WorldWideScience

Sample records for drainage 1985-1986 annual

  1. International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity: Biennial report 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    A review of the scientific activities of the ILMR in 1985-1986 is presented. The scientific programs of the Radiobiology Laboratory, Radiochemistry-Geochemistry Laboratory and Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory are briefly described. In addition lists of the visiting consultants/experts, trainees/fellows, publications/meetings, Committee/Expert group membership, courses and research/technical contracts are given

  2. Progress report 1985-1986 Reactor Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The report of the activities performed by the Reactor Chemistry Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission, during the period 1985-1986, covers works of investigation, development and service related to the Argentine Nuclear Power Plants. The main subjects are the experimental and theoretical studies about physical chemistry and chemistry control at the moderators and heat transport system of the nuclear power plants. The more relevant topics are related to: 1: Behaviour of gases, electrolites and other additives for nuclear power plants, at high temperature and pressure; 2: Ionic exchangers of nuclear degree; 3: Electrochemistry studies connected with the constitutive materials' corrosion and with the nuclear power plants decontamination processes; 4: Behaviour of suspensions and colloids in nuclear power plants; 5: Use of new additives for chemistry control of the oxides which are in the circuits of nuclear power plants; 6: Research methods that allow to check reactor's control quality; 7: Study of the radiolytic behaviour of nuclear reactor's solutions. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. University of Wisconsin, Nuclear Reactor Laboratory. Annual report, 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Operational activities for the reactor are described concerning nuclear engineering classes from the University of Wisconsin; reactor sharing program; utility personnel training; sample irradiations and neutron activation analysis; and changes in personnel, facility, and procedures. Results of surveillance tests are presented for operating statistics and fuel exposure; emergency shutdowns and inadvertent scrams; maintenance; radioactive waste disposal; radiation exposures; environmental surveys; and publications and presentations on work based on reactor use

  4. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-04-01

    This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.

  5. Evaluation of 1985--1986 corrective actions at ORNL liquid waste disposal trench 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1991-04-01

    Several corrective actions were taken in 1985--1986 at the site of ORNL radioactive liquid waste seepage trench 7 in an effort to reduce the discharge of radionuclides, mostly 60 Co, from a groundwater seep on the eastern side of the site. First, the size of the asphalt cap over the trench was doubled, and cap runoff was diverted away from the site to the west. Second, the buried waste transfer line to the trench was excavated and plugged and its pipe trench was damned with clay backfill. These actions were designed to reduce groundwater recharge in the area that might be the source of water to the seep. Third, a series of grout injections was carried out at 5-ft intervals along a perimeter line on the eastern and northern edges of the site. A total of 65,500 gal of lime-fly-ash grout was injected at 303 locations at depths up to 40 ft in an effort to seal relict contaminated strata with probable hydrologic connection to the seep. However, the grout formulation specified in the contract would not set to a detectable compressive strength nor would the grout samples exhibit a reduction in hydraulic conductivity during over a year of observation. Thus, the material specification for the grout was inappropriate for the desired effect of in situ hydrologic isolation. Core sampling at the site revealed that the grout flowed into the soil formation along discrete thin layers. Only three grout layers, with a maximum thickness of 0.25 in., were found in over 90 ft of core from three locations along the grout injection line. Thus, this grouting action would have little potential to influence containment of radionuclides that leach from contaminated strata. 11 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  6. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System: Annual Report, 1985-1986.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Park, D.L.; Flagg, T.A.; McCutcheon, S.

    1986-12-01

    An ongoing cooperative project between the Bonneville Power Administration and the National Marine Fisheries Service was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids. The system is based upon the passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed in 1985 and is divided into laboratory and field studies. All studies were conducted with the tag implanted into the body cavity of the test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle.

  7. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 1985-1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 1985-1986-1987 years: 1 - Teams presentation; 2 - Abstracts: On the borderline of spectroscopy; Atomic spectroscopy and low-energy low-spin nuclear structure; high-energy high-spin nuclear structure; Theories and models; Nuclear astrophysics; Accelerator-based mass spectroscopy; Solid State Physics; Study of charged particles irradiation effects in astrophysics, geophysics and material sciences; Technical developments for the RF mass spectrometer and for Obelix; Technical developments for ion beams; Technical developments in electronics and their applications; CNSM's Computer Department; Developments in cryogenics; 3 - Staff and publications

  8. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Smith, James A.; Serinaldi, Francesco; Bales, Jerad; Bates, Paul D.; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2009-08-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110km) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1mskm to a maximum of 5.1mskm. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2mskm). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2mskm ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades.

  9. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Serinaldi, F.; Bales, J.; Bates, P.D.; Krajewski, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110 km2) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2 to a maximum of 5.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2 ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Accelerated Learning 1985-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Audrey; And Others

    A second language teaching technique using relaxation, imagination, and music to accelerate the learning process is imagination, and music to accelerate the learning process is discussed. Part 1 describes the classroom setting and the stages and processes of the technique. Part 2 outlines the theory and sources of the method in the literature of…

  11. Progress Report 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The research directions in the Physics Institute of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul are presented. The progress reports cavied out in the follow areas are presented: perturbed angular correlation; Moessbauer spectroscopy; ion implantation; magnetism and electronic transport; microelectronics; condensed matter theory; quantum field theory; plasma physics; nuclear physics; astronomy and astrophysics; and instrumentation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987

  13. Progress report 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    From Diffraction group, studies of crystal and magnetic structure are presented, together with determination of preferential orientation in materials and with nuclear magnetism. From Dynamics group, studies on vibration dynamics around a phase transformation, on the molecular dynamics to precise interaction potential, on spin dynamics in one-dimensional compound are presented. The three domains of the non-commensurate phase laboratory studies are theoretical studies, - structure determination, - dynamics studies. The disordered solid studies are concerned with magnetic and chemical properties of crystal and amorphous systems. A chapter is given to liquids and glasses: the field of liquid studies is large including metals and semi-conductors, organic liquids and liquid crystals. In physico chemistry, structure and organization of finely divided matter; the works concern essentially, polymers and colloids. Surfaces studied by slow neutrons and surface and interfaces studies are also works presented. In instrumentation spectrometers and polarized neutrons have the first place [fr

  14. Gulf of Mexico continental slope study annual report, year 2. Volume 2. Primary volume. Interim report 1985-1986. [Sampling for hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This report, which was prepared in three volumes (Executive Summary, Primary Volume, and Appendix), details the findings of two years of sampling on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico at depths of 300-3000 m. Preliminary results from a third year of sampling are also presented. Physical and chemical measurements included: CTD casts at 35 stations; sediment characteristics, including hydrocarbons and bulk sediment parameters from 60 stations; tissue hydrocarbon levels of representative benthic organisms; and delta carbon-13 values from sediments and organisms, including comparison of areas of natural petroleum seepage to prevailing slope conditions. The biological oceanography section provides detailed enumeration of megafaunal specimens collected by trawling and of macro- and meiofaunal specimens collected with a 600 sq cm box core. Major megafaunal groups treated are Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and demersal fishes.

  15. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  16. Proceedings of the 14. annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop : challenges in collection and treatment of mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    Metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD) are among the largest environmental challenge facing the mining industry. Efforts are underway to open new mines without long-term consequences of acid drainage. This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop focused on the development and application of new technologies that prevent and control acid mine drainage (AMD). It presented a broad range of options that are now available to the mining industry which address this issue. The workshop focused on the collection and treatment of mine drainage. The treatment of effluent during and after closure of a mining property may be complicated by the presence of AMD which may require long term collection and treatment. Known chemical and passive treatment technologies were reviewed with reference to their costs of construction, operation and maintenance, as well as their ability to meet regulations and control toxicity. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 3 has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Activities of ENEA in 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1987-01-01

    Activities of ENEA in the years 1985 and 1986 are described in detail, specifying the results obtained in all the centers. In addition, the operational structure of ENEA and its budget are also mentioned

  18. Microalgae Culture Collection, 1985-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection was established in support of the US Department of Energy's Biofuels Program to provide a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production and to make these strains readily available to the research community. The strains in the collection have been selected for their potential in biomass fuel applications, and many produce significant quantities of cellular storage lipids. The Culture Collection Catalog lists 20 strains of ten species. Many have been tested in outdoor mass culture systems, and several have demonstrated excellent performance as biomass producers, with yields of up to 40 grams of organic matter per square meter per day. The majority of strains added to the collection this year have been isolated from inland saline waters, although marine species are included as well. We believe that the strains in this collection can provide a source of extremely useful organisms, both for laboratory experimentation and for mass culture research. 98 refs., 31 figs., 52 tabs.

  19. AGS experiments: 1984, 1985, 1986. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    Brief summaries are given of 44 different experiments either running or scheduled to run at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, as well as the experiment schedules. The beam parameters and fluxes are tabulated. Illustrations are given of both the experimental area layouts and the apparatus for each experiment

  20. Subsurface drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Der Merwe, CJ

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The report describes the findings of the research project on subsurface drainage. The need for drainage was quantified by evaluating HVS tests on wet pavements. Geotextiles were investigated and various tests performed. Soil/geotextile compatibility...

  1. Forest drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Skaggs; S. Tian; G.M. Chescheir; Devendra Amatya; M.A. Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Most of the world's 4030 million ha of forested lands are situated on hilly, mountainous or well-drained upland landscapes where improved drainage is not needed. However, there are millions of hectares of poorly drained forested lands where excessively wet soil conditions limit tree growth and access for harvesting and other management activities. Improved or...

  2. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.

    1984-03-01

    This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

  3. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  4. Comparisons of estimates of annual exceedance-probability discharges for small drainage basins in Iowa, based on data through water year 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the Iowa Department of Transportation : has used the Iowa Runoff Chart and single-variable regional-regression equations (RREs) from a U.S. Geological Survey : report (published in 1987) as the primary methods to estimate : annual exce...

  5. Comparisons of estimates of annual exceedance-probability discharges for small drainage basins in Iowa, based on data through water year 2013 : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the Iowa DOT has used the Iowa Runoff Chart and single-variable regional regression equations (RREs) from a USGS report : (published in 1987) as the primary methods to estimate annual exceedance-probability discharge : (AEPD) for small...

  6. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO2 gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the Spraberry CO{sub 2} pilot project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of continuous CO{sub 2} injection in the naturally fractured reservoirs of the Spraberry Trend. In order to describe, understand, and model CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry reservoirs, characterization of the fracture system is a must. Additional reservoir characterization was based on horizontal coring in the second year of the project. In addition to characterization of natural fractures, horizontal coring has confirmed a previously developed rock model for describing the Spraberry Trend shaly sands. A better method for identifying Spraberry pay zones has been verified. The authors have completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. The authors have completed extensive imbibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. The authors have also made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. They have completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix.

  7. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the second year of the five-year project for each of the four areas. In the first area, the author has completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. In the second area, the author has completed extensive inhibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. In the third area, the author has made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. In the fourth area, the author has completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix. The final three years of this project involves implementation of the CO{sub 2} pilot. Up to twelve new wells are planned in the pilot area; water injection wells to contain the CO{sub 2}, three production wells to monitor performance of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} injection wells including one horizontal injection well and logging observation wells to monitor CO{sub 2} flood fronts. Results of drilling

  8. GILLES DELEUZE: "SUR FOUCAULT --€“ 1985-1986"

    OpenAIRE

    De Michele, Girolamo

    2016-01-01

    Upon Foucault’s death in 1984, Deleuze began reading the whole corpus of Foucault's textes, in order to write a book. The seminar that Deleuze gave at the University of Paris-VIII functioned as a kind of laboratory in which Deleuze experimented with the ideas and concepts he was developing. As it turned out, the book he wrote at the end of the seminar compressed in a few pages the reflections he had widely developed throughout the seminar, was hard to understand, or else it was so personal to...

  9. Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program, 1985--1986 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (formerly the Radionuclide Migration Project) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal years 1985 and 1986. The report discusses studies of the partitioning and movement of dissolved and colloidal radionuclides at the Cheshire (U20n) site; tracer studies of shallow recharge and of plant-water uptake at the Cambric-site ditch carrying the effluent water pumped from well RNM-2; development of a rapid and sensitive assay for 99 Tc in groundwater and its application to a survey of technetium activities at a variety of test wells; and a series of methodological studies directed toward calibration, understanding, and improving our low-level radionuclide determinations. Groundwater sampled from the Cheshire cavity and from adjacent aquifers contains substantial concentrations (mg/L) of colloids that appear to consist primarily of natural minerals. These colloids were found to contain detectable amounts of strongly sorbed radionuclides, leading to the hypothesis that radionuclides are being transported by the groundwater in colloidal form. The RNM ditch at the Cambric site has provided a unique tritium-labeled, irrigated test plot in the desert. One study at this site continued earlier investigations of water and tritium migration in the shallow vadose (unsaturated-soil) zone adjacent to the ditch and extended that study to include using a tracer to determine the velocity of vertical water flow in the recharge zone directly below the ditch. 57 refs., 15 figs., 23 tabs

  10. Project PROBE, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In its second year of operation, Project PROBE (Professions Oriented Bilingual Education) experienced difficulty in meeting some of its instructional objectives. The project had sought to provide instructional and supportive services to 200 Spanish-speaking students from Latin America at Louis D. Brandeis High School (Manhattan, New York) and to…

  11. Project CHAMP, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    The Chinese Achievement and Mastery program, Project CHAMP, was a bilingual (Chinese/English) project offered at three high schools in Manhattan. The major goals were to enable Chinese students of limited English proficiency (LEP) to learn English and to master content in mathematics, science, global history, computer mathematics, and native…

  12. Comet Halley Returns. A Teacher's Guide, 1985-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert D.; Bondurant, R. Lynn, Jr.

    This booklet was designed as an aid for elementary and secondary school teachers. It is divided into two distinct parts. Part I is a brief tutorial which introduces some of the most important concepts about comets. Areas addressed include: the historical importance of Comet Halley; how comets are found and names; cometary orbits; what Comet Halley…

  13. Environmental Radioactivity in the European Community 1984 - 1985 - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, G.; Stanners, D.

    1989-01-01

    Quarterly average values of radioactivity levels in airborne particulates, deposition, river water, drinking water and milk are reported for the twelve countries of the European Communities for the years 1984-1986. Since the Chernobyl reactor accident at the end of April 1986 greatly affected the radioactivity levels in the E.C., air data for the second quarter of 1986 are collected together in a separate section

  14. Stormwater Drainage Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information for identifying stormwater drainage wells, learn how to comply with regulations for storm water drainage wells, and how to reduce the threat to ground water from stormwater injection wells.

  15. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  16. Mine drainage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  17. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Hong, Seong Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1982-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was successfully made 20 times on 17 patients of obstructive jaundice for recent 1 year since June 1981 at Department of Radiology in Seoul National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice was CBD Ca in 13 cases, metastasis in 2 cases, pancreatic cancer in 1 case and CBD stone in 1 case. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a relatively ease, safe and effective method which can be done after PTC by radiologist. It is expected that percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be done as an essential procedure for transient permanent palliation of obstructive jaundice

  18. adequacy of drainage channels f drainage channels in a small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    carried out and data obtain from drainage channels. The time of concentratio version of version of Kirpich equation (new equation of time new equation of time from the drainage channels were determined using results showed that most of the drainage channels h. All the drainage channels of basin A had velocities ra.

  19. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  20. Temporal changes in secondary production of a population of the subtidal sand snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan: importance of annual change in age structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takashi

    1997-05-01

    Year-to-year changes in age structure, biomass ( B), annual secondary production ( P) and {P}/{overlineB} ratio are described of a population of the subtidal snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan, during a 6-y period (1982-1988). Population structure and values of biomass and production were highly variable from year to year; the ranges of the annual mean biomass, annual production and {P}/{overlineB} ratio were 3.71-9.22 g dry tissue m -2, 1.01-4.92 g dry tissue m -2 y -1 and 0.13-1.33 y -1 respectively. Change in the age structure was the most important single factor affecting temporal changes in annual production in this population. The annual production of the population was high when young individuals, which have a small body size and high growth rate, dominated the population. While annual {P}/{overlineB} ratios in 1983 and 1984 fell within the range of values reported for various other gastropods, those in 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 were markedly lower, if the relation between the population {P}/{overlineB} ratio and life span is taken into account. This demonstrates that production estimates from annual biomass and life-span values may lead to incorrect results in a recruitment-limited population.

  1. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  2. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  3. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  4. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; D'Agostino, H.; Casola, G.; Vatney, R.R.; Wittich, G.R.; Harker, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors performed percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses in 12 patients. Indications for drainage were septicemia and persistence or worsening of radiographic findings. These lung abscesses were refractory to intravenous antibiotics and to bronchial toilet. Etiology of the abscesses included pneumonia (most frequently), trauma, postoperative development, infected necrotic neoplasm, and infected sequestration. Guidelines for drainage included passage of the catheter through contiguously abnormal lung and pleura, inability of the patient to cough, and/or bronchial obstruction precluding bronchial drainage. Cure was achieved in 11 of 12 patients. Catheters were removed on an average of 16 days after insertion. Antibiotics were administered an average of 18 days before drainage. No major complications occurred

  5. Stormwater Drainage Manual 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Christopher B.; Burke, Thomas T.

    2008-01-01

    This manual is a comprehensive catalog of procedures, design methods and criteria, and general background information which will enable the designer to quickly learn or review the basic principles of storm drainage design. Subjects included are precipitation and hydrological cycle, runoff and its estimation, open channels, flow in gutters and inlets, stormwater storage, storm sewer system design, computer applications for computing watershed runoff, and water quality. Included in the appendic...

  6. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  7. Delayed drainage versus autotransfusion drainage and routine drainage after total knee arthroplasty: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research is to compare the clinical results of different drainage methods in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods This retrospective comparative study included 55 patients who accepted primary unilateral TKA between October 2010 and November 2012. The patients were classified according to the drainage method used: 25 patients in the autotransfusion drainage group, 12 patients in the delayed drainage group, and 18 patients in the routine drainage group. Otherwise, the same operative procedures and postoperative care were applied to all patients. The variables recorded included total amount of postoperative drainage (including intraoperative blood loss); cases of allogenic blood transfusion; body temperatures on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7; and pre- and postoperative hemoglobin level. Some other elements such as postoperative swelling, range of motion, and wound healing were also compared. Results Patients who underwent autotransfusion were found to have an amount of drainage (799.2 ± 196.7 mL) significantly greater than that in the routine drainage group (666.1 ± 155.0 mL), which in turn was significantly greater than that in the delayed drainage group (381.7 ± 129.2 mL). The postoperative hemoglobin level in the delayed drainage group (91.5 ± 7.9 g/L) was similar to that in the autotransfusion group (92.0 ± 9.6 g/L), while that in the routine drainage group (81.3 ± 9.9 g/L) was significantly lower. The patients in the autotransfusion group were observed to have higher body temperatures than those in the other two groups. In the routine drainage group, eight cases accepted allogenic blood transfusion, and the percentage (44.4%) was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. There were no significant between-group differences in swelling, healing qualities, and range of motion. Conclusions Delayed postoperative drainage may reduce blood loss and the chance of allogenic blood transfusion compared with routine

  8. Preoperative biliary drainage in Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Identifying patients who require percutaneous drainage after failed endoscopic drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, Jimme K; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; Coelen, Robert J; Rauws, Erik A; Schattner, Mark A; Nio, C Yung; Brown, Karen T; Gonen, Mithat; van Dieren, Susan; van Lienden, Krijn P; Allen, Peter J; Besselink, Marc GH; Busch, Olivier RC; D’Angelica, Michael I; DeMatteo, Robert P; Gouma, Dirk J; Kingham, T Peter; Jarnagin, William R; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims Preoperative biliary drainage is often initiated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with potentially resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC), but additional percutaneous transhepatic catheter (PTC) drainage is frequently required. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model to identify patients with a high risk of inadequate ERCP drainage. Patients and Methods Patients with potentially resectable PHC and preoperative (attempted) ERCP drainage were included from two specialty center cohorts between 2001 and 2013. Indications for additional PTC drainage were failure to place an endoscopic stent, failure to relieve jaundice, cholangitis, or insufficient drainage of the future liver remnant. A prediction model was derived from the European cohort and externally validated in the USA cohort. Results 108 of 288 patients (38%) required additional preoperative PTC after inadequate ERCP drainage. Independent risk factors for additional PTC were proximal biliary obstruction on preoperative imaging (Bismuth 3 or 4) and pre-drainage total bilirubin level. The prediction model identified three subgroups: patients with a low risk of 7%, a moderate risk of 40%, and a high risk of 62%. The high-risk group consisted of patients with a total bilirubin level above 150 μmol/L and Bismuth 3a or 4 tumours, who typically require preoperative drainage of the angulated left bile ducts. The prediction model had good discrimination (AUC 0.74) and adequate calibration in the external validation cohort. Conclusions Selected patients with potentially resectable PHC have a high risk (62%) of inadequate preoperative ERCP drainage requiring additional PTC. These patients might do better with initial PTC instead of ERCP. PMID:26382308

  9. Peritoneal Drainage Versus Pleural Drainage After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Keshava Murty Narayana; Zidan, Marwan; Walters, Henry L; Delius, Ralph E; Mastropietro, Christopher W

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether infants undergoing cardiac surgery would more efficiently attain negative fluid balance postoperatively with passive peritoneal drainage as compared to traditional pleural drainage. A prospective, randomized study including children undergoing repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) was completed between September 2011 and June 2013. Patients were randomized to intraoperative placement of peritoneal catheter or right pleural tube in addition to the requisite mediastinal tube. The primary outcome measure was fluid balance at 48 hours postoperatively. Variables were compared using t tests or Fisher exact tests as appropriate. A total of 24 patients were enrolled (14 TOF and 10 AVSD), with 12 patients in each study group. Mean fluid balance at 48 hours was not significantly different between study groups, -41 ± 53 mL/kg in patients with periteonal drainage and -9 ± 40 mL/kg in patients with pleural drainage (P = .10). At 72 hours however, postoperative fluid balance was significantly more negative with peritoneal drainage, -52.4 ± 71.6 versus +2.0 ± 50.6 (P = .04). On subset analysis, fluid balance at 48 hours in patients with AVSD was more negative with peritoneal drainage as compared to pleural, -82 ± 51 versus -1 ± 38 mL/kg, respectively (P = .02). Fluid balance at 48 hours in patients with TOF was not significantly different between study groups. Passive peritoneal drainage may more effectively facilitate negative fluid balance when compared to pleural drainage after pediatric cardiac surgery, although this benefit is not likely universal but rather dependent on the patient's underlying physiology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Historically Black Colleges and Universities Radioactive Waste Management Research Program: Summary of activities, 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1985 to 1986 activities of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Radioactive Waste Management Research Program sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The first set of three awards was made in September,1984. In September, 1985, two of these projects were renewed and a new proposal was funded. The program has been enthusiastically received by the community of HBCUs and the program sponsor

  11. James Monroe High School Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes, a 3-year Title VII-funded bilingual education program, serves 287 Spanish speaking students at James Monroe High School (Bronx, New York). This report evaluates the project's first year of operation, 1985-86. The report contains an introduction describing the school and project goals; information on student…

  12. The Malaysian heritage anscientific expedition: Endau-Rompin, 1985-1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    The Malayan Nature Society (MNS), a non-governmental organisation with about 3,000 members, has since its formation in 1940 always had a strong emphasis on conservation. The Society’s objective in mounting this expedition, a mammoth undertaking for any Society as it included raising funds to a tune

  13. Project RECURSO: 1985-1986 End of Year Report. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald C.; And Others

    The report presents evaluation findings on the RECURSO Project which was designed to provide training to bilingual teachers, School-Based Support Teams (SBSTs), and parents of limited English proficient (LEP) special education students. Twenty schools with the greatest number of bilingual, self-contained special education classes in grades 3…

  14. William H. Taft High School Project HOLA, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Project HOLA at William H. Taft High School (Bronx, New York) assists foreign-born and Puerto Rican-born students to quickly assists foreign- and Puerto Rican-born students to quickly acquire English language skills and an American cultural orientation; to maintain or improve their Spanish language skills and cultural knowledge; and to be…

  15. [Review of draft Crystalline Repository Project reports]: Technical progress report, CY 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    During the period (CY 1985-86) of this report, the Wisconsin Radioactive Waste Review Board provided technical services under the contract with DOE. These included Participation in the development of variables and screening techniques that would be used in identifying those rock bodies in the Area Recommendation Report (ARR); reviewing and commenting on the report and developing a procedure in which local residents could have input into the process; sought resumption of negotiations with DOE on a full Consultation and Cooperation (CandC) agreement; and Participating in workshops and provided comments on two major DOE transportation documents, ''Transportation Business Plan: Strategy Options Document,'' and ''Transportation Institutional Plan.''

  16. USAF/SCEEE (Southeastern Center for Electrical Engineering Education) Air Force Geophysics Program 1985-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    solution for these equations at present are iterative. The Newton -Raphson iterative procedure may be used to obtain a rapidly converging solution the...8217*𔃻 12 References Cardwell, R.K., E.S. Kappel, M.S. Lawrence, and B L Isacks (1981) Plate convergence along the Indonesian arc...trench (possibly related to sharp downbending of the oceanic plate) [Cardwell and Isacks , 19781, including the M -8.1 Sumba earthquake of 1977. The

  17. Forest products industries of the southern Middle-Atlantic states, 1985 - 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Kevin Mullarkey; Kevin Mullarkey

    1993-01-01

    Evaluates regional timber output of Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey. Results are based on a survey of primary processing mills located in these states and of mills in other states that used wood from the region. Contains statistics on industrial timber production and mill receipts and the production and final end use of manufacturing residues. Comparisons are made...

  18. Seward Park High School Project CABES, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1985-86, the Career Advancement through Bilingual Education Skills (CABES) project was in the final year of a three-year funding cycle at Seward Park High School in Manhattan, New York. The project's major goal was to provide career advancement skills to a population group of 279 students of limited English proficiency (LEP). Included in the…

  19. Results of percutaneous abscess drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daehnert, W.; Guenther, R.; Klose, K.; Gamstaetter, G.

    1983-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1983 fifty-two abdominal abscesses in 44 patients were drained percutaneously, 79% of the abscesses occurred as postoperative complications. The overall success rate was 60%, whereas only 42% of left subphrenic abscesses were cured. Complications were encountered in 4.5%. Reasons for drainage failures were: liver sequestration, loculation, fistulae and recurrences. Percutaneous abscess drainage in an alternative, and valuable addition, to surgery. (orig.) [de

  20. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  1. Percutaneous drainage of tuberculous abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.K.; Panicker, H.; Narang, P.; Kumar, N.; Dhall, A.; Gupta, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the role of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in the management of tuberculous ilio-psoas abscesses, twenty-two patients with 26 tuberculous ilio-psoas abscesses were subjected to PCD under real time US guidance taking help of a pre-procedure CT for planning the route of catheter insertion. Complete cure of the ilio-psoas abscesses could be achieved in 22 of 26 abscesses (84.6%). Average duration of drainage was 10 days. US/ CT follow-up ranged from 3-24 months. PCD was a failure in four abscesses (15.4%). Two patients, one with bilateral abscesses, had recurrent abscesses while one patient had an abscess associated with extensive spondylo-discitis. No significant complication was encountered in the study. PCD is a simple, safe and very effective (success rate 84.6%) alternative to surgical drainage in the management of tuberculous ilio-psoas abscesses. (author)

  2. Implementation of a drainage information, analysis and management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Meegoda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An integrated drainage information, analysis and management system (DIAMS was developed and implemented for the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT. The purpose of the DIAMS is to provide a useful tool for managers to evaluate drainage infrastructure, to facilitate the determination of the present costs of preserving those infrastructures, and to make decisions regarding the optimal use of their infrastructure budgets. The impetus for DIAMS is the culvert information management system (CIMS, which is developed to manage the data for culvert pipes. DIAMS maintains and summarizes accumulated inspection data for all types of drainage infrastructure assets, including pipes, inlet/outlet structures, outfalls and manufactured treatment devices. DIAMS capabilities include identifying drainage infrastructure, maintaining inspection history, mapping locations, predicting service life based on the current condition states, and assessing present asset value. It also includes unit cost values of 72 standard items to estimate the current cost for new assets with the ability to adjust for future inflation. In addition, DIAMS contains several different repair, rehabilitation and replacement options to remedy the drainage infrastructure. DIAMS can analyze asset information and determine decisions to inspect, rehabilitate, replace or do nothing at the project and network levels by comparing costs with risks and failures. Costs may be optimized to meet annual maintenance budget allocations by prioritizing drainage infrastructure needing inspection, cleaning and repair. DIAMS functional modules include vendor data uploading, asset identification, system administration and financial analysis. Among the significant performance feature of DIAMS is its proactive nature, which affords decision makers the means of conducting a comprehensive financial analysis to determine the optimal proactive schedule for the proper maintenance actions and to prioritize them

  3. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    note is divided into four main topics: First, a short review of the precipitation in Denmark as well as how historical (actual) rainfall data can be used advantageously to those simple design methods, then how pipelines and reservoirs can be dimensioned and finally how safety in the design can......This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system...

  4. Digital database architecture and delineation methodology for deriving drainage basins, and a comparison of digitally and non-digitally derived numeric drainage areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The drainage basin is a fundamental hydrologic entity used for studies of surface-water resources and during planning of water-related projects. Numeric drainage areas published by the U.S. Geological Survey water science centers in Annual Water Data Reports and on the National Water Information Systems (NWIS) Web site are still primarily derived from hard-copy sources and by manual delineation of polygonal basin areas on paper topographic map sheets. To expedite numeric drainage area determinations, the Colorado Water Science Center developed a digital database structure and a delineation methodology based on the hydrologic unit boundaries in the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This report describes the digital database architecture and delineation methodology and also presents the results of a comparison of the numeric drainage areas derived using this digital methodology with those derived using traditional, non-digital methods. (Please see report for full Abstract)

  5. in remediating acid mine drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management and treatment of contaminated mine water is one of the most urgent problems facing the South African mining industry. The cost advantage of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) has seen their increased application as means of passively treating mine drainage. A PRB is built by placing a reactive material ...

  6. Definition of the drainage filter problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.

    1977-01-01

    It is common to consider the following: I. Retention of soil particles that may enter the drainage pipe and cause its clogging. For some sensitive structures it is important to prevent settlements due to soil transportation by drainage water.

  7. Quaternary Reorganization of North American Mid-continent Drainage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, E. C.; Rawling, J. E., III; Attig, J. W.; Bates, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    changes to the total discharge of the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers. While it is unclear if the Teays River ever flowed into the St. Lawrence drainage or developed as a westward-flowing tributary to the buried Mahomet valley in Illinois, both the ancestral Pittsburgh and Wyalusing Rivers originated as headwaters of the St. Lawrence basin before being rerouted as part of the Mississippi basin. The areas formerly drained by the Pittsburgh and Wyalusing Rivers comprise ~8% of the modern Mississippi River basin, and modern discharge from those areas represent ~14% of the mean annual discharge of the Mississippi River. The transfer of this drainage area and discharge to the Mississippi basin is mirrored by an equivalent loss from the St. Lawrence system during the Quaternary as a direct result of glacially-driven drainage system reorganization.

  8. Controls on deep drainage beneath the root soil zone in snowmelt-dominated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. C.; Harpold, A. A.; Kampf, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt is the dominant source of streamflow generation and groundwater recharge in many high elevation and high latitude locations, yet we still lack a detailed understanding of how snowmelt is partitioned between the soil, deep drainage, and streamflow under a variety of soil, climate, and snow conditions. Here we use Hydrus 1-D simulations with historical inputs from five SNOTEL snow monitoring sites in each of three regions, Cascades, Sierra, and Southern Rockies, to investigate how inter-annual variability on water input rate and duration affects soil saturation and deep drainage. Each input scenario was run with three different soil profiles of varying hydraulic conductivity, soil texture, and bulk density. We also created artificial snowmelt scenarios to test how snowmelt intermittence affects deep drainage. Results indicate that precipitation is the strongest predictor (R2 = 0.83) of deep drainage below the root zone, with weaker relationships observed between deep drainage and snow persistence, peak snow water equivalent, and melt rate. The ratio of deep drainage to precipitation shows a stronger positive relationship to melt rate suggesting that a greater fraction of input becomes deep drainage at higher melt rates. For a given amount of precipitation, rapid, concentrated snowmelt may create greater deep drainage below the root zone than slower, intermittent melt. Deep drainage requires saturation below the root zone, so saturated hydraulic conductivity serves as a primary control on deep drainage magnitude. Deep drainage response to climate is mostly independent of soil texture because of its reliance on saturated conditions. Mean water year saturations of deep soil layers can predict deep drainage and may be a useful way to compare sites in soils with soil hydraulic porosities. The unit depth of surface runoff often is often greater than deep drainage at daily and annual timescales, as snowmelt exceeds infiltration capacity in near-surface soil layers

  9. 49 CFR 213.319 - Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage. 213.319 Section 213.319 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.319 Drainage. Each drainage or other water carrying facility under or immediately adjacent to the roadbed shall be maintained...

