The new framework broadens the scope of methods available for quantifying unsaturated flow in porous media, where the intrinsic conductivity and geometrical representation of capillary drainage could improve understanding of colloid and pathogen transport. The explicit geometrical interpretation of flow pathways underlying the hydraulic functions used by the Richards equation offers new insights that benefit both approaches.

  11. Effect of Different Alternate Irrigation Strategies using Saline and Non-Saline Water on Corn Yield, Salinity and Moisture Distribution in Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kiani


    -saline water in every other row, respectively; T5 and T6= fixed and variable deficit irrigation with non-saline water in every other rows, respectively and T7= full irrigation with saline water. To create the desired water salinity (8 dS/m, non-saline well water (1.5 dS/m and drainage water (20–35 dS/m were blended in different proportions. A T-tape drip irrigation system (20 m in length was used in the field experiment. Results and Discussion: In general, corn yield in 2013 was about 1270 kg ha-1 higher than in 2012. From the weather records it can be seen that the second year was drier than the first year. Yield analysis showed that deficit irrigation treatments (T2, T5 & T6 and also alternate salinity treatments (T3 & T4 did not significantly difference. In other words, the deficit irrigation management had no effect on yield. Corn yield in T3 and T4 with 50% of saved fresh water was just reduced to 7 and 1 % of T1, respectively. As a result, comparing treatments T3 and T4 with full irrigation have shown that treatments T3 and T4 are the best option. Comparison of moisture distribution in deficit irrigation treatments showed the highest water content in surface and deep layers was related to the treatments T6 and T2, respectively. The distribution of salinity in the soil profile for treatments T3 and T4 showed that after two years of irrigation with saline water, there is the possibility of use saline water for corn production, but drainage and leaching of soil will need to maintain sustainability. Conclusion: Naturally, in water scarce areas that use some strategic management such as deficit irrigation or saline water use, there is available arable farmland to further develop the irrigated area, and thereby increase total production. According to the results of the two-years where there was a shortage of water to meet crop water requirement and saline water was not available, the use of deficit irrigation managements as described in this study can save fresh water

  12. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro


    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  13. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.


    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  14. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.


    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Akhmetova


    Full Text Available Dagestan is the largest region with irrigation system of agriculture in Russia. Irrigated lands provide 70% of total plant production. The field cultivation is carried on arable land in plain region of the republic. The drip irrigation as an ecologically safe technology for watering is regarded as major means for vegetable production farming. This approach maintains the propitious level of water and air in the soil without surface and deep drainage of irrigating water. These irrigated lands are expected to be used first of all for valuable and profitable crops such as tomato that is a leading crop in Dagestan. The experimental work was carried out at OOO ‘Dagagrocomplex’, Aleksandro-Nevskoye, in Tarumovskiy region. The aim of the study was to determinate the optimal dose of mineral fertilizers and the way of their application to improve the productivity without quality loss. The complex analysis of the technology for tomato production under drip irrigation through nontransplanting culture showed its high efficiency, because volume and quality of yield directly depended on soil moisture and precise supporting of mineral nutrition rates. The maximal yield of tomato fruits, 88.7-94.5 t/ha was observed with once mineral fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60 with soil humidity 70-80% (field moisture capacity, and also at the dose of N180P135K60 with basic application of N100 in nutrition rate. The result of the study showed that the optimization of two factors, namely soil water rate and mineral nutrition, enabled to produce additionally 39.2 t/ha. It was shown the tight connection between yielding and its quality; when yielding 95 t/ha, the increased contents of dry matter to 7.01%, sugar to 3.8% vitamin C to 18.46% were noticed. The high quality of produced output was supported by pre-watering threshold of moisture at 75-80% (field moisture capacity, when once fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60. 

  16. Role of Lithology and Rock Structure in Drainage Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lithology and Rock structure play a vital role in the development of Drainage Network in any drainage basin. The drainage patterns upon land surface develop as directed by the underlying lithology and rock structure. In fact, lithology and rock structure together shape the basin and are decisive parameters of nature and ...

  17. Drainage of Splenic Abscess: A Case Report | Kombo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and was managed by tube drainage. His post operative recovery was uneventful. Conclusion: Tube drainage of the splenic abscess is encouraged if there is easy access to the abscess and there is evidence of residual splenic tissue in the critically ill patient. Key Word: Tube drainage, splenic abscess, splenectomy.


    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  19. Optimization of Water Allocation between Different Crops in Water Stress Conditions in Qazvin Irrigation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad khani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluations show the necessity of using optimization models in order to determine optimal allocation of water in different water conditions. Its use can be proposed according to developed model abilities in this study in order to optimize water productivity and provide sustainable management and development of water resources over irrigation and drainage networks. Basic needs of the earth growing population and limitation of water and soil resources remindnecessity of optimal use of resources. World’s more than 280 million hectare lands are covered by irrigation networks (Khalkhali et al., 2006. The efficiency of most projects is between 30-50 percent and studies show that performance of most irrigation and drainage networks is not desirable and they have not achieved their aims. Hirich et al. (2014 Used deficit irrigation to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season 2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of a crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of the full irrigation during the vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity. Moghaddasi et al. (2010 worked examines and compares this approach with that based on the optimization method to manage agricultural water demand during drought to minimize damage. The results show that the optimization method resulted in 42% more income for the agricultural sector using the



    V. Kiran; Dr. Bhimasen .S; E. Mastanaiah; A. Thiruppathi


    Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD) and autogenic drainage (AD) on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done ...

  1. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko


    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  2. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli


    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  3. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  4. Reuse of drainage water in the Nile Delta; monitoring, modelling and analysis; final report Reuse of Drainage Water Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring Centrum, Instituut voor Onderzoek van het LandelijkGebied


    The effects of reusing drainage water have been evaluated and other options to increase the water utilization rate in Egypt explored. The results are an operational network for monitoring drainage water discharges and salinity along the major drains, a database for monitored drainage water

  5. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra


    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  6. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water - deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.