  10. 49 CFR 213.33 - Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage. 213.33 Section 213.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.33 Drainage. Each drainage or other water carrying facility...

  11. Drainage under increasing and changing requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, E.; Zimmer, D.; Vlotman, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    This year the Working Group on Drainage of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) celebrates its 25th anniversary. This paper reviews the development of drainage for three different agro-climatic zones, i.e. the temperate (humid), the arid/semi-arid and the humid/semi-humid

  12. Continuous Passive Sampling of Solutes from Agricultural Subsurface Drainage Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad Vendelboe, Anders; de Jonge, Hubert; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Wollesen de Jonge, Lis

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural subsurface tube drain systems play an important role in water and solute transport. One study, focusing on lowland agricultural catchments, showed that subsurface tube drainage contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90% of the annual NO3 load from agricultural fields to the receiving water bodies. Knowledge of e.g. nutrient loads and drainage volumes, based on measurements and modelling, are important for adequate water quality management. Despite the importance of tube drain transport of solutes, monitoring data are scarce. This scarcity is a result of the existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant load from tube drains being expensive and labor-extensive. The study presented here aimed at developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor solute loads from tube drains. The method is based on the newly developed Flowcap, which can be attached to existing tube drain outlets and can measure total flow, contaminant load and flow-averaged concentrations of solutes in the drainage. The Flowcap builds on the existing Sorbicell principle, a passive sampling system that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various compounds. The Sorbicell consists of two compartments permeable to water. One compartment contains an adsorbent and one contains a tracer. When water passes through the Sorbicell the compound of interest is absorbed while a tracer is released. Using the tracer loss to calculate the volume of water that has passed the Sorbicell it is possible to calculate the average concentration of the compound. When mounting Sorbicells in the Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drainage is sampled from the main stream. To accommodate the wide range of drainage flow rates two Flowcaps with different capacities were tested in the laboratory: one with a capacity of 25 L min-1 (Q25) and one with a capacity of 256 L min-1 (Q256). In addition, Sorbicells with two different hydraulic

  13. Exploring Agricultural Drainage's Influence on Wetland and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial agricultural drainage (i.e. surface ditches or subsurface tile) is an important agricultural management tool. Artificial drainage allows for timely fieldwork and adequate root aeration, resulting in greater crop yields for farmers. This practice is widespread throughout many regions of the United States and the network of artificial drainage is especially extensive in flat, poorly-drained regions like the glaciated Midwest. While beneficial for crop yields, agricultural drains often empty into streams within the natural drainage system. The increased network connectivity may lead to greater contributing area for watersheds, altered hydrology and increased conveyance of pollutants into natural water bodies. While studies and models at broader scales have implicated artificial drainage as an important driver of hydrological shifts and eutrophication, the actual spatial extent of artificial drainage is poorly known. Consequently, metrics of wetland and watershed connectivity within agricultural regions often fail to explicitly include artificial drainage. We use recent agricultural census data, soil drainage data, and land cover data to create estimates of potential agricultural drainage across the United States. We estimate that agricultural drainage in the US is greater than 31 million hectares and is concentrated in the upper Midwest Corn Belt, covering greater than 50% of available land for 114 counties. Estimated drainage values for numerous countie

  14. Estimating drain flow from measured water table depth in layered soils under free and controlled drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Samaneh; Bowling, Laura; Frankenberger, Jane; Kladivko, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    Long records of continuous drain flow are important for quantifying annual and seasonal changes in the subsurface drainage flow from drained agricultural land. Missing data due to equipment malfunction and other challenges have limited conclusions that can be made about annual flow and thus nutrient loads from field studies, including assessments of the effect of controlled drainage. Water table depth data may be available during gaps in flow data, providing a basis for filling missing drain flow data; therefore, the overall goal of this study was to examine the potential to estimate drain flow using water table observations. The objectives were to evaluate how the shape of the relationship between drain flow and water table height above drain varies depending on the soil hydraulic conductivity profile, to quantify how well the Hooghoudt equation represented the water table-drain flow relationship in five years of measured data at the Davis Purdue Agricultural Center (DPAC), and to determine the impact of controlled drainage on drain flow using the filled dataset. The shape of the drain flow-water table height relationship was found to depend on the selected hydraulic conductivity profile. Estimated drain flow using the Hooghoudt equation with measured water table height for both free draining and controlled periods compared well to observed flow with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values above 0.7 and 0.8 for calibration and validation periods, respectively. Using this method, together with linear regression for the remaining gaps, a long-term drain flow record for a controlled drainage experiment at the DPAC was used to evaluate the impacts of controlled drainage on drain flow. In the controlled drainage sites, annual flow was 14-49% lower than free drainage.

  15. Influence of Habitat Modifications on Habitat Composition and Anadromous Salmonid Populations in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1983-1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Gordon H.; Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1990-05-01

    Modification of degraded habitats to increase populations of anadromous salmonids is a major focus of management agencies throughout the Pacific Northwest. Millions of dollars are spent annually on such efforts. Inherent in implementing habitat improvements is the need for quantitative evaluation of the biological and physical effects of such work. Reeves et al. (in press), however, noted that such evaluations are rare, making it difficult to assess the true results of habitat work. While it is not economically possible to thoroughly evaluate every habitat project, it is essential that intensive evaluations be done on selected representative projects. One such evaluation program has been underway since 1982 on Fish Creek, a tributary of the Clackamas River near Estacada, OR. Habitat modification has been done by the USDA Forest Service, Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest with funding provided in part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The USDA Forest Service, Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit, Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), Corvallis, OR is charged with: (1) evaluating the biological and physical responses to habitat modifications on a basin scale; and (2) developing a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Preliminary results have been reported in a series of annual publications, Everest and Sedell 1983, 1984 and Everest et al. 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) report 1988 observations of biological and physical changes in habitat, salmonid populations, and smolt production in Fish Creek, and (2) examine preliminary trends in fish habitat and populations related to habitat improvement over the period 1983-1988. We have prefaced the trends in the latter objective as preliminary because we believe it could take a minimum of 10 years before the full biological and physical responses to habitat work are realized. We therefore urge caution in interpreting these preliminary results.

  16. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  17. Composite fibrous glaucoma drainage implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapstova, A.; Horakova, J.; Shynkarenko, A.; Lukas, D.

    2017-10-01

    Glaucoma is a frequent reason of loss vision. It is usually caused by increased intraocular pressure leading to damage of optic nerve head. This work deals with the development of fibrous structure suitable for glaucoma drainage implants (GDI). Commercially produced metallic glaucoma implants are very effective in lowering intraocular pressure. However, these implants may cause adverse events such as damage to adjacent tissue, fibrosis, hypotony or many others [1]. The aim of this study is to reduce undesirable properties of currently produced drains and improve their properties by creating of the composite fibrous drain for achieve a normal intraocular pressure. Two types of electrospinning technologies were used for the production of very small tubular implants. First type was focused for production of outer part of tubular drain and the second type of electrospinning method made the inner part of shape follows the connections of both parts. Complete implant had a special properties suitable for drainage of fluid. Morphological parameters, liquid transport tests and in-vitro cell adhesion tests were detected.

  18. Estimation of Tile Drainage Contribution to Streamflow and Nutrient Export Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K. E.; Arenas Amado, A.; Jones, C. S.; Weber, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface drainage is a very common practice in the agricultural U.S. Midwest. It is typically installed in poorly drained soils in order to enhance crop yields. The presence of tile drains creates a route for agrichemicals to travel and therefore negatively impacts stream water quality. This study estimated through end-member analyses the contributions of tile drainage, groundwater, and surface runoff to streamflow at the watershed scale based on continuously monitored data. Especial attention was devoted to quantifying tile drainage impact on watershed streamflow and nutrient export loads. Data analyzed includes streamflow, rainfall, soil moisture, shallow groundwater levels, in-stream nitrate+nitrite concentrations and specific conductance. Data were collected at a HUC12 watershed located in Northeast Iowa, USA. Approximately 60% of the total watershed area is devoted to agricultural activities and forest and grassland are the other two predominant land uses. Results show that approximately 20% of total annual streamflow comes from tile drainage and during rainfall events tile drainage contribution can go up to 30%. Furthermore, for most of the analyzed rainfall events groundwater responded faster and in a more dramatic fashion than tile drainage. The State of Iowa is currently carrying out a plan to reduce nutrients in Iowa waters and the Gulf of Mexico (Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy). The outcome of this investigation has the potential to assist in Best Management Practice (BMP) scenario selection and therefore help the state achieve water quality goals.

  19. 21 CFR 1250.65 - Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage. 1250.65 Section 1250.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER... Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.65 Drainage. All platforms and other places at which...

  20. Dynamic drainage of froth with wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Freya Tan

    2005-01-01

    Understanding froth drainage with fibers (or simply called fiber drainage in froth) is important for improving fiber yield in the flotation deinking operation. In this study, the data of water and fiber mass in foams collected at different froth heights were used to reconstruct the time dependent and spatially resolved froth density and fiber volumetric concentration...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.604 - Drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage system. 3285.604 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.604 Drainage system. (a) Crossovers. Multi-section homes with plumbing in more than one section...

  2. Percutaneous catheter drainage of tuberculous psoas abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, F.; Martin-Egana, R.; Cela, A.; Diaz, J.L.; Linares-Mondejar, P.; Freire, M.

    1993-01-01

    Six patients with 7 tuberculous psoas or ilio-psoas abscesses were treated by CT-guided catheter drainage and chemotherapy. The abscesses (5 unilateral and 1 bilateral) were completely drained using a posterior or lateral approach. The abscess volume was 70 to 700 ml (mean 300 ml) and the duration of drainage 5 to 11 days (mean 7 days). Immediate local symptomatic improvement was achieved in all patients, and there were no procedural complications. CT follow-up at 3 to 9 months showed normalization in 5 patients, 2 of whom are still in medical therapy. One patient, who did not take the medication regularly, had a recurrent abscess requiring new catheter drainage after which the fluid collection disappeared. Percutaneous drainage represents an efficient and attractive alternative to surgical drainage as a supplement to medical therapy in the management of patients with large tuberculous psoas abscesses. (orig.)

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage...

  4. US and RTG guided percutaneous biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, J.

    1994-01-01

    Under combined US and fluoroscopic guidance from anterior approach through left liver lobe a Seldinger technique was used for biliary drainage in 46 patients with nonresectable malignant biliary obstruction. In 9 cases of hilar tumor separating both hepatic ducts a second catheter was inserted through right liver lobe. In 11 cases an internal-external drainage was established. In 3 cases the externally drained bile was recycled by connecting the transhepatic catheter to a percutaneous gastrostomy also performed under US guidance. No severe complications were observed. A described drainage technique provides an effective palliative intervention for advanced biliary malignancies. (author)

  5. Cholangitis following percutaneous biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audisio, R.A.; Bozzetti, F.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.; Belloni, M.; Friggerio, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    The binomial PTBD-cholangitis often stands under different and sometimes even opposite relations. Among its indications the procedure lists, the treatment of cholangitis which, on the other hand, may be itself a complication of biliary drainage. The present work proposes a critical review of cholangitis-PTBD correlations, from an ordinary clinical-radiological point of view. Different pathogenetic hypothesis of cholangitis (inflammation, cholestasis, surgical manipulation) are discussed together with risk factors (impaired macrophagic-phagocytic system, immunosuppresion, wide neoplastic liver involvement, multiple intrahepatic ductal obstructions, chronic liver diseases, aged patients, etc.). The authors also report about prevention and treatment of septic complications which must be carried out following technical and therapeutic strategies, such as chemoprophylaxis and focused antibiotic therapy according to coltural samples, slow injection of small amounts of contrast medium, peripheral branches approach, gentle handling of catheters and guidewires, flushing with saline solutions and brushing of the catheter itself, and finally use of large gauge catheters in the presence of bile sludge

  6. Managing tile drainage, subirrigation, and nitrogen fertilization to enhance crop yields and reduce nitrate loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Reynolds, W D; Welacky, T W; Oloya, T O; Gaynor, J D

    2009-01-01

    Improving field-crop use of fertilizer nitrogen is essential for protecting water quality and increasing crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlled tile drainage (CD) and controlled tile drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS) for mitigating off-field nitrate losses and enhancing crop yields. The CD and CDS systems were compared on a clay loam soil to traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD) under a corn (Zea Mays L.)-soybean (Glycine Max. (L.) Merr.) rotation at two nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (N1: 150 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, no N applied to soybean; N2: 200 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, 50 kg N ha(-1) applied to soybean). The N concentrations in tile flow events with the UTD treatment exceeded the provisional long-term aquatic life limit (LT-ALL) for freshwater (4.7 mg N L(-1)) 72% of the time at the N1 rate and 78% at the N2 rate, whereas only 24% of tile flow events at N1 and 40% at N2 exceeded the LT-ALL for the CDS treatment. Exceedances in N concentration for surface runoff and tile drainage were greater during the growing season than the non-growing season. At the N1 rate, CD and CDS reduced average annual N losses via tile drainage by 44 and 66%, respectively, relative to UTD. At the N2 rate, the average annual decreases in N loss were 31 and 68%, respectively. Crop yields from CDS were increased by an average of 2.8% relative to UTD at the N2 rate but were reduced by an average of 6.5% at the N1 rate. Hence, CD and CDS were effective for reducing average nitrate losses in tile drainage, but CDS increased average crop yields only when additional N fertilizer was applied.

  7. Pressure Jumps during Drainage in Macroporous Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soto, Diego; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Corral, A

    2018-01-01

    Tensiometer readings obtained at high resolution during drainage of structured soil columns revealed pressure jumps with long range correlations and burst sequences with a hierarchical structure. The statistical properties of jumps are similar to Haines jumps described in invasion percolation...

  8. Evaluating roadway subsurface drainage practices - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Well-performing subsurface drainage systems form an important aspect of pavement design by the Iowa Department of : Transportation (DOT). The recently completed Iowa Highway Research Board (IHRB) project TR-643 provided extensive : insights into Iowa...

  9. Drainage information analysis and mapping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop a Drainage Information Analysis and Mapping System (DIAMS), with online inspection : data submission, which will comply with the necessary requirements, mandated by both the Governmental Accounting...

  10. VT Lakes and Ponds Drainage Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The WaterHydro_LKBSPRE layer consists of drainage basins for water bodies of approximately five or more acres. The data was digitized from...

  11. Fractal Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Marinova, M. M.; McGovern, P. J.; Clifford, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    We used statistical properties of drainage networks on Mars as a measure of martian landscape morphology and an indicator of landscape evolution processes. We utilize the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to construct digital elevation maps (DEMs) of several, mostly ancient, martian terrains. Drainage basins and channel networks are computationally extracted from DEMs and their structures are analyzed and compared to drainage networks extracted from terrestrial and lunar DEMs. We show that martian networks are self-affine statistical fractals with planar properties similar to terrestrial networks, but vertical properties similar to lunar networks. The uniformity of martian drainage density is between those for terrestrial and lunar landscapes. Our results are consistent with the roughening of ancient martian terrains by combination of rainfall-fed erosion and impacts, although roughening by other fluvial processes cannot be excluded. The notion of sustained rainfall in recent Mars history is inconsistent with our findings.

  12. Social impact assessment of subsurface drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, A.H.; Rafiq, M.; Alam, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Social impact assessment of four drainage projects namely; Mardan SCARP Project (MSP), Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad (FDP), Chashma Command Area Development Project (CCADP) and Mirpurkhas Tile Drainage Project (MKOP) has been done. For this purpose, a socio-technical survey was carried out in which randomly selected farmers were interviewed. The investigations revealed that although significant population (-77%) at four study sites was educated, yet, the farmers were not satisfactorily educated to understand the operation and maintenance of drainage systems. The perusal of data revealed that 14%, 17% and 25% respondents from MSP, FOP and MKDP respectively had to migrate from their villages mainly due to pre-project water logging problem. However, installation of drainage systems in those areas improved the situation resulting in the increase of farm income, which was an attraction for them to return to their villages. The analysis of farm mechanization revealed that at MSP, FDP, CCADP and MKOP sites 71%, 42%, 40% and 75% respondents respectively were tractor owners and owners of some kind of other farm implements, whereas, remaining respondents were performing their farm operations on hire basis. Although, hire operation basis is much better than traditional ways, however, improving the farm mechanization could further enhance the benefits of drainage systems. The investigations revealed that a significant majority of respondents at four project sites had never met the Agricultural Extension Officer. The farmers' access to financing institutions such as ZTB was also negligible. There was lack of coordination among various departments such as WAPDA, Agriculture Extension and Irrigation and Power Department at four study sites. Nevertheless, the overall social impact investigations did reveal that the objectives of drainage systems installation have been achieved in terms of uplifting the socio-economic conditions of drainage areas. To make the efficient use of

  13. Percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Young; Sohn, Cheol Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate safe access route and success rate of percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection. The 35 percutaneous drainages of pelvic fluid collection under the CT and fluorosocpic guidance were done in 32 patients. The anterior transabdominal approach was done in 20 patients, while the nine patients used the transgluteal approach through greater sciatic foramen. Three patients, who had septated or noncommunicating abscesses, underwent drainage using both approaches. The catheter was removed when the patient's symptom and laboratory data were improved or the amount of drainage and the size of fluid collection were markedly reduced. Success, partial success and failure were classified. The causes of fluid collection were complication of intraabdominal operation in 27 patient. The diagnosis after drainage included abscess (21), loculated ascites (6), and hematoma (4). The 27 cases (30 procedure) were treated successfully and the mean duration of catheter insertion was 10 days. The partial successes were two cases (2 procedures), which had palliative purpose. Three cases (3 procedures) were failed, which were multiple loculated ascites of pancreatic origin (2) and recurrent abscess (1). The significant complication during the procedure or drainage was not noted

  14. 14 CFR 27.1187 - Ventilation and drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation and drainage. 27.1187 Section... and drainage. Each compartment containing any part of the powerplant installation must have provision for ventilation and drainage of flammable fluids. The drainage means must be— (a) Effective under...

  15. Failures and complications of thoracic drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thoracic drainage is a surgical procedure for introducing a drain into the pleural space to drain its contents. Using this method, the pleura is discharged and set to the physiological state which enables the reexpansion of the lungs. The aim of the study was to prove that the use of modern principles and protocols of thoracic drainage significantly reduces the occurrence of failures and complications, rendering the treatment more efficient. Methods. The study included 967 patients treated by thoracic drainage within the period from January 1, 1989 to June 1, 2000. The studied patients were divided into 2 groups: group A of 463 patients treated in the period from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1994 in whom 386 pleural drainage (83.36% were performed, and group B of 602 patients treated form January 1, 1995 to June 1, 2000 in whom 581 pleural drainage (96.51% were performed. The patients of the group A were drained using the classical standards of thoracic drainage by the general surgeons. The patients of the group B, however, were drained using the modern standards of thoracic drainage by the thoracic surgeons, and the general surgeons trained for this kind of the surgery. Results. The study showed that better results were achieved in the treatment of the patients from the group B. The total incidence of the failures and complications of thoracic drainage decreased from 36.52% (group A to 12.73% (group B. The mean length of hospitalization of the patients without complications in the group A was 19.5 days versus 10 days in the group B. The mean length of the treatment of the patients with failures and complications of the drainage in the group A was 33.5 days versus 17.5 days in the group B. Conclusion. The shorter length of hospitalization and the lower morbidity of the studied patients were considered to be the result of the correct treatment using modern principles of thoracic drainage, a suitable surgical technique, and a

  16. [Development and evaluation of improved high-resolution TOFPET camera: TOFPET II: Progress report, 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The mechanical gantry is now in the final stages of construction and should be delivered to us within four to six weeks. It is quite a unique design with several important features which are very important for clinical applications. The gantry design is also flexible enough to allow several different configurations of detectors and septa arrangement so that a re-design is not necessary for subsequent improved cameras. Detector modules for the barium fluoride time-of-flight system have been developed. The major problem of finding an optical coupling compound which is transparent to the far uv flight emitted by barium fluoride has been solved

  17. [National Congress of American Indians]: Final 1985-1986 progress report, March 1, 1986-October 7, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the activities of the National Congress of American Indians NCAI Fund program to disseminate information and provide technical assistance to American Indian governments regarding nuclear waste management, site selection and transportation issues. The report covers the grant period March 1, 1986, to October 7, 1986, which includes the no-cost extension granted in March of 1986 and the grant amendment for July 3 to October 3, 1986. During this period, the project held three national meetings of the National Indian Nuclear Waste Policy Committee (NINWPC); monitored the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program and congressional activity and provided information to the tribes; published five issues of the Sentinel/Bulletin - NCAI News, which included a number of articles on nuclear waste; provided informational mailings to the NINWPC representatives; attended and coordinated meetings between the tribes, Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Sandia National Laboratories; and provided speakers to conferences and groups

  18. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Queen Maud Land - 1985-1986, SDLS CD-ROM vol 22

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1985-86 in the Queen Maud Land region, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...

  19. Glaucoma Drainage Device Erosion Following Ptosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Steven S; Campbell, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    To highlight the potential risk of glaucoma drainage device erosion following ptosis surgery. Case report. A 71-year-old man underwent uncomplicated superotemporal Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the left eye in 2008. Approximately 8 years later, the patient underwent bilateral ptosis repair, which successfully raised the upper eyelid position. Three months postoperatively, the patient's glaucoma drainage implant tube eroded through the corneal graft tissue and overlying conjunctiva to become exposed. A graft revision surgery was successfully performed with no further complications. Caution and conservative lid elevation may be warranted when performing ptosis repair in patients with a glaucoma drainage implant, and patients with a glaucoma implant undergoing ptosis surgery should be followed closely for signs of tube erosion.

  20. GEOMORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF DRAINAGE NETWORKS ON MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KERESZTURI ÁKOS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 327 valleys and their 314 cross-sectional profiles were analyzed on Mars, including width, depth, length, eroded volume, drainage and spatial density, as well as the network structure.According to this systematic analysis, five possible drainage network types were identified such as (a small valleys, (b integrated small valleys, (c individual, medium-sized valleys, (d unconfined,anastomosing outflow valleys, and (e confined outflow valleys. Measuring their various morphometric parameters, these five networks differ from each other in terms of parameters of the eroded volume, drainage density and depth values. This classification is more detailed than those described in the literature previously and correlated to several numerical parameters for the first time.These different types were probably formed during different periods of the evolution of Mars, and sprung from differently localized water sources, and they could be correlated to similar fluvialnetwork types from the Earth.

  1. Radiological management of abdominal surgical drainages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miotto, D.; Viglione, C.; Chiesura Corona, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors consider their early results in radiological drainage management of abscesses and fistulas complicating abdominal surgery by integrated use of angiographic materials and interventional methods. Twenty-five patients, affected by isolated (32%) or communicating (68%) abscesses, were treated. Cavity obliteration and clinical recovery were obtained in 18 patients (72%), partial success in 1 (4%); a patient was treated unsuccessfully. Five patients were not evaluated because they died or underwent surgery again. Average drainage intervall was 54 days. Drainage management was carried out by replacement of surgical catheters and fibrin occlusion. Fibrin occlusion was performed in 7 patients with the following results: 3 successes, one partial success and one failure. Two cases were not evaluated. Although a comparison with a control group was not performed, the authors consider the procedure a safe, economic and simple method for abdominal abscess management

  2. Percutaneous epidural drainage through a burr hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M Falsarella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial extradural collection may cause an increase in intracranial pressure, requiring rapid emergency treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. We described an alternative CT-guided percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage. We report a case of a patient with previous craniectomy for meningioma ressection who presented to the Emergency Department with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Brains CT showed a extradural collection with subfalcine herniation. After multidisciplinary discussion a CT-guided percutaneous drainage through previous burr hole was performed. The patient was discharged after 36 hours of admission, without further symptoms. We describe a safe and effective alternative percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage in patients with previous burr hole.

  3. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biliary Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla'vio C.; Sakai, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

  4. Comparison of Natural Drainage Group and Negative Drainage Groups after Total Thyroidectomy: Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Shim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Sang Ha; Lee, Ho Joong; Won, Seong Jun; Son, Hee Young; Kim, Rock Bum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare a negative pressure drain with a natural drain in order to determine whether a negative pressure drainage tube causes an increase in the drainage volume. Materials and Methods Sixty-two patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were enrolled in the study between March 2010 and August 2010 at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. The patients were prospectively and randomly assigned to two groups, a negative pressure drainage group (n=32) and natural drainage group (n=30). Every 3 hours, the volume of drainage was checked in the two groups until the tube was removed. Results The amount of drainage during the first 24 hours postoperatively was 41.68±3.93 mL in the negative drain group and 25.3±2.68 mL in the natural drain group (pdrainage at postoperative day 3 was not statistically different between the two groups. In addition, the vocal cord palsy and temporary and permanent hypocalcemia were not different between the two groups. Conclusion These results indicate that a negative pressure drain may increase the amount of drainage during the first 24-48 hours postoperatively. Therefore, it is not necessary to place a closed suction drain when only a total thyroidectomy is done. PMID:23225820

  5. Impacts of soil conditioners and water table management on phosphorus loss in tile drainage from a clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D

    2015-03-01

    Adoption of waste-derived soil conditioners and refined water management can improve soil physical quality and crop productivity of fine-textured soils. However, the impacts of these practices on water quality must be assessed to ensure environmental sustainability. We conducted a study to determine phosphorus (P) loss in tile drainage as affected by two types of soil conditioners (yard waste compost and swine manure compost) and water table management (free drainage and controlled drainage with subirrigation) in a clay loam soil under corn-soybean rotation in a 4-yr period from 1999 to 2003. Tile drainage flows were monitored and sampled on a year-round continuous basis using on-site auto-sampling systems. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP), particulate P (PP), and total P (TP). Substantially greater concentrations and losses of DRP, PP, and TP occurred with swine manure compost than with control and yard waste compost regardless of water table management. Compared with free drainage, controlled drainage with subirrigation was an effective way to reduce annual and cumulative losses of DRP, PP, and TP in tile drainage through reductions in flow volume and P concentration with control and yard waste compost but not with swine manure compost. Both DRP and TP concentrations in tile drainage were well above the water quality guideline for P, affirming that subsurface loss of P from fine-textured soils can be one critical source for freshwater eutrophication. Swine manure compost applied as a soil conditioner must be optimized by taking water quality impacts into consideration. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Drainage: 'prevention is better than cure'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Nick

    2012-10-01

    Excellent standards of cleanliness are more important for healthcare facilities than in virtually every other type of building, and well-managed drainage systems play a crucial part in this. business and commercial, utilities, public sector, and facilities management clients. Nick Reilly, director at UKDN Waterflow, discusses best practice in this area for healthcare estates managers.

  7. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heek, N. T.; Busch, O. R.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gouma, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile

  8. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heek, N T; Busch, O R; Van Gulik, T M; Gouma, D J

    2014-04-01

    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile salts, impaired liver function and altered nutritional status due to obstructive jaundice have been characterized as factors for development of complications after surgery. Whereas PBD was to yield beneficial effects in the experimental setting, conflicting results have been observed in clinical studies. The meta-analysis from relative older studies as well as more importantly a recent clinical trial showed that PBD should not be performed routinely. PBD for patients with a distal biliary obstruction is leading to more serious complications compared with early surgery. Arguments for PBD have shifted from a potential therapeutic benefit towards a logistic problem such as patients suffering from cholangitis and severe jaundice at admission or patients who need extra diagnostic tests, or delay in surgery due to a referral pattern or waiting list for surgery as well as candidates for neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. If drainage is indicated in these patients it should be performed with a metal stent to reduce complications after the drainage procedure such as stent occlusion and cholangitis. Considering a change towards more neoadjuvant therapy regimes improvement of the quality of the biliary drainage concept is still important.

  9. CT guidance of percutaneous hepatic abscess drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Zhang Jiaxing; Cao Chuanwu; Li Maoquan; Lu Fuming; Zheng Manhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the method and effectiveness of percutaneous drainage for hepatic abscess under CT guidance. Methods: 20 patients were enrolled into this retrospective research, including 13 males and 7 females with age form 18 to 84 yrs. The diagnosis were made by clinical examination, laboratory test and CT imaging. Hepatic abscess focus involved right lobe in 9 cases, left lobe of 6 cases, both lobes with 5 cases. All patients received percutaneous abscess drainage subsequently. Results: There were 14 cases with solitary abscess, in which 9 disappeared completely after single procedure of aspiration under CT guidance, 1 disappeared after twice aspirations. Multiple or multi-lobular abscesses were found in six cases, which were treated by aspirating the larger one first or by splitting multi-aspiration. In all cases, drainage catheters were placed and lavage was done with a mean time of 19.2 days together with intravenous antibiotics. There was no recurrence until the end-piont of research. Conclusions: Percutaneous CT-guided aspiration and drainage is an effective way in the treatment of hepatic abscess. (authors)

  10. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intestinal perforation in newborn, necrotizing enterocolitis, primary peritoneal drainage. Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University. HSC, El Paso, Texas, USA. Correspondence to Donald E. Meier, MD, Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster. School of Medicine, Texas Tech ...

  11. CASE REPORT CAS Transcolonic pelvic abscess drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there are a number of reports of successful drainage of deep pelvic collections using transrectal, transvaginal, transgluteal and other routes,1,2 some collections remain difficult to access. An elderly female patient with renal failure presented with features of sepsis following a partial sigmoid colectomy for ...

  12. Urban drainage models - making uncertainty analysis simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Deletic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing awareness about uncertainties in modelling of urban drainage systems and, as such, many new methods for uncertainty analyses have been developed. Despite this, all available methods have limitations which restrict their widespread application among practitioners. Here, a modif...

  13. Selecting the drainage method for agricultural land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    To facilitate crop growth excess water should be drained from the rooting zone to allow root development of the crop and from the soil surface to facilitate access to the field. Basically, there are three drainage methods from which the designer can select being; surface drains, pumped tube wells

  14. Recovery of water from acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The reaction rate of sulphate removal from acid mine drainage using barium carbonate was studied for various pH, calcium concentration, and BaCO3/SO42 feed ratios in batch studies. Process synthesis concepts were used to investigate the interaction...

  15. The Heimlich Valve for Pleural Cavity Drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY | www.annalsofafricansurgery.com. The ANNALS of ... valves allow for outpatient management of pleural drainage ... anesthesia. Where the procedure was not tolerable or the patient was too young to co-operate, additional sedation was used. Following insertion, all chest tubes.

  16. A look at the links between drainage density and flood statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montanari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the links between the drainage density of a river basin and selected flood statistics, namely, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and coefficient of skewness of annual maximum series of peak flows. The investigation is carried out through a three-stage analysis. First, a numerical simulation is performed by using a spatially distributed hydrological model in order to highlight how flood statistics change with varying drainage density. Second, a conceptual hydrological model is used in order to analytically derive the dependence of flood statistics on drainage density. Third, real world data from 44 watersheds located in northern Italy were analysed. The three-level analysis seems to suggest that a critical value of the drainage density exists for which a minimum is attained in both the coefficient of variation and the absolute value of the skewness coefficient. Such minima in the flood statistics correspond to a minimum of the flood quantile for a given exceedance probability (i.e., recurrence interval. Therefore, the results of this study may provide useful indications for flood risk assessment in ungauged basins.

  17. Management Practices Used in Agricultural Drainage Ditches to Reduce Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Derek R; Kröger, Robert; Moore, Matthew T; Rush, Scott A

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural non-point sources of nutrients and sediments have caused eutrophication and other water quality issues in aquatic and marine ecosystems, such as the annual occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Management practices have been implemented adjacent to and in agricultural drainage ditches to promote their wetland characteristics and functions, including reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment losses downstream. This review: (1) summarized studies examining changes in nutrient and total suspended solid concentrations and loads associated with management practices in drainage ditches (i.e., riser and slotted pipes, two-stage ditches, vegetated ditches, low-grade weirs, and organic carbon amendments) with emphasis on the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, (2) quantified management system effects on nutrient and total suspended solid concentrations and loads and, (3) identified information gaps regarding water quality associated with these management practices and research needs in this area. In general, management practices used in drainage ditches at times reduced losses of total suspended solids, N, and P. However, management practices were often ineffective during storm events that were uncommon and intense in duration and volume, although these types of events could increase in frequency and intensity with climate change. Studies on combined effects of management practices on drainage ditch water quality, along with research towards improved nutrient and sediment reduction efficiency during intense storm events are urgently needed.

  18. Topological Analysis of Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    Urban drainage networks are an essential component of infrastructure, and comprise the aggregation of underground pipe networks carrying storm water and domestic waste water for eventual discharge to natural stream networks. Growing urbanization has contributed to rapid expansion of sewer networks, vastly increasing their complexity and scale. Importance of sewer networks has been well studied from an engineering perspective, including resilient management, optimal design, and malfunctioning impact. Yet, analysis of the urban drainage networks using complex networks approach are lacking. Urban drainage networks consist of manholes and conduits, which correspond to nodes and edges, analogous to junctions and streams in river networks. Converging water flows in these two networks are driven by elevation gradient. In this sense, engineered urban drainage networks share several attributes of flows in river networks. These similarities between the two directed, converging flow networks serve the basis for us to hypothesize that the functional topology of sewer networks, like river networks, is scale-invariant. We analyzed the exceedance probability distribution of upstream area for practical sewer networks in South Korea. We found that the exceedance probability distributions of upstream area follow power-law, implying that the sewer networks exhibit topological self-similarity. The power-law exponents for the sewer networks were similar, and within the range reported from analysis of natural river networks. Thus, in line with our hypothesis, these results suggest that engineered urban drainage networks share functional topological attributes regardless of their structural dissimilarity or different underlying network evolution processes (natural vs. engineered). Implications of these findings for optimal design of sewer networks and for modeling sewer flows will be discussed.

  19. Nature of solute loads in the rivers of the Bengal drainage basin, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dilip K.; Subramanian, V.

    1997-11-01

    The Bengal drainage basin is geologically one of the youngest and tectonically most active denudation regimes of the world, and encompasses the total lower reaches of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) drainage basin. The GBM river system contributes around 4.5% of the total annual global freshwater flux to the oceans. The solute load of the GBM river system is dominated by the carbonate weathering products of the transport-limited denudation regime. However, in the Meghna basin, which drains a mountainous region, silicate weathering is slightly more predominant, and the solute load tends to be more influenced by the atmospheric contribution. The river system represents about 5% (152×10 6 t yr -1) of the annual global chemical flux to the world's oceans. The chemical denudation rate of the GBM system in the Bengal basin, is one of the world's highest (79-114 t km -2 yr -1), suggesting intensive weathering and erosion in the drainage basin both in Bangladesh as well as in the hinterlands of India and China.

  20. Exploring Agricultural Drainage's Influence on Wetland and Watershed Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial agricultural drainage (i.e. surface ditches or subsurface tile) is an important agricultural management tool. Artificial drainage allows for timely fieldwork and adequate root aeration, resulting in greater crop yields for farmers. This practice is widespread throughou...

  1. Impact of tile drainage on evapotranspiration in South Dakota, USA, based on high spatiotemporal resolution evapotranspiration time series from a multi-satellite data fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Anderson, Martha C.; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Kustas, William P.; Meyers, Tilden P.; Crow, Wade; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Otkin, Jason; Sun, Liang; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Soil drainage is a widely used agricultural practice in the midwest USA to remove excess soil water to potentially improve the crop yield. Research shows an increasing trend in baseflow and streamflow in the midwest over the last 60 years, which may be related to artificial drainage. Subsurface drainage (i.e., tile) in particular may have strongly contributed to the increase in these flows, because of its extensive use and recent gain in the popularity as a yield-enhancement practice. However, how evapotranspiration (ET) is impacted by tile drainage on a regional level is not well-documented. To explore spatial and temporal ET patterns and their relationship to tile drainage, we applied an energy balance-based multisensor data fusion method to estimate daily 30-m ET over an intensively tile-drained area in South Dakota, USA, from 2005 to 2013. Results suggest that tile drainage slightly decreases the annual cumulative ET, particularly during the early growing season. However, higher mid-season crop water use suppresses the extent of the decrease of the annual cumulative ET that might be anticipated from widespread drainage. The regional water balance analysis during the growing season demonstrates good closure, with the average residual from 2005 to 2012 as low as -3 mm. As an independent check of the simulated ET at the regional scale, the water balance analysis lends additional confidence to the study. The results of this study improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural drainage practices on regional ET, and can affect future decision making regarding tile drainage systems.

  2. Land drainage and restoration of land after NCB opencast mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg, N.

    The author outlines the MAFF Field Drainage Research Unit's research into drainage of reinstated land. Current investigations have aimed at identifying the problems of reinstated soil and how they affect drainage design. Experiments on efficiency of permeable field drains and non-permeable field drains are mentioned. Further work is needed to examine long-term effects of storage on soil structure and whether existing drainage can be revitalised by secondary treatment.

  3. A Comparison of Preoperative Biliary Drainage Methods for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Endoscopic versus Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Min; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Kyu Taek; Shim, Sang Goon

    2015-11-23

    Controversy remains over the optimal approach to preoperative biliary drainage in patients with resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. We compared the clinical outcomes of endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) with those of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients undergoing preoperative biliary drainage for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. A total of 106 consecutive patients who underwent biliary drainage before surgical treatment were divided into two groups the PTBD group (n=62) and the EBD group (n=44). Successful drainage on the first attempt was achieved in 36 of 62 patients (58.1%) with PTBD, and in 25 of 44 patients (56.8%) with EBD. There were no significant differences in predrainage patient demographics and decompression periods between the two groups. Procedure-related complications, especially cholangitis and pancreatitis, were significantly more frequent in the EBD group than the PTBD group (PTBD vs EBD 22.6% vs 54.5%, p<0.001). Two patients (3.8%) in the PTBD group experienced catheter tract implantation metastasis after curative resection during the follow-up period. EBD was associated with a higher risk of procedure-related complications than PTBD. These complications were managed properly without severe morbidity; however, in the PTBD group, there were two cases of cancer dissemination along the catheter tract.

  4. The foam drainage equation for drainage dynamics in unsaturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, P.; Hoogland, F.; Assouline, S.; Or, D.

    2017-07-01

    Similarity in liquid-phase configuration and drainage dynamics of wet foam and gravity drainage from unsaturated porous media expands modeling capabilities for capillary flows and supplements the standard Richards equation representation. The governing equation for draining foam (or a soil variant termed the soil foam drainage equation—SFDE) obviates the need for macroscopic unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function by an explicit account of diminishing flow pathway sizes as the medium gradually drains. The study provides new and simple analytical expressions for drainage rates and volumes from unsaturated porous media subjected to different boundary conditions. Two novel analytical solutions for saturation profile evolution were derived and tested in good agreement with a numerical solution of the SFDE. The study and the proposed solutions rectify the original formulation of foam drainage dynamics of Or and Assouline (2013). The new framework broadens the scope of methods available for quantifying unsaturated flow in porous media, where the intrinsic conductivity and geometrical representation of capillary drainage could improve understanding of colloid and pathogen transport. The explicit geometrical interpretation of flow pathways underlying the hydraulic functions used by the Richards equation offers new insights that benefit both approaches.

  5. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drainage quality is an important parameter which affects the performance of highway pavements. In India, since last few years considerable importance has been given to the drainage as per of pavement. A poor quality of drainage results in premature deterioration of the pavement structure and necessitating large ...

  6. Role of Lithology and Rock Structure in Drainage Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lithology and Rock structure play a vital role in the development of Drainage Network in any drainage basin. The drainage patterns upon land surface develop as directed by the underlying lithology and rock structure. In fact, lithology and rock structure together shape the basin and are decisive parameters of nature and ...

  7. PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM A SUBSURFACE MINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  8. Drainage of Splenic Abscess: A Case Report | Kombo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and was managed by tube drainage. His post operative recovery was uneventful. Conclusion: Tube drainage of the splenic abscess is encouraged if there is easy access to the abscess and there is evidence of residual splenic tissue in the critically ill patient. Key Word: Tube drainage, splenic abscess, splenectomy.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUTOGENIC DRAINAGE VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH 15 MINUTES POST THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kiran; Dr. Bhimasen .S; E. Mastanaiah; A. Thiruppathi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD) and autogenic drainage (AD) on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done ...

  10. Contributions of systematic tile drainage to watershed-scale phosphorus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin W; Williams, Mark R; Fausey, Norman R

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) transport from agricultural fields continues to be a focal point for addressing harmful algal blooms and nuisance algae in freshwater systems throughout the world. In humid, poorly drained regions, attention has turned to P delivery through subsurface tile drainage. However, research on the contributions of tile drainage to watershed-scale P losses is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term P movement through tile drainage and its manifestation at the watershed outlet. Discharge data and associated P concentrations were collected for 8 yr (2005-2012) from six tile drains and from the watershed outlet of a headwater watershed within the Upper Big Walnut Creek watershed in central Ohio. Results showed that tile drainage accounted for 47% of the discharge, 48% of the dissolved P, and 40% of the total P exported from the watershed. Average annual total P loss from the watershed was 0.98 kg ha, and annual total P loss from the six tile drains was 0.48 kg ha. Phosphorus loads in tile and watershed discharge tended to be greater in the winter, spring, and fall, whereas P concentrations were greatest in the summer. Over the 8-yr study, P transported in tile drains represented 90% of all measured concentrations exceeded recommended levels (0.03 mg L) for minimizing harmful algal blooms and nuisance algae. Thus, the results of this study show that in systematically tile-drained headwater watersheds, the amount of P delivered to surface waters via tile drains cannot be dismissed. Given the amount of P loss relative to typical application rates, development and implementation of best management practices (BMPs) must jointly consider economic and environmental benefits. Specifically, implementation of BMPs should focus on late fall, winter, and early spring seasons when most P loading occurs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. [CAT-guided percutaneous drainage of abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Manrique, F; Fernández Miranda, E; García Cáceres, E; Franciso Moriana Maldonado, J; Granero Molina, J; Aguilera Manrique, G

    2001-09-01

    Drainage of percutaneous abscesses guided by Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) is a technique being employed more frequently all the time by Radiodiagnostic Services. Correctly put into practice by trained professionals, this procedure can prevent patients having to undergo another series of treatments which bear greater risks, to have a longer hospital stay, or even, depending on the case, to have to undergo an operation. Nurses in a radiological unit have an overwhelming role in every step of a percutaneous abscess drainage, a role which can not be carried out by any other personnel. To achieve being up to date in this technique and to perform our function as nurses in the use of this technique are the main objectives of this review.

  12. Percutaneous drainage of 100 subphrenic abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casola, G.; Sonnenberg, E. van; D'Agostino, H.; Kothari, R.; May, S.; Taggart, S.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Percutaneous drainage of subphrenic abscesses is technically more difficult because lung and pleura may be transgressed during catheter insertion. The purpose of this paper is to determine the incidence of thoracic complications secondary to subphrenic abscess drainage and to determine factors that may alter this. The authors' series consists of 100 subphrenic abscesses that were drained percutaneously. Patients range in age from 14 to 75 years. Abscesses were secondary to surgery (splenectomy, pancreatectomy, partial hepatectomy, gastrectomy), pancreatitis, and trauma. Catheters ranged in size from 8 to 14 F and were inserted via trocar or Seldinger technique. Thoracic complications of pneumothorax or empyema were determined from follow-up chest radiographs or CT scans

  13. SOIL COVER IN TUTOVA DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Stanga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers a monographic presentation of the soils from the Tutova drainage basin. The analysis of the pedogeographic assemblage was performed based on the soil surveys of the territories corresponding to Tutova’s drainage basin, and completed with field research. The taxonomic classification was done in accordance with the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (2003 and the soil map was created at a 1:25.000 scale. The zonal soils dominate the region; the Chernisols are on the first rank with a share of 39.95%, followed by Luvisols with a percent of 27.62%. Among the soils with an azonal and intrazonal character, the entic soils are dominant (21.90%, followed by Anthrosols (8.89% and by Hydrisols (1.64%.

  14. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  15. Long-Term Drainage from the Riprap Side Slope of a Surface Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang

    2017-07-01

    Surface barriers designed to isolate underground nuclear waste in place are expected to function for at least 1000 years. To achieve this long design life, such barriers need to be protected with side slopes against wind- and water-induced erosion and damage by natural or human activities. However, the side slopes are usually constructed with materials coarser than the barrier. Their hydrological characteristics must be understood so that any drainage from them is considered in the barrier design and will not compromise the barrier function. The Prototype Hanford Barrier, an evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier, was constructed in 1994 at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, with a gravel side slope and a riprap side slope. The soil water content in the gravel side slope and drainage from both side slopes have been monitored since the completion of construction. The monitoring results show that under natural precipitation the annual drainage rates from the two types of side slopes were very similar and about 5 times the typical recharge from local soil with natural vegetation and 40 times the barrier design criterion. The higher recharge from the side slopes results in some of the drainage migrating laterally to the region beneath the ETC barrier. This edge effect of the enhanced drainage was evaluated for a period of 1000 years by numerical simulation. The edge effect was quantified by the amount of water across the barrier edges and the affecting distance of the barrier edges. These results indicate that design features can be adjusted to reduce the edge effect when necessary.

  16. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 2: Mine drainage -- SP 06B-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings is divided into six sessions: Mine drainage--Case studies (5 papers); Control of mine drainage--General (6); Control of mine drainage--Dry covers (6); Mine hydrology (6); a Poster session of miscellaneous papers (24); and a section of 59 abstracts. 78 papers dealing with or applicable to coal or uranium mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. Factors influencing pleural drainage in parapneumonic effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, J M; Valencia, H; Bielsa, S

    2016-10-01

    The identification of parapneumonic effusions (PPE) requiring pleural drainage is challenging. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of radiological and pleural fluid findings in discriminating between PPE that need drainage (complicated PPE (CPPE)) and those that could be resolved with antibiotics only (uncomplicated PPE (UPPE)). A retrospective review of 641 consecutive PPE, of which 393 were categorized as CPPE and 248 as UPPE. Demographics, radiological (size and laterality on a chest radiograph) and pleural fluid parameters (pus, bacterial cultures, biochemistries) were compared among groups. Logistic regression was performed to determine variables useful for predicting chest drainage, and receiver-operating characteristic curves assisted in the selection of the best cutoff values. According to the likelihood ratios (LR), findings increasing the probability of chest tube usage the most were: effusions occupying ≥1/2 of the hemithorax (LR 13.5), pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 (LR 6.2), pleural fluid glucose ≤40mg/dL (LR 5.6), pus (LR 4.8), positive pleural fluid cultures (LR 3.6), and pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase >2000U/L (LR 3.4). In the logistic regression analysis only the first two were selected as significant predictors of CPPE. In non-purulent effusions, the effusion's size and pleural fluid pH retained their discriminatory properties, in addition to a pleural fluid C-reactive protein (CRP) level >100mg/L. Large radiological effusions and a pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 were the best predictors for chest drainage in patients with PPE. In the subgroup of patients with non-purulent effusions, pleural fluid CRP also contributed to CPPE identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes asp......-stream concrete solutions. The challenge is to combine the inherited approaches with the new approaches by flexibility and adaptability....

  19. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  20. Branching pattern in natural drainage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, M.; Singh, A.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    The formation and growth of river channels and their network evolution are governed by the erosional and depositional processes operating on the landscape due to movement of water. The branching structure of drainage network is an important feature related to the network topology and contain valuable information about the forming mechanisms of the landscape. We studied the branching patterns in natural drainage networks, extracted from 1 m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of 120 catchments with minimal human impacts across the United States. We showed that the junction angles have two distinct modes an the observed modes are physically explained as the optimal angles that result in minimum energy dissipation and are linked to the exponent characterizing slope-area curve. Our findings suggest that the flow regimes, debris-flow dominated or fluvial, have distinct characteristic angles which are functions of the scaling exponent of the slope-area curve. These findings enable us to understand the geomorphological signature of hydrological processes on drainage networks and develop more refined landscape evolution models.

  1. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  2. Percutaneous abscess drainage in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strotzer, M.; Manke, C.; Feuerbach, S.; Lock, G.; Bregenzer, N.; Schoelmerich, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the success of percutaneous, CT-guided abscess drainage (PAD) in patients with Crohn's disease. Methods: Within the last 5 years 8 patients with Crohn's disease were treated by PAD for intra-abdominal abscesses. A fistula was determined to be the cause in 4 patients. The abscesses arose spontaneously in 7 patients while one patient had a postperative abscess. We used single lumen 10F- and double lumen 12F- and 14F-catheters for drainage (duration of drainage 8-20 days). Results: In all cases the abscess was successfully drained by PAD. However, an operation-free interval of at least three months was achieved in only two patients. A healing of the fistula was not attained in any of the 4 patients with a proven fistula. No enterocutaneous fistulas arose within the course of PAD. Conclusions: PAD is also useful for patients with Crohn's disease since it improves the starting situation for the necessary operative interventions. In most cases (especially with enterogenic fistulas), however, a long-lasting therapeutic result cannot be expected. (orig.) [de

  3. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindbäck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A

    2015-01-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections. Key Points Model for subglacial hydrological analysis of rapid lake drainage events Limited subglacial channel growth during and following rapid lake drainage Persistence of distributed drainage in inland areas where channel growth is limited PMID:26640746

  4. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindbäck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A

    2015-06-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections. Model for subglacial hydrological analysis of rapid lake drainage eventsLimited subglacial channel growth during and following rapid lake drainagePersistence of distributed drainage in inland areas where channel growth is limited.

  5. Soil chloride and deep drainage responses to land clearing for cropping at seven sites in central Queensland, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, B. J.; Silburn, D. M.; Forster, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    SummarySoil cores were taken at seven paired sites (native vegetation and adjacent dryland cropping on cracking clay soils) which had been cropped for 10-65 years in the Fitzroy Basin in central Queensland, northern Australia. Levels of soil chloride (Cl -) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3-N) were determined in 0.3 m increments to a depth of 5 m where possible. The amounts of Cl - in the soil (0-1.5 m depth) under native vegetation were generally high (10-23 t ha -1 at six of the seven sites). The amounts of Cl - that had leached below 1.5 m depth during dryland cropping varied from 2.2 to 16.8 t ha -1 or 19-91% of the original totals at 0-1.5 m. Leaching of salt from the crop rooting zone in combination with higher rates of deep drainage can lead to outbreaks of soil salinisation but can also increase the soil plant available water capacity (PAWC). NO 3-N had also been leached below crop rooting depth at three sites. Such leaching not only contaminates the groundwater but also wastes crop nutrients. The transient chloride mass balance approach was used to determine mean annual rates of deep drainage below crop rooting depth (1.5 m). At all seven sites annual deep drainage was low under native vegetation (0.2-1.7 mm yr -1) but increased under dryland cropping (1.6-27.5 mm yr -1). Drainage losses showed an inverse relationship with plant available water content (PAWC). Drainage losses waste the limited supply of water available for dryland cropping but can be reduced by practising opportunity cropping or by growing ley (temporary) pastures in rotation with annual crops.

  6. Ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Torben; Nolsøe, Christian; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate the ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses in which transabdominal percutaneous access could not be performed because of overlying structures. A retrospective analysis of 32 consecutive patients with 33 deep pelvic abscesses...... (median diameter 7 cm), 19 were treated with catheter drainage and 18 of these cases resulted in favorable clinical outcomes. Of the smaller abscesses (median diameter 4 cm), 14 were treated with needle drainage. In two of these cases, follow-up US showed that a repeat puncture and drainage was necessary....... All needle drainages resulted in favorable clinical outcomes. Sixteen of the 29 transrectal or transvaginal drainage procedures were performed without any anesthesia (10 were performed with a needle and six were performed with a catheter). Apart from minor discomfort during the drainage procedure...

  7. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  8. Acid drainage (AD) in nature and environmental impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) in Southern Tuscany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lella, Luigi Antonello; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Acid drainage (AD) is a natural process occurring locally at the Earth's surface. It consists in a substantial increase of acidity of surface waters as a result of chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere (i.e. acid rain) or involving reactive phases (i.e. pyrite) present in the percolated medium. Acidic surface waters (usually pH < 4) can be produced by oxidation of sulphides (mainly pyrite and other iron sulphides) exposed to atmospheric oxygen, while human activities, such as mining, can greatly enhance this process. Acid drainage promoted by mining activities is called acid mine drainage (AMD) and is a primary source of environmental pollution and a world-wide problem in both active and abandoned mining areas. In fact, exposure of iron sulphides to oxidising conditions produces strongly acidic drainage waters rich in sulphate and a variety of heavy elements (i.e. As, Cd, Pb, Sb). Several occurrences of active acid mine drainage have been found in the Metalliferous Hills (southern Tuscany). The most important AMD phenomena were observed in the Fenice Capanne and Niccioleta mining areas

  9. Comparison between autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kun-Hao; Pan, Jian-Ke; Yang, Wei-Yi; Luo, Ming-Hui; Xu, Shu-Chai; Liu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) drainage system is a new unwashed salvaged blood retransfusion system for total knee replacement (TKA). However, whether to use ABT drainage, closed-suction (CS) drainage or no drainage in TKA surgery remains controversial. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficiency, safety and potential advantages regarding the use of ABT drains compared with closed-suction/no drainage. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched in March 2015. Fifteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and pooled for statistical analysis. The primary outcome evaluated was homologous blood transfusion rate. The secondary outcomes were post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections after TKA surgery. The pooled data included 1,721 patients and showed that patients in the ABT drainage group might benefit from lower blood transfusion rates (16.59 % and 37.47 %, OR: 0.28 [0.14, 0.55]; 13.05 % and 16.91 %, OR: 0.73 [0.47,1.13], respectively). Autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage have similar clinical efficacy and safety with regard to post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections. Autologous blood transfusion drainage offers a safe and efficient alternative to CS/no drainage with a lower blood transfusion rate. Future large-volume high-quality RCTs with extensive follow-up will affirm and update this system review.

  10. Advances in drainage: Selected works from the Tenth International Drainage Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Jeffrey S.; Hay, Christopher; Helmers, Matthew; Nelson, Kelly A.; Sands, Gary R.; Skaggs, R. Wayne; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R.

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a special collection of fourteen articles accepted from among the 140 technical presentations, posters, and meeting papers presented at the 10th International ASABE Drainage Symposium. The symposium continued in the tradition of previous symposia that began in 1965 as a forum for presenting and assessing the progress of drainage research and implementation throughout the world. The articles in this collection address a wide range of topics grouped into five broad categories: (1) crop response, (2) design and management, (3) hydrology and scale, (4) modeling, and (5) water quality. The collection provides valuable information for scientists, engineers, planners, and others working on crop production, water quality, and water quantity issues affected by agricultural drainage. The collection also provides perspectives on the challenges of increasing agricultural production in a changing climate, with ever-greater attention to water quality and quantity concerns that will require integrated technical, economic, and social solutions.

  11. Impacts of drainage water discharge on the water chemistry of Lake Edku

    OpenAIRE

    Shakweer, L.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Edku which is considered as important fishing area in Egypt receives its water from two sources. The main source is the drainage water of Kom Belag and Bersik drains where it is annually supplied with 1836.55 × 106 m3 of water. The sea water of Abu Qir Bay enters the lake sometimes through the lake sea connection as subsurface water current under the action of wind specially in winter. The present study pointed out that the water temperature of the lake (22.38oC) was slightly higher than...

  12. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  13. Pitfalls in Cutaneous Melanoma Lymphatic Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, Silviu; Sandru, Angela; Gherghe, Mirela

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard in staging of cutaneous melanoma. As skin lymphatic drainage is complex, preoperative empirical assessment of SN localization is virtually impossible. Therefore in order to identify all regional lymphatic basins corresponding to a specific primary tumor is mandatory to carry out preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. In this paper we present a clinical case that highlights the importance of identifying, biopsy and histological analysis of all SN in order to achieve a correct staging of the patient, followed by appropriate treatment according to the real clinical stage of the disease. Celsius.

  14. Button self-retaining drainage catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caridi, James G.; Hawkins, Irvin F.; Akins, E. William; Young, Ronald S.

    1997-01-01

    To help improve patient acceptance of long-term internal/external catheter access to the biliary tract in those with benign biliary obstruction, a simple design allows the catheter end to remain flush with the skin. It consists of a clothes button affixed to the drainage catheter with a wood screw after the catheter has been cut off at the skin exit. This button/screw device has been used successfully in 22 patients over the last 10 years; catheter exchanges were easily accomplished

  15. Percutaneous biliary drainage in patients with cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.C.; Gobel, R.J.; Rose, S.C.; Hayes, J.K.; Miller, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines whether radiation therapy (RT) is a risk factor for infectious complications (particularly hepatic abscess formation) related to percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD). The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 98 consecutive patients who had undergone PBD for obstruction. In 34 patients with benign obstruction, three infectious complications occurred, none of which were hepatic abscess or fatal sepsis. In 39 patients who had malignant obstruction but did not have cholangiocarcinoma, 13 infectious complications occurred, including two hepatic abscesses and three cases of fatal sepsis. Of the 25 patients with cholangiocarcinoma, 15 underwent RT; in these 15 patients, 14 infectious complications occurred, including six hepatic abscesses and two cases of fatal sepsis

  16. Percutaneous drainage of diverticular abscess: Adjunct to resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Saini, S.; Butch, R.J.; Simeone, J.F.; Rodkey, G.V.; Bousquet, J.C.; Ottinger, L.W.; Wittenberg, J.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional surgical management of acute diverticulitis with abscess may require a one-, two-, or three-stage procedure. Because of recent interest in CT diagnosis of diverticulitis, and novel access routes for interventional drainage of deep pelvic abscesses, the authors investigated the potential for converting complex two- and three-stage surgical procedures to simpler, safer one-stage colon resections by percutaneous drainage of the associated abscess. Of 23 patients with acute perforated diverticulitis who were referred for catheter drainage under radiologic guidance, successful catheter drainage and subsequent single-stage colon resection were carried out in 15. In three patients catheter drainage was unsuccessful and a multistage procedure was required. In three patients only percutaneous drainage was performed and operative intervention was omitted entirely

  17. Bioaccumulation of metals in constructed wetlands used to treat acid drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.S.; Mays, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are being used extensively as a potential mitigation for acid drainage. However, removal of metals to meet compliance requirements has varied among wetlands, ranging from partial to total success. In addition, wetlands are sinks for contaminants found in acid drainage, and bioaccumulation of these contaminants to levels that would adversely affect the food web is of growing concern. The primary objective of this project was to determine whether bioaccumulation of metals occurs in wetlands constructed for treatment of acid drainage. Water, sediment, plant and benthos samples were collected from two wetlands constructed by the Tennessee Valley Authority and a natural wetland in the spring and fall of 1992, and metal concentrations were determined. One of the constructed wetlands, Impoundment 1, has generally been in compliance for NPDES; the other, Widow's Creek, has never been in compliance. Preliminary results indicate similarities in sediment and plant metal concentrations between Impoundment 1 and the natural wetland and greater metal concentrations in the sediment and plants at Widow's Creek. Data also indicate that Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr are being accumulated in the plants at each wetland. However, accumulation of metals by these plants probably accounts for only a small percentage of the removal of the annual metal load supplied to each wetland. Bioaccumulation of metals in the benthic organisms at each wetland is currently being investigated

  18. Environmental geochemistry of acid mine drainage water at Indus coal mine at Lakhra, Sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, I.; Shah, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The annual coal production of Pakistan is about 3,637, 825 tones which is about 6% of the country's energy resources, out of this 1,241, 965 tones of coal was produced/ mined from the Lakhra coal field, District Dadu, Sindh which after the Thar coal field is the second largest coal field of Pakistan. At this coal field more than 58 mining companies are engaged in exploring the hidden wealth of the country. The problem of acid mine drainage, is caused by the passage or seepage of water, through mines where iron disulfides, usually pyrites, are exposed to the oxidizing action of water, air and bacteria, is the main problem faced by the mining companies. The geochemical analysis of acid mine drainage water collected from Indus coal mine no. 6 shows that beside its higher pH, total Dissolved Solids and Sulfates, it also posses higher amount of heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Fe. This acid mine drainage water not only damages the mine structures but is also harmful to soil and ecology. (author)

  19. Arterial Pulsations cannot Drive Intramural Periarterial Drainage: Significance for Aβ Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra K. Diem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's Disease (AD is the most common form of dementia and to date there is no cure or efficient prophylaxis. The cognitive decline correlates with the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ in the walls of capillaries and arteries. Our group has demonstrated that interstitial fluid and Aβ are eliminated from the brain along the basement membranes of capillaries and arteries, the intramural periarterial drainage (IPAD pathway. With advancing age and arteriosclerosis, the stiffness of arterial walls, this pathway fails in its function and Aβ accumulates in the walls of arteries. In this study we tested the hypothesis that arterial pulsations drive IPAD and that a valve mechanism ensures the net drainage in a direction opposite to that of the blood flow. This hypothesis was tested using a mathematical model of the drainage mechanism. We demonstrate firstly that arterial pulsations are not strong enough to produce drainage velocities comparable to experimental observations. Secondly, we demonstrate that a valve mechanism such as directional permeability of the IPAD pathway is necessary to achieve a net reverse flow. The mathematical simulation results are confirmed by assessing the pattern of IPAD in mice using pulse modulators, showing no significant alteration of IPAD. Our results indicate that forces other than the cardiac pulsations are responsible for efficient IPAD.

  20. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  1. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindb?ck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A

    2015-01-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and exa...

  2. The construction technology of Chinese ancient city drainage facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequn, Li; Yufengyun

    2018-03-01

    In ancient china, according to the local natural environment, a variety of drainage facilities were built in order to excrete rainwater, domestic sewage, production wastewater and so on. These drainage facilities were mainly made of pottery, bricks, wood, stone, etc. For example, ceramic water pipelines, buried in the ground, connect together one by one, and there was a slight drop from one end to the other in favor of drainage. These measures can also be used for reference in today’s urban drainage and flood control.

  3. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... were compared with preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) morphology. The preoperatively elevated pressure decreased in all patients but one, to normal or slightly elevated values. The median pressure decrease was 50% (range, 0-90%; p = 0.01). The drainage anastomosis (a...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  4. Contemporary suspended sediment dynamics within two partly glacierized mountain drainage basins in western Norway (Erdalen and Bødalen, inner Nordfjord)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja; Storms, Joep E. A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper focuses on environmental controls, spatiotemporal variability and rates of contemporary fluvial suspended sediment transport in the neighboring, partly glacierized and steep Erdalen (79.5 km2) and Bødalen (60.1 km2) drainage basins in the fjord landscape of the inner Nordfjord in western Norway. Field work, including extended samplings and measurements, was conducted since 2004 in Erdalen and since 2008 in Bødalen. The distinct intra- and inter-annual temporal variability of suspended sediment transport found is mostly controlled by meteorological events, with most suspended sediment transport occurring during pluvial events in autumn (September-November), followed by mostly thermally determined glacier melt in summer (July-August), and by mostly thermally determined snowmelt in spring (April-June). Extreme rainfall events (> 70 mm d- 1) in autumn can trigger significant debris-flow activity that can cause significant transfers of suspended sediments from ice-free surface areas with sedimentary covers into main stream channels and is particularly important for fluvial suspended sediment transport. In years with occurring relevant debris-flow activity the total annual drainage-basin wide suspended sediment yields are strongly determined by these single extreme events. The proportion of glacier coverage, followed by steepness of slopes, and degree of vegetation cover in ice-free surface areas with sedimentary covers are the main controls for the detected spatial variability of suspended sediment yields. The contemporary sediment supply from glacierized surface areas and the Jostedalsbreen ice cap through different defined outlet glaciers shows a high spatial variability. The fact that the mean annual suspended sediment yield of Bødalen is with 31.3 t km- 2 yr- 1 almost twice as high as the mean annual suspended sediment yield of Erdalen (16.4 t km- 2 yr- 1) is to a large extent explained by the higher proportion of glacier coverage in Bødalen (38% of

  5. Potential climate change effects on Loblolly pine forest productivity and drainage across the Southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNulty, S.G. [USDA Forest Service, Raleigh, NC (United States). Integrated Impacts Program; Vose, J.M.; Swank, W.T. [USDA Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrologic Lab.