    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through -water deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of refraining from supplying water during specific stages of the cycle so as to identy the period(s) during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early and during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. However, one water application during the tillering stage allowed the yield to be lower only to that of the treatement with three irrigations. Irrigation during the stage of grain filling caused the kernel weight to be as high as under three irrigations. The lowest value corresponded to the treatement with one irrigation during grain filling and that under rainfed conditions. For sugar beet, when water stress was was applied early in the crop cycle, its effect could be almost entirely recovered with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the opposite, good watering early in cycle, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. Water deficit during the maturity stage had also a limited effect on yield. The most crucial periods for adequate watering were which correspond to late filiar development and root growth which coincided with the highest water requirements period. For the same amount of water savings through deficit irrigation, it was better to partition the stress throughout the cycle than during the critical stages of the crop. However, at the national level, it would have been more important to practice deficit irrigation and the irrigated area. For both crops, high yields as high as water - use efficiency values could have been obtained. 8 tabs; 5 refs ( Author )

  7. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.


    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  8. In-office drainage of sinus Mucoceles: An alternative to operating-room drainage. (United States)

    Barrow, Emily M; DelGaudio, John M


    Endoscopic drainage has become the standard of care for the treatment of mucoceles. In many patients this can be performed in the office. This study reviews our experience with in-office endoscopic mucocele drainage. Retrospective chart review. A retrospective review of one surgeon's experience with in-office endoscopic drainage of sinus mucoceles between 2006 and 2014 was performed. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics, previous surgery, mucocele location, bone erosion, and outcomes. Thirty-two patients underwent 36 in-office drainage procedures. All procedures were performed under topical/local anesthesia. The mean age was 55 years (range, 17-92 years). The mean follow-up time was 444 days. Fifty-five percent had previous sinus surgery. The primary sinus involved was the frontal (12), anterior (11), posterior ethmoid (six), maxillary (four), and sphenoid (two). Bone erosion was noted to be present on computed tomography in 18 mucoceles (51%) (16 orbital, seven skull-base). All mucoceles were successfully accessed in the office with the exception of one, which was aborted due to neo-osteogenesis. Five patients (14% of mucoceles) required additional surgery, two for mucocele recurrence and three for septated mucoceles not completely drained in the office. No treatment complications occurred. All but one patient preferred in-office to operating-room drainage. In-office drainage of sinus mucoceles is well tolerated by patients, with high success and low complication rates, even in large mucoceles with bone erosion. The presence of septations and neo-osteogenesis reduce the likelihood of complete drainage and are relative contraindications. Orbital and skull base erosion are not contraindications. 4. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.


    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  10. Percutaneous drainage of chest abscesses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, W.S. Jr.; Towbin, R.B.; Bisset, G.S. III.


    Similar techniques for draining abdominal abscesses are now being applied to abscesses within the chest. This report describes the authors' experience in percutaneous drainage of seven chest abscesses in six children aged 3-13 years (mean, 7.3 years). Four pleural/extrapleural loculations were drained in three patients. Abscess location included right apex (one), right minor fissure (one), and left supradiaphragmatic (two). Collections resulted from esophageal perforation (two) or esophageal anastomotic leak (two). Three lung abscesses were drained in three patients. Abscess location included right lower, left lower, and right middle lobes. All lay adjacent to a pleural surface and were localized by CT or US before drainage. There were no complications. Complete resolution occurred in all six patients without the need for surgical intervention

  11. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.


    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  12. Percutaneous drainage of 100 subphrenic abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casola, G.; Sonnenberg, E. van; D'Agostino, H.; Kothari, R.; May, S.; Taggart, S.


    PURPOSE: Percutaneous drainage of subphrenic abscesses is technically more difficult because lung and pleura may be transgressed during catheter insertion. The purpose of this paper is to determine the incidence of thoracic complications secondary to subphrenic abscess drainage and to determine factors that may alter this. The authors' series consists of 100 subphrenic abscesses that were drained percutaneously. Patients range in age from 14 to 75 years. Abscesses were secondary to surgery (splenectomy, pancreatectomy, partial hepatectomy, gastrectomy), pancreatitis, and trauma. Catheters ranged in size from 8 to 14 F and were inserted via trocar or Seldinger technique. Thoracic complications of pneumothorax or empyema were determined from follow-up chest radiographs or CT scans

  13. [Effects of vacuum sealing drainage technique in acute and chronic suppurative tenosynovitis of hand]. (United States)

    Wang, H; Xia, F; Xing, D M; Ren, D; Feng, W; Chen, Y; Xiao, Z H; Zhao, Z M


    Objective: To investigate the effects of vacuum sealing drainage technique in acute and chronic suppurative tenosynovitis of hand. Methods: A total of 9 cases acute and chronic suppurative tenosynovitis patients from January 2013 to April 2015 in Puai Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology were retrospectively reviewed. There were 6 males and 3 females, aging from 27 to 65 years, the average age was 55 years. There were 3 cases of index finger, 3 cases of middle finger, 2 cases of ring finger, 1 case include three fingers. The infection causes included stabbing with fishbone in 3 cases, stabbing with animal bone fragments in 3 cases, wound by sawdust in 3 cases, meat grinder injury in 1 case, multiple fingers crush injury postoperative infection of garbage truck in 1 case. Bacterial infection included 2 cases with Staphylococcus aureus, 2 cases with Staphylococcus epidermidis, 1 case with normal Escherichia coli, 1 case with mixed infection of Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca and Staphylococcus, 1 case with Bauman Acinetobacter bacillus, 1 case with Proteus mirabilis and 1 case of no growth of pathogenic bacteria culture. After thorough debridement, vacuum sealing drainage was used to observe the characteristics of irrigation fluid, the formation of cavity inflammation, the prognosis of infection and the recovery of finger function. Results: Seven patients with suppurative tenosynovitis were treated for 7 to 14 days, replaced the vacuum sealing drainage dressing once; 1 patient was an illustration of the finger tip defect flap infected patients after 21 days of treatment, replaced the vacuum sealing drainage dressing twice, 1 patient was an illustration of the central refers to trauma, postoperative infection patients 28 d, replaced three times in the VSD. The follow-up time was 3 to 12 months (mean 8.2 months), 7 patients without tendon necrosis, secondary suture with no infection, 2 cases of

  14. Using constructed wetlands to treat subsurface drainage from intensively grazed dairy pastures in New Zealand. (United States)

    Tanner, C C; Nguyen, M Long; Sukias, J P S


    Performance data, during the start-up period, are presented for constructed wetlands treating subsurface drainage from dairy pastures in Waikato (rain-fed) and Northland (irrigated), North Island, New Zealand. The wetlands comprised an estimated 1 and 2% of the drained catchment areas, respectively. Nitrate concentrations were high in the drainage inflows at both sites (medians 10 g m(-3) at Waikato and 6.5 g m(-3) at Northland), but organic N was also an important form of N at Waikato (37% of TN). Comparison of wetland inflow and outflow nutrient concentrations showed overall nutrient reductions during passage through the wetlands for NO3-N (34 and 94% for medians, respectively), TN (56 and 33%, respectively), and DRP (80%, Northland only). Median NH4-N (both sites) and DRP (Waikato) concentrations showed apparent increases between the wetland inlets and outlets. However, a mass balance calculated for the 3 month preliminary monitoring periods showed substantial mass removal of DRP (80%) and all measured forms of N (NO3-N 78%, NH4-N 41%, Org-N 99.8% and TN 96%) in the Waikato wetland. Monitoring of these systems needs to be continued through a range of seasons and years to fully assess their long-term performance.