    1996-11-01

    PnET-IIS, a well validated, physiologically based, forest ecosystem model combined soil and vegetation data with six climate change scenarios. The model predicted annual net primary productivity and drainage on Loblolly pine sites in the southern US states of Texas, Mississippi, Florida and Virginia. Climate scenario air temperature changes were +2 deg C to +7 deg C >historic (1951 to 1984) values and climate scenario precipitation changes were -10% to +20% > historic values. Across the sites, increasing air temperature would have much greater impact on pine forest hydrology and productivity than would changes in precipitation. These changes could seriously impact the structure and function of southern United States forests by decreasing net primary productivity and total leaf area. Water use per unit area would increase, but total plant water demand would decrease because of reduced total leaf area, thus increasing regional pine forest drainage. An average annual air temperature increase of 7 deg C, caused a considerable reduction in the Loblolly pine range. 24 refs

  6. Estimation of evaporation and drainage losses from two bare soils in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, evaporation, drainage rates and water storage of two bare soils in the east (Batticaloa and west (Puttalam regions of Sri Lanka, were simulated using the E-DiGOR model. Daily simulations were carried out for each of the years during the periods of 1978 to 1987 in Batticaloa and 1998 to 2007 in Puttalam using standard climate data. The soils in the locations were predominantly sandy loam and/or sandy clay loam. Grass reference evapotranspiration and potential soil evaporation were higher, whereas actual soil evaporation was lower during the dry seasons. The 10-year average annual reference evapotranspiration and potential soil evaporation were 2069.3 mm and 1814.1 mm in Batticaloa, and 1908.8 mm and 1714.5 mm in Puttalam, respectively. Aridity index (precipitation/reference evapotranspiration was 0.685 for Batticaloa and 0.606 for Puttalam. The actual evaporation from bare soil varied between 463.1—725.0 mm in Batticaloa and 543.6—646.3 mm in Puttalam. Annual drainage rates below 150 cm soil depth ranged from 321.7 to 1581.2 mm in Batticaloa and from 346.7 to 957.0 mm in Puttalam. Soil water storage changed daily depending on the intensity and frequency of rainfall events and on evaporation rates.

  7. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  8. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area and in the western Mexico drainage area, Maricopa, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona; 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, S.A.; Clay, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome and the western Mexican drainage areas include about 4,700 square miles in southwestern Arizona. The main water-bearing unit is the alluvium along the Gila River and its tributaries and in the valleys that separate the mountains. Most of the ground-water development has taken place in the Wellton-Mohawk area in the northern part of the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area. The use of imported Colorado River water for irrigation caused the water levels to rise, and in the early 1970 's the water levels were within 6 feet of the land surface in most of the area. Since 1961, a network of about 70 wells has been pumping about 200,000 acre-feet of ground water annually for drainage of the waterlogged land in the area. The ground water in the Wellton-Mohawk area is of unsuitable chemical quality for most uses. Information shown on the maps includes depth to water , well depth, altitude of the water level, irrigated area, and specific conductance and Fluoride concentration in the water, A table of historical pumpage also is included. Scale 1:125.000. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Exact solutions for nonlinear foam drainage equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, E. M. E.; Al-Nowehy, Abdul-Ghani

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the modified simple equation method, the exp-function method, the soliton ansatz method, the Riccati equation expansion method and the ( G^' }/G)-expansion method are used to construct exact solutions with parameters of the nonlinear foam drainage equation. When these parameters are taken to be special values, the solitary wave solutions and the trigonometric function solutions are derived from the exact solutions. The obtained results confirm that the proposed methods are efficient techniques for analytic treatments of a wide variety of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. We compare our results together with each other yielding from these integration tools. Also, our results have been compared with the well-known results of others.

  10. Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry B.

    1988-01-01

    A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

  11. Drainage basins and channel incision on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson, Oded; Zuber, Maria T.; Rothman, Daniel H.; Schorghofer, Norbert; Whipple, Kelin X.

    2002-02-01

    Measurements acquired by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on board the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that large drainage systems on Mars have geomorphic characteristics inconsistent with prolonged erosion by surface runoff. We find the topography has not evolved to an expected equilibrium terrain form, even in areas where runoff incision has been previously interpreted. By analogy with terrestrial examples, groundwater sapping may have played an important role in the incision. Longitudinally flat floor segments may provide a direct indication of lithologic layers in the bedrock, altering subsurface hydrology. However, it is unlikely that floor levels are entirely due to inherited structures due to their planar cross-cutting relations. These conclusions are based on previously unavailable observations, including extensive piece-wise linear longitudinal profiles, frequent knickpoints, hanging valleys, and small basin concavity exponents.

  12. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The drainage quality is an important parameter which affects the performance of highway pavements. In India ... pavement performance and maintenance needs; and (iii) to quantify the benefits in terms of cost due to the improved drainage ...... Jain was the founder Head of Excellence in Transportation Systems (CTRANS),.

  13. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  14. Development Of An Agricultural Land Drainage And Reclamation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development Of An Agricultural Land Drainage And Reclamation Design Software. ... Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers ... The design of appropriate drainage structures however often involves complex hydrological, hydraulic and engineering computations and the use of charts, tables and nomographs, etc.

  15. The Random Walk Drainage Simulation Model as a Teaching Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Colin; Richards, Paul

    1972-01-01

    Practical instructions about using the random walk drainage network simulation model as a teaching excercise are given and the results discussed. A source of directional bias in the resulting simulated drainage patterns is identified and given an interpretation in the terms of the model. Three points of educational value concerning the model are…

  16. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adjacent bubbles coalesce when the liquid border becomes too thin. In addition to drainage, the other process, which changes the macroscopic appearance of foam is the coars- ening. This occurs due to the gas diffusion from smaller to larger bubbles following the well-known Laplace–Young law [1]. Both effects, drainage ...

  17. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drainage and coarsening are two coupled phenomena during the evolution of wet foam. We show the variation in the growth rate of bubble size, along the height in a column of Gillette shaving foam, by microscope imaging. Simultaneously, the drainage of liquid at the same heights has been investigated by Raman ...

  18. Adequacy of Drainage Channels in a Small Urban Watershed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research presents an analysis for the adequacy of drainage channels. Topographical and location map was used as a guide to locate the drainage channels. Rainfall records for a period of four years (2008-2011) were used to develop the intensity bdurationB B frequency of the study area . Field survey and geometrical ...

  19. Assessment of drainage techniques for evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjåvik, Kristin; Bartek, Jiri; Sagberg, Lisa Millgård

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgery for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. The benefit of postoperative passive subdural drainage compared with no drains has been established, but other drainage techniques are common, and their effectiveness compared with passive s...

  20. A new approach in research into drainage materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, L.C.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    In the past decades in many countries installation of agricultural drainage systems' has evolved into an almost completely mechanized operation. Progress in technology has been remarkable and drainage engineers obviously could not keep pace with enhanced research requirements:introduction of new

  1. Urban drainage in Barcelona: From hazard to resource?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Saurí

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to trace the historical trajectory of urban drainage in Barcelona from the 19th century to the present highlighting the main changes in approach, from the 'everything down the drain' philosophy of the 19th century to the sustainable urban drainage systems of the early 21st century. In this trajectory we identify four main historical periods. The first period corresponds to the 'Garcia Faria Plan' of the late 19th century which initiated the construction of modern drainage in Barcelona. The second period, lasting for much of the 20th century, showed the expansion of the centralised sewer system that, however, could not solve the chronic problems of flooding and pollution created by fast urbanisation. The third period, governed by the Olympic Games of 1992 and the rehabilitation of the beach front, entailed a massive reconfiguration of the sewer system now connected to wastewater treatment plants and enhanced with a number of large underground stormwater reservoirs. Finally, since the early 2000s, urban drainage is increasingly adopting decentralised, smallscale solutions to drainage such as Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS. While signs of the transition towards a more sustainable approach to urban drainage are already present, the conventional approach remains strong and appears to be evolving also towards more sustainable solutions. Hence, system coexistence rather than substitution appears to be the outcome of the transition in urban drainage in this city.

  2. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Drainage and coarsening are two coupled phenomena during the evolution of wet foam. We show the variation in the growth rate of bubble size, along the height in a column of Gillette shaving foam, by microscope imaging. Simultaneously, the drainage of liquid at the same heights has been investigated by ...

  3. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    The paper analysed the morphometric parameters of Ogbere and Ogunpa drainage basins located on basement complex rock in ... properties of Ogunpa drainage basin are likely to induce high magnitude flood compared to morphometric properties of Ogbere ..... Bs = VI/HE where Bs = Basin slope, VI = Vertical Interval and.

  4. Preoperative percutaneous transhepatic drainage: use or abuse. A clinical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; Moody, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    The benefit of preoperative percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice was reviewed in the literature from 1974 to July 1984. The role of preoperative drainage cannot be definitively assessed. Significant reduction of morbidity and mortality has been reported in

  5. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo tank drainage. Each cargo tank must be designed for longitudinal and transverse drainage of crude oil to allow...

  6. Using bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as a field drainage material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), one of the most widespread member of its genus, was used as field drainage material in Akure, Nigeria. Pre-determined sizes of bamboo with uniform lengths and diameters were installed as sub-drains in agricultural field for drainage purposes, especially in developing countries like Nigeria.

  7. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... drainage. (a) General. Soil and geologic conditions must be suitable for the type of construction proposed... affect the structure and show proposed solutions. Grading will promote drainage of surface water away... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...

  8. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, J.; Kolejka, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445647.2016.1259129?scroll=top&needAccess=true

  9. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with External Drainage of the Pancreatic Remnant

    OpenAIRE

    Suvit Sriussadaporn; Rattaplee Pak-art; Sukanya Sriussadaporn; Kritaya Kritayakirana; Supparerk Prichayudh

    2008-01-01

    Leakage of the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis is a serious complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy. External drainage of the pancreatic remnant is one of several methods for reducing pancreaticojejunal anastomotic leakage or fistula. We investigated complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy with and without external drainage of the pancreatic remnant. METHODS: Patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand from November 1991 t...

  10. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. F.; Kulessa, B.; Rutt, I. C.; Tsai, V. C.; Pimentel, S.; Doyle, S. H.; van As, D.; Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Jones, G. A.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-06-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections.

  11. Evaluating the Acid Mine Drainage Potential at Abosso Goldfields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of Acid Rock Drainae (ARD) affects both plants and animals that are present in a drainage system. In some base metal and coal mining environments, the presence of sulphide minerals especially pyrite and their exposure to oxygen and water may trigger Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Evaluation of the potential for ...

  12. Strike slip faulting inferred from offsetting of drainages: Lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detailed analysis of landforms,drainages and geology of the area between the rivers Amaravati and Karjan was carried out in order to understand the tectonic history of the lower Narmada basin. Movement along the various faults in the area was studied on the basis of the drainage offsetting. Horizontal offsetting of ...

  13. The results of the electrochemical clearning of drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabannik, Vasilina; Saeva, Olga

    2010-05-01

    There is a problem of industrial drains clearing in various branches, but especially sharply in a metal manufacture that is caused by great volumes of the wastewater containing high residual concentration of heavy metals. It is necessary to pay attention to solids in wastes. In a long-term interaction with oxygen of air and natural deposits the acid drainage is often formed and takes out a number of elements with different classes of toxicity to superficial and underground waters. Therefore search of an extraction possibilities for toxic components for a eliminate of their further migration is the big deal. Belov Zink Plant located in the Kemerovo region. During sixty years the factory stably made up to 10 000 tons of zinc annually and in passing up to 30 000 tons H2SO4 processing a blende concentrate. Now the factory has stopped the activity, however, in territory have remained uncontrolledly stored about one million tons of the wastes, presented by slags and ashes. Visually clinker represent coarse-grained sands of the typical slag containing 0.7-15% Zn, 0.3-8.5% Cu, 0.03-0.7% Pb and 2-400 g/t Cd. Besides in tailings the sub-standard sulfuric acid [Bortnikova, etc., 2006] are merged. Acid (рН=3.5) and highsaline waters of a drainage stream with significant concentration sulfate-ion (up to 20 g/l), copper (up to 6 g/l) and zinc (up to 4 g/l), that allows to consider as macrocomponents. A wide number of microcells in drains exceeds maximum concentration limit (MPC) of chemical substances in objects of drinking and community use. The basic chemical forms of present metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pb, Cu) are aquo-ions and sulphatic complexes. Earlier in our laboratory searching of a way of a toxic components concentration downturn in drains of Belov plant - sorptive clearing by natural clays [Gaskova, Kabannik, 2009] and sedimentation of toxic elements on carbonate barrier [Yurkevich, etc., 2008] were done, however the desirable result by virtue of that this

  14. Numerical Three-Dimensional Model of Airport Terminal Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelecki Michał

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of an airport terminal it was found that as a result of the hydrostatic pressure of underground water the foundation plate of the building had dangerously shifted in the direction opposite to that of the gravitational forces. The only effective measure was to introduce a drainage system on the site. The complex geology of the area indicated that two independent drainage systems, i.e., a horizontal system in the Quaternary beds and a vertical system in the Tertiary water-bearing levels, were necessary. This paper presents numerical FEM calculations of the two drainage systems being part of the airport terminal drainaged esign. The computer simulation which was carried out took into consideration the actual effect of the drainage systems and their impact on the depression cone being formed in the two aquifers.

  15. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    2014-01-01

    of implementing the drainage filter technologies including surface-flow constructed wetlands, subsurface flow constructed wetlands, and drainage well filters (www.supremetech.dk). We will present results on P retention from (i) controlled column experiments with permeable filter substrates, and (ii) a full...... high risks areas of P loss and applying site-specific measures therefore seems a more cost-efficient approach. The Danish Commission for Nature and Agriculture has now called for a shift of paradigm towards targeted mitigation and development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site......-specific nutrient losses in drainage. The “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2015), funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective drainage filter technologies to retain P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches...

  16. Constructed wetland attenuation of nitrogen exported in subsurface drainage from irrigated and rain-fed dairy pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C C; Nguyen, M L; Sukias, J P S

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen removal performance is reported for constructed wetlands treating subsurface drainage from irrigated and rain-fed dairy pastures in North Island, New Zealand. Flow-proportional sampling of inflow and outflow concentrations were combined with continuous flow records to calculate mass balances for the wetlands. Drainage flows from the irrigated catchment were 2.5-4 fold higher and N exports up to 5 fold higher per unit area than for the rain-fed catchment. Hydraulic and associated N loadings to the wetlands were highly pulsed, associated with rainfall, soil water status, and irrigation events. Transient pulses of organic nitrogen were an important form of N loss from the rain-fed landscape in the first year, and were very effectively removed in the wetland (> 90%). Median nitrate concentrations of approximately 10 g m(-3) in the drainage inflows were reduced by 15-67% during passage through the wetlands and annual nitrate-N loads by 16-61% (38-31 7 g N m(-2)y(-1)). Generation in the wetlands of net ammoniacal-N and organic-N (irrigated site) partially negated reduction in nitrate-N loads. The results show that constructed wetlands comprising 1-2% of catchment area can provide moderate reductions in TN export via pastoral drainage, but performance is markedly influenced by variations in seasonal loading and establishment/maturation factors.

  17. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 1: Mine drainage -- SP 06A-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Volume 1 of these proceedings is divided into the following sections: Modeling mine water quality; Water treatment with wetlands; Predicting mine water quality; Water treatment--Chemical; Control of acid mine drainage--Wet covers; Site characterization monitoring; Control of acid mine drainage--Alkaline addition; and Mine water geochemistry. Papers dealing with or applicable to coal or uranium mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  18. Hydroclimatic change disparity of Peruvian Pacific drainage catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Pedro; Bourrel, Luc; Labat, David; Frappart, Frédéric; Ruelland, Denis; Lavado, Waldo; Dewitte, Boris; Felipe, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    Peruvian Pacific drainage catchments only benefit from 2% of the total national available freshwater while they concentrate almost 50% of the population of the country. This situation is likely to lead a severe water scarcity and also constitutes an obstacle to economic development. Catchment runoff fluctuations in response to climate variability and/or human activities can be reflected in extreme events, representing a serious concern (like floods, erosion, droughts) in the study area. To document this crucial issue for Peru, we present here an insightful analysis of the water quantity resource variability of this region, exploring the links between this variability and climate and/or anthropogenic pressure. We first present a detailed analysis of the hydroclimatologic variability at annual timescale and at basin scale over the 1970-2008 period. In addition to corroborating the influence of extreme El Niño events over precipitation and runoff in northern catchments, a mean warming of 0.2 °C per decade over all catchments was found. Also, higher values of temperature and potential and actual evapotranspiration were found over northern latitudes. We chose to apply the Budyko-Zhang framework that characterizes the water cycle as a function of climate only, allowing the identification of catchments with significant climatic and anthropogenic influence on water balance. The Budyko-Zhang methodology revealed that 11 out of 26 initial catchments are characterized by low water balance disparity related to minor climatic and anthropogenic influence. These 11 catchments were suitable for identifying catchments with contrasting change in their hydroclimatic behavior using the Budyko trajectories. Our analysis further reveals that six hydrological catchment responses can be characterized by high sensitivity to climate variability and land use changes.

  19. Developing Stochastic Deep Drainage Surfaces In Cox's Creek Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S.; Vervoort, R. W.; Bishop, T. F.; Hydrology Research Lab

    2010-12-01

    Deep drainage (DD) can contribute to water table rise and salinity, and is a complex function of rainfall, land management and soil hydraulic properties. Because each of these components is uncertain and variable in time and space, this study developed a method to estimate DD risk based on the mechanistic soil water model SWAP using 50 realisations of stochastic rainfall, land use and soil hydraulic properties using a Monte Carlo approach. DD was predicted at 143 soil points in the Cox’s Creek catchment in northern NSW Australia. Realisations of the stochastic daily rainfall were generated at each soil point using an annual mean adjusted Poisson model, DD values were subsequently translated to probabilities of exceeding 100mm/year and spatially predicted over the study area to produce risk maps for the different scenarios. The results showed that DD is episodic with the predominantly summer rainfall in the area, the monthly variability of DD is extremely high depending on when heavy rainfall occurred in relation to different land uses. As expected, the highest probability exceeding 100mm/year DD was for irrigated crop rotations (99%) followed by continuous wheat (59%), then opportunity cropping (46%) and the least for native vegetation (12.5%). Opportunity cropping with sorghum (42%) had the lowest probability to exceed 100mm/year compared to continuous wheat and other opportunity cropping systems and could be one of options for reducing DD in the area. Variation in soil hydraulic properties had less impact on probability of exceeding 100mm/year than variations in land use, which might be explained by soil properties determining the suitability for a certain land use.

  20. Preoperative Biliary Drainage in Patients with Resectable Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Is Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage Safer and More Effective than Endoscopic Biliary Drainage? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahjoub, Aimen; Menahem, Benjamin; Fohlen, Audrey; Dupont, Benoit; Alves, Arnaud; Launoy, Guy; Lubrano, Jean

    2017-04-01

    To determine the best initial procedure for performing preoperative biliary drainage in patients with resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHCC). MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane database were searched for all studies published until June 2016 comparing endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for preoperative biliary drainage. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.3 software. Four retrospective studies were identified that met the criteria. The analysis was performed on 433 patients who underwent preoperative biliary drainage for resectable PHCC. Of those, 275 (63.5%) had EBD and 158 (36.5%) had PTBD as the initial procedure. The overall procedure-related morbidity rate was significantly lower in the PTBD group than in the EBD group (39 of 147 [26.5%] vs 82 of 185 [44.3%]; odds ratio [OR], 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-3.57; P = .0009). The rate of conversion from one procedure to the other was significantly lower in the PTBD group than in the EBD group (8 of 158 [5.0%] vs 73 of 275 [26.5%]; odds ratio, 4.76; 95% CI, 2.71-8.36; P drainage in resectable PHCC. PTBD is associated with less conversion and lower rates of pancreatitis and cholangitis. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  2. Changes in water quality of a small urban river triggered by deep drainage of a construction site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the monitoring of the selected physicochemical properties of the Jasień River waters (in Łódź, the third biggest city of Poland and their changes under the influence of drainage of a railway station Łódź Fabryczna construction site. Even 25 years ago the Jasień River was a receiver for the sewage from the Łódź textile factories. The drainage of the excavations and disposal of the water into the Jasień River was started on January 2014 and changed stable hydrological, physical and chemical regime of the river once again. In a consequence, average monthly flows exceeded the Jasień River flow in its upper section by six times, and at the beginning by even ten times. Chloride concentration was systematically growing over the study period. This growth and higher water pH were probably associated with increasing level of contaminants in the discharged water and its gradually decreasing uptake. Average annual water temperature increased and a decrease in its amplitude was observed. The annual conductivity and pH patterns became more uniform and the changes in pH followed a clear trend of monthly changes. Water turbidity increased by two times and during summer floods this parameter was often even a few times higher than before the drainage commenced. Chlorides improved water conductance and sodium and potassium increased basicity.

  3. Unilobar versus bilobar biliary drainage: effect on quality of life and bilirubin level reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Gamanagatti

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Percutaneous biliary drainage provides good palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice. Partial-liver drainage achieved results as good as those after complete liver drainage with significant improvements in QOL and reduction of the bilirubin level.

  4. Tile Drainage Expansion Detection using Satellite Soil Moisture Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Cho, E.; Jia, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the past two decades, tile drainage installation has accelerated throughout the Red River of the North Basin (RRB) in parts of western Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, and a small area of northeastern South Dakota, because the flat topography and low-permeability soils in this region necessitated the removal of excess water to improve crop production. Interestingly, streamflow in the Red River has markedly increased and six of 13 major floods during the past century have occurred since the late 1990s. It has been suggested that the increase in RRB flooding could be due to change in agricultural practices, including extensive tile drainage installation. Reliable information on existing and future tile drainage installation is greatly needed to capture the rapid extension of tile drainage systems and to locate tile drainage systems in the north central U.S. including the RRB region. However, there are few reliable data of tile drainage installation records, except tile drainage permit records in the Bois de Sioux watershed (a sub-basin in southern part of the RRB where permits are required for tile drainage installation). This study presents a tile drainage expansion detection method based on a physical principle that the soil-drying rate may increase with increasing tile drainage for a given area. In order to capture the rate of change in soil drying rate with time over entire RRB (101,500 km2), two satellite-based microwave soil moisture records from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and AMSR2 were used during 2002 to 2016. In this study, a sub-watershed level (HUC10) potential tile drainage growth map was developed and the results show good agreement with tile drainage permit records of six sub-watersheds in the Bois de Sioux watershed. Future analyses will include improvement of the potential tile drainage map through additional information using optical- and thermal-based sensor products and evaluation of its

  5. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Fertilized L. Plantations across a Gradient of Soil Drainage Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Raj K; Strahm, Brian D; Sucre, Eric B

    2014-11-01

    The effect of fertilizer management on nitrous oxide (NO) fluxes in agricultural ecosystems is well documented; however, our knowledge of these effects in managed forests is minimal. We established a comprehensive research study to address this knowledge gap across a range of soil drainage classes (poorly, moderately, and well drained) common in southern pine plantation management. Fertilizer treatments in each drainage class comprised of control (no fertilizer), urea + phosphorus (P), and P-coated urea fertilizer (CUF). Fertilization (168 kg N ha) occurred independently during the spring, summer, and fall to assess the effects of application timing. Nitrous oxide sampling, using vented static chambers, started immediately after seasonal fertilizer application and was performed every 6 wk for more than 1 yr. Time-integrated net annual NO emissions increased with urea (1.15 kg NO-N ha) and CUF (0.88 kg NO-N ha) application compared with unfertilized control (0.22 kg NO-N ha). Mean annual NO flux was significantly increased with fall fertilization (1.17 kg NO-N ha) relative to spring (0.73 kg NO-N ha) or summer (0.33 kg NO-N ha). Similarly, average annual NO flux was higher in poorly drained soils (1.40 kg NO-N ha) than in moderately drained (0.46 kg NO-N ha) and well-drained soils (0.39 kg NO-N ha). This study suggests that NO emissions after fertilization can be minimized by avoiding fall fertilization and poorly drained soils and by selecting enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers over urea. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Winter Cover Crop Effects on Nitrate Leaching in Subsurface Drainage as Simulated by RZWQM-DSSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, R. W.; Chu, X.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Kaspar, T.; Jaynes, D.; Saseendran, S. A.; Thorp, K.; Yu, Q.

    2007-12-01

    Planting winter cover crops such as winter rye (Secale cereale L.) after corn and soybean harvest is one of the more promising practices to reduce nitrate loss to streams from tile drainage systems without negatively affecting production. Because availability of replicated tile-drained field data is limited and because use of cover crops to reduce nitrate loss has only been tested over a few years with limited environmental and management conditions, estimating the impacts of cover crops under the range of expected conditions is difficult. If properly tested against observed data, models can objectively estimate the relative effects of different weather conditions and agronomic practices (e.g., various N fertilizer application rates in conjunction with winter cover crops). In this study, an optimized winter wheat cover crop growth component was integrated into the calibrated RZWQM-DSSAT hybrid model and then we compare the observed and simulated effects of a winter cover crop on nitrate leaching losses in subsurface drainage water for a corn-soybean rotation with N fertilizer application rates over 225 kg N ha-1 in corn years. Annual observed and simulated flow-weighted average nitrate concentration (FWANC) in drainage from 2002 to 2005 for the cover crop treatments (CC) were 8.7 and 9.3 mg L-1 compared to 21.3 and 18.2 mg L-1 for no cover crop (CON). The resulting observed and simulated FWANC reductions due to CC were 59% and 49%. Simulations with the optimized model at various N fertilizer rates resulted in average annual drainage N loss differences between CC and CON to increase exponentially from 12 to 34 kg N ha-1 for rates of 11 to 261 kg N ha-1. The results suggest that RZWQM-DSSAT is a promising tool to estimate the relative effects of a winter crop under different conditions on nitrate loss in tile drains and that a winter cover crop can effectively reduce nitrate losses over a range of N fertilizer levels.

  7. Implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian A; Fernandes, Rodrigo A B; Akil, Handan; Chopra, Vikas; Diniz, Bruno; Tan, James; Huang, Alex

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate success rates in controlling intraocular pressure (IOP) after implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device (GDD) with a Baerveldt glaucoma implant in patients with refractory glaucoma, with a secondary aim of reducing the need for postoperative glaucoma medications. This retrospective, noncomparative, interventional study included patients undergoing a second GDD for uncontrolled glaucoma from a tertiary care glaucoma service. Data were obtained from the medical records for the preoperative period and after the 1st, 15th, and 30th day, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then yearly until the last postoperative visit. Visual acuity, IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (NGM) from the follow-up visits were compared to baseline. Success and failure criteria were analyzed based on IOP level or need of glaucoma medications. Forty-nine patients were studied, with a mean follow-up time of 25 ± 21 months. The mean preoperative IOP was 23.7 ± 8.2 mmHg, and decreased to 14.8 ± 4.0 mmHg after 1 year, 14.4 ± 3.9 mmHg after 2 years, and 16.6 ± 8.5 mmHg after 3 years. The mean preoperative NGM was 3.4 ± 1.3, and decreased to 2.0 ± 1.8 after 1 year, 2.5 ± 1.6 after 2 years, and 2.8 ± 2.0 after 3 years. Absolute success was 9% after 1 year for a postoperative IOP between 5 and 18 mmHg, and 76% for a postoperative IOP between 5 and 21 mmHg. The qualified success was 88% at the first and second years and 83% at the third year. With up to 3 years of follow-up, a second glaucoma drainage device was successful in reducing IOP to below 21 mmHg, but not as successful below 18 mmHg. The success rate is improved with the use of glaucoma medications with up to 3 years of follow-up.

  8. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A.C.; Wall, A.J.; Runkel, R.L.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The ??65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of enargite (??65Cu = -0.01 ?? 0.10???; 2??) and chalcopyrite (??65Cu = 0.16 ?? 0.10???) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1??? waters (1.38??? ??? ??65Cu ??? 1.69???). The average isotopic fractionation (??aq-min = ??65Cuaq - ??65Cumin, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ?? 0.14??? and 1.60 ?? 0.14??? for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ?? 0.14???) and enargite (0.98 ?? 0.14???) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite (??aq-mino = - 0.57 ?? 0.14 ???, where mino refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite (??aq-mino = 0.14 ?? 0.14 ???). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu+ at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cuaq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of ??65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures resulting from Cu sulfide dissolution should be useful for acid mine drainage

  9. Evaluation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Roadway Drainage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Diana M; Grabowski, Marta K; Benitez, Amy C B; Schmidt, Arthur R; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-08-15

    Roadway drainage design has traditionally focused on cost-effectively managing water quantity; however, runoff carries pollutants, posing risks to the local environment and public health. Additionally, construction and maintenance incur costs and contribute to global environmental impacts. While life cycle assessment (LCA) can potentially capture local and global environmental impacts of roadway drainage and other stormwater systems, LCA methodology must be evaluated because stormwater systems differ from wastewater and drinking water systems to which LCA is more frequently applied. To this end, this research developed a comprehensive model linking roadway drainage design parameters to LCA and life cycle costing (LCC) under uncertainty. This framework was applied to 10 highway drainage projects to evaluate LCA methodological choices by characterizing environmental and economic impacts of drainage projects and individual components (basin, bioswale, culvert, grass swale, storm sewer, and pipe underdrain). The relative impacts of drainage components varied based on functional unit choice. LCA inventory cutoff criteria evaluation showed the potential for cost-based criteria, which performed better than mass-based criteria. Finally, the local aquatic benefits of grass swales and bioswales offset global environmental impacts for four impact categories, highlighting the need to explicitly consider local impacts (i.e., direct emissions) when evaluating drainage technologies.

  10. Thoracoscopic Surgery for Pneumothorax Following Outpatient Drainage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi; Yotsumoto, Takuma

    2017-10-20

    We investigated the outcomes of surgery for pneumothorax following outpatient drainage therapy. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent operations following outpatient drainage therapy with the Thoracic Vent at our hospital between December 2012 and September 2016. Indications for outpatient drainage therapy were pneumothorax without circulatory or respiratory failure and pleural effusion. Indications for surgical treatment were persistent air leakage and patient preference for surgery to prevent or reduce the incidence of recurrent pneumothorax. Intraoperatively, 9 of 34 cases showed loose adhesions around the Thoracic Vent, all of which were dissected bluntly. The preoperative drainage duration ranged from 5 to 13 days in patients with adhesions and from 3 to 19 days in those without adhesions, indicating no significant difference. The duration of preoperative drainage did not affect the incidence of adhesions. The operative duration ranged from 30 to 96 minutes in patients with adhesions and from 31 to 139 minutes in those without adhesions, also indicating no significant difference. Outpatient drainage therapy with the Thoracic Vent was useful for spontaneous pneumothorax patients who underwent surgery, and drainage for less than 3 weeks did not affect intraoperative or postoperative outcomes.

  11. Systematic review comparing endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical pancreatic pseudocyst drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Dhir, Vinay; Jin, Zhen-Dong; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Seo, Dong Wan; Ho, Khek Yu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To perform a systematic review comparing the outcomes of endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical pancreatic pseudocyst drainage. METHODS: Comparative studies published between January 1980 and May 2014 were identified on PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane controlled trials register and assessed for suitability of inclusion. The primary outcome was the treatment success rate. Secondary outcomes included were the recurrence rates, re-interventions, length of hospital stay, adverse events and mortalities. RESULTS: Ten comparative studies were identified and 3 were randomized controlled trials. Four studies reported on the outcomes of percutaneous and surgical drainage. Based on a large-scale national study, surgical drainage appeared to reduce mortality and adverse events rate as compared to the percutaneous approach. Three studies reported on the outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and surgical drainage. Clinical success and adverse events rates appeared to be comparable but the EUS approach reduced hospital stay, cost and improved quality of life. Three other studies compared EUS and esophagogastroduodenoscopy-guided drainage. Both approaches were feasible for pseudocyst drainage but the success rate of the EUS approach was better for non-bulging cyst and the approach conferred additional safety benefits. CONCLUSION: In patients with unfavorable anatomy, surgical cystojejunostomy or percutaneous drainage could be considered. Large randomized studies with current definitions of pseudocysts and longer-term follow-up are needed to assess the efficacy of the various modalities. PMID:27014427

  12. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Junior, P.B.; Leite, C.B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.) [pt

  13. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Filho, Elio Barreto de; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes da; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas.

  14. Functional Topology of Evolving Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan S.; Urich, Christian; Krueger, Elisabeth; Kumar, Praveen; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the scaling and topology of engineered urban drainage networks (UDNs) in two cities, and further examined UDN evolution over decades. UDN scaling was analyzed using two power law scaling characteristics widely employed for river networks: (1) Hack's law of length (L)-area (A) [L∝Ah] and (2) exceedance probability distribution of upstream contributing area (δ) [P>(A≥δ>)˜aδ-ɛ]. For the smallest UDNs ((A≥δ>) plots for river networks are abruptly truncated, those for UDNs display exponential tempering [P>(A≥δ>)=aδ-ɛexp⁡>(-cδ>)]. The tempering parameter c decreases as the UDNs grow, implying that the distribution evolves in time to resemble those for river networks. However, the power law exponent ɛ for large UDNs tends to be greater than the range reported for river networks. Differences in generative processes and engineering design constraints contribute to observed differences in the evolution of UDNs and river networks, including subnet heterogeneity and nonrandom branching.

  15. Prognostic factors after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, M.C.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.; Pisani, P.; Ideo, G.; Bellomi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors reviewed the clinical charts and the radiographic files of 93 patients with obsructive jaundice -in 86 cases due to neoplasms -treated with PTBD. The test of differences from survival curves was used to identify the clinical parameters predictive of short survival after PTBD. The difference in survival curves was significant relative to serum indirect bilirubin (cut point: 7.6 mg%), to serum cholinesterase (cut point: 1290 mU/ml), to white blood cells counts (cut point: 8600/mm 3 ), to blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels (cut point: 60 mg%). Because of the market negative prognostic value of high BUN levels, our data seemto indicate that PTBD should not be performed when severe renal insufficiency is present. Other parameters correlated with a short survival after PTBD were the histotype of metastasis (in comparison with the other ones) and in large neoplastic volume (in comparison with a small and medium ones). Through pre-PTBD radiological and laboratory data analysis, a group of patients can be selected in whom the procedure will increase neither well-being nor survival, as plotted against those patients who are likely to benefit from biliary drainage

  16. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harremoës, P

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes aspects of the papers presented at the INTERURBA-II conference in 2001 and the discussions during the conference. Tools for integrated analysis have been developed, but there is less implementation than could be expected. That is due to lack of adequate knowledge about important mechanisms, coupled with a significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important measures are local infiltration, source control, storage basins, local treatment and real time control. New paradigms have been introduced: risk of pollution due to system failure, technology for water reuse, sustainability, new architecture and greener up-stream solutions as opposed to down-stream concrete solutions. The challenge is to combine the inherited approaches with the new approaches by flexibility and adaptability.

  17. Lignor process for acidic rock drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T

    2004-09-01

    The process using lignosulfonates for acidic rock drainage (ARD) treatment is referred to as the Lignor process. Lignosulfonates are waste by-products produced in the sulfite pulping process. The present study has shown lignosulfonates are able to protect lime from developing an external surface coating, and hence to favor its dissociation. Further, the addition of lignosulfonates to ARD solutions increased the dotting and settling rate of the formed sludge. The capability of lignosulfonates to form stable metal-lignin complexes makes them very useful in retaining metal ions and thus improving the long-term stability of the sludge against leaching. The Lignor process involves metal sorption with lignosulfonates, ARD neutralization by lime to about pH 7, pH adjustment with caustic soda to 9.4 - 9.6, air oxidation to lower the pH to a desired level, and addition of a minimum amount of FeCl3 for further removal of dissolved metals. The Lignor process removes all concerned metals (especially Al and Mn) from the ARD of the Britannia Mine (located at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada) to a level lower than the limits of the B.C. Regulations. Compared with the high-density sludge (HDS) process, the Lignor process has many advantages, such as considerable savings in lime consumption, greatly reduced sludge volume, and improved sludge stability.

  18. Inertial gravity currents from edge drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Mostafa; Zheng, Zhong; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Stone, Howard

    2017-11-01

    Gravity currents are formed due to a density gradient in the horizontal direction between the current and an ambient fluid. In this work, we present theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of the release of a finite volume of fluid instantaneously from the edge of a rectangular domain for high-Reynolds-number flows. The setup is relevant in geophysical and engineering applications such as open channels, and dam-break problems. For the cases we considered, the results indicate that about half of the initial volume exits during an early adjustment period. Then, the inertial gravity current reaches a self-similar phase during which about 40% of its volume drains and its height decreases as τ-2, where τ is a dimensionless time that is derived with the typical gravity wave speed and the horizontal length of the domain. Based on scaling arguments, we reduce the shallow-water PDEs into two nonlinear ODEs, which are then solved analytically. The new self-similar solutions are in good agreement with the performed experiments and direct numerical simulations for various geometries and fluid densities. This study provides new insights into the dynamical behavior of edge drainage flows, particularly during the inertial regime. The simulations were performed on the Della computer clusters of Princeton University.

  19. Origin of acid mine drainage in Enugu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, K.O.

    1992-01-01

    Mine flooding is a serious problem in the Enugu Coal Mines and has led to the abandonment of two of the four mines. About 1800 m 3 of water is pumped out daily from the mines into the nearby streams. The source of this enormous volume of water has been established based on the hydrodynamics and hydrology of the area. Two prolific aquifers - an unconfined and a confined system - overlie the mines, but the mine water is derived principally from the unconfined aquifer. The pathway of flow is, provided by the numerous fractures connecting the two aquifers and the mine tunnel. The major hydrochemical activity resulting in pollution of the mine water occurs within the sumps in the floor of the longwalls. These sumps act as oxidation chambers where groundwater from the fractures mixes and subsequently reacts with sulfur-rich solutes released by coal mining. Contrary to general belief, the mine drainage has not seriously degraded the chemistry of receiving streams. The pH and electric conductivity, representing, the dissolved ions, were increased less than 10% of the values in the unaffected region

  20. Long hole waterjet drilling for gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Stockwell; M. Gledhill; S. Hildebrand; S. Adam; Tim Meyer [CMTE (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. The objective of this project is to develop and trial a new drilling method for the accurate and efficient installation of long inseam boreholes (>1000 metres). This involves the integration of pure water-jet drilling technology (i.e. not water-jet assisted rotary drilling) developed by CMTE with conventional directional drilling technology. The system was similar to conventional directional drilling methods, but instead of relying on a down-hole-motor (DHM) rotating a mechanical drill bit for cutting, high pressure water-jets were used. The testing of the system did not achieve the full objectives set down in the project plan. A borehole greater than 1000 metres was not achieved. The first trial site had coal that was weathered, oxidized and dry. These conditions significantly affected the ability of the drilling tool to stay 'in-seam'. Due to the poor conditions at the first trial, many experimental objectives were forwarded to the second field trial. In the second trial drilling difficulties were experienced, this was due to the interaction between the confinement of the borehole and the dimensions of the down hole drilling assembly. This ultimately reduced the productivity of the system and the distance that could be drilled within the specified trial periods. Testing in the first field trial did not show any indication that the system would have this difficulty.

  1. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  2. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona

    Losses of phosphorus (P) in drainage waters contribute an estimated 33% to the total agricultural P load in Denmark. Mitigating agricultural P losses is challenging, as critical P losses comprise only a very small fraction of actual soil P contents and are not directly related to fertilizer P input...... filters and constructed wetlands (CWs). Various natural and industrial P filter substrates (granulated Fe-oxides, crushed seashells, Filtralite-PTM, granulated lime, calcined diatomitic earth) have been tested for their affinity and long-term capacity to reduce inlet P concentrations to below...

  3. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to demonstrate feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners....

  4. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) demonstrated feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners. This was...

  5. Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Wang, Qin; Davidson, Brian R; Lin, He; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of pre-operative biliary drainage versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (direct surgery) in patients with obstructive jaundice (irrespective of a benign or malignant cause). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2012. Selection criteria We included all randomised clinical trials comparing biliary drainage followed by surgery versus direct surgery, performed for obstructive jaundice, irrespective of the sample size, language, and publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the available patient analyses. We assessed the risk of bias (systematic overestimation of benefit or systematic underestimation of harm) with components of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We assessed the risk of play of chance (random errors) with trial sequential analysis. Main results We included six trials with 520 patients comparing pre-operative biliary drainage (265 patients) versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (255 patients). Four trials used percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two trials used endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting as the method of pre-operative biliary drainage. The risk of bias was high in all trials. The proportion of patients with malignant obstruction varied between 60

  6. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  7. Drainage facility management system : final report, June 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This research project identified requirements for a drainage facility management system for the Oregon Department of Transportation. It also estimated the personnel resources needed to collect the inventory to populate such a system with data. A tota...

  8. Drainage identification analysis and mapping, phase 2 : technical brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research studied, tested and rectified the compatibility issue related to the recent upgrades of : NJDOT vendor inspection software, and uploaded all collected data to make Drainage Identification : Analysis and Mapping System (DIAMS) current an...

  9. Ross Ice Drainage System (RIDS) Glaciochemical Analysis, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ross Ice Drainage System (RIDS) project provides a high-resolution record of atmospheric chemical deposition taken from several ice cores and snow pits located...

  10. A skin abscess model for teaching incision and drainage procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Michael T; Manthey, David E; McGinnis, Henderson D; Nicks, Bret A; Pariyadath, Manoj

    2008-07-03

    Skin and soft tissue infections are increasingly prevalent clinical problems, and it is important for health care practitioners to be well trained in how to treat skin abscesses. A realistic model of abscess incision and drainage will allow trainees to learn and practice this basic physician procedure. We developed a realistic model of skin abscess formation to demonstrate the technique of incision and drainage for educational purposes. The creation of this model is described in detail in this report. This model has been successfully used to develop and disseminate a multimedia video production for teaching this medical procedure. Clinical faculty and resident physicians find this model to be a realistic method for demonstrating abscess incision and drainage. This manuscript provides a detailed description of our model of abscess incision and drainage for medical education. Clinical educators can incorporate this model into skills labs or demonstrations for teaching this basic procedure.

  11. Accelerating transient drainage from UMTRA Project tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The period between the completion of construction of the tailings disposal cell and the establishment of equilibrium moisture content and seepage conditions is considered to be the period of transient drainage. Transient drainage may be due to factors such as construction water, precipitation, or residual water from the milling process. Transient seepage rates usually exceed steady state seepage rates. If the transient seepage rate causes contaminant levels to exceed groundwater compliance standards, then an alternative groundwater compliance strategy or technical approach to reduce or mitigate the effects of the drainage must be adopted. This study examines methods to accelerate the transient drainage of soils and hence to remove excess pore water from tailings in UMTRA Project disposal cells. The technical and economic feasibility of possible methods is examined. In order to perform comparative economical analyses of the various methods, an example tailings pile is postulated. This pile is considered to be 300 meters by 300 meters by 10 meters in thickness

  12. Properties of the subglacial till inferred from supraglacial lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, J. A.; Hewitt, D.

    2017-12-01

    The buildup and drainage of supraglacial lakes along the margins of the Greenland ice sheet has been previously observed using detailed GPS campaigns which show that rapid drainage events are often preceded by localised, transient uplift followed by rapid, and much broader scale, uplift and flexure associated with the main drainage event [1,2]. Previous models of these events have focused on fracturing during rapid lake drainage from an impermeable bedrock [3] or a thin subglacial film [4]. We present a new model of supraglacial drainage that couples the water flux from rapid lake drainage events to a simplified model of the pore-pressure in a porous, subglacial till along with a simplified model of the flexure of glacial ice. Using a hybrid mathematical model we explore the internal transitions between turbulent and laminar flow throughout the evolving subglacial cavity and porous till. The model predicts that an initially small water flux may locally increase pore-pressure in the till leading to uplift and a local divergence in the ice velocity that may ultimately be responsible for large hydro-fracturing and full-scale drainage events. Furthermore, we find that during rapid drainage while the presence of a porous, subglacial till is crucial for propagation, the manner of spreading is remarkably insensitive to the properties of the subglacial till. This is in stark contrast to the post-drainage relaxation of the pore pressure, and hence sliding velocity, which is highly sensitive to the permeability, compressibility and thickness of subglacial till. We use our model, and the inferred sensitivity to the properties of the subglacial till after the main drainage event, to infer the properties of the subglacial till. The results suggest that a detailed interpretation of supraglacial lake drainage may provide important insights into the hydrology of the subglacial till along the margins of the Greenland ice sheet, and the coupling of pore pressure in subglacial till

  13. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, Jiří; Kolejka, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (UGN-S) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Physical geography (UGN-S) Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  14. Infected Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Device by Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul-Laila Salim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole.

  15. Percutaneous drainage of complicated abscesses and fluid collections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, G.R.; Karnel, F.; Kumpan, W.; Herold, C.; Schurawitzki, H.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Casola, G.; Jantsch, H.

    1987-01-01

    The original concept of percutaneous, radiological abscess drainage was confined to well circumscribed, solitary abscesses, that could be reached by a short access avoiding transgression of uninvolved organs or compartments. With increasing experience criteria for percutaneous abscess drainage have been expanded to radiological treatment of pancreatic, periappendiceal, diverticular, interloop and mediastinal abscesses and fluid collections. The authors present their experience with percutaneous treatment of such 'complicated' abscesses in 140 patients. (orig.) [de

  16. Reducing phosphorus loss in tile water with managed drainage in a claypan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Patrick R; Nelson, Kelly A; Motavalli, Peter P; Nathan, Manjula; Dudenhoeffer, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Installing subsurface tile drain systems in poorly drained claypan soils to improve corn ( L.) yields could potentially increase environmental phosphorus (P) loss through the tile drainage system. The objectives of the study were to quantify the average concentration and loss of ortho-P in tile drain water from a claypan soil and to determine whether managed subsurface drainage (MD) could reduce ortho-P loss in tile water compared with free subsurface drainage (FD). Flow-weighted ortho-P concentration in the tile water was significantly lower with MD (0.09 mg L) compared with that of FD (0.15 mg L). Ortho-P loss in the tile water of this study was reduced with MD (36 g ha) by 80% compared with FD (180 g ha). Contrary to previous research, reduced ortho-P loss observed over the 4-yr study was not solely due to the reduced amount of water drained annually (63%) with MD compared with FD. During the spring period, when flow was similar between MD and FD, the concentration of ortho-P in the tile water generally was lower with MD compared with FD, which resulted in significantly less ortho-P loss with MD. We speculate that MD's ability to conserve water during the dry summer months increased corn's uptake of water and P, which reduced the amount of P available for leaching loss in the subsequent springs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Is routine abdominal drainage necessary after liver resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Seidai; Hatano, Etsuro; Yoh, Tomoaki; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Okajima, Hideaki; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-06-01

    Prophylactic abdominal drainage is performed routinely after liver resection in many centers. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and validity of liver resection without abdominal drainage and to clarify whether routine abdominal drainage after liver resection is necessary. Patients who underwent elective liver resection without bilio-enteric anastomosis between July, 2006 and June, 2012 were divided into two groups, based on whether surgery was performed before or after, we adopted the no-drain strategy. The "former group" comprised 256 patients operated on between July, 2006 and June, 2009 and the "latter group" comprised 218 patients operated between July, 2009 and June, 2012. We compared the postoperative complications, percutaneous drainage, and postoperative hospital stay between the groups, retrospectively. There were no significant differences in the rates of postoperative bleeding, intraabdominal infection, or bile leakage between the groups. Drain insertion after liver resection did not reduce the rate of percutaneous drainage. Postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the latter group. Routine abdominal drainage is unnecessary after liver resection without bilio-enteric anastomosis.

  18. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intraabdominal abscesses and fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kwon, Tae Hee; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Young Ho

    1986-01-01

    Percutaneous catheter drainage has been reported to be an effective method in the management of selected patients with abscess and fluid collection. Its high success rate and relatively low complications make the procedure an alternative to surgery in the individual cases. During past two years percutaneous catheter drainage in 25 patients with intraabdominal abscesses and fluid collection was performed at the Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of medicine. Here the technique and author's results were summarized. 1. The total 25 patients who had percutaneous catheter drainage are 10 liver abscesses, 3 subphrenic, one subhepatic, 4 renal and perirenal, 2 pelvic, one psoas, one anterior pararenal fluid from acute pancreatitis, one pancreas pseudocyst and 2 malignant tumor necrosis. 2. The modified Seldinger technique used for all cases of abscess and fluid drainage under guidance of ultrasound scan. The used catheters were 10F. Pigtail and 14F. Malecot (Cook c/o) catheters. 3. The abscesses and fluid of 17 patients among 25 were cured by the percutaneous catheter drainage and 4 patients were clinically improved. The catheter drainage was failed in 2 patients and 3 complication were developed. 4. The success rate of this procedure was 91.3%, failure rate was 8.7% and complication rate was 12%.

  19. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 175 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik

    1990-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a safe, effective and palliative means of treatment in biliary obstruction, especially in cases with malignant obstruction which are inoperable. 175 cases of transhepatic biliary drainage were performed on 119 patients with biliary obstruction from January 1985 to June 1989 at Kyung-pook National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice were 110 malignant diseases and 9 benign diseases. The most common indication for drainage was palliative intervention of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 89 cases. 86 cases of external drainage were performed including 3 cases of left duct approach, 29 cases of external-internal drainage and 60 cases of endoprosthesis. In external and external-internal drainages, immediate major complications (11.9%) occurred, including not restricted to, but sepsis, bile peritonitis and hemobilia. Delayed major complications (42.9%) were mainly catheter related. The delayed major complication of endoprosthesis resulted from obstruction of the internal stent. The mean time period to reobstruction of the internal stent was about 12 weeks. To improve management status, regular follow-up is required, as is education of both patients and their families as to when immediate clinical attention is mandated. Close communication amongst the varying medical specialities involved will be necessary to provide optional treatment for each patient

  20. Do general dental practitioners leave teeth on 'open drainage'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Barber, M W; Harris, I

    2013-12-01

    There is a need to ascertain the use of evidence-based dentistry in both primary and secondary care in order to tailor education. This study aims to evaluate the use of 'open drainage' as part of endodontic treatment in primary care in South Yorkshire. A questionnaire was circulated to 141 randomly selected general dental practitioners in the South Yorkshire area between January 2012 and January 2013. The response rate was 79% (112/141). Five of the returned questionnaires were incomplete and therefore not usable. Seventy-nine percent of respondents were general dental practitioners (GDPs) working in mainly NHS or mixed practices. The year of graduation varied between 1970 and 2011. Forty-one percent (44/107) stated that they had never left a tooth on open drainage. Twenty-nine percent (31/107) stated that they sometimes leave teeth on open drainage. Of those respondents who currently leave teeth on open drainage, most (68%) would leave teeth on open drainage for one to two days or less. This survey revealed that the practice of leaving teeth on open drainage is still present in general dental practice. Current guidelines do not comment on the use of this treatment modality. There is a need to ascertain further information about practices throughout the United Kingdom in order to provide clear evidence-based guidelines.

  1. Elaboration of climatic maps using GIS. Case study: Olãnesti drainage basin, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrlã, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Creating precise climatic maps (temperature and precipitation map especially) on small areas such as drainage basins or landform units is always very useful for ecology of plants, distribution of vegetation and also different types of agricultural land. The geographic information system (GIS) analysis of several key-factors (aspect and slope of terrain, insolation degree, thermal gradient, geology and structure of landforms) offers the necessary tools to operate with in order to create an accurate climatic map. This method was applied in order to create a map showing the distribution of temperatures in the Olanesti drainages basin, a 235 km2 area located at middle latitude, in Romania. After creating the DEM, aspect and slope of the terrain, reclassifying categories and calculating the thermal gradient, a map showing the distribution of the annual mean temperature is obtained. Other climatic parameters could be calculated for small areas too, with precise results. These demonstrate that not only elevation and mathematical location of an area are important factors in the distribution of temperature, but also the aspect, the gradient, the insolation, the type of rock and the structure.

  2. Solid Cattle Manure Less Prone to Phosphorus Loss in Tile Drainage Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y T; Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Qi, Z M; Welacky, T

    2018-03-01

    Forms (e.g., liquid and solid) of manure influence the risk of P loss after land application. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of P-based application of various forms of cattle manure (liquid, LCM; or solid, SCM) or inorganic P as triple superphosphate (IP) on soil P losses in tile drainage water. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted in a clay loam soil with a corn ( L.)-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation in the Lake Erie basin. Over the 4 yr, the dissolved reactive P (DRP) flow-weighted mean concentration (FWMC) in tile drainage water was greater under SCM fertilization than under either IP or LCM fertilization. Despite its lower value on an annual basis, DRP FWMC rose dramatically immediately after LCM application. However, the differences in DRP FWMC did not result in detectable differences in DRP loads. Regarding particulate P and total P losses during the 4 yr, they were 68 and 47%, respectively, lower in the soils amended with SCM than in those with IP, whereas both values were similar between IP and LCM treatments. Overall, the P contained in solid cattle manure was less prone to P loss after land application. Accordingly, the present results can provide a basis for manure storage and application of best management practices designed to reduce P losses and improve crop growth. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. 46 CFR 116.1120 - Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1120 Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck...

  4. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 24 April 2017. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  5. Acid mine drainage in South Africa: A test of legitimacy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitumelo Loate

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a large body of international literature which suggests that there is a correlation between organisational legitimacy, the nature and extent of non-financial disclosures in corporate reports, and the society’s awareness of social, governance and environmental concerns. Little studied, however, is corporate reporting in South Africa through the lens of legitimacy theory. This paper addresses this gap by exploring whether local mining companies are providing additional environmental information in their annual or integrated reports following media coverage on acid mine drainage and, if so, to what extent. A review of press articles released by the mining houses also reveals how claims to pragmatic, moral and cognitive legitimacy are employed to mitigate negative publicity. In this way, the paper offers additional material on the role of legitimacy theory for explaining developments in corporate reporting. It also contributes to the limited body of interpretive corporate governance research in a South African context.

  6. Sensitivity of drainage efficiency of cranberry fields to edaphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean; Hallema, Dennis W.

    2014-05-01

    Water management on a cranberry farm requires intelligent irrigation and drainage strategies to sustain strong productivity and minimize environmental impact. For example, to avoid propagation of disease and meet evapotranspiration demand, it is imperative to maintain optimal moisture conditions in the root zone, which depends on an efficient drainage system. However, several drainage problems have been identified in cranberry fields. Most of these drainage problems are due to the presence of a restrictive layer in the soil profile (Gumiere et al., 2014). The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of a restrictive layer on the drainage efficiency by the bias of a multi-local sensitivity analysis. We have tested the sensitivity of the drainage efficiency to different input parameters set of soil hydraulic properties, geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Soil water flux dynamic for every input parameters set was simulated with finite element model Hydrus 1D (Simanek et al., 2008). Multi-local sensitivity was calculated with the Gâteaux directional derivatives with the procedure described by Cheviron et al. (2010). Results indicate that drainage efficiency is more sensitive to soil hydraulic properties than geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Then, the geometrical parameters of the depth are more sensitive than the thickness. The drainage efficiency was very insensitive to the climatic conditions. Understanding the sensitivity of drainage efficiency according to soil hydraulic properties, geometrical and climatic conditions are essential for diagnosis drainage problems. However, it becomes important to identify the mechanisms involved in the genesis of anthropogenic soils cranberry to identify conditions that may lead to the formation of a restrictive layer. References: Cheviron, B., S.J. Gumiere, Y. Le Bissonnais, R. Moussa and D. Raclot. 2010. Sensitivity analysis of distributed erosion models: Framework. Water Resources Research

  7. Endoscopic computerized tomography guided percutaneous trans-gastric drainage: A case report on this hybrid approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsui, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Saito, Nobuhiro; Ohdaira, Hironori; Yamanouchi, Eigoro; Yoshida, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous drainage, percutaneous transgastric drainage, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transgastric drainage are primarily utilized for drainage of fluid collections dorsal to the stomach. Percutaneous transgastric drainage is performed with computed tomography (CT) guidance, but it requires inflation of a balloon in the stomach, and gastric peristalsis makes it difficult to ensure a reliable puncture route via the stomach. Using endoscopy-assisted CT-guidance, we were able to safe...

  8. Profile of thoracic trauma victims submitted to chest drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESAR AUGUSTO BROSKA JÚNIOR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe and compare the variables involved in trauma victims undergoing thoracic drainage. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, analytical, descriptive, cross-sectional study, with medical records of patients attended at the Trauma Service of the Curitiba Evangelical University Hospital between February 2011 and January 2014. Results: there were 488 patients undergoing chest drainage, 84.7% men and 15.3% women, with an average age of 38.2 years. Attendances usually occurred at night, without predominance between open or closed mechanism, gender or age group. The majority of patients with thoracic trauma requiring drainage were diagnosed by anamnesis and physical examination (41.1% and drained in the emergency room (80.8%. Most of the patients (66.2% had another associated lesion, mostly some abdominal viscera. Complications were present in 16.6% (81 patients, most of them due to drainage positioning error (9.2%. The mean hospital stay was 15 days and drainage lasted for an average of 8.1 days, with no statistical difference between open and closed trauma. The clinical outcome was discharge in most cases. Conclusion: the profile of patients with thoracic trauma is that of young men, attended at night, with some other associated lesion. Although diagnosis and treatment were rapid and most often without the need for complex examinations, the time of drainage, hospitalization and complications were higher than in the literature, which can be explained by the drainage being made at the Emergency Room and the presence of associated injuries.

  9. A novel high vacuum chest drainage system - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrówczyński, Wojciech; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Khabiri, Ebrahim; Giliberto, Jean-Pierre; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kalangos, Afksendiyos; Walpoth, Beat H

    2014-09-01

    To assess the safety and feasibility of use of a novel high vacuum chest drainage system (HVCDS) and its influence on the cardiovascular system compared to a conventional system (CCDS). Five anesthetized pigs underwent a median sternotomy. Three drains were placed in retrocardiac, retrosternal and left pleural positions. The animals received a HVCDS (22 Fr with 180 2-mm holes, n = 2) or a CCDS (n = 2). In the fifth animal off pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCABG) stabilizers were tested. After chest closure animals had three 30 min runs of artificial bleeding (5 ml/min) under different negative aspiration pressures (-2, -20, -40 kPa) for both groups, followed by standardized surgical bleeding (-40 kPa - HVCDS, - 2 kPa - CCDS). Hemodynamic parameters and each drain's output were registered every 5 minutes and the residual blood was assessed. All catheters, the heart and left lung underwent macroscopic and histopathological examination. The application of the different pressures showed neither hemodynamic changes nor differences in blood drainage with both systems in two bleeding models. The HVCDS enabled drainage comparable to the CCDS but showed relevant clotting. Application of -20 kPa and -40 kPa caused macroscopic epicardial and pulmonary lesions in all tested devices including OPCABG stabilizers consisting of sub-epicardial or sub-pleural hemorrhage without myocyte or alveolar damage. The novel and conventional chest drainage systems used at pressures up to 40 kPa induced no hemodynamic instability. Both systems showed adequate equal drainage, despite major HVCDS clotting. High negative pressure drainage with both systems showed focal sub-epicardial and subpleural hemorrhage. Thus, long-term assessment of high pressure drainage and potential interaction with fragile structures (coronary bypass graft) should be carried out.

  10. Nitrogen budget in the Changjiang River drainage area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Cao, Xihua

    2012-07-01

    We established a budget model of nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs between watersheds and waterbodies to determine the sources of riverine N in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage area. Nitrogen inputs in the budget included N from synthetic fertilizer, biological fixation by leguminous and other crops, wet/dry atmospheric deposition, excreta from humans and animals, and crop residues. The total N input was estimated to be 17.6 Tg, of which 20% or 3.5 Tg N was transported into waterbodies. Of the total N transported into waterbodies, the largest proportion was N from animal waste (26%), followed by N from atmospheric wet/dry deposition (25%), synthetic fertilizer N (17%), N in sewage wastes (17%), N in human waste from rural areas (6%) and industrial wastewater N (9%). We studied the spatial patterns of N inputs and outputs by dividing the Changjiang River drainage area into four sub-basins, from upstream to downstream: the Tongtian River drainage area (TTD, the headwater drainage area, 138 000 km2, less disturbed by human activities); the Jinsha River drainage area (JSD, 347 000 km2, less disturbed by human activities, approx. 3 500 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); the Pingshan-Yichang drainage area (PYD, 520 500 km2, large-scale human disturbance, about 2 000 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); and the Yichang-Datong drainage area (YDD, 699 900 km2, large-scale human disturbance, approx. 620 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary). The average N input into waterbodies was 2.3, 7.3, 24.1, and 28.2 kg N/ha in the TTD, JSD, PYD, and YDD sub-basins, respectively, suggesting an increase of N-components of more than 10 times from upstream to downstream areas.

  11. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-06-24

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported "enteric

  12. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  13. A reassessment of the englacial and subglacial drainage system of Storglaciären in northern Sweden - How much did climate warming change the drainage system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Rosqvist, G. N.; Jansson, P.; Lyon, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    Storglaciären glacier, located in the sub-arctic Tarfala catchment, in northern Sweden is one of the world's longest continuously monitored glaciers which provides a unique research platform for the long-term assessment of climate change impacts on mountain glacier systems. In the presented study we assess signals of climate-induced change in the englacial and subglacial drainage system of the lower ablation area of Storglaciären. Flow velocities and dispersive characteristics of the englacial and subglacial hydraulic system were re-investigated in the 2012 summer melt season using fluorescent dye-tracing tests and compared to previous assessments of from the 1980s and 1990s. Historical hydro-climatic records from Tarfala catchment indicate that there have been significant increases in the cold season air temperature (0.76 °C/decade, 1965-2009) and a doubling of summer event precipitation over the past four decades. These changes contributed to the consistently negative glacier net balance of Storglaciären and significant positive trends in both the mean summer discharge and flood magnitudes over the past 45 years. Six of the eight largest annual maximum flood events occurred during the last decade and meltwater contributions from Storglaciären to the Tarfalajokken stream increased by 15% during the same period. These hydro-climatic trends in conjunction with an isotopic hydrograph separation of present-day samplings indicate that high magnitude rainfall events receive an increasing role in the runoff generation in Tarfala catchment and the glacier systems. This shift towards a greater rainwater contribution to catchment streamflow and glacier runoff indicates fundamental changes in the pathways that water takes through the glacier. The isotopic data suggests that the transit of rainwater via the englacial drainage system is increasing. However, in contrast to the 1980s assessment, dye-tracing tests conducted in 2012 indicate that the majority of meltwater

  14. Variations in discharge and temperature of mineral springs at the Frantiskovy Lazne Spa, Czech Republic, during a nearby earthquake swarm in 1985/1986

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Vladimír; Málek, Jiří; Novotný, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2008), s. 589-606 ISSN 0039-3169. [West-Bohemia/Vogtland international workshop "Geodynamics of Earthquake Swarm Areas" /8./. Františkovy Lázně, 16.10.2007-19.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD205/05/H020; GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : western Bohemia * earthquake swarm * mineral springs Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  15. Nuclear engineering, health physics, and radioactive waste management fellowship program: Summary of program activities: Nuclear engineering and health physics fellowship, 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Progress is reported in the nuclear engineering and health physics elements of the fellowship program. Statistics are given on numbers of student applications and new appointments, the degree areas of applicants, GPA and GRE score averages of the fellows, and employment of completed fellows

  16. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of Critical Parameters to Improve Slope Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Weng Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on identifying and evaluating critical parameters of various drainage configurations, arrangement, and filter which affect the efficiency of water draining system in slopes. There are a total of seven experiments with different types of homogeneous soil, drainage envelope, filter material, and quantity of pipes performed utilizing a model box with a dimension of 0.8 m × 0.8 m × 0.6 m. The pipes were orientated at 5 degrees from the horizontal. Rainfall event was introduced via a rainfall simulator with rainfall intensity of 434.1 mm/h. From the experiments performed, the expected outcomes when utilizing double pipes and geotextile as envelope filter were verified in this study. The results obtained from these experiments were reviewed and compared with Chapter 14 “Subsurface Drainage Systems” of DID’s Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage Manual of Malaysia and the European standard. It is recommended that the pipe installed in the slope could be wrapped with geotextile and in tandem with application of granular filter to minimize clogging without affecting the water discharge rate. Terzaghi’s filter criteria could be followed closely when deciding on new materials to act as aggregate filter. A caging system could be introduced as it could maintain the integrity of the drainage system and could ease installation.