  15. to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in Zuru, Northern Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in ... The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Irrigation ..... System and Agronomic Practice in. Tropical Climates.

  16. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  17. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management (United States)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  18. The Reticulation Irrigation Scheme at Sankana, Upper West Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farmers utilizing the irrigation project are food secure. ... The effects of ... Often, lack of maintenance, bad management and financial difficulties decrease the ...... and Mushunje A. (2010), 'Analysis of Irrigation Development Post Fast Track Land ...

  19. Modernisation strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, Mona Liza Fortunado


    The performance of publicly funded canal irrigation systems or more commonly called national irrigation systems (NIS) in the Philippines remained below expectations despite considerable system rehabilitation and improvement efforts. The continued suboptimal performances were attributed to

  20. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moniri Far


    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  1. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 2, 2017 ... Many methods have been described and sensors developed to manage irrigation ... time, and automated irrigation systems based on crop water needs can .... output components, and a software program for decision support.

  2. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    water quality and permissible levels of metals in food and water. It revealed that the heavy .... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by .... Reuse of domestic grey water for irrigation of food crops, unpublished ...

  3. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management (United States)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  4. Economic Analysis of Crop Production under Jibiya Irrigation Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the farmers were married and can read and write. Most of ... The performance of the farmers, though ... holder irrigation dependent on the shadoof system of lifting water as .... implies that in Jibiya Irrigation Project, women were not.

  5. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; de Vaal, M. M.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Blankevoort, L.; van der List, M. P. J.


    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies

  6. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  7. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990) (United States)

    Minashina, N. G.


    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  8. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and

  9. Urban Floods Adaptation and Sustainable Drainage Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos


    Full Text Available Sustainability is crucial to the urban zones, especially related to the water management, which is vulnerable to flood occurrence. This research applies the procedure contemplated by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS to determine the generated volumes when the impervious areas can exceed the drainage capacity of existing pluvial water networks. Several computational simulations were developed for the current scenario of an existing basin in Lisbon. Using CivilStorm software from Bentley Systems (Bentley EMEA, Bentley Systems International Limited, Dublin, Ireland, it enabled the evaluation of the volumes of flood peaks and the hydraulic behavior of a small hydrographic basin in the continuation of an urbanization process, considering the modification of its superficial impervious parts and the growth of the urbanized area. Several measures are suggested to solve the limited capacity of the existing drainage system. This study analyzes the efficiency of the application of constructive measures, pondering the viability of their effectiveness, individually and combined. The option that best minimizes the effects of the urbanization is the combination of different structural measures, in particular retention ponds, storage blocks, ditches and specific drainage interventions in some parts of the network.

  10. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek


    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  11. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production


    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan


    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  12. Ring Irrigation System (RIS) design through customer preference representation


    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.; Rianmora Suchada; Werawatganon Siwat


    In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent ...

  13. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector


    Nijman, C.


    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  14. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.


    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  15. Acid drainage (AD) in nature and environmental impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) in Southern Tuscany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lella, Luigi Antonello; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco


    Acid drainage (AD) is a natural process occurring locally at the Earth's surface. It consists in a substantial increase of acidity of surface waters as a result of chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere (i.e. acid rain) or involving reactive phases (i.e. pyrite) present in the percolated medium. Acidic surface waters (usually pH < 4) can be produced by oxidation of sulphides (mainly pyrite and other iron sulphides) exposed to atmospheric oxygen, while human activities, such as mining, can greatly enhance this process. Acid drainage promoted by mining activities is called acid mine drainage (AMD) and is a primary source of environmental pollution and a world-wide problem in both active and abandoned mining areas. In fact, exposure of iron sulphides to oxidising conditions produces strongly acidic drainage waters rich in sulphate and a variety of heavy elements (i.e. As, Cd, Pb, Sb). Several occurrences of active acid mine drainage have been found in the Metalliferous Hills (southern Tuscany). The most important AMD phenomena were observed in the Fenice Capanne and Niccioleta mining areas

  16. Characterize the hydraulic behaviour of grate inlet in urban drainage to prevent the urban's flooding (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.


    image velocimetry to measure surface flow velocities has been developed and validated with the experiments assays with the grate inlets [3 - 4]. Indeed, the Methodology carried out can become a useful tools to understand the hydraulics behavior of the flow approaching the inlet where the traditional measuring equipment have serious problems and limitations [5 - 6]. References [1] Gómez, M., Macchione, F. and Russo, B. (2006). Inlet systems and risk criteria associated to street runoff application to urban drainage catchments. 27 Corso di aggiornamiento in techniche per la difesa dall'inquinamento. [2] Russo, B., Gómez, M., & Tellez, J. (2013). Methodology to Estimate the Hydraulic Efficiency of Nontested Continuous Transverse Grates. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 139(10), 864-871. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000625 [3] DigiFlow. User Guide. (2012), (June). [4] Vila, T., Tellez, J., Sanchez, J.M., Sotillos, L., Diez, M., and Redondo, J.M. (2014). Diffusion in fractal wakes and convective thermoelectric flows. Geophysical Research Abstracts - EGU General Assembly 2014. [5] Tellez, J., Gómez, M., Russo, B. and Redondo, J.M. (2014). A simple technique to measuring surface flow velocity to analyze the behavior of fields velocities in hydraulics engineer applications. Geophysical Research Abstracts - EGU General Assembly 2015. [6] Tellez, J., Gómez, M. and Russo, B. (2015). Técnica para la obtención del campo de velocidad del flujo superficial en proximidad de rejas de alcantarillado. IV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Agua. La precipitación y los procesos erosivos.

  17. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.


    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  18. Potentials for Supplemental Irrigation in Some Rainfall Areas of Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, there were up to five months of the year during which rainwater was much in deficit of evapotranspiration. All these stress the need for irrigation. Analysis of water quality (surface, groundwater, and rainfall runoff) showed their suitability for irrigation. Quantity assessment of supplemental irrigation during the dry ...