  18. The effect of climate change on urban drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, M.; Jørgensen, A.T.; Johansen, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    That we are in a period of extraordinary rates of climate change is today evident. These climate changes are likely to impact local weather conditions with direct impacts on precipitation patterns and urban drainage. In recent years several studies have focused on revealing the nature, extent and...... to urban drainage. However, in spite of these uncertainties, and others raised in the discussion, the tendency is clear: extreme precipitation events effecting urban drainage and causing flooding will become more frequent as a result of climate change.......That we are in a period of extraordinary rates of climate change is today evident. These climate changes are likely to impact local weather conditions with direct impacts on precipitation patterns and urban drainage. In recent years several studies have focused on revealing the nature, extent...... and consequences of climate change on urban drainage and urban runoff pollution issues. This study uses predictions from a regional climate model to look at the effects of climate change on extreme precipitation events. Results are presented in terms of point rainfall extremes. The analysis involves three steps...

  19. Efficiency of lachrymal sac drainage in newborns with dacryocystocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakovich V.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents results of treatment of 14 newborns with unilateral dacryocystocele. Patients age was 7.2±0.5 days. In 9 newborns (64.3% dacryocystocele was complicated with lachrymal sac phlegmon; in 5 children (35.7% any complications were absent. Drainage of lachrymal sac through the lower lachrymal canaliculus, instillation of antibiotics, systemic antibiotic therapy in case of phlegmon were performed in all the children. Lachrymal sac washing was performed with a solution of the antibiotic ofloxacin till clear fluid evacuation. If necessary the drainage was repeated in 10 days. The drainage of lachrymal sac was successful in all the patients. 2-3 weeks after the drainage probing of nasolachrymal duct was perfomed in 4 children (28.6% including those 3 with lacrymal sac phlegmon. In 71.4% regression of dacryocystocele occurred itself. Any complications and side effects were not observed. Positive effect of the drainage, according to the authors, can be explained so that dilatation of lachrymal canaliculus before the procedure allows to eliminate Rosenmьller valve stenosis and evacuation of fluid, mucus and pus, being breeding ground for microorganisms from lachrymal sac, promotes inflammation subsiding. Authors also recommend to pay attention on prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele, using ultrasound investigation in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

  20. Percutaneous drainage with ultrasound guidance in the intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Doo Kyung; Won, Je Hwan; Kim, Jai Keun; Lee, Kwang Hun; Kim, Ji Hyung

    2004-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of bedside percutaneous drainage procedures with ultrasound guidance in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Sixty five percutaneous drainage procedures performed at the bedside, in 39 ICU patients, were evaluated. All of the procedures were performed with ultrasound guidance alone. The procedures consisted of percutaneous drainage of abdominal (n=35) and pleural (n=27) fluids, percutaneous cholecystostomy (n=2) and percutaneous nephrostomy (n=1). The clinical responses were classified as 'complete response', 'partial response', 'failure' or 'undetermined'. The medical records were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the clinical response. Technical success was achieved in 64 of the 65 procedures (98.5%). The complication rate was 13.8% (9 cases). There was no immediate procedure-related death or worsening of the clinical condition of the patients. The clinical responses after drainage were 'complete response' in 39 cases (60.9%). 'partial response' in 14 (21.9%), 'failure' in 3 (4.7%), and 'undetermined' in 8 (12.5%). Bedside drainage procedures with ultrasound guidance are effective and safe to perform when patients are too critically ill to be moved from the ICU to the angiography room

  1. Drainage from coal mines: Chemistry and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildeman, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the research on coal-mine drainage chemistry was conducted a decade ago, and now increased environmental awareness has brought about renewed interest in the findings. Consideration of the trace minerals and elements in coal points to the possible generation of acidic waters upon weathering, especially when pyrite is present. When pyrite weathers, it produces H + and Fe 3+ which catalyze the incongruent weathering of other carbonates and sulfides. In this weathering mechanism, catalysis by bacteria is important. Of the environmental problems in coal mine drainage, the mineral acidity of the water is the most serious. This is caused not only by the H + , but also by Mn 4+ , Fe 3+ , and Al 3+ that are found or generated within the drainage. Case studies in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Colorado show that the abundance and form of pyrite in the deposit and in the overburden determines the level of acidity and the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the drainage. Recent trends in environmental enforcement that emphasize integrated stream water standards and biotoxicity assays point to the possibility that the concentrations of heavy metals in coal mine drainages may cause environmental concern

  2. Implications of deep drainage through saline clay for groundwater recharge and sustainable cropping in a semi-arid catchment, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, W. A.; Young, R. R.; Huth, N.

    2012-04-01

    contrast to regional groundwater modelling that assumes annual recharge of 0.5% of rainfall. Importantly, it was found that leaching from episodic deep drainage could not cause discharge of saline groundwater in the area, since the water table was several meters below the incised river bed.

  3. Implications of deep drainage through saline clay for groundwater recharge and sustainable cropping in a semi-arid catchment, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Timms

    2012-04-01

    rainfall and large potential evapotranspiration, transient hydrological conditions after changes in land use and a thick clay dominated vadose zone.

    This is in contrast to regional groundwater modelling that assumes annual recharge of 0.5% of rainfall. Importantly, it was found that leaching from episodic deep drainage could not cause discharge of saline groundwater in the area, since the water table was several meters below the incised river bed.

  4. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  5. Urban drainage design and climate change adaptation decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian

    century, the design objectives of urban drainage systems also include elements such as environmental protection and amenity values. Among the objectives, flood protection has received much attention in recent years as a result of increasing flood hazards and risks due to climate change impacts. Although...... new principles and approaches for assessment of urban drainage adaptation measures under climate change impacts. The thesis describes a new framework for design and analysis of urban drainage that accurately assesses hazards and vulnerabilities of urban areas and quantifies the present and future...... risks based on projections of climate change and city development. Furthermore, this framework can be utilized to identify cost-effective measures that can reduce the overall flood risk to an acceptable level considering both costs and benefits of adaptation. The framework is mainly based...

  6. Evaluation of the sustainability of road drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diez, Iván; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández Raga, María

    2017-04-01

    Water is the most erosive agent that exists on the linear structures, because they are constantly subjected to outdoor condition like irregular infiltration, frosts and different rain intensities. Another variables that highly influence in the entire lifetime of a natural drainage system are the spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall, the soil, the vegetation cover and the design. All this factors are affecting the vulnerability of the clearings and embankments, by wearing away the weakest materials which surround the roads or train rails, producing erosion and very bumpy surfaces. The result is that the original pattern, developped to disminished the lost of soil, is not properly working and it cannot eliminate water, with the consequence destruction of the linear structure after several rainfall periods, and the accumulation of material down slope. The propose of this research focuses on analysing the drainage systems used in spanish roads and railways lines. For this purpose, a revision of the literature has been done, and the main drainage solutions have been recovered, carrying out an evaluation of them from an environmental point of view. This procedure has been requested by several authors in the past (Nwa, E.U. & Twocock, J.G., 1969; Goulter, I.C., 1992), together with the need of designing a more sustainable drainage system. The final objective of this complete revision is to compare objetively the designs to valuate them in order to develop a new drainage patter which minimize the erosion, increasing the durability and effectiveness of the drainage system. For this purpose, it is neccesary to assure that all the systems will be compare under similar parameters of flow rate, vegetation, substrate, lenght, slope and total section. Only the channels pattern and water distribution will change. The analysis has been done following Liu, H. & Zhu, X.B., (2012), who pointed out that the main parameters to take into account to select a road drainage

  7. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  8. Drainage filters and constructed wetlands to mitigate sitespecific nutrient losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Canga, Eriona; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial efforts, the leaching of nutrients from agricultural land is still a serious and costly environmental problem in Denmark and elsewhere. The quality goals of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) for the aquatic environment require a substantial reduction of diffuse...... losses and 45-60% of total N losses. Hence, for a large number of recipients, drainage water nutrient loads has a major impact on water quality, however, mitigation options targeting subsurface drainage are lacking. An end-of-pipe drainage filter solution offers the benefits of a targeted measure...... as surface-flow and subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Various natural and industrial P filter substrates are tested towards P sorption properties, as well as hydraulic efficiency and P retention efficiency during variable flow regimes. A major challenge is to reduce comparatively low P concentrations...

  9. Electronic versus traditional chest tube drainage following lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Licht, Peter B; Neckelmann, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Electronic drainage systems have shown superiority compared with traditional (water seal) drainage systems following lung resections, but the number of studies is limited. As part of a medico-technical evaluation, before change of practice to electronic drainage systems for routine...... was delegated to staff nurses. Data were analysed by Cox proportional hazard regression model adjusting for lung function, gender, age, BMI, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) or open surgery and presence of incomplete fissure or pleural adhesions. Time was distinguished as possible (optimal) and actual...... time for chest tube removal, as well as length of hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients were randomized. We found no significant difference between the electronic group and traditional group in optimal chest tube duration (HR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.55-1.25; P = 0.367), actual chest tube duration...

  10. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  11. Meta-analysis of prophylactic abdominal drainage in pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttner, F J; Probst, P; Knebel, P; Strobel, O; Hackert, T; Ulrich, A; Büchler, M W; Diener, M K

    2017-05-01

    Intra-abdominal drains are frequently used after pancreatic surgery whereas their benefit in other gastrointestinal operations has been questioned. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare abdominal drainage with no drainage after pancreatic surgery. PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science electronic databases were searched systematically to identify RCTs comparing abdominal drainage with no drainage after pancreatic surgery. Two independent reviewers critically appraised the studies and extracted data. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to aggregate dichotomous outcomes, and weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes. Summary effect measures were presented together with their 95 per cent confidence intervals. Some 711 patients from three RCTs were included. The 30-day mortality rate was 2·0 per cent in the drain group versus 3·4 per cent after no drainage (OR 0·68, 95 per cent c.i. 0·26 to 1·79; P = 0·43). The morbidity rate was 65·6 per cent in the drain group and 62·0 per cent in the no-drain group (OR 1·17, 0·86 to 1·60; P = 0·31). Clinically relevant pancreatic fistulas were seen in 11·5 per cent of patients in the drain group and 9·5 per cent in the no-drain group. Reinterventions, intra-abdominal abscesses and duration of hospital stay also showed no significant difference between the two groups. Pancreatic resection with, or without abdominal drainage results in similar rates of mortality, morbidity and reintervention. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mine water quality deterioration due to acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep

    1987-03-01

    Water quality deterioration due to acid mine drainage is of concern in the northeastern coalfield of India as the water in this area is severely polluted. The mine drainage water emanating from various collieries are highly acidic in character and contain high hardness, sulphate, total dissolved solids and iron coupled with low pH values—which further results in contamination of trace (heavy) metals at significant levels. Trace metals are highly toxic and undesirable and are injurious to human health. These acidic waters are also typically hard in character because of iron sulphate content rather than common Ca-Mg bicarbonate type hardness.

  13. Spontaneous drainage in syringomyelia: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, E.I.; Mendelevich, E.G.; Ibatullin, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    We present five cases of syringomyelia associated with Chiari I or other causes of partial obstructions at the cervicomedullary junction, with spontaneous disruption of the wall of a cervical syrinx and formation of a communication between the cavity and the subarachnoid space, shown on axial MRI. MRI can be used to investigate the hydrodynamics, showing the liquid inside the disrupted syrinx wall and the pathway of drainage. The finding of spontaneous drainage may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of syringomyelia and may be helpful for choosing a surgical approach. (orig.)

  14. Producing the Drainage Layer Database for North America (WATGRID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seglenieks, F. R.; Soulis, E. D.; Mackay, M.

    2004-05-01

    The hydrological component of coupled atmospheric-hydrologic models requires the creation of the drainage layer database (i.e. stream channel network, slopes, etc.). This is often done from a digital elevation model (DEM) using a lowest neighbour approach, however this method can lead to incorrect flow directions especially with large grid sizes. Using a technique developed by the Waterloo Hydrology Lab at the University of Waterloo, the drainage layer database for North America was produced at varying resolutions for a project called WATGRID. The projection used was based on the polar stereographic projection used by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) for the Mackenzie Basin GEWEX Study (MAGS) at resolutions of 500, 200, and 51 km. The procedure involved first obtaining the best possible DEM and land cover map. Currently the best available public domain data set for elevation is the GTOPO30 database and for land cover it is the Global Land Cover Characterization database. Both of these data sets have a resolution of approximately 1 km and are available for all of North America from the USGS. The DEM was then verified so that it produced the correct derived river channels. To do this the river network derived from the DEM was compared to the river networks available in vector format from base maps of North America. The DEM was modified until the derived stream network produced drainage areas within 5% of measured values for all basins over 500 000 km2. Once the DEM was verified, the program WATMAP was used to derive the drainage layer database for various resolutions. This program divides the data sets into grid squares based on the required projection and resolution, then for each grid square it calculates the inflows and outflows around the perimeter of the grid square. From this, the program can determine the maximum outflow and inflow to derive parameters such as main drainage direction, secondary drainage direction, and channel slope. The program also

  15. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  16. Confronting the problem of implementing sustainable urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhaus, Antje; Fryd, Ole

    2010-01-01

    See presentation under: http://www.forskningsplatformen-vand.dk/Documents/Annual_meeting_2010/index.html......See presentation under: http://www.forskningsplatformen-vand.dk/Documents/Annual_meeting_2010/index.html...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUTOGENIC DRAINAGE VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH 15 MINUTES POST THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kiran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD and autogenic drainage (AD on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done on 60 patients with COPD. Dividing Patients into two group and patients were treated with PD or AD in separate Groups. The effectiveness of the treatment was measured up to 6 days. Pulse oximetry was monitored and sputum was collected immediately after treatment and 15 minutes following each treatment. Results: The results of the study shown that there was significant difference in the amount of sputum recovered with AD (14.0±3.5 g vs PD (24.4±3.0 g and significant differences in Oxygen saturation; during PD fell from 93.3±0.7% to 91.2±0.8% (p<0.01 and required 15 min following treatment to return to baseline. Oxygen saturation did not fall during AD and increased to gradually following complete treatment days (baseline, 93.3±0.8%; p<0.01. Conclusion: Hence this study concludes that Autogenic drainage is more effective in improving spo2 in COPD & does not cause a sudden fall in spo2 as occurs in Postural drainage immediately after therapy. And it can be better tolerated by patients with COPD while producing fewer benefits in sputum clearance. In concern to mean amount of secretion removal Postural is found to be more effective

  14. Occurrence of amphibians in northern California coastal dune drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Kleeman, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Many coastal dune ecosystems have been degraded by non-native dune vegetation, but these systems might still provide valuable habitat for some taxa, including amphibians. Because restoration of degraded dune systems is occurring and likely to continue, we examined the occurrence of amphibians in drainages associated with a coastal dune ecosystem degraded by invasive plants (European Beachgrass, Ammophila arenaria, and Iceplant, Carpobrotus edulis). We found that occupancy of 3 amphibian species (California Red-legged Frog, Rana draytonii; Sierran Treefrog, Hyliola sierra; and Rough-skinned Newt, Taricha granulosa) among 21 coastal-dune drainages was high, with most coastal-dune drainages occupied by all 3 species. Furthermore, reproduction of Sierran Treefrogs and California Red-legged Frogs was estimated to occur in approximately ½ and ⅓ of the drainages, respectively. The probability of occurrence of Rough-skinned Newts and pre-metamorphic life stages of both anurans decreased during the study, perhaps because of ongoing drought in California or precipitation-induced changes in phenology during the final year of the study. Maintaining structural cover and moist features during dune restoration will likely benefit native amphibian populations inhabiting coastal-dune ecosystems.

  15. A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow model, the SEAWAT model, was used to assess the influence of subsurface drain spacing, evapotranspiration and irrigation water quality on salt concentration at the base of the root zone, leaching and drainage in salt affected irrigated land. The study was carried out ...

  16. Subsurface Agricultural Irrigation Drainage: The Need for Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1993-01-01

    Subsurface drainage resulting from irrigated agriculture is a toxic threat to fish and wildlife resources throughout the western United States. Studies by the U.S. Department of the Interior show that migratory waterfowl have been poisoned by drainwater contaminants on at least six national wildlife refuges. Allowing this poisoning to continue is a violation of the...

  17. Long-Term Hydrologic Impacts of Controlled Drainage Using DRAINMOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, S.; Bowling, L. C.; Frankenberger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled drainage is a management strategy designed to mitigate water quality issues caused by subsurface drainage but it may increase surface ponding and runoff. To improve controlled drainage system management, a long-term and broader study is needed that goes beyond the experimental studies. Therefore, the goal of this study was to parametrize the DRAINMOD field-scale, hydrologic model for the Davis Purdue Agricultural Center located in Eastern Indiana and to predict the subsurface drain flow and surface runoff and ponding at this research site. The Green-Ampt equation was used to characterize the infiltration, and digital elevation models (DEMs) were used to estimate the maximum depressional storage as the surface ponding parameter inputs to DRAINMOD. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated using the Hooghoudt equation and the measured drain flow and water table depths. Other model inputs were either estimated or taken from the measurements. The DRAINMOD model was calibrated and validated by comparing model predictions of subsurface drainage and water table depths with field observations from 2012 to 2016. Simulations based on the DRAINMOD model can increase understanding of the environmental and hydrological effects over a broader temporal and spatial scale than is possible using field-scale data and this is useful for developing management recommendations for water resources at field and watershed scales.

  18. Economic analysis of solid waste management and drainage for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Good solid waste management involves reducing volumes, improving collection, investing in drainage, replacing riverside and wetland dumping with engineered landfills, and identifying sustainable mechanisms to finance waste management. Research is needed to understand the potential impacts of climate change and ...

  19. Acid Mine Drainage Potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump located close to the Enkansu and Kaw streams in Obuasi. Ten water and fifty rock samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) determinations using static methods were employed to ...

  20. Use of land located within Eselnita drainage basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VLAD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed on the south-eastern side of Almãjului Mountains, Eşelniţa drainage basin neighbours upon the following basins: upon S – SV with Mala, upon SV - V with Mraconia, upon V - NV with Berzasca, upon NV - NNE with Nera and on the NNE – SE direction with Cerna. The basin has a surface of 77 km2 and present a 5th degree hydrographic network according to Horton-Strahler ranking system, tributary to Danube by means of Eşelniţa main collector. Among surfaces belonging to various categories of use of land located within Eselnita drainage basin, there may be noticed the high share of forest and secondary grazing lands, although the latter have a smaller surface in comparison to the first ones. Therefore, the types of use of land located within the drainage basin are distinguished by the high share of surfaces of forests to the detriment of predominant agricultural land proven by using of some quantitative indexes defining the character of the Eselnita drainage basin as belonging to forestry type. Also the impact of human activities and number of inhabitants do not have a very damaging influence on the land corresponding to the basin, therefore it has a naturality index indicating an ecological equilibrium closed to the natural one.

  1. South Carolina's best management practices for forestry for minor drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya Smith; Herb Nicholson

    2016-01-01

    Minor drainage is normally used to facilitate regeneration and timber harvesting by temporarily removing surface water from inundated forestland. Specific ditch depth and spacing recommendations are not listed in our manual, as each site is individually evaluated.

  2. The Heimlich Valve for Pleural Cavity Drainage | Makanga | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A retrospective descriptive analysis of all chest drains connected to a Heimlich valve between January 2009 and December 2012. Data on indications, duration of drainage and frequency of complications was collected. Results: Fifty seven chest tubes connected to a Heimlich valve were inserted over the study ...

  3. Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Drainage of Pancreatic Pseudocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Pui Yung; Nytoft Rasmussen, Ditlev; Vilmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    or by telephonic interview. RESULTS: A total of 61 procedures were performed. The symptoms that indicated drainage were abdominal pain (n = 43), vomiting (n = 7) and jaundice (n = 5). The procedure was technically successful in 57 of the 61 procedures (93%). The immediate complication rate was 5%. At a mean follow...

  4. The Effect of Camber Bed Drainage Landforms on Soil Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Vertisols of the Accra Plains of Ghana are water logged after significant rainfall due to the low-lying topography (0.1-1 %). Camber bed (Cb) drainage landforms have been developed at the Agricultural Research Centre, Kpong, for draining off excess water. Field experiments were conducted to verify if maize growth and ...

  5. Assessment of the impacts of dredging and drainage on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the impact of dredging and drainage on mangrove soils of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Samples from intact/un-drained mangroves and dredged/drained soils were collected from selected rivers in the Niger Delta and analysed. The rivers included Benin, Escravos, Warri, and Gbaraun and Sego Creeks.

  6. Peritoneal drainage versus laparotomy as an initial treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To determine whether initial peritoneal drainage (PD) or primary laparotomy is the most effective intervention in very-low-birth-weight and extremely lowbirth- weight infants who are diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, Bell's stage II and stage III). Patients and methods It is a retrospective chart review ...

  7. Cold air drainage flows subsidize montane valley ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly A. Novick; Andrew C. Oishi; Chelcy Ford Miniat

    2016-01-01

    In mountainous areas, cold air drainage from high to low elevations has pronounced effects on local temperature, which is a critical driver of many ecosystem processes, including carbon uptake and storage. Here, we leverage new approaches for interpreting ecosystem carbon flux observations in complex terrain to quantify the links between macro-climate...

  8. Uncertainty Assessment in Urban Storm Water Drainage Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    The object of this paper is to make an overall description of the author's PhD study, concerning uncertainties in numerical urban storm water drainage models. Initially an uncertainty localization and assessment of model inputs and parameters as well as uncertainties caused by different model...

  9. Urban drainage models simplifying uncertainty analysis for practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Deletic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing awareness about uncertainties in the modelling of urban drainage systems and, as such, many new methods for uncertainty analyses have been developed. Despite this, all available methods have limitations which restrict their widespread application among practitioners. Here, a m...

  10. DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY OF THE CIRCUMFERENTIAL DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kroll

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the potential alternatives to improve the stability coefficient for an embankment structure is to flatten the filtration curve. As a result, we obtain lower body forces triggering the potential landslide and more advantageous soil strength parameters, which counteract landslide movements. In the case of waste dumps lowering the phreatic surface of waters is achieved thanks to the construction of auxiliary drainage systems, meeting the guidelines for their safe operation. The aim of this paper is to indicate a method facilitating the determination of the actual position of the phreatic surface within the deposited sediments and the assessment of efficiency of the circumferential drainage system in the waste dump. It was decided in this study to apply cone penetration test CPTU. The CPTU made it possible to measure dissipation of excess water pressure in pores identifying drainage conditions, which were compared with the results of piezometric measurements. The results of these tests made it possible to monitor changes in the position of the depression curve of supernatant waters in dams and to determine the efficiency of the circumferential drainage system.

  11. Modelling mid-span water table depth and drainage discharge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... Modelling mid-span water table depth and drainage discharge dynamics using DRAINMOD 6.1 in a sugarcane field in Pongola,. South Africa. M Malota1,2 and A ... and waterlogging and reclamation plans need to be effected ..... model evaluation at a sugarcane field in north-eastern New South. Wales ...

  12. Transcolonic pelvic abscess drainage | Beningfield | SA Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transcolonic pelvic abscess drainage. S Beningfield, P Goldberg. Abstract. No Abstract South African Journal of Radiology Vol. 11 (1) 2007: pp. 24-24. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v11i1.57 · AJOL African ...

  13. Remote Postoperative Epidural Hematoma after Subdural Hygroma Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellingson Silva Paiva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Subdural hygroma is reported to occur in 5%–20% of all patients with closed head trauma, the treatment is controversial and in symptomatic cases surgical drainage is need. We report on a new case with remote acute epidural hematoma (AEH after subdural hygroma drainage. Case Presentation. A 38-year-old man suffered blunt head trauma and had diffuse axonal injury grade III in CT scan. A CT scan that was late performed showed an increasing subdural fluid collection with mild mass effect and some effacement of the left lateral ventricle. We perform a trepanation with drainage of a hypertensive subdural collection with citrine aspect. Postoperative tomography demonstrated a large left AEH. Craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma were performed. Conclusion. The mechanism of remote postoperative AEH formation is unclear. Complete reliance on neurologic monitoring, trust in an early CT scan, and a relative complacency after an apparently successful initial surgery for hygroma drainage may delay the diagnosis of this postoperative AEH.

  14. Feasibility of a simple drainage system in Cameroonian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To analyse the outcome of children with empyema thoracis treated by decortication followed by a simple drainage system. Patients and Methods: Retrospective chart review from July 2001 to June 2010 of all cases of children who had a thoracotomy for empyema. We used an endotracheal tube as chest drain ...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  16. Investigations of lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathungage Don, Tharanga; Richard Clarke Collaboration; John Cater Collaboration; Vinod Suresh Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The lymphatic system is a highly complex biological system that facilitates the drainage of excess fluid in body tissues. In addition, it is an integral part of the immunological control system. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid absorption from the interstitial space and flow through the initial lymphatics is important to treat several pathological conditions. The main focus of this study is to computationally model the lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space. The model has been developed to consider a 3D lymphatic network and uses biological data to inform the creation of realistic geometries for the lymphatic capillary networks. We approximate the interstitial space as a porous region and the lymphatic vessel walls as permeable surfaces. The dynamics of the flow is approximated by Darcy's law in the interstitium and the Navier-Stokes equations in the lymphatic capillary lumen. The proposed model examines lymph drainage as a function of pressure gradient. In addition, we have examined the effects of interstitial and lymphatic wall permeabilities on the lymph drainage and the solute transportation in the model. The computational results are in accordance with the available experimental measurements.

  17. Hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of mine drainage: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Blowes, D.W; Ptacek, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of mineral resources requires access through underground workings, or open pit operations, or through drillholes for solution mining. Additionally, mineral processing can generate large quantities of waste, including mill tailings, waste rock and refinery wastes, heap leach pads, and slag. Thus, through mining and mineral processing activities, large surface areas of sulfide minerals can be exposed to oxygen, water, and microbes, resulting in accelerated oxidation of sulfide and other minerals and the potential for the generation of low-quality drainage. The oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine wastes is accelerated by microbial catalysis of the oxidation of aqueous ferrous iron and sulfide. These reactions, particularly when combined with evaporation, can lead to extremely acidic drainage and very high concentrations of dissolved constituents. Although acid mine drainage is the most prevalent and damaging environmental concern associated with mining activities, generation of saline, basic and neutral drainage containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals, non-metals, and metalloids has recently been recognized as a potential environmental concern. Acid neutralization reactions through the dissolution of carbonate, hydroxide, and silicate minerals and formation of secondary aluminum and ferric hydroxide phases can moderate the effects of acid generation and enhance the formation of secondary hydrated iron and aluminum minerals which may lessen the concentration of dissolved metals. Numerical models provide powerful tools for assessing impacts of these reactions on water quality.

  18. Why does inverse modeling of drainage inventories work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicky; Roberts, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    We describe and apply a linear inverse model which calculates spatial and temporal patterns of uplift rate by minimizing the misfit between inventories of observed and predicted longitudinal river profiles. This approach builds upon a more general, non-linear, optimization model, which suggests that shapes of river profiles are dominantly controlled by upstream advection of kinematic waves of incision produced by spatial and temporal changes in regional uplift rate. We have tested both algorithms by inverting thousands of river profiles from Africa, Eurasia, the Americas, and Australia. For each continent, the drainage network was constructed from a digital elevation model and the fidelity of river profiles extracted from this network was carefully checked using satellite imagery. Spatial and temporal patterns of both uplift rate and cumulative uplift were calibrated using independent geologic and geophysical observations. Inverse modeling of these substantial inventories of river profiles suggests that drainage networks contain coherent signals that record the regional growth of elevation. In the second part of this presentation, we use spectral analysis of river profiles to suggest why drainage networks behave in a coherent, albeit non-linear, fashion. Our analysis implies that large-scale topographic signals injected into landscapes generate spectral slopes that are usually red (i.e. Brownian). At wavelengths shorter than tens of km, spectral slopes whiten which suggests that coherent topographic signals cease to exist at these shorter length scales. Our results suggest that inverse modeling of drainage networks can reveal useful information about landscape growth through space and time.

  19. Nutrient mitigation capacity in Mississippi Delta, USA drainage ditches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M.T., E-mail: matt.moore@ars.usda.go [USDA-Agricultural Research Service National Sedimentation Laboratory, Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, PO Box 1157, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States); Kroeger, R. [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Mississippi State University, Box 9690, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Locke, M.A.; Cullum, R.F.; Steinriede, R.W.; Testa, S.; Lizotte, R.E.; Bryant, C.T.; Cooper, C.M. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service National Sedimentation Laboratory, Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, PO Box 1157, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Eutrophication and hypoxia within aquatic systems are a serious international concern. Various management practices have been proposed to help alleviate nutrient loads transported to the Gulf of Mexico and other high-profile aquatic systems. The current study examined the nutrient mitigation capacity of a vegetated (V) and non-vegetated (NV) agricultural drainage ditch of similar size and landform in the Mississippi Delta. While no statistically significant differences in ammonium, nitrate, or dissolved inorganic phosphorus mitigation between the two ditches existed, there were significant differences in total inorganic phosphorus percent load reductions (V: 36% +- 4; NV: 71% +- 4). However, both agricultural drainage ditches were able to mitigate nutrients, thus reducing the load reaching downstream aquatic receiving systems. Further studies examining ecosystem dynamics within drainage ditches such as sediment and plant nutrient partitioning, as well as microbial processes involved, are needed to provide a better understanding of natural nutrient variability, seasonality and flux. - Agricultural drainage ditches reduce N and P runoff concentrations from production landscapes.

  20. Peritoneal drainage versus laparotomy as an initial treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and this reflects on survival. Ann Pediatr Surg 7:97–100 c. 2011 Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Annals of Pediatric Surgery 2011, 7:97–100. Keywords: drainage versus laparotomy, less than 1500 g, necrotizing enterocolitis. aDepartment of Pediatric General Surgery, Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh,. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  1. Global warming and drainage development: perspective and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrachien, De D.; Feddes, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The report gives an overview of current and future (time horizon 2025) drainage developments around the world. Moreover, the paper analyses the results of four of the most advanced global circulation models for assessing the hydrological impact of global warming, due to the greenhouse effect, on the

  2. Does fish ecology predict dispersal across a river drainage divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Christopher P; Craw, Dave; Jack, Daniel C; King, Tania M; Waters, Jonathan M

    2008-06-01

    Obligate freshwater taxa are frequently distributed among catchments isolated by marine and terrestrial barriers. Such distributions can arise through vicariant changes in drainage geometry, or dispersal via intermittent freshwater connections. We employed two adjacent rivers in southern New Zealand to test for interdrainage dispersal while controlling for historical drainage geometry, and analyzed four ecologically distinct freshwater-limited fish taxa to assess any relationship with habitat preference. Individuals from the Mararoa and Oreti catchments (n >100 per species) were sequenced for a minimum of 1297 bp of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and control region). Phylogeographic relationships were consistent with ecological expectations of interdrainage dispersal capability, with the two obligate riverine taxa each exhibiting reciprocal monophyly between catchments, whereas the two facultative swamp dwellers revealed paraphyletic relationships, one of which shared a haplotype between catchments. Statistical phylogeography, accommodating taxon-specific mutation rates and the known age of the last major riverine connection between these catchments, rejected complete isolation of populations for one of the swamp dwellers. Therefore, dispersal across a young (145-240 kyr) drainage divide is inferred for one species, and can be predicted to some extent by species ecology. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of historical drainage geometry when assessing the causes of contemporary genetic structuring in freshwater taxa.