  19. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficit irrigation is considered to be an important approach for crop cultivation in dry regions where water resources are scarce. Deficit irrigation can be used also to decrease the level of infections by some moisturedependent plant pests and diseases such as root-knot nematode disease. Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels ...

  20. Field evaluation of deficit irrigation effects on tomato growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted using a common tomato cultivar (GS12) to assess the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) regimes on tomato growth performance, and on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica galling and abundance. Irrigation treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and ...

  1. The impact of smallholder irrigation on household welfare: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of smallholder irrigated agriculture to enhance food security and alleviate rural poverty has led the South African Government to prioritise and invest significantly in irrigation establishment, rehabilitation and revitalisation. The question addressed in this study pertains to the extent to which smallholder irrigation ...

  2. Effects of seven different irrigation techniques on debris and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Conventional manual irrigation with a syringe and needle remains widely accepted technique in the irrigation procedures. However, its flushing action has some limitations. Currently, several techniques and systems are available and reported to improve the insufficiency of syringe irrigation. The aim of this study was to ...

  3. Critical parameters for maize yield under irrigation farming in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the critical variables that determine maize yield under irrigation farming in the savanna ecological zone of Kwara State. Seventy-five soil samples were randomly collected from irrigation farm of Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority Ilorin and bulked into 15 ...

  4. Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.


    Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in

  5. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  6. Scheduling irrigation for jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill. ) | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to select suitable indicator for scheduling the irrigation of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) grown in the Loess Plateau. The relationships between plant-based indicators and soil matrix potential as well as meteorological factors of jujube under deficit irrigation compared with well irrigation were ...

  7. Limited irrigation research and infrared thermometry for detecting water stress (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Limited Irrigation Research Farm, located outside of Greeley Colorado, is an experiment evaluating management perspectives of limited irrigation water. An overview of the farm systems is shown, including drip irrigation systems, water budgeting, and experimental design, as well as preli...

  8. Irrigation development and management in Ghana: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... existing schemes. It is envisaged that irrigation will be seen in its right perspective as a multidisciplinary activity to ensure the success of schemes. There is the need for running a postgraduate programme in irrigation at the KNUST to enhance the nations efforts at developing and managing irrigation projects successfully.

  9. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.


    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  10. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Soil Water Irrigation Planning and Energy Management (SWIP-E) mathematical programming model was developed and applied in this paper to provide decision support regarding the optimal mainline pipe diameter, irrigation system delivery capacity and size of the irrigation system. SWIP-E unifies the interrelated ...

  11. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  12. Sustainable Irrigation Development in the White Volta Sub-Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofosu, E.A.


    This study on sustainable irrigation development identified growing markets for irrigated products as an important driving force behind the expansion of irrigation which has given rise to new technologies. The new technologies have spread because they gave farmers direct control over water sources.

  13. Fate of fertilizer N on irrigated wheat and its pollution potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, M.S.; Sachdev, P.; Deb, D.L.


    Irrigated field experiments with wheat over four seasons, 1994-98, compared the regionally recommended application of 120 kg N ha -1 with rates of 50% and 150% of this value. The application of 180 kg N ha -1 increased grain and dry-matter yields significantly. The highest fractional uptake of N was obtained at the 100%-N level, and additional fertilizer was utilized less efficiently. The first one third split application of basal N was less efficiently assimilated than a second two thirds split application at growth stage Z-30. The higher N application (150%) resulted in three- to five-fold more fertilizer-derived NO 3 - -N in the soil solution below the root zone (120 cm depth). The soil water was depleted mostly from the upper 60 cm, below which moisture content remained unchanged during crop growth and was in excess of the upper limit of drainage. (author)

  14. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.


    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P

  15. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors (United States)

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  16. Measurement Of Technical Efficiency In Irrigated Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured technical efficiency and identified its determinants in irrigated vegetable production in Nasarawa State of Nigeria using a stochastic frontier model. A complete enumeration of 193 NADP-registered vegetable farmers was done. The predicted farm technical efficiency ranges from 25.94 to 96.24 per cent ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were ... exhaust fumes, process waters and waste from various industrial processes [1]. The uses of ... into four sub-systems: Lake Rudolf, Chew Bahir, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Afar. The seismically ...

  18. Water quality and irrigation [Chapter 10 (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Kim M. Wilkinson


    Water is the single most important biological factor affecting plant growth and health. Water is essential for almost every plant process: photosynthesis, nutrient transport, and cell expansion and development. In fact, 80 to 90 percent of a seedling's weight is made up of water. Therefore, irrigation management is the most critical aspect of nursery operations....

  19. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.


    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  20. Irrigation management of muskmelon with tensiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana


    Full Text Available The production and consumption of muskmelon have been increasing (MELO et al., 2014, thus, information on techniques for higher field productions are necessary. The experiment described in the present work was conducted in the IFTM, Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the muskmelon yield under different soil water tensions. A randomized block experimental design was used with five treatments (soil water tensions of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kPa and four replications (plots of two rows of 14 plants. Two harvests were carried out and the fruit yield, stem diameter, number of fruits per plant and efficiency of water use were evaluated. Irrigation was performed with a drip irrigation system and managed with tensiometry. The cultivar Bonus n.2 was used with spacing of 1.0 x 0.6 m. The data of the variables were subjected to the F test and regression test. The treatments showed statistical differences in number of fruits per plant, fruit weight (fruit yield and stem diameter. The highest fruit yield found was 1.36 kg fruit-1 and the highest water use efficiency was 4.08 g mm-1 with irrigation for a soil water tension of 10 kPa. The lowest fruit yield was found with irrigation for a soil water tension of 50 kPa.

  1. New soil water sensors for irrigation management (United States)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  2. FAO study on irrigation potential for Africa


    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏ United Nations Development Programme


    Metadata only record To improve the conjunctive use of sub-surface and surface water in order to increase water resources availability for sustainable small-scale irrigation development in support of food security in West Africa, south of the Sahara.

  3. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  4. Strategies of smallholder irrigation management in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzungu, E.


    The smallholder irrigation sub-sector in Zimbabwe, according to literature sources, is under threat due to what are called management problems. Poor water management and low crop yields have been cited, as has also been poor financial and economic viability, resulting in heavy government

  5. Streamflow Prediction in Ungauged, Irrigated Basins (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Thompson, S. E.


    The international "predictions in ungauged basins" or "PUB" effort has broadened and improved the tools available to support water resources management in sparsely observed regions. These tools have, however, been primarily focused on regions with limited diversion of surface or shallow groundwater resources. Incorporating anthropogenic activity into PUB methods is essential given the high level of development of many basins. We extended an existing stochastic framework used to predict the flow duration curve to explore the effects of irrigation on streamflow dynamics. Four canonical scenarios were considered in which irrigation water was (i) primarily sourced from water imports, (ii) primarily sourced from direct in-channel diversions, (iii) sourced from shallow groundwater with direct connectivity to stream channels, or (iv) sourced from deep groundwater that is indirectly connected to surface flow via a shallow aquifer. By comparing the predicted flow duration curves to those predicted by accounting for climate and geomorphic factors in isolation, specific "fingerprints" of human water withdrawals could be identified for the different irrigation scenarios, and shown to be sensitive to irrigation volumes and scheduling. The results provide a first insight into PUB methodologies that could be employed in heavily managed basins.

  6. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cahn


    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  7. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.


    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  8. Solar-thermal jet pumping for irrigation (United States)

    Clements, L. D.; Dellenback, P. A.; Bell, C. A.


    This paper describes a novel concept in solar powered irrigation pumping, gives measured performance data for the pump unit, and projected system performance. The solar-thermal jet pumping concept is centered around a conventional jet eductor pump which is commercially available at low cost. The jet eductor pump is powered by moderate temperature, moderate pressure Refrigerant-113 vapor supplied by a concentrating solar collector field. The R-113 vapor is direct condensed by the produced water and the two fluids are separated at the surface. The water goes on to use and the R-113 is repressurized and returned to the solar field. The key issue in the solar-thermal jet eductor concept is the efficiency of pump operation. Performance data from a small scale experimental unit which utilizes an electrically heated boiler in place of the solar field is presented. The solar-thermal jet eductor concept is compared with other solar irrigation concepts and optimal application situations are identified. Though having lower efficiencies than existing Rankine cycle solar-thermal irrigation systems, the mechanical and operational simplicity of this concept make it competitive with other solar powered irrigation schemes.

  9. Scheduling irrigation for jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 30, 2010 ... indicators for diagnosing plant water information, but it is troublesome to measure leaf water potential using a pressure chamber (Turner, 1981). It is also difficult to achieve automatic and continuous records with the pressure chamber. Definition of threshold values of soil moisture for irrigation management ...

  10. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and soil samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, ... So, attention and investment in these areas have been very limited in Africa and ... The shape of the watershed is almost elliptical (Fig. 1). 2.1. Soil. Texturally ..... quality of the irrigation water, soil factors such as structure, degree of compaction, organic.

  11. Multi-agent agro-economic simulation of irrigation water demand with climate services for climate change adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Balbi


    Full Text Available Farmers’ irrigation practices play a crucial role in the sustainability of crop production and water consumption, and in the way they deal with the current and future effects of climate change. In this study, a system dynamic multi-agent model adopting the soil water balance provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56 was developed to explore how farmers’ decision making may affect future water needs and use with a focus on the role of climate services, i.e. forecasts and insurance. A climatic projection record representing the down-scaled A1B market scenario (a balance across all sources of the assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC is used to produce future daily data about relative humidity, precipitation, temperature and wind speed. Two types of meteorological services are made available: i a bi-weekly bulletin; and ii seasonal forecasts. The precision of these services was altered to represent different conditions, from perfect knowledge to poor forecasts. Using the available forecasts, farming agents take adaptation decisions concerning crop allocation and irrigation management on the basis of their own risk attitudes. Farmers’ attitudes are characterized by fuzzy classifications depending on age, relative income and crop profitability. Farming agents’ adaptation decisions directly affect the crop and irrigation parameters, which in turn affect future water needs on a territorial level. By incorporating available and future meteorological services, the model allows the farmer’s decision making-process to be explored together with the consequent future irrigation water demand for the period 2015 to 2030. The model prototype is applied to a data set of the Venice Lagoon Watershed, an area of 2038 km2 in north-east Italy, for a preliminary test of its performance and to design future development objectives.

  12. Comparison between autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Hong, Kun-Hao; Pan, Jian-Ke; Yang, Wei-Yi; Luo, Ming-Hui; Xu, Shu-Chai; Liu, Jun


    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) drainage system is a new unwashed salvaged blood retransfusion system for total knee replacement (TKA). However, whether to use ABT drainage, closed-suction (CS) drainage or no drainage in TKA surgery remains controversial. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficiency, safety and potential advantages regarding the use of ABT drains compared with closed-suction/no drainage. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched in March 2015. Fifteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and pooled for statistical analysis. The primary outcome evaluated was homologous blood transfusion rate. The secondary outcomes were post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections after TKA surgery. The pooled data included 1,721 patients and showed that patients in the ABT drainage group might benefit from lower blood transfusion rates (16.59 % and 37.47 %, OR: 0.28 [0.14, 0.55]; 13.05 % and 16.91 %, OR: 0.73 [0.47,1.13], respectively). Autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage have similar clinical efficacy and safety with regard to post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections. Autologous blood transfusion drainage offers a safe and efficient alternative to CS/no drainage with a lower blood transfusion rate. Future large-volume high-quality RCTs with extensive follow-up will affirm and update this system review.

  13. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal


    Pant, D.R.


    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional chang...

  14. Advances in drainage: Selected works from the Tenth International Drainage Symposium (United States)

    Strock, Jeffrey S.; Hay, Christopher; Helmers, Matthew; Nelson, Kelly A.; Sands, Gary R.; Skaggs, R. Wayne; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R.


    This article introduces a special collection of fourteen articles accepted from among the 140 technical presentations, posters, and meeting papers presented at the 10th International ASABE Drainage Symposium. The symposium continued in the tradition of previous symposia that began in 1965 as a forum for presenting and assessing the progress of drainage research and implementation throughout the world. The articles in this collection address a wide range of topics grouped into five broad categories: (1) crop response, (2) design and management, (3) hydrology and scale, (4) modeling, and (5) water quality. The collection provides valuable information for scientists, engineers, planners, and others working on crop production, water quality, and water quantity issues affected by agricultural drainage. The collection also provides perspectives on the challenges of increasing agricultural production in a changing climate, with ever-greater attention to water quality and quantity concerns that will require integrated technical, economic, and social solutions.