  3. Burr Hole Drainage for Complicated Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fang Liu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a potentially severe condition that is caused by continuous cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Clinically, most patients have a benign course and the condition remits after conservative management. We report two consecutive patients who presented with acute expansion of subdural collection and disturbed consciousness. Both patients recovered completely after undergoing burr hole drainage.

  4. Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal drainage of petrous apex cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex are rare lesions that pose challenging surgical decisions and approaches when attempting surgical drainage. In this article we present 2 cases of successful surgical management using an endoscopic trans-sphenoidal approach and review the requirements and considerations ...

  5. Percutaneous drainage of abscess in the treatment of emphysematous pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Yong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Seung Jei; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Roh, Byung Suk

    1997-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of percutaneous drainage of abscess in the treatment of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Ten cases of nine patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis were percutaneously drained. All were suffering from diabetes mellitus. The procedure was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in nine cases and US guidance in one case in which bilateral multiloculated abscesses were present in the perirenal space. The results were classified as cure, partial success, recurrence, or failure. The mean drainage period and complication were analyzed. Eight cases were cured, and there was one case success. In one case, who had diffuse renal parenchymal destruction without perirenal fluid collection, the treatment failed. The longest drainage period was 45 days, in a case of re-insertion due to incidental catheter removal; the mean was 23 days. Bacteremia in one case was cured with antibiotic therapy which lasted two days. In diabetic patients, percutaneous drainage of obscess is thought to be a safe and effective method for the treatment of emphysematous pyelonephritis, and is one that does not involve diffuse destruction of renal parenchyma

  6. Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analysed the morphometric parameters of Ogbere and Ogunpa drainage basins located on basement complex rock in Southwestern Nigeria. Data used were generated from topographical map of Ibadan North-east on scale 1:25,000 published by Federal Survey of Nigeria (1975). Result obtained indicated that ...

  7. Drainage and fractionation of wood fibers in a flotation froth

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Freya Tan

    2005-01-01

    Understanding fiber fractionation in a froth is very important to the quality of recovered fibers in flotation deinking operations. Fiber length is a very important fiber quality parameter in paper-making. For example, long fibers tend to produce a paper with higher tear strength than short fibers. In this study, fibers in froth collected at different froth drainage...

  8. Using bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as a field drainage material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    shaped ceramic tile, circular clay tile, concrete tile, bituminized fibre perforated pipe, perforated smooth plastic pipe to corrugated plastic pipe. Currently, corrugated pipes are frequently used, although clay and concrete pipes are still being used as well. The use of drainage pipes made of various assorted materials is.

  9. Percutaneous biliary drainage in acute suppurative cholangitis with biliary sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Lyul; Cho, June Sik; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Sang Jin; Rhee, Byung Chull

    1993-01-01

    Acute suppurative cholangitis is a severe inflammatory process of the bile duct occurred as result of partial or complete obstruction of the bile duct, and may manifest clinically severe form of disease, rapidly deteriorating to life-threatening condition. We analyzed emergency percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in 20 patients of acute suppurative cholangitis with biliary sepsis to evaluate the therapeutic effect and complication of the procedure. The underlying cause were 12 benign disease(stones) and eight malignant tumors and among eight malignant tumors, bile duct stones(n=4) and clonorchiasis(n=1) were combined. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed successfully in 17 of 20 patients resulting in improvement of general condition and failed in three patients. The procedure were preterminated due to the patient's condition in two and biliary-proto fistula was developed in one. After biliary decompression by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, effective and successful elective surgery was performed in nine cases, which were seven biliary stones and two biliary cancer with stones. Our experience suggest that emergency percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is an initial and effective treatment of choice for acute suppurative cholangitis with sepsis and a safe alternative for nonsurgical treatment

  10. Laparoscopy‑guided Liver Abscess Drainage: An Additional Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laparoscopy‑guided Liver Abscess Drainage: An Additional Use of Veress Needle. Christopher N. Ekwunife, Ernest C. Amadi, Francis N. Amaechi1, Ifeanyi C. Ukaha2. INTRODUCTION. The mainstay in the management of liver abscess has been the use of antibacterial agents and radiological guided percutaneous ...

  11. Selecting Suitable Drainage Pattern to Minimize Flooding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water shed analysis is a geographic information system (GIS) based technique designed to model the way surface water flows on the earth surface. This was the method adopted to select suitable drainage pattern to minimized flood in some parts of sangere. The process of watershed computes the local direction of flow ...

  12. Nutrient export in tile drainage: Comparing manure injection to fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface tile drainage of agricultural land is implicated as a major source of nutrients to the Mississippi River. To protect water quality, land application of manure should maximize crop nutrient use and minimize nutrient loss. Weather constraints and regulations restrict the period during which...

  13. Integrated acid mine drainage management using fly ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vadapalli, VRK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly Ash (FA) from a power station in South Africa was investigated to neutralise and remove contaminants from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). After this primary treatment the insoluble FA residue namely solid residue (SR) was investigated as a suitable...

  14. Sulfate Reduction at Low Ph To Remediate Acid Mine Drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Andrea, I.; Sanz, J.L.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities,

  15. Models Robustness for Simulating Drainage and NO3-N Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Jabro, Ann

    2013-04-01

    Computer models simulate and forecast appropriate agricultural practices to reduce environmental impact. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare robustness and performance of three models -- LEACHM, NCSWAP, and SOIL-SOILN--for simulating drainage and NO3-N leaching fluxes in an intense pasture system without recalibration. A 3-yr study was conducted on a Hagerstown silt loam to measure drainage and NO3-N fluxes below 1 m depth from N-fertilized orchardgrass using intact core lysimeters. Five N-fertilizer treatments were replicated five times in a randomized complete block experimental design. The models were validated under orchardgrass using soil, water and N transformation rate parameters and C pools fractionation derived from a previous study conducted on similar soils under corn. The model efficiency (MEF) of drainage and NO3-N fluxes were 0.53, 0.69 for LEACHM; 0.75, 0.39 for NCSWAP; and 0.94, 0.91for SOIL-SOILN. The models failed to produce reasonable simulations of drainage and NO3-N fluxes in January, February and March due to limited water movement associated with frozen soil and snow accumulation and melt. The differences between simulated and measured NO3-N leaching and among models' performances may also be related to soil N and C transformation processes embedded in the models These results are a monumental progression in the validation of computer models which will lead to continued diffusion across diverse stakeholders.

  16. Reduced liquor drainage at delivery: an unusual presentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 27-year old unbooked G5P3+1 woman with a history of previous caesarean section is reported. She had an apparent normal vaginal delivery at term with very scanty liquor drainage. She then developed severe persistent abdominal pain with stable vital signs. A laparotomy confirmed a ruptured uterus. We therefore ...

  17. Drainage of malignant ascites: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stukan M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Maciej Stukan Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Gdynia Oncology Center, Szpitale Wojewodzkie w Gdyni Sp. z o.o., Gdynia, Poland Abstract: Malignant ascites (MA is a sign of advanced cancer and poor prognosis. MA can result in impairment in quality of life (QOL and significant symptoms. As a supportive treatment, ascites can be drained by paracentesis (PC, percutaneously implanted catheters (tunneled, untunneled, central venous catheters, or peritoneal ports, or peritoneovenous shunts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and patient-reported outcomes (PRO of different drainage methods for the management of MA. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and 32 original articles met the inclusion criteria. Patients selected for permanent drain insertion demonstrated symptoms related to MA and had undergone repeated PC. The primary focus of the reviewed articles was procedural safety issues. The rate of technical success of drainage device installation was 100%. Most patients experienced improvements in symptom control after ascites drainage. When analyzed together, 19.7% (255/1297 of patients experienced any complication and 6.2% (81/1297 experienced serious adverse events during MA drainage. Complications were reported for every drainage method; however, the least occurred after PC or central venous catheter, while the most serious occurred after peritoneovenous shunts. Adverse events were as follows: catheter obstruction: 4.4%, infection: 4.1%, leakage: 3.5%, catheter dislodgment: 2.3%, hypotension: 0.6%, injuries during device insertion: 0.6%, renal impairment: 0.5%, electrolyte imbalance: 0.2%, other: 3.6%. PRO and QOL endpoints were available for 12 studies. When PRO were measured using an interview, a significant improvement in symptom control and QOL was reported in almost all patients. Once standardized questionnaires were used, improvements in symptomatic scores and role functioning were observed

  18. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  19. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  20. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  1. CSIR Annual report 1990

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1990.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 26 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1990.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  3. CSIR Annual report 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1995.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 33 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1995.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  6. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  7. 55th Annual

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1990-01-01

    Jan 1, 1990 ... At the invitation of the Madhya Pradesh. Council of Science and Technology, the. Barkatullah University and the Regional. Research laboratory, Bhopal, the 55th Annual. Meeting of the Academy was held at the. Tagore Bhawan, Bhopal from 10 to 13. November 1989. One of the best organized Annual.

  8. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  9. Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage: the need for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A D

    1993-04-01

    Subsurface drainage resulting from irrigated agriculture is a toxic threat to fish and wildlife resources throughout the western United States. Studies by the U.S. Department of the Interior show that migratory waterfowl have been poisoned by drainwater contaminants on at least six national wildlife refuges. Allowing this poisoning to continue is a violation of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act under U.S. Federal law. Critical wetlands and waterfowl populations are threatened in both the Pacific and Central flyways. The public is also at risk and health warnings have been issued in some locations. Subsurface irrigation drainage is a complex effluent containing toxic concentrations of trace elements, salts, and nitrogenous compounds. Some of the contaminants are classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants and they can be present in concentrations that exceed EPA's criteria for toxic waste. The on-farm drainage systems used to collect and transport this wastewater provide point-source identification as well as a mechanism for toxics control through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit process. A four-step approach is presented for dealing with irrigation drainage in an environmentally sound manner. This regulatory strategy is very similar to those commonly used for industrial discharges and includes site evaluation, contaminant reduction through NPDES, and compliance monitoring. The EPA must recognize subsurface irrigation drainage as a specific class of pollution subject to regulation under the NPDES process. Active involvement by EPA is necessary to ensure that adequate controls on this wastewater are implemented.

  10. Patterns and processes of drainage network evolution on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, G.; Roberts, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Large, complex drainage networks exist on the surface of Mars. These drainage patterns suggest that base level change, fluvial erosion, and deposition of sedimentary rock have played important roles in determining the shape of Martian topography. On Earth, base-level change plays the most important role in determining shapes of river profiles at wavelengths greater than a few kilometers. Wavelet transforms of Martian drainage patterns indicate that the same is true for most Martian drainage. For example, rivers in the Warrego Valles system have large convex-upward elevation profiles, with broad knickzones spanning more than 100 kilometers in length and few kilometers in height. More than 90% of the spectra power of rivers in this system resides at wavelengths greater than 10 kilometers. We examine the source of this long wavelength spectra power by jointly inverting suites of Martian river profiles for damped spatio-temporal histories of base-level change. Drainage networks were extracted from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) topographic dataset using flow-routing algorithms. Calculated uplift rate histories indicate that regional uplift at wavelengths greater than 100 kilometers play an important role in determining the history of landscape evolution in Warrego Valles. In other regions (e.g. Holden and Eberswalde craters) joint inversion of families of rivers draining craters helps to constrain values of erosional parameters in a simplified version of the stream power erosional model. Integration of calculated incision rates suggest that we can perform a simple mass balance between eroded and deposited rock in regions where both depositional and erosional landforms exist.

  11. Phosphate removal from agricultural drainage water using an iron oxyhydroxide filter material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate discharged with agricultural drainage causes water quality degradation on local, regional, and national scales. Iron oxyhydroxide filter materials can potentially remove the soluble phosphate present in drainage waters. Laboratory saturated column experiments and preliminary small-scale ...

  12. Subperiosteal Drainage versus Subdural Drainage in the management of Chronic Subdural Hematoma (A Comparative Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Adrian Ng Wei; Hieng, Albert Wong Sii; Rahman, Noor Azman A; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2017-03-01

    Symptomatic chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) remain one of the most frequent diagnoses in current neurosurgical practice. Burr-hole craniostomy with irrigation and placement of close-system drainage is the current recommended surgery for symptomatic CSDH. The aim of this study is to perform a direct comparison between two surgical techniques in the treatment of symptomatic CSDH, which have been proven in previous studies to be efficient. Our main objective was to compare the efficacy of placement of a subperiosteal drain (SPD) and a subdural drain (SDD) following single burr-hole craniostomy and irrigation, and to demonstrate any significant differences in terms of overall surgical complications, functional outcome at three months and mortality rate. The study was carried out in two local neurosurgical centres. The SPD group was performed in Hospital Umum Sarawak (HUS) and the SDD group was performed in Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru (HSAJB), from 1 January 2012 till 30 January 2014 with a total of 30 patients in both treatment groups. Overall, there were no statistically significant difference in terms of patient general characteristics, pre-operative and post-operative symptoms, Markwalder grades, post-operative hematoma volume and recurrence, mortality and functional outcome at discharge and at three month follow-up between both groups. Albeit not achieving statistical significance, we observed a lower rate of surgical complication especially for post-operative intracranial hematoma with placement of the SPD system. Our study concludes that both treatment methods proved to be highly effective in the treatment of CSDH. However, with a lower overall surgical complication rate, treatment with single burr-hole craniostomy, irrigation and placement of the SPD system can be considered a treatment of choice for the management of symptomatic CSDH.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of closed suction drainage versus non-drainage in primary hip arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Enda G

    2014-03-01

    The routine use of drains in surgery has been dogmatically instituted in some disciplines. Orthopaedic surgery is one such sub-speciality. The use of postoperative closed suction drainage in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become increasingly controversial with multiple randomised control trials performed to assess the benefit to outcome in THA. The hypothesis of this systematic review is that closed suction drainage does not infer a benefit and increase transfusion requirements of primary total hip arthroplasty patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted adhering to the PRISMA guidelines. A search of the available literature was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (OVID) and EMBASE using a combination of MeSH terms and Boolean operators. All data analysis was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration\\'s Review Manager 5.1. Sixteen studies (n=2705) were included in the analysis. Post-operative closed suction drainage was found to increase total blood loss and blood transfusion requirements (p<0.05). Surgical site infection demonstrated no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.82). No significant difference in haematoma formation between groups (p=0.19) was elicited. The routine use of closed suction drainage systems post primary hip arthroplasty is not supported by this meta-analysis. However, the heterogeneity between studies does limit the accuracy of the meta-analysis.

  14. Efficacy of incision and drainage versus percutaneous catheter drainage in treatment of severe acute pancreatitis complicated by pancreatic abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features and treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP complicated by pancreatic abscess (PA. MethodsThe clinical data of 17 SAP patients with PA who were admitted to Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College from January 1, 2005 to August 25, 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical manifestations, therapeutic methods, and outcome were summarized. ResultsOf all the 17 patients, 12 patients underwent surgical operation, among whom 9 were cured, 1 experienced postoperative intestinal fistula, and 2 experienced recurrence of abscess and underwent the surgery again (1 died of multiple organ failure, and the mean hospital stay was (108.29±52.37 d; 5 patients underwent percutaneous catheter drainage, among whom 4 were cured, and 1 underwent surgical treatment due to inadequate drainage, and the mean hospital stay was (53.03±6.71 d. ConclusionAdequate drainage should be performed once a confirmed diagnosis of PA is made, and appropriate drainage methods should be selected based on the patient′s actual condition. Minimally invasive treatment has a good effect, a short length of hospital stay, and few complications, and holds promise for clinical application.

  15. Acidity decay of above-drainage underground mines in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, B; McDonald, L M; Skousen, J

    2010-01-01

    Acidity of water from abandoned underground mines decreases over time, and the rate of decrease can help formulate remediation approaches and treatment system designs. The objective of this study was to determine an overall acidity decay rate for above-drainage underground mines in northern West Virginia from a large data set of mines that were closed 50 to 70 yr ago. Water quality data were obtained from 30 Upper Freeport and 7 Pittsburgh coal seam mines in 1968, 1980, 2000, and 2006, and acidity decay curves were calculated. The mean decay constant, k, for Upper Freeport mines was 2.73 x 10(-2) yr(-1), with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 0.0052, whereas the k value for Pittsburgh mines was not significantly different at 4.26 x 10(-2) yr(-1) +/- 0.017. Acidity from the T&T mine, which was closed 12 yr ago, showed a k value of 11.25 x 10(-2) yr(-1). This higher decay rate was likely due to initial flushing of accumulated metal salts on reaction surfaces in the mine, rapid changes in mine hydrology after closure, and treatment. Although each site showed a specific decay rate (varying from 0.04 x 10(-2) yr(-1) to 13.1 x 10(-2) yr(-1)), the decay constants of 2.7 x 10(-2) yr(-1) to 4.3 x 10(-2) yr(-1) are useful for predicting water quality trends and overall improvements across a wide spectrum of abandoned underground mines. We found first-order decay models improve long-term prediction of acidity declines from above-drainage mines compared with linear or percent annual decrease models. These predictions can help to select water treatment plans and evaluate costs for these treatments over time.

  16. Hot spring drainage impact on fish communities around temperate estuaries in southwestern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yamada

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights: Factor analysis results obtained using water quality data show that the scale of the hot spring drainage influence on rivers differs among rivers. The inflow of hot spring drainage into the rivers affects phytoplankton more than the inflow of domestic drainage, which increases the amount of phytoplankton. Furthermore, hot spring drainage creates a better habitat for Nile tilapia, a foreign species, by increasing food availability and water temperature.

  17. Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River drainage basin, southeast Minnesota, and the St. Louis River drainage basin, northeast Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Jacobsen, Katrin E.

    2017-12-27

    Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River and St. Louis River drainage basins were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources, to illustrate relative and cumulative streamflow distributions. The Cannon River was selected to provide baseline data to assess the effects of potential surficial sand mining, and the St. Louis River was selected to determine the effects of ongoing Mesabi Iron Range mining. Each drainage basin (Cannon, St. Louis) was subdivided into nested drainage basins: the Cannon River was subdivided into 152 nested drainage basins, and the St. Louis River was subdivided into 353 nested drainage basins. For each smaller drainage basin, the estimated volumes of groundwater discharge (as base flow) and surface runoff flowing into all surface-water features were displayed under the following conditions: (1) extreme low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.95; (2) low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.90; (3) a median condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.50; and (4) a high-flow condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.02.Streamflow distribution maps were developed using flow-duration curve exceedance-probability quantiles in conjunction with Soil-Water-Balance model outputs; both the flow-duration curve and Soil-Water-Balance models were built upon previously published U.S. Geological Survey reports. The selected streamflow distribution maps provide a proactive water management tool for State cooperators by illustrating flow rates during a range of hydraulic conditions. Furthermore, after the nested drainage basins are highlighted in terms of surface-water flows, the streamflows can be evaluated in the context of meeting specific ecological flows under different flow regimes and potentially assist with decisions regarding groundwater and surface

  18. StreamStats in Oklahoma - Drainage-Basin Characteristics and Peak-Flow Frequency Statistics for Ungaged Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Program was created to make geographic information systems-based estimation of streamflow statistics easier, faster, and more consistent than previously used manual techniques. The StreamStats user interface is a map-based internet application that allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and other information for user-selected U.S. Geological Survey data-collection stations and ungaged sites of interest. The application relies on the data collected at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations, computer aided computations of drainage-basin characteristics, and published regression equations for several geographic regions comprising the United States. The StreamStats application interface allows the user to (1) obtain information on features in selected map layers, (2) delineate drainage basins for ungaged sites, (3) download drainage-basin polygons to a shapefile, (4) compute selected basin characteristics for delineated drainage basins, (5) estimate selected streamflow statistics for ungaged points on a stream, (6) print map views, (7) retrieve information for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations, and (8) get help on using StreamStats. StreamStats was designed for national application, with each state, territory, or group of states responsible for creating unique geospatial datasets and regression equations to compute selected streamflow statistics. With the cooperation of the Oklahoma Department of Transportation, StreamStats has been implemented for Oklahoma and is available at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/. The Oklahoma StreamStats application covers 69 processed hydrologic units and most of the state of Oklahoma. Basin characteristics available for computation include contributing drainage area, contributing drainage area that is unregulated by Natural Resources Conservation Service floodwater retarding structures, mean-annual precipitation at the

  19. Cover crops mitigate direct greenhouse gases balance but reduce drainage under climate change scenarios in temperate climate with dry summers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Constantin, Julie; Justes, Eric

    2018-02-14

    Cover crops provide ecosystem services such as storing atmospheric carbon in soils after incorporation of their residues. Cover crops also influence soil water balance, which can be an issue in temperate climates with dry summers as for example in southern France and Europe. As a consequence, it is necessary to understand cover crops' long-term influence on greenhouse gases (GHG) and water balances to assess their potential to mitigate climate change in arable cropping systems. We used the previously calibrated and validated soil-crop model STICS to simulate scenarios of cover crop introduction to assess their influence on rainfed and irrigated cropping systems and crop rotations distributed among five contrasted sites in southern France from 2007 to 2052. Our results showed that cover crops can improve mean direct GHG balance by 315 kg CO 2 e ha -1  year -1 in the long term compared to that of bare soil. This was due mainly to an increase in carbon storage in the soil despite a slight increase in N 2 O emissions which can be compensated by adapting fertilization. Cover crops also influence the water balance by reducing mean annual drainage by 20 mm/year but increasing mean annual evapotranspiration by 20 mm/year compared to those of bare soil. Using cover crops to improve the GHG balance may help to mitigate climate change by decreasing CO 2 e emitted in cropping systems which can represent a decrease from 4.5% to 9% of annual GHG emissions of the French agriculture and forestry sector. However, if not well managed, they also could create water management issues in watersheds with shallow groundwater. Relationships between cover crop biomass and its influence on several variables such as drainage, carbon sequestration, and GHG emissions could be used to extend our results to other conditions to assess the cover crops' influence in a wider range of areas. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Laparoscopy May Have a Role in the Drainage of Liver Abscess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    image‑guided percutaneous aspiration or drainage in addition to systemic antimicrobial agents became the standard of ... Indications for surgical drainage have now been limited to cases of failure of percutaneous .... Figure 1: Drainage catheter (chest tube) passed percutaneously into the abscess cavity during laparoscopy ...

  1. 25 CFR 162.611 - Payment of fees and drainage and irrigation charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of fees and drainage and irrigation charges. 162... AND PERMITS Non-Agricultural Leases § 162.611 Payment of fees and drainage and irrigation charges. (a) Any lease covering lands within an irrigation project or drainage district shall require the lessee to...

  2. Integration of Drainage, Water Quality and Flood Management in Rural, Urban and Lowland Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlotman, W.F.; Wong, T.; Schultz, E.

    2007-01-01

    Managing drainage in rural and peri-urban environments has become an essential part of integrated water management. Drainage has become a science of control, storage and (re)use while meeting triple bottom-line requirements (environment, social and economic assessments). Controlled drainage in rural

  3. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from urban drainage. 239.7 Section 239.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control...

  4. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices..., or drainage shall be constructed of materials that resist corrosion and distortion, and be so...

  5. Performance assessment of subsurface drainage systems : case studies from Egypt and Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    A case study set-up for the performance assessment of subsurface drainage systems for agricultural land drainage has been developed and 76 case studies from Egypt and Pakistan have been prepared. Based on these case studies, performance indicators for subsurface drainage systems have been derived

  6. An intelligent scheduling method based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm for drainage pipe network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaqi; Zeng, Bi

    2017-08-01

    This paper researches the drainage routing problem in drainage pipe network, and propose an intelligent scheduling method. The method relates to the design of improved particle swarm optimization algorithm, the establishment of the corresponding model from the pipe network, and the process by using the algorithm based on improved particle swarm optimization to find the optimum drainage route in the current environment.

  7. 40 CFR 434.40 - Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkaline mine drainage subcategory. 434.40 Section 434.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.40 Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  8. Drainage of the ice-dammed Lake Tinninilik, West Greenland; implication on bedrock uplift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Drainage of ice-dammed lakes is regularly observed along the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. However, the speed of the drainage events and implications can vary depending on the size of the lakes and the local settings. Here, we assess the drainage pattern of Lake Tinninilik, dammed...

  9. 2005 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report is the 2005 evaluation of the CEA (french Atomic Energy Center) activities in the three following main domains: 1- defense and security, with the simulation programs, the nuclear missiles, the nuclear propulsion, the Rhone valley installations drainage, the fight against the terrorism; 2- the energy, with the industrial park optimization, the long life wastes management, the energy of the future and the fourth generation systems, the dismantling and the cleaning, the european nuclear research, the new technologies of the energy; 3- the technologies for the information and the health with the nano technologies. It provides also a scientifical evaluation and the program management. (A.L.B.)

  10. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  11. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  12. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  13. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  14. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  15. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  16. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  17. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  18. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  19. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  20. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  1. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  2. USRDS - Annual Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Data Report Comprehensive statistics on chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal diseases in the United States...

  3. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  4. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  5. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  6. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  7. Erosion in the juniata river drainage basin, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevon, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Previously calculated erosion rates througouth the Appalachians range from 1.2 to 203 m Myr-1. Calculation of erosion rates has been accomplished by: (1) evaluation of riverine solute and sediment load in either large or small drainage basins; (2) estimation from the volume of derived sediments; and (3) methods involving either 10Be or fission-track dating. Values of specific conductance and suspended sediment collected at the Juniata River gauging station at Newport, Pennsylvania are used, with corrections, along with a bedload estimate to determine the total amount eroded from the 8687 km2 drainage basin during the water years 1965-1986. The amount eroded is used to calculate a present erosion rate of 27 m Myr-1. ?? 1989.

  8. The drainage information and control system of smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Tonglei; Li, Lei; Liu, JiChang; Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Song, Zengzhong; Liu, Lianhai; Hu, Zichen

    2018-03-01

    At present, due to the continuous expansion of city and the increase of the municipal drainage facilities, which leads to a serious lack of management and operation personnel, the existing production management pattern already can't adapt to the new requirements. In this paper, according to river drainage management, flood control, water management, auditing, administrative license, etc. different business management requirement, an information management system for water planning and design of smart city based on WebGIS in Linyi was introduced, which can collect the various information of gate dam, water pump, bridge sensor and traffic guide terminal nodes etc. together. The practical application show that the system can not only implement the sharing, resources integration and collaborative application for the regional water information, but also improve the level of the integrated water management.

  9. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  10. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  11. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  12. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  13. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  14. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  15. Annual Market Intelligence Report

    OpenAIRE

    Johan, Novie; Jones, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first Annual Market Intelligence Report (AMIR) produced by TCRC. Since 2005, TCRC has produced Quarterly Market Intelligence Report (QMIR). These reports provided estimated meal numbers on board based on forecasted passenger numbers. Due to changes in the way in which some data is reported, it was no longer possible to produce reports quarterly, hence the development of this annual report. Past reports and other TCRC Publications could be accessed online at http://epubs.s...

  16. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic gallbladder drainage in acute cholecystitis: Is it better than percutaneous gallbladder drainage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ali; Atiq, Omair; Kubiliun, Nisa; Ali, Bilal; Kamal, Faisal; Nollan, Richard; Ismail, Mohammad Kashif; Tombazzi, Claudio; Kahaleh, Michel; Baron, Todd H

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of endoscopic gallbladder drainage (EGBD) performed via endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC)-based transpapillary stenting or EUS-based transmural stenting are unknown. We aimed to conduct a proportion meta-analysis to evaluate the cumulative efficacy and safety of these procedures and to compare them with percutaneous gallbladder drainage (PGBD). We searched several databases from inception through December 10, 2015 to identify studies (with 10 or more patients) reporting technical success and postprocedure adverse events of EGBD. Weighted pooled rates (WPRs) for technical and clinical success, postprocedure adverse events, and recurrent cholecystitis were calculated for both methods of EGBD. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were also calculated to compare the technical success and postprocedure adverse events in patients undergoing EGBD versus PGBD. The WPRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of technical success, clinical success, postprocedure adverse events, and recurrent cholecystitis for ERC-based transpapillary drainage were 83% (95% CI, 78%-87%; I 2  = 38%), 93% (95% CI, 89%-96%; I 2  = 39%), 10% (95% CI, 7%-13%; I 2  = 27%), and 3% (95% CI, 1%-5%; I 2  = 0%), respectively. The WPRs for EUS-based drainage for technical success, clinical success, postprocedure adverse events, and recurrent cholecystitis were 93% (95% CI, 87%-96%; I 2  = 0%), 97% (95% CI, 93%-99%; I 2  = 0%), 13% (95% CI, 8%-19%; I 2  = 0%), and 4% (95% CI, 2%-9%; I 2  = 0%), respectively. On proportionate difference, EUS-based drainage had better technical (10%) and clinical success (4%) in comparison with ERC-based drainage. The pooled OR for technical success of EGBD versus PGBD was .51 (95% CI, .09-2.88; I 2  = 23%) and for postprocedure adverse events was .33 (95% CI, .14-.80; I 2  = 16%) in favor of EGBD. EGBD is an efficacious and safe therapeutic modality for treatment of patients with acute cholecystitis who cannot undergo surgery. EGBD shows a

  17. Climatic changes and drainage networks. Which evolutions for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplace, D.; Guignard, J.Y.; Planton, S.; Guivarch, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose to evaluate the consequences of the climatic change on the design and the management of drainage networks, more specially in the framework of the revision of the technical instruction of 1977, by the Astee. In concrete terms the main effects will occurs on H 2 S formation, sensitivity of receptors areas, and for coastal towns on the sea-spillways level and the swimming water quality. The impacts of the rains evolutions are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  18. Experimental analysis of drainage and water storage of litter layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Ramos-Salinas, M.; Hernandez-Delgado, G. D.

    2007-06-01

    Leaf litter overlying forested floors are important for erosion control and slope stability, but also reduces pasture growth in silvopastoral systems. Little information exists regarding the value of percolation and storage capacity parameters for litter layers. These estimates are needed for modelling better management practices for leaf litter. Therefore, this work measured the effect of four rainfall intensities: 9.8, 30.2, 40.4 and 70.9 mm h-1 on the hydrological response of layers of three materials: recently senesced poplar leaves, fresh grass and woodchips. Maximum storage (Cmax), defined as the detention of water immediately before rainfall cessation, increased with rainfall intensity. The magnitude of the increment was 0.2 mm between the lowest and highest rainfall intensities. Mean values of Cmax were: 1.27, 1.51, 1.67 and 1.65 mm for poplar leaves; 0.63 0.77, 0.73 and 0.76 for fresh grass and; 1.64, 2.23, 2.21 and 2.16 for woodchips. Drainage parameters were: 9.9, 8.8 and 2.2 mm-1 for poplar, grass and woodchips layers. An underlying soil matrix influenced the drainage flow from poplar leaf layers producing pseudo-Hortonian overland flow, but this occurred only when the rainfall intensity was 40.4 and 70.9 mm h-1 and accounted for 0.4 and 0.8‰ of total drainage. On the other hand, the presence of a poplar leaf layer had a damping effect on the drainage rate from the underlying soil matrix, particularly at intermediate rainfall intensities: 30.2 or 40.4 mm h-1.

  19. Artificial neural networks as a tool in urban storm drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loke, E.; Warnaars, E.A.; Jacobsen, P.

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a tool in the field of urban storm drainage is discussed. Besides some basic theory on the mechanics of ANNs and a general classification of the different types of ANNs, two ANN application examples are presented: The prediction of runoff c...... with other conventional and more advanced modelling techniques, creating so-called hybrid models. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  20. Intramedullary Venous Drainage System for Distal Fingertip Replantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisa, Husrev; Ozturk, Muhammed Besir; Kabakas, Fatih; Mersa, Berkan; Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Sezer, Ilker

    2017-08-01

    The number of venous anastomoses performed during fingertip replantation is one of the most important factors affecting the success of replantation. However, because vessel diameters decrease in the zone 1 level, vessel anastomoses, especially vein anastomoses, are technically difficult and, thus, cannot be performed in most cases. Alternative venous drainage methods are crucial when any reliable vein repair is not possible. In the literature, so many artery-only replantation techniques have been defined, such as arteriovenous anastomoses, forming an arteriovenous or venocutaneous fistula, manual milking and massage, puncturing, and external bleeding via a fishmouth incision and using a medical leech. It has been shown that, in distal fingertip replantations, the medullary cavity may also be a good way for venous return. In this study, we introduce an alternative intramedullary venous drainage system we developed to facilitate venous drainage in artery-only fingertip replantations. The results of 24 fingertip replantations distal to the nail fold by using this system are presented with a literature review.

  1. Modeling Antarctic Subglacial Lake Filling and Drainage Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  2. Bioremediation of acid mine drainage using algae strains: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Bwapwa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD causes massive environmental concerns worldwide. It is highly acidic and contains high levels of heavy metals causing environmental damage. Conventional treatment methods may not be effective for AMD. The need for environmental remediation requires cost effective technologies for efficient removal of heavy metals. In this study, algae based systems were reviewed and analyzed to point out the potentials and gaps for future studies. Algae strains such as Spirulina sp., Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Cladophora, Oscillatoria, Anabaena, Phaeodactylum tricornutum have showed the capacity to remove a considerable volume of heavy metals from AMD. They act as “hyper-accumulators” and “hyper-adsorbents” with a high selectivity for different elements. In addition, they generate high alkalinity which is essential for precipitation of heavy metals during treatment. However, algae based methods of abating AMD are not the ultimate solution to the problem and there is room for more studies. : The bioremediation of acid mine drainage is achievable with the use of microalgae. Keywords: Acid mine drainage, Algae strains, Contamination, Heavy metals, Bioremediation

  3. Analysis of interfacial curvature during drainage and imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Porter, M. L.; Wildenschild, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recent synchrotron-based tomographic data sets of oil-water drainage and imbibition scenarios have been analyzed to quantify phase saturations, interfacial curvature, and separate connected from disconnected fluid phases. This allows us to follow the drainage and imbibition processes in great detail, assess equilibrium states, and understand the effects of fluid phase disconnection and re-connection on the resulting capillary pressures and interfacial curvatures. This analysis also allows for estimating capillary pressure (Pc) based on calculated curvatures and comparison to Pc measured externally with a transducer. Results indicate good agreement between curvature-based and transducer-based measurements when the connected phase interfaces are considered. Curvature measurements show a strong dependence on whether an interface is formed by connected or disconnected phases. Assuming that at equilibrium curvature is constant, curvature differences between the connected and disconnected phase interfaces can be used as a metric to asses equilibrium. Over longer equilibration, the average curvature value, for all interfaces, approaches the average curvature value predicted by the pressure transducer. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between curvature -based and transducer-based Pc measurements and allow for a detailed assessment of interfacial curvature during drainage and imbibition.

  4. Intracavitary drainage procedure for giant bullae in compromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R K; Nishiki, M; Mukai, M; Fujii, T; Kuranishi, F; Yoshioka, S; Ohtani, M; Dohi, K

    1991-09-01

    Two cases of giant bullae were treated by intracavitary suction and drainage procedure under local anesthesia because of the poor pulmonary function. After staged bullectomy, the patients returned to normal life. The first case was admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU). Tube drainage was performed in the giant bulla of the left lung immediately after admission. One month after recovery from right heart failure and mediastinal shift to the right side, bullectomy was performed using linear stapler. The patient was discharged 20 days later. The second case was admitted with severe dyspnea and bilateral giant bullae were noticed. We performed tube drainage for larger bulla of the left lung under local anesthesia. Two months later, bullectomy was performed on the right side, because the bulla on the left side became smaller and the general condition of the patient improved. The patient was discharged three months later on foot and has since been asymptomatic. Giant bulla is a well-established clinical entity which includes abnormal dilatation of various parts of the tracheo-bronchial tree and other discrete sacs originating from the interstitial portion of the lung. Giant bullae are frequently associated with marked dyspnea and emphysematous symptoms. However, these symptoms depend upon various factors: size, location, valvular mechanism, condition of the contiguous lung parenchyma and the changes that may take place in the intrathoracic pressure.

  5. Modeling Antarctic subglacial lake filling and drainage cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-07-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  6. [Risk factors associated with massive drainage after posterior spinal orthopaedic surgery for adolescent scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Jia, R; Gu, X P; Ma, Z L

    2017-11-28

    Objective: To identify risk factors that influence the massive drainage after posterior spinal orthopaedic surgery for adolescent scoliosis. Methods: A total of 1 461 patients from 11 to 18 years old diagnosed with adolescent scoliosis who underwent first posterior spinal orthopaedic surgery in affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University between November 2010 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized on the basis of massive or normal drainage, with the boundary 30(th) percentile of drainage/estimated blood volume. Preoperative factors including age, gender, body mass index(BMI), ASA physical status, diagnostic type of scoliosis, main Cobb angle, laboratory tests, intraoperative factors including the number of fusion level and screws, tranexamic acid used or not, use of osteotomy and thoracoplasty, use of cell salvage technology, duration of operation, the volume of urine output, blood loss, fluid therapy and transfusion, postoperative factors including the length of hospital stay, number of transfusion, the volume of drainage, time of drain were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine risk factors which were independently associated with massive drainage. Results: The average drainage was (856.3±333.4)ml. 479(32.8%) patients had massive drainage(drainage≥30% of drainage/estimated blood volume). Multivariate analysis identified risk factors of massive drainage: BMIfactor. Conclusion: BMIfactors associated with massive drainage after posterior spinal orthopaedic surgery for adolescent scoliosis, while the use of tranexamic acid could decrease the possibility of massive drainage.

  7. Application of BIM Technology in Building Water Supply and Drainage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianyun; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Junde

    2017-12-01

    Through the application of BIM technology, the idea of building water supply and drainage designers can be related to the model, the various influencing factors to affect water supply and drainage design can be considered more comprehensively. BIM(Building information model) technology assist in improving the design process of building water supply and drainage, promoting the building water supply and drainage planning, enriching the building water supply and drainage design method, improving the water supply and drainage system design level and building quality. Combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to analyze the advantages of BIM technology in building water supply and drainage design. Therefore, application prospects of BIM technology are very worthy of promotion.

  8. Hydrologic Impact Of Subsurface Drainage Of Agricultural Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, B. S.; Johannsen, C. J.; Bowling, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Although subsurface drainage has benefited agricultural productions in many regions of the U.S., there are also concerns about the potential impacts of these systems on watershed hydrology and water quality. This study was focused on tile lines identification and hydrologic response of subsurface drainage systems for the Agronomy Center for Research and Education (ACRE), West Lafayette, Indiana and the Southeastern Purdue Agriculture Center (SEPAC) in southeastern, Indiana. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a remote sensing methodology for automatic detection of tile lines from aerial photographs and to evaluate the Distributed Hydrology Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to analyze the hydrologic response of tile drained fields. A step-wise approach was developed to first use different image enhancement techniques to increase the visual distinction of tile lines from other details in the image. A new classification model was developed to identify locations of subsurface tiles using a decision tree classifier which compares the multiple data sets such as enhanced image data, land use class, soil drainage class, hydrologic group and surface slope. Accuracy assessment of the predicted tile map was done by comparing the locations of tile drains with existing historic maps and ground-truth data. The overall performance of decision tree classifier model coupled with other pre- and post- classification methods shows that this model can be a very effective tool in identifying tile lines from aerial photographs over large areas of land. Once the tile map was created, the DHSVM was applied to ACRE and SEPAC respectively to see the hydrological impact of the subsurface drainage network. Observed data for 3-years (1998-2000) at ACRE and for 6-years (1993-1998) at SEPAC were used to calibrate and validate the model. The model was simulated for three scenarios: 1) baseline scenario (no tiles), 2) with known tile lines and 3) with tile lines created through

  9. Global 30m Height Above the Nearest Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as height maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and

  10. Bundle of measures for external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzi, Maria; Karvouniaris, Marios; Makris, Demosthenes; Tsimitrea, Eleni; Gatos, Charalampos; Tasiou, Anastasia; Mantzarlis, Kostas; Fountas, Kostas N; Zakynthinos, Epaminondas

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and outcome of external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis in neurocritical patients before and after the implementation of a bundle of external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis control measures. Clinical prospective case series. University Hospital of Larissa, Greece. Consecutive patients were recruited from the ICU of the hospital. Patient inclusion criteria included presence of external ventricular drainage and ICU stay more than 48 hours. The bundle of external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis control measures included 1) reeducation of ICU personnel on issues of infection control related to external cerebral ventricular drainage, 2) meticulous intraventricular catheter handling, 3) cerebrospinal fluid sampling only when clinically necessary, and 4) routine replacement of the drainage catheter on the seventh drainage day if the catheter was still necessary. The bundle was applied after an initial period (preintervention) where standard policy for external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis was established. External cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis prevalence, external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis events per 1,000 drainage days (drain-associated infection rate), length of ICU stay, Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months, and risk factors for external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis. Eighty-two patients entered the study in the preintervention period and 57 patients during the intervention period. During the preintervention and intervention period, external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis prevalence was 28% and 10.5% (p = 0.02) and drain-associated infection rate was 18 and 7.1, respectively (p = 0.0001); mean (95% CI) length of ICU stay in patients who presented external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis was 44.4 days (36.4-52.4 d), whereas mean

  11. Open Drainage and Detention Basin Combined System Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Banihabib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since flooding causes death and economic damages, then it is important and is one of the most complex and destructive natural disaster that endangers human lives and properties compared to any other natural disasters. This natural disaster almost hit most of countries and each country depending on its policy deals with it differently. Uneven intensity and temporal distribution of rainfall in various parts of Iran (which has arid and semiarid climate causes flash floods and leads to too much economic damages. Detention basins can be used as one of the measures of flood control and it detains, delays and postpones the flood flow. It controls floods and affects the flood directly and rapidly by temporarily storing of water. If the land topography allows the possibility of making detention basin with an appropriate volume and quarries are near to the projects for construction of detention dam, it can be used, because of its faster effect comparing to the other watershed management measures. The open drains can be used alone or in combination with detention basin instead of detention basin solitarily. Since in the combined system of open and detention basin the dam height is increasing in contrast with increasing the open drainage capacity, optimization of the system is essential. Hence, the investigation of the sensitivity of optimized combined system (open drainage and detention basin to the effective factors is also useful in appropriately design of the combined system. Materials and Methods: This research aims to develop optimization model for a combined system of open drainage and detention basins in a mountainous area and analyze the sensitivity of optimized dimensions to the hydrological factors. To select the dam sites for detention basins, watershed map with scale of 1: 25000 is used. In AutoCAD environment, the location of the dam sites are assessed to find the proper site which contains enough storage volume of the detention

  12. Profile of thoracic trauma victims submitted to chest drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broska, Cesar Augusto; Botelho, Adriane Barbosa; Linhares, André DE Castro; DE-Oliveria, Mariana Santos; Veronese, Gabriela; Naufel, Carlos Roberto; Batista, Lislaine Cruz; Diogo, Maria Angélica Kurpel

    2017-01-01

    to describe and compare the variables involved in trauma victims undergoing thoracic drainage. we conducted a retrospective, analytical, descriptive, cross-sectional study, with medical records of patients attended at the Trauma Service of the Curitiba Evangelical University Hospital between February 2011 and January 2014. there were 488 patients undergoing chest drainage, 84.7% men and 15.3% women, with an average age of 38.2 years. Attendances usually occurred at night, without predominance between open or closed mechanism, gender or age group. The majority of patients with thoracic trauma requiring drainage were diagnosed by anamnesis and physical examination (41.1%) and drained in the emergency room (80.8%). Most of the patients (66.2%) had another associated lesion, mostly some abdominal viscera. Complications were present in 16.6% (81 patients), most of them due to drainage positioning error (9.2%). The mean hospital stay was 15 days and drainage lasted for an average of 8.1 days, with no statistical difference between open and closed trauma. The clinical outcome was discharge in most cases. the profile of patients with thoracic trauma is that of young men, attended at night, with some other associated lesion. Although diagnosis and treatment were rapid and most often without the need for complex examinations, the time of drainage, hospitalization and complications were higher than in the literature, which can be explained by the drainage being made at the Emergency Room and the presence of associated injuries. descrever e comparar as variáveis envolvidas nos pacientes vítimas de trauma torácico submetidos à drenagem de tórax. estudo transversal descritivo analítico retrospectivo realizado com prontuários de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Trauma do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba entre fevereiro de 2011 e janeiro de 2014. neste período foram atendidos 488 pacientes, 84,7% homens e 15,3% mulheres, com média de idade de 38,2 anos

  13. Specific Yield--Column drainage and centrifuge moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.I.; Prill, R.C.; Morris, D.A.

    1963-01-01

    The specific yield of a rock or soil, with respect to water, is the ratio of (1) the volume of water which, after being saturated, it will yield by gravity to (2) its own volume. Specific retention represents the water retained against gravity drainage. The specific yield and retention when added together are equal to the total interconnected porosity of the rock or soil. Because specific retention is more easily determined than specific yield, most methods for obtaining yield first require the determination of specific retention. Recognizing the great need for developing improved methods of determining the specific yield of water-bearing materials, the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Department of Water Resources initiated a cooperative investigation of this subject. The major objectives of this research are (1) to review pertinent literature on specific yield and related subjects, (2) to increase basic knowledge of specific yield and rate of drainage and to determine the most practical methods of obtaining them, (3) to compare and to attempt to correlate the principal laboratory and field methods now commonly used to obtain specific yield, and (4) to obtain improved estimates of specific yield of water-bearing deposits in California. An open-file report, 'Specific yield of porous media, an annotated bibliography,' by A. I. Johnson, D. A. Morris, and R. C. Prill, was released in 1960 in partial fulfillment of the first objective. This report describes the second phase of the specific-yield study by the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Laboratory at Denver, Colo. Laboratory research on column drainage and centrifuge moisture equivalent, two methods for estimating specific retention of porous media, is summarized. In the column-drainage study, a wide variety of materials was packed into plastic columns of 1- to 8-inch diameter, wetted with Denver tap water, and drained under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The effects of cleaning the

  14. Estimation of average annual streamflows and power potentials for Alaska and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdin, Kristine L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes the work done to develop average annual streamflow estimates and power potential for the states of Alaska and Hawaii. The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) database was used, along with climatic datasets, to develop flow and power estimates for every stream reach in the EDNA database. Estimates of average annual streamflows were derived using state-specific regression equations, which were functions of average annual precipitation, precipitation intensity, drainage area, and other elevation-derived parameters. Power potential was calculated through the use of the average annual streamflow and the hydraulic head of each reach, which is calculated from the EDNA digital elevation model. In all, estimates of streamflow and power potential were calculated for over 170,000 stream segments in the Alaskan and Hawaiian datasets.

  15. Preoperative endoscopic versus percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in potentially resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (DRAINAGE trial) : design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Jimme K.; Coelen, Robert J. S.; Rauws, Erik A. J.; van Delden, Otto M.; van Eijck, Casper H. J.; de Jonge, Jeroen; Porte, Robert J.; Buis, Carlijn I.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Besselink, Marc G. H.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liver surgery in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) is associated with high postoperative morbidity because the tumor typically causes biliary obstruction. Preoperative biliary drainage is used to create a safer environment prior to liver surgery, but biliary drainage may be harmful when

  16. Climate change impacts on the Lehman-Baker Creek drainage in the Great Basin National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) forced by increased CO2 emissions forecast anomalously dry and warm trends over the southwestern U.S. for the 21st century. The effect of warmer conditions may result in decreased surface water resources within the Great Basin physiographic region critical for ecology, irrigation and municipal water supply. Here we use downscaled GCM output from the A2 and B1 greenhouse gas emission scenarios to force a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed model developed for the Lehman and Baker Creeks Drainage (LBCD) in the Great Basin National Park, NV for a century long time period. The goal is to quantify the effects of rising temperature to the water budget in the LBCD at monthly and annual timescales. Dynamically downscaled GCM projections are attained from the NSF EPSCoR Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach project and statistically downscaled output is retrieved from the "U.S. Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3 Climate Projections". Historical daily climate and streamflow data have been collected simultaneously for periods extending 20 years or longer. Mann-Kendal trend test results showed a statistically significant (α= 0.05) long-term rising trend from 1895 to 2012 in annual and monthly average temperatures for the study area. A grid-based, PRMS watershed model of the LBCD has been created within ArcGIS 10, and physical parameters have been estimated at a spatial resolution of 100m. Simulation results will be available soon. Snow cover is expected to decrease and peak runoff to occur earlier in the spring, resulting in increased runoff, decreased infiltration/recharge, decreased baseflows, and decreased evapo-transpiration.

  17. Regional maximum rainfall analysis using L-moments at the Titicaca Lake drainage, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Palomino, Carlos Antonio; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo Sven

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates the application of the index flood L-moments-based regional frequency analysis procedure (RFA-LM) to the annual maximum 24-h rainfall (AM) of 33 rainfall gauge stations (RGs) to estimate rainfall quantiles at the Titicaca Lake drainage (TL). The study region was chosen because it is characterised by common floods that affect agricultural production and infrastructure. First, detailed quality analyses and verification of the RFA-LM assumptions were conducted. For this purpose, different tests for outlier verification, homogeneity, stationarity, and serial independence were employed. Then, the application of RFA-LM procedure allowed us to consider the TL as a single, hydrologically homogeneous region, in terms of its maximum rainfall frequency. That is, this region can be modelled by a generalised normal (GNO) distribution, chosen according to the Z test for goodness-of-fit, L-moments (LM) ratio diagram, and an additional evaluation of the precision of the regional growth curve. Due to the low density of RG in the TL, it was important to produce maps of the AM design quantiles estimated using RFA-LM. Therefore, the ordinary Kriging interpolation (OK) technique was used. These maps will be a useful tool for determining the different AM quantiles at any point of interest for hydrologists in the region.

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  19. Randomized Trial of Pleural Fluid Drainage Frequency in Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusions. The ASAP Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahidi, Momen M; Reddy, Chakravarthy; Yarmus, Lonny; Feller-Kopman, David; Musani, Ali; Shepherd, R Wesley; Lee, Hans; Bechara, Rabih; Lamb, Carla; Shofer, Scott; Mahmood, Kamran; Michaud, Gaetane; Puchalski, Jonathan; Rafeq, Samaan; Cattaneo, Stephen M; Mullon, John; Leh, Steven; Mayse, Martin; Thomas, Samantha M; Peterson, Bercedis; Light, Richard W

    2017-04-15

    Patients with malignant pleural effusions have significant dyspnea and shortened life expectancy. Indwelling pleural catheters allow patients to drain pleural fluid at home and can lead to autopleurodesis. The optimal drainage frequency to achieve autopleurodesis and freedom from catheter has not been determined. To determine whether an aggressive daily drainage strategy is superior to the current standard every other day drainage of pleural fluid in achieving autopleurodesis. Patients were randomized to either an aggressive drainage (daily drainage; n = 73) or standard drainage (every other day drainage; n = 76) of pleural fluid via a tunneled pleural catheter. The primary outcome was the incidence of autopleurodesis following the placement of the indwelling pleural catheters. The rate of autopleurodesis, defined as complete or partial response based on symptomatic and radiographic changes, was greater in the aggressive drainage arm than the standard drainage arm (47% vs. 24%, respectively; P = 0.003). Median time to autopleurodesis was shorter in the aggressive arm (54 d; 95% confidence interval, 34-83) as compared with the standard arm (90 d; 95% confidence interval, 70 to nonestimable). Rate of adverse events, quality of life, and patient satisfaction were not significantly different between the two arms. Among patients with malignant pleural effusion, daily drainage of pleural fluid via an indwelling pleural catheter led to a higher rate of autopleurodesis and faster time to liberty from catheter. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00978939).

  20. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  1. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  2. Studies of lymphatic drainage from testes by lymphoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, S.D.J.; Morse, M.J.; Grando, R.; Kleinert, E.L.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Severe lymphedema of lower extremity may cause functional disability and foster recurrent lymphangitis. Surgical transportation of the testis to the thigh offers the possibility of enhancing lymphatic drainage from the leg via spermatic cord lymphatics. Testicular lymphoscintigraphy was employed to assess the quality of testicular lymphatic drainage prior to testis transposition. Images of abdomen and measurement of testis radioactivity were made serially after injection of Au 198 colloid into the testis of dogs before and after litigation of the spermatic cord. In the intact dogs, the residual radioactivities in the testis (5 dogs) were 53.5 +- 13.25, 41.6 +- 7.80 and 26.3 +- 5.66% at 2, 4 and 24 hours post injection. After ligation of spermatic cord, the residual activities in the testis were 95.0 +- 3.33, 86.4 +- 6.49 and 74.2 +- 6.28% at corresponding intervals post injection. Paraaortic nodes and liver were visualized in the abdominal images 1 hour after injection in the intact animals but only poorly seen in dogs following ligation. /sup 99m/Tc antimony colloid was used similarly in 5 patients who had severe lymphedema and abnormal pelvic lymphoscintigraphy following bipedal injection. With intratesticular injection, paraaortic lymph nodes and liver were visualized in 7 studies between 3 to 5 hours. Poor visualization was noted in two studies in patients who had previous radiation to the abdomen. The findings suggest that this simple technic can aid in the assessment of testicular lymphatic drainage and help to select patients for appropriate surgical intervention.

  3. Studies of lymphatic drainage from testes by lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.D.J.; Morse, M.J.; Grando, R.; Kleinert, E.L.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Severe lymphedema of lower extremity may cause functional disability and foster recurrent lymphangitis. Surgical transportation of the testis to the thigh offers the possibility of enhancing lymphatic drainage from the leg via spermatic cord lymphatics. Testicular lymphoscintigraphy was employed to assess the quality of testicular lymphatic drainage prior to testis transposition. Images of abdomen and measurement of testis radioactivity were made serially after injection of Au 198 colloid into the testis of dogs before and after litigation of the spermatic cord. In the intact dogs, the residual radioactivities in the testis (5 dogs) were 53.5 +- 13.25, 41.6 +- 7.80 and 26.3 +- 5.66% at 2, 4 and 24 hours post injection. After ligation of spermatic cord, the residual activities in the testis were 95.0 +- 3.33, 86.4 +- 6.49 and 74.2 +- 6.28% at corresponding intervals post injection. Paraaortic nodes and liver were visualized in the abdominal images 1 hour after injection in the intact animals but only poorly seen in dogs following ligation. /sup 99m/Tc antimony colloid was used similarly in 5 patients who had severe lymphedema and abnormal pelvic lymphoscintigraphy following bipedal injection. With intratesticular injection, paraaortic lymph nodes and liver were visualized in 7 studies between 3 to 5 hours. Poor visualization was noted in two studies in patients who had previous radiation to the abdomen. The findings suggest that this simple technic can aid in the assessment of testicular lymphatic drainage and help to select patients for appropriate surgical intervention

  4. National water-quality assessment program : the Albemarle- Pamlico drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Barnes, C.R.; Woodside, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. Study-unit investigations constitute a major component of the NAWQA program, forming the principal building blocks on which national-level assessment activities are based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems. These study units cover areas of 1,200 to more than 65,000 square miles and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for study under the full-scale implementation plan. The Albemarle-Pamlico drainage study will examine the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of water quality issues in a coordinated investigation of surface water and ground water in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin. The quantity and quality of discharge from the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin contribute to some water quality problems in the biologically sensitive waters of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. A retrospective analysis of existing water quality data will precede a 3-year period of intensive data-collection and analysis activities. The data resulting from this study and the improved understanding of important processes and issues in the upstream part of the study unit will enhance understanding of the quality of

  5. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage as treatment for canine pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cramer, K G M

    2010-09-01

    Pyometra is a common post-oestral syndrome in bitches. Classical treatment consists of either ovariohystorectomy or medical intervention. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage via direct trans-cervical catheterisation using a 5% povidone-iodine in saline solution was performed successfully in 8 bitches with pyometra. All bitches conceived and whelped without complications subsequent to this treatment. It is concluded that this method offers an effective alternative treatment for canine pyometra with shorter recovery times as well as good clinical recovery and pregnancy rates in bitches destined for further breeding.

  6. An efficient numerical method for solving nonlinear foam drainage equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parand, Kourosh; Delkhosh, Mehdi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear foam drainage equation, which is a famous nonlinear partial differential equation, is solved by using a hybrid numerical method based on the quasilinearization method and the bivariate generalized fractional order of the Chebyshev functions (B-GFCF) collocation method. First, using the quasilinearization method, the equation is converted into a sequence of linear partial differential equations (LPD), and then these LPDs are solved using the B-GFCF collocation method. A very good approximation of solutions is obtained, and comparisons show that the obtained results are more accurate than the results of other researchers.

  7. Therapeutic importance of manual lymphatic drainage for lymphedema of limbs

    OpenAIRE

    VOTRUBOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The importance of lymphatic drainage and other techniques used to cure lymphedema was known as early as around the year 3,000 BC. In the Czech Republic it became quite common after 1992, when the Czech Society of Lymphology was founded. Since the number of professionals in this area has been increasing and so has the number of patients, which makes the cure of lymphedema a very topical question. The first chapter of the theoretical part of my thesis is devoted to the history of the anatomy of...

  8. Uncertainty Assessment in Long Term Urban Drainage Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    on the rainfall inputs. In order to handle the uncertainties three different stochastic approaches are investigated applying a case catchment in the town Frejlev: (1) a reliability approach in which a parameterization of the rainfall input is conducted in order to generate synthetic rainfall events and find...... return periods, and even within the return periods specified in the design criteria. If urban drainage models are based on standard parameters and hence not calibrated, the uncertainties are even larger. The greatest uncertainties are shown to be the rainfall input and the assessment of the contributing...

  9. Ochre precipitates and Acid Mine Drainage in a mine environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máša, B.; Pulišová, Petra; Bezdička, Petr; Michalková, E.; Šubrt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 9-14 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB0810136 Grant - others:Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic(SK) VEGA 1/0529/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : ochre precipitate * Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) * X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) * Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) * specific surface area and porosity Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012

  10. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. Description We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. Methods After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at −20 cm H2O for 30 min. Results When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, P<0.001). By 30 min, the split drain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. Conclusion The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications. PMID:25478289

  11. CSIR Annual report 1981

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty seventh annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1981 to 31 December 1981. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1981, certified...

  12. CSIR Annual report 1982

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty eighth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1982 to 31 December 1982. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1982, certified...

  13. 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French union of the petroleum industry (UFIP). It summarizes the highlights of the petroleum industry activity in France in 2001 and gives some additional information about the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  14. TIARA annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Narumi, Kazumasa; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiro; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru

    2006-01-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005. The 126 of the presented papers are indexed individually. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  15. OMS 1987 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Designed to serve both as an activity report on Office of Management Studies (OMS) progress during 1987 and a catalog of OMS services and products, this annual report focuses on the management of technology in a scholarly environment. Programs and services are reported in five sections: (1) Applied Research and Development (the Institute on…

  16. Folklife Annual, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Alan, Ed.; Hardin, James, Ed.

    This annual publication is intended to promote the documentation and study of the folklife of the United States, to share the traditions, values, and activities of U.S. folk culture, and to serve as a national forum for the discussion of ideas and issues in folklore and folklife. The articles in this collection are: (1) "Eating in the Belly…

  17. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules (Ed.), John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  18. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  19. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  20. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 145 refs.; 20 figs.; 4 fotos; 2 tabs

  1. CSIR Annual report 1966

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty second annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1966, to the 31st December 1966. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  2. KTA annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report gives an overview of the rulemaking work in the individual fields as well as other activities, such as meetings, international codes of rules, and publications. KTA organization, including its administration and funds is listed. (orig./HP) [de

  3. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  4. Annual report - ENERSUL - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of ENERSUL - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: Outlook for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sold; capacity increases; customers; customers; energy balance; performance and quality; electric system; investments; people; human resources; synergies; awards; workplace safety; social balance; and patrimonial balance

  5. ELETRONUCLEAR - Annual report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual activities report of 1997 of ELETRONUCLEAR - Brazilian company responsible by the electric power generation from the nuclear technology - introduces the next main topics: company vision and mission; energy production and commercialization; investments in the electric power generation; economic and financial situation; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  6. 52nd Annual Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1987-01-01

    Jan 1, 1987 ... At the invitation of the Banaras Hindu. University, Varanasi, the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Academy was held in the BHU campus from Friday 7 to Monday 10 November 1986. The Meeting began with the inaugural function in the newly completed University. Auditorium, Swatantrata Bhavan, at 6 p.m. on.

  7. Annual Report - ESCELSA - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; market overview; market expansion; customers; technological stream; measuring quality; electric system; investments; protecting the environment; and resource allocation

  8. CSIR Annual report 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty-sixth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1980 to 31 December 1980. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1980, certified...

  9. CSIR Annual report 1970

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1970, to the 31st December 1970. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  10. CSIR Annual report 1967

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty third annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1967, to the 31st December 1967. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  11. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK) [de

  12. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  13. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  14. IKF annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The annual report of 1988 gives a survey of the following category of themes: nuclear physics, atom physics, nuclear methods, nuclear solid-state physics and developments of machines. Apart from the use of its own Van de Graaff accelerators the institute takes part in joint ventures in research, for example with the GSI (Association for Heavy-Ion Research) in Darmstadt. (DG) [de

  15. ANCLI annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2002. (A.L.B.)

  16. CSIR Annual report 1971

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1971, to the 31st December 1971. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  17. NRCC annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer

  18. Annual report - ESCELSA - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of 1999 of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power company - introduces the next main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; customers; quality; electric system; investments; people; resources; synergies; awards; outlook; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  19. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  20. Annual report SNET 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the SNET (National Society of Electricity and thermic) presents the society activities and the financial report for the year 2003. The society position in the market, the environmental policy, the performance, the workers and financial data are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2008-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2007. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  2. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  3. NIKHEF Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this annual report 1982, the NIKHEF research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry is described in a wide context. Next, the reports of the individual projects of section-H and section-K are described in detail. Finally, the report gives some statistical information of publications, colloquia and co-workers. (Auth.)

  4. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  5. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  6. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  7. CSIR Annual report 1968

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fourth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1968, to the 31st December 1968. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  8. CSIR Annual report 1969

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fifth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1969, to the 31st December 1969. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  9. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  10. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary and detailed reports are presented of current research during 1987 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics. (H.W.). 61 refs.; 13 figs.; 14 tabs

  11. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG) [de

  12. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  13. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  14. RTE annual results 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the results of the RTE (Electric power Transport Network). The year 2005 is marked by the new status of RTE, as a limited company. The financial good performances, the market, the open network, the environmental policy, the human resources and the european and international relations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  15. CSIR Annual report 1962

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the eighteenth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1962 to 31 December 1962. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1962, certified...

  16. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  17. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  18. Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacz, M.; Zielinska, M.

    2011-06-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2010. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments at HIL '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' Appendices '' where general information on HIL activities are described. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Heavy Ion Laboratory prof. K. Rusek is also given.

  19. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing…

  20. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  1. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  2. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  3. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, N.; Skalski, J.

    2009-01-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  4. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  5. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  6. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  7. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  8. NIKHEF Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) during its first year. Following a general introduction to the research areas in which NIKHEF is involved, 29 brief reports from the project groups are presented. Details concerning personnel, participation in councils and committees, finances, publications, colloquia and participation in congresses and schools are included. (Auth.)

  9. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  10. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  11. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  12. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  13. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  14. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  15. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  16. 57th Annual Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1992-01-01

    Jan 1, 1992 ... At the invitation of the National Chemical. Laboratory, Pune, the 57th Annual Meeting of the Academy was held at Pune ftom 8 to 11. November 1991. The Meeting began with the inaugural session on the morning of Friday, 8 November at the National Chemical laboratory (NCl). Auditorium. Dr R A ...

  17. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2006-05-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2005. The document consist of four parts: Laboratory Overview, Experiments and Experimental Set-ups, Experiments Using the Outside Facilities and General Information on HIL Activities. An Introduction written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  18. GKSS annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report reviews the structure and activities of the GKSS in 1983. R and D work was done on reactor safety engineering, environmental research/environmental engineering and underwater technology. It also reports on cooperation with outside partners, the organization, financing, and developments in the staff structure as well as on publications, lectures, applications for patents, etc. (UA) [de

  19. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  20. CSIR Annual report 1963

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the nineteenth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1963, to the 31st December 1963. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...