  15. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ga Young; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook


    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy

  16. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Young; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy.

  17. Irrigation et paludisme : un couple infernal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.


    Full Text Available Irrigation and Malaria - a Terrible Combination?. Increasing agricultural productivity is a priority in most of the developing countries and using irrigation is one of the most efficient ways of achieving this goal. Almost half a billion people in the world contract malaria every year and approximately one million die as a result. The majority of these victims are farmers or members of their families. In infected areas, malaria continues to have major negative impacts on agricultural productivity. For example, in the Equateur province of the DRC, after access to production means, fevers are considered the second biggest obstacle to the development of agricultural activities. In the Ivory Coast, a study has shown that growers suffering from malaria were about half as productive as their healthy colleagues. The disease often strikes at the start of the rainy season when work begins again in the fields. It reduces the amount of land cultivated and affects the amount of care taken with crops. Agricultural practices influence the risk of contracting malaria. Irrigation, in particular, can encourage the proliferation of vectors of the disease and make it more likely to spread. This tendency can be observed in many locations where irrigated rice production is on the increase. Paradoxically, however, an increased number of mosquitoes does not systematically result in more malaria. In Ethiopia, malaria is more prevalent close to the micro-dams sponsored by the government, whereas, in Tanzania, there is less malaria in irrigated areas. Various theories can be put forward in order to explain this paradox. In particular, increased income due to higher rice yields enables farmers to purchase insecticide-treated mosquito nets. It also allows them to eat better, which strengthens their immune systems. It also appears that the negative impact of irrigation systems is greater in areas, in which immunity levels were low in the population prior to the creation of

  18. [Vacuum sealing drainage as an adjuvant treatment of penile and scrotal gangrene: Clinical analysis of 4 cases]. (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Liao, Liang-Gong; Li, Yan-Feng; Liu, Xu-Dong; Hu, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Li, Zhong-Tai; Cao, Quan-Fu; Jiang, Jun


    To search for an optimal strategy for the treatment of penile and scrotal gangrene by analyzing the clinical effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) as an adjuvant treatment on this disease. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data about 4 cases of penile and scrotal gangrene treated by VSD as an adjuvant treatment from January 2015 to June 2016. The 4 patients all underwent early extensive and radical debridement of gangrene of the scrotum and penis and received intravenous injection of two broad-spectrum antibiotics, followed by VSD for wound drainage and irrigation. Adequate wound drainage was achieved in all the 4 cases, the gangrene range rapidly localized and testicular necrosis avoided. The wound surface healed satisfactorily after cleansing and suturing. The patients were followed up for 3 months after discharged from the hospital and none experienced recurrence. VSD combined with early adequate debridement can effectively localize the gangrene range, significantly reduce the frequency of changing dressings and shorten the hospitalization time of the patient, and therefore is a very effective adjuvant treatment of penile and scrotal gangrene.

  19. Evaluation of hydraulic performance of downstream-controlled Maira-PHLC irrigation canals under crop-based irrigation operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munir, S.; Schultz, B.; Suryadi, F.X.; Bharati, L.


    Demand-based irrigation systems are operated according to crop water requirements. As crop water requirements remain variable throughout the growing season, the discharges in the canal also vary to meet demands. The irrigation system under study is a demand-based semi-automatic irrigation system,

  20. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  1. Year-Round Irrigation Schedule for a Tomato–Maize Rotation System in Reservoir-Based Irrigation Schemes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Sekyi-Annan


    Full Text Available Improving irrigation management in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa is crucial to respond to increasing variability in rainfall and overcome deficits in current irrigation schemes. In small-scale and medium-scale reservoir-based irrigation schemes in the Upper East region of Ghana, we explored options for improving the traditional, dry season irrigation practices and assessed the potential for supplemental irrigation in the rainy season. The AquaCrop model was used to (i assess current water management in the typical tomato-maize rotational system; (ii develop an improved irrigation schedule for dry season cultivation of tomato; and (iii determine the requirement for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season under different climate scenarios. The improved irrigation schedule for dry season tomato cultivation would result in a water saving of 130–1325 mm compared to traditional irrigation practices, accompanied by approximately a 4–14% increase in tomato yield. The supplemental irrigation of maize would require 107–126 mm of water in periods of low rainfall and frequent dry spells, and 88–105 mm in periods of high rainfall and rare dry spells. Therefore, year-round irrigated crop production may be feasible, using water saved during dry season tomato cultivation for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season.

  2. Effects of irrigation on streamflow in the Central Sand Plain of Wisconsin (United States)

    Weeks, E.P.; Stangland, H.G.


    ground-water reservoir. Irrigation development should continue in the sand plain; future development probably will include improved artificial drainage and land clearing. The hydrology of the sand-plain area was studied from water budgets for seven basins and from water balances for eight types of vegetative cover or land use. During the study period about 16-20 inches of the 28- to 30-inch average annual precipitation were lost to evapotranspiration from different basins in the area, Evapotranspiration from different types of vegetative cover or land use ranged from about 14 inches per year for bare ground to about 25 inches per year from land covered by phreatophytes. Evapotranspiration is about 19 inches from forested land, about 16 inches from grassland and unirrigated row crops, about 19 inches from irrigated beans, and about 22 inches from irrigated potatoes. Variations in evapotranspiration from the different types of vegetative cover result mainly from differences in soil moisture available to the plants. Available soil moisture ranges from about 1 inch for shallow-rooted grasses and row crops to about 3 inches for forest. Most of the precipitation not used by plants or to replenish soil moisture seeps to the water table, and ground-water recharge in the area averages about 12-14 inches per year. However, computed recharge ranged from about 3 inches to about 22 inches during the 1948-67 period, depending upon the amount and seasonal distribution of precipitation. Of the average 12-14 inches of recharge, about lo-13 inches are discharged to the streams draining the area, and about l-2 inches are used by phreatophytes or by irrigated crops. Annual streamflow in the area averages about 11-12 inches per year, and because it is sustained mainly by ground water, its seasonal distribution is fairly uniform, However, streamflow varies seasonally, being highest in the spring, low in the summer, higher

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis of the drainage of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunke, O; Hamann, A; Cox, S J; Odenbach, S


    Drainage is one of the driving forces for the temporal instability of molten metal foams. For usual aqueous foams this phenomenon is well examined and understood on both the experimental and the theoretical side. The situation is different for metallic foams. Due to their opaque nature, the observation of drainage is only possible by either measuring the density distribution of solidified samples ex situ or by x-ray or neutron radioscopy. Up to now there exists just one theoretical study describing the drainage behaviour of metallic foams incorporating the drainage equation, the temperature dependence of the viscosity and thermal transport. This paper will present results on the drainage behaviour of aluminium foams grown by a powder-metallurgical production route. For this purpose an experiment which allows the observation of drainage in cylindrical metal foam columns has been developed. Experimental density profiles after different drainage times are measured ex situ and compared to numerical results of the standard drainage equation for aqueous foams. This first comparison between the density redistribution of metallic aluminium foams and numerical solutions shows that the standard drainage equation can be used to explain the drainage behaviour of metallic foams

  4. Traditional Foley drainage systems--do they drain the bladder? (United States)

    Garcia, Maurice M; Gulati, Shelly; Liepmann, Dorian; Stackhouse, G Bennett; Greene, Kirsten; Stoller, Marshall L


    Foley catheters are assumed to drain the bladder to completion. Drainage characteristics of Foley catheter systems are poorly understood. To investigate unrecognized retained urine with Foley catheter drainage systems, bladder volumes of hospitalized patients were measured with bladder scan ultrasound volumetrics. Additionally, an in vitro bench top mock bladder and urinary catheter system was developed to understand the etiology of such residual volumes. A novel drainage tube design that optimizes indwelling catheter drainage was also designed. Bedside bladder ultrasound volumetric studies were performed on patients hospitalized in ward and intensive care unit. If residual urine was identified the drainage tubing was manipulated to facilitate drainage. An ex vivo bladder-urinary catheter model was designed to measure flow rates and pressures within the drainage tubing of a traditional and a novel drainage tube system. A total of 75 patients in the intensive care unit underwent bladder ultrasound volumetrics. Mean residual volume was 96 ml (range 4 to 290). In 75 patients on the hospital ward mean residual volume was 136 ml (range 22 to 647). In the experimental model we found that for every 1 cm in curl height, obstruction pressure increased by 1 cm H2O within the artificial bladder. In contrast, the novel spiral-shaped drainage tube demonstrated rapid (0.5 cc per second), continuous and complete (100%) reservoir drainage in all trials. Traditional Foley catheter drainage systems evacuate the bladder suboptimally. Outflow obstruction is caused by air-locks that develop within curled redundant drainage tubing segments. The novel drainage tubing design eliminates gravity dependent curls and associated air-locks, optimizes flow, and minimizes residual bladder urine.

  5. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.


    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  6. Automation in irrigation process in family farm with Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianne Crystie Bezerra da Cunha


    Full Text Available The small farmers tend not to use mechanical inputs in the irrigation process due to the high cost than conventional irrigation systems have and in other cases, the lack of knowledge and technical guidance makes the farmer theme using the system. Thus, all control and monitoring are made by hand without the aid of machines and this practice can lead to numerous problems from poor irrigation, and water waste, energy, and deficits in production. It is difficult to deduce when to irrigate, or how much water applied in cultivation, measure the soil temperature variables, temperature, and humidity, etc. The objective of this work is to implement an automated irrigation system aimed at family farming that is low cost and accessible to the farmer. The system will be able to monitor all parameters from irrigation. For this to occur, the key characteristics of family farming, Arduino platform, and irrigation were analyzed.

  7. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann


    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... density in the furrow. Most roots accumulated in the surface layers of coarse sand as compared to the other soil types. In the deep soil profile (30–70 cm) a higher root density was found in loamy sand compared with the sandy loam and coarse sand. Approximately twice the amounts of roots were found below...

  8. Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Li, Guitong; Andersen, Mathias Neumann


    tBiochar is an amendment that can be used for enhancing soil water storage which may increase cropproductivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar on physiology, yield andquality of tomato under different irrigation regimes. From early flowering to fruit maturity...... stages, theplants were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying irrigation(PRD) and two levels of biochar (0% and 5% by weight). In FI, the plants were irrigated daily to pot waterholding capacity while in DI and PRD, 70% of FI was irrigated on either...... the whole or one side of the pots,respectively. In PRD, irrigation was switched between sides when the soil water content of the dry sidedecreased to 15%. The results showed that addition of biochar increased the soil moisture contents in DIand PRD, which consequently improved physiology, yield, and quality...

  9. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell


    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  10. Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin.

  11. Safety profile of multielectrode-phased radiofrequency pulmonary vein ablation catheter and irrigated radiofrequency catheter. (United States)

    Wasmer, K; Foraita, P; Leitz, P; Güner, F; Pott, C; Lange, P S; Eckardt, L; Mönnig, G


    Silent cerebral lesions with the multielectrode-phased radiofrequency (RF) pulmonary vein ablation catheter (PVAC(®)) have recently been investigated. However, comparative data on safety in relation to irrigated RF ablation are missing. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients (58 ± 12 years, 56 female) underwent first pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (61% paroxysmal) using PVAC(®) (PVAC). Procedure data as well as in-hospital complications were compared with 300 matched patients who underwent PVI using irrigated RF (iRF). Procedure duration (148 ± 63 vs. 208 ± 70 min; P drainage n = 0 vs. n = 6] occurred more frequently using iRF. Two patients in each group developed a TIA (1.3% vs. 0.6%). Of note, four of five thromboembolic events in the PVAC group (two TIAs and three transient ST elevations during ablation) occurred when all 10 electrodes were used for ablation. Pulmonary vein isolation using PVAC as a 'one-shot-system' has a comparable complication rate but a different risk profile. Pericardial effusion and tamponade occurred more frequently using iRF, whereas thromboembolic events were more prevalent using PVAC. Occurrence of clinically relevant thromboembolic events might be reduced by avoidance of electrode 1 and 10 interaction and uninterrupted anticoagulation, whereas contact force sensing for iRF might minimize pericardial effusion. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:

  12. Simulation of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization management of maize under edaphic conditions of south of Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Seijas, Teresa; Cid, G.; Gonzalez, F.; Jorge, Y.; Chaterlan, Y.; Giralt, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Duennas, G.


    The main objective of this work is to validate the crop simulation model STICS for the soil and climate conditions of south of Havana, especially for the water and nitrogen balances on Maize crop on Ferralitic soil, For this purpose was used all the available information from field experiments carried out in the Experimental Stations of the Irrigation and Drainage and Soil Research Institutes, both on south of Havana, The comparison between the simulation and observed values showed a good fitness for the variables related to the crop water uptake, while for the soil water content when the root water uptake flux is minimum and the soil water redistribution flux is maximum wasn't good, The soil nitrogen balance was adjusted from the optimization of the parameters related to the mineralization velocity of soil organic nitrogen, Nevertheless is necessary to complete this study involving other climate conditions and water and nitrogen managements to define the optimum strategy for irrigation and fertilization of Maize crop on the studied conditions,

  13. Cultivation of cherry tomato under irrigation with saline water and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianne G. S. Vieira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was carried out from August 2013 to January 2014 to evaluate growth and production of cherry tomato cultivated under irrigation with water of different salinity levels and fertilized with different nitrogen (N doses, in experiment conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, at the Center for Agrifood Science and Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande. The statistical design was randomized blocks in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replicates, and the treatments consisted of five levels of electrical conductivity of water (0.3, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (60, 100, 140 and 180 mg kg-1. Growth and production variables of cherry tomato decrease linearly from the irrigation water salinity of 0.3 dS m-1 on. The longer exposure of plants to salt stress caused the highest reductions, and the root dry matter, leaf area and the number of clusters are the most sensitive variables. The highest value of plant height at 125 days after transplantation was obtained with the N dose of 139 mg kg-1 of soil. Increasing N doses reduced the effect of salinity on cherry tomato growth at 125 days after transplantation.

  14. Treatment of log yard run-off by irrigation of grass and willows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Paer; Elowson, Torbjoern


    Log yard run-off is a potential environmental risk, among other things because it creates an oxygen deficiency in receiving watercourses. This study was conducted to investigate the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems with couchgrass (Elymus repens) and willows (Salix sp.) when intensively irrigated with run-off from an open sprinkling system at a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. The purification efficiency was determined both at the field scale (couchgrass) and in 68-L lysimeters (couchgrass and willows). Groundwater in the field and drainage water from the lysimeters were analysed for Total Organic Carbon (TOC), distillable phenols, total P, and total N. Retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred but no difference between couchgrass and willows was observed. The system had better purification capacity at the field scale than in the lysimeters. -- By irrigating willow and couchgrass soil-plant systems with log yard run-off water, TOC, phenols, and phosphorus were reduced with 35% to 96% in the water

  15. Button self-retaining drainage catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caridi, James G.; Hawkins, Irvin F.; Akins, E. William; Young, Ronald S.


    To help improve patient acceptance of long-term internal/external catheter access to the biliary tract in those with benign biliary obstruction, a simple design allows the catheter end to remain flush with the skin. It consists of a clothes button affixed to the drainage catheter with a wood screw after the catheter has been cut off at the skin exit. This button/screw device has been used successfully in 22 patients over the last 10 years; catheter exchanges were easily accomplished

  16. Percutaneous biliary drainage in patients with cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.C.; Gobel, R.J.; Rose, S.C.; Hayes, J.K.; Miller, F.J.


    This paper determines whether radiation therapy (RT) is a risk factor for infectious complications (particularly hepatic abscess formation) related to percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD). The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 98 consecutive patients who had undergone PBD for obstruction. In 34 patients with benign obstruction, three infectious complications occurred, none of which were hepatic abscess or fatal sepsis. In 39 patients who had malignant obstruction but did not have cholangiocarcinoma, 13 infectious complications occurred, including two hepatic abscesses and three cases of fatal sepsis. Of the 25 patients with cholangiocarcinoma, 15 underwent RT; in these 15 patients, 14 infectious complications occurred, including six hepatic abscesses and two cases of fatal sepsis

  17. Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh. (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Parvez, Lutfar; Suzuki, Shigeyuki


    An integrated approach of pollution evaluation indices, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) was employed to evaluate the intensity and sources of pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems of northwestern Bangladesh. Temperature, BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Pb levels in most of the water samples exceed the Bangladesh and international standards. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (C(d)) yield different results despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) shows strong correlations with HPI and C(d), and gives a better assessment of pollution levels. Modifications to the existing HPI and C(d) schemes show comparable results with HEI, and indicate that about 55% of the mine drainage/irrigation waters and 50% of the groundwaters are moderately to highly contaminated. The CA, PCA and pollution indices suggest that the mine drainage water (DW) is contaminated by anthropogenic (mining operation and agrogenic) sources, and the proximal parts are more contaminated than the distal part. The groundwater system in the vicinity of the coal mine site is also heavily polluted by anthropogenic sources. The pollution status of irrigation and drinking water systems in the study area are of great environmental and health concerns. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiologic drainage of infected and noninfected thoracic fluid collections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sonnenberg, E.; Casola, G.; Stavas, J.; Neff, C.C.; Varney, R.A.; Wittich, G.R.; Dillard, J.; Christensen, R.A.; Friedman, P.J.


    Radiologically guided drainage of 100 thoracic fluid collections is described in this paper. Collections that underwent drainage include empyemas, lung abscesses, bronchopleural fistulas (BPFs), mediastinal abscesses, paracardial collections, bronchogenic cysts, sequestrations, lymphoceles, lymphangiomas, malignant effusions, and necrotic tumors. Catheters were placed for sclerotherapy in nine patients. Guidance modalities (in descending order of frequency) were CT, US, fluoroscopy, and MR. Inadequate thoracostomy tube drainage occurred in a third of the patients prior to radiologic drainage. Drainages were effective in 85% of cases, sparing surgery or another thoracostomy tube. Complications occurred in 7% of patients, most being minor and none requiring operation. Criteria for drainage of lung abscess and BPF will be emphasized, as will techniques and methods of follow-up

  19. Percutaneous drainage of diverticular abscess: Adjunct to resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Saini, S.; Butch, R.J.; Simeone, J.F.; Rodkey, G.V.; Bousquet, J.C.; Ottinger, L.W.; Wittenberg, J.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.


    Traditional surgical management of acute diverticulitis with abscess may require a one-, two-, or three-stage procedure. Because of recent interest in CT diagnosis of diverticulitis, and novel access routes for interventional drainage of deep pelvic abscesses, the authors investigated the potential for converting complex two- and three-stage surgical procedures to simpler, safer one-stage colon resections by percutaneous drainage of the associated abscess. Of 23 patients with acute perforated diverticulitis who were referred for catheter drainage under radiologic guidance, successful catheter drainage and subsequent single-stage colon resection were carried out in 15. In three patients catheter drainage was unsuccessful and a multistage procedure was required. In three patients only percutaneous drainage was performed and operative intervention was omitted entirely

  20. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation. (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I


    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid