Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Kvurt, Y.; Kharlamov, Alexander; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel
2008-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 2 (2008), s. 88-94 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : drag force * drag torque * spherical particle * rotational movement * translational movement Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Kvurt, Y.; Keita, Ibrahima; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel
2012-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 1 (2012), s. 55-67 ISSN 0272-6351 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600603; GA ČR GA103/09/1718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : drag force * drag torque * Magnus force * Reynolds number * rotational Reynolds number Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012
Significance of relative velocity in drag force or drag power estimation for a tethered float
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vethamony, P.; Sastry, J.S.
There is difference in opinion regarding the use of relative velocity instead of particle velocity alone in the estimation of drag force or power. In the present study, a tethered spherical float which undergoes oscillatory motion in regular waves...
On the origin of the drag force on golf balls
Balaras, Elias; Beratlis, Nikolaos; Squires, Kyle
2017-11-01
It is well establised that dimples accelerate the drag-crisis on a sphere. The result of the early drag-crisis is a reduction of the drag coefficient by more than a factor of two when compared to a smooth sphere at the same Reynolds number. However, when the drag coefficients for smooth and dimpled spheres in the supercritical regime are compared, the latter is higher by a factor of two to three. To understand the origin of this behavior we conducted direct numerical simulations of the flow around a dimpled sphere, which is similar to commercially available golf balls, in the supercritical regime. By comparing the results to those for a smooth sphere it is found that dimples, although effective in accelerating the drag crisis, impose a local drag-penalty, which contributes significantly to the overall drag force. This finding challenges the broadly accepted view, that the dimples only indirectly affect the drag force on a golf ball by manipulating the structure of the turbulent boundary layer near the wall and consequently affect global separation. Within this view, typically the penalty on the drag force imposed by the dimples is assumed to be small and coming primarily from skin friction. The direct numerical simulations we will report reveal a very different picture.
Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes
Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen
2017-11-01
When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).
Drag force in a D-instanton background
Zhang, Zi-qiang; Luo, Zhong-jie; Hou, De-fu
2018-06-01
We study the drag force and diffusion coefficient with respect to a moving heavy quark in a D-instanton background, which corresponds to the Yang-Mills theory in the deconfining, high-temperature phase. It is shown that the presence of the D-instanton density tends to increase the drag force and decrease the diffusion coefficient, reverse to the effects of the velocity and the temperature. Moreover, the inclusion of the D-instanton density makes the medium less viscous.
Thermal Transport and Drag Force in Improved Holographic QCD
Gürsoy, Umut; Michalogiorgakis, Georgios; Nitti, Francesco; 10.1088
2009-01-01
We calculate the bulk viscosity, drag force and jet quenching parameter in Improved Holographic QCD. We find that the bulk viscosity rises near the phase transition but does not exceed the shear viscosity. The drag force shows the effects of asymptotic freedom both as a function of velocity and temperature. It indicates diffusion times of heavy quarks in rough agreement with data. The jet quenching parameter values computed via the light-like Wilson loop are in the lower range suggested by data.
Drag force and jet propulsion investigation of a swimming squid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tabatabaei Mahdi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, CAD model of a squid was obtained by taking computer tomography images of a real squid. The model later placed into a computational domain to calculate drag force and performance of jet propulsion. The drag study was performed on the CAD model so that drag force subjected to real squid was revealed at squid’s different swimming speeds and comparison has been made with other underwater creatures (e.g., a dolphin, sea lion and penguin. The drag coefficient (referenced to total wetted surface area of squid is 0.0042 at Reynolds number 1.6x106 that is a %4.5 difference from Gentoo penguin. Besides, jet flow of squid was simulated to observe the flow region generated in the 2D domain utilizing dynamic mesh method to mimic the movement of squid’s mantle cavity.
Effect of guideway discontinuities on magnetic levitation and drag forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossing, T.D.; Korte, R.; Hull, J.R.
1991-01-01
Transients in the lift and drag forces on a NdFeB permanent magnet were observed as the magnet passed over various discontinuities in a rotating aluminum disk at velocities of 4 to 25 m/s. For full cuts in the disk, the amplitude of the lift and drag transients and the wave form of the drag transient depend on the width, and the amplitudes are much larger than for partial cuts. The use of a backing plate to join two cut segments is ineffective
Drag force in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma
Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego
2012-08-01
We calculate the drag force experienced by an infinitely massive quark propagating at constant velocity through an anisotropic, strongly coupled {N} = 4 plasma by means of its gravity dual. We find that the gluon cloud trailing behind the quark is generally misaligned with the quark velocity, and that the latter is also misaligned with the force. The drag coefficient μ can be larger or smaller than the corresponding isotropic value depending on the velocity and the direction of motion. In the ultra-relativistic limit we find that generically μ ∝ p. We discuss the conditions under which this behaviour may extend to more general situations.
Vertical, radial and drag force analysis of superconducting magnetic bearings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cansiz, Ahmet
2009-01-01
The behavior of the force between a permanent magnet (PM) and a high temperature superconductor (HTS) was tested with the frozen-image model based on flux pinning. It was found that the associated dipole moment assumptions of the method of the frozen image underestimate the force somewhat; thus a quadrupole moment analysis is proposed. The radial and drag forces associated with the rotation of the PM levitated above the HTS were measured by using a force transducer and by means of a cantilevered beam technique. The radial force was found not to be dependent on the radial direction, and the least radial force was found to be periodic with an angular displacement during the slow rotation of the PM relative to the HTS. The periodicity behavior of the force is attributed to the geometric eccentricity from the magnetization distribution of the PM and HTS. The drag force associated with the torsional stiffness of the levitated PM during the low and high rotational speeds was incorporated with the data from the literature.
Collisionless ion drag force on a spherical grain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutchinson, I H
2006-01-01
The ion drag force on a spherical grain situated in a flowing collisionless plasma is obtained from the specialized coordinate electrostatic particle and thermals in cell simulation code (SCEPTIC) (Hutchinson 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 1953, Hutchinson 2003 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45 1477, Hutchinson 2005 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47 71) and compared with recent analytic approximate treatments in the interesting and relevant case when the Debye length is only moderately larger than the sphere radius. There is a substantial complex structure in the results for transonic flows, which is explained in terms of the details of ion orbits. Naturally the prior analytic approximations miss this structure, and as a result they seriously underestimate the drag for speeds near the sound speed. An easy-to-evaluate expression for force is provided that fits the comprehensive results of the code. This expression, with minor modification, also fits the results even for Debye length much smaller than the sphere radius
Nonuniform charging effects on ion drag force in drifting dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Dong-Man; Chang, Won-Seok; Jung, Young-Dae
2006-01-01
The nonuniform polarization charging effects on the ion drag force are investigated in drifting dusty plasmas. The ion drag force due to the ion-dust grain interaction is obtained as a function of the dust charge, ion charge, plasma temperature, Mach number, Debye length, and collision energy. The result shows that the nonuniform charging effects enhance the momentum transfer cross section as well as the ion drag force. It is found that the momentum transfer cross section and the ion drag force including nonuniform polarization charging effects increase with increasing the Mach number and also the ion drag force increases with increasing the temperature. In addition, it is found that the ion drag force is slightly decreasing with an increase of the Debye length
Binaries traveling through a gaseous medium: dynamical drag forces and internal torques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Apt. Postal 70 264, C.P. 04510, Mexico City (Mexico); Chametla, Raul O., E-mail: jsanchez@astro.unam.mx [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UP Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico City (Mexico)
2014-10-20
Using time-dependent linear theory, we investigate the morphology of the gravitational wake induced by a binary, whose center of mass moves at velocity V{sub cm} against a uniform background of gas. For simplicity, we assume that the components of the binary are on circular orbits about their common center of mass. The consequences of dynamical friction is twofold. First, gas dynamical friction may drag the center of mass of the binary and cause the binary to migrate. Second, drag forces also induce a braking torque, which causes the orbits of the components of the binary to shrink. We compute the drag forces acting on one component of the binary due to the gravitational interaction with its own wake. We show that the dynamical friction force responsible for decelerating the center of mass of the binary is smaller than it is in the point-mass case because of the loss of gravitational focusing. We show that the braking internal torque depends on the Mach numbers of each binary component about their center of mass, and also on the Mach number of the center of mass of the binary. In general, the internal torque decreases with increasing the velocity of the binary relative to the ambient gas cloud. However, this is not always the case. We also mention the relevance of our results to the period distribution of binaries.
Structure design and experimental appraisal of the drag force type vertical axis wind turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Keon; Keum, Jong Yoon; Yoon, Soon Hyun
2006-01-01
Experiments were conducted to estimate the performance of drag force type vertical axis wind turbine with an opening-shutting rotor. It was operated by the difference in drag force generated on both sides of the blades. The rotational speed was measured by a tachometer in a wind tunnel and the tunnel wind speed was measured by using a pitot-static tube and a micro manometer. The performance test for a prototype was accomplished by calculating power, power coefficient, torque coefficient from the measurement of torque and rpm by a dynamometer controller. Various design parameters, such as the number of blades(B), blade aspect ratio(W/R), angle of blades(α) and drag coefficient acting on a blade, were considered for optimal conditions. At the experiment of miniature model, maximum efficiency was found at N=15, α=60 .deg. and W/R=0.32. The measured test variables were power, torque, rotational speed, and wind speeds. The data presented are in the form of power and torque coefficients as a function of tip-speed ratio V/U. Maximum power was found in case of Ω=0.33, when the power and torque coefficient were 0.14 and 0.37 respectively. Comparing model test with prototype test, similarity law by advance ratio for vertical axis wind turbine was confirmed
Analysis of the neutral drag force in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, Edward Jr.; Williams, Jeremiah
2005-01-01
In this paper, the authors report on a series of experiments that use carefully applied perturbations to a dust cloud to reproducibly investigate the formation of the microparticle cloud and the formation of dust cloud-plasma interface. Here, one micron diameter alumina microparticles are suspended in an argon dc glow discharge plasma. A perturbing voltage pulse is applied to the cathode, causing a momentary disruption in the confinement of the dust cloud. After the perturbation, the cloud reforms, typically with a central 'mass' and two 'streams' of particles that are flowing into the cloud from both sides. Through the use of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV), the complete three-dimensional velocity of the microparticles can be measured. The particles in the streams are used as test particles to characterize the forces acting upon the microparticles. Analysis of the experimental measurements suggests that the effective neutral drag force may be lower than expected
Dusty plasmas in a constant electric field: Role of the electron drag force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrapak, S.A.; Morfill, G.E.
2004-01-01
We investigate the forces experienced by a microparticle immersed in a weakly ionized plasma with constant electric field. These are electric force and the forces associated with the momentum transfer from electrons and ions drifting in the field (electron and ion drag forces). It is shown that the effect of the electron drag, which is often neglected, can be substantial in a certain parameter range. Numerical calculation of the forces for a reasonable set of plasma parameters is performed to illustrate the importance of this effect
Lift, drag, and guidance forces on alternating polarity magnets, using loop guideways
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindenbaum, S.D.; Lee, M.S.
1975-01-01
Exact solutions of track current, lift force, and drag force, together with their velocity dependence, have been computed for a vehicle carrying a finite number of fixed current alternating polarity superconducting magnets, suspended at various heights over structured track guideways of the single- and double-loop (''null'') types. Results for the double-loop case are compared with those of a previously reported approximate analysis. The analytical method is then applied to a study of a low-drag guidance loop guideway which is integrable with lift loop guideways utilizing a common set of vehicle magnets. Solutions are obtained for guidance track restoring forces, lateral destabilization forces, and lift force degradation as functions of lateral displacement from symmetry. The dependence of lift, drag, and lift-to-drag on track loop parameters is studied and the linear dependence of lift-to-drag on loop time constant confirmed. The contribution to the forces made by successive addition of alternating polarity magnets is calculated and the marked reduction in lift force pulsation noted
Influence of drag force upon the shortest time trajectory of an aircraft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei CRAIFALEANU
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The shortest time trajectory of an aircraft between two given locations is determined using a simple mathematical model. By taking into account the drag force (viscous friction force with the air, a problem of variational calculus is obtained which consists in determining two functions that minimize a functional, subject to a non-holonomic constraint. The trajectory is determined directly, by numerical integration of Euler equations with multipliers. Three types of drag forces were considered: constant, linear and quadratic. The results are verified through comparison to the values obtained from numerical minimization of the involved functional approximate forms.
A wind loading correlation for an isolated square heliostat, part 1: lift and drag forces
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roos, TH
2012-05-01
Full Text Available dataset to high accuracy. Correlations for the lift and drag forces are presented. A companion paper presents correlations for the side forces and correlations for moments about the three principal axes, and discusses the behavior of the correlations....
Vortex Induced Vibrations of Cylinders: Experiments in Reducing Drag Force and Amplitude of Motion
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Farrell, David E
2007-01-01
.... The second series of tests are the rigid cylinder, PIV experiments. These rests measure both the drag force on the cylinder and the oscillating component of the lift force, the latter of which is a good indication of vortex formation. The Chapter 3 tests also image the test section wake-providing helpful insight into the physical process of vortex formations.
Lift vs. drag based mechanisms for vertical force production in the smallest flying insects.
Jones, S K; Laurenza, R; Hedrick, T L; Griffith, B E; Miller, L A
2015-11-07
We used computational fluid dynamics to determine whether lift- or drag-based mechanisms generate the most vertical force in the flight of the smallest insects. These insects fly at Re on the order of 4-60 where viscous effects are significant. Detailed quantitative data on the wing kinematics of the smallest insects is not available, and as a result both drag- and lift-based strategies have been suggested as the mechanisms by which these insects stay aloft. We used the immersed boundary method to solve the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction problem of a flexible wing immersed in a two-dimensional viscous fluid to compare three idealized hovering kinematics: a drag-based stroke in the vertical plane, a lift-based stroke in the horizontal plane, and a hybrid stroke on a tilted plane. Our results suggest that at higher Re, a lift-based strategy produces more vertical force than a drag-based strategy. At the Re pertinent to small insect hovering, however, there is little difference in performance between the two strategies. A drag-based mechanism of flight could produce more vertical force than a lift-based mechanism for insects at Re<5; however, we are unaware of active fliers at this scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Implementations of non-drag interfacial forces into the CUPID code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, I.K.; Cho, H.K.; Kim, J.; Yoon, H.Y.; Jeong, J.J.
2009-01-01
A component-scale thermal-hydraulics analysis module, the CUPID code has been being developed for a transient three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis of nuclear reactor components. The CUPID is based on a two-fluid, three-field model, which is solved by using an unstructured finite volume method. In the two-fluid momentum equation, the most important term to be modeled is the interfacial surface force. The simplest way to model this force is to formulate as the linear combination of various known interfacial forces such as the standard drag force, the virtual mass force, the Basset force, the lift force, the wall lift force, and the turbulent dispersion force. The standard drag force and the virtual mass force, which is essential for two-fluid computational models, are already considered in the CUPID code. In this paper, the wall lubrication force, the lift force, and the turbulent dispersion force including turbulence models, which play an important role on a radial distribution of the void in a two-phase flow, were implemented into the CUPID code, and the effect of these forces were verified qualitatively. (author)
Sakarya, Doǧan Uǧur
2017-05-01
Drag force effect is an important aspect of range performance in missile applications especially for long flight time. However, old fashioned gimbal approaches force to increase missile diameter. This increase has negative aspect of rising in both drag force and radar cross sectional area. A new gimbal approach was proposed recently. It uses a beam steering optical arrangement. Therefore, it needs less volume envelope for same field of regard and same optomechanical assembly than the old fashioned gimbal approaches. In addition to longer range performance achieved with same fuel in the new gimbal approach, this method provides smaller cross sectional area which can be more invisible in enemies' radar. In this paper, the two gimbal approaches - the old fashioned one and the new one- are compared in order to decrease drag force and radar cross sectional area in missile application. In this study; missile parameters are assumed to generate gimbal and optical design parameters. Optical design is performed according to these missile criteria. Two gimbal configurations are designed with respect to modeled missile parameters. Also analyzes are performed to show decreased drag force and radar cross sectional area in the new approach for comparison.
Observation and Numerical Experiments for Drag Coefficient Under Typhoon Wind Forcing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Huiqiu; ZHOU Liangming; LI Shuiqing; WANG Zhifeng
2017-01-01
This paper presents a study on drag coefficients under typhoon wind forcing based on observations and numerical experiments.The friction velocity and wind speed are measured at a marine observation platform in the South China Sea.Three typhoons:SOULIK (2013),TRAMI (2013) and FITOW (2013) are observed at a buoy station in the northeast sea area of Pingtan Island.A new parameterization is formulated for the wind drag coefficient as a function of wind speed.It is found that the drag coefficient (Ca) increases linearly with the slope of 0.083× 10-3 for wind speed less than 24 m s-1.To investigate the drag coefficient under higher wind conditions,three numerical experiments are implemented for these three typhoons using SWAN wave model.The wind input data are objective reanalysis datasets,which are assimilated with many sources and provided every six hours with the resolution of 0.125° ×0.125°.The numerical simulation results show a good agreement with wave observation data under typhoon wind forcing.The results indicate that the drag coefficient levels off with the linear slope of 0.012× 10-3 for higher wind speeds (less than 34 m s-1) and the new parameterization improvese the simulation accuracy compared with the Wu (1982) default used in SWAN.
Drag force of intermediate Reynolds number flow past mono- and bidisperse arrays of spheres
Beetstra, R.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2007-01-01
Extensive lattice-Boltzmann simulations were performed to obtain the drag force for random arrays of monodisperse and bidisperse spheres. For the monodisperse systems, 35 different combinations of the Reynolds number Re (up to Re = 1,000) and packing fraction were studied, whereas for the bidisperse
Drag force of intermediate Reynolds number flow past mono- and bidisperse arrays of spheres
Beetstra, R.; Hoef, van der M.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2007-01-01
Extensive lattice-Boltzmann simulations were performed to obtain the drag force for random arrays of monodisperse and bidisperse spheres. For the monodisperse systems, 35 different combinations of the Reynolds number Re (up to Re = 1,000) and packing fraction ¿ were studied, whereas for the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrapak, S. A.; Nosenko, V.; Morfill, G. E.; Merlino, R.
2009-01-01
We point out a deficiency in our previous analytic calculation of the ion drag force for conditions of the experiment by Nosenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 103702 (2007)]. An inaccurate approximation is corrected and the ion drag force is recalculated. The improved model yields better overall agreement with the experimental results as compared to the original calculation.
Drag reduction by streamwise traveling wave-like Lorenz Force in channel flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamori, Hiroya; Fukagata, Koji
2011-01-01
Skin-friction drag reduction effect of traveling wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force in a fully developed turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. A sinusoidal profile of the wall-normal body force is assumed as the Lorenz force. While upstream traveling waves reduce the drag in the case of blowing/suction, standing waves reduce it in the case of present forcing. Visualization of vortical structure under the standing wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force reveals that the near-wall streamwise vortices, which increase the skin-friction drag, disappear and spanwise roller-like vortices are generated instead. Three component decomposition of the Reynolds shear stress indicates that the spanwise roller-like vortices contribute to the negative Reynolds shear stress in the region near the wall, similarly to the case of laminar flows. While the analogy between the wall-normal and streamwise forcings can be expected, the statistics are found to exhibit different behaviors due to the difference in the energy flow.
A study on forces acting on a flapping wing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cetiner O.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In order to study the forces acting on a flapping wing, an experimental investigation is performed in steady water flow. In this study, a SD7003 airfoil undergoes combined pitching and plunging motion which simulates the forward flight of small birds. The frequency of pitching motion is equal to the frequency of plunging motion and pitch leads the plunge by a phase angle of 90 degrees. The experiments are conducted at Reynolds numbers of 2500 ≤ Re ≤ 13700 and the vortex formation is recorded using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV technique. A prediction of thrust force and efficiency is calculated from the average wake deficit of DPIV data, the near-wake vorticity patterns and time dependent velocity vectors are determined to comment on the thrust and drag indication. Direct force measurements are attempted using a Force/Torque sensor which is capable of measuring forces and moments in three axial directions.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF FLIGHT SPEED ON DRAG FORCE IN THE AUTOGYRO MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zbigniew Czyż
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental investigation of the impact of velocity on drag force in the autogyro model. One of the methods which simulate motion of the flying object consists of using a wind tunnel. In this case, test object is stationary and the motion of air is forced by e.g. a special fan. The costs related with renting and the wind tunnel service are still very high. In this paper, the motion of the autogyro with respect to the air, was produced by fixing this model with scale to measure the drag force on the passenger car roof. The position of the object relative to the vehicle was checked on the basis of numerical analysis of the airflow around this vehicle. Based on the investigations, the field of velocity and pressure, and air flow formed around the contour of the vehicle which have been chosen, were determined. In addition, the drag force characteristic was determined as a function of velocity and it was compared with the values from the numerical analysis. This research is a form of verifying opportunities for this type of research on vehicles. The conclusions derived from the analysis of the results will be used in the future to carry out further research.
Force and flow at the onset of drag in plowed granular media.
Gravish, Nick; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Goldman, Daniel I
2014-04-01
We study the transient drag force FD on a localized intruder in a granular medium composed of spherical glass particles. A flat plate is translated horizontally from rest through the granular medium to observe how FD varies as a function of the medium's initial volume fraction, ϕ. The force response of the granular material differs above and below the granular critical state, ϕc, the volume fraction which corresponds to the onset of grain dilatancy. For ϕϕc, FD rapidly rises to a maximum and then decreases over further displacement. The maximum force for ϕ>ϕc increases with increasing drag velocity. In quasi-two-dimensional drag experiments, we use granular particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure time resolved strain fields associated with the horizontal motion of a plate started from rest. PIV experiments show that the maxima in FD for ϕ>ϕc are associated with maxima in the spatially averaged shear strain field. For ϕ>ϕc the shear strain occurs in a narrow region in front of the plate, a shear band. For ϕϕc, surface particles move only during the formation of the shear band, coincident with the maxima in FD, after which the particles remain immobile until the sheared region reaches the measurement region.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF FLIGHT SPEED ON DRAG FORCE IN THE AUTOGYRO MODEL
Zbigniew Czyż; Paweł Magryta; Marcin Szlachetka
2015-01-01
The paper presents the experimental investigation of the impact of velocity on drag force in the autogyro model. One of the methods which simulate motion of the flying object consists of using a wind tunnel. In this case, test object is stationary and the motion of air is forced by e.g. a special fan. The costs related with renting and the wind tunnel service are still very high. In this paper, the motion of the autogyro with respect to the air, was produced by fixing this model with scale to...
Drag and lift forces between a rotating conductive sphere and a cylindrical magnet
Nurge, Mark A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Starr, Stanley O.
2018-06-01
Modeling the interaction between a non-uniform magnetic field and a rotating conductive object provides insight into the drag force, which is used in applications such as eddy current braking and linear induction motors, as well as the transition to a repulsive force, which is the basis for magnetic levitation systems. Here, we study the interaction between a non-uniform field generated by a cylindrical magnet and a rotating conductive sphere. Each eddy current in the sphere generates a magnetic field which in turn generates another eddy current, eventually feeding back on itself. A two-step mathematical process is developed to find a closed-form solution in terms of only three eddy currents. However, the complete solution requires decomposition of the magnetic field into a summation of spherical harmonics, making it more suitable for a graduate-level electromagnetism lecture or lab. Finally, the forces associated with these currents are calculated and then verified experimentally.
Drag and Lift Forces Between a Rotating Conductive Sphere and a Cylindrical Magnet
Nurge, Mark A.; Youngquist, Robert C.
2017-01-01
Modeling the interaction between a non-uniform magnetic field and a rotating conductive object allows study of the drag force which is used in applications such as eddy current braking and linear induction motors as well as the transition to a repulsive force that is the basis for magnetic levitation systems. Here, we study the interaction between a non-uniform field generated by a cylindrical magnet and a rotating conductive sphere. Each eddy current in the sphere generates a magnetic field which in turn generates another eddy current, eventually feeding back on itself. A two step mathematics process is developed to find a closed form solution in terms of only two eddy currents. However, the complete solution requires decomposition of the magnetic field into a summation of spherical harmonics, making it more suitable for a graduate level electromagnetism lecture or lab. Finally, the forces associated with these currents are calculated and then verified experimentally.
Drag force in strongly coupled, anisotropic plasma at finite chemical potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Somdeb; Haque, Najmul [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)
2014-12-30
We employ methods of gauge/string duality to analyze the drag force on a heavy quark moving through a strongly coupled, anisotropic N=4,SU(N) super Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a finite U(1) chemical potential. We present numerical results valid for any value of the anisotropy parameter and the U(1) charge density and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of anisotropy. In the small anisotropy limit we are also able to furnish analytical results.
The dust motion inside the magnetized sheath - The effect of drag forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandey, B. P.; Samarian, A.; Vladimirov, S. V.
2010-01-01
The isolated charged dust inside the magnetized plasma sheath moves under the influence of the electron and ion drag force and the sheath electrostatic field. The charge on the dust is a function of its radius as well as the value of the ambient sheath potential. It is shown that the charge on the dust determines its trajectory and dust performs the spiraling motion inside the sheath. The location of the turning spiral is determined by the number of negative charge on the dust, which in turn is a function of the dust radius. The back and forth spiraling motion finally causes the dust to move in a small, narrow region of the sheath. For a bigger dust particle, the dust moves closer to the sheath presheath boundary suggesting that the bigger grains, owing to the strong repulsion between the wall and dust, will be unable to travel inside the sheath. Only small, micron-sized grains can travel closer to the wall before repulsion pushes it back toward the plasma-sheath boundary. The temporal behavior of the spiraling dust motion appears like a damped harmonic oscillation, suggesting that the plasma drag force causes dissipation of the electrostatic energy. However, after initial damping, the grain keeps oscillating although with much smaller amplitude. The possible application of the present results to the ongoing sheath experiments is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Maria Łoboda
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a basic model that shows the relationship between the diameter of a stem and its flexural rigidity. The model was developed from experimental measurements of biomechanical traits (i.e., tensile and bending traits like maximum forces, stresses, moduli of elasticity, flexural rigidity, strain of three freshwater macrophyte species (Elodea canadensis Michx., Potamogeton pectinatus L., and P. crispus L., reflecting the seasonal changes in plant biomechanics throughout the vegetative season. These were obtained with the use of a bench-top testing machine in 2016 and 2017. The presented calculations are based on the ratio of drag-to-bending forces, in which the flexural rigidity plays a key role. The proposed model has the form EI = adb, and two approaches based on a regression analysis were applied to determine the parameters of the model—a and b. In the first method, the parameters were identified separately for each day of measurement, while in the second method, the coefficient b was calculated for all data from all days as a unified number for individual plants. The results suggest that coefficient b may provide information about the proportion of changes in drag forces depending on plant stiffness. The values of this coefficient were associated with the shape of the stem cross-section. The more circular the cross-section, the closer the value of the parameter was to 1. The parameter values were 1.60 for E. canadensis, 1.98 for P. pectinatus, and 2.46 for P. crispus. Moreover, this value also depended on the density of the cross-section structure. Most of the results showed that with an increase in stem diameter, the ratio between the drag and bending forces decreased, which led to fewer differences between these two forces. The model application may be introduced in many laboratory measurements of flow–biota interactions as well as in aquatic plant management applications. The implementation of these results in control
What forces act in relativistic gyroscope precession?
Semerák, Oldrich
1996-11-01
The translation of the relativistic motion into the language of forces, proposed by the author (1995, Nuovo Cimento B 110 973), is employed to interpret the gyroscope precession in general relativity. The precession is referred to the comoving Frenet triad built up along the projection of the gyroscope's trajectory onto the 3-space of the local hypersurface-orthogonal observer. The contributions of the centrifugal, the gravitational and the dragging + Coriolis forces are identified respectively with the Thomas, the geodetic, and the gravitomagnetic components of precession. Explicit expressions are given for several simple types of motion in the Kerr (or simpler) field in order to show that the general formulae obtained are not only very simple, but also yield clear results in accord with intuition in concrete situations.
Colpi, Monica; Pallavicini, Andrea
1998-07-01
The drag force on a satellite of mass M moving with speed V in the gravitational field of a spherically symmetric background of stars is computed. During the encounter, the stars are subject to a time-dependent force that alters their equilibrium. The resulting distortion in the stellar density field acts back to produce a force FΔ that decelerates the satellite. This force is computed using a perturbative technique known as linear response theory. In this paper, we extend the formalism of linear response to derive the correct expression for the back-reaction force FΔ that applies when the stellar system is described by an equilibrium one-particle distribution function. FΔ is expressed in terms of a suitable correlation function that couples the satellite dynamics to the unperturbed dynamics of the stars. At time t, the force depends upon the whole history of the composite system. In the formalism, we account for the shift of the stellar center of mass resulting from linear momentum conservation. The self-gravity of the response is neglected since it contributes to a higher order in the perturbation. Linear response theory applies also to the case of a satellite orbiting outside the spherical galaxy. The case of a satellite moving on a straight line, at high speed relative to the stellar dispersion velocity, is explored. We find that the satellite during its passage raises (1) global tides in the stellar distribution and (2) a wake, i.e., an overdense region behind its trail. If the satellite motion is external to the galaxy, it suffers a dissipative force that is not exclusively acting along V but acquires a component along R, the position vector relative to the center of the spherical galaxy. We derive the analytical expression of the force in the impulse approximation. In penetrating short-lived encounters, the satellite moves across the stellar distribution and the transient wake excited in the density field is responsible for most of the deceleration. We
Turbulence and turbulent drag reduction in swirling flow: Inertial versus viscous forcing.
Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor
2015-08-01
We report unexpected results of a drastic difference in the transition to fully developed turbulent and turbulent drag reduction (TDR) regimes and in their properties in a von Karman swirling flow with counter-rotating disks of water-based polymer solutions for viscous (by smooth disks) as well as inertial (by bladed disks) forcing and by tracking just torque Γ(t) and pressure p(t) . For the viscous forcing, just a single TDR regime is found with the transition values of the Reynolds number (Re) Re turb c =Re TDR c ≃(4.8±0.2)×10(5) independent of ϕ , whereas for the inertial forcing two turbulent regimes are revealed. The first transition is to fully developed turbulence, and the second one is to the TDR regime with both Re turb c and Re TDR c depending on polymer concentration ϕ . Both regimes differ by the values of C f and C p , by the scaling exponents of the fundamental turbulent characteristics, by the nonmonotonic dependencies of skewness and flatness of the pressure PDFs on Re, and by the different frequency power spectra of p with the different dependencies of the main vortex peak frequency in the p power spectra on ϕ and Re. Thus our experimental results show the transition to the TDR regime in a von Karman swirling flow for the viscous and inertial forcings in a sharp contrast to the recent experiments [Phys. Fluids 10, 426 (1998); Phys. Rev. E 47, R28(R) (1993); and J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S1195 (2005)] where the transition to TDR is observed in the same swirling flow with counter-rotating disks only for the viscous forcing. The latter result has led its authors to the wrong conclusion that TDR is a solely boundary effect contrary to the inertial forcing associated with the bulk effect, and this conception is currently rather widely accepted in literature.
A novel drag force coefficient model for gas–water two-phase flows under different flow patterns
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shang, Zhi, E-mail: shangzhi@tsinghua.org.cn
2015-07-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel drag force coefficient model was established. • This model realized to cover different flow patterns for CFD. • Numerical simulations were performed under wide range flow regimes. • Validations were carried out through comparisons to experiments. - Abstract: A novel drag force coefficient model has been developed to study gas–water two-phase flows. In this drag force coefficient model, the terminal velocities were calculated through the revised drift flux model. The revised drift flux is different from the traditional drift flux model because the natural curve movement of the bubble was revised through considering the centrifugal force. Owing to the revisions, the revised drift flux model was to extend to 3D. Therefore it is suitable for CFD applications. In the revised drift flux model, the different flow patterns of the gas–water two-phase flows were able to be considered. This model innovatively realizes the drag force being able to cover different flow patterns of gas–water two-phase flows on bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, annular flow and mist flow. Through the comparisons of the numerical simulations to the experiments in vertical upward and downward pipe flows, this model was validated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vertchenko, Lev; Vertchenko, Larissa
2017-01-01
A correction to the term with quadratic dependency of the velocity in the Oseen´s drag force by a dimensionless factor is proposed in order to determine the viscosity of glycerin through the measurement of the terminal velocity of spheres falling inside the fluid. This factor incorporates the eff...
Ion drag force on dust grains in the magnetized edge plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matyash, K.; Schneider, R.; Ikkurthi, V.R.; Melzer, A.
2009-01-01
A 3-dimensional Particle-Particle Particle-Mesh (P3M) code [K. Matyash, R. Schneider, F. Taccogna, D. Tskhakaya, J. Nucl. Mater. 363-365 (2007) 458] is applied to simulate a small-size (smaller than a Debye length) spherical dust grain confined in the magnetized plasma near the material wall of a tokamak. Plasma particles (electrons and ions) are treated kinetically (Particle-in-Cell with Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC MCC)), which allows to resolve self-consistently the electrostatic sheath in front of the wall. In order to describe accurately the plasma particles' motion close to the dust grain, the PIC technique is supplemented with Molecular Dynamics (MD), employing an analytic electrostatic potential for the interaction with the dust grain. The charging of a spherical, conducting dust grain confined in the sheath potential close to the wall of a tokamak is simulated. A magnetic field normal to the wall was investigated. The ion drag force resulting from dust grain collisions with the streaming ions is calculated. This force is critical for a realistic description of the dust particle dynamics and transport in fusion plasmas.
On the forces acting on radiating charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khachatrian, B.V.
2001-01-01
It is shown that the force acting on a radiating charge is stipulated by two reasons- owing to exchange of a momentum between the radiating charge and electromagnetic field of radiation, and also between the charge and field accompanying the charge. 7 refs
Sachdeva, Nishtha; Subramanian, Prasad; Vourlidas, Angelos; Bothmer, Volker
2017-09-01
We seek to quantify the relative contributions of Lorentz forces and aerodynamic drag on the propagation of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) model fits to a representative set of 38 CMEs observed with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. We find that the Lorentz forces generally peak between 1.65 and 2.45 R⊙ for all CMEs. For fast CMEs, Lorentz forces become negligible in comparison to aerodynamic drag as early as 3.5 - 4 R⊙. For slow CMEs, however, they become negligible only by 12 - 50 R⊙. For these slow events, our results suggest that some of the magnetic flux might be expended in CME expansion or heating. In other words, not all of it contributes to the propagation. Our results are expected to be important in building a physical model for understanding the Sun-Earth dynamics of CMEs.
No Winglets: What a Drag...Argument for Adding Winglets to Large Air Force Aircraft
2008-01-01
prices have once again brought improving aircraft aerodynamic efficiencies to the forefront of the energy conservation debate. Displaying how winglets ... winglet . Winglets are small, nearly vertical aerodynamic surfaces mounted on aircraft wingtips. Engineers design them with the same careful attention to...total drag.6 Since winglets , designed as small airfoils, reduce the aerodynamic drag associated with vortices by minimizing the amount of energy used
1982-12-01
31. Strouhal number vs Reynolds number - Effect of Wind tunnel Blockage. 150- P ecrit 100- 50k- o present d Qta o Mitry (1977) --Shair et ati (1963) 0...forces measured by the balance. 4.12 Final Tests A comprehensive set of drag measurements was taken with the new drag plates, the drag plates being
Two-phase cross-flow-induced forces acting on a circular cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, F.
1982-01-01
This paper clarifies the characteristics of unsteady flow-induced lift and drag forces acting on a circular cylinder immersed perpendicular to a two-phase bubbly air-water flow, in conjunction with Karman vortex shedding and pressure fluctuations. Experimental results presented show that Karman vortex shedding disappears over a certain value of air concentration in the two-phase flow. Related to this disappearance, flow-induced forces are rather small and periodical in low air concentration but become very large and random in higher air concentration. 7 refs
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic hand and its flow field.
Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
2013-07-26
This study aims to clarify the mechanism of generating unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand during swimming in order to directly measure the forces, pressure distribution, and flow field around the hand by using a robotic arm and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The robotic arm consisted of the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, forearm, and hand, and it was independently computer controllable in five degrees of freedom. The elbow-joint angle of the robotic arm was fixed at 90°, and the arm was moved in semicircles around the shoulder joint in a plane perpendicular to the water surface. Two-component PIV was used for flow visualization around the hand. The data of the forces and pressure acting on the hand were sampled at 200Hz and stored on a PC. When the maximum resultant force acting on the hand was observed, a pair of counter-rotating vortices appeared on the dorsal surface of the hand. A vortex attached to the hand increased the flow velocity, which led to decreased surface pressure, increasing the hydrodynamic forces. This phenomenon is known as the unsteady mechanism of force generation. We found that the drag force was 72% greater and the lift force was 4.8 times greater than the values estimated under steady flow conditions. Therefore, it is presumable that swimmers receive the benefits of this unsteady hydrodynamic force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2016-12-01
hydrodynamic skin friction is greatly reduced and the water is said to slip over the air layer [12]. A number of direct numerical simulations ( DNS ) [13...practical means of reducing drag. It is therefore important to investigate materials where in the passive state exhibit the desired qualities of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoshino, K; Kato, S [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Koterayama, W [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1996-04-10
In the design of various floating offshore structures (FOS), the functionality, safety and amenity of FOSs were examined by estimating responses of FOSs to environmental external forces such as wave, wind and flow. In this paper, the estimation method of drag acting on the whole FOS was established by combining previous study results on hydrodynamic force acting on various bodies such as Reynolds number effect (RNE), 3-D effect (TDE) and interference effect (IE). This hydrodynamic force was also compared with that obtained from the experiment result on a FOS model for TLP to confirm the applicability of this estimation method. The estimation result on the drag coefficient in steady flow by considering RNE, TDE and IE well agreed with experimental one. The drag coefficient acting on FOSs in heaving could be estimated in practically sufficient accuracy by considering drag acting on not columns but only square columns. The estimation result on the drag coefficient acting on FOSs in surging by considering RNE, TDE and IE well agreed with experimental one. 12 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Faizien Haza, Zainul
2018-03-01
Debris flows of lahar flows occurred in post mount eruption is a phenomenon in which large quantities of water, mud, and gravel flow down a stream at a high velocity. It is a second stage of danger after the first danger of lava flows, pyroclastic, and toxic gases. The debris flow of lahar flows has a high density and also high velocity; therefore it has potential detrimental consequences against homes, bridges, and infrastructures, as well as loss of life along its pathway. The collision event between lahar flows and pier of a bridge is observed. The condition is numerically simulated using commercial software of computational fluid dynamic (CFD). The work is also conducted in order to investigate drag force generated during collision. Rheological data of lahar is observed through laboratory test of lahar model as density and viscosity. These data were used as the input data of the CFD simulation. The numerical model is involving two types of fluid: mud and water, therefore multiphase model is adopted in the current CFD simulation. The problem formulation is referring to the constitutive equations of mass and momentum conservation for incompressible and viscous fluid, which in perspective of two dimension (2D). The simulation models describe the situation of the collision event between lahar flows and pier of a bridge. It provides sequential view images of lahar flow impaction and the propagation trend line of the drag force coefficient values. Lahar flow analysis used non-dimensional parameter of Reynolds number. According to the results of numerical simulations, the drag force coefficients are in range 1.23 to 1.48 those are generated by value of flow velocity in range 11.11 m/s to 16.67 m/s.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuya Seo
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Two wind tunnel experiments were carried out to investigate the drag acting on a tandem bike. One experiment involved measurement of the drag acting on two full-scale human models on a tandem. These two human models can pedal the tandem. In the other experiment, two oscillating cylinders were used as a simplified model of the legs of the pilot and the stoker. These were arranged to represent the legs of the riders on a tandem. Measurements of the drag on this model were made. It was found that the drag decreases when the crank angle of the stoker’s pedal is delayed with respect to the pilot’s pedal.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kaj Sand
2008-01-01
Swift flow in streams may physically influence the morphology and distribution of plants. I quantified drag as a function of velocity, biomass and their interaction on the trailing canopy of seven European stream species in an experimental flume and evaluated its importance for species distributi...... than an uneven distribution with the same biomass confined to dense patches surrounded by open flow channels. Thus, management strategies to ensure a patchy plants distribution should be suitable for combining agricultural drainage and ecological stream quality....
Beckmann, R. S.; Slyz, A.; Devriendt, J.
2018-04-01
Whilst in galaxy-size simulations, supermassive black holes (SMBH) are entirely handled by sub-grid algorithms, computational power now allows the accretion radius of such objects to be resolved in smaller scale simulations. In this paper, we investigate the impact of resolution on two commonly used SMBH sub-grid algorithms; the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) formula for accretion onto a point mass, and the related estimate of the drag force exerted onto a point mass by a gaseous medium. We find that when the accretion region around the black hole scales with resolution, and the BHL formula is evaluated using local mass-averaged quantities, the accretion algorithm smoothly transitions from the analytic BHL formula (at low resolution) to a supply limited accretion (SLA) scheme (at high resolution). However, when a similar procedure is employed to estimate the drag force it can lead to significant errors in its magnitude, and/or apply this force in the wrong direction in highly resolved simulations. At high Mach numbers and for small accretors, we also find evidence of the advective-acoustic instability operating in the adiabatic case, and of an instability developing around the wake's stagnation point in the quasi-isothermal case. Moreover, at very high resolution, and Mach numbers above M_∞ ≥ 3, the flow behind the accretion bow shock becomes entirely dominated by these instabilities. As a result, accretion rates onto the black hole drop by about an order of magnitude in the adiabatic case, compared to the analytic BHL formula.
Airflow in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient.
Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian Kilsgaard; Vollertsen, Jes; Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning
2016-03-01
Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient was found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, Sukanta; Ducoin, Antoine
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Two-dimensional unsteady simulations on a novel Savonius-style wind turbine. • Instantaneous behavior of drag and lift coefficients, and corresponding moment arms. • Effect of tip speed ratio on the instantaneous force coefficients and moments arms. • Effect of force coefficients and moment arms on the instantaneous moment and power. • Analysis of power and moment coefficients at different tip speed ratios. - Abstract: This paper aims to present a transient analysis on the forces acting on a novel two-bladed Savonius-style wind turbine. Two-dimensional unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved using shear stress transport k–ω turbulence model at a Reynolds number of 1.23 × 10"5. The instantaneous longitudinal drag and lateral lift forces acting on each of the blades and their acting points are calculated. The corresponding moment arms responsible for the torque generation are obtained. Further, the effect of tip speed ratio on the force coefficients, moment arms and overall turbine performances are observed. Throughout the paper, the obtained results for the new design are discussed with reference to conventional semi-circular design of Savonius turbines. A significant performance improvement is achieved with the new design due to its increased lift and moment arm contribution as compared to the conventional design. More interestingly, the present study sets a platform for future aerodynamic research and improvements for Savonius-style wind turbines.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Muller, Peter Barkholt; Barnkob, Rune; Jensen, Mads Jakob Herring
2012-01-01
We present a numerical study of the transient acoustophoretic motion of microparticles suspended in a liquid-filled microchannel and driven by the acoustic forces arising from an imposed standing ultrasound wave: the acoustic radiation force from the scattering of sound waves on the particles...
Beckers, J.; Trienekens, D.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.
2013-01-01
We present an absolute measurement of the total ion-drag force on one single microparticle at the edge of the dust free region in low pressure complex plasmas: the void. In order to do so, the particle confinement position was monitored as a function of the gas pressure for two particle sizes under
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zafiu, C.; Melzer, A.; Piel, A.
2003-01-01
Experiments on the quantitative determination of the weaker forces (ion drag, thermophoresis, and electric field force) on free-falling dust particles in a rf discharge tube are presented. The strongest force, gravity, is balanced by gas friction and the weaker forces are investigated in the radial (horizontal) plane. Under most discharge conditions, the particles are found to be expelled from the central plasma region. A transition to a situation where the falling particles are focused into the plasma center is observed at low gas pressures using small particles. These investigations allow a quantitative understanding of the mechanism of unwanted dust-free areas (so-called voids) in dusty plasmas under microgravity. Good quantitative agreement with standard models of the ion drag is found
Performance Level Differences in Swimming: A Meta-Analysis of Passive Drag Force
Havriluk, Rod
2005-01-01
The streamline is a basic position for competitive swimming starts mid turns and has been used in many studies on resistive forces. However, there is a wide yahweh, of theoretical interpretations in these studies, leading to diverse and questionable conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine performance level differences in the…
Effects of biofouling development on drag forces of hull coatings for ocean-going ships: a review
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindholdt, Asger; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Olsen, S. M.
2015-01-01
This review presents a systematic overview of the literature and describes the experimental methods used to quantify the drag of hull coatings. It also summarizes the findings of hull coating's drag performance and identifies the main parameters impacting it. The advantages and disadvantages...... of the reported methods listed in this review provide an assessment of the most efficient methods to quantify the drag performance of hull coatings. This review determines that drag performance of hull coating technology varies depending on whether the coating condition is newly applied, after dynamic or static...... seawater exposure. The summarized data reveal that, while several methods have attempted to quantify drag performance of hull coatings, other methods must be explored in order to accurately measure the long-term drag performance of hull coatings in conditions mimicking those that ship hulls encounter...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dijan Supramono; Graham J. Nathan; Peter J. Ashman; Peter J. Mullinger [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, Schools of Chemical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering
2003-07-01
The trajectories of the particles in pulverised coal combustion systems determine their residence times and reaction environments, and hence coal burnout and flame length. The trajectories, in turn, depend upon the drag coefficient of the particle. The effect of the evolution of fluid from the surface of the particle on this coefficient has never been measured before, particularly at the low particle Reynolds numbers that apply during coal combustion. Therefore mathematical models must rely on assumed sphere drag coefficients, which do not account for the effect of fluid evolving from the surface. A technique of using a porous cylinder mounted on a pendulum, instead of a sphere, through which fluid can be forced to evolve, simulating fluid evolution in coal devolatilisation and char burning, is used. The pendulum is capable of measuring drag forces of the order of 10-5 to 10-6 Newton, at Reynolds numbers similar to that experienced by coal particles. This paper presents preliminary measurements of drag force at relevant conditions. The working fluid is water in the first instance, although it will be extended to diluted glycerine in the future. The cross flow is provided by a water tunnel and the ejected fluid is induced by a separate pump. Both the Reynolds number and the ratio of evolution velocity to free-stream velocity are chosen to span conditions relevant to pulverised coal combustion. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
New US energy policy act in force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, W.
2005-01-01
The United States of America is accused by politicians of the German Red-Green federal government, but also by the EU, of not caring enough about climate protection. This allegation is fueled, above all, by the refusal of the United States to sign the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Climate Framework Convention of 1997. However, the US is not idle in this respect. In late July, the United States together with China, India, Japan, South Korea and Australia agreed on an Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. Almost at the same time, on July 29, 2005, after more than five years of debate, the US Congress adopted new energy legislation (A Bill to Ensure Jobs for the Future with Secure and Reliable Energy - the Energy Policy Act of 2005). The holistic aspect in this piece of US legislation covers nearly the whole field of energy policy. The Act encompasses these areas: - energy efficiency, - renewable energies, - oil and natural gas, - clean coal, - nuclear power, - vehicles and fuels, - hydrogen, - electricity, - research and development. With its new Energy Policy Act, the United States has paved the way politically for making energy supply in the world's largest industrialized national securer and safer on a technical basis and less pollutant for the environment and the climate. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, T.; Yadav, R.B.S.
1980-01-01
In the first part of the present paper the Newtonian analogue of force for the combined Kerr-NUT metric has been investigated. To the first order of approximation one component of the force vector corresponds to the Newtonian gravitational force. In the higher order of approximation the relativistic correction terms due to rotation and presence of gravitational analogue of a magnetic monopole are obtained. In the second part of the paper the motion of a freely falling body has been investigated. It is found that plane orbits are not possible. Also a radial fall is not possible and there is a rotational drag on the particle which has no Newtonian analogue. (author)
Progress towards a Drag-free SmallSat
Saraf, Shailendhar
The net force acting on a drag-free satellite is purely gravitational as all other forces, mainly atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure, are canceled out. In order to achieve this, a free floating reference (test mass) inside the satellite is shielded against all forces but gravity and a system of thrusters is commanded by a control algorithm such that the relative displacement between the reference and the satellite stays constant. The main input to that control algorithm is the output of a sensor which measures the relative displacement between the satellite and the test mass. Internal disturbance forces such as electrostatic or magnetic forces cannot be canceled out his way and have to be minimized by a careful design of the satellite. A drag-free technology package is under development at Stanford since 2004. It includes an optical displacement sensor to measure the relative position of the test mass inside the satellite, a caging mechanism to lock the test mass during launch, a UV LED based charge management system to minimize the effect of electrostatic forces, a thermal enclosure, and the drag-free control algorithms. Possible applications of drag-free satellites in fundamental physics (Gravity Probe B, LISA), geodesy (GOCE), and navigation (TRIAD I). In this presentation we will highlight the progress of the technology development towards a drag-free mission. The planned mission on a SaudiSat bus will demonstrate drag-free technology on a small spacecraft at a fraction of the cost of previous drag-free missions. The target acceleration noise is 10-12 m/sec2. With multiple such satellites a GRACE-like mission with improved sensitivity and potentially improved spatial and temporal resolution can be achieved.
Drag on a slip spherical particle moving in a couple stress fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.A. Ashmawy
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The creeping motion of a rigid slip sphere in an unbounded couple stress fluid is investigated. The linear slip boundary condition and the vanishing couple stress condition are applied on the surface of the sphere. A simple formula for the drag force acting on a slip sphere translating in an unbounded couple stress fluid is obtained. Special cases of the deduced drag formula are concluded and compared with analogous results in the literature. The normalized drag force experienced by the fluid on the slip sphere is represented graphically and the effects of slip parameter and viscosity coefficients are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luhur, M.R.
2014-01-01
This contribution provides the development of a stochastic lift and drag model for an airfoil FX 79-W-151A under unsteady wind inflow based on wind tunnel measurements. Here we present the integration of the stochastic model into a well-known standard BEM (Blade Element Momentum) model to obtain the corresponding aerodynamic forces on a rotating blade element. The stochastic model is integrated as an alternative to static tabulated data used by classical BEM. The results show that in comparison to classical BEM, the BEM with stochastic approach additionally reflects the local force dynamics and therefore provides more information on aerodynamic forces that can be used by wind turbine simulation codes. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ramzan Luhur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This contribution provides the development of a stochastic lift and drag model for an airfoil FX 79-W-151A under unsteady wind inflow based on wind tunnel measurements. Here we present the integration of the stochastic model into a well-known standard BEM (Blade Element Momentum model to obtain the corresponding aerodynamic forces on a rotating blade element. The stochastic model is integrated as an alternative to static tabulated data used by classical BEM. The results show that in comparison to classical BEM, the BEM with stochastic approach additionally reflects the local force dynamics and therefore provides more information on aerodynamic forces that can be used by wind turbine simulation codes
Analysis of the forces acting on beating cilia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sangani, Ashok S; Vidyadharan, Jyothish; Foster, Kenneth W
2016-01-01
Detailed analysis of the forces acting on a uniform-diameter beating cilium is carried out to determine the moment generated by the inter-doublet forces acting along the length of a cilium and the results are compared with the sliding-control theory according to which the moment is a function of the interdoublet sliding. In the central part of the cilium the inter-doublet forces are found to be proportional to the inter-doublet sliding. However, in spite of the uniformity of the diameter of the cilium, the proportionality constant, known as the dynamic stiffness, is not constant along its entire length. Significant variations are observed in the regions both near the tip of the cilium and proximal to the cell body. In the tip region the magnitude of the dynamic stiffness is found to decrease. This decrease is probably due to decrease in the number density of the molecular motors in that region and in the number of doublet microtubules. The behavior in the proximal region, on the other hand, does not appear to be well described by the sliding control theory. Our analysis therefore suggests that the dynamics of ciliary beating cannot be adequately described by a simple sliding-control theory with constant dynamic stiffness. Our analysis suggests that the cilium is differentiated into a basal region optimized for the creation of a wave and a central region optimized to support a traveling wave that provides the thrust for the cell. (paper)
Ciufolini, Ignazio
2007-09-06
The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth.
Numerical method for wave forces acting on partially perforated caisson
Jiang, Feng; Tang, Xiao-cheng; Jin, Zhao; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hong-zhou
2015-04-01
The perforated caisson is widely applied to practical engineering because of its great advantages in effectively wave energy consumption and cost reduction. The attentions of many scientists were paid to the fluid-structure interaction between wave and perforated caisson studies, but until now, most concerns have been put on theoretical analysis and experimental model set up. In this paper, interaction between the wave and the partial perforated caisson in a 2D numerical wave flume is investigated by means of the renewed SPH algorithm, and the mathematical equations are in the form of SPH numerical approximation based on Navier-Stokes equations. The validity of the SPH mathematical method is examined and the simulated results are compared with the results of theoretical models, meanwhile the complex hydrodynamic characteristics when the water particles flow in or out of a wave absorbing chamber are analyzed and the wave pressure distribution of the perforated caisson is also addressed here. The relationship between the ratio of total horizontal force acting on caisson under regular waves and its influence factors is examined. The data show that the numerical calculation of the ratio of total horizontal force meets the empirical regression equation very well. The simulations of SPH about the wave nonlinearity and breaking are briefly depicted in the paper, suggesting that the advantages and great potentiality of the SPH method is significant compared with traditional methods.
On radiation forces acting on a transparent nanoparticle in the field of a focused laser beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Afanas' ev, A A; Rubinov, A N [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Gaida, L S; Guzatov, D V; Svistun, A Ch [Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno, Grodno (Belarus)
2015-10-31
Radiation forces acting on a transparent spherical nanoparticle in the field of a focused Gaussian laser beam are studied theoretically in the Rayleigh scattering regime. Expressions are derived for the scattering force and Cartesian components of the gradient force. The resultant force acting on a nanoparticle located in the centre of a laser beam is found. The parameters of the focused beam and optical properties of the nanoparticle for which the longitudinal component of the gradient force exceeds the scattering force are determined. Characteristics of the transverse gradient force are discussed. (nanophotonics)
Hydrodynamic forces on inundated bridge decks
2009-05-01
The hydrodynamic forces experienced by an inundated bridge deck have great importance in the design of bridges. Specifically, the drag force, lift force, and the moment acting on the bridge deck under various levels of inundation and a range of flow ...
Estimation of Coriolis Force and Torque Acting on Ares-1
Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Orr, Jeb
2011-01-01
A document describes work on the origin of Coriolis force and estimating Coriolis force and torque applied to the Ares-1 vehicle during its ascent, based on an internal ballistics model for a multi-segmented solid rocket booster (SRB).
Vorticity confinement technique for drag prediction
Povitsky, Alex; Snyder, Troy
2011-11-01
This work couples wake-integral drag prediction and vorticity confinement technique (VC) for the improved prediction of drag from CFD simulations. Induced drag computations of a thin wing are shown to be more accurate than the more widespread method of surface pressure integration when compared to theoretical lifting-line value. Furthermore, the VC method improves trailing vortex preservation and counteracts the shift from induced drag to numerical entropy drag with increasing distance of Trefftz plane downstream of the wing. Accurate induced drag prediction via the surface integration of pressure barring a sufficiently refined surface grid and increased computation time. Furthermore, the alternative wake-integral technique for drag prediction suffers from numerical dissipation. VC is shown to control the numerical dissipation with very modest computational overhead. The 2-D research code is used to test specific formulations of the VC body force terms and illustrate the computational efficiency of the method compared to a ``brute force'' reduction in spatial step size. For the 3-D wing simulation, ANSYS FLUENT is employed with the VC body force terms added to the solver with user-defined functions (UDFs). VC is successfully implemented to highly unsteady flows typical for Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) producing oscillative drag force either by natural vortex shedding at high angles of attack or by flapping wing motion.
Theory of nonlinear acoustic forces acting on fluids and particles in microsystems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karlsen, Jonas Tobias
fundamentally new capabilities in chemical, biomedical, or clinical studies of single cells and bioparticles. This thesis, entitled Theory of nonlinear acoustic forces acting on fluids and particles in microsystems, advances the fundamental understanding of acoustofluidics by addressing the origin...... of the nonlinear acoustic forces acting on fluids and particles. Classical results in nonlinear acoustics for the non-dissipative acoustic radiation force acting on a particle or an interface, as well as the dissipative acoustic force densities driving acoustic streaming, are derived and discussed in terms...... in the continuous fluid parameters of density and compressibility, e.g., due to a solute concentration field, the thesis presents novel analytical results on the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields. This inhomogeneity-induced acoustic force density is non-dissipative in origin...
Air Flows in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian; Vollertsen, Jes
2016-01-01
Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results...... of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Pires de Camargo
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This research introduces the development of an electronic flowmeter based on the drag force that a body experiences when immersed in a fluid stream. Its main goal was the development of an Electronic Drag Force Flowmeter (EDFF using a load cell, as well as the evaluation of its performance parameters. The developed flowmeter should not require specialized labor, equipments, computers or any sophisticated and complex method, providing an easy and accurate way of flow estimation. This research was carried out in the following stages: (i EDFF mechanical structure development; (ii data acquisition system and embedded software design; and (iii evaluation of EDFF performance parameters. EDFF has routines for instantaneous flow rate measurement, interactive calibration, and also several flow meter parameter adjustments, allowing data transmission via a RS232 protocol. The real-time flow measurement task updates values of instantaneous flow rate each seven seconds, enabling unit selection. The interactive calibration routine guides users during all calibration process showing instructions on EDFF's display. A data digital filtering procedure was implemented in an embedded software using the Grubbs' Test in order to identify and to remove outliers from the acquired data. The Method of Least Squares was also implemented in the embedded software in order to calculate the fitting model coefficients on the calibration procedure. This flowmeter is able to work from 1.94 to 7.78 dm³ s-1 with an uncertainty of ± 5.7%. The coefficient of local head loss (K was close to 0.55 for Reynolds number values higher than 10(5. The developed EDFF is a low-cost and stand-alone system with potential for agricultural applications.Este estudo apresenta o desenvolvimento de um medidor de vazão baseado na força de arraste que atua em um corpo imerso em uma corrente líquida. O principal objetivo foi o desenvolvimento de um Medidor de Vazão Eletrônico tipo Força (MVEF
Modelling of Aerodynamic Drag in Alpine Skiing
Elfmark, Ola
2017-01-01
Most of the breaking force in the speed disciplines in alpine skiing is caused by the aerodynamic drag, and a better knowledge of the drag force is therefore desirable to gain time in races. In this study a complete database of how the drag area (CDA) changes, with respect to the different body segments, was made and used to explain a complete body motion in alpine skiing. Three experiments were performed in the wind tunnel at NTNU, Trondheim. The database from a full body measurement on an a...
Lifting forces acting on a cylindrical magnet above a superconducting plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Z.J.; Johansen, T.H.; Bratsberg, H.; Bhatnagar, A.; Skjeltorp, A.T.
1992-01-01
Based on the London theory, we have calculated and measured the lifting force acting on a cylindrical magnet placed above a superconductor. Comparison between the theoretical expectation and experimental data shows a good agreement. (orig.)
Force acting on a spherical bubble rising through a quiescent liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
1996-01-01
The direct numerical simulation is performed on the spherical bubble unsteadily rising through a quiescent liquid. The method is based on a finite-volume solution of the equations on an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. The calculations are performed for a bubble rising through a clean liquid and contaminated one. Following the former experimental results, the tangential stress free condition is given for a clean bubble, and no-slip condition for contaminated one. The numerical results are compared with those of the model equation of the translational motion of the bubble, which is often used in numerical models of a bubbly flow. The steady drag, added mass and history terms are checked up by the comparison. It is revealed that the history force effect is negligible for a bubble rising through the clean liquid beyond Re=O(50). From the numerical point of view, the fact that the history force is negligible is quite important, because it reduces the calculation time and memory for a bubbly flow model. For a contaminated bubble, history force effect is not negligible even though the Reynolds number is high enough. It is found that the expression of the history force by Basset kernel gives an over-estimation of the history force for the bubble rising at moderate Reynolds number. This error becomes larger with increasing Reynolds number and it reduces the accuracy to calculate the bubble motion by the model equation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, N.
1988-01-01
During the magnetic particle examination, magnetic particles near defects are deposited by an absorbing force of magnetic fields acting on the magnetic particles. Therefore, a quantitative determination of this absorbing force is a theoretical and experimental basis for solving various problems associated with magnetic particle examinations. The absorbing force is formulated based on a magnetic dipole model, and a measuring method of the absorbing force using magnetic fields formed around linear current is proposed. Measurements according to this method produced appropriate results, verifying the validation of the concept and the measuring method
Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Tabaczek
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.
Egorov, A. G.; Kamalutdinov, A. M.; Nuriev, A. N.
2018-05-01
The paper is devoted to study of the aerodynamic forces acting on flat cantilever beams performing flexural vibrations in a viscous fluid. Original method for the force evaluation is presented based on analysis of experimental measurements of a logarithmic decrement of vibrations and relative variation in frequency of duralumin test specimens. The theoretical core of the method is based on the classical theory of bending beam oscillations and quasi-two dimensional model of interaction between a beam and a gas. Using the proposed method, extensive series of experiments for a wide range of oscillations parameters were carried out. The processing of the experimental data allowed to establish the global influence of the aerodynamic effects on beam oscillations and the local force characteristics of each cross-section of the beam in the form of universal functions of dimensionless amplitude and dimensionless frequency of oscillation. The obtained estimates of the drag and added mass forces showed a good correspondence with the available numerical and experimental data practically in the entire range of the investigated parameters.
Experimental investigation of unsteady fluid dynamic forces acting on tube array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Hiroki; Takahara, Shigeru; Tanaka, Mitsutoshi
1981-01-01
It is well-known that the cylinder bundle vibrates in cross flow. Many studies of the vibration have been made, and it has been clarified that the vibration is caused by fluid-elastic vibration coupling to neighboring cylinders. The theory given in this paper considers unsteady fluid dynamic forces to be composed of inertia forces due to added mass of fluid, damping forces of fluid which are in phase to cylinder vibrating velocity, and stiffness forces which are proportional to cylinder displacements. Furthermore, taking account of the influences of neighboring cylinder vibrations, ten kinds of unsteady fluid dynamic forces are considered to act on a cylinder in cylinder bundles. Equations of motion of cylinders were deduced and the critical velocities were calculated with the measured unsteady fluid dynamic forces. Critical velocity tests were also conducted with cylinders which were supported with elastic spars. The calculated critical velocities coincided well with the test results. (author)
Relationship of forces acting on implant rods and degree of scoliosis correction.
Salmingo, Remel Alingalan; Tadano, Shigeru; Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu
2013-02-01
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a complex spinal pathology characterized as a three-dimensional spine deformity combined with vertebral rotation. Various surgical techniques for correction of severe scoliotic deformity have evolved and became more advanced in applying the corrective forces. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between corrective forces acting on deformed rods and degree of scoliosis correction. Implant rod geometries of six adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were measured before and after surgery. An elasto-plastic finite element model of the implant rod before surgery was reconstructed for each patient. An inverse method based on Finite Element Analysis was used to apply forces to the implant rod model such that it was deformed the same after surgery. Relationship between the magnitude of corrective forces and degree of correction expressed as change of Cobb angle was evaluated. The effects of screw configuration on the corrective forces were also investigated. Corrective forces acting on rods and degree of correction were not correlated. Increase in number of implant screws tended to decrease the magnitude of corrective forces but did not provide higher degree of correction. Although greater correction was achieved with higher screw density, the forces increased at some level. The biomechanics of scoliosis correction is not only dependent to the corrective forces acting on implant rods but also associated with various parameters such as screw placement configuration and spine stiffness. Considering the magnitude of forces, increasing screw density is not guaranteed as the safest surgical strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?
Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao
2015-02-01
Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.
Dust Transport And Force Equilibria In Magnetized Dusty DC Discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Land, Victor; Thomas, Edward Jr.; Williams, Jeremaiah
2005-01-01
We have performed experiments on magnetized dusty Argon DC discharges. Here we report on the characterization of the plasma- and the dustparameters and on the response of the dust particles and the plasma to a change in the magnetic configuration inside the discharge. Finally, we show a case in which the balance of forces acting on the dust particles differs from the classical balance (in which the electrostatic force balances the downward force of gravity). In this case the electrostatic force acts as a downward force on the dust particles. From observations we will argue that the ion drag force might be the force that balances this downward electrostatic force
Wind and Current Forces Acting on Canadian Forces Ships During Tug Operations
2002-11-01
McTaggart and Sav- age [1] describe model tests conducted on a generic frigate model to determine wind forces influencing ship capsize. Van Manen and van ...Fn will be 0.06. Based on data presented by van Manen and van Oossanen [2], the fric- tional resistance coefficient will be approximately 0.002 and...Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Vehicles (Melbourne, Florida, 1994). 2. J.D. van Manen and P. van Oossanen, Principles of Naval Architecture, Volume
Drag Measurements over Embedded Cavities in a Low Reynolds Number Couette Flow
Gilmer, Caleb; Lang, Amy; Jones, Robert
2010-11-01
Recent research has revealed that thin-walled, embedded cavities in low Reynolds number flow have the potential to reduce the net viscous drag force acting on the surface. This reduction is due to the formation of embedded vortices allowing the outer flow to pass over the surface via a roller bearing effect. It is also hypothesized that the scales found on butterfly wings may act in a similar manner to cause a net increase in flying efficiency. In this experimental study, rectangular embedded cavities were designed as a means of successfully reducing the net drag across surfaces in a low Reynolds number flow. A Couette flow was generated via a rotating conveyor belt immersed in a tank of high viscosity mineral oil above which the plates with embedded cavities were placed. Drag induced on the plate models was measured using a force gauge and compared directly to measurements acquired over a flat plate. Various cavity aspect ratios and gap heights were tested in order to determine the conditions under which the greatest drag reductions occurred.
The flow field acting on the fluttering profile, kinematics, forces and total moment
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kozánek, Jan; Vlček, Václav; Zolotarev, Igor
2013-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 7 (2013), s. 1-7 ISSN 0219-4554 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1522 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluttering profile * interferometry visualization * acting forces and moment Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 1.059, year: 2013
Drag of Clean and Fouled Net Panels--Measurements and Parameterization of Fouling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lars Christian Gansel
Full Text Available Biofouling is a serious problem in marine aquaculture and it has a number of negative impacts including increased forces on aquaculture structures and reduced water exchange across nets. This in turn affects the behavior of fish cages in waves and currents and has an impact on the water volume and quality inside net pens. Even though these negative effects are acknowledged by the research community and governmental institutions, there is limited knowledge about fouling related effects on the flow past nets, and more detailed investigations distinguishing between different fouling types have been called for. This study evaluates the effect of hydroids, an important fouling organism in Norwegian aquaculture, on the forces acting on net panels. Drag forces on clean and fouled nets were measured in a flume tank, and net solidity including effect of fouling were determined using image analysis. The relationship between net solidity and drag was assessed, and it was found that a solidity increase due to hydroids caused less additional drag than a similar increase caused by change in clean net parameters. For solidities tested in this study, the difference in drag force increase could be as high as 43% between fouled and clean nets with same solidity. The relationship between solidity and drag force is well described by exponential functions for clean as well as for fouled nets. A method is proposed to parameterize the effect of fouling in terms of an increase in net solidity. This allows existing numerical methods developed for clean nets to be used to model the effects of biofouling on nets. Measurements with other types of fouling can be added to build a database on effects of the accumulation of different fouling organisms on aquaculture nets.
Rhyne, Ragan
2004-01-01
While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marawan, H.
2004-01-01
Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %
Torquing an upper central incisor with aligners--acting forces and biomechanical principles.
Hahn, Wolfram; Zapf, Antonia; Dathe, Henning; Fialka-Fricke, Julia; Fricke-Zech, Susanne; Gruber, Rudolf; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Sadat-Khonsari, Reza
2010-12-01
The forces delivered by aligners during torquing have still not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to measure the forces delivered to an upper central incisor during torquing with three different materials of the same thickness, and to describe the biomechanical principles of torquing with aligners. Five identical appliances were manufactured from each of three materials, all with a thickness of 1.0 mm (Ideal Clear®, Erkodur®, and Biolon®). An upper central incisor, as part of the measuring device, was torqued in defined steps in the vestibular and palatal directions with the respective appliance in place. For statistical analysis, the resulting forces, Fx (forces acting in the palatal and facial directions) and Fz (intrusive force as a side-effect) at a displacement of ±0.15 and ±0.8 mm from the tooth at the gingival margin were calculated. The mean Fx forces for ±0.15 mm displacement ranged from -1.89 N [standard deviation (SD) 0.48] to 0.11 N (SD 0.1). The mean Fz forces were between -0.97 N (SD 0.57) and -0.07 N (SD 0.22). The highest intrusive forces were measured during palatal displacement of the measuring tooth. An influence of direction of displacement on the levels of force was observed, especially for Fz at the greater displacement of ±0.8 mm. In relation to the intended amount of root movement during torquing, aligners tend to 'lift up' and therefore no effective force couple can be established for further root control. The force delivery properties are also influenced by the material used and the shape of the tooth.
Static and Dynamic Performance Simulation of Direct-Acting Force Motor Valve
Ye, Xinghai; Ding, Jianjun; Zheng, Gang; Jiang, Kunpeng; Chen, Dongdong
2017-07-01
This work focuses on static and dynamic characteristics of direct-acting force motor valve. First, we analyzed the structure features and operating principle of the Mitsubishi-Hitachi force motor valve (FMV) and the operating principle of its internal permanent-magnet moving-coil force motor magnetic circuit, determined the transfer function of the FMV force motor system, and established a mathematical model for the system. Secondly, we established a static performance analysis model using the AMESIM software and utilized the model in combination with experimental results to analyze the effects of electro-hydraulic servo valve structural parameters on static characteristics. Lastly, we deduced the trajectory equation of the system, established the relationship between dynamic characteristic indexes and structural parameters, and analyzed the effects of different parameter values on the dynamic characteristics of the system. This research can provide a theoretical guidance for designing and manufacturing the FMV body.
Narang, Ajit S; Sheverev, Valery; Freeman, Tim; Both, Douglas; Stepaniuk, Vadim; Delancy, Michael; Millington-Smith, Doug; Macias, Kevin; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar
2016-01-01
Drag flow force (DFF) sensor that measures the force exerted by wet mass in a granulator on a thin cylindrical probe was shown as a promising process analytical technology for real-time in-line high-resolution monitoring of wet mass consistency during high shear wet granulation. Our previous studies indicated that this process analytical technology tool could be correlated to granulation end point established independently through drug product critical quality attributes. In this study, the measurements of flow force by a DFF sensor, taken during wet granulation of 3 placebo formulations with different binder content, are compared with concurrent at line FT4 Powder Rheometer characterization of wet granules collected at different time points of the processing. The wet mass consistency measured by the DFF sensor correlated well with the granulation's resistance to flow and interparticulate interactions as measured by FT4 Powder Rheometer. This indicated that the force pulse magnitude measured by the DFF sensor was indicative of fundamental material properties (e.g., shear viscosity and granule size/density), as they were changing during the granulation process. These studies indicate that DFF sensor can be a valuable tool for wet granulation formulation and process development and scale up, as well as for routine monitoring and control during manufacturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Atobe, Satoshi; Nonami, Shunsuke; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao
2017-09-01
Foreign object impact events are serious threats to composite laminates because impact damage leads to significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the structure. Identification of the location and force history of the impact that was applied to the structure can provide useful information for assessing the structural integrity. This study proposes a method for identifying impact forces acting on CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) laminated plates on the basis of the sound radiated from the impacted structure. Identification of the impact location and force history is performed using the sound pressure measured with microphones. To devise a method for identifying the impact location from the difference in the arrival times of the sound wave detected with the microphones, the propagation path of the sound wave from the impacted point to the sensor is examined. For the identification of the force history, an experimentally constructed transfer matrix is employed to relate the force history to the corresponding sound pressure. To verify the validity of the proposed method, impact tests are conducted by using a CFRP cross-ply laminate as the specimen, and an impulse hammer as the impactor. The experimental results confirm the validity of the present method for identifying the impact location from the arrival time of the sound wave detected with the microphones. Moreover, the results of force history identification show the feasibility of identifying the force history accurately from the measured sound pressure using the experimental transfer matrix.
Air Force Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and Buy American Act
2016-02-24
leather, furs,6 apparel , and shoes • FSG 84 – clothing , individual equipment and insignia • FSG 89 – subsistence (food) If these items are purchased...during the audit by completing Buy American Act training and amending standard operating procedures and internal processes to improve compliance with the...Force Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act F E B R U A R Y 2 4 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-051
Simulation of airflow and aerodynamic forces acting on a commercial turbine ventilator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farahani, A.S.; Nor Mariah Adam; Khairol Anuar
2009-01-01
Full text: This study is concerned with performing simulation of airflow using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique code name FLUENT so as to visualize the flow behavior around and within turbine ventilator in addition to determining the aerodynamic forces acting on turbine ventilator during operation and comparing the simulated results to the wind tunnel experiment. To achieve this, Realizable k-ε and RSM turbulence models are used by taking advantage of moving mesh method to simulate the rotation of turbine ventilator and the consequent results are obtained through the sequential process which ensures accuracy of the computations. The results demonstrated that, the RSM turbulence model shows the best performance on flow visualization and predicting the aerodynamic forces acting on a turbine ventilator. Results from this work would lead us to a noticeable increase in efficiency of future turbine ventilator by enhancing the shape of inner vanes, and redesign them using CFD technique. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naletova, V.A.; Kvitantsev, A.S.
2002-01-01
A prolate spheroidal body immersed into a nonuniformly heated magnetic liquid in an applied magnetic field has been considered. The expressions for the pressure and velocity of the liquid, temperature and magnetic field have been obtained. The formula for a thermomagnetic force acting on the body has been calculated. It has been shown that the body shape needs to be taken into account when we study the thermomagnetic diffusion of the prolate bodies
Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc
2008-11-01
A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.
Wind Tunnel Testing on Crosswind Aerodynamic Forces Acting on Railway Vehicles
Kwon, Hyeok-Bin; Nam, Seong-Won; You, Won-Hee
This study is devoted to measure the aerodynamic forces acting on two railway trains, one of which is a high-speed train at 300km/h maximum operation speed, and the other is a conventional train at the operating speed 100km/h. The three-dimensional train shapes have been modeled as detailed as possible including the inter-car, the upper cavity for pantograph, and the bogie systems. The aerodynamic forces on each vehicle of the trains have been measured in the subsonic wind tunnel with 4m×3m test section of Korea Aerospace Research Institute at Daejeon, Korea. The aerodynamic forces and moments of the train models have been plotted for various yaw angles and the characteristics of the aerodynamic coefficients has been discussed relating to the experimental conditions.
Evaluation of Skin Friction Drag for Liner Applications in Aircraft
Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jasinski, Christopher M.
2016-01-01
A parameter that is gaining significance in the evaluation of acoustic liner performance is the skin friction drag induced by air flow over the liner surface. Estimates vary widely regarding the amount of drag the liner induces relative to a smooth wall, from less than a 20% increase to nearly 100%, and parameters such as face sheet perforate hole diameter, percent open area, and sheet thickness are expected to figure prominently in the skin friction drag. Even a small increase in liner drag can impose an economic penalty, and current research is focused on developing 'low drag' liner concepts, with the goal being to approach the skin friction drag of a smooth wall. The issue of skin friction drag takes on greater significance as airframe designers investigate the feasibility of putting sound absorbing liners on the non-lifting surfaces of the wings and fuselage, for the purpose of reducing engine noise reflected and scattered toward observers on the ground. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have embarked on investigations of liner skin friction drag with the aims of: developing a systematic drag measurement capability, establishing the drag of current liners, and developing liners that produce reduced drag without compromising acoustic performance. This paper discusses the experimental procedures that have been developed to calculate the drag coefficient based on the change in momentum thickness and the companion research program being carried out to measure the drag directly using a force balance. Liner samples that are evaluated include a solid wall with known roughness and conventional liners with perforated facesheets of varying hole diameter and percent open area.
Modeling of Aerodynamic Force Acting in Tunnel for Analysis of Riding Comfort in a Train
Kikko, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Katsuya; Sakanoue, Kei; Nanba, Kouichiro
In this paper, we aimed to model the aerodynamic force that acts on a train running at high speed in a tunnel. An analytical model of the aerodynamic force is developed from pressure data measured on car-body sides of a test train running at the maximum revenue operation speed. The simulation of an 8-car train running while being subjected to the modeled aerodynamic force gives the following results. The simulated car-body vibration corresponds to the actual vibration both qualitatively and quantitatively for the cars at the rear of the train. The separation of the airflow at the tail-end of the train increases the yawing vibration of the tail-end car while it has little effect on the car-body vibration of the adjoining car. Also, the effect of the moving velocity of the aerodynamic force on the car-body vibration is clarified that the simulation under the assumption of a stationary aerodynamic force can markedly increase the car-body vibration.
Aerodynamic Drag Scoping Work.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voskuilen, Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Erickson, Lindsay Crowl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knaus, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2018-02-01
This memo summarizes the aerodynamic drag scoping work done for Goodyear in early FY18. The work is to evaluate the feasibility of using Sierra/Low-Mach (Fuego) for drag predictions of rolling tires, particularly focused on the effects of tire features such as lettering, sidewall geometry, rim geometry, and interaction with the vehicle body. The work is broken into two parts. Part 1 consisted of investigation of a canonical validation problem (turbulent flow over a cylinder) using existing tools with different meshes and turbulence models. Part 2 involved calculating drag differences over plate geometries with simple features (ridges and grooves) defined by Goodyear of approximately the size of interest for a tire. The results of part 1 show the level of noise to be expected in a drag calculation and highlight the sensitivity of absolute predictions to model parameters such as mesh size and turbulence model. There is 20-30% noise in the experimental measurements on the canonical cylinder problem, and a similar level of variation between different meshes and turbulence models. Part 2 shows that there is a notable difference in the predicted drag on the sample plate geometries, however, the computational cost of extending the LES model to a full tire would be significant. This cost could be reduced by implementation of more sophisticated wall and turbulence models (e.g. detached eddy simulations - DES) and by focusing the mesh refinement on feature subsets with the goal of comparing configurations rather than absolute predictivity for the whole tire.
Influence of tire inflating pressure at dynamic forces acting on articulated trolleybus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Polach Pavel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available ŠKODA VÝZKUM s.r.o. cooperated on the development of the NEOPLAN DMA low-floor articulated trolleybus intended for the Boston city. Multibody models and finite element models of the trolleybus were utilized in the stage of the vehicle design. At the end of the stage of computer modelling and testing of the trolleybus prototype a decision to reduce tire inflating of vehicles in serial production (together with the change the type of shock absorbers used in trolleybus suspension was made. The impact of this change on forces acting in the trolleybus suspension elements (i.e. in air springs and shock absorbers and radius rods on the trolleybus chassis when running on an uneven test track was investigated using multibody simulations. Time histories of the forces calculated utilising multibody models were used as input data of the trolleybus finite element models.
General stability of memory-type thermoelastic Timoshenko beam acting on shear force
Apalara, Tijani A.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we consider a linear thermoelastic Timoshenko system with memory effects where the thermoelastic coupling is acting on shear force under Neumann-Dirichlet-Dirichlet boundary conditions. The same system with fully Dirichlet boundary conditions was considered by Messaoudi and Fareh (Nonlinear Anal TMA 74(18):6895-6906, 2011, Acta Math Sci 33(1):23-40, 2013), but they obtained a general stability result which depends on the speeds of wave propagation. In our case, we obtained a general stability result irrespective of the wave speeds of the system.
Fluid-elastic force measurements acting on a tube bundle in two-phase cross flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inada, Fumio; Kawamura, Koji; Yasuo, Akira
1996-01-01
Fluid-elastic force acting on a square tube bundle of P/D = 1.47 in air-water two-phase cross flow was measured to investigate the characteristics and to clarify whether the fluid elastic vibration characteristics could be expressed using two-phase mixture characteristics. Measured fluid elastic forces were separated into fluid-elastic force coefficients such as added mass, added stiffness, and added damping coefficient. The added damping coefficient was separated into a two-phase damping and a flow-dependent component as in previous research (Carlucci, 1981 and 1983; Pettigrew, 1994). These coefficients were nondimensionalized with two-phase mixture characteristics such as void fraction, mixture density and mixture velocity, which were obtained using the drift-flux model with consideration given to the model. The result was compared with the result obtained with the homogeneous model. It was found that fluid-elastic force coefficients could be expressed with two-phase flow mixture characteristics very well in the experimental result, and that better result can be derived using the slip model as compared to the homogeneous model. Added two-phase flow, which could be expressed as a function of void fraction, where two-phase damping was nondimensionalized with the relative velocity between the gas and liquid phases used as a reference velocity. Using these, the added stiffness coefficient and flow-dependent component of damping could be expressed very well as a function of nondimensional mixture velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen, Linwei; Sun, Zhilin [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, 316021 (China); Chan, Eng-Soon, E-mail: shenlinwei@zju.edu.cn [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, No. 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2017-04-15
An immersed boundary method is employed to simulate vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a circular cylinder in two dimensions. The Reynolds number is 150, and the cylinder mass ratios of 2 and 10 are considered. The synchronization regions for these two mass ratios are determined by the simulations. It is found that the cycle-averaged added mass is about zero at the reduced velocity of 6.1. The instantaneous frequency, which is obtained by Hilbert transformation of the cylinder oscillating displacement, exhibits an important feature whereby the cylinder oscillation in the VIV synchronization region is modulated with a frequency twice the displacement prevailing frequency. The cylinder displacement could still be well approximated by a sine function with a constant frequency and amplitude. However, the lift force acting on the cylinder cannot be estimated in the same manner. In fact, both the lift force amplitude and frequency are modulated. The suggested expression provides a better approximation of the lift force. Moreover, it reveals that the presence of the higher harmonics in the lift force is the result of the amplitude and frequency modulation. (paper)
Magnetic force acting on a magnetic dipole over a superconducting thin film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, J.C.; Chen, J.L.; Horng, L.; Yang, T.J.
1996-01-01
The magnetostatic interaction energy and corresponding magnetic force acting on a magnetic point dipole placed above a type-II thin superconducting film in the mixed state with a single vortex are calculated using electromagnetics coupled with the London theory of superconductivity. If a vortex is trapped by a circular defect of radius b 1, where a is the separation between the dipole and the thin film, the only difference between two results is in the cutoff length, i.e., in the case of a circular defect the only difference in the critical position calculation is the cutoff at radius b rather than at coherence length ξ. The pinning force of a single vortex by a circular defect is also calculated. Further, we investigate the conditions of the vortex creation for various cases (including the first, second, and third vortices) for a free of pinning center in the examining region. It is found that the creation of a new single vortex in the thin film causes an abrupt change in vertical levitation force: the force changed discontinuously. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand and its flow field during sculling motion.
Takagi, Hideki; Shimada, Shohei; Miwa, Takahiro; Kudo, Shigetada; Sanders, Ross; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
2014-12-01
The goal of this research is to clarify the mechanism by which unsteady forces are generated during sculling by a skilled swimmer and thereby to contribute to improving propulsive techniques. We used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to acquire data on the kinematics of the hand during sculling, such as fluid forces and flow field. By investigating the correlations between these data, we expected to find a new propulsion mechanism. The experiment was performed in a flow-controlled water channel. The participant executed sculling motions to remain at a fixed position despite constant water flow. PIV was used to visualize the flow-field cross-section in the plane of hand motion. Moreover, the fluid forces acting on the hand were estimated from pressure distribution measurements performed on the hand and simultaneous three-dimensional motion analysis. By executing the sculling motion, a skilled swimmer produces large unsteady fluid forces when the leading-edge vortex occurs on the dorsal side of the hand and wake capture occurs on the palm side. By using a new approach, we observed interesting unsteady fluid phenomena similar to those of flying insects. The study indicates that it is essential for swimmers to fully exploit vortices. A better understanding of these phenomena might lead to an improvement in sculling techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials
Liu, Eryong; Li, Longyang; Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Xue, Qunji
2017-01-01
Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, semisolid and liquid state all have good adhesion with modified mesh. The states of n-octadecane changed with temperature, thus, the surface contact angle and adhesive force all varies obviously at different state. The contact angle decreases with temperature, the adhesive force shows a lower value at semisolid state. Furthermore, the drag testing results show that the compliant n-octadecane film is more effectively in drag reduction than superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS film, indicating that the drag reduction mechanism of n-octadecane is significantly different with superhydrophobic film. Further research shows that the water flow leads to self-texturing of semisolid state n-octadecane, which is similar with compliant fish skin. Therefore, the compliant bionic materials of semisolid state n-octadecane with regular bulge plays a major role in the drag reduction.
Improvements of evaporation drag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiaoyan; Yang Yanhua; Xu Jijun
2004-01-01
A special observable experiment facility has been established, and a series of experiments have been carried out on this facility by pouring one or several high-temperature particles into a water pool. The experiment has verified the evaporation drag model, which believe the non-symmetric profile of the local evaporation rate and the local density of the vapor would bring about a resultant force on the hot particle so as to resist its motion. However, in Yang's evaporation drag model, radiation heat transfer is taken as the only way to transfer heat from hot particle to the vapor-liquid interface and all of the radiation energy is deposited on the vapor-liquid interface, thus contributing to the vaporization rate and mass balance of the vapor film. So, the heat conduction and the heat convection are taken into account in improved model. At the same time, the improved model given by this paper presented calculations of the effect of hot particles temperature on the radiation absorption behavior of water
Costache, Marius V; Bridoux, German; Neumann, Ingmar; Valenzuela, Sergio O
2011-12-18
Thermoelectric effects in spintronics are gathering increasing attention as a means of managing heat in nanoscale structures and of controlling spin information by using heat flow. Thermal magnons (spin-wave quanta) are expected to play a major role; however, little is known about the underlying physical mechanisms involved. The reason is the lack of information about magnon interactions and of reliable methods to obtain it, in particular for electrical conductors because of the intricate influence of electrons. Here, we demonstrate a conceptually new device that enables us to gather information on magnon-electron scattering and magnon-drag effects. The device resembles a thermopile formed by a large number of pairs of ferromagnetic wires placed between a hot and a cold source and connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. By controlling the relative orientation of the magnetization in pairs of wires, the magnon drag can be studied independently of the electron and phonon-drag thermoelectric effects. Measurements as a function of temperature reveal the effect on magnon drag following a variation of magnon and phonon populations. This information is crucial to understand the physics of electron-magnon interactions, magnon dynamics and thermal spin transport.
High accuracy satellite drag model (HASDM)
Storz, Mark F.; Bowman, Bruce R.; Branson, Major James I.; Casali, Stephen J.; Tobiska, W. Kent
The dominant error source in force models used to predict low-perigee satellite trajectories is atmospheric drag. Errors in operational thermospheric density models cause significant errors in predicted satellite positions, since these models do not account for dynamic changes in atmospheric drag for orbit predictions. The Air Force Space Battlelab's High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) estimates and predicts (out three days) a dynamically varying global density field. HASDM includes the Dynamic Calibration Atmosphere (DCA) algorithm that solves for the phases and amplitudes of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations of thermospheric density near real-time from the observed drag effects on a set of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) calibration satellites. The density correction is expressed as a function of latitude, local solar time and altitude. In HASDM, a time series prediction filter relates the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) energy index E10.7 and the geomagnetic storm index ap, to the DCA density correction parameters. The E10.7 index is generated by the SOLAR2000 model, the first full spectrum model of solar irradiance. The estimated and predicted density fields will be used operationally to significantly improve the accuracy of predicted trajectories for all low-perigee satellites.
Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji
A basic study of flow controls using air blowing was conducted to reduce unsteady aerodynamic force acting on trains running in tunnels. An air blowing device is installed around a model car in a wind tunnel. Steady and periodic blowings are examined utilizing electromagnetic valves. Pressure fluctuations are measured and the aerodynamic force acting on the car is estimated. The results are as follows: a) The air blowing allows reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. b) It is effective to blow air horizontally at the lower side of the car facing the tunnel wall. c) The reduction rate of the unsteady aerodynamic force relates to the rate of momentum of the blowing to that of the uniform flow. d) The periodic blowing with the same frequency as the unsteady aerodynamic force reduces the aerodynamic force in a manner similar to the steady blowing.
Forces acting on particles in a Pelton bucket and similarity considerations for erosion
Rai, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Staubli, T.
2016-11-01
High sediment transport rates cause severe erosion issues in hydropower plants leading to interruptions in power generation, decrease in efficiency and shutdown for repair and maintenance. For Pelton turbines operating at high head, the issue of erosion is severe, especially in components like buckets, nozzle rings and needles. Goal of the study is to develop erosion focussed guidelines for both designing as well as operating hydropower plants with Pelton runners. In this study, the flow of sediment inside a Pelton bucket with respect to forces acting on solid particles is analysed with an analytical approach by considering different dynamic forces originating from the rotation of the turbine, the curvature of the buckets, and the Coriolis effect. Further, the path of sediment particles and its effect on erosion phenomena are analysed based on the process of separation of different sized sediment particles from streamlines. The data relating to head, power, discharge, number of jet and efficiency of 250 hydropower plants installed all over the world were analysed in this study to find the major factors related to erosion in Pelton turbine bucket. From analysis of different force ratios, it is found that an increase of D/B, i.e. the ratio of pitch circle diameter and bucket width, and/or decrease of specific speed (nq) enhances erosion. As the erosion process depends significantly on nondimensional parameters D/B and nq, these are considered as similarity measures for scaling of the erosion process in the Pelton buckets of various sizes.
Ruths, Troy; Nakhleh, Luay
2013-05-07
Cis-regulatory networks (CRNs) play a central role in cellular decision making. Like every other biological system, CRNs undergo evolution, which shapes their properties by a combination of adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary forces. Teasing apart these forces is an important step toward functional analyses of the different components of CRNs, designing regulatory perturbation experiments, and constructing synthetic networks. Although tests of neutrality and selection based on molecular sequence data exist, no such tests are currently available based on CRNs. In this work, we present a unique genotype model of CRNs that is grounded in a genomic context and demonstrate its use in identifying portions of the CRN with properties explainable by neutral evolutionary forces at the system, subsystem, and operon levels. We leverage our model against experimentally derived data from Escherichia coli. The results of this analysis show statistically significant and substantial neutral trends in properties previously identified as adaptive in origin--degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and motifs--within the E. coli CRN. Our model captures the tightly coupled genome-interactome of an organism and enables analyses of how evolutionary events acting at the genome level, such as mutation, and at the population level, such as genetic drift, give rise to neutral patterns that we can quantify in CRNs.
Forces on a magnet moving past figure-eight coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulcahy, T.H.; He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.; Rossing, T.D.
1993-01-01
For the first time, the lift, drag, and guidance forces acting on a permanent magnet are measured as the magnet passes over different arrays of figure-eight (null-flux) coils. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of dynamic circuit theory, which is used to explain more optimal coil arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ichikawa, A [JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)
1995-02-15
As for the levitation vehicle system, the vehicle is equipped with superconducting magnets and is levitated about 10cm by the electromagnetic force that works between the push coil and levitation guide coil laid on the ground and it runs 500km an hour. But, the running resistance and energy loss called as magnetic resistance caused by the electromagnet phenomenon that generates between the superconducting magnets and structures (steel products) generate. In this paper, the magnet resistance generated in guideway structure of superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle system and its countermeasures therefor are introduced. The main countermeasures against the magnetic resistance are as follows. The steel products have to be as arranged as separated from the superconducting magnets as far as possible in the permissible design limit. Based on the analysis results the low magnetic steel would be used in an area within 1.5m from the strand of the superconducting magnet. The contact resistance of the joints part of loop-shaped components would be bigger so as to do not cause the loop current. And the big component would be divided into small parts when it is used near to the superconducting magnets. 5 refs., 10 figs.
London 2012 Paralympic swimming: passive drag and the classification system.
Oh, Yim-Taek; Burkett, Brendan; Osborough, Conor; Formosa, Danielle; Payton, Carl
2013-09-01
The key difference between the Olympic and Paralympic Games is the use of classification systems within Paralympic sports to provide a fair competition for athletes with a range of physical disabilities. In 2009, the International Paralympic Committee mandated the development of new, evidence-based classification systems. This study aims to assess objectively the swimming classification system by determining the relationship between passive drag and level of swimming-specific impairment, as defined by the current swimming class. Data were collected on participants at the London 2012 Paralympic Games. The passive drag force of 113 swimmers (classes 3-14) was measured using an electro-mechanical towing device and load cell. Swimmers were towed on the surface of a swimming pool at 1.5 m/s while holding their most streamlined position. Passive drag ranged from 24.9 to 82.8 N; the normalised drag (drag/mass) ranged from 0.45 to 1.86 N/kg. Significant negative associations were found between drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.41, p < 0.01) and normalised drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.60, p < 0.01). The mean difference in drag between adjacent classes was inconsistent, ranging from 0 N (6 vs 7) to 11.9 N (5 vs 6). Reciprocal Ponderal Index (a measure of slenderness) correlated moderately with normalised drag (r(P) = -0.40, p < 0.01). Although swimmers with the lowest swimming class experienced the highest passive drag and vice versa, the inconsistent difference in mean passive drag between adjacent classes indicates that the current classification system does not always differentiate clearly between swimming groups.
Analysis of Drag Reduction Methods and Mechanisms of Turbulent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gu Yunqing
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent flow is a difficult issue in fluid dynamics, the rules of which have not been totally revealed up to now. Fluid in turbulent state will result in a greater frictional force, which must consume great energy. Therefore, it is not only an important influence in saving energy and improving energy utilization rate but also an extensive application prospect in many fields, such as ship domain and aerospace. Firstly, bionic drag reduction technology is reviewed and is a hot research issue now, the drag reduction mechanism of body surface structure is analyzed, such as sharks, earthworms, and dolphins. Besides, we make a thorough study of drag reduction characteristics and mechanisms of microgrooved surface and compliant wall. Then, the relevant drag reduction technologies and mechanisms are discussed, focusing on the microbubbles, the vibrant flexible wall, the coating, the polymer drag reduction additives, superhydrophobic surface, jet surface, traveling wave surface drag reduction, and the composite drag reduction methods. Finally, applications and advancements of the drag reduction technology in turbulence are prospected.
Design study of shaft face seal with self-acting lift augmentation. 4: Force balance
Ludwig, L. P.; Zuk, J.; Johnson, R. L.
1972-01-01
A method for predicting the operating film thickness of self-acting seals is described. The analysis considers a 16.76-cm mean diameter seal that is typical of large gas turbines for aircraft. Four design points were selected to cover a wide range of operation for advanced engines. This operating range covered sliding speeds of 61 to 153 m/sec, sealed pressures of 45 to 217 N/sq cm abs, and gas temperatures of 311 to 977 K. The force balance analysis revealed that the seal operated without contact over the operating range with gas film thicknesses ranging between 0.00046 to 0.00119 cm, and with gas leakage rates between 0.01 to 0.39 scmm.
A new method for measuring lift forces acting on an airfoil under dynamic conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolken-Moehlmann, Gerrit; Peinke, Joachim [Institute of Physics, University of Oldenburg (Germany)
2008-07-01
Wind turbines operate in a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer and are exposed to strong wind fluctuations in time and space. This can induce the dynamic stall, a phenomenon that causes extra loads. Dynamic stall occurs under fast changes in the angle of attack (AoA) and was determined in detail in helicopter research. But in contrast to helicopter aerodynamics, the changes in the AoA of wind turbine airfoils are in general non-sinusoidal, and thus it seems to be difficult to use these measurements and models. Our goal is to acquire lift data under conditions more comparable to real wind turbines, including non-periodic changes in the AoA. For this purpose a closed test section for our wind tunnel was built. An airfoil with a chord length of 0.2m will be rotated by a stepping motor with angular velocities of up to 300 {sup circle} /s. With a maximum wind velocity of 50m/s, Reynolds numbers of Re=700 000 can be realized. The lift force is determined by the counter forces acting on the wind tunnel walls. These are measured by two lines of 40 pressure sensors with sampling rates up to 2kHz. The results show distinct dynamic stall characteristics. Further experiments with different parameters and foils will give a better insight in dynamic stall and a verification and improvement of existing models.
Simulating Electrophoresis with Discrete Charge and Drag
Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, Thomas A.
A charged asymmetric rigid cluster of colloidal particles in saline solution can respond in exotic ways to an electric field: it may spin or move transversely. These distinctive motions arise from the drag force of the neutralizing countercharge surrounding the cluster. Because of this drag, calculating the motion of arbitrary asymmetric objects with nonuniform charge is impractical by conventional methods. Here we present a new method of simulating electrophoresis, in which we replace the continuous object and the surrounding countercharge with discrete point-draggers, called Stokeslets. The balance of forces imposes a linear, self-consistent relation among the drag and Coulomb forces on the Stokeslets, which allows us to easily determine the object's motion via matrix inversion. By explicitly enforcing charge+countercharge neutrality, the simulation recovers the distinctive features of electrophoretic motion to few-percent accuracy using as few as 1000 Stokeslets. In particular, for uniformly charged objects, we observe the characteristic Smoluchowski independence of mobility on object size and shape. We then discuss electrophoretic motion of asymmetric objects, where our simulation method is particularly advantageous. This work is supported by a Grant from the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.
Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rrustem Qehaja
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.
Calculation of the force acting on a drop in a nonuniform flow of a current-supporting fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korovin, V.M.
1993-01-01
In the context of wide use of intense electric currents in various technological process, it is of practical interest to investigate the characteristics of the force action of electromagnetic fields on a variety of inclusions - solid particles, drops, gas bubbles - suspended in current-supporting fluids. In the available studies one treats the simplest case, in which the vortical component of the electromagnetic forces, generated by the interaction of the current with the internal magnetic field, is nonvanishing only in small vicinities near these inclusions, and therefore these electromagnetic forces do not generate global motion of the homogeneous current-supporting fluid. In practice, in most cases the vortical component of electromagnetic forces plays a substantial role in the whole operating region of the technological device, and the motion of the current-supporting fluid is created specifically by electromagnetic forces. In the case of a varying electromagnetic field the forces acting on particles are located in the conducting fluid, moving under the field action, were calculated by Korovim (Korovim, V. M., open-quotes The calculation of forces acting on suspended particles during the flow of a conducting fluid in a varying electromagnetic field,close quotes Magn. Gidrodin, No. 1 95-102 (1991)). In the present study the authors generalize the method suggested by Korovin for calculating forces applied to both drops and particles and gas bubbles suspended in the gradient flow of a fluid moving under the action of a constant electromagnetic field. 6 refs
Drag and Lift Estimation from 3-D Velocity Field Data Measured by Multi-Plane Stereo PIV
加藤, 裕之; 松島, 紀佐; 上野, 真; 小池, 俊輔; 渡辺, 重哉; Kato, Hiroyuki; Matsushima, Kisa; Ueno, Makoto; Koike, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Shigeya
2013-01-01
For airplane design, it is crucial to have tools that can accurately predict airplane drag and lift. Usually drag and lift prediction methods are force measurement using wind tunnel balance. Unfortunately, balance data do not provide information contribution of airplane to components to drag and lift for more precise and competitive airplane design. To obtain such information, a wake integration method for use drag and lift estimation was developed for use in wake survey data analysis. Wake s...
Estimation of the forces acting on the tibiofemoral joint during knee extension exercises
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodrigo Rico Bini
2008-02-01
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p35 The objectives of this study were to: (1 evaluate the resistive torque of an open kinetic chain strength-training machine for performing knee extensions, and (2 perform an analysis estimating internal forces in the tibiofemoral joint. During a fi rst phase of the study, measurements were taken of the machine under analysis (external forces, and then calculations were performed to estimate forces on the lower limb (internal forces. Equations were defi ned to calculate human force (HF, and the moment of muscular force (MMF. Perpendicular muscular force (MFp and joint force (JFp, axial muscular force (MF” and joint force (JF”, and total muscular force (MF and joint force (JF were all calculated. Five knee angles were analyzed (zero, 30, 45, 60, and 90 degrees. A reduction was observed in HF at higher knee angles, while MF and JF also increased at the same time. HF was always lower than the load selected on the machine, which indicates a reduced overload imposed by the machine. The reduction observed in MFp and JFp at higher knee angles indicates a lower tendency to shear the tibia in relation to the femur. At the same time, there was an increase in JF” due to higher MF”. The biomechanical model proposed in this study has shown itself adequate for the day-to-day needs of professionals who supervise orient strength training.
Relativistic Gas Drag on Dust Grains and Implications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoang, Thiem, E-mail: thiemhoang@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-09-20
We study the drag force on grains moving at relativistic velocities through interstellar gas and explore its application. First, we derive a new analytical formula of the drag force at high energies and find that it is significantly reduced compared to the classical model. Second, we apply the obtained drag force to calculate the terminal velocities of interstellar grains by strong radiation sources such as supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that grains can be accelerated to relativistic velocities by very luminous AGNs. We then quantify the deceleration of relativistic spacecraft proposed by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative due to gas drag on a relativistic lightsail. We find that the spacecraft’s decrease in speed is negligible because of the suppression of gas drag at relativistic velocities, suggesting that the lightsail may be open for communication during its journey to α Centauri without causing a considerable delay. Finally, we show that the damage to relativistic thin lightsails by interstellar dust is a minor effect.
Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars
Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel
2014-11-01
The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.
The Effect of Volumetric Porosity on Roughness Element Drag
Gillies, John; Nickling, William; Nikolich, George; Etyemezian, Vicken
2016-04-01
Much attention has been given to understanding how the porosity of two dimensional structures affects the drag force exerted by boundary-layer flow on these flow obstructions. Porous structures such as wind breaks and fences are typically used to control the sedimentation of sand and snow particles or create micro-habitats in their lee. Vegetation in drylands also exerts control on sediment transport by wind due to aerodynamic effects and interaction with particles in transport. Recent research has also demonstrated that large spatial arrays of solid three dimensional roughness elements can be used to reduce sand transport to specified targets for control of wind erosion through the effect of drag partitioning and interaction of the moving sand with the large (>0.3 m high) roughness elements, but porous elements may improve the effectiveness of this approach. A thorough understanding of the role porosity plays in affecting the drag force on three-dimensional forms is lacking. To provide basic understanding of the relationship between the porosity of roughness elements and the force of drag exerted on them by fluid flow, we undertook a wind tunnel study that systematically altered the porosity of roughness elements of defined geometry (cubes, rectangular cylinders, and round cylinders) and measured the associated change in the drag force on the elements under similar Reynolds number conditions. The elements tested were of four basic forms: 1) same sized cubes with tubes of known diameter milled through them creating three volumetric porosity values and increasing connectivity between the tubes, 2) cubes and rectangular cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other, and 3) round cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other. The two-dimensional porosity, defined as the ratio of total surface area of the empty space to the solid surface area of the side of the element presented to the fluid flow was conserved at 0.519 for
Electro—magnetic control of shear flow over a cylinder for drag reduction and lift enhancement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hui; Fan Bao-Chun; Chen Zhi-Hua; Chen Shuai; Li Hong-Zhi
2013-01-01
In this paper, the electro—magnetic control of a cylinder wake in shear flow is investigated numerically. The effects of the shear rate and Lorentz force on the cylinder wake, the distribution of hydrodynamic force, and the drag/lift phase diagram are discussed in detail. It is revealed that Lorentz force can be classified into the field Lorentz force and the wall Lorentz force and they affect the drag and lift forces independently. The drag/lift phase diagram with a shape of ''8'' consists of two closed curves, which correspond to the halves of the shedding cycle dominated by the upper and lower vortices respectively. The free stream shear (K > 0) induces the diagram to move downward and leftward, so that the average lift force directs toward the downside. With the upper Lorentz force, the diagram moves downwards and to the right by the field Lorentz force, thus resulting in the drag increase and the lift reduction, whereas it moves upward and to the left by the wall Lorentz force, leading to the drag reduction and the lift increase. Finally the diagram is dominated by the wall Lorentz force, thus moving upward and leftward. Therefore the upper Lorentz force, which enhances the lift force, can be used to overcome the lift loss due to the free stream shear, which is also obtained in the experiment. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Random three-dimensional jammed packings of elastic shells acting as force sensors
Jose, Jissy; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout
2016-06-01
In a jammed solid of granular particles, the applied stress is in-homogeneously distributed within the packing. A full experimental characterization requires measurement of all the interparticle forces, but so far such measurements are limited to a few systems in two and even fewer in three dimensions. Particles with the topology of (elastic) shells are good local force sensors as relatively large deformations of the shells result from relatively small forces. We recently introduced such fluorescent shells as a model granular system in which force distributions can be determined in three dimensions using confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis. An interesting aspect about these shells that differentiates them from other soft deformable particles is their buckling behavior at higher compression. This leads to deformations that do not conserve the inner volume of the particle. Here we use this system to accurately measure the contact forces in a three-dimensional packing of shells subjected to a static anisotropic compression and to shear. At small deformations forces are linear, however, for a buckled contact, the restoring force is related to the amount of deformation by a square root law, as follows from the theory of elasticity of shells. Near the unjamming-jamming transition (point J ), we found the probability distribution of the interparticle forces P (f ) to decay nearly exponentially at large forces, with little evidence of long-range force chains in the packings. As the packing density is increased, the tail of the distribution was found to crossover to a Gaussian, in line with other experimental and simulation studies. Under a small shear strain, up to 0.216, applied at an extremely low shear rate, we observed a shear-induced anisotropy in both the pair correlation function and contact force network; however, no appreciable change was seen in the number of contacts per particle.
Drag reduction in channel flow using nonlinear control
Keefe, Laurence R.
1993-01-01
Two nonlinear control schemes have been applied to the problem of drag reduction in channel flow. Both schemes have been tested using numerical simulations at a mass flux Reynolds numbers of 4408, utilizing 2D nonlinear neutral modes for goal dynamics. The OGY-method, which requires feedback, reduces drag to 60-80 percent of the turbulent value at the same Reynolds number, and employs forcing only within a thin region near the wall. The H-method, or model-based control, fails to achieve any drag reduction when starting from a fully turbulent initial condition, but shows potential for suppressing or retarding laminar-to-turbulent transition by imposing instead a transition to a low drag, nonlinear traveling wave solution to the Navier-Stokes equation. The drag in this state corresponds to that achieved by the OGY-method. Model-based control requires no feedback, but in experiments to date has required the forcing be imposed within a thicker layer than the OGY-method. Control energy expenditures in both methods are small, representing less than 0.1 percent of the uncontrolled flow's energy.
CFD Prediction of Airfoil Drag in Viscous Flow Using the Entropy Generation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Wang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A new aerodynamic force of drag prediction approach was developed to compute the airfoil drag via entropy generation rate in the flow field. According to the momentum balance, entropy generation and its relationship to drag were derived for viscous flow. Model equations for the calculation of the local entropy generation in turbulent flows were presented by extending the RANS procedure to the entropy balance equation. The accuracy of algorithm and programs was assessed by simulating the pressure coefficient distribution and dragging coefficient of different airfoils under different Reynolds number at different attack angle. Numerical data shows that the total entropy generation rate in the flow field and the drag coefficient of the airfoil can be related by linear equation, which indicates that the total drag could be resolved into entropy generation based on its physical mechanism of energy loss.
Calculation of forces acting on an impurity in a metal subjected to a temperature gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerl, M.
1966-01-01
In a metal subject to a temperature gradient, an impurity is submitted to both an electrostatic force due to the thermoelectric field and a force due to the scattering of electrons and phonons by this point defect. The scattering of the electrons is treated using a semi-classical approach and a quantum mechanical method. The numerical computation for several impurities in Cu, Ag, and Au requires the knowledge of the resistivity cross-section. and of the thermoelectric power of the impurity in the metal. A tentative estimation of the force due to the phonon-scattering is given for the self-diffusion in Cu. However, the approximations of this calculation do not allow a good comparison with the force due to the electrons. (author) [fr
The effects of Poynting–Robertson drag on solar sails
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F.A. Abd El-Salam
2018-06-01
Full Text Available In the present work, the concept of solar sailing and its developing spacecraft are presented. The effects of Poynting–Robertson drag on solar sails are considered. Some analytical control laws with some mentioned input constraints for optimizing solar sails dynamics in heliocentric orbit using Lagrange’s planetary equations are obtained. Optimum force vector in a required direction is maximized by deriving optimal sail cone angle. New control laws that maximize thrust to obtain certain required maximization in some particular orbital element are obtained. Keywords: Poynting–Robertson drag, Solar sail, Control laws, Optimal sail, Cone angle
A hypersonic lift mechanism with decoupled lift and drag surfaces
Xu, YiZhe; Xu, ZhiQi; Li, ShaoGuang; Li, Juan; Bai, ChenYuan; Wu, ZiNiu
2013-05-01
In the present study, we propose a novel lift mechanism for which the lifting surface produces only lift. This is achieved by mounting a two-dimensional shock-shock interaction generator below the lifting surface. The shock-shock interaction theory in conjunction with a three dimensional correction and checked with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze the lift and drag forces as function of the geometrical parameters and inflow Mach number. Through this study, though limited to only inviscid flow, we conclude that it is possible to obtain a high lift to drag ratio by suitably arranging the shock interaction generator.
Control of the electromagnetic drag using fluctuating light fields
Pastor, Víctor J. López; Marqués, Manuel I.
2018-05-01
An expression for the electromagnetic drag force experienced by an electric dipole in a light field consisting of a monochromatic plane wave with polarization and phase randomly fluctuating is obtained. The expression explicitly considers the transformations of the field and frequency due to the Doppler shift and the change of the polarizability response of the electric dipole. The conditions to be fulfilled by the polarizability of the dipole in order to obtain a positive, a null, and a negative drag coefficient are analytically determined and checked against numerical simulations for the dynamics of a silver nanoparticle. The theoretically predicted diffusive, superdiffusive, and exponentially accelerated dynamical regimes are numerically confirmed.
Forces acting on a small particle in an acoustical field in a thermoviscous fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Bruus, Henrik
2015-01-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the acoustic radiation force on a single small spherical particle, either a thermoviscous fluid droplet or a thermoelastic solid particle, suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid medium. Within the perturbation assumptions, our analysis places no rest...... as to handling of nanoparticles in lab-on-a-chip systems.......We present a theoretical analysis of the acoustic radiation force on a single small spherical particle, either a thermoviscous fluid droplet or a thermoelastic solid particle, suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid medium. Within the perturbation assumptions, our analysis places...... of materials, we also find a sign change in the acoustic radiation force on different-sized but otherwise identical particles. These findings lead to the concept of a particle-size-dependent acoustophoretic contrast factor, highly relevant to acoustic separation of microparticles in gases, as well...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hasan Muhammad Luqman Bin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Drag or frictional force is defined as force that acts opposite to the object’s relative motion through a fluid which then will cause frictional pressure loss in the pipeline. Drag Reducing Agent (DRA is used to solve this issue and most of the DRAs are synthetic polymers but has some environmental issues. Therefore for this study, biopolymer known as Coconut Residue (CR is selected as the candidate to replace synthetic polymers DRA. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nano-scale biopolymer DRA on the application of water injection system. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is extracted by synthesizing the cellulose extracted from CR under the alkali-catalyzed reaction using monochloroacetic acid. The synthesize process is held in controlled condition whereby the concentration of NaOH is kept at 60%wt, 60 °C temperature and the reaction time is 4 hours. For every 25 g of dried CR used, the mass of synthesized CMC yield is at an average of 23.8 g. The synthesized CMC is then grinded in controlled parameters using the ball milling machine to get the Nano-scale size. The particle size obtained from this is 43.32 Nm which is in range of Nano size. This study proved that Nano-size CMC has higher percentage of drag reduction (%DR and flow increase (%FI if compared to normal-size CMC when tested in high and low flow rate; 44% to 48% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in low flow rate, and 16% to 18% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in high flow rate. The success of this research shows that Nano-scale DRA can be considered to be used to have better performance in reducing drag.
Gravitational waves and dragging effects
Bičák, Jiří; Katz, Joseph; Lynden-Bell, Donald
2008-08-01
Linear and rotational dragging effects of gravitational waves on local inertial frames are studied in purely vacuum spacetimes. First, the linear dragging caused by a simple cylindrical pulse is investigated. Surprisingly strong transverse effects of the pulse are exhibited. The angular momentum in cylindrically symmetric spacetimes is then defined and confronted with some results in the literature. In the main part, a general procedure is developed for studying weak gravitational waves with translational but not axial symmetry which can carry angular momentum. After a suitable averaging the rotation of local inertial frames due to such rotating waves can be calculated explicitly and illustrated graphically. This is done in detail in the accompanying paper. Finally, the rotational dragging is given for strong cylindrical waves interacting with a rotating cosmic string with a small angular momentum.
Spanwise drag variation on low Re wings -- revisited
Yang, Shanling; Spedding, Geoffrey
2011-11-01
Aerodynamic performance measurement and prediction of airfoils and wings at chord Reynolds numbers below 105 is both difficult and increasingly important in application to small-scale aircraft. Not only are the aerodynamics strongly affected by the dynamics of the unstable laminar boundary layer but the flow is decreasingly likely to be two-dimensional as Re decreases. The spanwise variation of the flow along a two-dimensional geometry is often held to be responsible for the large variations in measured profile drag coefficient. Here we measure local two-dimensional drag coefficients along a finite wing using non-intrusive PIV methods. Variations in Cd (y) can be related to local flow variations on the wing itself. Integrated values can be compared with force balance data, and the proper description of drag components at low Re will be discussed.
Color van der Waals force acting in heavy-ion scattering at low energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.S.; Lima, C.L.; Pato, M.P.; Bertulani, C.A.
1990-01-01
The influence of the color van der Waals force in the elastic scattering of 208 Pb on 208 Pb at sub-barrier energies is studied. The conspicuous changes in the Mott oscillation found here are suggested as a possible experimental test
Forces acting on a small particle in an acoustical field in a thermoviscous fluid.
Karlsen, Jonas T; Bruus, Henrik
2015-10-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the acoustic radiation force on a single small spherical particle, either a thermoviscous fluid droplet or a thermoelastic solid particle, suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid medium. Within the perturbation assumptions, our analysis places no restrictions on the length scales of the viscous and thermal boundary-layer thicknesses δ(s) and δ(t) relative to the particle radius a, but it assumes the particle to be small in comparison to the acoustic wavelength λ. This is the limit relevant to scattering of ultrasound waves from nanometer- and micrometer-sized particles. For particles of size comparable to or smaller than the boundary layers, the thermoviscous theory leads to profound consequences for the acoustic radiation force. Not only do we predict forces orders of magnitude larger than expected from ideal-fluid theory, but for certain relevant choices of materials, we also find a sign change in the acoustic radiation force on different-sized but otherwise identical particles. These findings lead to the concept of a particle-size-dependent acoustophoretic contrast factor, highly relevant to acoustic separation of microparticles in gases, as well as to handling of nanoparticles in lab-on-a-chip systems.
Progress report on INEL full flow drag screen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arave, A.E.; Colson, J.B.; Fincke, J.R.
1977-01-01
The objective in developing a full flow drag screen is to obtain a total momentum flux measurement which when combined with a suitable independent velocity or density measurement will yield a total mass flux. The major design considerations are predicated by the fact that an accurate momentum flux measurement must be made over a wide range of flow conditions. The device should exhibit a constant calibration regardless of Reynolds number, void fraction, slip ratio, or flow regime. The dynamics of drag devices are well understood in single-phase flows. This is not true for two-phase flows. The present development program is directed toward gaining an understanding of the dynamics of drag devices which sample the total area of a pipe in two-phase flow and developing a method for deducing mass flow rate using such a device. Various geometric arrangements are to be investigated. Testing to date has shown excellent results using a round wire mesh screen in the Semiscale air/water loop. Future air/water testing will include perforated plates and wire meshes with both rectangular and diamond shaped cross sections. Analytical models of the hydrodynamics of the drag screen as well as the associated density or velocity measuring device are being used to select the optimum configuration. Alternate force sensing methods are also being considered. These include single and multiple transducer arrangements. Multistage springs and pressure drop across the body are to be evaluated for extending the dynamic range of the drag body
Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes
Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy
2009-11-01
The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.
The study of dynamic force acted on water strider leg departing from water surface
Sun, Peiyuan; Zhao, Meirong; Jiang, Jile; Zheng, Yelong
2018-01-01
Water-walking insects such as water striders can skate on the water surface easily with the help of the hierarchical structure on legs. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies show that the hierarchical structure would help water strider in quasi-static case such as load-bearing capacity. However, the advantage of the hierarchical structure in the dynamic stage has not been reported yet. In this paper, the function of super hydrophobicity and the hierarchical structure was investigated by measuring the adhesion force of legs departing from the water surface at different lifting speed by a dynamic force sensor. The results show that the adhesion force decreased with the increase of lifting speed from 0.02 m/s to 0.4 m/s, whose mechanic is investigated by Energy analysis. In addition, it can be found that the needle shape setae on water strider leg can help them depart from water surface easily. Thus, it can serve as a starting point to understand how the hierarchical structure on the legs help water-walking insects to jump upward rapidly to avoid preying by other insects.
The study of dynamic force acted on water strider leg departing from water surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peiyuan Sun
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Water-walking insects such as water striders can skate on the water surface easily with the help of the hierarchical structure on legs. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies show that the hierarchical structure would help water strider in quasi-static case such as load-bearing capacity. However, the advantage of the hierarchical structure in the dynamic stage has not been reported yet. In this paper, the function of super hydrophobicity and the hierarchical structure was investigated by measuring the adhesion force of legs departing from the water surface at different lifting speed by a dynamic force sensor. The results show that the adhesion force decreased with the increase of lifting speed from 0.02 m/s to 0.4 m/s, whose mechanic is investigated by Energy analysis. In addition, it can be found that the needle shape setae on water strider leg can help them depart from water surface easily. Thus, it can serve as a starting point to understand how the hierarchical structure on the legs help water-walking insects to jump upward rapidly to avoid preying by other insects.
Trossman, David S; Arbic, Brian K; Straub, David N; Richman, James G; Chassignet, Eric P; Wallcraft, Alan J; Xu, Xiaobiao
2017-08-01
Motivated by the substantial sensitivity of eddies in two-layer quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence models to the strength of bottom drag, this study explores the sensitivity of eddies in more realistic ocean general circulation model (OGCM) simulations to bottom drag strength. The OGCM results are interpreted using previous results from horizontally homogeneous, two-layer, flat-bottom, f-plane, doubly periodic QG turbulence simulations and new results from two-layer β -plane QG turbulence simulations run in a basin geometry with both flat and rough bottoms. Baroclinicity in all of the simulations varies greatly with drag strength, with weak drag corresponding to more barotropic flow and strong drag corresponding to more baroclinic flow. The sensitivity of the baroclinicity in the QG basin simulations to bottom drag is considerably reduced, however, when rough topography is used in lieu of a flat bottom. Rough topography reduces the sensitivity of the eddy kinetic energy amplitude and horizontal length scales in the QG basin simulations to bottom drag to an even greater degree. The OGCM simulation behavior is qualitatively similar to that in the QG rough bottom basin simulations in that baroclinicity is more sensitive to bottom drag strength than are eddy amplitudes or horizontal length scales. Rough topography therefore appears to mediate the sensitivity of eddies in models to the strength of bottom drag. The sensitivity of eddies to parameterized topographic internal lee wave drag, which has recently been introduced into some OGCMs, is also briefly discussed. Wave drag acts like a strong bottom drag in that it increases the baroclinicity of the flow, without strongly affecting eddy horizontal length scales.
Symmetry breaking for drag minimization
Roper, Marcus; Squires, Todd M.; Brenner, Michael P.
2005-11-01
For locomotion at high Reynolds numbers drag minimization favors fore-aft asymmetric slender shapes with blunt noses and sharp trailing edges. On the other hand, in an inertialess fluid the drag experienced by a body is independent of whether it travels forward or backward through the fluid, so there is no advantage to having a single preferred swimming direction. In fact numerically determined minimum drag shapes are known to exhibit almost no fore-aft asymmetry even at moderate Re. We show that asymmetry persists, albeit extremely weakly, down to vanishingly small Re, scaling asymptotically as Re^3. The need to minimize drag to maximize speed for a given propulsive capacity gives one possible mechanism for the increasing asymmetry in the body plans seen in nature, as organisms increase in size and swimming speed from bacteria like E-Coli up to pursuit predator fish such as tuna. If it is the dominant mechanism, then this signature scaling will be observed in the shapes of motile micro-organisms.
Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers
Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T
2011-01-01
, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development
Quantifying drag on wellbore casings in moving salt sheets
Weijermars, R.; Jackson, M. P. A.; Dooley, T. P.
2014-08-01
Frontier hydrocarbon development projects in the deepwater slopes of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, Santos Basin and Lower Congo Basin all require wells to cross ductile layers of autochthonous or allochthonous salt moving at peak rates of 100 mm yr-1. The Couette-Poiseuille number is introduced here to help pinpoint the depth of shear stress reversal in such salt layers. For any well-planned through salt, the probable range of creep forces of moving salt needs to be taken into account when designing safety margins and load-factor tolerance of the well casing. Drag forces increase with wellbore diameter, but more significantly with effective viscosity and speed of the creeping salt layer. The potential drag forces on cased wellbores in moving salt sheets are estimated analytically using a range of salt viscosities (1015-1019 Pa s) and creep rates (0-10 mm yr-1). Drag on perfectly rigid casing of infinite strength may reach up to 13 Giga Newton per meter wellbore length in salt having a viscosity of 1019 Pa s. Well designers may delay stress accumulations due to salt drag when flexible casing accommodates some of the early displacement and strain. However, all creeping salt could displace, fracture and disconnect well casing, eventually. The shear strength of typical heavy duty well casing (about 1000 MPa) can be reached due to drag by moving salt. Internal flow of salt will then fracture the casing near salt entry and exit points, but the structural damage is likely to remain unnoticed early in the well-life when the horizontal shift of the wellbore is still negligibly small (at less than 1 cm yr-1). Disruption of casing and production flow lines within the anticipated service lifetime of a well remains a significant risk factor within distinct zones of low-viscosity salt which may reach ultrafast creep rates of 100 mm yr-1.
Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement
Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu
2015-11-01
When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.
Drag Reduction by Riblets & Sharkskin Denticles: A Numerical Study
Boomsma, Aaron
. For comparison, turbulent flow over drag-reducing scalloped riblets is also simulated with similar flow conditions and with the same numerical method. Although the denticles resemble riblets, both sharkskin arrangements increase total drag by 44-50%, while the riblets reduce drag by 5%. Analysis of the simulated flow fields shows that the turbulent flow around denticles is highly three-dimensional and separated, with 25% of the total drag being form drag. The complex three-dimensional shape of the denticles gives rise to a mean flow dominated by strong secondary flows in sharp contrast with the mean flow generated by riblets, which is largely two-dimensional. The so resulting three-dimensionality of sharkskin flows leads to an increase in the magnitude of the turbulence statistics near the denticles, which further contributes to increasing the total drag. The simulations also show that, at least for the simulated arrangements, sharkskin, in sharp contrast with drag-reducing riblets, is unable to isolate high shear stress near denticle ridges causing a significant portion of the denticle surface to be exposed to high mean shear. Lastly, it has been theorized that sharkskin might act similarly to vortex generators and prevent separation. In order to test this theory, we have conducted simulations with and without sharkskin upstream of a steady separation bubble. Using large eddy simulation, our study shows that sharkskin worsened the weak separation region and enlarged the separation bubble's boundaries. The cause was shown to originate due to the denticles acting as blockages, rather than vortex generators. In fact, our results showed that separation occurred just after the second row of denticles and that the turbulent flow was unable to recover its lost momentum. Streamwise turbulence intensities were decreased compared to the baseline case. Finally, in the present case, the sharkskin induced reversed flow within the denticles---something that was not observed with
An experimental determination of the drag coefficient of a Mens 8+ racing shell.
Buckmann, James G; Harris, Samuel D
2014-01-01
This study centered around an experimental analysis of a Mens Lightweight Eight racing shell and, specifically, determining an approximation for the drag coefficient. A testing procedure was employed that used a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit in order to determine the acceleration and drag force on the shell, and through calculations yield a drag coefficient. The testing was run over several days in numerous conditions, and a 95% confidence interval was established to capture the results. The results obtained, over these varying trials, maintained a successful level of consistency. The significance of this study transcends the determination an approximation for the drag coefficient of the racing shell; it defined a successful means of quantifying performance of the shell itself. The testing procedures outlined in the study represent a uniform means of evaluating the factors that influence drag on the shell, and thus influence speed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Xi, E-mail: cx-dem@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2010-08-11
With the indirect thrust measurement of electric thrusters working at a low vacuum chamber pressure as the research background, this paper analyses the impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from a thruster with an annular or circular exit section for the free-molecule flow regime (at large Knudsen numbers). The constraint relation proposed by Cai and Boyd (2007 J. Spacecr. Rockets 44 619, 1326) about the velocity components of gas particles leaving a location on the nozzle exit section and arriving at a given spatial point outside the nozzle has been employed here to derive the analytical expressions for calculating the impact force. Sample calculation results show that if the flat plate is sufficiently large, the impact force acting on the flat plate calculated for the case without accounting for gas particle reflection at the plate surface agrees well with the axial momentum flux calculated at the thruster exit or the theoretical thrust force of the studied thruster, while accounting for the contribution of gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production may significantly increase the calculated impact force acting on the flat plate. For a Hall-effect thruster in which the thrust force is dominantly produced by the ions with high directional kinetic energy and the ions are not directly reflected from the plate surface, the contribution to the impact force production of atom species and of gas particles reflected from the plate surface is negligibly small and thus the measured axial impact force acting on a sufficiently large plate can well represent the thrust force of the thruster. On the other hand, if the contribution of the gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production cannot be neglected (e.g. for the electric thrusters with comparatively low thruster exit temperatures), appreciable error would appear in the indirect thrust measurement.
Toward understanding whether superhydrophobic surfaces can really decrease fluidic friction drag.
Su, Bin; Li, Mei; Lu, Qinghua
2010-04-20
Superhydrophobic surfaces in nature such as legs of water striders can get an extra supporting force from the deformed water surface they contact, leading to an anticipation of using water-repellent surfaces on ship and even submarine hulls to reduce friction drag. Here, we first fabricate superhydrophobic coatings with microstructures on glass balls by introducing hydrophobic silica nanoparticles into a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Then, the movement of a superhydrophobic ball on and below water surface is investigated and compared with that of a highly hydrophilic normal glass ball. The results reveal that a superhydrophobic ball can fall more slowly under water compared with a normal glass ball, because the dense microbubbles trapped at the solid/water interface around the superhydrophobic ball act not as a reducer, but as an enhancer for the friction drag. In contrast, the faster movement of a superhydrophobic ball on the water surface can be mainly attributed to the great reduction of skin friction owing to the increased area of the solid/atmosphere interface.
Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, N.A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2002-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulcahy, T.M.
1982-05-01
A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design and construction of the strain-gauged force- ring based transducer, requirements for obtained valid fluid force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow test experience is related
Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2001-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means, such as th......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means......, such as the random matrix theory, or by numerical simulations. We show that Coulomb drag is sensitive to localized states. which usual transport measurements do not probe. For chaotic 2D systems we find a vanishing average drag, with a nonzero variance. Disordered 1D wires show a finite drag, with a large variance...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Jell Lima de [Mecanica Pesada S.A., Taubate, SP (Brazil); Amorim, Jose Carlos Cesar [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: jcamorim@ime.eb.br
1997-07-01
A numerical analysis has been developed for calculating viscous flows controlled by a vertical lift gate and hydrodynamic forces acting on it. The numerical solution is obtained from the incompressible Navier-Stoles equations. The numerical techniques is based on a finite element method. A Poisson equation is derived from the pressure-weighted substitution of the full momentum equations into the continuity equation. Turbulence effects are simulated by a K-{epsilon} turbulence model. The procedure developed here is applied for a vertical lift gate operating in a CESP installation, and the results are compared with available experimental data at various opening positions. Good agreement is obtained for the velocity and pressure distributions. (author)
The effects of Poynting-Robertson drag on solar sails
Abd El-Salam, F. A.
2018-06-01
In the present work, the concept of solar sailing and its developing spacecraft are presented. The effects of Poynting-Robertson drag on solar sails are considered. Some analytical control laws with some mentioned input constraints for optimizing solar sails dynamics in heliocentric orbit using Lagrange's planetary equations are obtained. Optimum force vector in a required direction is maximized by deriving optimal sail cone angle. New control laws that maximize thrust to obtain certain required maximization in some particular orbital element are obtained.
Bal, K.D.; Bouma, T.J.; Buis, K.; Struyf, E.; Jonas, S.; Backx, H.; Meire, P.
2011-01-01
1. Macrophytes in running waters experience an often dynamic and harsh environment. To avoid breakage, plants have to reduce the experienced drag force. However, by reducing leaf area, photosynthetic production is less. Aquatic plants therefore have to find a balance between reducing drag and
Toy, M. D.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; Smirnova, T. G.; Brown, J. M.
2017-12-01
The accuracy of wind forecasts in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is improved when the drag forces imparted on atmospheric flow by subgrid-scale orography are included. Without such parameterizations, only the terrain resolved by the model grid, along with the small-scale obstacles parameterized by the roughness lengths can have an effect on the flow. This neglects the impacts of subgrid-scale terrain variations, which typically leads to wind speeds that are too strong. Using statistical information about the subgrid-scale orography, such as the mean and variance of the topographic height within a grid cell, the drag forces due to flow blocking, gravity wave drag, and turbulent form drag are estimated and distributed vertically throughout the grid cell column. We recently implemented the small-scale gravity wave drag paramterization of Steeneveld et al. (2008) and Tsiringakis et al. (2017) for stable planetary boundary layers, and the turbulent form drag parameterization of Beljaars et al. (2004) in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) NWP model developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a result, a high surface wind speed bias in the model has been reduced and small improvement to the maintenance of stable layers has also been found. We present the results of experiments with the subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization for the regional HRRR model, as well as for a global model in development at NOAA, showing the direct and indirect impacts.
Separability of drag and thrust in undulatory animals and machines
Bale, Rahul; Shirgaonkar, Anup A.; Neveln, Izaak D.; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Maciver, Malcolm A.; Patankar, Neelesh A.
2014-12-01
For nearly a century, researchers have tried to understand the swimming of aquatic animals in terms of a balance between the forward thrust from swimming movements and drag on the body. Prior approaches have failed to provide a separation of these two forces for undulatory swimmers such as lamprey and eels, where most parts of the body are simultaneously generating drag and thrust. We nonetheless show that this separation is possible, and delineate its fundamental basis in undulatory swimmers. Our approach unifies a vast diversity of undulatory aquatic animals (anguilliform, sub-carangiform, gymnotiform, bal-istiform, rajiform) and provides design principles for highly agile bioinspired underwater vehicles. This approach has practical utility within biology as well as engineering. It is a predictive tool for use in understanding the role of the mechanics of movement in the evolutionary emergence of morphological features relating to locomotion. For example, we demonstrate that the drag-thrust separation framework helps to predict the observed height of the ribbon fin of electric knifefish, a diverse group of neotropical fish which are an important model system in sensory neurobiology. We also show how drag-thrust separation leads to models that can predict the swimming velocity of an organism or a robotic vehicle.
Drag and drop display & builder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab
2007-12-01
The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.
On the Effect of Rigid Swept Surface Waves on Turbulent Drag
Denison, M.; Wilkinson, S. P.; Balakumar, P.
2015-01-01
Passive turbulent drag reduction techniques are of interest as a cost effective means to improve air vehicle fuel consumption. In the past, rigid surface waves slanted at an angle from the streamwise direction were deemed ineffective to reduce skin friction drag due to the pressure drag that they generate. A recent analysis seeking similarities to the spanwise shear stress generated by spatial Stokes layers suggested that there may be a range of wavelength, amplitude, and orientation in which the wavy surface would reduce turbulent drag. The present work explores, by experiments and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), the effect of swept wavy surfaces on skin friction and pressure drag. Plates with shallow and deep wave patterns were rapid-prototyped and tested using a drag balance in the 7x11 inch Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA LaRC Research Center. The measured drag o set between the wavy plates and the reference at plate is found to be within the experimental repeatability limit. Oil vapor flow measurements indicate a mean spanwise flow over the deep waves. The turbulent flow in channels with at walls, swept wavy walls and spatial Stokes spanwise velocity forcing was simulated at a friction Reynolds number of two hundred. The time-averaged and dynamic turbulent flow characteristics of the three channel types are compared. The drag obtained for the channel with shallow waves is slightly larger than for the at channel, within the range of the experiments. In the case of the large waves, the simulation over predicts the drag. The shortcomings of the Stokes layer analogy model for the estimation of the spanwise shear stress and drag are discussed.
Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, N. Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2002-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drug between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...
DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B
2007-01-04
Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag
Grafted natural polymer as new drag reducing agent: An experimental approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulbari Hayder A.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The present investigation introduces a new natural drag reducing agent which has the ability to improve the flow in pipelines carrying aqueous or hydrocarbon liquids in turbulent flow. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus mucilage drag reduction performance was tested in water and hydrocarbon (gas-oil media after grafting. The drag reduction test was conducted in a buildup closed loop liquid circulation system consists of two pipes 0.0127 and 0.0381 m Inside Diameter (ID, four testing sections in each pipe (0.5 to 2.0 m, tank, pump and pressure transmitters. Reynolds number (Re, additive concentration and the transported media type (water and gas-oil, were the major drag reduction variables investigated. The experimental results show that, new additive drag reduction ability is high with maximum percentage of drag reduction (%Dr up to 60% was achieved. The experimental results showed that the drag reduction ability increased by increasing the additive concentration. The %Dr was found to increase by increasing the Re by using the water-soluble additive while it was found to decrease by increasing the Re when using the oil-soluble additive. The %Dr was higher in the 0.0381 m ID pipe. Finally, the grafted and natural mucilage showed high resistance to shear forces when circulated continuously for 200 seconds in the closed-loop system.
Chervanyov, A I
2016-12-28
By making use of the polymer reference interaction site model, we analytically study the effect of attractive interactions between polymers on the effective forces acting between colloids immersed in a polymer system. The performed theoretical analysis has no restrictions with respect to the polymer density and relative sizes of the colloids and polymers. The polymer mediated (PM) potential acting between colloids is shown to significantly depend on the strength and range of the polymer-polymer interactions. In the nano-particle limit, where the colloid radius is much smaller than the polymer gyration radius, the presence of attractive polymer-polymer interactions causes only quantitative changes to the PM potential. In the opposite limit of relatively large colloids, the polymer-polymer interactions revert the sign of the total effective force acting between colloids so that this force becomes attractive at sufficiently large polymer densities. With the objective to study an intricate interplay between the attractive PM forces and steric repulsion in different polymer density regimes, we calculate the second virial coefficient B of the total effective potential acting between colloids. The dependence of B on the polymer density is discussed in detail, revealing several novel features of the PM interactions caused by the presence of attractive polymer-polymer interactions.
Ng, Leo; Rosalie, Simon M; Sherry, Dorianne; Loh, Wei Bing; Sjurseth, Andreas M; Iyengar, Shrikant; Wild, Catherine Y
2018-03-01
Research has revealed that field hockey drag flickers have greater odds of hip and lumbar injuries compared to non-drag flickers (DF). This study aimed to compare the biomechanics of a field hockey hit and a specialised field hockey drag flick. Eighteen male and seven female specialised hockey DF performed a hit and a drag flick in a motion analysis laboratory with an 18-camera three-dimensional motion analysis system and a calibrated multichannel force platform to examine differences in lower limb and lumbar kinematics and kinetics. Results revealed that drag flicks were performed with more of a forward lunge on the left lower limb resulting in significantly greater left ankle dorsiflexion, knee, hip and lumbar flexion (Pshit. Drag flicks were also performed with significantly greater lateral flexion (P hit. Differences in kinematics lead to greater shear, compression and tensile forces in multiple left lower limb and lumbar joints in the drag flick compared to the hit (P hit may have ramifications with respect to injury in field hockey drag flickers.
Determination of the surface drag coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.
2001-01-01
This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable...... conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease...... of the drag coefficient with wind speed occurs for all of the calculation methods. A classification of flux calculation methods is constructed, which unifies the most common previous approaches. The roughness length corresponding to the usual Monin-Obukhov stability functions decreases with increasing wind...
Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C
2015-08-20
An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements.
London, Jillian
2014-01-01
The 1860 Adulteration Act in England and the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act in the United States were two of the earliest pieces of legislation to provide generalized regulation of food and drugs on a national scale. While significant scholarly attention has been given to explaining the factors and forces that led to the passage of each Act independent of the other, few books or articles have directly compared the similar individuals and events that led to the adoption of both Acts. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Through a comparative examination, this paper reveals that four main components were key to the national pure food and drug movements in both countries: individuals who crusaded for national adulteration legislation; tragedies that shocked the public into calling for reform; press and publicity that was willing and able to bring the evils of adulteration to the forefront of the public mind; and a transformation of the social, political, and economic systems, which created atmospheres conducive to reform. This paper aims to shed new light on the 1860 Adulteration Act and the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act--two acts that derive their importance not just from the effect that they directly had on the regulation of food and drugs but also as some of the earliest examples of western governments coming to recognize the need for national regulation to protect the public from harm and coming to embrace their changing role as spearheads of modern regulatory states.
Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji; Ido, Atsushi
As the maximum speed of high-speed trains increases, flow-induced vibration of trains in tunnels has become a subject of discussion in Japan. In this paper, we report the result of a study on use of modifications of train shapes as a countermeasure for reducing an unsteady aerodynamic force by on-track tests and a wind tunnel test. First, we conduct a statistical analysis of on-track test data to identify exterior parts of a train which cause the unsteady aerodynamic force. Next, we carry out a wind tunnel test to measure the unsteady aerodynamic force acting on a train in a tunnel and examined train shapes with a particular emphasis on the exterior parts identified by the statistical analysis. The wind tunnel test shows that fins under the car body are effective in reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. Finally, we test the fins by an on-track test and confirmed its effectiveness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Shengzhuo; Aung, Nay Zar; Li, Songjing
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The simulated flow rate and main flow force show a good agreement with experiments. • The innovative flapper has little influence on the flow-pressure characteristics. • The innovative flapper can greatly reduce the Y direction force on the upper part. • The innovative flapper reduces both the X and Z direction forces on the lower part. - Abstract: The stability and dynamic performance of a flapper–nozzle pilot valve significantly depend on the flow forces acting on the flapper. Due to the shape of the flapper and flow structure in the flapper–nozzle pilot valve there are undesired lateral forces acting on the flapper, which are very potential to interfere with the stability of the flapper. Aiming to reduce these undesired lateral forces, an innovative flapper shape is proposed and a comparative study of flow forces acting on the two different flapper shapes is conducted. A simple rectangle shape is selected as the innovative flapper shape. The flow forces acting on the traditional flapper shape and innovative flapper shape are evaluated by means of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations and verified with the results from the semi-experimental approach. The evaluation of the flow forces is performed for each flapper shape with two different flapper–nozzle clearances of 0.10 mm and 0.05 mm under seven different flow conditions with the variation of inlet pressures from 1 MPa to 7 MPa. A good agreement between CFD results and semi-experimental results shows that the proposed innovative flapper shape has no effect on flow control characteristics since it is giving approximately the same flow rate and main flow force as the traditional flapper shape at every flow condition. Meanwhile the innovative flapper shape effectively reduces the undesired lateral forces acting on the flapper by altering the flow structure and reducing the strength of the jet flow and cavitation occurred in the flow field of flapper–nozzle pilot valve. At the
Drag Coefficient Estimation in Orbit Determination
McLaughlin, Craig A.; Manee, Steve; Lichtenberg, Travis
2011-07-01
Drag modeling is the greatest uncertainty in the dynamics of low Earth satellite orbits where ballistic coefficient and density errors dominate drag errors. This paper examines fitted drag coefficients found as part of a precision orbit determination process for Stella, Starlette, and the GEOSAT Follow-On satellites from 2000 to 2005. The drag coefficients for the spherical Stella and Starlette satellites are assumed to be highly correlated with density model error. The results using MSIS-86, NRLMSISE-00, and NRLMSISE-00 with dynamic calibration of the atmosphere (DCA) density corrections are compared. The DCA corrections were formulated for altitudes of 200-600 km and are found to be inappropriate when applied at 800 km. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients are calculated for each satellite for each year studied. The yearly mean drag coefficients are higher for Starlette than Stella, where Starlette is at a higher altitude. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients for all three satellites decrease as solar activity decreases after solar maximum.
Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers
Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev
2011-05-23
We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.
Unsteady force characteristics on foils undergoing pitching motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Chang Jo
2006-01-01
In the present study the unsteady forces acting on the pitching foils such as a flat plate, NACA0010, NACA0020, NACA65-0910 and BTE have been measured by using a six-axis sensor in a circulating water tunnel at a low Reynolds number region. The unsteady characteristics of the dynamic drag and lift have been compared to the quasi-steady ones which are measured under the stationary condition. The pitching motion is available for keeping the lift higher after the separation occurs. Especially, the characteristics of the dynamic lift are quite different from the quasi-steady one at high pitching frequency regions. As the pitching frequency deceases, the amplitude of the dynamic lift becomes closer to the quasi-steady one. However, the phase remains different between the steady and unsteady conditions even at low pitching frequencies. On the other hand, the dynamic drag is governed strongly by the angle of attack
Satellite drag effects due to uplifted oxygen neutrals during super magnetic storms
Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.
2017-12-01
During intense magnetic storms, prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) through E × B forces near the magnetic equator uplift the dayside ionosphere. This effect has been called the dayside super-fountain effect. Ion-neutral drag forces between the upward moving O+ (oxygen ions) and oxygen neutrals will elevate the oxygen atoms to higher altitudes. This paper gives a linear calculation indicating how serious the effect may be during an 1859-type (Carrington) superstorm. It is concluded that the oxygen neutral densities produced at low-Earth-orbiting (LEO) satellite altitudes may be sufficiently high to present severe satellite drag. It is estimated that with a prompt penetrating electric field of ˜ 20 mV m-1 turned on for 20 min, the O atoms and O+ ions are uplifted to 850 km where they produce about 40-times-greater satellite drag per unit mass than normal. Stronger electric fields will presumably lead to greater uplifted mass.
Pengaruh variasi lebar alur berbentuk segi empat pada permukaan silinder terhadap koefisien drag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Si Putu Gede Gunawan Tista
2018-01-01
aspects of human life, for example, fluid flow across a cylinder. In many engineering applications using cylindrical found equipment such as a chimney, a pillar of the bridge, and so on. The equipment is undergoing a puff of air at all times so that the strength of the construction has decreased, this is due to drag him in the direction of flow. Efforts are being made to reduce drag is by manipulating the flow field. Manipulation of the flow field is done by making rectangular-shaped grooves on the surface of the cylinder. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of variations in width rectangular-shaped grooves on the surface of the cylinder to the coefficient of drag. This research was conducted in wind tunnel consisting of a blower, pitot pipe, inclined manometer, U manometer, digital scales, and cylinders. The test object in the form of a cylinder diameter of 60 mm and a length of 420 mm is placed vertically in the wind tunnel. The width of the grooves on the surface of the cylinder varied which is 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm. The pressure distribution is obtained by measuring the surface pressure cylinders at 36 points with 10o intervals. Drag force testing done using digital scale that records the amount of mass, to get the drag force multiplied by gravity. The results showed a decline in the coefficient of drag on a grooved cylinder compared without grooves. Lowest coefficient values occurred in the magnitude of 4 mm groove width CD = 0.3734. The amount of reduction in drag is 22.3% compared without grooves. Keywords: drag reduction, the width of the groove, rectangular groove, cylindrical
Microblowing Technique for Drag Reduction, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks to develop technologies for aircraft drag reduction which contribute to improved aerodynamic efficiency in support of national goals for reducing fuel...
The physics of orographic gravity wave drag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel A C Teixeira
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The drag and momentum fluxes produced by gravity waves generated in flow over orography are reviewed, focusing on adiabatic conditions without phase transitions or radiation effects, and steady mean incoming flow. The orographic gravity wave drag is first introduced in its simplest possible form, for inviscid, linearized, non-rotating flow with the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations, and constant wind and static stability. Subsequently, the contributions made by previous authors (primarily using theory and numerical simulations to elucidate how the drag is affected by additional physical processes are surveyed. These include the effect of orography anisotropy, vertical wind shear, total and partial critical levels, vertical wave reflection and resonance, non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves, rotation and nonlinearity. Frictional and boundary layer effects are also briefly mentioned. A better understanding of all of these aspects is important for guiding the improvement of drag parametrization schemes.
Satellite Formation Control Using Atmospheric Drag
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hajovsky, Blake B
2007-01-01
This study investigates the use of a linear quadratic terminal controller to reconfigure satellite formations using atmospheric drag actuated control while minimizing the loss of energy of the formation...
Active aerodynamic drag reduction on morphable cylinders
Guttag, M.; Reis, P. M.
2017-12-01
We study a mechanism for active aerodynamic drag reduction on morphable grooved cylinders, whose topography can be modified pneumatically. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the Saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. Our analog experimental samples comprise a spoked rigid skeleton with axial cavities, covered by a stretched elastomeric film. Decreasing the inner pressure of the sample produces axial grooves, whose depth can be accurately varied, on demand. First, we characterize the relation between groove depth and pneumatic loading through a combination of precision mechanical experiments and finite element simulations. Second, wind tunnel tests are used to measure the aerodynamic drag coefficient (as a function of Reynolds number) of the grooved samples, with different levels of periodicity and groove depths. We focus specifically on the drag crisis and systematically measure the associated minimum drag coefficient and the critical Reynolds number at which it occurs. The results are in agreement with the classic literature of rough cylinders, albeit with an unprecedented level of precision and resolution in varying topography using a single sample. Finally, we leverage the morphable nature of our system to dynamically reduce drag for varying aerodynamic loading conditions. We demonstrate that actively controlling the groove depth yields a drag coefficient that decreases monotonically with Reynolds number and is significantly lower than the fixed sample counterparts. These findings open the possibility for the drag reduction of grooved cylinders to be operated over a wide range of flow conditions.
Bioinspired surfaces for turbulent drag reduction.
Golovin, Kevin B; Gose, James W; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L; Tuteja, Anish
2016-08-06
In this review, we discuss how superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) can provide friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. Whereas biomimetic SHSs are known to reduce drag in laminar flow, turbulence adds many new challenges. We first provide an overview on designing SHSs, and how these surfaces can cause slip in the laminar regime. We then discuss recent studies evaluating drag on SHSs in turbulent flow, both computationally and experimentally. The effects of streamwise and spanwise slip for canonical, structured surfaces are well characterized by direct numerical simulations, and several experimental studies have validated these results. However, the complex and hierarchical textures of scalable SHSs that can be applied over large areas generate additional complications. Many studies on such surfaces have measured no drag reduction, or even a drag increase in turbulent flow. We discuss how surface wettability, roughness effects and some newly found scaling laws can help explain these varied results. Overall, we discuss how, to effectively reduce drag in turbulent flow, an SHS should have: preferentially streamwise-aligned features to enhance favourable slip, a capillary resistance of the order of megapascals, and a roughness no larger than 0.5, when non-dimensionalized by the viscous length scale.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Measurement of drag and its cancellation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeBra, D B; Conklin, J W, E-mail: johnwc@stanford.edu [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4035 (United States)
2011-05-07
The design of drag cancellation missions of the future will take advantage of the technology experience of the past. The importance of data for modeling of the atmosphere led to at least six types of measurement: (a) balloon flights, (b) missile-launched falling spheres, (c) the 'cannonball' satellites of Ken Champion with accelerometers for low-altitude drag measurement (late 1960s and early 1970s), (d) the Agena flight of LOGACS (1967), a Bell MESA accelerometer mounted on a rotating platform to spectrally shift low-frequency errors in the accelerometer, (e) a series of French low-level accelerometers (e.g. CACTUS, 1975), and (f) correction of differential accelerations for drag errors in measuring gravity gradient on a pair of satellites (GRACE, 2002). The independent invention of the drag-free satellite concept by Pugh and Lange (1964) to cancel external disturbance added implementation opportunities. Its first flight application was for ephemeris prediction improvement with the DISCOS flight (1972)-still the only extended free test mass flight. Then successful flights for reduced disturbance environment for science measurement with gyros on GP-B (2004) and for improved accuracy in geodesy and ocean studies (GOCE, 2009) each using accelerometer measurements to control the drag-canceling thrust. LISA, DECIGO, BBO and other gravity wave-measuring satellite systems will push the cancellation of drag to new levels.
Measurement of drag and its cancellation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeBra, D B; Conklin, J W
2011-01-01
The design of drag cancellation missions of the future will take advantage of the technology experience of the past. The importance of data for modeling of the atmosphere led to at least six types of measurement: (a) balloon flights, (b) missile-launched falling spheres, (c) the 'cannonball' satellites of Ken Champion with accelerometers for low-altitude drag measurement (late 1960s and early 1970s), (d) the Agena flight of LOGACS (1967), a Bell MESA accelerometer mounted on a rotating platform to spectrally shift low-frequency errors in the accelerometer, (e) a series of French low-level accelerometers (e.g. CACTUS, 1975), and (f) correction of differential accelerations for drag errors in measuring gravity gradient on a pair of satellites (GRACE, 2002). The independent invention of the drag-free satellite concept by Pugh and Lange (1964) to cancel external disturbance added implementation opportunities. Its first flight application was for ephemeris prediction improvement with the DISCOS flight (1972)-still the only extended free test mass flight. Then successful flights for reduced disturbance environment for science measurement with gyros on GP-B (2004) and for improved accuracy in geodesy and ocean studies (GOCE, 2009) each using accelerometer measurements to control the drag-canceling thrust. LISA, DECIGO, BBO and other gravity wave-measuring satellite systems will push the cancellation of drag to new levels.
Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismail N.I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.
Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars
Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.
2013-07-01
Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed.
Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M
2013-01-01
Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed. (paper)
Drag crisis moderation by thin air layers sustained on superhydrophobic spheres falling in water
Jetly, Aditya
2018-01-22
We investigate the effect of thin air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces on the terminal velocity and drag force of metallic spheres free falling in water. The surface of 20 mm to 60 mm steel or tungsten-carbide spheres is rendered superhydrophobic by a simple coating process that uses commercially available hydrophobic agent. By comparing the free fall of unmodified spheres and superhydrophobic spheres in a 2.5 meters tall water tank, It is demonstrated that even a very thin air layer (~ 1 – 2 μm) that covers the freshly dipped superhydrophobic sphere, can reduce the drag force on the spheres by up to 80 %, at Reynolds numbers 105 - 3×105 , owing to an early drag crisis transition. This study complements prior investigations on the drag reduction efficiency of model gas layers sustained on heated metal spheres falling in liquid by the Leidenfrost effect. The drag reduction effects are expected to have significant implication for the development of sustainable air-layer-based energy saving technologies.
RPTP-alpha acts as a transducer of mechanical force on alphav/beta3-integrin-cytoskeleton linkages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
von Wichert, Gotz; Jiang, Guoying; Kostic, Ana
2003-01-01
Cell motility on ECM critically depends on the cellular response to force from the matrix. We find that force-dependent reinforcement of alphav/beta3-integrin-mediated cell-matrix connections requires the receptor-like tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha). RPTPalpha colocalizes with alphav...... of alphav/beta3-integrin-cytoskeleton connections during the initial phase of ECM contact. These observations indicate that Src family kinases have distinct functions during adhesion site assembly, and that RPTPalpha is an early component in force-dependent signal transduction pathways leading...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inada, Fumio; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Yasuo, Akira; Nishihara, Takashi
2000-01-01
In the circular tube bundle immersed in the crossflow, the exciting force induced by the turbulence and periodically discharged vortices becomes large, and it is necessary to confirm a long-term integrity to the flow induced vibration. In this report, the local fluid exciting force and the correlation length in the direction of tube axis were measured. The exciting force acting on the first row was smaller than that inside the tube bundle, and the exciting force was almost saturated at the third row. As for vortex induced vibration, there could be an influence when a dimensionless frequency was 0.4 or less. When vortex induced vibration did not affect the vibration, a correlation composed of a correlation length and power spectrum density of the local fluid exciting force were proposed, with which we could estimate the amplitude of the vibration. A computer program to estimate the vibration amplitude and maximum stress was made using the flow velocity distribution and the mode of vibration. (author)
Hydrodynamic Drag on Streamlined Projectiles and Cavities
Jetly, Aditya
2016-04-19
The air cavity formation resulting from the water-entry of solid objects has been the subject of extensive research due to its application in various fields such as biology, marine vehicles, sports and oil and gas industries. Recently we demonstrated that at certain conditions following the closing of the air cavity formed by the initial impact of a superhydrophobic sphere on a free water surface a stable streamlined shape air cavity can remain attached to the sphere. The formation of superhydrophobic sphere and attached air cavity reaches a steady state during the free fall. In this thesis we further explore this novel phenomenon to quantify the drag on streamlined shape cavities. The drag on the sphere-cavity formation is then compared with the drag on solid projectile which were designed to have self-similar shape to that of the cavity. The solid projectiles of adjustable weight were produced using 3D printing technique. In a set of experiments on the free fall of projectile we determined the variation of projectiles drag coefficient as a function of the projectiles length to diameter ratio and the projectiles specific weight, covering a range of intermediate Reynolds number, Re ~ 104 – 105 which are characteristic for our streamlined cavity experiments. Parallel free fall experiment with sphere attached streamlined air cavity and projectile of the same shape and effective weight clearly demonstrated the drag reduction effect due to the stress-free boundary condition at cavity liquid interface. The streamlined cavity experiments can be used as the upper bound estimate of the drag reduction by air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces in contact with water. In the final part of the thesis we design an experiment to test the drag reduction capacity of robust superhydrophobic coatings deposited on the surface of various model vessels.
Drag reduction using wrinkled surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flows
Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth H.
2017-09-01
Inspired by the design of the ribbed structure of shark skin, passive drag reduction methods using stream-wise riblet surfaces have previously been developed and tested over a wide range of flow conditions. Such textures aligned in the flow direction have been shown to be able to reduce skin friction drag by 4%-8%. Here, we explore the effects of periodic sinusoidal riblet surfaces aligned in the flow direction (also known as a "wrinkled" texture) on the evolution of a laminar boundary layer flow. Using numerical analysis with the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics solver OpenFOAM, boundary layer flow over sinusoidal wrinkled plates with a range of wavelength to plate length ratios ( λ / L ), aspect ratios ( 2 A / λ ), and inlet velocities are examined. It is shown that in the laminar boundary layer regime, the riblets are able to retard the viscous flow inside the grooves creating a cushion of stagnant fluid that the high-speed fluid above can partially slide over, thus reducing the shear stress inside the grooves and the total integrated viscous drag force on the plate. Additionally, we explore how the boundary layer thickness, local average shear stress distribution, and total drag force on the wrinkled plate vary with the aspect ratio of the riblets as well as the length of the plate. We show that riblets with an aspect ratio of close to unity lead to the highest reduction in the total drag, and that because of the interplay between the local stress distribution on the plate and stream-wise evolution of the boundary layer the plate has to exceed a critical length to give a net decrease in the total drag force.
Anisotropic stokes drag and dynamic lift on cylindrical colloids in a nematic liquid crystal.
Rovner, Joel B; Lapointe, Clayton P; Reich, Daniel H; Leheny, Robert L
2010-11-26
We have measured the Stokes drag on magnetic nanowires suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB). The effective drag viscosity for wires moving perpendicular to the nematic director differs from that for motion parallel to the director by factors of 0.88 to 2.4, depending on the orientation of the wires and their surface anchoring. When the force on the wires is applied at an oblique angle to the director, the wires move at an angle to the force, demonstrating the existence of a lift force on particles moving in a nematic. This dynamic lift is significantly larger for wires with homeotropic anchoring than with longitudinal anchoring in the experiments, suggesting the lift force as a mechanism for sorting particles according to their surface properties.
Helicopter fuselage drag - combined computational fluid dynamics and experimental studies
Batrakov, A.; Kusyumov, A.; Mikhailov, S.; Pakhov, V.; Sungatullin, A.; Valeev, M.; Zherekhov, V.; Barakos, G.
2015-06-01
In this paper, wind tunnel experiments are combined with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aiming to analyze the aerodynamics of realistic fuselage configurations. A development model of the ANSAT aircraft and an early model of the AKTAI light helicopter were employed. Both models were tested at the subsonic wind tunnel of KNRTU-KAI for a range of Reynolds numbers and pitch and yaw angles. The force balance measurements were complemented by particle image velocimetry (PIV) investigations for the cases where the experimental force measurements showed substantial unsteadiness. The CFD results were found to be in fair agreement with the test data and revealed some flow separation at the rear of the fuselages. Once confidence on the CFD method was established, further modifications were introduced to the ANSAT-like fuselage model to demonstrate drag reduction via small shape changes.
ISM-induced erosion and gas-dynamical drag in the Oort Cloud
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stern, S.A.
1990-01-01
The model presently used to examine the physical interactions between the ISM and the Oort Cloud can account for sputtering, sticking, and grain-impact erosion, as well as gas drag, by envisioning the ISM as a multiphase medium with distinct atomic and molecular cloud-phase regimes and coronal and warm/ambient gas-phase regimes. Erosion, which reduces the effectiveness of the thermal and radiation-damage processes acting on cometary surfaces in the Oort cloud, is found to be the dominant ISM interaction; ISM drag effects were found to efficiently remove submicron particles from the Cloud. 67 refs
ISM-induced erosion and gas-dynamical drag in the Oort Cloud
Stern, S. Alan
1990-01-01
The model presently used to examine the physical interactions between the ISM and the Oort Cloud can account for sputtering, sticking, and grain-impact erosion, as well as gas drag, by envisioning the ISM as a multiphase medium with distinct atomic and molecular cloud-phase regimes and coronal and warm/ambient gas-phase regimes. Erosion, which reduces the effectiveness of the thermal and radiation-damage processes acting on cometary surfaces in the Oort cloud, is found to be the dominant ISM interaction; ISM drag effects were found to efficiently remove submicron particles from the Cloud.
On the determination of the neutral drag coefficient in the convective boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grachev, A.A.; Fairall, C.W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1998-01-01
Based on the idea that free convection can be considered as a particular case of forced convection, where the gusts driven by the large-scale eddies are scaled with the Deardorff convective velocity scale, a new formulation for the neutral drag coefficient, C-Dn, in the convective boundary layer...... for mean wind speed less than about 2 m s(-1). The new approach also clarifies several contradictory results from earlier works. Some aspects related to an alternate definition of the neutral drag coefficient and the wind speed and the stress averaging procedure are considered....
Drag Reduction by Laminar Flow Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nils Beck
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Energy System Transition in Aviation research project of the Aeronautics Research Center Niedersachsen (NFL searches for potentially game-changing technologies to reduce the carbon footprint of aviation by promoting and enabling new propulsion and drag reduction technologies. The greatest potential for aerodynamic drag reduction is seen in laminar flow control by boundary layer suction. While most of the research so far has been on partial laminarization by application of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF and Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC to wings, complete laminarization of wings, tails and fuselages promises much higher gains. The potential drag reduction and suction requirements, including the necessary compressor power, are calculated on component level using a flow solver with viscid/inviscid coupling and a 3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS solver. The effect on total aircraft drag is estimated for a state-of-the-art mid-range aircraft configuration using preliminary aircraft design methods, showing that total cruise drag can be halved compared to today’s turbulent aircraft.
Dragging force on galaxies due to streaming dark matter
Hara, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Shigeru
1990-01-01
It has been reported that galaxies in large regions (approx. 10(exp 2) Mpc), including some clusters of galaxies, may be streaming coherently with velocities up to 600 km/sec or more with respect to the rest frame determined by the microwave background radiation. On the other hand, it is suggested that the dominant mass component of the universe is dark matter. Because we can only speculate the motion of dark matter from the galaxy motions, much attention should be paid to the correlation of velocities between the observed galaxies and cold dark matter. So the authors investigated whether such coherent large-scale streaming velocities are due to dark matter or only to baryonic objects which may be formed by piling up of gases due to some explosive events. It seems that, although each galaxy will not follow the motion of dark matter, clusters of galaxies may represent the velocity field of dark matter. The origin of the velocity field of dark matter would be due to the initial adiabatic perturbations and, in fact, the observed peculiar velocities of clusters are within the allowed region constrained from the isotropy of the microwave background radiation.
Drag force actuated bistable microswitches for flow sensing
Kuipers, W.J.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.
2006-01-01
This paper presents bistable microswitches with Au contacts with the aim to combine them with artificial hairs for flow sensing. The Au contacts are applied on both ends of a silicon nitride beam, suspended by a torsional bar at its center. The beam is provided with electrodes for electrostatic
van Gameren, Edwin; Velandia Naranjo, Durfari
2016-01-01
We analyze factors determining women’s decisions to participate in the labor market and provide elderly care and nonfinancial support to their (grand)children. We use data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a survey of people aged 50 and over, applying a three-equation, reduced-form SUR model. Results suggest that care needs are the driving force behind caregiving activities. Traditional roles also appear to be relevant in the labor force participation decision: women with a closer labor market connection when they were young are more likely to work. Simulations of demographic changes illustrate potential effects for future caregiving and participation rates. PMID:26924883
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debut, V.; Antunes, J.; Delaune, X.
2010-01-01
For achieving realistic numerical simulations of bowed string instruments, based on physical modeling, a good understanding of the actual friction interaction phenomena is of great importance. Most work published in the field including our own has assumed that bow/string frictional forces behave according to the classical Coulomb stick-slip model, with an empirical velocity-dependent sliding friction coefficient. Indeed, the basic self-excited string motions (such as the Helmholtz regime) are well captured using such friction model. However, recent work has shown that the tribological behavior of the bow/string rosin interface is rather complex, therefore the basic velocity-dependent Coulomb model may be an over-simplistic representation of the friction force. More specifically, it was suggested that a more accurate model of the interaction force can be achieved by coupling the system dynamical equations with a thermal model which encapsulates the complex interface phenomena. In spite of the interesting work performed by Askenfelt, a direct measurement of the actual dynamical friction forces without disturbing the string motion is quite difficult. Therefore, in this work we develop a modal-based identification technique making use of inverse methods and optimization techniques, which enables the identification of the interface force, as well as the string self-excited motion, from the dynamical reactions measured at the string end supports. The method gives convincing results using simulated data originated from nonlinear computations of a bowed string. Furthermore, in cases where the force identifications are very sensitive to errors in the transfer function modal parameters, we suggest a method to improve the modal frequencies used for the identifications. Preliminary experimental results obtained using a basic bowing device, by which the string is excited with the stick of the bow, are then presented. Our identifications, from the two dynamical string reactions
On the development of lift and drag in a rotating and translating cylinder
Martin-Alcantara, Antonio; Sanmiguel-Rojas, Enrique; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon
2014-11-01
The two-dimensional flow around a rotating cylinder is investigated numerically using a vorticity forces formulation with the aim of analyzing the flow structures, and their evolutions, that contribute to the lift and drag forces on the cylinder. The Reynolds number, based on the cylinder diameter and steady free-stream speed, considered is Re = 200 , while the non-dimensional rotation rate (ratio of the surface speed and free-stream speed) selected were α = 1 and 3. For α = 1 the wake behind the cylinder for the fully developed flow is oscillatory due to vortex shedding, and so are the lift and drag forces. For α = 3 the fully developed flow is steady with constant (high) lift and (low) drag. Each of these cases is considered in two different transient problems, one with angular acceleration of the cylinder and constant speed, and the other one with translating acceleration of the cylinder and constant rotation. Special attention is paid to explaining the mechanisms of vortex shedding suppression for high rotation (when α = 3) and its relation to the mechanisms by which the lift is enhanced and the drag is almost suppressed when the fully developed flow is reached. Supported by the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad of Spain Grant No. DPI2013-40479-P.
Self-determined shapes and velocities of giant near-zero drag gas cavities
Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev
2017-09-09
Minimizing the retarding force on a solid moving in liquid is the canonical problem in the quest for energy saving by friction and drag reduction. For an ideal object that cannot sustain any shear stress on its surface, theory predicts that drag force will fall to zero as its speed becomes large. However, experimental verification of this prediction has been challenging. We report the construction of a class of self-determined streamlined structures with this free-slip surface, made up of a teardrop-shaped giant gas cavity that completely encloses a metal sphere. This stable gas cavity is formed around the sphere as it plunges at a sufficiently high speed into the liquid in a deep tank, provided that the sphere is either heated initially to above the Leidenfrost temperature of the liquid or rendered superhydrophobic in water at room temperature. These sphere-in-cavity structures have residual drag coefficients that are typically less than Embedded Image those of solid objects of the same dimensions, which indicates that they experienced very small drag forces. The self-determined shapes of the gas cavities are shown to be consistent with the Bernoulli equation of potential flow applied on the cavity surface. The cavity fall velocity is not arbitrary but is uniquely predicted by the sphere density and cavity volume, so larger cavities have higher characteristic velocities.
Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashby, N.; Shahid-Saless, B.
1990-01-01
In metric theories of gravity the principle of general covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. In this paper it is shown that in an appropriately chosen coordinate system, geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, spinning mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect without invoking spatial curvature. The origin of this reference frame moves around the source but the frame axes point in fixed directions. The drag can be interpreted to arise from the orbital angular momentum of the source around the origin of the reference frame. In this reference frame the effects of geodetic precession and Lense-Thirring drag due to intrinsic angular momentum of the source have the same origin, namely, gravitomagnetism
Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B
2007-10-25
One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.
Buoyancy increase and drag-reduction through a simple superhydrophobic coating.
Hwang, Gi Byoung; Patir, Adnan; Page, Kristopher; Lu, Yao; Allan, Elaine; Parkin, Ivan P
2017-06-08
A superhydrophobic paint was fabricated using 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES), TiO 2 nanoparticles and ethanol. The paint has potential for aquatic application of a superhydrophobic coating as it induces increased buoyancy and drag reduction. Buoyance testing showed that the reduction of surface energy by superhydrophobic coating made it feasible that glass, a high density material, was supported by the surface tension of water. In a miniature boat sailing test, it was shown that the low energy surface treatment decreased the adhesion of water molecules to the surface of the boat resulting in a reduction of the drag force. Additionally, a robust superhydrophobic surface was fabricated through layer-by-layer coating using adhesive double side tape and the paint, and after a 100 cm abrasion test with sand paper, the surface still retained its water repellency, enhanced buoyancy and drag reduction.
Simple interphase drag model for numerical two-fluid modeling of two-phase flow systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, H.; Ransom, V.H.
1984-01-01
The interphase drag model that has been developed for RELAP5/MOD2 is based on a simple formulation having flow regime maps for both horizontal and vertical flows. The model is based on a conventional semi-empirical formulation that includes the product of drag coefficient, interfacial area, and relative dynamic pressure. The interphase drag model is implemented in the RELAP5/MOD2 light water reactor transient analysis code and has been used to simulate a variety of separate effects experiments to assess the model accuracy. The results from three of these simulations, the General Electric Company small vessel blowdown experiment, Dukler and Smith's counter-current flow experiment, and a Westinghouse Electric Company FLECHT-SEASET forced reflood experiment, are presented and discussed
Domaneschi, Filippo; Passarelli, Marcello; Chiorri, Carlo
2017-08-01
Language scientists have broadly addressed the problem of explaining how language users recognize the kind of speech act performed by a speaker uttering a sentence in a particular context. They have done so by investigating the role played by the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs), i.e., all linguistic elements that indicate the illocutionary force of an utterance. The present work takes a first step in the direction of an experimental investigation of non-verbal IFIDs because it investigates the role played by facial expressions and, in particular, of upper-face action units (AUs) in the comprehension of three basic types of illocutionary force: assertions, questions, and orders. The results from a pilot experiment on production and two comprehension experiments showed that (1) certain upper-face AUs seem to constitute non-verbal signals that contribute to the understanding of the illocutionary force of questions and orders; (2) assertions are not expected to be marked by any upper-face AU; (3) some upper-face AUs can be associated, with different degrees of compatibility, with both questions and orders.
Resistive Heating and Ion Drag in Saturn's Thermosphere
Vriesema, Jess William; Koskinen, Tommi; Yelle, Roger V.
2017-10-01
One of the most puzzling observations of the jovian planets is that the thermospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are all several times hotter than solar heating can account for (Strobel and Smith 1973; Yelle and Miller 2004; Muller-Wodarg et al. 2006). On Saturn, resistive heating appears sufficient to explain these temperatures in auroral regions, but the particular mechanism(s) responsible for heating the lower latitudes remains unclear. The most commonly proposed heating mechanisms are breaking gravity waves and auroral heating at the poles followed by redistribution of energy to mid-and low latitudes. Both of these energy sources are potentially important but also come with significant problems. Wave heating would have to be continuous and global to produce consistently elevated temperatures and the strong Coriolis forces coupled with polar ion drag appear to hinder redistribution of auroral energy (see Strobel et al. 2016 for review). Here we explore an alternative: wind-driven electrodynamics that can alter circulation and produce substantial heating outside of the auroral region. Smith (2013) showed this in-situ mechanism to be potentially significant in Jupiter’s thermosphere. We present new results from an axisymmetric, steady-state model that calculates resistive (Joule) heating rates through rigorous solutions of the electrodynamic equations for the coupled neutral atmosphere and ionosphere of Saturn. At present, we assume a dipole magnetic field and neglect any contributions from the magnetosphere. We use ion mixing ratios from the model of Kim et al. (2014) and the observed temperature-pressure profile from Koskinen et al. (2015) to calculate the generalized conductivity tensor as described by Koskinen et al. (2014). We calculate the current density under the assumption that it has no divergence and use it to calculate the resistive heating rates and ion drag. Our results suggest that resistive heating and ion drag at low latitudes likely
Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1997-01-01
A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21...
Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling......) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multi-electron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters...... on Coulomb drag in CQD systems....
The effect of sodium hydroxide on drag reduction using banana peel as a drag reduction agent
Kaur, H.; Jaafar, A.
2018-02-01
Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions. Drag reduction agent such as polymers can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing and reduce the water accumulation in the system. Currently used polymers are synthetic polymers, which will harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime was explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer, where a reduced a torque produced was perceived as a reduction of drag. This method proposed is less time consuming and is more practical which is producing carboxymethylcellulose from the banana peel. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) by etherification process. The carboxymethylation reaction during the synthesizing process was then optimized against the reaction temperature, reaction time and solubility. The biopolymers were then rheologically characterized, where the viscoelastic effects and the normal stresses produced by these biopolymers were utilized to further relate and explain the drag reduction phenomena. The research was structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and to assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced. The rheological behavior of the biopolymers was then analyzed based on the ability of reducing drag. The results are intended to expand the currently extremely limited experimental database. Based on the results, the biopolymer works as a good DRA.
Numerical investigation of the effect of sphere dimples on the drag crisis and the Magnus effect
Li, Jing; Tsubokura, Makoto; Tsunoda, Masaya
2015-11-01
The present study investigates the flow over a golf ball and a smooth sphere around the critical Reynolds numbers under both stationary and self-spinning conditions by conducting Large-eddy simulations (LES) based on high resolution unstructured grids. For the stationary cases, the present calculation results validate the promotion of the drag crisis at a relatively lower Reynolds number due to the golf ball dimples. It also shows that the golf ball dimples have a limited effect on the time-dependent lateral force development in the subcritical regime, whereas the dimples are beneficial in suppressing the lateral force oscillations in the supercritical regimes. With spin parameter Γ = 0.1, the drag coefficients for the spinning smooth sphere increase slightly in all Reynolds number regimes when compared to the stationary cases, whereas for the spinning golf ball, the drag force decreases in the critical regime and increases in the supercritical regime. For both spinning models, the inverse Magnus effect was reproduced in the critical regime, whereas in the supercritical regime the ordinary Magnus force was generated. Relatively weaker lift forces were also observed in the cases of the spinning golf balls when compared to the spinning smooth spheres.
Incorporating modelled subglacial hydrology into inversions for basal drag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. P. Koziol
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A key challenge in modelling coupled ice-flow–subglacial hydrology is initializing the state and parameters of the system. We address this problem by presenting a workflow for initializing these values at the start of a summer melt season. The workflow depends on running a subglacial hydrology model for the winter season, when the system is not forced by meltwater inputs, and ice velocities can be assumed constant. Key parameters of the winter run of the subglacial hydrology model are determined from an initial inversion for basal drag using a linear sliding law. The state of the subglacial hydrology model at the end of winter is incorporated into an inversion of basal drag using a non-linear sliding law which is a function of water pressure. We demonstrate this procedure in the Russell Glacier area and compare the output of the linear sliding law with two non-linear sliding laws. Additionally, we compare the modelled winter hydrological state to radar observations and find that it is in line with summer rather than winter observations.
Drag reduction in silica nanochannels induced by graphitic wall coatings
Wagemann, Enrique; Walther, J. H.; Zambrano, Harvey A.
2017-11-01
Transport of water in hydrophilic nanopores is of significant technological and scientific interest. Water flow through hydrophilic nanochannels is known to experience enormous hydraulic resistance. Therefore, drag reduction is essential for the development of highly efficient nanofluidic devices. In this work, we propose the use of graphitic materials as wall coatings in hydrophilic silica nanopores. Specifically, by conducting atomistic simulations, we investigate the flow inside slit and cylindrical silica channels with walls coated with graphene (GE) layers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively. We develop realistic force fields to simulate the systems of interest and systematically, compare flow rates in coated and uncoated nanochannels under different pressure gradients. Moreover, we assess the effect that GE and CNT translucencies to wettability have on water hydrodynamics in the nanochannels. The influence of channel size is investigated by systematically varying channel heights and nanopore diameters. In particular, we present the computed water density and velocity profiles, volumetric flow rates, slip lengths and flow enhancements, to clearly demonstrate the drag reduction capabilities of graphitic wall coatings. We wish to thank partial funding from CRHIAM Conicyt/ Fondap Project 15130015 and computational support from DTU and NLHPC (Chile).
Do spinors give rise to a frame-dragging effect?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randono, Andrew
2010-01-01
We investigate the effect of the intrinsic spin of a fundamental spinor field on the surrounding spacetime geometry. We show that despite the lack of a rotating stress-energy source (and despite claims to the contrary) the intrinsic spin of a spin-half fermion gives rise to a frame-dragging effect analogous to that of orbital angular momentum, even in Einstein-Hilbert gravity where torsion is constrained to be zero. This resolves a paradox regarding the counter-force needed to restore Newton's third law in the well-known spin-orbit interaction. In addition, the frame-dragging effect gives rise to a long-range gravitationally mediated spin-spin dipole interaction coupling the internal spins of two sources. We argue that despite the weakness of the interaction, the spin-spin interaction will dominate over the ordinary inverse square Newtonian interaction in any process of sufficiently high energy for quantum field theoretical effects to be non-negligible.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edgar Moraes do Nascimento
1986-10-01
Full Text Available Certos problemas do uso do cinto de segurança ainda não foram resolvidos, sendo importante a determinação precisa das forças nos cabos. Existem vários métodos que, da maneira que são aplicados, são de pouca precisão. Com o objetivo de suspender essa imprecisão são apresentados três métodos e aperfeiçoado um outro de determinação da força exercida no cabo. Um desses métodos aplica-se a países subdesenvolvidos.Certain problems related to the use of safety belts remain unsolved, important among them being the exact determination of forces acting on cables. Various methods of calculation, severely limited because of the way in which they are applied, are presented. Three methods with a view to surpassing these limits are presented and another for the calculation of the forces acting on a cable is perfected. One of these methods is applicable in developing countries.
Magnetic Viscous Drag for Friction Labs
Gaffney, Chris; Catching, Adam
2016-01-01
The typical friction lab performed in introductory mechanics courses is usually not the favorite of either the student or the instructor. The measurements are not all that easy to make, and reproducibility is usually a troublesome issue. This paper describes the augmentation of such a friction lab with a study of the viscous drag on a magnet…
Measurements of drag and flow over biofilm
Hartenberger, Joel; Gose, James W.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.
2017-11-01
Microbial `slime' biofilms detrimentally affect the performance of every day systems from medical devices to large ocean-going vessels. In flow applications, the presence of biofilm typically results in a drag increase and may alter the turbulence in the adjacent boundary layer. Recent studies emphasize the severity of the drag penalty associated with soft biofouling and suggest potential mechanisms underlying the increase; yet, fundamental questions remain-such as the role played by compliance and the contribution of form drag to the overall resistance experienced by a fouled system. Experiments conducted on live biofilm and 3D printed rigid replicas in the Skin-Friction Flow Facility at the University of Michigan seek to examine these factors. The hydrodynamic performance of the biofilms grown on test panels was evaluated through pressure drop measurements as well as conventional and microscale PIV. High-resolution, 3D rigid replicas of select cases were generated via additive manufacturing using surface profiles obtained from a laser scanning system. Drag and flow measurements will be presented along with details of the growth process and the surface profile characterization method.
Drag Reducing and Cavitation Resistant Coatings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pease, Leonard F.
2016-12-28
Client, Green Building Systems (GBS), presented PNNL a coating reported to reduce drag and prevent cavitation damage on marine vessels, turbines and pumps. The composition of the coating remains proprietary but has as constituents including silicon oxides, aliphatic carbon chains, and fluorine rich particles. The coating is spray applied to surfaces. Prior GBS testing and experiments suggest reduction of both drag and cavitation on industrial scale propellers, but the underlying mechanism for these effects remains unclear. Yet, the application is compelling because even modest reductions in drag to marine vessels and cavitation to propellers and turbines present a significant economic and environmental opportunity. To discern among possible mechanisms, PNNL considered possible mechanisms with the client, executed multiple experiments, and completed one theoretical analysis (see appendix). The remainder of this report first considers image analysis to gain insight into drag reduction mechanisms and then exposes the coating to cavitation to explore its response to an intensely cavitating environment. Although further efforts may be warranted to confirm mechanisms, this report presents a first investigation into these coatings within the scope and resources of the technology assistance program (TAP).
Drag coefficient Variability and Thermospheric models
Moe, Kenneth
Satellite drag coefficients depend upon a variety of factors: The shape of the satellite, its altitude, the eccentricity of its orbit, the temperature and mean molecular mass of the ambient atmosphere, and the time in the sunspot cycle. At altitudes where the mean free path of the atmospheric molecules is large compared to the dimensions of the satellite, the drag coefficients can be determined from the theory of free-molecule flow. The dependence on altitude is caused by the concentration of atomic oxygen which plays an important role by its ability to adsorb on the satellite surface and thereby affect the energy loss of molecules striking the surface. The eccentricity of the orbit determines the satellite velocity at perigee, and therefore the energy of the incident molecules relative to the energy of adsorption of atomic oxygen atoms on the surface. The temperature of the ambient atmosphere determines the extent to which the random thermal motion of the molecules influences the momentum transfer to the satellite. The time in the sunspot cycle affects the ambient temperature as well as the concentration of atomic oxygen at a particular altitude. Tables and graphs will be used to illustrate the variability of drag coefficients. Before there were any measurements of gas-surface interactions in orbit, Izakov and Cook independently made an excellent estimate that the drag coefficient of satellites of compact shape would be 2.2. That numerical value, independent of altitude, was used by Jacchia to construct his model from the early measurements of satellite drag. Consequently, there is an altitude dependent bias in the model. From the sparce orbital experiments that have been done, we know that the molecules which strike satellite surfaces rebound in a diffuse angular distribution with an energy loss given by the energy accommodation coefficient. As more evidence accumulates on the energy loss, more realistic drag coefficients are being calculated. These improved drag
Correlated Coulomb Drag in Capacitively Coupled Quantum-Dot Structures.
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-05-13
We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs)-a bias-driven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach that accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multielectron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters. Interestingly, the direction of the drag current is not determined by the drive current, but by an interplay between the energy-dependent lead couplings. Studying the drag mechanism in a graphene-based CQD heterostructure, we show that the predictions of our theory are consistent with recent experiments on Coulomb drag in CQD systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcin Tyniewicki
2014-03-01
Full Text Available By the amendment of the Act on Public Finance of 26 July 2013, Polish legislature made a temporary suspension – till the end of 2013 – of the application of the provisions governing the Ist prudential procedure. This procedure has a crucial meaning for reducing the growth of budget deficit and in consequence – reducing public debt growth. In case of such crucial provisions for public finance, any amendments should be carried out in situations really justified and exceptional as well as with careful respecting of principles of proper legislation. In these aspects mentioned amendment rises a number of objections. For example, rapid pace of parliamentary works causes doubts about correctness of the legislative process. Therefore, in this article the author tries to make a legal assessment of the amendment of the Act on Public Finance of 26 July 2013, both from the formal and legal point of view and taking into the consideration the importance of provisions governing the prudential procedure for whole sphere of Polish public finance.
Zedler, S. E.
2009-04-25
The drag coefficient parameterization of wind stress is investigated for tropical storm conditions using model sensitivity studies. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model was run in a regional setting with realistic stratification and forcing fields representing Hurricane Frances, which in early September 2004 passed east of the Caribbean Leeward Island chain. The model was forced with a NOAA-HWIND wind speed product after converting it to wind stress using four different drag coefficient parameterizations. Respective model results were tested against in situ measurements of temperature profiles and velocity, available from an array of 22 surface drifters and 12 subsurface floats. Changing the drag coefficient parameterization from one that saturated at a value of 2.3 × 10 -3 to a constant drag coefficient of 1.2 × 10-3 reduced the standard deviation difference between the simulated minus the measured sea surface temperature change from 0.8°C to 0.3°C. Additionally, the standard deviation in the difference between simulated minus measured high pass filtered 15-m current speed reduced from 15 cm/s to 5 cm/s. The maximum difference in sea surface temperature response when two different turbulent mixing parameterizations were implemented was 0.3°C, i.e., only 11% of the maximum change of sea surface temperature caused by the storm. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.
The Effects of Propulsive Jetting on Drag of a Streamlined body
Krieg, Michael; Mohseni, Kamran
2017-11-01
Recently an abundance of bioinspired underwater vehicles have emerged to leverage eons of evolution. Our group has developed a propulsion technique inspired by jellyfish and squid. Propulsive jets are generated by ingesting and expelling water from a flexible internal cavity. We have demonstrated thruster capabilities for maneuvering on AUV platforms, where the internal thruster geometry minimized forward drag; however, such a setup cannot characterize propulsive efficiency. Therefore, we created a new streamlined vehicle platform that produces unsteady jets for forward propulsion rather than maneuvering. The streamlined jetting body is placed in a water tunnel and held stationary while jetting frequency and background flow velocity are varied. For each frequency/velocity pair the flow field is measured around the surface and in the wake using PIV. Using the zero jetting frequency as a baseline for each background velocity, the passive body drag is related to the velocity distribution. For cases with active jetting the drag and jetting forces are estimated from the velocity field and compared to the passive case. For this streamlined body, the entrainment of surrounding flow into the propulsive jet can reduce drag forces in addition to the momentum transfer of the jet itself. Office of Naval Research.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M.; Zhu, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-12-31
A floating structure such as an international airport is anticipated to have a length of about 5,000 m and a width of about 1,000 m. A singular point method may be used as a method to estimate force that such a floating body is subjected to from waves. In order to derive a solution with practically sufficient accuracy, 1250 elements are required in the length direction and 250 elements in the width direction, or a total of 312,500 elements. Calculating this number of elements should use finally a linear equation system handling complex coefficients comprising 312,500 elements, which would require a huge amount of calculation time. This paper proposes a method to derive solution on wave forces acting on a super-large floating structure or fluid force coefficients such as added mass coefficients and decay coefficients at a practically workable calculation amount and still without degrading the accuracy. The structure was assumed to be a box-shaped structure. Strengths of the singular points to be distributed on each element were assumed to be almost constant except for edges in lateral, oblique and longitudinal waves. Under this assumption, the interior of the floating structure excepting its edges was represented by several large elements to have reduced the number of elements. A calculation method proposed based on this conception was verified of its effectiveness. 2 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.
On the Drag Effect of a Refuelling Pellet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chang, Tinghong; Michelsen, Poul
1981-01-01
A refueling pellet is subjected mainly to two kinds of drags: (1) inertial drag caused by the motion of the pellet relative to the surrounding plasma, and (2) ablation drag caused by an uneven ablation rate of the front and the rear surface of the pellet in an inhomogeneous plasma. Computational ...... results showed that for reasonable combinations of pellet size and injection speed, the drag effect is hardly detectable for plasma conditions prevailing in current large tokamaks....
Karavashkin, S B
2002-01-01
We analyse the exact analytical solutions for 1D elastic lumped lines under action of an external force inclined to the line axis. We show that in this case an inclined wave being described by an implicit function propagates along the line. We extend this conclusion both to free vibrations and to distributed lines. We prove that the presented solution in the form of implicit function is a generalizing for the wave equation. When taken into consideration exactly, the dynamical processes pattern leads to the conclusion that the divergence of a vector in dynamical fields is not zero but proportional to the scalar product of the partial derivative of the given vector with respect to time into the wave propagation direction vector.
Ontogeny of lift and drag production in ground birds.
Heers, Ashley M; Tobalske, Bret W; Dial, Kenneth P
2011-03-01
The juvenile period is often a crucial interval for selective pressure on locomotor ability. Although flight is central to avian biology, little is known about factors that limit flight performance during development. To improve understanding of flight ontogeny, we used a propeller (revolving wing) model to test how wing shape and feather structure influence aerodynamic performance during development in the precocial chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar, 4 to >100 days post hatching). We spun wings in mid-downstroke posture and measured lift (L) and drag (D) using a force plate upon which the propeller assembly was mounted. Our findings demonstrate a clear relationship between feather morphology and aerodynamic performance. Independent of size and velocity, older wings with stiffer and more asymmetrical feathers, high numbers of barbicels and a high degree of overlap between barbules generate greater L and L:D ratios than younger wings with flexible, relatively symmetrical and less cohesive feathers. The gradual transition from immature feathers and drag-based performance to more mature feathers and lift-based performance appears to coincide with ontogenetic transitions in locomotor capacity. Younger birds engage in behaviors that require little aerodynamic force and that allow D to contribute to weight support, whereas older birds may expand their behavioral repertoire by flapping with higher tip velocities and generating greater L. Incipient wings are, therefore, uniquely but immediately functional and provide flight-incapable juveniles with access to three-dimensional environments and refugia. Such access may have conferred selective advantages to theropods with protowings during the evolution of avian flight.
Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates
Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine
2010-01-01
The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 × 106 and 1.6 × 106. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles.
Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillieron, Patrick [Renault Group, Research Division, Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Guyancourt (France); Kourta, Azeddine [Polytech' Orleans, Institut PRISME, ESA, Orleans (France)
2010-01-15
The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 x 10{sup 6} and 1.6 x 10{sup 6}. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles. (orig.)
Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders
Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro
We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.
Mclaughlin, M. K.; Tumolo, B.; Sklar, L. S.; Albertson, L.; Daniels, M.
2017-12-01
The influence of life on geomorphic processes is commonly inferred from correlations between the size and abundance of individual organisms and the change in process thresholds and rates from abiotic conditions. However, to understand and model the underlying mechanisms, it is helpful to make direct measurements of the forces acting between organisms and the earth materials they inhabit. For example, flume studies have found that the presence of net-spinning caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) can increase the shear stress required to initiate particle motion by more than a factor of two, with potentially significant implications for the timing and magnitude of bedload sediment transport in gravel-bedded rivers. To explore the underlying mechanics we conducted flume experiments at the Stroud Water Research center in Avonadale, Pennsylvania, using strain gages to measure the forces acting between caddisfly nets and sediment particles of various sizes, during the process of initial particle motion. We combine these measurements with high-speed video images to document for the first time, the three dimensional dynamics of net stretching, tearing, and detachment that govern the magnitude of the increase in critical shear stress. We are using these data and insights to substantially improve a previously published theoretical model for the mechanics of sediment stabilization by caddisfly larvae. In particular, we seek to constrain the range of particle sizes potentially stabilized by caddisfly larvae and explain mechanistically why the effect of caddisfly nets varies with particle size. These predictions have implications for understanding feedbacks between bed stabilization by caddisflies, insect density, inter-specific niche partitioning, and the movement of sediment that shapes gravel-bed channels.
Drag reduction by a polymeric aluminium soap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriquez, F.
1971-04-12
The pressure drop per unit length of pipe during the turbulent flow of liquids is reduced by certain additives. Most such drag reducing or friction-reducing agents are polymers of very high molecular weight. Some time ago, aluminum soaps were described as reducing drag in organic solvents, but the viscosity in laminar flow of such solutions was much higher than that of the solvents. More recently, it was found that aluminum dioleate and aluminum palmitate did not reduce turbulent friction until the solute concentration reached 0.75%. The viscosity at this concentration was 2 or 3 times that of the solvent, benzene. Exploratory work with aluminum di-2-ethylhexanoate indicates that it is an effective drag-reducing agent at concentrations which increase the viscosity of toluene by less than 10%. The dependence of the effectiveness on concentration is similar to that of most polymers. Taking into account the normal change in friction factor with Reynolds number together with end effects in the apparatus, the maximum effectiveness (x = 54 cm) corresponds to a a decrease in friction factor to less than a quarter of the original value for toluene alone. (13 refs.)
Ulak, Güner; Mutlu, Oguz; Akar, Füruzan Yildiz; Komsuoğlu, F Ipek; Tanyeri, Pelin; Erden, B Faruk
2008-10-01
Treatment-resistant depression has necessitated new therapeutic strategies in augmenting the therapeutic actions of currently existing antidepressant drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of synergistic interaction between 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-imidazole (TRIM), a novel neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor and conventional antidepressants of different classes in the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. TRIM decreased the immobility time at 50 mg/kg doses in the FST in rats. Treatment with a behaviourally subeffective dose of TRIM (20 mg/kg) augmented the behavioural effect of tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram and fluoxetine or selective serotonin reuptake enhancer tianeptine but failed to augment the antidepressant effect of reboxetine, a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, in this test. Therefore inhibition of NOS augments the effects of antidepressants acting on serotonergic system in the FST. Neither TRIM (10-50 mg/kg) nor other drug treatments affected the locomotor activity of animals. These findings are in agreement with the view that antidepressant effects or augmentation of these effects in the FST may be explained with inhibition of NOS activity and this may be a new approach in offering greater therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants acting via serotonergic system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yukawa, K; Kijima, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-10-01
With types of general cargo vessel and VLCC vessel as the object of discussion, a method was discussed to estimate fluid force acting theoretically on a hull during maneuvering movement, taking frame line shape into consideration. A vortex model was improved by giving consideration of time-based decay on intensity of discrete vortex lines based on the Rankine vortex. Modeling of flow fields around a hull was attempted to deal with movements in which width and draft are small as compared with the ship length, and turning angle speed and deviation angle are small. It was assumed that the ship speed is slow and effects of waves can be disregarded. Specular images of the hull were taken with regard to free surface, and handled as a double body model. Speed potential to express flow fields around a hull is required to satisfy the following five boundary conditions of Laplace, substance surface, free vortex layers, infinity and exfoliation. The potential may be handled as a two-dimensional problem in a field near the hull by using assumption of a slender and long body and conformal mapping. It was found possible to estimate hull fluid force with relatively good accuracy. Fine linear coefficients derived from the estimation were used to have performed highly accurate determination on course stabilization. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Si Putu Gede Gunawan Tista
2016-12-01
cylinder surface on the drag coefficient.This research was conducted in wind tunnel which consists of a blower (forblowing air, pitot pipe, U-tube manometer, inclined manometer, digital balance, cylinder with a rectangular ring. Theresearch was carried out by varying the distance between the ring i.e. 30 mm, 40 mm, 50 mm, 60 mm and 70 mm,respectively. The cylinder is placed in a vertical wind tunnel with a diameter D = 60 mm. The drag force is obtained byusing a digital balance that records the amount of mass, and then multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity. Thepressure distribution is obtained by measuring the pressure in the cylinder surface using inclined manometer on 36points with 10o intervals. The results showed that the greater the distance between the rings increased the dragcoefficient. The lowest drag coefficient was achieved at rhe distance between ring L = 30 mm or L/D = 0.50, with the CDvalue = 0.606352; that is equivalent to 29.3% drag reduction.Keywords: Cylinder, rectangular ring, space between ring, drag coefficient
Thermospheric density and satellite drag modeling
Mehta, Piyush Mukesh
The United States depends heavily on its space infrastructure for a vast number of commercial and military applications. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Threat Assessment require maintaining accurate knowledge of the orbits of resident space objects (RSOs) and the associated uncertainties. Atmospheric drag is the largest source of uncertainty for low-perigee RSOs. The uncertainty stems from inaccurate modeling of neutral atmospheric mass density and inaccurate modeling of the interaction between the atmosphere and the RSO. In order to reduce the uncertainty in drag modeling, both atmospheric density and drag coefficient (CD) models need to be improved. Early atmospheric density models were developed from orbital drag data or observations of a few early compact satellites. To simplify calculations, densities derived from orbit data used a fixed CD value of 2.2 measured in a laboratory using clean surfaces. Measurements from pressure gauges obtained in the early 1990s have confirmed the adsorption of atomic oxygen on satellite surfaces. The varying levels of adsorbed oxygen along with the constantly changing atmospheric conditions cause large variations in CD with altitude and along the orbit of the satellite. Therefore, the use of a fixed CD in early development has resulted in large biases in atmospheric density models. A technique for generating corrections to empirical density models using precision orbit ephemerides (POE) as measurements in an optimal orbit determination process was recently developed. The process generates simultaneous corrections to the atmospheric density and ballistic coefficient (BC) by modeling the corrections as statistical exponentially decaying Gauss-Markov processes. The technique has been successfully implemented in generating density corrections using the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. This work examines the effectiveness, specifically the transfer of density models errors into BC estimates, of the technique using the CHAMP and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabadini, Edvaldo; Silva, Marcelo Alves da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ziglio, Claudio Marcos; Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Monteiro de; Rocha, Nelson de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)
2008-07-01
In this work the efficiency of five commercial additives which produce drag reduction in petroleum was determined and compared. The studies were carried out in a rheometer using samples of petroleum from Bacia de Campos diluted in 50% of toluene. For such purpose the rheometer acts as a 'torquemeter', in which the magnitude of the drag reduction promoted by the additive is directly proportional to the difference in torque applied to maintain the sample in a specific flow rate. The obtained results have shown excellent capability of the additives to promote drag reduction (up to 20%) and small difference of efficiency among the additives was detectable. (author)
Wigs, laughter, and subversion: Charles Busch and strategies of drag performance.
Niles, Richard
2004-01-01
This paper examines the strategies of drag performer/ playwright Charles Busch. His performance aesthetic is explored and shown to be subversive even though its initial impulse is to entertain. Basing my arguments on the work of Judith Butler, Elin Diamond, and others, I argue that drag queens like Busch can not only entertain but also make audiences question and criticize through drag's power to create a Brechtian alienation effect and historicize the subject. After showing how he can be viewed as a drag queen, I give a brief biography and discuss such contested terms as "camp" and "gay sensibility." I then focus on Busch's staged reading of Ibsen's Hedda Gahler andA Doll's House, both done in one afternoon at Theatre for The New City (6 May 2000). By examining the performance of Busch and his fellow actors, I demonstrate how a contemporary relevancy is achieved by having the roles played by a female impersonator whose acting choices are filtered through a gay sensibility. The ongoing dialectic between spectator and performer creates a historicized moment in performance that underscores the gender dynamics in unexpected and stimulating ways.
Design of a High Viscosity Couette Flow Facility for Patterned Surface Drag Measurements
Johnson, Tyler; Lang, Amy
2009-11-01
Direct drag measurements can be difficult to obtain with low viscosity fluids such as air or water. In this facility, mineral oil is used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of experimental models. A mounted conveyor creates a flow within a plexiglass tank. The experimental model of a flat or patterned surface is suspended above a moving belt. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile is created. PIV measurements are used to determine the exact velocities and the Reynolds numbers for each experiment. The model is suspended by bars that connect to the pillow block housing of each bearing. Drag is measured by a force gauge connected to linear roller bearings that slide along steel rods. The patterned surfaces, initially consisting of 2-D cavities, are embedded in a plexiglass plate so as to keep the total surface area constant for each experiment. First, the drag across a flat plate is measured and compared to theoretical values for laminar Couette flow. The drag for patterned surfaces is then measured and compared to a flat plate.
Effects of cusped field thruster on the performance of drag-free control system
Cui, K.; Liu, H.; Jiang, W. J.; Sun, Q. Q.; Hu, P.; Yu, D. R.
2018-03-01
With increased measurement tasks of space science, more requirements for the spacecraft environment have been put forward. Those tasks (e.g. the measurement of Earth's steady state gravity field anomalies) lead to the desire for developing drag-free control. Higher requirements for the thruster performance are made due to the demand for the drag-free control system and real-time compensation for non-conservative forces. Those requirements for the propulsion system include wide continuous throttling ability, high resolution, rapid response, low noise and so on. As a promising candidate, the cusped field thruster has features such as the high working stability, the low erosion rate, a long lifetime and the simple structure, so that it is chosen as the thruster to be discussed in this paper. Firstly, the performance of a new cusped field thruster is tested and analyzed. Then a drag-free control scheme based on the cusped field thruster is designed to evaluate the performance of this thruster. Subsequently, the effects of the thrust resolution, transient response time and thrust uncertainty on the controller are calculated respectively. Finally, the performance of closed-loop system is analyzed, and the simulation results verify the feasibility of applying cusped field thruster to drag-free flight in the space science measurement tasks.
Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. II. Aerodynamic drag
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, E.N.
1979-01-01
The aerodynamic drag on a slender flux tube stretched vertically across a convective cell may push the flux tube into the updrafts or into the downdrafts, depending on the density stratification of the convecting fluid and the asymmetry of the fluid motions. The drag is approximately proportional to the local kinetic energy density, so the density stratification weights the drag in favor of the upper layers where the density is low, tending to push the vertical tube into the downdrafts. If, however, the horizontal motions in the convective cell are concentrated toward the bottom of the cell, they may dominate over the upper layers, pushing the tube into the updrafts. In the simple, idealized circumstance of a vertical tube extending across a fluid of uniform density in a convective cell that is symmetric about its midplane, the net aerodynamic drag vanishes in lowest order. The higher order contributions, including the deflection of the tube, then provide a nonvanishing force pushing the tube into a stable equilibrium midway between the updraft and the downdraft.It is pointed out that in the strongly stratified convective zone of the Sun, a downdraft herds flux tubes together into a cluster, while an updraft disperses them. To account for the observed strong cohesion of the cluster of flux tubes that make up a sunspot, we propose a downdraft of the order 2 km s - 1 through the cluster of seprate tubes beneath the sunspot
Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers
Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex
2008-01-01
The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.
Assessment of passive drag in swimming by numerical simulation and analytical procedure.
Barbosa, Tiago M; Ramos, Rui; Silva, António J; Marinho, Daniel A
2018-03-01
The aim was to compare the passive drag-gliding underwater by a numerical simulation and an analytical procedure. An Olympic swimmer was scanned by computer tomography and modelled gliding at a 0.75-m depth in the streamlined position. Steady-state computer fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed on Fluent. A set of analytical procedures was selected concurrently. Friction drag (D f ), pressure drag (D pr ), total passive drag force (D f +pr ) and drag coefficient (C D ) were computed between 1.3 and 2.5 m · s -1 by both techniques. D f +pr ranged from 45.44 to 144.06 N with CFD, from 46.03 to 167.06 N with the analytical procedure (differences: from 1.28% to 13.77%). C D ranged between 0.698 and 0.622 by CFD, 0.657 and 0.644 by analytical procedures (differences: 0.40-6.30%). Linear regression models showed a very high association for D f +pr plotted in absolute values (R 2 = 0.98) and after log-log transformation (R 2 = 0.99). The C D also obtained a very high adjustment for both absolute (R 2 = 0.97) and log-log plots (R 2 = 0.97). The bias for the D f +pr was 8.37 N and 0.076 N after logarithmic transformation. D f represented between 15.97% and 18.82% of the D f +pr by the CFD, 14.66% and 16.21% by the analytical procedures. Therefore, despite the bias, analytical procedures offer a feasible way of gathering insight on one's hydrodynamics characteristics.
Engineering drag currents in Coulomb coupled quantum dots
Lim, Jong Soo; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa
2018-02-01
The Coulomb drag phenomenon in a Coulomb-coupled double quantum dot system is revisited with a simple model that highlights the importance of simultaneous tunneling of electrons. Previously, cotunneling effects on the drag current in mesoscopic setups have been reported both theoretically and experimentally. However, in both cases the sequential tunneling contribution to the drag current was always present unless the drag level position were too far away from resonance. Here, we consider the case of very large Coulomb interaction between the dots, whereby the drag current needs to be assisted by cotunneling events. As a consequence, a quantum coherent drag effect takes place. Further, we demonstrate that by properly engineering the tunneling probabilities using band tailoring it is possible to control the sign of the drag and drive currents, allowing them to flow in parallel or antiparallel directions. We also show that the drag current can be manipulated by varying the drag gate potential and is thus governed by electron- or hole-like transport.
Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials
Eryong Liu; Longyang Li; Gang Wang; Zhixiang Zeng; Wenjie Zhao; Qunji Xue
2017-01-01
Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, sem...
Drag Reduction Through Distributed Electric Propulsion
Stoll, Alex M.; Bevirt, JoeBen; Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, William J.; Borer, Nicholas K.
2014-01-01
One promising application of recent advances in electric aircraft propulsion technologies is a blown wing realized through the placement of a number of electric motors driving individual tractor propellers spaced along each wing. This configuration increases the maximum lift coefficient by providing substantially increased dynamic pressure across the wing at low speeds. This allows for a wing sized near the ideal area for maximum range at cruise conditions, imparting the cruise drag and ride quality benefits of this smaller wing size without decreasing takeoff and landing performance. A reference four-seat general aviation aircraft was chosen as an exemplary application case. Idealized momentum theory relations were derived to investigate tradeoffs in various design variables. Navier-Stokes aeropropulsive simulations were performed with various wing and propeller configurations at takeoff and landing conditions to provide insight into the effect of different wing and propeller designs on the realizable effective maximum lift coefficient. Similar analyses were performed at the cruise condition to ensure that drag targets are attainable. Results indicate that this configuration shows great promise to drastically improve the efficiency of small aircraft.
Effects of Increasing Drag on Conjunction Assessment
Frigm, Ryan Clayton; McKinley, David P.
2010-01-01
Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis relies heavily on the computation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) and the understanding of the sensitivity of this calculation to the position errors as defined by the covariance. In Low Earth Orbit (LEO), covariance is predominantly driven by perturbations due to atmospheric drag. This paper describes the effects of increasing atmospheric drag through Solar Cycle 24 on Pc calculations. The process of determining these effects is found through analyzing solar flux predictions on Energy Dissipation Rate (EDR), historical relationship between EDR and covariance, and the sensitivity of Pc to covariance. It is discovered that while all LEO satellites will be affected by the increase in solar activity, the relative effect is more significant in the LEO regime around 700 kilometers in altitude compared to 400 kilometers. Furthermore, it is shown that higher Pc values can be expected at larger close approach miss distances. Understanding these counter-intuitive results is important to setting Owner/Operator expectations concerning conjunctions as solar maximum approaches.
Crowley, G.; Pilinski, M.; Sutton, E. K.; Codrescu, M.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Matsuo, T.; Fedrizzi, M.; Solomon, S. C.; Qian, L.; Thayer, J. P.
2016-12-01
operationally by the Air Force to specify neutral densities. As part of the analysis, we compare the drag observed by a variety of satellites which were not used as part of the assimilation-dataset and whose perigee altitudes span a range from 200km to 700 km.
Linear drag law for high-Reynolds-number flow past an oscillating body
Agre, Natalie; Childress, Stephen; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif
2016-07-01
An object immersed in a fast flow typically experiences fluid forces that increase with the square of speed. Here we explore how this high-Reynolds-number force-speed relationship is affected by unsteady motions of a body. Experiments on disks that are driven to oscillate while progressing through air reveal two distinct regimes: a conventional quadratic relationship for slow oscillations and an anomalous scaling for fast flapping in which the time-averaged drag increases linearly with flow speed. In the linear regime, flow visualization shows that a pair of counterrotating vortices is shed with each oscillation and a model that views a train of such dipoles as a momentum jet reproduces the linearity. We also show that appropriate scaling variables collapse the experimental data from both regimes and for different oscillatory motions into a single drag-speed relationship. These results could provide insight into the aerodynamic resistance incurred by oscillating wings in flight and they suggest that vibrations can be an effective means to actively control the drag on an object.
Satellite drag effects due to uplifted oxygen neutrals during super magnetic storms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. S. Lakhina
2017-12-01
Full Text Available During intense magnetic storms, prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs through E × B forces near the magnetic equator uplift the dayside ionosphere. This effect has been called the dayside super-fountain effect. Ion-neutral drag forces between the upward moving O+ (oxygen ions and oxygen neutrals will elevate the oxygen atoms to higher altitudes. This paper gives a linear calculation indicating how serious the effect may be during an 1859-type (Carrington superstorm. It is concluded that the oxygen neutral densities produced at low-Earth-orbiting (LEO satellite altitudes may be sufficiently high to present severe satellite drag. It is estimated that with a prompt penetrating electric field of ∼ 20 mV m−1 turned on for 20 min, the O atoms and O+ ions are uplifted to 850 km where they produce about 40-times-greater satellite drag per unit mass than normal. Stronger electric fields will presumably lead to greater uplifted mass.
Predicting lethal entanglements as a consequence of drag from fishing gear.
van der Hoop, Julie M; Corkeron, Peter; Henry, Allison G; Knowlton, Amy R; Moore, Michael J
2017-02-15
Large whales are frequently entangled in fishing gear and sometimes swim while carrying gear for days to years. Entangled whales are subject to additional drag forces requiring increased thrust power and energy expenditure over time. To classify entanglement cases and aid potential disentanglement efforts, it is useful to know how long an entangled whale might survive, given the unique configurations of the gear they are towing. This study establishes an approach to predict drag forces on fishing gear that entangles whales, and applies this method to ten North Atlantic right whale cases to estimate the resulting increase in energy expenditure and the critical entanglement duration that could lead to death. Estimated gear drag ranged 11-275N. Most entanglements were resolved before critical entanglement durations (mean±SD 216±260days) were reached. These estimates can assist real-time development of disentanglement action plans and U.S. Federal Serious Injury assessments required for protected species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernst, V.
1978-01-01
The idea of the systematic Weisskopf-Wigner approximation as used sporadically in atomic physics and quantum optics, is extended here to the interaction of a field of non-relativistic fermions with a field of relativistic bosons. It is shown that the usual (non-existing) interaction Hamiltonian of this system can be written as a sum of a countable number of self-adjoint and bounded partial Hamiltonians. The system of these Hamiltonians defines the order hierarchy of the present approximation scheme. To demonstrate its physical utility it is shown that in a certain order it provides satisfactory quantum theory of the 'self-energy' of the fermions under discussion. This is defined as the binding energy of bosons bound to the fermions and building up the latter's 'individual Coulomb or Yukawa fields' in the sense of expectation values of the corresponding field operator. In states of more than one fermion the bound photons act as a mediating agent between the fermions; this mechanism closely resembles the Coulomb or Yukawa 'forces' used in conventional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Jin Sung; Oh, Seok Hawn; Roh, Tae Seong
2014-01-01
Interior ballistics are completed in tens of milliseconds, as are all gun-firing phenomena. Thus, some data cannot be measured directly through experimentation. Therefore, such complex gun-firing phenomena are traditionally clarified by numerical analysis. In the two phase flow of interior ballistics, interphase drag has a strong effect on propellant particle movement. This drag is a momentum sink in the gas phase and a corresponding source of momentum for the solid phase. Previous studies have calculated the drag force on the propellant particles using Ergun's empirical equation, which was developed for a dense bed and relates the drag to the pressure drop through porous media. However, the particulate bed is fluidized in the course of the cycle of interior ballistics, thus indicating that the flow field is ransient with regions of high Reynolds number beyond the range of experimental data. The Ergun equation is examined through a compensation study and calibrated based on the Reynolds number using the numerical method. Moreover, the influence of different drag models on flow behavior and propellant movement in interior ballistics is analyzed.
Reynolds number dependence of drag reduction by rodlike polymers
Amarouchene, Y.; Bonn, D.; Kellay, H.; Lo, T.-S.; L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.
2008-01-01
We present experimental and theoretical results addressing the Reynolds number (Re) dependence of drag reduction by sufficiently large concentrations of rodlike polymers in turbulent wall-bounded flows. It is shown that when Re is small the drag is enhanced. On the other hand, when Re increases, the
Determination of the Drag Resistance Coefficients of Different Vehicles
Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik
2018-01-01
While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient "c" of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but…
EFFECTIVENESS OF NYLON DRAG STRAPS FOR BRAKING MONORAIL SLEDS.
Velocity versus coast distance measurements on two monorail rocket sleds were conducted on the Holloman track to obtain numerical information on the...sleds and the drag straps. The straps as described are shown to increase the effective drag area of the monorail sleds used by approximately one square
Spin-transfer mechanism for magnon-drag thermopower
Lucassen, M.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406913; Wong, C.H.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Tserkovnyak, Y.
2011-01-01
We point out a relation between the dissipative spin-transfer-torque parameter β and the contribution of magnon drag to the thermoelectric power in conducting ferromagnets. Using this result, we estimate β in iron at low temperatures, where magnon drag is believed to be the dominant contribution to
Frictional drag between quantum wells mediated by phonon exchange
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bønsager, M.C.; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1998-01-01
We use the Kubo formalism to evaluate the contribution of acoustic-phonon exchange to the frictional drag between nearby two-dimensional electron systems. In the case of free phonons, we find a divergent drag rate (tau(D)(-l)). However, tau(D)(-l) becomes finite when phonon scattering from either...
Analytical Ballistic Trajectories with Approximately Linear Drag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giliam J. P. de Carpentier
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a practical analytical approximation of projectile trajectories in 2D and 3D roughly based on a linear drag model and explores a variety of different planning algorithms for these trajectories. Although the trajectories are only approximate, they still capture many of the characteristics of a real projectile in free fall under the influence of an invariant wind, gravitational pull, and terminal velocity, while the required math for these trajectories and planners is still simple enough to efficiently run on almost all modern hardware devices. Together, these properties make the proposed approach particularly useful for real-time applications where accuracy and performance need to be carefully balanced, such as in computer games.
Future Drag Measurements from Venus Express
Keating, Gerald; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Yelle, Roger; Bruinsma, Sean; Withers, Paul; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Theriot, Res. Assoc. Michael; Bougher, Stephen
Beginning in July 2008 during the Venus Express Extended Mission, the European Space Agency will dramatically drop orbital periapsis from near 250km to near 180km above the Venus North Polar Region. This will allow orbital decay measurements of atmospheric densities to be made near the Venus North Pole by the VExADE (Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment) whose team leader is Ingo Mueller-Wodarg. VExADE consists of two parts VExADE-ODA (Orbital Drag Analysis from radio tracking data) and VExADE-ACC (Accelerometer in situ atmospheric density measurements). Previous orbital decay measurements of the Venus thermosphere were obtained by Pioneer Venus from the 1970's into the 1990's and from Magellan in the 1990's. The major difference is that the Venus Express will provide measurements in the North Polar Region on the day and night sides, while the earlier measurements were obtained primarily near the equator. The periapsis will drift upwards in altitude similar to the earlier spacecraft and then be commanded down to its lower original values. This cycle in altitude will allow estimates of vertical structure and thus thermospheric temperatures in addition to atmospheric densities. The periapsis may eventually be lowered even further so that accelerometers can more accurately obtain density measurements of the polar atmosphere as a function of altitude, latitude, longitude, local solar time, pressure, Ls, solar activity, and solar wind on each pass. Bias in accelerometer measurements will be determined and corrected for by accelerometer measurements obtained above the discernable atmosphere on each pass. The second experiment, VExADE-ACC, is similar to the accelerometer experiments aboard Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter that carried similar accelerometers in orbit around Mars. The risk involved in the orbital decay and accelerometer measurements is minimal. We have not lost any spacecraft orbiting Venus or Mars due to unexpected
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdurrahman TARAKTAŞ
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Fiscal drag is a result of real or nominal expanding economy and progressive taxation. In general, individuals are forced to enter the upper tax bracket depending on their increased income or expenditure. More tax burden can result in less consumption. Fiscal drag, lack of spending or excessive taxation can cause the economy to slow down. Traditional view suggests that fiscal drag may serve as a natural automatic stabilizer to cool the economy. However, this view ignores the supply side and in particular the potential effects of the high tax burden on economy. This study examines the extent to which the expected automatic stabilization function can be performed and the possible side effects on economic balances and income distribution of fiscal drag in our country in the case of new regulation with price criteria in automotive sectors Special Consumption Tax (SCT.
Electron drag in ferromagnetic structures separated by an insulating interface
Kozub, V. I.; Muradov, M. I.; Galperin, Y. M.
2018-06-01
We consider electron drag in a system of two ferromagnetic layers separated by an insulating interface. The source of it is expected to be magnon-electron interactions. Namely, we assume that the external voltage is applied to the "active" layer stimulating electric current through this layer. In its turn, the scattering of the current-carrying electrons by magnons leads to a magnon drag current within this layer. The 3-magnons interactions between magnons in the two layers (being of non-local nature) lead to magnon drag within the "passive" layer which, correspondingly, produce electron drag current via processes of magnon-electron scattering. We estimate the drag current and compare it to the phonon-induced one.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young-Sil Kwak
2005-06-01
Full Text Available To understand the physical processes that control the high-latitude lower thermospheric dynamics, we quantify the forces that are mainly responsible for maintaining the high-latitude lower thermospheric wind system with the aid of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR-TIEGCM. Momentum forcing is statistically analyzed in magnetic coordinates, and its behavior with respect to the magnitude and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF is further examined. By subtracting the values with zero IMF from those with non-zero IMF, we obtained the difference winds and forces in the high-latitude lower thermosphere( 0.8 |bar{B}_z| or negative(B_y 0.3125 |bar{B}_y| or negative(B_z 125 km the primary forces that determine the variations of the neutral winds are the pressure gradient, Coriolis and rotational Pedersen ion drag forces; however, at various locations and times significant contributions can be made by the horizontal advection force. On the other hand, at lower altitudes(108-125 km the pressure gradient, Coriolis and non-rotational Hall ion drag forces determine the variations of the neutral winds. At lower altitudes(<108 km it tends to generate a geostrophic motion with the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis forces. The northward component of IMF bar{B}_y-dependent average momentum forces act more significantly on the neutral motion except for the ion drag. At lower altitudes(108-125 km for negative IMF-bar{B}_y condition the ion drag force tends to generate a warm clockwise circulation with downward vertical motion associated with the adiabatic compress heating in the polar cap region. For positive IMF-bar{B}_y condition it tends to generate a cold anticlockwise circulation with upward vertical motion associated with the adiabatic expansion cooling in the polar cap region. For negative IMF-bar{B}_z the ion drag force tends to generate a
Drag reduction and improvement of material transport in creeping films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scholle, M.; Rund, A.; Aksel, N. [University of Bayreuth, Department of Applied Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, Bayreuth (Germany)
2006-01-01
It is widely accepted that for bodies in turbulent flows a reduction of skin friction can be reached if the surface of the body is provided with small ridges aligned in the local flow direction. This surprising and counterintuitive phenomenon is called the shark-skin effect, motivated from the dermal surface morphology of sharks. In the present article we examine the possibility of resistance reduction due to a rippled surface topography in Stokes flow. We especially analyse the influence of wall riblets perpendicular to the flow direction on the mean transport velocity in gravity-driven creeping film flows following the idea that eddies generated in the valleys of the riblets act like fluid roller bearings and hence may reduce drag. Using a theoretical treatment of the Stokes equations with complex function theory, parameter studies with varying flow rate, bottom amplitude and bottom shape are presented. For the given bottom shapes the maximum enhancement of transport velocity is found by optimising the film thickness. (orig.)
Octopus-inspired drag cancelation by added mass pumping
Weymouth, Gabriel; Giorgio-Serchi, Francesco
2016-11-01
Recent work has shown that when an immersed body suddenly changes its size, such as a deflating octopus during rapid escape jetting, the body experiences large forces due to the variation of added-mass energy. We extend this line of research by investigating a spring-mass oscillator submerged in quiescent fluid subject to periodic changes in its volume. This system isolates the ability of the added-mass thrust to cancel the bluff body resistance (having no jet flow to confuse the analysis) and moves closer to studying how these effects would work in a sustained propulsion case by studying periodic shape-change instead of a "one-shot" escape maneuver. With a combination of analytical, numerical, and experimental results, we show that the recovery of added-mass kinetic energy can be used to completely cancel the drag of the fluid, driving the onset of sustained oscillations with amplitudes as large as four times the average body radius. Moreover, these results are fairly independent of the details of the shape-change kinematics as long as the Stokes number and shape-change number are large. In addition, the effective pumping frequency range based on parametric oscillator analysis is shown to predict large amplitude response region observed in the numerics and experiments.
Bubble-induced skin-friction drag reduction and the abrupt transition to air-layer drag reduction
Elbing, Brian R.; Winkel, Eric S.; Lay, Keary A.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc
To investigate the phenomena of skin-friction drag reduction in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at large scales and high Reynolds numbers, a set of experiments has been conducted at the US Navy's William B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel (LCC). Drag reduction was achieved by injecting gas (air) from a line source through the wall of a nearly zero-pressure-gradient TBL that formed on a flat-plate test model that was either hydraulically smooth or fully rough. Two distinct drag-reduction phenomena were investigated; bubble drag reduction (BDR) and air-layer drag reduction (ALDR).The streamwise distribution of skin-friction drag reduction was monitored with six skin-friction balances at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at test speeds to 20.0msinitial zone1. These results indicated that there are three distinct regions associated with drag reduction with air injection: Region I, BDR; Region II, transition between BDR and ALDR; and Region III, ALDR. In addition, once ALDR was established: friction drag reduction in excess of 80% was observed over the entire smooth model for speeds to 15.3ms1 with the surface fully roughened (though approximately 50% greater volumetric air flux was required); and ALDR was sensitive to the inflow conditions. The sensitivity to the inflow conditions can be mitigated by employing a small faired step (10mm height in the experiment) that helps to create a fixed separation line.
Drag Reduction CFD Simulations and Flow Visualization of Light Vehicle-Trailer Systems
Sigurdson, Lorenz; Boyer, Henry; Lange, Carlos F.
2016-11-01
Experiments and CFD were performed to study the effect a deflector had on the flow and drag force associated with a 2010 F-150 truck and cargo trailer Light Vehicle-Trailer System (LVTS). Image Correlation Velocimetry (ICV) on smokewire streaklines measured the velocity field on the model mid-plane. CFD estimated the drag reduction as 13% at a Re of 14,900 with a moving ground-plane, and 17% without. Experiments suggested that the low Re does not diminish the full-scale relevance of the drag reduction results. One low Re effect was the presence of a separation bubble on the hood of the tow vehicle whose size reduced with an increase in Re. Three other characteristic flow patterns were identified: separation off the lead vehicle cab, stagnation of the free-stream on the trailer face for the no-deflector case, and subsequent separation at the trailer front corner. Comparisons of the ICV and CFD results with no deflector indicated good agreement in the direction of the velocity vectors, and the smoke streaklines and CFD streamlines also agreed well. However, for the deflector case, the CFD found an entirely different topological solution absent in the experiment. A pair of vertically-oriented mid-plane vortices were wrapped around the front of the trailer. Support from the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Grant 41747 is gratefully acknowledged.
Experimental measurement of unsteady drag on shock accelerated micro-particles
Bordoloi, Ankur; Martinez, Adam; Prestridge, Katherine
2016-11-01
The unsteady drag history of shock accelerated micro-particles in air is investigated in the Horizontal Shock Tube (HST) facility at Los Alamos National laboratory. Drag forces are estimated based on particle size, particle density, and instantaneous velocity and acceleration measured on hundreds of post-shock particle tracks. We use previously implemented 8-frame Particle Tracking Velocimetry/Anemometry (PTVA) diagnostics to analyze particles in high spatiotemporal resolution from individual particle trajectories. We use a simultaneous LED based shadowgraph to register shock location with respect to a moving particle in each frame. To measure particle size accurately, we implement a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in synchronization with the PTVA. In this presentation, we will corroborate with more accuracy our earlier observation that post-shock unsteady drag coefficients (CD(t)) are manifold times higher than those predicted by theoretical models. Our results will also show that all CD(t) measurements collapse on a master-curve for a range of particle size, density, Mach number and Reynolds number when time is normalized by a shear velocity based time scale, t* = d/(uf-up) , where d is particle diameter, and uf and up are post-shock fluid and particle velocities.
Drag reduction statistics in a channel flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jimenez-Bernal, Jose A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, LABINTHAP-SEPI-ESIME, Edif. 5, 3er piso Col. Lindavista, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Hassan, Yassin A.; Gutierrez-Torres, Claudia del C. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3123 (United States)
2005-07-01
Full text of publication follows: Methods to reduce the drag have been studied for many years because of the promising payoffs that can be attained. In this investigation, the evaluation of statistics such as skewness, flatness, spectra of the stream-wise velocity fluctuations is performed for single phase flow and for two phase flow. Micro-bubbles with an average diameter of 30 {mu}m and a local void fraction of 4.8 % were produced by electrolysis and injected inside the boundary layer. This value of void fraction produced a 38.45 % decrease of the drag. The experiments were conducted in a channel flow at a Reynolds number Re 5128 (considering half height of the channel, the bulk velocity and the kinematics viscosity of the water). The channel was made of acrylic due to the optical properties of this material; its dimensions are 3.85 m long, 0.206 m wide and 0.056 m high. A pressure transducer that ranges from 0 to 35 Pa is located in the test station to measure the pressure drop in single phase flow; this pressure value is used to calculate the shear wall stress. The shear wall stress of two phase flow was measured from the velocity fields obtained from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. PIV was utilized to measure instantaneous velocity fields in the stream-wise-normal (x-y) plane. The use of low-local values of void fraction caused a reduction of undesirable speckles effects and an absence of extreme brightness provoked by high bubble saturation. The measurements were carried out in the upper wall of the channel at 3.15 m downstream the inlet's channel. The PIV system is formed by a CCD camera with a resolution of 1008 x 1018 pixels and a double pulse laser with a maximum power 400 mJ and a wavelength of 532 nm (green light). The laser beam was transformed into a sheet of light by an array of cylindrical lenses. Two hundred frames with an area of 1.28 cm{sup 2} were recorded to obtain one hundred velocity fields. The time separation between
Drag reduction statistics in a channel flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jimenez-Bernal, Jose A.; Hassan, Yassin A.; Gutierrez-Torres, Claudia del C.
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Methods to reduce the drag have been studied for many years because of the promising payoffs that can be attained. In this investigation, the evaluation of statistics such as skewness, flatness, spectra of the stream-wise velocity fluctuations is performed for single phase flow and for two phase flow. Micro-bubbles with an average diameter of 30 μm and a local void fraction of 4.8 % were produced by electrolysis and injected inside the boundary layer. This value of void fraction produced a 38.45 % decrease of the drag. The experiments were conducted in a channel flow at a Reynolds number Re 5128 (considering half height of the channel, the bulk velocity and the kinematics viscosity of the water). The channel was made of acrylic due to the optical properties of this material; its dimensions are 3.85 m long, 0.206 m wide and 0.056 m high. A pressure transducer that ranges from 0 to 35 Pa is located in the test station to measure the pressure drop in single phase flow; this pressure value is used to calculate the shear wall stress. The shear wall stress of two phase flow was measured from the velocity fields obtained from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. PIV was utilized to measure instantaneous velocity fields in the stream-wise-normal (x-y) plane. The use of low-local values of void fraction caused a reduction of undesirable speckles effects and an absence of extreme brightness provoked by high bubble saturation. The measurements were carried out in the upper wall of the channel at 3.15 m downstream the inlet's channel. The PIV system is formed by a CCD camera with a resolution of 1008 x 1018 pixels and a double pulse laser with a maximum power 400 mJ and a wavelength of 532 nm (green light). The laser beam was transformed into a sheet of light by an array of cylindrical lenses. Two hundred frames with an area of 1.28 cm 2 were recorded to obtain one hundred velocity fields. The time separation between consecutive pulses
Drag of ballistic electrons by an ion beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurevich, V. L.; Muradov, M. I., E-mail: mag.muradov@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
Drag of electrons of a one-dimensional ballistic nanowire by a nearby one-dimensional beam of ions is considered. We assume that the ion beam is represented by an ensemble of heavy ions of the same velocity V. The ratio of the drag current to the primary current carried by the ion beam is calculated. The drag current turns out to be a nonmonotonic function of velocity V. It has a sharp maximum for V near v{sub nF}/2, where n is the number of the uppermost electron miniband (channel) taking part in conduction and v{sub nF} is the corresponding Fermi velocity. This means that the phenomenon of ion beam drag can be used for investigation of the electron spectra of ballistic nanostructures. We note that whereas observation of the Coulomb drag between two parallel quantum wires may in general be complicated by phenomena such as tunneling and phonon drag, the Coulomb drag of electrons of a one-dimensional ballistic nanowire by an ion beam is free of such spurious effects.
Search for a solute-drag effect in dendritic solidification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eckler, K.; Herlach, D.M.; Aziz, M.J.
1994-01-01
The authors report the results of an indirect experimental test for the solute-drag effect in alloy solidification by fitting the data of Eckler et.al. for Ni-B dendrite tip velocities vs undercooling to models in several ways. The unknown equilibrium partition coefficient, k e , was varied as a fitting parameter. When they combine the dendrite growth model of Boettinger et al. with the Continuous Growth Model (CGM) of Aziz and Kaplan with solute drag, they cannot fit the data for any value of k e . When they combine dendrite growth theory with the CGM without solute drag, they obtain a reasonable fit to the data for k e = 4 x 10 -6 . When they combine dendrite growth theory with a new partial-solute-drag interpolation between the with-solute-drag and the without-solute-drag versions of the CGM, they obtain a still better fit to the data for k e = 2.8 x 10 - 4. This result points out the possibility of partial solute-drag during solidification and the importance of an independent determination of k e in order to distinguish between models
Resolvent-based feedback control for turbulent friction drag reduction
Kawagoe, Aika; Nakashima, Satoshi; Luhar, Mitul; Fukagata, Koji
2017-11-01
Suboptimal control for turbulent friction drag reduction has been studied extensively. Nakashima et al. (accepted) extended resolvent analysis to suboptimal control, and for the control where the streamwise wall shear stress is used as an input (Case ST), they revealed the control effect across spectral space is mixed: there are regions of drag increase as well as reduction. This suggests that control performance may be improved if the control is applied for selective wavelengths, or if a new law is designed to suppress the spectral region leading to drag increase. In the present study, we first assess the effect of suboptimal control for selective wavelengths via DNS. The friction Reynolds number is set at 180. For Case ST, resolvent analysis predicts drag reduction at long streamwise wavelengths. DNS with control applied only for this spectral region, however, did not result in drag reduction. Then, we seek an effective control law using resolvent analysis and propose a new law. DNS results for this law are consistent with predictions from resolvent analysis, and about 10% drag reduction is attained. Further, we discuss how this law reduces the drag from a dynamical and theoretical point of view. This work was supported through Grant-in-Aid for Scientic Research (C) (No. 25420129) by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
Bilateral macular colobomata: Temporal dragging of optic disc
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David J Mathew
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A 13-year-old male presented with decreased vision and squint from childhood. He had bilateral large colobomata at the macula in each eye, the one on the right being larger than the left. The disc was dragged temporally with straightening of the temporal retinal vessels. This is a case report of bilateral large macular coloboma and serves to report its association with a temporally dragged disc and straightened temporal retinal vessels. A dragged disc if present with a colobomatous defect at the macula may strengthen the case for diagnosis of macular coloboma and help exclude other differentials.
Oscillating Sign of Drag in High Landau Levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
von Oppen, Felix; Simon, Steven H.; Stern, Ady
2001-01-01
Motivated by experiments, we study the sign of the Coulomb drag voltage in a double layer system in a strong magnetic field. We show that the commonly used Fermi golden rule approach implicitly assumes a linear dependence of intralayer conductivity on density, and is thus inadequate in strong magnetic fields. Going beyond this approach, we show that the drag voltage commonly changes sign with density difference between the layers. We find that, in the quantum Hall regime, the Hall and longitudinal drag resistivities may be comparable. Our results are also relevant for pumping and acoustoelectric experiments
Designing an experiment to measure cellular interaction forces
McAlinden, Niall; Glass, David G.; Millington, Owain R.; Wright, Amanda J.
2013-09-01
Optical trapping is a powerful tool in Life Science research and is becoming common place in many microscopy laboratories and facilities. The force applied by the laser beam on the trapped object can be accurately determined allowing any external forces acting on the trapped object to be deduced. We aim to design a series of experiments that use an optical trap to measure and quantify the interaction force between immune cells. In order to cause minimum perturbation to the sample we plan to directly trap T cells and remove the need to introduce exogenous beads to the sample. This poses a series of challenges and raises questions that need to be answered in order to design a set of effect end-point experiments. A typical cell is large compared to the beads normally trapped and highly non-uniform - can we reliably trap such objects and prevent them from rolling and re-orientating? In this paper we show how a spatial light modulator can produce a triple-spot trap, as opposed to a single-spot trap, giving complete control over the object's orientation and preventing it from rolling due, for example, to Brownian motion. To use an optical trap as a force transducer to measure an external force you must first have a reliably calibrated system. The optical trapping force is typically measured using either the theory of equipartition and observing the Brownian motion of the trapped object or using an escape force method, e.g. the viscous drag force method. In this paper we examine the relationship between force and displacement, as well as measuring the maximum displacement from equilibrium position before an object falls out of the trap, hence determining the conditions under which the different calibration methods should be applied.
Radiation drag in the field of a non-spherical source
Bini, D.; Geralico, A.; Passamonti, A.
2015-01-01
The motion of a test particle in the gravitational field of a non-spherical source endowed with both mass and mass quadrupole moment is investigated when a test radiation field is also present. The background is described by the Erez-Rosen solution, which is a static space-time belonging to the Weyl class of solutions to the vacuum Einstein's field equations, and reduces to the familiar Schwarzschild solution when the quadrupole parameter vanishes. The radiation flux has a fixed but arbitrary (non-zero) angular momentum. The interaction with the radiation field is assumed to be Thomson-like, i.e. the particles absorb and re-emit radiation, thus suffering for a friction-like drag force. Such an additional force is responsible for the Poynting-Robertson effect, which is well established in the framework of Newtonian gravity and has been recently extended to the general theory of relativity. The balance between gravitational attraction, centrifugal force and radiation drag leads to the occurrence of equilibrium circular orbits which are attractors for the surrounding matter for every fixed value of the interaction strength. The presence of the quadrupolar structure of the source introduces a further degree of freedom: there exists a whole family of equilibrium orbits parametrized by the quadrupole parameter, generalizing previous works. This scenario is expected to play a role in the context of accretion matter around compact objects.
Drag reduction of a car model by linear genetic programming control
Li, Ruiying; Noack, Bernd R.; Cordier, Laurent; Borée, Jacques; Harambat, Fabien
2017-08-01
We investigate open- and closed-loop active control for aerodynamic drag reduction of a car model. Turbulent flow around a blunt-edged Ahmed body is examined at ReH≈ 3× 105 based on body height. The actuation is performed with pulsed jets at all trailing edges (multiple inputs) combined with a Coanda deflection surface. The flow is monitored with 16 pressure sensors distributed at the rear side (multiple outputs). We apply a recently developed model-free control strategy building on genetic programming in Dracopoulos and Kent (Neural Comput Appl 6:214-228, 1997) and Gautier et al. (J Fluid Mech 770:424-441, 2015). The optimized control laws comprise periodic forcing, multi-frequency forcing and sensor-based feedback including also time-history information feedback and combinations thereof. Key enabler is linear genetic programming (LGP) as powerful regression technique for optimizing the multiple-input multiple-output control laws. The proposed LGP control can select the best open- or closed-loop control in an unsupervised manner. Approximately 33% base pressure recovery associated with 22% drag reduction is achieved in all considered classes of control laws. Intriguingly, the feedback actuation emulates periodic high-frequency forcing. In addition, the control identified automatically the only sensor which listens to high-frequency flow components with good signal to noise ratio. Our control strategy is, in principle, applicable to all multiple actuators and sensors experiments.
Fall with linear drag and Wien's displacement law: approximate solution and Lambert function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vial, Alexandre
2012-01-01
We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for undergraduate students, as they show that some transcendental equations found in physics may be solved without purely numerical methods. Moreover, as will be seen in the case of Wien's displacement law, solutions based on series expansion can be very accurate even with few terms. (paper)
Investigation of Drag Coefficient for Rigid Ballute-like Shapes
Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel; Mastromarino, Anthony
2014-11-01
One common method of decelerating an object during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing is the use of parachutes. Another deceleration technology is the ballute - a combination of balloon and parachute. A CFD study was conducted using commercially available software to investigate the flow-field and the coefficient of drag for various rigid ballute-like shapes at varying Reynolds numbers. The impact of size and placement of the burble-fence as well as number, size, and shape of inlets was considered. Recent experimental measurements conducted during NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator program revealed a much higher coefficient of drag (Cd) for ballutes than previously encountered. Using atmospheric drag to slow down and land reduces the need for heavy fuel and rocket engines and thus, high values of drag are desired. Funding for this work, in part, provided by the CT Space Grant Consortium.
Drag Reduction through Pulsed Plasma Actuators, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Drag reduction is a fundamental necessity in all aerodynamic designs, as it directly affects aircraft fuel efficiency which in turn affects endurance, range, and...
Influence of Surface Roughness on Polymer Drag Reduction
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ceccio, Steven L; Dowling, David R; Perlin, Marc; Solomon, Michael
2007-01-01
.... The details of that effort can be found in the final technical report for that project. The purpose of the additional investigation was to examine the physics and engineering of friction drag reduction methods for turbulent boundary layers (TBL...
Experimental study of drag reduction in flumes and spillway tunnels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying-kui Wang
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Experiments in an open flume model and spillway tunnel model were carried out using drag reduction techniques. Two drag reduction techniques were adopted in the experiments: polymer addition and coating. The drag reduction effect of a polyacrylamide (PAM solution and dimethyl silicone oil coating were studied in the flume model experiments, and the results were analyzed. Experiments were then carried out with a model of the Xiluodu Hydropower Station, the second largest dam in China. In order to reduce the resistance, the spillway tunnels were internally coated with dimethyl silicone oil. This is the first time that these drag reduction techniques have been applied to so large a hydraulic model. The experimental results show that the coating technique can effectively increase flood discharge. The outlet velocity and the jet trajectory distance are also increased, which enhances the energy dissipation of the spillway tunnel.
Wall temperature control of low-speed body drag
Lin, J. C.; Ash, R. L.
1986-01-01
The use of thermal means to control drag under turbulent boundary layer conditions is examined. Numerical calculations are presented for both skin friction and (unseparated) pressure drag for turbulent boundary-layer flows over a fuselage-like body with wall heat transfer. In addition, thermal control of separation on a bluff body is investigated. It is shown that a total drag reduction of up to 20 percent can be achieved for wall heating with a wall-to-total-freestream temperature ratio of 2. For streamlined slender bodies, partial wall heating of the forebody can produce almost the same order of total drag reduction as the full body heating case. For bluff bodies, the separation delay from partial wall cooling of the afterbody is approximately the same as for the fully cooled body.
Atomistically informed solute drag in Al–Mg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, F; Curtin, W A
2008-01-01
Solute drag in solute-strengthened alloys, caused by diffusion of solute atoms around moving dislocations, controls the stress at deformation rates and temperatures useful for plastic forming processes. In the technologically important Al–Mg alloys, the solute drag stresses predicted by classical theories are much larger than experiments, which is resolved in general by eliminating the singularity of the dislocation core via Peierls–Nabarro-type models. Here, the drag stress versus dislocation velocity is computed numerically using a realistic dislocation core structure obtained from an atomistic model to investigate the role of the core and obtain quantitative stresses for comparison with experiment. The model solves a discrete diffusion equation in a reference frame moving with the dislocation, with input solute enthalpies and diffusion activation barriers in the core computed by or estimated from atomistic studies. At low dislocation velocities, the solute drag stress is controlled by bulk solute diffusion because the core diffusion occurs too quickly. In this regime, the drag stress can be obtained using a Peierls–Nabarro model with a core spreading parameter tuned to best match the atomistic models. At intermediate velocities, both bulk and core diffusion can contribute to the drag, leading to a complex stress–velocity relationship showing two peaks in stress. At high velocities, the drag stress is controlled solely by diffusion within and across the core. Like the continuum models, the drag stress is nearly linear in solute concentration. The Orowan relationship is used to connect dislocation velocity to deformation strain rate. Accounting for the dependence of mobile dislocation density on stress, the simulations are in good agreement with experiments on Al–Mg alloys over a range of concentrations and temperatures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, M. V.; Lindballe, T.; Kylling, A.
2010-01-01
An experimental characterization of the 3D forces, acting on a trapped polystyrene bead in a counter-propagating beam geometry, is reported. Using a single optical trap with a large working distance (in the BioPhotonics Workstation), we simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal...... trapping force constants. Two different methods were used: The Drag force method and the Equipartition method. We show that the counterpropagating beams traps are simple harmonic for small displacements. The force constants reveal a transverse asymmetry as - = 9.7 pN/µm and + = 11.3 pN/µm (at a total laser...... power of 2x35 mW) for displacements in opposite directions. The Equipartition method is limited by mechanical noise and is shown to be applicable only when the total laser power in a single 10 µm counter-propagating trap is below 2x20 mW....
Navier slip model of drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers
Berry, Joseph D.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T
2017-01-01
Recent experiments found that a hot solid sphere that is able to sustain a stable Leidenfrost vapor layer in a liquid exhibits significant drag reduction during free fall. The variation of the drag coefficient with Reynolds number deviates substantially from the characteristic drag crisis behavior at high Reynolds numbers. Measurements based on liquids of different viscosities show that the onset of the drag crisis depends on the viscosity ratio of the vapor to the liquid. Here we attempt to characterize the complexity of the Leidenfrost vapor layer with respect to its variable thickness and possible vapor circulation within, in terms of the Navier slip model that is defined by a slip length. Such a model can facilitate tangential flow and thereby alter the behavior of the boundary layer. Direct numerical and large eddy simulations of flow past a sphere at moderate to high Reynolds numbers (102≤Re≤4×104) are employed to quantify comparisons with experimental results, including the drag coefficient and the form of the downstream wake on the sphere. This provides a simple one parameter characterization of the drag reduction phenomenon due to a stable vapor layer that envelops a solid body.
Navier slip model of drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers
Berry, Joseph D.
2017-10-17
Recent experiments found that a hot solid sphere that is able to sustain a stable Leidenfrost vapor layer in a liquid exhibits significant drag reduction during free fall. The variation of the drag coefficient with Reynolds number deviates substantially from the characteristic drag crisis behavior at high Reynolds numbers. Measurements based on liquids of different viscosities show that the onset of the drag crisis depends on the viscosity ratio of the vapor to the liquid. Here we attempt to characterize the complexity of the Leidenfrost vapor layer with respect to its variable thickness and possible vapor circulation within, in terms of the Navier slip model that is defined by a slip length. Such a model can facilitate tangential flow and thereby alter the behavior of the boundary layer. Direct numerical and large eddy simulations of flow past a sphere at moderate to high Reynolds numbers (102≤Re≤4×104) are employed to quantify comparisons with experimental results, including the drag coefficient and the form of the downstream wake on the sphere. This provides a simple one parameter characterization of the drag reduction phenomenon due to a stable vapor layer that envelops a solid body.
Dragging of inertial frames inside the rotating neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Modak, Kamakshya Prasad; Bandyopadhyay, Debades, E-mail: chandrachur.chakraborty@saha.ac.in, E-mail: kamakshya.modak@saha.ac.in [Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India)
2014-07-20
We derive the exact frame-dragging rate inside rotating neutron stars. This formula is applied to show that the frame-dragging rate monotonically decreases from the center to the surface of the neutron star along the pole. In the case of the frame-dragging rate along the equatorial distance, it decreases initially away from the center, becomes negligibly small well before the surface of the neutron star, rises again, and finally approaches to a small value at the surface. The appearance of a local maximum and minimum in this case is the result of the dependence of frame-dragging frequency on the distance and angle. Moving from the equator to the pole, it is observed that this local maximum and minimum in the frame-dragging rate along the equator disappear after crossing a critical angle. It is also noted that the positions of the local maximum and minimum of the frame-dragging rate along the equator depend on the rotation frequency and central energy density of a particular pulsar.
Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls.
Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya
2013-12-01
Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2 × 10(5) (drag coefficient, C d ≈ 0.12), ~2.8 × 10(5) (C d ≈ 0.13), ~3.3 × 10(5) (C d ≈ 0.13), and ~2.4 × 10(5) (C d ≈ 0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Vatvani
2012-07-01
Full Text Available To simulate winds and water levels, numerical weather prediction (NWP and storm surge models generally use the traditional bulk relation for wind stress, which is characterized by a wind drag coefficient. A still commonly used drag coefficient in those models, some of them were developed in the past, is based on a relation, according to which the magnitude of the coefficient is either constant or increases monotonically with increasing surface wind speed (Bender, 2007; Kim et al., 2008; Kohno and Higaki, 2006. The NWP and surge models are often tuned independently from each other in order to obtain good results. Observations have indicated that the magnitude of the drag coefficient levels off at a wind speed of about 30 m s^{−1}, and then decreases with further increase of the wind speed. Above a wind speed of approximately 30 m s^{−1}, the stress above the air-sea interface starts to saturate. To represent the reducing and levelling off of the drag coefficient, the original Charnock drag formulation has been extended with a correction term.
In line with the above, the Delft3D storm surge model is tested using both Charnock's and improved Makin's wind drag parameterization to evaluate the improvements on the storm surge model results, with and without inclusion of the wave effects. The effect of waves on storm surge is included by simultaneously simulating waves with the SWAN model on identical model grids in a coupled mode. However, the results presented here will focus on the storm surge results that include the wave effects.
The runs were carried out in the Gulf of Mexico for Katrina and Ivan hurricane events. The storm surge model was initially forced with H^{*}wind data (Powell et al., 2010 to test the effect of the Makin's wind drag parameterization on the storm surge model separately. The computed wind, water levels and waves are subsequently compared with observation data. Based on the good
Nguyen, Nhan; James Urnes, Sr.
2012-01-01
Lightweight aircraft design has received a considerable attention in recent years as a means for improving cruise efficiency. Reducing aircraft weight results in lower lift requirements which directly translate into lower drag, hence reduced engine thrust requirements during cruise. The use of lightweight materials such as advanced composite materials has been adopted by airframe manufacturers in current and future aircraft. Modern lightweight materials can provide less structural rigidity while maintaining load-carrying capacity. As structural flexibility increases, aeroelastic interactions with aerodynamic forces and moments become an increasingly important consideration in aircraft design and aerodynamic performance. Furthermore, aeroelastic interactions with flight dynamics can result in issues with vehicle stability and control. Abstract This paper describes a recent aeroelastic modeling effort for an elastically shaped aircraft concept (ESAC). The aircraft model is based on the rigid-body generic transport model (GTM) originally developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The ESAC distinguishes itself from the GTM in that it is equipped with highly flexible wing structures as a weight reduction design feature. More significantly, the wings are outfitted with a novel control effector concept called variable camber continuous trailing edge (VCCTE) flap system for active control of wing aeroelastic deflections to optimize the local angle of attack of wing sections for improved aerodynamic efficiency through cruise drag reduction and lift enhancement during take-off and landing. The VCCTE flap is a multi-functional and aerodynamically efficient device capable of achieving high lift-to-drag ratios. The flap system is comprised of three chordwise segments that form the variable camber feature of the flap and multiple spanwise segments that form a piecewise continuous trailing edge. By configuring the flap camber and trailing edge shape, drag reduction could be
Analysis of Electromagnetics Forces on Magnetically Suspended High-Speed Trains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Mayer
2004-01-01
Full Text Available High-speed superexpresses (HSST developed by Japanese airlines (JAL are based on the electrodynamics principle of magnetic suspension. The track contains short-circuited coils and interaction between them and superconductive coils in the vehicle produces its suspension. The paper includes a mathematical model for traction electrodynamics suspension device HSST represented by a system of linear differential equations with coefficients varying in time. Numerical analysis of this model fields the velocity-dependent lift and drag forces acting on the system. The time distribution of the lift force exhibits certain oscillations that may be suppressed by suitable placement of several superconductive levitation wings in the vehicle. The results obtained are in a good agreement with the knowledge found by various authors on prototype vehicles.
A low-dimensional tool for predicting force decomposition coefficients for varying inflow conditions
Ghommem, Mehdi; Akhtar, Imran; Hajj, M. R.
2013-01-01
We develop a low-dimensional tool to predict the effects of unsteadiness in the inflow on force coefficients acting on a circular cylinder using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes from steady flow simulations. The approach is based on combining POD and linear stochastic estimator (LSE) techniques. We use POD to derive a reduced-order model (ROM) to reconstruct the velocity field. To overcome the difficulty of developing a ROM using Poisson's equation, we relate the pressure field to the velocity field through a mapping function based on LSE. The use of this approach to derive force decomposition coefficients (FDCs) under unsteady mean flow from basis functions of the steady flow is illustrated. For both steady and unsteady cases, the final outcome is a representation of the lift and drag coefficients in terms of velocity and pressure temporal coefficients. Such a representation could serve as the basis for implementing control strategies or conducting uncertainty quantification. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
In-depth Study on Cylinder Wake Controlled by Lorentz Force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hui; Fan Bao-Chun; Chen Zhi-Hua
2011-01-01
The underlying mechanisms of the electromagnetic control of cylinder wake are investigated and discussed. The effects of Lorentz force are found to be composed of two parts, one is its direct action on the cylinder (the wall Lorentz force) and the other is applied to the fluid (called the field Lorentz force) near the cylinder surface. Our results show that the wall Lorentz force can generate thrust and reduce the drag; the field Lorentz force increases the drag. However, the cylinder drag is dominated by the wall Lorentz force. In addition, the field Lorentz force above the upper surface decreases the lift, while the upper wall Lorentz force increases it. The total lift is dominated by the upper wall Lorentz force. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
Numerical study of acoustic streaming and radiation forces on micro particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mads Jakob Herring; Muller, Peter Barkholt; Barnkob, Rune
2012-01-01
, and 2) Stokes drag from the induced acoustic streaming flow. Both effects are second order and require the solution of the full linearized Navier-Stokes equation in order to be captured correctly. The model shows the transition from streaming drag to radiation force dominated regimes. The transition...
Dadgar, L; Downs, A R; Deng, X; Marois, Y; King, M W; Martin, L; Guidoin, R
1995-01-01
In a previous study, which investigated the tensions at the proximal and distal end-to-end anastomoses of a vascular prosthesis, no significant differences were found in the longitudinal forces between the two anastomotic sites after different periods of implantation. The present follow-up study was devised to study the longitudinal forces at a proximal side-to-end and a distal end-to-side anastomosis using a warp knitted polyester prosthesis implanted as a canine thorocoabdominal bypass. The external surface of the prosthesis contained a specially printed "tension indicator" design, which enabled changes in length to be assessed photographically at the two anastomoses at the time of implantation and at sacrifice. The longitudinal force at each site was then calculated using a relationship obtained experimentally between the total longitudinal force and the changes in length of the virgin graft in vitro. The in vitro measurements on the prosthesis were performed using a computer-controlled laser calibration system. Although the results showed a tendency toward a gradual loss in longitudinal force at both anastomoses over 7 months in situ, statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the longitudinal force at the two anastomotic sites after any period of implantation. Histopathological and textile analysis also showed that the characteristics of the prostheses were similar at both anastomotic sites. This does not mean, however, that the intramural stress concentrations experienced by the two sites were the same. While comparing the level of the longitudinal forces measured in this study with those observed in the previous thoracic aorta study using end-to-end anastomoses, no significant differences were observed due to the different types of anastomoses. It would appear that the longitudinal force is not one of the main etiological factors that cause the formation and localization of anastomotic failure.
Dynamic steering beams for efficient force measurement in optical manipulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaocong Yuan; Yuquan Zhang; Rui Cao; Xing Zhao; Jing Bu; Siwei Zhu
2011-01-01
@@ An efficient and inexpensive method that uses a glass plate mounted onto a motorized rotating stage as a beam-steering device for the generation of dynamic optical traps is reported.Force analysis reveals that there are drag and trapping forces imposed on the bead in the opposite directions, respectively, in a viscous medium.The trapped bead will be rotated following the beam's motion before it reaches the critical escape velocity when the drag force is equal to the optical trapping force.The equilibrium condition facilitates the experimental measurement of the drag force with potential extensions to the determination of the viscosity of the medium or the refractive index of the bead.The proposed technique can easily be integrated into conventional optical microscopic systems with minimum modifications.%An efficient and inexpensive method that uses a glass plate mounted onto a motorized rotating stage as a beam-steering device for the generation of dynamic optical traps is reported. Force analysis reveals that there are drag and trapping forces imposed on the bead in the opposite directions, respectively, in a viscous medium. The trapped bead will be rotated following the beam's motion before it reaches the critical escape velocity when the drag force is equal to the optical trapping force. The equilibrium condition facilitates the experimental measurement of the drag force with potential extensions to the determination of the viscosity of the medium or the refractive index of the bead. The proposed technique can easily be integrated into conventional optical microscopic systems with minimum modifications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongru Zhao
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The vertical migration and accumulation of Microcystis is an important process in water blooms, and colony migration is influenced by colony size and wind-wave disturbance. The vertical migration of Microcystis colonies in turbulence can be simulated in a numerical model. In this study, we model such migration by coupling the colony size and hydrodynamics, including the gravity, colony buoyancy, and the viscous drag force of turbulence. The turbulence intensity was represented by the turbulent kinetic energy (KZ; the larger the KZ, the stronger the wind-wave disturbance. The simulated vertical distribution of Microcystis well agreed with the measured values in a laboratory experiment indicating that our model can simulate the vertical distribution of Microcystis under different hydrodynamic conditions. We also found a size-dependent critical turbulent kinetic energy (TKZ, such that if the turbulent kinetic energy of water exceeds the critical value (i.e., KZ > TKZ, the colonies sink under the drag forces of turbulence; conversely, if KZ < TKZ, the colonies can overcome the turbulent mixing and float. The TKZ of each colony was linearly related to colony diameter. The model is crucial for prediction and prevention of water blooms. The simulated threshold turbulent kinetic energy, at which water blooms disappear in Lake Taihu (a large freshwater lake in the Yangtze Delta, Jiangsu Province, China, was 55.5 cm2 s−2.
Aerodynamic drag reduction of a simplified squareback vehicle using steady blowing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Littlewood, R.P. [LaVisionUK Ltd, Grove, Oxon (United Kingdom); Passmore, M.A. [Loughborough University, Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough (United Kingdom)
2012-08-15
A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle arises from the failure to fully recover pressure in the wake region, especially on squareback configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimisation, but the freedom of an automotive aerodynamicist to implement significant shape changes is limited by a variety of additional factors such styling, ergonomics and loading capacity. Active flow control technologies present the potential to create flow field modifications without the need for external shape changes and have received much attention in previous years within the aeronautical industry and, more recently, within the automotive industry. In this work the influence of steady blowing applied at a variety of angles on the roof trailing edge of a simplified 1/4 scale squareback style vehicle has been investigated. Hot-wire anemometry, force balance measurements, surface pressure measurements and PIV have been used to investigate the effects of the steady blowing on the vehicle wake structures and the resulting body forces. The energy consumption of the steady jet is calculated and is used to deduce an aerodynamic drag power change. Results show that overall gains can be achieved; however, the large mass flow rate required restricts the applicability of the technique to road vehicles. Means by which the mass flow rate requirements of the jet may be reduced are discussed and suggestions for further work put forward. (orig.)
Lift to Drag Ratio Analysis in Magnetic Levitation with an Electrodynamic Wheel
Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian
Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation (MagLev) using simple permanent magnets and conductive tracks. Our investigations used a circular Halbach array with a 1 Tesla variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above or below a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields, which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed a four-inch diameter Electrodynamic Wheel using twelve Neodymium permanent magnets and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW. These forces can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW to produce magnetic levitation without coils and complex control circuitry. We achieved full levitation of the non-magnetic aluminum and copper plates. Our results confirm the expected behavior of lift to drag ratio as proportional to (L/R) ω, with L and R being the inductance and resistance of the track plate, and ω being the angular velocity of the magnetic flux. Supported by grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.
Nation Drag: Uses of the Exotic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Micol Seigel
2009-02-01
Full Text Available
In Uneven Encounters, the forthcoming book from which this article is excerpted, Micol Seigel chronicles the exchange of popular culture between Brazil and the United States in the years between the World Wars, and she demonstrates how that exchange affected ideas of race and nation in both countries. From Americans interpreting advertisements for Brazilian coffee or dancing the Brazilian maxixe, to Rio musicians embracing the “foreign” qualities of jazz, Seigel traces a lively, cultural back-and-forth. Along the way, she shows how race and nation are constructed together, by both non-elites and elites, and gleaned from global cultural and intellectual currents as well as local, regional, and national ones. Seigel explores the circulation of images of Brazilian coffee and of maxixe in the United States during the period just after the imperial expansions of the early twentieth century. Exoticist interpretations structured North Americans’ paradoxical sense of self as productive “consumer citizens.” Some people, however, could not simply assume the privileges of citizenship. In their struggles against racism, Afro-descended citizens living in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, New York, and Chicago encountered images and notions of each other, and found them useful. Seigel introduces readers to cosmopolitan Afro-Brazilians and African Americans who rarely traveled far but who absorbed ideas from abroad nonetheless. African American vaudeville artists saw the utility of pretending to “be” Brazilian to cross the color line on stage. Putting on “nation drag,” they passed not from one race to another but out of familiar racial categories entirely. Afro-Brazilian journalists reported intensively on foreign, particularly North American, news and eventually entered into conversation with the U.S. black press in a collaborative but still conflictual dialogue. Seigel suggests that projects comparing U.S. and
Nation Drag: Uses of the Exotic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Micol Seigel
2009-02-01
Full Text Available In Uneven Encounters, the forthcoming book from which this article is excerpted, Micol Seigel chronicles the exchange of popular culture between Brazil and the United States in the years between the World Wars, and she demonstrates how that exchange affected ideas of race and nation in both countries. From Americans interpreting advertisements for Brazilian coffee or dancing the Brazilian maxixe, to Rio musicians embracing the “foreign” qualities of jazz, Seigel traces a lively, cultural back-and-forth. Along the way, she shows how race and nation are constructed together, by both non-elites and elites, and gleaned from global cultural and intellectual currents as well as local, regional, and national ones. Seigel explores the circulation of images of Brazilian coffee and of maxixe in the United States during the period just after the imperial expansions of the early twentieth century. Exoticist interpretations structured North Americans’ paradoxical sense of self as productive “consumer citizens.” Some people, however, could not simply assume the privileges of citizenship. In their struggles against racism, Afro-descended citizens living in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, New York, and Chicago encountered images and notions of each other, and found them useful. Seigel introduces readers to cosmopolitan Afro-Brazilians and African Americans who rarely traveled far but who absorbed ideas from abroad nonetheless. African American vaudeville artists saw the utility of pretending to “be” Brazilian to cross the color line on stage. Putting on “nation drag,” they passed not from one race to another but out of familiar racial categories entirely. Afro-Brazilian journalists reported intensively on foreign, particularly North American, news and eventually entered into conversation with the U.S. black press in a collaborative but still conflictual dialogue. Seigel suggests that projects comparing U.S. and Brazilian racial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Lan
2017-07-01
Full Text Available It is important to reveal the relations of physical factors to deposition of contaminants on insulator. In this paper, the simulation model of high voltage end of insulator was established to study the force and motion characteristics of particles affected by electric force and airflow drag force near the ultra-high voltage direct current (UHVDC insulator. By finite element method, the electric field was set specially to be similar to the one near practical insulator, the steady fluid field was simulated. The electric force and air drag force were loaded on the uniformly charged particles. The characteristics of the two forces on particles, the relationship between quantity of electric charge on particles and probability of particles contacting the insulator were analyzed. It was found that, near the sheds, airflow drag force on particles is significantly greater than electric force with less electric charge. As the charge multiplies, electric force increases linearly, airflow drag force grows more slowly. There is a trend that the magnitude of electric force and drag force is going to similar. Meanwhile, the probability of particles contacting the insulator is increased too. However, at a certain level of charge which has different value with different airflow velocity, the contact probability has extremum here. After exceeding the value, as the charge increasing, the contact probability decreases gradually.
Wind-Tunnel Investigations of Blunt-Body Drag Reduction Using Forebody Surface Roughness
Whitmore, Stephen A.; Sprague, Stephanie; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Curry, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper presents results of wind-tunnel tests that demonstrate a novel drag reduction technique for blunt-based vehicles. For these tests, the forebody roughness of a blunt-based model was modified using micomachined surface overlays. As forebody roughness increases, boundary layer at the model aft thickens and reduces the shearing effect of external flow on the separated flow behind the base region, resulting in reduced base drag. For vehicle configurations with large base drag, existing data predict that a small increment in forebody friction drag will result in a relatively large decrease in base drag. If the added increment in forebody skin drag is optimized with respect to base drag, reducing the total drag of the configuration is possible. The wind-tunnel tests results conclusively demonstrate the existence of a forebody dragbase drag optimal point. The data demonstrate that the base drag coefficient corresponding to the drag minimum lies between 0.225 and 0.275, referenced to the base area. Most importantly, the data show a drag reduction of approximately 15% when the drag optimum is reached. When this drag reduction is scaled to the X-33 base area, drag savings approaching 45,000 N (10,000 lbf) can be realized.
Ware, Colin; Trites, Andrew W.; Rosen, David A. S.; Potvin, Jean
2016-01-01
Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recen...
The Overall Drag Losses For A Combination of Bodies
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Sabah Al-Janabi
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to obtain better understanding of the flow over a combination of bluff bodies in close enough proximity to strongly interact with each other. This interaction is often beneficial in that the drag of the overall system is reduced. Proto-types for this problem come from tractor- trailer and missiles, and from various add-on devices designed to reduce their drag. Thus, an experimental investigation was carried out by placing conical frontal bodies having a base diameter of 0.65 cylinder diameter with different vertex angles (30°, 50°, 70°, and 90°. It was found that, the bluffer cone with 90° vertex angle gives the best minimum drag, which is 31% lower than the drag of the isolated cylinder. Also an interesting phenomenon was observed in that, the minimum drags for all combinations are obtained at the same gap ratio (i.e.at g/d2= 0.365.
A Conventional Liner Acoustic/Drag Interaction Benchmark Database
Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.
2017-01-01
The aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has become a significant topic in the design of such for aircraft noise applications. In order to evaluate the benefits of concepts designed to reduce liner drag, it is necessary to establish the baseline performance of liners employing the typical design features of conventional configurations. This paper details a set of experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of a number of perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of M=0.3 and 0.5. These conventional liners are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of the resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 Hz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 dB. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the interaction between acoustic performance and drag.
Creating drag and lift curves from soccer trajectories
Goff, John Eric; Kelley, John; Hobson, Chad M.; Seo, Kazuya; Asai, Takeshi; Choppin, S. B.
2017-07-01
Trajectory analysis is an alternative to using wind tunnels to measure a soccer ball’s aerodynamic properties. It has advantages over wind tunnel testing such as being more representative of game play. However, previous work has not presented a method that produces complete, speed-dependent drag and lift coefficients. Four high-speed cameras in stereo-calibrated pairs were used to measure the spatial co-ordinates for 29 separate soccer trajectories. Those trajectories span a range of launch speeds from 9.3 to 29.9 m s-1. That range encompasses low-speed laminar flow of air over a soccer ball, through the drag crises where air flow is both laminar and turbulent, and up to high-speed turbulent air flow. Results from trajectory analysis were combined to give speed-dependent drag and lift coefficient curves for the entire range of speeds found in the 29 trajectories. The average root mean square error between the measured and modelled trajectory was 0.028 m horizontally and 0.034 m vertically. The drag and lift crises can be observed in the plots of drag and lift coefficients respectively.
Theory of Coulomb drag for massless Dirac fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrega, M; Principi, A; Polini, M; Tudorovskiy, T; Katsnelson, M I
2012-01-01
Coulomb drag between two unhybridized graphene sheets separated by a dielectric spacer has recently attracted considerable theoretical interest. We first review, for the sake of completeness, the main analytical results which have been obtained by other authors. We then illustrate pedagogically the minimal theory of Coulomb drag between two spatially separated two-dimensional systems of massless Dirac fermions which are both away from the charge-neutrality point. This relies on second-order perturbation theory in the screened interlayer interaction and on Boltzmann-transport theory. In this theoretical framework and in the low-temperature limit, we demonstrate that, to leading (i.e. quadratic) order in temperature, the drag transresistivity is completely insensitive to the precise intralayer momentum-relaxation mechanism (i.e. to the functional dependence of the transport scattering time on energy). We also provide analytical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for both cases of ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ spacers and for arbitrary values of the dielectric constants of the media surrounding the two Dirac-fermion layers. Finally, we present numerical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for the case when one of the media surrounding the Dirac-fermion layers has a frequency-dependent dielectric constant. We conclude by suggesting an experiment that can potentially allow for the observation of departures from the canonical quadratic-in-temperature behavior of the transresistivity. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gokaltun, Seckin [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Munroe, Norman [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Subramaniam, Shankar [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2014-12-31
This study presents a new drag model, based on the cohesive inter-particle forces, implemented in the MFIX code. This new drag model combines an existing standard model in MFIX with a particle-based drag model based on a switching principle. Switches between the models in the computational domain occur where strong particle-to-particle cohesion potential is detected. Three versions of the new model were obtained by using one standard drag model in each version. Later, performance of each version was compared against available experimental data for a fluidized bed, published in the literature and used extensively by other researchers for validation purposes. In our analysis of the results, we first observed that standard models used in this research were incapable of producing closely matching results. Then, we showed for a simple case that a threshold is needed to be set on the solid volume fraction. This modification was applied to avoid non-physical results for the clustering predictions, when governing equation of the solid granular temperate was solved. Later, we used our hybrid technique and observed the capability of our approach in improving the numerical results significantly; however, improvement of the results depended on the threshold of the cohesive index, which was used in the switching procedure. Our results showed that small values of the threshold for the cohesive index could result in significant reduction of the computational error for all the versions of the proposed drag model. In addition, we redesigned an existing circulating fluidized bed (CFB) test facility in order to create validation cases for clustering regime of Geldart A type particles.
Sudalaimuthu, Vignesh; Liu, Xiaofeng
2017-11-01
A series of wind tunnel aerodynamic force measurements have been conducted on a 2D hollow cylinder with perforated holes uniformly-distributed on its surface to evaluate the efficacy of perforation as a means of passive flow control in reducing unsteady aerodynamic forces. Both smooth and perforated cylinders were tested for comparison at Reynolds numbers ranging from 50,000 to 200,000 corresponding to free stream velocities varying from 5 to 20 m/s (at an increment of 5 m/s) and a cylinder diameter of 0.152 m. The aerodynamic forces acting on the testing model were measured using a 6-component load cell. For each tunnel speed, the test has been repeated for 10 runs at a sampling rate of 10 kHz for 60 seconds each, with a total of 6,000,000 samples acquired for each test. Both mean and r.m.s. values of the lift and drag coefficients were calculated. Power spectral density distributions of the unsteady aerodynamic force loading was analyzed to investigate the effect of the perforation on the frequency composition. Comparisons indicate that the perforated cylinder with a 8% porosity and a hole diameter of about 2% of that of the cylinder gives both substantially less unsteady drag and lift than those of the smooth cylinder for the entire Reynolds number range tested, with the r.m.s. force reduction from 8% to 82% for the drag and 64% to 85% for the lift, confirming a corresponding beneficial reduction in flow-induced cylinder vibration as observed during the experiments. Sponsor: San Diego State University.
Casado-Pascual, Jesús
2018-03-01
The emergence of directed motion is investigated in a system consisting of a sphere immersed in a viscous fluid and subjected to time-periodic forces of zero average. The directed motion arises from the combined action of a nonlinear drag force and the applied driving forces, in the absence of any periodic substrate potential. Necessary conditions for the existence of such directed motion are obtained and an analytical expression for the average terminal velocity is derived within the adiabatic approximation. Special attention is paid to the case of two mutually perpendicular forces with sinusoidal time dependence, one with twice the period of the other. It is shown that, although neither of these two forces induces directed motion when acting separately, when added together, the resultant force generates directed motion along the direction of the force with the shortest period. The dependence of the average terminal velocity on the system parameters is analyzed numerically and compared with that obtained using the adiabatic approximation. Among other results, it is found that, for appropriate parameter values, the direction of the average terminal velocity can be reversed by varying the forcing strength. Furthermore, certain aspects of the observed phenomenology are explained by means of symmetry arguments.
Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Razum, Oliver
2016-11-05
Forced migration has become a world-wide phenomenon in the past century, affecting increasing numbers of countries and people. It entails important challenges from a global health perspective. Leppold et al have critically discussed the Japanese interpretation of global responsibility for health in the context of forced migration. This commentary complements their analysis by outlining three priority areas of global health responsibility for European Union (EU) countries. We highlight important stages of the migration phases related to forced migration and propose three arguments. First, the chronic neglect of the large number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the discourses on the "refugee crisis" needs to be corrected in order to develop sustainable solutions with a framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Second, protection gaps in the global system of protection need to be effectively closed to resolve conflicts with border management and normative global health frameworks. Third, effective policies need to be developed and implemented to meet the health and humanitarian needs of forced migrants; at the same time, the solidarity crisis within the EU needs to be overcome. These stakes are high. EU countries, being committed to global health, should urgently address these areas. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kayvan Bozorgmehr
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Forced migration has become a world-wide phenomenon in the past century, affecting increasing numbers of countries and people. It entails important challenges from a global health perspective. Leppold et al have critically discussed the Japanese interpretation of global responsibility for health in the context of forced migration. This commentary complements their analysis by outlining three priority areas of global health responsibility for European Union (EU countries. We highlight important stages of the migration phases related to forced migration and propose three arguments. First, the chronic neglect of the large number of internally displaced persons (IDPs in the discourses on the “refugee crisis” needs to be corrected in order to develop sustainable solutions with a framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Second, protection gaps in the global system of protection need to be effectively closed to resolve conflicts with border management and normative global health frameworks. Third, effective policies need to be developed and implemented to meet the health and humanitarian needs of forced migrants; at the same time, the solidarity crisis within the EU needs to be overcome. These stakes are high. EU countries, being committed to global health, should urgently address these areas.
Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries
Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.
2016-01-01
Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.
On the energy economics of air lubrication drag reduction
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Simo A. Mäkiharju
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Air lubrication techniques for frictional drag reduction on ships have been proposed by numerous researchers since the 19th century. However, these techniques have not been widely adopted as questions persist about their drag reduction performance beyond the laboratory, as well as energy and economic cost-benefit. This paper draws on data from the literature to consider the suitability of air lubrication for large ocean going and U.S. Great Lakes ships, by establishing the basic energy economic calculations and presenting results for a hypothetical air lubricated ship. All the assumptions made in the course of the analysis are clearly stated so that they can be refined when considering application of air lubrication to a specific ship. The analysis suggests that, if successfully implemented, both air layer and partial cavity drag reduction could lead to net energy savings of 10 to 20%, with corresponding reductions in emissions.
Flexural phonon limited phonon drag thermopower in bilayer graphene
Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz; Ashraf, SSZ
2018-05-01
We investigate the phonon drag thermopower from flexural phonons as a function of electron temperature and carrier concentration in the Bloch-Gruneisen regime in non-strained bilayer graphene using Boltzmann transport equation approach. The flexural phonons are expected to be the major source of intrinsic scattering mechanism in unstrained bilayer graphene due to their large density. The flexural phonon modes dispersion relation is quadratic so these low energy flexural phonons abound at room temperature and as a result deform the bilayer graphene sheet in the out of plane direction and affects the transport properties. We also produce analytical result for phonon-drag thermopower from flexural phonons and find that phonon-drag thermopower depicts T2 dependence on temperature and n-1 on carrier concentration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herwig, Heinz; Schmandt, Bastian
2013-01-01
Internal and external flows are characterized by friction factors and drag coefficients, respectively. Their definitions are based on pressure drop and drag force and thus are very different in character. From a thermodynamics point of view in both cases dissipation occurs which can uniformly be related to the entropy generation in the flow field. Therefore we suggest to account for losses in the flow field by friction factors and drag coefficients that are based on the overall entropy generation due to the dissipation in the internal and external flow fields. This second law analysis (SLA) has been applied to internal flows in many studies already. Examples of this flow category are given together with new cases of external flows, also treated by the general SLA-approach. (paper)
The contact drag of towed demersal fishing gear components
O'Neill, F. G.; Summerbell, K.; Ivanović, A.
2018-01-01
The contact demersal towed fishing gears make with the seabed can lead to penetration of the substrate, lateral displacement of the sediment and a pressure field transmitted through the sediment. It will also contribute to the overall drag of the fishing gear. Consequently, there can be environmental effects such as habitat alteration and benthic mortality, and impacts to the fuel efficiency of the fishing operation which will affect emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases such as CO2. Here we present the results of experimental trials that measure the contact drag of a range of elements that represent some of the components of towed demersal gears that are in contact with the seabed. We show that the contact drag of the gear components depends on their weight, geometry, the type of sediment on which they are towed and whether they are rolling or not. As expected, the contact drag of each gear component increases as its weight increases and the drag of fixed elements is greater than that of the rolling ones. The dependence on aspect ratio is more complex and the drag (per unit area) of narrow cylinders is less than that of wider ones when they roll on the finer sediment or are fixed (not permitted to roll) on the coarser sediment. When they roll on the coarse sediment there is no dependence on aspect ratio. Our results also suggest that fixed components may penetrate the seabed to a lesser depth when they are towed at higher speeds but when they roll there is no such relationship.
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Carlos Alberto Riveros
2014-06-01
Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for the development of a reliable technology for wind turbines in deepwaters.Therefore, offshore wind turbine technology is receiving great amount of attention by the research community. Nevertheless, the dynamic response prediction of the support system for offshore wind turbines is still challenging due to the nonlinear and self-regulated nature of the Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV process. In this paper, the numerical implementation of a computational fluid dynamics-based approach for determination of increased mean drag coefficient is presented. The numerical study is conducted at low values of Keulegan-Carpenter number in order to predict the increment of drag force due to cross-flow motion. The simulation results are then compared with previously developed empirical formulations. Good agreement is observed in these comparisons.
Maroto, J. A.; Dueñas-Molina, J.; de Dios, J.
2005-05-01
Mines of Linares, Jaén, Spain, have been exploited from the age of the Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Romans. These silver and lead mines reached their maximum splendour at the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. Nevertheless, all the mining works finished in the 1970s and the diverse machinery was sold. Only the shafts remain since then which has now permitted carrying out interesting free fall experiments using smooth spheres of both cork and cast iron. The experiments were facilitated by the fact that the tubular shape of the shafts provides excellent transmission of sound, which made feasible the recording of the impact sound of the spheres with water at the bottom of the shafts at distances of up to 200 m. By using these experimental data, we have carried out an evaluation of the drag coefficient for the movement of smooth spheres through the air in the laminar regime with Reynolds number in the interval 103 to 2 × 105. This evaluation was in excellent agreement with the literature data. From the theoretical point of view, the analysis of the free fall movement includes a variety of concepts such as Newton's second law, the drag force, Archimedes principle and the velocity of sound, which makes these experiments very attractive for both physics teachers and physics students at university level. Finally, an easy experiment is proposed in this paper which has permitted an approximate evaluation of the drag coefficient for smooth spheres to be carried out in a laboratory environment.
Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag
Hernández-Saldaña, H.
2017-11-01
Using the hodograph method, we present an analytical solution for projectile coplanar motion under constant drag, parametrised by the velocity angle. We find the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories, and discuss its implementation for the motion of a particle on an inclined plane in presence of Coulomb friction. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically, and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the drag-free case. This is a good example of a problem with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature; it is appropriate for intermediate courses of mechanics.
Development of drag disk and turbines at the INEL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodrich, L.D.; Edson, J.L.; Averill, R.H.
1984-01-01
One of the parameters that must be measured in nuclear safety research is mass flow rate. The reactor environment associated with two-phase flow makes this measurement difficult. To accomplish this at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, a drag disk and turbine transducer conbination was developed. These transducers can withstand >2000 h of continuous operation in the reactor environment. Mechanical problems have been solved with these transducers to the point where the electrical coils are now the limiting factor on lifetime. This paper presents the results of the development of the drag disk and turbine with problems and solutions pointed out
Determination of the drag resistance coefficients of different vehicles
Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik
2018-05-01
While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient c of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but little attention is paid to quantitative measurements. This experiment was driven by the fact that this physical value is most certainly neglected because of its difficult measurability. In addition to that, this experiment gives insights on how the aerodynamic factor of an automobile affects the energy dissipation and thus how much power is required by automobile transportation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balantekin, M., E-mail: mujdatbalantekin@iyte.edu.tr [Electrical and Electronics Engineering, İzmir Institute of Technology, Urla, İzmir 35430 (Turkey); Satır, S.; Torello, D.; Değertekin, F. L. [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)
2014-12-15
We present the proof-of-principle experiments of a high-speed actuation method to be used in tapping-mode atomic force microscopes (AFM). In this method, we do not employ a piezotube actuator to move the tip or the sample as in conventional AFM systems, but, we utilize a Q-controlled eigenmode of a cantilever to perform the fast actuation. We show that the actuation speed can be increased even with a regular cantilever.
Nature of the Venus thermosphere derived from satellite drag measurements (solicited paper)
Keating, G.; Theriot, M.; Bougher, S.
2008-09-01
atmosphere rises on the dayside producing adiabatic cooling and drops on the nightside producing some adiabatic heating. (See figure 1). The thermosphere was discovered from drag measurements to respond to the near 27-day period of the rotating Sun, for which regions of maximum solar activity reappear every 27 days. The increased euv emission from active regions increased temperatures and thermospheric density, (See Figure 2). Fig. 2 Exospheric Temperatures Compared to 10.7cm Solar Index Second diurnal survey (12/5/79 - 3/6/80) Pioneer Venus Orbiter measurements (OAD) 11 day running means [2] Estimates were also made of the response to the 11- year Solar Cycle by combining the Pioneer Venus and Magellan data. Dayside exospheric temperatures changed about 80K over the solar cycle, [8]. Earlier estimates of temperature change gave 70K based on Lyman alpha measurements. The responses to solar variability were much weaker than on Earth due apparently to the much stronger O/CO2 cooling on Venus which tended to act as a thermostat on thermospheric temperatures. Another discovery from drag measurements was the 4 to 5 day oscillation of the Venus thermosphere [3], (See figure 3). These oscillations are interpreted as resulting from the 4-day super-rotation of the atmosphere near the cloud tops. Other indications of the super-rotation of the thermosphere come from displacement of the helium bulge and atomic hydrogen bulge from midnight to near 4AM. Fig. 3 Four to Five Day Oscillations in Thermospheric Densities Magellan 1992. During 2008, the Venus Express periapsis will be dropped from 250km down to approximately 180km to allow drag measurements to be made in the North Polar Region, [9]. Drag measurements above 200km have already been obtained from both Pioneer Venus and Magellan so measurements near 180km should be accurate. In 2009, the periapsis may be decreased to a lower altitude allowing accelerometer measurements to be obtained of drag as a function of altitude, to determine
Drag balance Cubesat attitude motion effects on in-situ thermosphere density measurements
Felicetti, Leonard; Santoni, Fabio
2014-08-01
The dynamics of Cubesats carrying a drag balance instrument (DBI) for in situ atmosphere density measurements is analyzed. Atmospheric drag force is measured by the displacement of two light plates exposed to the incoming particle flow. This system is well suited for a distributed sensor network in orbit, to get simultaneous in situ local (non orbit averaged) measurements in multiple positions and orbit heights, contributing to the development and validation of global atmosphere models. The implementation of the DBI leads to orbit normal pointing spinning two body system. The use of a spin-magnetic attitude control system is suggested, based only on magnetometer readings, contributing to making the system simple, inexpensive, and reliable. It is shown, by an averaging technique, that this system provides for orbit normal spin axis pointing. The effect of the coupling between the attitude dynamics and the DBI is evaluated, analyzing its frequency content and showing that no frequency components arise, affecting the DBI performance. The analysis is confirmed by Monte Carlo numerical simulation results.
Measurements of Drag Coefficients and Rotation Rates of Free-Falling Helixes
Al-Omari, Abdulrhaman A.
2016-05-01
The motion of bacteria in the environment is relevant to several fields. At very small scales and with simple helical shapes, we are able to describe experimentally and mathematically the motion of solid spirals falling freely within a liquid pool. Using these shapes we intend to mimic the motion of bacteria called Spirochetes. We seek to experimentally investigate the linear and the rotational motion of such shapes. A better understanding of the dynamics of this process will be practical not only on engineering and physics, but the bioscience and environmental as well. In the following pages, we explore the role of the shape on the motion of passive solid helixes in different liquids. We fabricate three solid helical shapes and drop them under gravity in water, glycerol and a mixture of 30% glycerol in water. That generated rotation due to helical angle in water. However, we observe the rotation disappear in glycerol. The movement of the solid helical shapes is imaged using a high-speed video camera. Then, the images are analyzed using the supplied software and a computer. Using these simultaneous measurements, we examine the terminal velocity of solid helical shapes. Using this information we computed the drag coefficient and the drag force. We obtain the helical angular velocity and the torque applied to the solid. The results of this study will allow us to more accurately predict the motion of solid helical shape. This analysis will also shed light onto biological questions of bacteria movement.
Schkolnik, Gerard S.
1993-01-01
The application of an adaptive real-time measurement-based performance optimization technique is being explored for a future flight research program. The key technical challenge of the approach is parameter identification, which uses a perturbation-search technique to identify changes in performance caused by forced oscillations of the controls. The controls on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) aircraft were perturbed using inlet cowl rotation steps at various subsonic and supersonic flight conditions to determine the effect on aircraft performance. The feasibility of the perturbation-search technique for identifying integrated airframe-propulsion system performance effects was successfully shown through flight experiments and postflight data analysis. Aircraft response and control data were analyzed postflight to identify gradients and to determine the minimum drag point. Changes in longitudinal acceleration as small as 0.004 g were measured, and absolute resolution was estimated to be 0.002 g or approximately 50 lbf of drag. Two techniques for identifying performance gradients were compared: a least-squares estimation algorithm and a modified maximum likelihood estimator algorithm. A complementary filter algorithm was used with the least squares estimator.
Disturbances to Air-Layer Skin-Friction Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers
Dowling, David; Elbing, Brian; Makiharju, Simo; Wiggins, Andrew; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven
2009-11-01
Skin friction drag on a flat surface may be reduced by more than 80% when a layer of air separates the surface from a flowing liquid compared to when such an air layer is absent. Past large-scale experiments utilizing the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel and a flat-plate test model 3 m wide and 12.9 m long have demonstrated air layer drag reduction (ALDR) on both smooth and rough surfaces at water flow speeds sufficient to reach downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers exceeding 100 million. For these experiments, the incoming flow conditions, surface orientation, air injection geometry, and buoyancy forces all favored air layer formation. The results presented here extend this prior work to include the effects that vortex generators and free stream flow unsteadiness have on ALDR to assess its robustness for application to ocean-going ships. Measurements include skin friction, static pressure, airflow rate, video of the flow field downstream of the injector, and profiles of the flowing air-water mixture when the injected air forms bubbles, when it is in transition to an air layer, and when the air layer is fully formed. From these, and the prior measurements, ALDR's viability for full-scale applications is assessed.
On the variability of sea drag in finite water depth
Toffoli, A.; Loffredo, L.; Le Roy, P.; LefèVre, J.-M.; Babanin, A. V.
2012-11-01
The coupling between the atmospheric boundary layer and the ocean surface in large-scale models is usually parameterized in terms of the sea drag coefficient, which is routinely estimated as a function of mean wind speed. The scatter of data around such parametric dependencies, however, is very significant and imposes a serious limitation on the forecasts and predictions that make use of sea surface drag parameterizations. The analysis of an atmospheric and wave data set collected in finite water depth at the Lake George measurement site (Australia) suggests that this variability relates to a number of parameters at the air-sea interface other than wind speed alone. In particular, results indicate that the sea drag depends on water depth and wave steepness, which make the wave profile more vertically asymmetric, and the concentration of water vapor in the air, which modifies air density and friction velocity. These dependencies are used to derive parametric functions based on the combined contribution of wind, waves and relative humidity. A standard statistical analysis confirms a substantial improvement in the prediction of the drag coefficient and sea surface roughness when additional parameters are taken into account.
Measurements of the Drag Coefficient of Simulated Micrometeoroids
DeLuca, M.; Munsat, T.; Sternovsky, Z.
2017-12-01
The dust accelerator facility operated at the University of Colorado is used to simulate meteoric ablation, including measuring the ionization efficiency over a wide range of velocities (e.g., DeLuca et al., Planet. Space Sci., submitted, 2017). This presentation reports on the most recent experimental measurements of the drag coefficient that determines the particles' slowdown from their frictional interaction with the atmosphere. The measurements indicate that meteors experience considerably more slowdown than usually assumed. The simulated meteors consisted of submicron sized aluminum particles shot into an air chamber held at 200 mTorr pressure at velocities between 1 - 10 km/s using the dust accelerator and meteor ablation facility. The slowdown is calculated from precise timing measurements made using pickup tube detectors placed upstream and near the entrance to the air chamber, and an impact detector inside the air chamber at the downstream end of the chamber. Supporting modeling calculations show that the particles have little or no mass loss during their interaction with air and thus constant radius can be assumed. Preliminary results for the drag coefficient calculated from these timing measurements reveal that the aluminum particles have a drag coefficient of 1.51 ± 0.24 in air, which is higher than typically assumed in meteoric ablation models (usually 0.5 to 1), indicating that meteors may experience more air drag than previously assumed. More detailed measurements over a wider parameter range are underway.
Investigation of drag effect using the field signature method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan, Zhengjun; Liao, Junbi; Tian, Gui Yun; Cheng, Liang
2011-01-01
The potential drop (PD) method is an established non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique. The monitoring of internal corrosion, erosion and cracks in piping systems, based on electrical field mapping or direct current potential drop array, is also known as the field signature method (FSM). The FSM has been applied in the field of submarine pipe monitoring and land-based oil and gas transmission pipes and containers. In the experimental studies, to detect and calculate the degree of pipe corrosion, the FSM analyses the relationships between the electrical resistance and pipe thickness using an electrode matrix. The relevant drag effect or trans-resistance will cause a large margin of error in the application of resistance arrays. It is the first time that the drag effect in the paper is investigated and analysed in resistance networks with the help of the FSM. Subsequently, a method to calculate the drag factors and eliminate its errors is proposed and presented. Theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental results show that the measurement accuracy can be improved by eliminating the errors caused by the drag effect
Plasmon-mediated Coulomb drag between graphene waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shylau, Artsem A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2014-01-01
We analyze theoretically charge transport in Coulomb coupled graphene waveguides (GWGs). The GWGs are defined using antidot lattices, and the lateral geometry bypasses many technological challenges of earlier designs. The drag resistivity ρD, which is a measure of the many-particle interactions...
Drag reduction of dense fine-grained slurries
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Štern, Petr
2010-01-01
Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 261-270 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : kaolin slurry * drag reduction * experimental investigation * peptization * slurry rheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010
Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a box-shaped vehicle
Peterson, R. L.; Sandlin, D. R.
1981-01-01
The intent of the present experiment is to define a near optimum value of drag coefficient for a high volume type of vehicle through the use of a boattail, on a vehicle already having rounded front corners and an underbody seal, or fairing. The results of these tests will constitute a baseline for later follow-on studies to evaluate candidate methods of obtaining afterbody drag coefficients approaching the boattail values, but without resorting to such impractical afterbody extensions. The current modifications to the box-shaped vehicle consisted of a full and truncated boattail in conjunction with the faired and sealed underbody. Drag results from these configurations are compared with corresponding wind tunnel results of a 1/10 scale model. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged up to 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power based on the vehicles length which includes the boattail. A simple coast-down technique was used to define drag.
Experimental investigation of drag reduction by forward facing high ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Substantial aerodynamic drag, while flying at hypersonic Mach number, due to the presence of strong ... atmospheric flight of hypersonic vehicles, large-angle blunt-cone configurations are preferred at the cost of .... This paper is dedicated to Dr P R Viswanath for his contributions to experimental research in aerodynamics.
Drag power kite with very high lift coefficient
Bauer, F.; Kennel, R.M.; Hackl, C.M.; Campagnolo, F.; Patt, M.; Schmehl, R.
2018-01-01
As an alternative to conventional wind turbines, this study considered kites with onboard wind turbines driven by a high airspeed due to crosswind flight (“drag power”). The hypothesis of this study was, that if the kite's lift coefficient is maximized, then the power, energy yield, allowed costs
Design and performance of the drag-disc turbine transducer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averill, R.H.; Goodrich, L.D.; Ford, R.E.
1979-01-01
Mass flow rates at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility, EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, are measured with the drag-disc turbine transducer (DTT). Operational description of the DTT and the developmental effort are discussed. Performance data and experiences with this transducer have been evaluated and are presented in this paper
Investigation into the Mechanism of Polymer Thread Drag Reduction
1990-01-01
They conducted experiments in a 3.75 cm diameter pipe, Re = 85,000, where they injected drag reducing solutions of guar gum and polyacrylamide, P-295 a...manufactured by Dow Chemical. Concentrations of 5000 ppm and 466 ppm based on weight were used in the experiments. The dry powder was suspended in 300
Deconstructing Hub Drag. Part 2. Computational Development and Anaysis
2013-09-30
leveraged a Vertical Lift Consortium ( VLC )-funded hub drag scaling research effort. To confirm this objective, correlations are performed with the...Technology™ Demonstrator aircraft using an unstructured computational solver. These simpler faired elliptical geome- tries can prove to be challenging ...possible. However, additional funding was obtained from the Vertical Lift Consortium ( VLC ) to perform this study. This analysis is documented in
Clock transport synchronisation and the dragging of inertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenblum, Arnold
1987-01-01
It is shown that it is possible, by using the lack of synchronisation of clocks by clock transport synchronisation in circular orbits, to test for the dragging of inertial frames in Einstein's theory of general relativity. Possible experiments are discussed. (author)
1980-09-01
where 4BD represents the instantaneous effect of the body, while OFS represents the free surface disturbance generated by the body over all previous...acceleration boundary condition. This deter- mines the time-derivative of the body-induced component of the flow, 4BD (as well as OBD through integration...panel with uniform density ei acting over a surface of area Ai is replaced by a single point source with strength s i(t) - A i(a i(t n ) + (t-t n ) G( td
Drag reduction of nata de coco suspensions in circular pipe flow
Warashina, J.; Ogata, S.
2015-04-01
Reducing pipe friction by adding a drag-reducing agent has attracted interest as a means to reduce energy consumption. In addition to reducing drag, these agents are required to have a low environmental load and conserve natural resources. However, no drag-reducing agent currently satisfies both these conditions. We focused on nata de coco and found that the nata de coco fiber reduced drag by up to 25%. With respect to the mechanism of drag reduction by nata de coco fiber, the relationship between drag-reduction phenomena and the fiber form of nata de coco was investigated by visualization. We also found that the drag-reduction effect appeared to be due to the formation of networks of tangled fibers of nata de coco. However, drag reduction did not occur in the case in which fibers of nata de coco did not form networks.
An Aerodynamic Database for the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag Bomb
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Krishnamoorthy, L
1997-01-01
The drag database of the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag bomb, the primary gravity weapon in the RAAF inventory, has some shortcomings in the quality and traceability of data, and in the variations due...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamp, G.; Regan, P.; Ninesteel, R.; Martin, R.
1988-01-01
Kelly Air Force Base (AFB), which was founded in 1917, is involved in logistics and maintenance activities supporting the Air Logistics Command. In addition, Kelly AFB hosts over 50 tenant organizations representing the Air Force, Department of Defense, and other government agencies. Over the years waste disposal from this complex was conducted in a manner that led to the identification of over 30 sites to be included in the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) after the Phase 1 investigation. A methodology was needed to prioritize the Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities for the sites. A Strategy Plan was developed that involved reviewing and interpreting existing data, identifying data voids relative to site specific RI/FS activities, and developing methodology to prioritize activities. Sites were prioritized, and a comprehensive IRP planning document was developed. One data deficiency was revealed -- the lack of understanding of the Basewide hydrogeologic conditions necessary to establish an effective restoration program. A Hydrogeologic Investigation was initiated to provide this data. This data will allow better interpretation of the interaction of the sites, particularly those in close proximity, and improved planning of remediation activities
Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum
Ha, Dong Keun
The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.
Mechanism of drag reduction for circular cylinders with patterned surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butt, U.; Jehring, L.; Egbers, C.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Reduced drag of patterned cylinders over a wide range of Re numbers. • Hexagonal patterns cannot be characterized as roughness structures. • Hexagonal bumps affect the flow like spherical dimples of smaller k/d ratio do. • Main separation is delayed caused by a partial separation. • Angle of a separation line is not constant over the length of cylinder. -- Abstract: In this paper, the flow over cylinders with a patterned surface (k/d = 1.98 × 10 −2 ) is investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel over Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.14 × 10 4 to 2.77 × 10 5 by measuring drag, flow visualization and measuring velocity profiles above the surface of the cylinders, to observe the effect of hexagonal patterns on the flow of air. These patterns can also be referred as hexagonal dimples or bumps depending on their configuration. The investigations revealed that a patterned cylinder with patterns pressed outwards has a drag coefficient of about 0.65 times of a smooth one. Flow visualization techniques including surface oil-film technique and velocity profile measurement were employed to elucidate this effect, and hence present the mechanism of drag reduction. The measurement of velocity profiles using hot-wire anemometry above the surface reveal that a hexagonal bump cause local separation generating large turbulence intensity along the separating shear layer. Due to this increased turbulence, the flow reattaches to the surface with higher momentum and become able to withstand the pressure gradient delaying the main separation significantly. Besides that, the separation does not appear to occur in a straight line along the length of the cylinder as in case of most passive drag control methods, but follow exactly the hexagonal patterns forming a wave with its crest at 115° and trough at 110°, in contrast to the laminar separation line at 85° for a smooth cylinder
Negative Knudsen force on heated microbeams
Zhu, Taishan; Ye, Wenjing; Zhang, Jun
2011-01-01
Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam adjacent to a cold substrate in a rarefied gas is a mechanical force created by unbalanced thermal gradients. The measured force has its direction pointing towards the side with a lower thermal gradient
Hydrodynamic Forces from Steep Waves in Rivers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loevoll, A.
1996-12-31
The reservoir behind a hydroelectric power production dam has an enormous potential for destruction in case of a dam break. The present doctoral thesis evaluates the hydrodynamic forces from steep waves in rivers. In the laboratory, forces on a structure shaped as a vertical cylinder of rectangular cross section were measured, and the threshold condition for the bed sediment was investigated. A wave parameter {alpha} is introduced to describe the gradient of a wave front. The flow condition in the flume was reproduced by a 3-D numerical model. For various values of the wave parameter the forces were measured and compared to the drag force calculated from measured depth and velocity. From these comparisons the hydrodynamic force can be calculated as drag only, even in the case of a breaking wave front. The contribution from inertia relative to drag depends on the size of the structure. For larger structures the contributions may be important in steep waves. To study the initiation of motion (of sediments) under unsteady flow, waves of various parameter values were passed over a gravel covered bed. The initiation of motion starts before the peak of the wave, and is given by Shield`s relation if the friction slope is applied. No dependence upon the wave gradient was found. A relation was established which gives the critical shear stress if the friction slope is estimated by the bottom slope. 65 refs., 41 figs., 10 tabs.
Hydrodynamic Forces from Steep Waves in Rivers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loevoll, A.
1996-01-01
The reservoir behind a hydroelectric power production dam has an enormous potential for destruction in case of a dam break. The present doctoral thesis evaluates the hydrodynamic forces from steep waves in rivers. In the laboratory, forces on a structure shaped as a vertical cylinder of rectangular cross section were measured, and the threshold condition for the bed sediment was investigated. A wave parameter α is introduced to describe the gradient of a wave front. The flow condition in the flume was reproduced by a 3-D numerical model. For various values of the wave parameter the forces were measured and compared to the drag force calculated from measured depth and velocity. From these comparisons the hydrodynamic force can be calculated as drag only, even in the case of a breaking wave front. The contribution from inertia relative to drag depends on the size of the structure. For larger structures the contributions may be important in steep waves. To study the initiation of motion (of sediments) under unsteady flow, waves of various parameter values were passed over a gravel covered bed. The initiation of motion starts before the peak of the wave, and is given by Shield's relation if the friction slope is applied. No dependence upon the wave gradient was found. A relation was established which gives the critical shear stress if the friction slope is estimated by the bottom slope. 65 refs., 41 figs., 10 tabs
Stokes drag on a disc with a Navier slip condition near a plane wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherwood, J D
2013-01-01
The Stokes drag and couple acting on a disc moving through incompressible Newtonian fluid are investigated for the case when the fluid obeys a Navier slip condition, with slip length b, on the surface of the disc. The fluid is bounded by an infinite plane wall on which there is no slip. The disc, of zero thickness and radius a, is parallel to the wall and distance h from it. Analyses are presented for the limits h ≫ a and h ≪ a; results for intermediate values of the separation h are obtained numerically by means of Tranter's method. The resistance coefficients for translation normal to the disc surface, and for rotation about a diameter, are unaffected by slip when the disc lies in unbounded fluid, but all resistance coefficients depend upon the slip length b when the disc is close to the wall. Their dependence on h becomes weak when b ≫ a. (paper)
Drag reduction in a turbulent channel flow using a passivity-based approach
Heins, Peter; Jones, Bryn; Sharma, Atul
2013-11-01
A new active feedback control strategy for attenuating perturbation energy in a turbulent channel flow is presented. Using a passivity-based approach, a controller synthesis procedure has been devised which is capable of making the linear dynamics of a channel flow as close to passive as is possible given the limitations on sensing and actuation. A controller that is capable of making the linearized flow passive is guaranteed to globally stabilize the true flow. The resulting controller is capable of greatly restricting the amount of turbulent energy that the nonlinearity can feed back into the flow. DNS testing of a controller using wall-sensing of streamwise and spanwise shear stress and actuation via wall transpiration acting upon channel flows with Reτ = 100 - 250 showed significant reductions in skin-friction drag.
DNS of fully developed turbulent heat transfer of a viscoelastic drag-reducing flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Bo [Department of Oil and Gas Storage and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Kawaguchi, Yasuo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)
2005-10-01
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent heat transfer in a channel flow with a Giesekus model was carried out to investigate turbulent heat transfer mechanism of a viscoelastic drag-reducing flow by additives. The configuration was a fully-developed turbulent channel flow with uniform heat flux imposed on both the walls. The temperature was considered as a passive scalar with the effect of buoyancy force neglected. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and half the channel height was 150. Statistical quantities such as root-mean-square temperature fluctuations, turbulent heat fluxes and turbulent Prandtl number were obtained and compared with those of a Newtonian fluid flow. Budget terms of the temperature variance and turbulent heat fluxes were also presented. (author)
Collisional drag may lead to disappearance of wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2013-01-01
The inhomogeneity in the magnetic field in a cold electron-ion non-dissipative homogeneous plasma leads to the breaking of lower hybrid modes via phase mixing phenomenon [Maity et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 102302 (2012)]. In this work, we show that an inclusion of collisional drag force in fluid equations may lead to the disappearance of the wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations. The nonlinear analysis in Lagrangian variables provides an expression for a critical value of damping rate, above which spikes in the plasma density profile may disappear. The critical damping rate depends on the perturbation and magnetic field inhomogeneity amplitudes as well as the ratio of the magnetic field inhomogeneity and perturbation scale lengths.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lhotka, Christoph; Bourdin, Philippe; Narita, Yasuhito, E-mail: christoph.lhotka@oeaw.ac.at, E-mail: philippe.bourdin@oeaw.ac.at, E-mail: yasuhito.narita@oeaw.ac.at [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)
2016-09-01
We investigate the combined effect of solar wind, Poynting–Robertson drag, and the frozen-in interplanetary magnetic field on the motion of charged dust grains in our solar system. For this reason, we derive a secular theory of motion by the means of an averaging method and validate it with numerical simulations of the unaveraged equations of motions. The theory predicts that the secular motion of charged particles is mainly affected by the z -component of the solar magnetic axis, or the normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field leads to an increase or decrease of semimajor axis depending on its functional form and sign of charge of the dust grain. It is generally accepted that the combined effects of solar wind and photon absorption and re-emmision (Poynting–Robertson drag) lead to a decrease in semimajor axis on secular timescales. On the contrary, we demonstrate that the interplanetary magnetic field may counteract these drag forces under certain circumstances. We derive a simple relation between the parameters of the magnetic field, the physical properties of the dust grain, as well as the shape and orientation of the orbital ellipse of the particle, which is a necessary conditions for the stabilization in semimajor axis.
Geyman, John P
2015-01-01
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted in 2010 as the signature domestic achievement of the Obama presidency. It was intended to contain costs and achieve near-universal access to affordable health care of improved quality. Now, five years later, it is time to assess its track record. This article compares the goals and claims of the ACA with its actual experience in the areas of access, costs, affordability, and quality of care. Based on the evidence, one has to conclude that containment of health care costs is nowhere in sight, that more than 37 million Americans will still be uninsured when the ACA is fully implemented in 2019, that many more millions will be underinsured, and that profiteering will still dominate the culture of U.S. health care. More fundamental reform will be needed. The country still needs to confront the challenge that our for-profit health insurance industry, together with enormous bureaucratic waste and widespread investor ownership throughout our market-based system, are themselves barriers to health care reform. Here we consider the lessons we can take away from the ACA's first five years and lay out the economic, social/political, and moral arguments for replacing it with single-payer national health insurance. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julieta A. Díaz-Juárez
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH, apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver “pool.” Moreover, liver enzyme release depended on extracellular calcium entry possibly mediated by stretch-sensitive calcium channels, and this endothelial-mediated mechanotransduction in liver enzyme release was also evidenced by modifying the glycocalyx carbohydrate components, directionality of perfusing flow rate, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO and malondialdehyde (MDA, leading to modifications in the intracellular distribution of these enzymes mainly as nuclear enrichment of “mitochondrial” enzymes. In conclusion, the flow-induced shear stress may provide fine-tuned control of released hepatic enzymes through mediation by the endothelium glycocalyx, which provides evidence of a biological role of the enzyme release rather to be merely a biomarker for evaluating hepatotoxicity and liver damage, actually positively influencing progression of liver regeneration in mammals.
Moffies, artists, and queens: race and the production of South African gay male drag.
Swarr, Amanda Lock
2004-01-01
This article draws on seventeen months of ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa to explore the experiences of urban and township drag performers. I show that two distinct sex-gender-sexuality systems have emerged based in the sociopolitical history of South Africa, and I argue that urban drag produces race oppositionally and examine how township femininity creates raced forms of gender, sex, and sexuality. Contemporary South African drag foregrounds the performativity and constitution of race and gender. My analysis attempts to challenge definitions of "drag" and "audience," suggesting the necessity for an integrated reconceptualization of drag studies.
Experimental Investigation of the Fresnel Drag Effect in RF Coaxial Cables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brotherton D.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An experiment that confirms the Fresnel drag formalism in RF coaxial cables is reported. The Fresnel "drag" in bulk dielectrics and in optical fibers has previously been well established. An explanation for this formalism is given, and it is shown that there is no actual drag phenomenon, rather that the Fresnel drag effect is merely the consequence of a simplified description of EM scattering within a dielectric in motion wrt the dynamical 3-space. The Fresnel drag effect plays a critical role in the design of various light-speed anisotropy detectors.
Controlling turbulent drag across electrolytes using electric fields.
Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Lee, Alpha A
2017-07-01
Reversible in operando control of friction is an unsolved challenge that is crucial to industrial tribology. Recent studies show that at low sliding velocities, this control can be achieved by applying an electric field across electrolyte lubricants. However, the phenomenology at high sliding velocities is yet unknown. In this paper, we investigate the hydrodynamic friction across electrolytes under shear beyond the transition to turbulence. We develop a novel, highly parallelised numerical method for solving the coupled Navier-Stokes Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation. Our results show that turbulent drag cannot be controlled across dilute electrolytes using static electric fields alone. The limitations of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism hint at ways in which turbulent drag could be controlled using electric fields.
Intershell resistance in multiwall carbon nanotubes: A Coulomb drag study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lunde, Anders Mathias; Flensborg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2005-01-01
We calculate the intershell resistance R-21 in a multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F) (e.g., a gate voltage), varying the chirality of the inner and outer tubes. This is done in a so-called Coulomb drag setup, where a current I-1 in one shell induces...... a voltage drop V-2 in another shell by the screened Coulomb interaction between the shells neglecting the intershell tunneling. We provide benchmark results for R-21 = V2/I-1 within the Fermi liquid theory using Boltzmann equations. The band structure gives rise to strongly chirality-dependent suppression...... effects for the Coulomb drag between different tubes due to selection rules combined with mismatching of wave vector and crystal angular momentum conservation near the Fermi level. This gives rise to orders of magnitude changes in R-21 and even the sign of R-21 can change depending on the chirality...
Wave drag reduction due to a self-aligning aerodisk
Schnepf, Ch.; Wysocki, O.; Schülein, E.
2015-06-01
The effect of a self-aligning aerodisk on the wave drag of a blunt slender body in a pitching maneuver has been numerically investigated. The self-alignment was realized by a coupling of the flow solver and a flight mechanics tool. The slender body was pitched with high repetition rate between α = 0° and 20° at M = 1.41. Even at high α, the concept could align the aerodisk to the oncoming flow. In comparison to the reference body without a self-aligning aerodisk, a distinct drag reduction is achieved. A comparison with existing experimental data shows a qualitatively good agreement considering the shock and separation structure and the kinematics of the aerodisk.
Bioinspired superhydrophobic, self-cleaning and low drag surfaces
Bhushan, Bharat
2013-09-01
Nature has evolved objects with desired functionality using commonly found materials. Nature capitalizes on hierarchical structures to achieve functionality. The understanding of the functions provided by objects and processes found in nature can guide us to produce nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes with desirable functionality. This article provides an overview of four topics: (1) Lotus Effect used to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning/antifouling surfaces with low adhesion, (2) Shark Skin Effect to develop surfaces with low fluid drag and anti-fouling characteristics, and (3-4) Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Effect to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces with low drag. Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wings combine the Shark Skin and Lotus Effects.
Drag reduction by dimples? - A complementary experimental/numerical investigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lienhart, Hermann; Breuer, Michael; Koeksoy, Cagatay
2008-01-01
The paper is concerned with an experimental and numerical investigation of the turbulent flow over dimpled surfaces. Shallow dimples distributed regularly over the wall of a plane channel with large aspect ratio are used to study their effect on the friction drag. The resulting pressure drop in the channel was measured for smooth and dimpled walls. In addition to these investigations on internal flows, an external flow study was performed and boundary-layer profiles were measured using a Pitot-tube rake. Complementary to the measurements, direct numerical simulations for the internal flow configuration with and without dimples were carried out for two different grid resolutions and analyzed in detail. The objective was to clarify whether or not dimples cause reduction of the skin-friction drag
Suboptimal control for drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Jung Il; Sung, Hyung Jin; Xu, Chun Xiao
2001-01-01
A suboptimal control law in turbulent pipe flow is derived and tested. Two sensing variables ∂ρ/∂θ / w and ∂ν θ /∂r / w are applied with two actuations φ θ and φ γ . To test the suboptimal control law, direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow at Re τ =150 are performed. When the control law is applied, a 13∼23% drag reduction is achieved. The most effective drag reduction is made at the pair of ∂υ θ /∂r / w and φ γ . An impenetrable virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall suction and blowing. The virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall behavior of the controlled flow. Comparison of the present suboptimal control with that of turbulent channel flow reveals that the curvature effect is insignificant
Physics and control of wall turbulence for drag reduction.
Kim, John
2011-04-13
Turbulence physics responsible for high skin-friction drag in turbulent boundary layers is first reviewed. A self-sustaining process of near-wall turbulence structures is then discussed from the perspective of controlling this process for the purpose of skin-friction drag reduction. After recognizing that key parts of this self-sustaining process are linear, a linear systems approach to boundary-layer control is discussed. It is shown that singular-value decomposition analysis of the linear system allows us to examine different approaches to boundary-layer control without carrying out the expensive nonlinear simulations. Results from the linear analysis are consistent with those observed in full nonlinear simulations, thus demonstrating the validity of the linear analysis. Finally, fundamental performance limit expected of optimal control input is discussed.
Effect of truncated cone roughness element density on hydrodynamic drag
Womack, Kristofer; Schultz, Michael; Meneveau, Charles
2017-11-01
An experimental study was conducted on rough-wall, turbulent boundary layer flow with roughness elements whose idealized shape model barnacles that cause hydrodynamic drag in many applications. Varying planform densities of truncated cone roughness elements were investigated. Element densities studied ranged from 10% to 79%. Detailed turbulent boundary layer velocity statistics were recorded with a two-component LDV system on a three-axis traverse. Hydrodynamic roughness length (z0) and skin-friction coefficient (Cf) were determined and compared with the estimates from existing roughness element drag prediction models including Macdonald et al. (1998) and other recent models. The roughness elements used in this work model idealized barnacles, so implications of this data set for ship powering are considered. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.
Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles
Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan
2009-01-01
Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.
Stokes’ and Lamb's viscous drag laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eames, I; Klettner, C A
2017-01-01
Since Galileo used his pulse to measure the time period of a swinging chandelier in the 17th century, pendulums have fascinated scientists. It was not until Stokes' (1851 Camb. Phil. Soc. 9 8–106) (whose interest was spurred by the pendulur time pieces of the mid 19th century) treatise on viscous flow that a theoretical framework for the drag on a sphere at low Reynolds number was laid down. Stokes' famous drag law has been used to determine two fundamental physical constants—the charge on an electron and Avogadro's constant—and has been used in theories which have won three Nobel prizes. Considering its illustrious history it is then not surprising that the flow past a sphere and its two-dimensional analog, the flow past a cylinder, form the starting point of teaching flow past a rigid body in undergraduate level fluid mechanics courses. Usually starting with the two-dimensional potential flow past a cylinder, students progress to the three-dimensional potential flow past a sphere. However, when the viscous flow past rigid bodies is taught, the three-dimensional example of a sphere is first introduced, and followed by (but not often), the two-dimensional viscous flow past a cylinder. The reason why viscous flow past a cylinder is generally not taught is because it is usually explained from an asymptotic analysis perspective. In fact, this added mathematical complexity is why the drag on a cylinder was only solved in 1911, 60 years after the drag on a sphere. In this note, we show that the viscous flow past a cylinder can be explained without the need to introduce any asymptotic analysis while still capturing all the physical insight of this classic fluid mechanics problem. (paper)
Thermal lift generation and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics
Pekardan, Cem; Alexeenko, Alina
2016-11-01
With the advent of the new technologies in low pressure environments such as Hyperloop and helicopters designed for Martian applications, understanding the aerodynamic behavior of airfoils in rarefied environments are becoming more crucial. In this paper, verification of rarefied ES-BGK solver and ideas such as prediction of the thermally induced lift and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics are investigated. Validation of the rarefied ES-BGK solver with Runge-Kutta discontinous Galerkin method with experiments in transonic regime with a Reynolds number of 73 showed that ES-BGK solver is the most suitable solver in near slip transonic regime. For the quantification of lift generation, A NACA 0012 airfoil is studied with a high temperature surface on the bottom for the lift creation for different Knudsen numbers. It was seen that for lower velocities, continuum solver under predicts the lift generation when the Knudsen number is 0.00129 due to local velocity gradients reaching slip regime although lift coefficient is higher with the Boltzmann ES-BGK solutions. In the second part, the feasibility of using thermal transpiration for drag reduction is studied. Initial study in drag reduction includes an application of a thermal gradient at the upper surface of a NACA 0012 airfoil near trailing edge at a 12-degree angle of attack and 5 Pa pressure. It was seen that drag is reduced by 4 percent and vortex shedding frequency is reduced due to asymmetry introduced in the flow due to temperature gradient causing reverse flow due to thermal transpiration phenomena.
Biomimetics inspired surfaces for drag reduction and oleophobicity/philicity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bharat Bhushan
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature and possess properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical surface roughness and presence of a wax layer. In addition to a self-cleaning effect, these surfaces with a high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. An aquatic animal, such as a shark, is another model from nature for the reduction of drag in fluid flow. The artificial surfaces inspired from the shark skin and lotus leaf have been created, and in this article the influence of structure on drag reduction efficiency is reviewed. Biomimetic-inspired oleophobic surfaces can be used to prevent contamination of the underwater parts of ships by biological and organic contaminants, including oil. The article also reviews the wetting behavior of oil droplets on various superoleophobic surfaces created in the lab.
The influence of numerical models on determining the drag coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dobeš Josef
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with numerical modelling of body aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow regimes, where the selection of a suitable numerical model is problematic. On the basic problem of flow around a simple body – sphere selected computational models are tested. The values obtained by numerical simulations of drag coefficients of each model are compared with the graph of dependency of the drag coefficient vs. Reynolds number for a sphere. Next the dependency of Strouhal number vs. Reynolds number is evaluated, where the vortex shedding frequency values for given speed are obtained numerically and experimentally and then the values are compared for each numerical model and experiment. The aim is to specify trends for the selection of appropriate numerical model for flow around bodies problem in which the precise description of the flow field around the obstacle is used to define the acoustic noise source. Numerical modelling is performed by finite volume method using CFD code.
Drag reduction: enticing turbulence, and then an industry.
Spalart, Philippe R; McLean, J Douglas
2011-04-13
We examine drag-reduction proposals, as presented in this volume and in general, first with concrete examples of how to bridge the distance from pure science through engineering to what makes inventions go into service; namely, the value to the public. We point out that the true drag reduction can be markedly different from an estimate based simply on the difference between turbulent and laminar skin friction over the laminarized region, or between the respective skin frictions of the baseline and the riblet-treated flow. In some situations, this difference is favourable, and is due to secondary differences in pressure drag. We reiterate that the benefit of riblets, if it is expressed as a percentage in skin-friction reduction, is unfortunately lower at full-size Reynolds numbers than in a small-scale experiment or simulation. The Reynolds number-independent measure of such benefits is a shift of the logarithmic law, or 'ΔU(+)'. Anticipating the design of a flight test and then a product, we note the relative ease in representing riblets or laminarization in computational fluid dynamics, in contrast with the huge numerical and turbulence-modelling challenge of resolving active flow control systems in a calculation of the full flow field. We discuss in general terms the practical factors that have limited applications of concepts that would appear more than ready after all these years, particularly riblets and laminar-flow control.
Drag reduction of a reverse-engineered vehicle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lecrivain, G.; Slaouti, A.; Kennedy, I. [Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering and Technology
2007-08-09
The aerodynamic performance of a hand-made sports car was numerically assessed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of various shape modifications. The purpose was to achieve a lower drag design. Reverse-engineering was used to create a virtual model of complex 3D shapes for which no computer-aided drawings (CAD) data existed. From the predicted flow, the body could be redesigned for better performance prior to its remanufacturing. This paper described the multidisciplinary procedure involving reverse-engineering and CAD that was used to recreate a suitable watertight model of the sports car. The different errors embedded in the successive stages leading to the final model were accurately assessed and minimized. The whole vehicle was remodelled for drag reduction. Surface reconstruction was carried out, an an accurate set of high quality Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surfaces was produced over the polygonal mesh resulting in a fine visual surface finish with smooth lines and contours, as required in the automotive industry. Further modifications were implemented for the purpose of drag reduction and to improve its aerodynamic performance. The application described in this paper can be extended to any other similarly intricate vehicle or industrial component. 12 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.
Aerodynamic drag control by pulsed jets on simplified car geometry
Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine
2013-02-01
Aerodynamic drag control by pulsed jets is tested in a wind tunnel around a simplified car geometry named Ahmed body with a rear slant angle of 35°. Pulsed jet actuators are located 5 × 10-3 m from the top of the rear window. These actuators are produced by a pressure difference ranging from 1.5 to 6.5 × 105 Pa. Their excitation frequency can vary between 10 and 550 Hz. The analysis of the control effects is based on wall visualizations, aerodynamic drag coefficient measurements, and the velocity fields obtained by 2D PIV measurements. The maximum drag reduction is 20 % and is obtained for the excitation frequency F j = 500 Hz and for the pressure difference ∆ P = 1.5 × 105 Pa. This result is linked with a substantial reduction in the transverse development of the longitudinal vortex structures coming from the left and right lateral sides of the rear window, with a displacement of the vortex centers downstream and with a decrease in the transverse rotational absolute values of these structures.
The elaborate plumage in peacocks is not such a drag.
Askew, Graham N
2014-09-15
One of the classic examples of an exaggerated sexually selected trait is the elaborate plumage that forms the train in male peafowl Pavo cristatus (peacock). Such ornaments are thought to reduce locomotor performance as a result of their weight and aerodynamic drag, but this cost is unknown. Here, the effect that the train has on take-off flight in peacocks was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the potential and kinetic energies of the body (P(CoM)) in birds with trains and following the train's removal. There was no significant difference between P(CoM) in birds with and without a train. The train incurs drag during take-off; however, while this produces a twofold increase in parasite drag, parasite power only accounts for 0.1% of the total aerodynamic power. The train represented 6.9% of body weight and is expected to increase induced power. The absence of a detectable effect on take-off performance does not necessarily mean that there is no cost associated with possessing such ornate plumage; rather, it suggests that given the variation in take-off performance per se, the magnitude of any effect of the train has little meaningful functional relevance. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
5th Drag Reduction in Engineering Flows Meeting
1991-01-01
The European Drag Reduction Meeting has been held on 15th and 16th November 1990 in London. This was the fifth of the annual European meetings on drag reduction in engineering flows. The main objective of this meeting was to discuss up-to-date results of drag reduction research carried out in Europe. The organiser has adopted the philosophy of discussing the yesterday's results rather than the last year's results. No written material has therefore been requested for the meeting. It was only after the meeting the submission of papers was requested to the participants, from which 16 papers were selected for this proceedings volume. The meeting has attracted a record number of participants with a total of 52 researchers from seven European countries, U. K. , France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland and U. S. S. R. as well as from Japan, Canada and Australia. The subjects covered in this proceedings volume include riblets, LEBUs (Large Eddy Break-Up device), surface roughness, compliant surfaces and p...
Coordination of multiple appendages in drag-based swimming.
Alben, Silas; Spears, Kevin; Garth, Stephen; Murphy, David; Yen, Jeannette
2010-11-06
Krill are aquatic crustaceans that engage in long distance migrations, either vertically in the water column or horizontally for 10 km (over 200,000 body lengths) per day. Hence efficient locomotory performance is crucial for their survival. We study the swimming kinematics of krill using a combination of experiment and analysis. We quantify the propulsor kinematics for tethered and freely swimming krill in experiments, and find kinematics that are very nearly metachronal. We then formulate a drag coefficient model which compares metachronal, synchronous and intermediate motions for a freely swimming body with two legs. With fixed leg velocity amplitude, metachronal kinematics give the highest average body speed for both linear and quadratic drag laws. The same result holds for five legs with the quadratic drag law. When metachronal kinematics is perturbed towards synchronous kinematics, an analysis shows that the velocity increase on the power stroke is outweighed by the velocity decrease on the recovery stroke. With fixed time-averaged work done by the legs, metachronal kinematics again gives the highest average body speed, although the advantage over synchronous kinematics is reduced.
Airfoil Drag Reduction using Controlled Trapped Vorticity Concentrations
Desalvo, Michael; Glezer, Ari
2017-11-01
The aerodynamic performance of a lifting surface at low angles of attack (when the base flow is fully attached) is improved through fluidic modification of its ``apparent'' shape by superposition of near-surface trapped vorticity concentrations. In the present wind tunnel investigations, a controlled trapped vorticity concentration is formed on the pressure surface of an airfoil (NACA 4415) using a hybrid actuator comprising a passive obstruction of scale O(0.01c) and an integral synthetic jet actuator. The jet actuation frequency [Stact O(10)] is selected to be at least an order of magnitude higher than the characteristic unstable frequency of the airfoil wake, thereby decoupling the actuation from the global instabilities of the base flow. Regulation of vorticity accumulation in the vicinity of the actuator by the jet effects changes in the local pressure, leading in turn to changes in the airfoil's drag and lift. Trapped vorticity can lead to a significant reduction in drag and reduced lift (owing to the sense of the vorticity), e.g. at α =4° and Re = 6.7 .105 the drag and lift reductions are 14% and 2%, respectively. PIV measurements show the spatial variation in the distribution of vorticity concentrations and yield estimates of the corresponding changes in circulation.
Role of Elasto-Inertial Turbulence in Polymer Drag Reduction
Dubief, Yves; Sid, Samir; Terrapon, Vincent
2017-11-01
Elasto-Inertial Turbulence (EIT) is a peculiar state of turbulence found in dilute polymer solutions flowing in parallel wall flows over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. At subcritical Reynolds numbers, appropriate boundary conditions trigger EIT, a self-sustaining cycle of energy transfers between thin sheets of stretched polymers and velocity perturbations, which translates into an increase of friction drag. For critical and supercritical Reynolds numbers, polymer additives may lead to significant drag reduction, bounded by the asymptotic state known as Maximum Drag Reduction (MDR). The present research investigates the role of EIT in the dynamics of critical and supercritical Reynolds number wall flows. Using high-fidelity direct numerical simulations of channel flows and the FENE-P model, we establish that (i) EIT is two-dimensional, (ii) the scales essential to the existence of EIT are sub-Kolmogorov, and (iii) EIT drives MDR at low and possibly moderate Reynolds number turbulent flows. These findings were validated in two different codes and using unprecedented resolutions for polymer flows. YD is grateful for the support of Binational Science Foundation. SS and VT acknowledges Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), MarieCurie Career Integration Grant and computing allocation from University of Liege and PRACE.
Perturbed Partial Cavity Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers
Makiharju, Simo; Elbing, Brian; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven
2010-11-01
Ventilated partial cavities were investigated at Reynolds numbers to 80 million. These cavities could be suitable for friction drag reduction on ocean going vessels and thereby lead to environmental and economical benefits. The test model was a 3.05 m wide by 12.9 m long flat plate, with a 0.18 m backward-facing step and a cavity-terminating beach, which had an adjustable slope, tilt and height. The step and beach trapped a ventilated partial cavity over the longitudinal mid-section of the model. Large-scale flow perturbations, mimicking the effect of ambient ocean waves were investigated. For the conditions tested a cavity could be maintained under perturbed flow conditions when the gas flux supplied was greater than the minimum required to maintain a cavity under steady conditions, with larger perturbations requiring more excess gas flux to maintain the cavity. High-speed video was used to observe the unsteady three dimensional cavity closure, the overall cavity shape, and the cavity oscillations. Cavities with friction drag reduction exceeding 95% were attained at optimal conditions. A simplified energy cost-benefit analysis of partial cavity drag reduction was also performed. The results suggest that PCDR could potentially lead to energy savings.
Solar and Drag Sail Propulsion: From Theory to Mission Implementation
Johnson, Les; Alhorn, Dean; Boudreaux, Mark; Casas, Joe; Stetson, Doug; Young, Roy
2014-01-01
Solar and drag sail technology is entering the mainstream for space propulsion applications within NASA and around the world. Solar sails derive propulsion by reflecting sunlight from a large, mirror- like sail made of a lightweight, reflective material. The continuous sunlight pressure provides efficient primary propulsion, without the expenditure of propellant or any other consumable, allowing for very high V maneuvers and long-duration deep space exploration. Drag sails increase the aerodynamic drag on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft, providing a lightweight and relatively inexpensive approach for end-of-life deorbit and reentry. Since NASA began investing in the technology in the late 1990's, significant progress has been made toward their demonstration and implementation in space. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) managed the development and testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems and rigorously tested them under simulated space conditions in the Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. One of these systems, developed by L'Garde, Inc., is planned for flight in 2015. Called Sunjammer, the 38m sailcraft will unfurl in deep space and demonstrate solar sail propulsion and navigation as it flies to Earth-Sun L1. In the Flight Center (MSFC) managed the development and testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems and rigorously tested them under simulated space conditions in the Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. One of these systems, developed by L'Garde, Inc., is planned for flight in 2015. Called Sunjammer, the 38m sailcraft will unfurl in deep space and demonstrate solar sail propulsion and navigation as it flies to Earth-Sun L1. In the interim, NASA MSFC funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale drag sail system designed for small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D flew aboard the Fast Affordable Science and Technology SATellite (FASTSAT) in 2010, also developed by MSFC
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Lateral migration of a microdroplet under optical forces in a uniform flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Hyunjun; Chang, Cheong Bong; Jung, Jin Ho; Sung, Hyung Jin
2014-01-01
The behavior of a microdroplet in a uniform flow and subjected to a vertical optical force applied by a loosely focused Gaussian laser beam was studied numerically. The lattice Boltzmann method was applied to obtain the two-phase flow field, and the dynamic ray tracing method was adopted to calculate the optical force. The optical forces acting on the spherical droplets agreed well with the analytical values. The numerically predicted droplet migration distances agreed well with the experimentally obtained values. Simulations of the various flow and optical parameters showed that the droplet migration distance nondimensionalized by the droplet radius is proportional to the S number (z d /r p = 0.377S), which is the ratio of the optical force to the viscous drag. The effect of the surface tension was also examined. These results indicated that the surface tension influenced the droplet migration distance to a lesser degree than the flow and optical parameters. The results of the present work hold for the refractive indices of the mean fluid and the droplet being 1.33 and 1.59, respectively
Sun, Xi-wan; Guo, Zhen-yun; Huang, Wei; Li, Shi-bin; Yan, Li
2017-02-01
The drag reduction and thermal protection system applied to hypersonic re-entry vehicles have attracted an increasing attention, and several novel concepts have been proposed by researchers. In the current study, the influences of performance parameters on drag and heat reduction efficiency of combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept has been investigated numerically. The Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the SST k-ω turbulence model have been employed to calculate its surrounding flowfields, and the first-order spatially accurate upwind scheme appears to be more suitable for three-dimensional flowfields after grid independent analysis. Different cases of performance parameters, namely jet operating conditions, freestream angle of attack and physical dimensions, are simulated based on the verification of numerical method, and the effects on shock stand-off distance, drag force coefficient, surface pressure and heat flux distributions have been analyzed. This is the basic study for drag reduction and thermal protection by multi-objective optimization of the combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept in hypersonic flows in the future.
Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Shukla, Ratnesh K.
2013-08-01
An analysis of the energy budget for the general case of a body translating in a stationary fluid under the action of an external force is used to define a power loss coefficient. This universal definition of power loss coefficient gives a measure of the energy lost in the wake of the translating body and, in general, is applicable to a variety of flow configurations including active drag reduction, self-propulsion and thrust generation. The utility of the power loss coefficient is demonstrated on a model bluff body flow problem concerning a two-dimensional elliptical cylinder in a uniform cross-flow. The upper and lower boundaries of the elliptic cylinder undergo continuous motion due to a prescribed reflectionally symmetric constant tangential surface velocity. It is shown that a decrease in drag resulting from an increase in the strength of tangential surface velocity leads to an initial reduction and eventual rise in the power loss coefficient. A maximum in energetic efficiency is attained for a drag reducing tangential surface velocity which minimizes the power loss coefficient. The effect of the tangential surface velocity on drag reduction and self-propulsion of both bluff and streamlined bodies is explored through a variation in the thickness ratio (ratio of the minor and major axes) of the elliptical cylinders.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cha, Dowon; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Soon; Kim, Yongchan
2015-01-01
The clamping force should be applied to a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell due to its structural characteristics. The clamping force affects the ohmic and mass transport resistances in the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the effects of the clamping force on the water transport and performance characteristics of a PEM fuel cell are experimentally investigated with variations in the relative humidity and current density. The water transport characteristics were analyzed by calculating the net drag coefficient. The ohmic resistance decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to the reduced contact resistance and more even membrane hydration. However, the mass transport resistance increased with the increase in the clamping force due to the gas diffusion layer compression. The net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to high water back-diffusion. Additionally, the relationship between the total resistance and the net drag coefficient was investigated. - Highlights: • Effects of clamping force on the performance of a PEM fuel cell are investigated. • Water transport characteristics are analyzed using net drag coefficient. • Ohmic resistance decreased with clamping force, but mass transport resistance increased. • Net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in clamping force. • Total resistance was significantly degraded for a net drag coefficient below 0.2.
Summary of Data from the Sixth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop: CRM Cases 2 to 5
Tinoco, Edward N.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Keye, Stefan; Laflin, Kelly R.; Feltrop, Edward; Vassberg, John C.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.;
2017-01-01
Results from the Sixth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop Common Research Model Cases 2 to 5 are presented. As with past workshops, numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant geometry, methodology, and test cases. Cases 2 to 5 focused on force/moment and pressure predictions for the NASA Common Research Model wing-body and wing-body-nacelle-pylon configurations, including Case 2 - a grid refinement study and nacelle-pylon drag increment prediction study; Case 3 - an angle-of-attack buffet study; Case 4 - an optional wing-body grid adaption study; and Case 5 - an optional wing-body coupled aero-structural simulation. The Common Research Model geometry differed from previous workshops in that it was deformed to the appropriate static aeroelastic twist and deflection at each specified angle-of-attack. The grid refinement study used a common set of overset and unstructured grids, as well as user created Multiblock structured, unstructured, and Cartesian based grids. For the supplied common grids, six levels of refinement were created resulting in grids ranging from 7x10(exp 6) to 208x10(exp 6) cells. This study (Case 2) showed further reduced scatter from previous workshops, and very good prediction of the nacelle-pylon drag increment. Case 3 studied buffet onset at M=0.85 using the Medium grid (20 to 40x10(exp 6) nodes) from the above described sequence. The prescribed alpha sweep used finely spaced intervals through the zone where wing separation was expected to begin. Although the use of the prescribed aeroelastic twist and deflection at each angle-of-attack greatly improved the wing pressure distribution agreement with test data, many solutions still exhibited premature flow separation. The remaining solutions exhibited a significant spread of lift and pitching moment at each angle-of-attack, much of which can be attributed to excessive aft pressure loading and shock location variation. Four Case 4 grid adaption solutions were submitted. Starting
Temporal variability of gravity wave drag - vertical coupling and possible climate links
Miksovsky, Jiri; Sacha, Petr; Kuchar, Ales; Pisoft, Petr
2017-04-01
In the atmosphere, the internal gravity waves (IGW) are one of the fastest ways of natural information transfer in the vertical direction. Tropospheric changes that result in modification of sourcing, propagation or breaking conditions for IGWs almost immediately influence the distribution of gravity wave drag in the stratosphere. So far most of the related studies deal with IGW impacts higher in the upper stratospheric/mesospheric region and with the modulation of IGWs by planetary waves. This is most likely due to the fact that IGWs induce highest accelerations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. However, the imposed drag force is much bigger in the stratosphere. In the presented analysis, we have assessed the relationship between the gravity wave activity in the stratosphere and other climatic phenomena through statistical techniques. Multivariable regression has been applied to investigate the IGW-related eastward and northward wind tendencies in the CMAM30-SD data, subject to the explanatory variables involving local circulation characteristics (derived from regional configuration of the thermobaric field) as well as the phases of the large-scale internal climate variability modes (ENSO, NAO, QBO). Our tests have highlighted several geographical areas with statistically significant responses of the orographic gravity waves effect to each of the variability modes under investigation; additional experiments have also indicated distinct signs of nonlinearity in some of the links uncovered. Furthermore, we have also applied composite analysis of displaced and split stratospheric polar vortex events (SPV) from CMAM30-SD to focus on how the strength and occurrence of the IGW hotspots can play a role in SPV occurrence and frequency.
Dynamics Modeling and first Design of Drag-Free Controller for ASTROD I
Li, H.; Theil, S.; Pettazzi, L.; Guilherme, M.-S.; Ni, W.-T.
The Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices I ASTROD I mainly aims at testing relativistic gravity and measuring the solar-system parameters with high precision by carrying out laser ranging between a spacecraft in a solar orbit and ground stations It is the first step of ASTROD with 3 spacecraft In order to design the Drag-Free and Attitude Control system DFACS for the spacecraft a numerical simulator of spacecraft and test mass dynamics as well as models of main forces and torques are established using Matlab Simulink The aims of the DFACS are to reduce the acceleration disturbance on the test mass to a level of 10 -13 m cdot s -2 cdot Hz -1 2 at a frequency of 0 1 mHz in one axis and keep the telescope pointing to the ground stations on the earth The dynamics of spacecraft and test mass is a coupled multiple degree of freedom non-linear system So the first step of the DFACS design is to reduce the order of the system with assumptions without loss of generality Then the system is linearized at nominal state With the linear state space model of the system a Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator LQG is derived LQR and the feed-forward of a constant disturbance constitute the controller This paper will present the numerical simulator and the first drag-free controller design for ASTROD I It will show the development of the simulator the derivation of the controller as well as first simulation results
Minimizing tip-sample forces in jumping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega-Esteban, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Horcas, I. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Hernando-Perez, M. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ares, P. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Perez-Berna, A.J.; San Martin, C.; Carrascosa, J.L. [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CNB-CSIC), Darwin 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pablo, P.J. de [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, J., E-mail: julio.gomez@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2012-03-15
Control and minimization of tip-sample interaction forces are imperative tasks to maximize the performance of atomic force microscopy. In particular, when imaging soft biological matter in liquids, the cantilever dragging force prevents identification of the tip-sample mechanical contact, resulting in deleterious interaction with the specimen. In this work we present an improved jumping mode procedure that allows detecting the tip-sample contact with high accuracy, thus minimizing the scanning forces ({approx}100 pN) during the approach cycles. To illustrate this method we report images of human adenovirus and T7 bacteriophage particles which are prone to uncontrolled modifications when using conventional jumping mode. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement in atomic force microscopy in buffer solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak force detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subtracting the cantilever dragging force. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forces in the 100 pN range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging of delicate viruses with atomic force microscopy.
Sawyer, Richard H.; Trant, James P., Jr.
1950-01-01
An investigation was made by the NACA wing-flow method to determine the drag, pitching-moment, lift, and angle-of-attack characteristics at transonic speeds of various configurations of a semispan model of an early configuration of the XF7U-1 tailless airplane. The results of the tests indicated that for the basic configuration with undeflected ailavator, the zero-lift drag rise occurred at a Mach number of about 0.85 and that about a five-fold increase in drag occurred through the transonic speed range. The results of the tests also indicated that the drag increment produced by -8.0 degrees deflection of the ailavator increased with increase in normal-force coefficient and was smaller at speeds above than at speeds below the drag rise. The drag increment produced by 35 degree deflection of the speed brakes varied from 0.040 to 0.074 depending on the normal-force coefficient and Mach number. These values correspond to drag coefficients of about 0.40 and 0.75 based on speed-brake frontal area. Removal of the fin produced a small positive drag increment at a given normal-force coefficient at speeds during the drag rise. A large forward shift of the neutral-point location occurred at Mach numbers above about 0.90 upon removal of the fin, and also a considerable forward shift throughout the Mach number range occurred upon deflection of the speed brakes. Ailavator ineffectiveness or reversal at low deflections, similar to that determined in previous tests of the basic configuration of the model in the Mach number range from about 0.93 to 1.0, was found for the fin-off configuration and for the model equipped with skewed (more highly sweptback) hinge-line ailavators. With the speed brakes deflected, little or no loss in the incremental pitching moment produced by deflection of the ailavator from O degrees to -8.00 degrees occurred in the Mach number range from 0.85 to 1.0 in contrast to a considerable loss found in previous tests with the speed brakes off.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
Part II of This Act came into force on 1 September 1983 and is concerned with nuclear installations. Its main purpose is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to give effect to the provisions of two Protocols amending the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention respectively. The principal effect of these modifications is to increase the sums available to meet claims for nuclear damage. The United Kingdom is a Party to both Conventions and the provisions of the 1983 Act will enable it to ratify the Protocols. (NEA) [fr
Analysis of Satellite Drag Coefficient Based on Wavelet Transform
Liu, Wei; Wang, Ronglan; Liu, Siqing
Abstract: Drag coefficient sequence was obtained by solving Tiangong1 continuous 55days GPS orbit data with different arc length. The same period solar flux f10.7 and geomagnetic index Ap ap series were high and low frequency multi-wavelet decomposition. Statistical analysis results of the layers sliding correlation between space environmental parameters and decomposition of Cd, showed that the satellite drag coefficient sequence after wavelet decomposition and the corresponding level of f10.7 Ap sequence with good lag correlation. It also verified that the Cd prediction is feasible. Prediction residuals of Cd with different regression models and different sample length were analysed. The results showed that the case was best when setting sample length 20 days and f10.7 regression model were used. It also showed that NRLMSIS-00 model's response in the region of 350km (Tiangong's altitude) and low-middle latitude (Tiangong's inclination) is excessive in ascent stage of geomagnetic activity Ap and is inadequate during fall off segment. Additionally, the low-frequency decomposition components NRLMSIS-00 model's response is appropriate in f10.7 rising segment. High frequency decomposition section, Showed NRLMSIS-00 model's response is small-scale inadequate during f10.7 ascent segment and is reverse in decline of f10.7. Finally, the potential use of a summary and outlook were listed; This method has an important reference value to improve the spacecraft orbit prediction accuracy. Key words: wavelet transform; drag coefficient; lag correlation; Tiangong1;space environment
Drag reduction of motor vehicles by active flow control using the Coanda effect
Geropp, D.; Odenthal, H.-J.
A test facility has been constructed to realistically simulate the flow around a two dimensional car shaped body in a wind tunnel. A moving belt simulator has been employed to generate the relative motion between model and ground. In a first step, the aerodynamic coefficients cL and cD of the model are determined using static pressure and force measurements. LDA-measurements behind the model show the large vortex and turbulence structures of the near and far wake. In a second step, the ambient flow around the model is modified by way of an active flow control which uses the Coanda effect, whereby the base-pressure increases by nearly 50% and the total drag can be reduced by 10%. The recirculating region is completely eliminated. The current work reveals the fundamental physical phenomena of the new method by observing the pressure forces on the model surface as well as the time averaged velocities and turbulence distributions for the near and far wake. A theory resting on this empirical information is developed and provides information about the effectiveness of the blowing method. For this, momentum and energy equations were applied to the flow around the vehicle to enable a validation of the theoretical results using experimental values.
Satellite Orbit Under Influence of a Drag - Analytical Approach
Martinović, M. M.; Šegan, S. D.
2017-12-01
The report studies some changes in orbital elements of the artificial satellites of Earth under influence of atmospheric drag. In order to develop possibilities of applying the results in many future cases, an analytical interpretation of the orbital element perturbations is given via useful, but very long expressions. The development is based on the TD88 air density model, recently upgraded with some additional terms. Some expressions and formulae were developed by the computer algebra system Mathematica and tested in some hypothetical cases. The results have good agreement with iterative (numerical) approach.
Drag Reduction trough Special paints Coated on the hull
Izaguirre Alza, Patricia; Pérez Rojas, Luis; Núñez Basáñez, José Fernando
2010-01-01
The economic recession, the environmental impact as well as the continuous fossil fuel consumption encourage actions that focus on saving energy. In the vessels sector, one of the main objectives has always been to reach a hydro-dynamically optimum hull which gave the desired speed with minimum power. Hydrodynamic drag is basically divided into two parts: a) the friction between the water and the hull, and b) the wave generation due to the free-surface air-water. Presented in this paper...
Drag prediction for blades at high angle of attack using CFD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Michelsen, J.A.
2004-01-01
In the present paper it is first demonstrated that state of the art 3D CFD codes are. capable of predicting the correct dependency of the integrated drag of a flat plate placed perpendicular to the flow. This is in strong contrast to previous 2D investigations of infinite plates, where computations...... are known to severely overpredict drag. We then demonstrate that the computed drag distribution along the plate span deviate from the general expectation of 2D behavior at the central part of the plate, an important finding in connection with the theoretical estimation of drag behavior on wind turbine...... blades. The computations additionally indicate that a tip effect is present that produces increased drag near the end of the plate, which is opposite of the assumptions generally used in drag estimation for blades. Following this several wind turbine blades are analyzed, ranging from older blades...
Frictional Magneto-Coulomb Drag in Graphene Double-Layer Heterostructures.
Liu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Lei; Fong, Kin Chung; Gao, Yuanda; Maher, Patrick; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hone, James; Dean, Cory; Kim, Philip
2017-08-04
Coulomb interaction between two closely spaced parallel layers of conductors can generate the frictional drag effect by interlayer Coulomb scattering. Employing graphene double layers separated by few-layer hexagonal boron nitride, we investigate density tunable magneto- and Hall drag under strong magnetic fields. The observed large magnetodrag and Hall-drag signals can be related with Laudau level filling status of the drive and drag layers. We find that the sign and magnitude of the drag resistivity tensor can be quantitatively correlated to the variation of magnetoresistivity tensors in the drive and drag layers, confirming a theoretical formula for magnetodrag in the quantum Hall regime. The observed weak temperature dependence and ∼B^{2} dependence of the magnetodrag are qualitatively explained by Coulomb scattering phase-space argument.
Aerodynamic Efficiency Analysis on Modified Drag Generator of Tanker-Ship Using Symmetrical Airfoil
Moranova, Starida; Rahmat Hadiyatul A., S. T.; Indra Permana S., S. T.
2018-04-01
Time reduction of tanker ship spent in the sea should be applied for solving problems occured in oil and gas distribution, such as the unpunctuality of the distribution and oil spilling. The aerodynamic design for some parts that considered as drag generators is presumed to be one of the solution, utilizing our demand of the increasing speed. This paper suggests two examples of the more-aerodynamic design of a part in the tanker that is considered a drag generator, and reports the value of drag generated from the basic and the suggested aerodynamic designs. The new designs are made by adding the NACA airfoil to the cross section of the drag generator. The scenario is assumed with a 39 km/hour speed of tanker, neglecting the hydrodynamic effects occured in the tanker by cutting it at the waterline which separated the drag between air and water. The results of produced drag in each design are calculated by Computational Fluid Dynamic method.
Ad/dressing the nation: drag and authenticity in post-apartheid South Africa.
Spruill, Jennifer
2004-01-01
This paper examines a style of drag in South Africa that features "traditional African" clothing. In a region in which homosexuality is denigrated as a colonial, European import and "unAfrican," the meaning of "traditional drag" is deeply inflected by the question of cultural authenticity. This dragging practice fits within a distinctly post-colonial production of tradition and its self-conscious display--in the form of attire--of a decidedly "gay" one. Traditional drag also responds to ongoing politics within and between lesbian and gay communities about racial "representivity" and "transformation." The paper focuses on displays of traditional drag at Johannesburg's Gay and Lesbian Pride Parade but also explores the complex politics of publicity and address suggested by varying contexts in which traditional dress and drag are mobilized.
Hypersonic wave drag reduction performance of cylinders with repetitive laser energy depositions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang, J; Hong, Y J; Li, Q; Huang, H
2011-01-01
It has been widely research that wave drag reduction on hypersonic vehicle by laser energy depositions. Using laser energy to reduce wave drag can improve vehicle performance. A second order accurate scheme based on finite-difference method and domain decomposition of structural grid is used to compute the drag performance of cylinders in a hypersonic flow of Mach number 2 at altitude of 15km with repetitive energy depositions. The effects of frequency on drag reduction are studied. The calculated results show: the recirculation zone is generated due to the interaction between bow shock over the cylinder and blast wave produced by energy deposition, and a virtual spike which is supported by an axis-symmetric recirculation, is formed in front of the cylinder. By increasing the repetitive frequency, the drag is reduced and the oscillation of the drag is decreased; however, the energy efficiency decreases by increasing the frequency.
Synthetic Effect of Vivid Shark Skin and Polymer Additive on Drag Reduction Reinforcement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huawei Chen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Natural shark skin has a well-demonstrated drag reduction function, which is mainly owing to its microscopic structure and mucus on the body surface. In order to improve drag reduction, it is necessary to integrate microscopic drag reduction structure and drag reduction agent. In this study, two hybrid approaches to synthetically combine vivid shark skin and polymer additive, namely, long-chain grafting and controllable polymer diffusion, were proposed and attempted to mimic such hierarchical topography of shark skin without waste of polymer additive. Grafting mechanism and optimization of diffusion port were investigated to improve the efficiency of the polymer additive. Superior drag reduction effects were validated, and the combined effect was also clarified through comparison between drag reduction experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen-Xing Jiang
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Natural supercavitations in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution were numerically simulated using unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS scheme with mixture-multiphase model. The Cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the fluid property of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The characteristics of natural supercavity configuration and overall resistance of the navigating body were presented, respectively. The numerical simulation results indicated that, at the same cavitation number, the length and diameter of supercavity in drag-reducing solution are larger than those in water, and the drag coefficient of navigating body in solution is smaller than that in water; the surface tension plays an important role in incepting and maintaining the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitation, drag reduction, and decrease of turbulent vortex structures. Numerical simulation results are consistent with the available experimental data.
Solomon, Rance; Cooper, James; Welker, Gabriel; Aguilar, Elaura; Flanagan, Brooke; Pennycuff, Chelsey; Scott, David; Farone, Anthony; Farone, Mary; Erenso, Daniel; Mushi, Robert; del Pilar Aguinaga, Maria
2013-06-01
Genetic mutation of the β-globin gene or inheritance of this mutated gene changes the chemical composition of the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule that could lead to either the heterozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell trait (SCT), or the homozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell anemia (SCA). These mutations could affect the reversible elastic deformations of the red blood cells (RBCs) which are vital for biological functions. We have investigated this effect by studying the differences in the deformability of RBCs from blood samples of an individual with SCT and an untreated patient with SCA along with hemoglobin quantitation of each blood sample. Infrared 1064 nm laser trap force along with drag shear force are used to induce deformation in the RBCs. Ultra2-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is used for the hemoglobin quantitation.
The status of foreign forces in Afghanistan post 2014
Voetelink, J.E.D.
2015-01-01
On 30 September 2014 the long-awaited Bilateral Security Agreement (BSA) between Afghanistan and the US and the post-2014 Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) between Afghanistan and NATO were signed, ending a process that dragged on for almost two years. While the media often stress that the
High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E.
2014-01-01
The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10−100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed
High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E., E-mail: Tilman.Schaeffer@uni-tuebingen [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)
2014-07-15
The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10−100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.
Significance of relative velocity in the estimation of drag force of a tethered spherical float
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vethamony, P; Sastry, J.S.
stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Ocean_Eng_20_449.pdf.txt stream_source_info Ocean_Eng_20_449.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...
Theory of superfluidity and drag force in the one-dimensional Bose gas
Cherny, A.Y.; Caux, J.-S.; Brand, J.
2012-01-01
The one-dimensional Bose gas is an unusual superfluid. In contrast to higher spatial dimensions, the existence of non-classical rotational inertia is not directly linked to the dissipationless motion of infinitesimal impurities. Recently, experimental tests with ultracold atoms have begun and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutton, C.
1989-01-01
Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)
On the influence of drag effect on acoustic modes in two-condensate relativistic superfluid systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vil'chinskij, S.I.
1999-01-01
Equations of velocities of acoustic excitations in a relativistic two-condensate superfluid system are derived with due account of reciprocal drag of superfluid motion (drag effect). The influence of the drag effect on acoustic modes in the system is considered. It is shown that the effect does not influence the nature of acoustic excitation oscillations but produces changes in the velocities of the second, third and fourth sounds
Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water
Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev
2015-07-24
We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.
Experimental and numerical investigation of low-drag intervals in turbulent boundary layer
Park, Jae Sung; Ryu, Sangjin; Lee, Jin
2017-11-01
It has been widely investigated that there is a substantial intermittency between high and low drag states in wall-bounded shear flows. Recent experimental and computational studies in a turbulent channel flow have identified low-drag time intervals based on wall shear stress measurements. These intervals are a weak turbulence state characterized by low-speed streaks and weak streamwise vortices. In this study, the spatiotemporal dynamics of low-drag intervals in a turbulent boundary layer is investigated using experiments and simulations. The low-drag intervals are monitored based on the wall shear stress measurement. We show that near the wall conditionally-sampled mean velocity profiles during low-drag intervals closely approach that of a low-drag nonlinear traveling wave solution as well as that of the so-called maximum drag reduction asymptote. This observation is consistent with the channel flow studies. Interestingly, the large spatial stretching of the streak is very evident in the wall-normal direction during low-drag intervals. Lastly, a possible connection between the mean velocity profile during the low-drag intervals and the Blasius profile will be discussed. This work was supported by startup funds from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water
Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T
2015-01-01
We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.
Modelling of Structural Loads in Drag Augmented Space Debris Removal Concepts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm
2017-01-01
A Self-deployable Deorbiting Space Structure (SDSS) is used for drag augmented space debris removal. A highly flexible frame allows for a folding of the structure by bifurcation. This research models the structural loads during the deployment and unfolding of the drag sail in Low Earth Orbit (LEO......). The Spacecraft travels with 7.8 km/s at deployment. As the drag sail unfolds instantaneously the structure must withstand the loads from the unfolding and the drag. Thermal loads are included in the FEA as the temperature varies from -80°C to +80°C during deorbit. The results are used to verify the structural...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brockmann, E.; John, H.; Reimann, J.
1983-01-01
Drag bodies have already been used for sometime for the measurement of mass flow rates in blowdown experiments. Former research concerning the drag body behaviour in non-homogeneous two-phase flows frequently dealt with special effects by means of theoretical models only. For pipe flows most investigations were conducted for ratios of drag plate area to pipe cross section smaller 0.02. The present paper gives the results of experiments with drag bodies in a horizontal, non-homogeneous two-phase pipe flow with slip, which were carried through under the sponsorship of the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). Special interest was layed on the behaviour of the drag coefficient in stationary flows and at various cross sectional ratios. Both design and response of various drag bodies, which were developed at the Battelle-Institut, were tested in stationary and instationary two-phase flows. The influences of density and velocity profiles as well as the drag body position were studied. The results demonstrate, that the drag body is capable of measuring mass flow rates in connection with a gamma densitometer also in non-homogeneous two-phase flows. Satisfying results could be obtained, using simply the drag coefficient which was determined from single-phase flow calibrations
Concentrated energy addition for active drag reduction in hypersonic flow regime
Ashwin Ganesh, M.; John, Bibin
2018-01-01
Numerical optimization of hypersonic drag reduction technique based on concentrated energy addition is presented in this study. A reduction in wave drag is realized through concentrated energy addition in the hypersonic flowfield upstream of the blunt body. For the exhaustive optimization presented in this study, an in-house high precision inviscid flow solver has been developed. Studies focused on the identification of "optimum energy addition location" have revealed the existence of multiple minimum drag points. The wave drag coefficient is observed to drop from 0.85 to 0.45 when 50 Watts of energy is added to an energy bubble of 1 mm radius located at 74.7 mm upstream of the stagnation point. A direct proportionality has been identified between energy bubble size and wave drag coefficient. Dependence of drag coefficient on the upstream added energy magnitude is also revealed. Of the observed multiple minimum drag points, the energy deposition point (EDP) that offers minimum wave drag just after a sharp drop in drag is proposed as the most optimum energy addition location.
Monte Carlo calculations of the free-molecule drag on chains of uniform spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahneke, B.; Chan, P.
1980-01-01
Monte Carlo calculations of the free-molecule drag on straight chains of uniform spheres are presented. The drag on a long chain is expressed in terms of the drag on a basic chain unit (two hemispheres touching at their poles) multiplied by the number of spheres in the chain. Since there is no interaction between the basic chain units, it is argued that the results also apply as a good approximation to the drag on kinked and branched chains covering a broad range of geometries. Experimental data are cited which support this claim
Experimental Investigation of the Fresnel Drag Effect in RF Coaxial Cables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An experiment that confirms the Fresnel drag formalism in RF coaxial cables is re- ported. The Fresnel ‘drag’ in bulk dielectrics and in optical fibers has previously been well established. An explanation for this formalism is given, and it is shown that there is no actual drag phenomenon, rather that the Fresnel drag effect is merely the conse- quence of a simplified description of EM scattering within a dielectric in motion wrt the dynamical 3-space. The Fresnel drag effect plays a critical role in the design of various light-speed anisotropy detectors.
Bluff-body drag reduction using a deflector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fourrie, Gregoire; Keirsbulck, Laurent; Labraga, Larbi [Univ Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); UVHC, TEMPO, Valenciennes (France); Gillieron, Patrick [Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Renault Group, Research Division, Guyancourt (France)
2011-02-15
A passive flow control on a generic car model was experimentally studied. This control consists of a deflector placed on the upper edge of the model rear window. The study was carried out in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers based on the model height of 3.1 x 10{sup 5} and 7.7 x 10{sup 5}. The flow was investigated via standard and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, Kiel pressure probes and surface flow visualization. The aerodynamic drag was measured using an external balance and calculated using a wake survey method. Drag reductions up to 9% were obtained depending on the deflector angle. The deflector increases the separated region on the rear window. The results show that when this separated region is wide enough, it disrupts the development of the counter-rotating longitudinal vortices appearing on the lateral edges of the rear window. The current study suggests that flow control on such geometries should consider all the flow structures that contribute to the model wake flow. (orig.)
Bluff-body drag reduction using a deflector
Fourrié, Grégoire; Keirsbulck, Laurent; Labraga, Larbi; Gilliéron, Patrick
2011-02-01
A passive flow control on a generic car model was experimentally studied. This control consists of a deflector placed on the upper edge of the model rear window. The study was carried out in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers based on the model height of 3.1 × 105 and 7.7 × 105. The flow was investigated via standard and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, Kiel pressure probes and surface flow visualization. The aerodynamic drag was measured using an external balance and calculated using a wake survey method. Drag reductions up to 9% were obtained depending on the deflector angle. The deflector increases the separated region on the rear window. The results show that when this separated region is wide enough, it disrupts the development of the counter-rotating longitudinal vortices appearing on the lateral edges of the rear window. The current study suggests that flow control on such geometries should consider all the flow structures that contribute to the model wake flow.
CAPTURE OF PLANETESIMALS BY GAS DRAG FROM CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Suetsugu, Ryo; Tanigawa, Takayuki
2013-01-01
Growing giant planets have circumplanetary disks around them in the late stage of their formation if their mass is sufficiently large. We examine capture of relatively large planetesimals that are decoupled from the gas inflow, due to gas drag from a circumplanetary disk of a growing giant planet. Assuming that the structure of the circumplanetary disk is axisymmetric, and solving the three-body problem including gas drag, we perform analytic and numerical calculations for capture of planetesimals. When planetesimal random velocity is small, planetesimals approaching in the retrograde direction are more easily captured, owing to their larger velocity relative to the gas. Planetesimals with large orbital inclinations interact with the disk for a short period of time and show lower capture rates. The effect of ablation on capture rates seems insignificant, although mass loss due to ablation would be significant in the case of high random velocity. We also examine the effect of non-uniform radial distribution of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk due to gap opening by the planet. When the random velocity of planetesimals is small, the planetesimal capture rate decreases rapidly as the half width of the gap in the planetesimal disk increases from two planetary Hill radii to three planetary Hill radii; planetesimals with low random velocities cannot approach the planet in the case of a sufficiently wide gap. Our results show that the radial distribution and random velocity of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk are essentially important for the understanding of capture of planetesimals by circumplanetary disks
Studies of drag on the nanocomposite superhydrophobic surfaces
Brassard, Jean-Denis; Sarkar, D. K.; Perron, Jean
2015-01-01
The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show the formation of zinc stearate on ZnO nanoparticles as the confirmation of SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films. Morphological analyses reveal the presence of micro-holes with the presence of irregular nanoparticles. The measured root mean square (rms) roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on both glass and aluminum substrates. The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the contact angle of water of 156 ± 4° having contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 4 ± 2°. The average terminal velocity in the water of the as-received glass spheres and superhydrophobic spheres were found to be 0.66 ± 0.01 m/s and 0.72 ± 0.01 m/s respectively. Consequently, the calculated average coefficients of the surface drag of the as-received glass sphere and superhydrophobic glass sphere were 2.30 ± 0.01 and 1.93 ± 0.03, respectively. Hence, the drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is found to be approximately 16% lower than as-received glass sphere.
Drag reduction of a rapid vehicle in supercavitating flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Yang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Supercavitation is one of the most attractive technologies to achieve high speed for underwater vehicles. However, the multiphase flow with high-speed around the supercavitating vehicle (SCV is difficult to simulate accurately. In this paper, we use modified the turbulent viscosity formula in the Standard K-Epsilon (SKE turbulent model to simulate the supercavitating flow. The numerical results of flow over several typical cavitators are in agreement with the experimental data and theoretical prediction. In the last part, a flying SCV was studied by unsteady numerical simulation. The selected computation setup corresponds to an outdoor supercavitating experiment. Only very limited experimental data was recorded due to the difficulties under the circumstance of high-speed underwater condition. However, the numerical simulation recovers the whole scenario, the results are qualitatively reasonable by comparing to the experimental observations. The drag reduction capacity of supercavitation is evaluated by comparing with a moving vehicle launching at the same speed but without supercavitation. The results show that the supercavitation reduces the drag of the vehicle dramatically.
Tucker, V A
2000-12-01
Raptors - falcons, hawks and eagles in this study - such as peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) that attack distant prey from high-speed dives face a paradox. Anatomical and behavioral measurements show that raptors of many species must turn their heads approximately 40 degrees to one side to see the prey straight ahead with maximum visual acuity, yet turning the head would presumably slow their diving speed by increasing aerodynamic drag. This paper investigates the aerodynamic drag part of this paradox by measuring the drag and torque on wingless model bodies of a peregrine falcon and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with straight and turned heads in a wind tunnel at a speed of 11.7 m s(-)(1). With a turned head, drag increased more than 50 %, and torque developed that tended to yaw the model towards the direction in which the head pointed. Mathematical models for the drag required to prevent yawing showed that the total drag could plausibly more than double with head-turning. Thus, the presumption about increased drag in the paradox is correct. The relationships between drag, head angle and torque developed here are prerequisites to the explanation of how a raptor could avoid the paradox by holding its head straight and flying along a spiral path that keeps its line of sight for maximum acuity pointed sideways at the prey. Although the spiral path to the prey is longer than the straight path, the raptor's higher speed can theoretically compensate for the difference in distances; and wild peregrines do indeed approach prey by flying along curved paths that resemble spirals. In addition to providing data that explain the paradox, this paper reports the lowest drag coefficients yet measured for raptor bodies (0.11 for the peregrine and 0.12 for the red-tailed hawk) when the body models with straight heads were set to pitch and yaw angles for minimum drag. These values are markedly lower than value of the parasite drag coefficient (C(D,par)) of 0.18 previously
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rheinheimer, Wolfgang; Bäurer, Michael; Handwerker, Carol A.; Blendell, John E.; Hoffmann, Michael J.
2015-01-01
We present a suite of measurements and combined analyses of grain growth in SrTiO 3 for oriented single crystals into polycrystals. The growth distance and standard deviation and the microstructure evolution along the single crystal–matrix interface are used to locally characterize the change in migration behavior as a function of temperature, time and interface orientation. The relative grain boundary mobility was determined between 1250 °C and 1600 °C for four crystallographic orientations {1 0 0}, {1 1 0}, {1 1 1} and {3 1 0}. An absolute mobility of these orientations is estimated. Under fast growth conditions the morphology of single crystals shows macroscopic stepping with parts of the interface rotating to low mobility orientations. This effect represents a kinetic influence on the grain boundary morphology. The results also indicate dragging effects on microstructure coarsening, which indicate the existence of a critical driving force for grain growth. This critical driving force seems to be related to an ‘intrinsic’ interface drag similar to the solute drag, but based on intrinsic defects. At 1460 °C the growth of single crystals was significantly faster than expected from the mobility of the polycrystal and was identified as exaggerated grain growth. The findings give new insights into the recently published grain growth anomaly of strontium titanate, leading to a hypothesis based on the temperature dependent relative mobility of {1 0 0} oriented grain boundaries
Alternative Energy Sources for United States Air Force Installations
1975-08-01
applications were developed for the vertical- axis rotor, the concept never became popular. Interest was renewed in the Darrieus type wind turbine when the...chordwise lift force is greater than the chorcwise drag force (ref. 30). The Darrieus wind turbine offers the follwing advantages relative to the more...Laboratories, New Mexico, May 1974. 105 lAFWL-TR-75- 193 REFERENCES (Cont’d) 32. Banas, J. F., et al., Application of Darrieus Vertical - Axis Wind Turbine to
Surface pressure drag for hydrostatic two-layer flow over axisymmetric mountains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leutbecher, M.
2000-07-01
The effect of partial reflections on surface pressure drag is investigated for hydrostatic gravity waves in two-layer flow with piecewise constant buoyancy frequency. The variation of normalized surface pressure drag with interface height is analyzed for axisymmetric mountains. The results are compared with the familiar solution for infinitely long ridges. The drag for the two-layer flow is normalized with the drag of one-layer flow, which has the buoyancy frequency of the lower layer. An analytical expression for the normalized drag of axisymmetric mountains is derived from linear theory of steady flow. Additionally, two-layer flow over finite-height axisymmetric mountains is simulated numerically for flow with higher stability in the upper layer. The temporal evolution of the surface pressure drag is examined in a series of experiments with different interface and mountain heights. The focus is on the linear regime and the nonlinear regime of nonbreaking gravity waves. The dispersion of gravity waves in flow over isolated mountains prevents that the entire wave spectrum is in resonance at the same interface height, which is the case in hydrostatic flow over infinitely long ridges. In consequence, the oscillation of the normalized drag with interface height is smaller for axisymmetric mountains than for infinitely long ridges. However, even for a reflection coefficient as low as 1/3 the drag of an axisymmetric mountain can be amplified by 50% and reduced by 40%. The nonlinear drag becomes steady in the numerical experiments in which no wave breaking occurs. The steady state nonlinear drag agrees quite well with the prediction of linear theory if the linear drag is computed for a slightly lowered interface. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, K.; Tonks, M.; Zhang, Y.; Biner, B.
2016-01-01
A detailed phase field model for the effect of pore drag on grain growth kinetics was implemented in MARMOT. The model takes into consideration both the curvature-driven grain boundary motion and pore migration by surface diffusion. As such, the model accounts for the interaction between pore and grain boundary kinetics, which tends to retard the grain growth process. Our 2D and 3D simulations demonstrate that the model capture all possible pore-grain boundary interactions proposed in theoretical models. For high enough surface mobility, the pores move along with the migrating boundary as a quasi-rigid-body, albeit hindering its migration rate compared to the pore-free case. For less mobile pores, the migrating boundary can separate from the pores. For the pore-controlled grain growth kinetics, the model predicts a strong dependence of the growth rate on the number of pores, pore size, and surface diffusivity in agreement with theroretical models. An evolution equation for the grain size that includes these parameters was derived and showed to agree well with numerical solution. It shows a smooth transition from boundary-controlled kinetics to pore-controlled kinetics as the surface diffusivity decreases or the number of pores or their size increases. This equation can be utilized in BISON to give accurate estimate for the grain size evolution. This will be accomplished in the near future. The effect of solute drag and anisotropy of grain boundary on grain growth will be investigated in future studies.
Studies of drag on the nanocomposite superhydrophobic surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brassard, Jean-Denis [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l‘Université, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada); Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l’Aluminium (CURAL), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l‘Université, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada); Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l’Aluminium (CURAL), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l‘Université, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada); Perron, Jean [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l‘Université, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada)
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. • SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films was confirmed by XRD and FTIR. • The measured rms roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on glass. • The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the CA of 156 ± 4° and CAH of 4 ± 2°. • The drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is 16% lower than as-received glass sphere. - Abstract: The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show the formation of zinc stearate on ZnO nanoparticles as the confirmation of SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films. Morphological analyses reveal the presence of micro-holes with the presence of irregular nanoparticles. The measured root mean square (rms) roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on both glass and aluminum substrates. The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the contact angle of water of 156 ± 4° having contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 4 ± 2°. The average terminal velocity in the water of the as-received glass spheres and superhydrophobic spheres were found to be 0.66 ± 0.01 m/s and 0.72 ± 0.01 m/s respectively. Consequently, the calculated average coefficients of the surface drag of the as-received glass sphere and superhydrophobic glass sphere were 2.30 ± 0.01 and 1.93 ± 0.03, respectively. Hence, the drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is found to be approximately 16% lower than as-received glass sphere.
Studies of drag on the nanocomposite superhydrophobic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brassard, Jean-Denis; Sarkar, D.K.; Perron, Jean
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. • SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films was confirmed by XRD and FTIR. • The measured rms roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on glass. • The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the CA of 156 ± 4° and CAH of 4 ± 2°. • The drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is 16% lower than as-received glass sphere. - Abstract: The nanocomposite thin films of stearic acid (SA)-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles incorporated in epoxy polymer matrix have been achieved. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show the formation of zinc stearate on ZnO nanoparticles as the confirmation of SA-functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin films. Morphological analyses reveal the presence of micro-holes with the presence of irregular nanoparticles. The measured root mean square (rms) roughness of the thin film is found to be 12 ± 1 μm with the adhesion of 5B on both glass and aluminum substrates. The wetting property shows that the surface of the film is superhydrophobic with the contact angle of water of 156 ± 4° having contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 4 ± 2°. The average terminal velocity in the water of the as-received glass spheres and superhydrophobic spheres were found to be 0.66 ± 0.01 m/s and 0.72 ± 0.01 m/s respectively. Consequently, the calculated average coefficients of the surface drag of the as-received glass sphere and superhydrophobic glass sphere were 2.30 ± 0.01 and 1.93 ± 0.03, respectively. Hence, the drag reduction on the surface of superhydrophobic glass sphere is found to be approximately 16% lower than as-received glass sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tami, R.
1999-01-01
The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)
The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.
Toy Model of Frame-Dragging Magnetosphere for the M87 Jet
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Toy Model of Frame-Dragging Magnetosphere for the M87 Jet ... The outermost layer of jet is driven by the frame-dragging effect in the Kerr ... All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility ...
Coulomb Drag as a Probe of Coupled Plasmon Modes in Parallel Quantum Wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1994-01-01
parameters. The acoustic mode causes a sharp upturn in the scaled drag rate with increasing temperature at T≈0.2TF. Other experimental signatures of the plasmon-dominated drag rate are a d-3 dependence on the well separation d and a peak as a function of relative densities at matched Fermi velocities....
Can Hall drag be observed in Coulomb coupled quantum wells in a magnetic field?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1997-01-01
We study the transresistivity rho(21) (or equivalently, the drag rate) of two Coulomb-coupled quantum wells in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, using semi-classical transport theory. Elementary arguments seem to preclude any possibility of observation of ''Hall drag'' (i.e., a non...
Flow Patterns and Thermal Drag in a One-Dimensional Inviscid Channel with Heating or Cooling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1993-01-01
In this paper investigations on the flow patterns and the thermal drag phenomenon in one -dimensional inviscid channel flow with heating or cooling are described and discussed:expressions of flow rate ratio and thermal drag coefficient for different flow patterns and its physical mechanism are presented.
Experimental Study of Drag Resistance using a Laboratory Scale Rotary Set-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erik Weinell, Claus; Olsen, Kenneth N.; Christoffersen, Martin W.
2003-01-01
This work covers an experimental study of the drag resistance of different painted surfaces and simulated large-scale irregularities, viz. dry spraying, weld seams, barnacle fouling and paint remains. A laboratory scale rotary set-up was used to determine the drag resistance, and the surface...
Magnon-drag thermopower and Nernst coefficient in Fe, Co, and Ni
Watzman, Sarah J.; Duine, Rembert A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Boona, Stephen R.; Jin, Hyungyu; Prakash, Arati; Zheng, Yuanhua; Heremans, Joseph P.
2016-01-01
Magnon-drag is shown to dominate the thermopower of elemental Fe from 2 to 80 K and of elemental Co from 150 to 600 K; it is also shown to contribute to the thermopower of elemental Ni from 50 to 500 K. Two theoretical models are presented for magnon-drag thermopower. One is a hydrodynamic theory
Magnon-drag thermopower and Nernst coefficient in Fe, Co and Ni
Watzman, S.J.; Duine, R.A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Jin, H.; Prakash, A.; Zheng, Y.; Heremans, J.P.
2016-01-01
Magnon drag is shown to dominate the thermopower of elemental Fe from 2 to 80 K and of elemental Co from 150 to 600 K; it is also shown to contribute to the thermopower of elemental Ni from 50 to 500 K. Two theoretical models are presented for magnon-drag thermopower. One is a hydrodynamic theory
Design and development of drag-disc flowmeter for measurement of transient two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sreenivas Rao, G.; Kukreja, V.; Dolas, P.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
1990-01-01
Experiments have been carried out to test the suitability of drag-disc flowmeter for measuring two-phase flow. Calibration tests carried out under single-phase and two-phase flow conditions have confirmed the suitability of the drag-disc flowmeter. The experimental work and the results obtained are presented and discussed in the paper. (author). 3 refs., 6 figs
Optical-phonon-induced frictional drag in coupled two-dimensional electron gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1998-01-01
The role of optical phonons in frictional drag between two adjacent but electrically isolated two-dimensional electron gases is investigated. Since the optical phonons in III-V materials have a considerably larger coupling to electrons than acoustic phonons (which are the dominant drag mechanism ...
Effect of structure height on the drag reduction performance using rotating disk apparatus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rashed, Musaab K; Salleh, Mohamad Amran Mohd; Ismail, M Halim Shah [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia (Malaysia); Abdulbari, Hayder A, E-mail: hayder.bari@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Research in Fluid Flow, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)
2017-02-15
The drag reduction characteristics in a rotating disk apparatus were investigated by using structured disks with different riblet types and dimensions. Two disk types were fabricated with right angle triangular (RAT) grooves and space v-shape (SV) grooves, with six dimensions for each type. A high-accuracy rotating disk apparatus was fabricated and then used to investigate the turbulent drag reduction characterization of the disk in diesel fuel. In this work, the effects of several parameters are investigated; riblet types, riblet dimensions, and rotational disk speed (rpm) on the drag reduction performance. It was found that the surface structure of the disk reduced the drag, this was clearly seen from the comparison of torque values of smooth and structured disks. Drag reduction for structured disks was higher than that for smooth disks, and SV-grooves showed better drag reduction performance than RAT-grooves. In addition, it was observed that the drag reduction performance increased with decreasing groove height for both groove types. The maximum drag reduction achieved in this study was 37.368% for SV-groove at 1000 rpm, compared with 30% for RAT-groove, at the same rotational speed. (paper)
Superfluid drag in the two-component Bose-Hubbard model
Sellin, Karl; Babaev, Egor
2018-03-01
In multicomponent superfluids and superconductors, co- and counterflows of components have, in general, different properties. A. F. Andreev and E. P. Bashkin [Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 164 (1975)] discussed, in the context of He3/He4 superfluid mixtures, that interparticle interactions produce a dissipationless drag. The drag can be understood as a superflow of one component induced by phase gradients of the other component. Importantly, the drag can be both positive (entrainment) and negative (counterflow). The effect is known to have crucial importance for many properties of diverse physical systems ranging from the dynamics of neutron stars and rotational responses of Bose mixtures of ultracold atoms to magnetic responses of multicomponent superconductors. Although substantial literature exists that includes the drag interaction phenomenologically, only a few regimes are covered by quantitative studies of the microscopic origin of the drag and its dependence on microscopic parameters. Here we study the microscopic origin and strength of the drag interaction in a quantum system of two-component bosons on a lattice with short-range interaction. By performing quantum Monte Carlo simulations of a two-component Bose-Hubbard model we obtain dependencies of the drag strength on the boson-boson interactions and properties of the optical lattice. Of particular interest are the strongly correlated regimes where the ratio of coflow and counterflow superfluid stiffnesses can diverge, corresponding to the case of saturated drag.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....
Fluid Mechanics, Drag Reduction and Advanced Configuration Aeronautics
Bushnell, Dennis M.
2000-01-01
This paper discusses Advanced Aircraft configurational approaches across the speed range, which are either enabled, or greatly enhanced, by clever Flow Control. Configurations considered include Channel Wings with circulation control for VTOL (but non-hovering) operation with high cruise speed, strut-braced CTOL transports with wingtip engines and extensive ('natural') laminar flow control, a midwing double fuselage CTOL approach utilizing several synergistic methods for drag-due-to-lift reduction, a supersonic strut-braced configuration with order of twice the L/D of current approaches and a very advanced, highly engine flow-path-integrated hypersonic cruise machine. This paper indicates both the promise of synergistic flow control approaches as enablers for 'Revolutions' in aircraft performance and fluid mechanic 'areas of ignorance' which impede their realization and provide 'target-rich' opportunities for Fluids Research.
LISA Pathfinder drag-free control and system implications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fichter, Walter; Gath, Peter; Vitale, Stefano; Bortoluzzi, Daniele
2005-01-01
The top-level requirement of the LISA Pathfinder mission is the verification of pure relative free fall between two test masses with an accuracy of about 3 x 10 -14 m s -2 Hz -1/2 in a measurement bandwidth between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. The drag-free control system is one of the key technology elements that shall be verified. Its design is strongly connected to the overall system and experimental design, in particular, via the following issues: the differential test mass motion and thus the science measurements depend on the control system; design constraints, such as negative stiffness of test masses and electrostatic actuation cross-talk, have an impact on science and control system performance; derived requirements for control system components, in particular, the micro-propulsion system, must be within reasonable and feasible limits. In this paper, the control design approach is outlined and the system-related issues are addressed
Thermal design of AOTV heatshields for a conical drag brake
Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.
1985-01-01
Results are presented from an on-going study of the thermal performance of thermal protection systems for a conical drag brake type AOTV. Three types of heatshield are considered: rigid ceramic insulation, flexible ceramic blankets, and ceramic cloths. The results for the rigid insulation apply to other types of AOTV as well. Charts are presented in parametric form so that they may be applied to a variety of missions and vehicle configurations. The parameters considered include: braking maneuver heat flux and total heat load, heatshield material and thickness, heatshield thermal mass and conductivity, absorptivity and emissivity of surfaces, thermal mass of support structure, and radiation transmission through thin heatshields. Results of temperature calculations presented show trends with and sensitivities to these parameters. The emphasis is on providing information that will be useful in estimating the minimum required mass of these heatshield materials.
Drag Reduction of an Airfoil Using Deep Learning
Jiang, Chiyu; Sun, Anzhu; Marcus, Philip
2017-11-01
We reduced the drag of a 2D airfoil by starting with a NACA-0012 airfoil and used deep learning methods. We created a database which consists of simulations of 2D external flow over randomly generated shapes. We then developed a machine learning framework for external flow field inference given input shapes. Past work which utilized machine learning in Computational Fluid Dynamics focused on estimations of specific flow parameters, but this work is novel in the inference of entire flow fields. We further showed that learned flow patterns are transferable to cases that share certain similarities. This study illustrates the prospects of deeper integration of data-based modeling into current CFD simulation frameworks for faster flow inference and more accurate flow modeling.
Drag Effect in Double-Layer Dipolar Fermi Gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanatar, B; Renklioglu, B; Oktel, M O
2014-01-01
We consider two parallel layers of two-dimensional spin-polarized dipolar Fermi gas without any tunneling between the layers. The effective interactions describing screening and correlation effects between the dipoles in a single layer (intra-layer) and across the layers (interlayer) are modeled within the Hubbard approximation. We calculate the rate of momentum transfer between the layers when the gas in one layer has a steady flow. The momentum transfer induces a steady flow in the second layer which is assumed initially at rest. This is the drag effect familiar from double-layer semiconductor and graphene structures. Our calculations show that the momentum relaxation time has temperature dependence similar to that in layers with charged particles which we think is related to the contributions from the collective modes of the system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Zhu
2005-11-01
Full Text Available The thermosphere is subject to additional electric and magnetic forces, not important in the middle and lower atmosphere, due to its partially ionized atmosphere. The effects of charged particles on the neutral atmospheric dynamics are often parameterized by ion drag in the momentum equations and Joule heating in the energy equation. Presented in this paper are a set of more accurate parameterizations for the ion drag and Joule heating for the neutral atmosphere that are functions of the difference between bulk ion velocity and neutral wind. The parameterized expressions also depend on the magnetic field, the Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and the ratio of the ion cyclotron frequency to the ion-neutral collision frequency. The formal relationship between the electromagnetic energy, atmospheric kinetic energy, and Joule heating is illustrated through the conversion terms between these three types of energy. It is shown that there will always be an accompanying conversion of kinetic energy into Joule heating when electromagnetic energy is generated through the dynamo mechanism of the atmospheric neutral wind. Likewise, electromagnetic energy cannot be fully converted into kinetic energy without producing Joule heating in the thermosphere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jungyoon Kim
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We developed an active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO that controls dorsiflexion/plantarflexion of the ankle joint to prevent foot drop and toe drag during hemiplegic walking. To prevent foot slap after initial contact, the ankle joint must remain active to minimize forefoot collision against the ground. During late stance, the ankle joint must also remain active to provide toe clearance and to aid with push-off. We implemented a series elastic actuator in our AAFO to induce ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The activator was controlled by signals from force sensing register (FSR sensors that detected gait events. Three dimensional gait analyses were performed for three hemiplegic patients under three different gait conditions: gait without AFO (NAFO, gait with a conventional hinged AFO that did not control the ankle joint (HAFO, and gait with the newly-developed AFO (AAFO. Our results demonstrate that our newly-developed AAFO not only prevents foot drop by inducing plantarflexion during loading response, but also prevents toe drag by facilitating plantarflexion during pre-swing and dorsiflexion during swing phase, leading to improvement in most temporal-spatial parameters. However, only three hemiplegic patients were included in this gait analysis. Studies including more subjects will be required to evaluate the functionality of our newly developed AAFO.
Schkolnik, Gerald S.
1993-01-01
The application of an adaptive real-time measurement-based performance optimization technique is being explored for a future flight research program. The key technical challenge of the approach is parameter identification, which uses a perturbation-search technique to identify changes in performance caused by forced oscillations of the controls. The controls on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) aircraft were perturbed using inlet cowl rotation steps at various subsonic and supersonic flight conditions to determine the effect on aircraft performance. The feasibility of the perturbation-search technique for identifying integrated airframe-propulsion system performance effects was successfully shown through flight experiments and postflight data analysis. Aircraft response and control data were analyzed postflight to identify gradients and to determine the minimum drag point. Changes in longitudinal acceleration as small as 0.004 g were measured, and absolute resolution was estimated to be 0.002 g or approximately 50 lbf of drag. Two techniques for identifying performance gradients were compared: a least-squares estimation algorithm and a modified maximum likelihood estimator algorithm. A complementary filter algorithm was used with the least squares estimator.
On the Fetch Dependent Drag Coefficient over Coastal and Inland Seas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geernaert, G. L.; Smith, J. A.
a maximum when the phase speed of the dominant wind wave has a value near 7 u*, where u* is the friction velocity. This corresponds to a maximum near 2 km fetch during moderate windspeed, and the maximum value of the drag coefficient corresponds to an increased fetch of 13 km for windspeeds of 20 m/sec. We......The drag coefficient has been postulated by many investigators to depend on fetch. For constant windspeed and stability, laboratory data generally show an increasing drag coefficient with fetch while field observations show a decreasing dependence. In this study, we show that if one combines...... the spectral form of the roughness length proposed by Kitaigorodskii with the JONSWAP wave spectrum and extrapolate to very short fetch, then the predicted drag coefficient exhibits a behaviour which coarsely reproduces field and laboratory observations. The results indicate that the drag coefficient exhibits...
Effect of Polymer Type and Mixing of Polymers on Drag Reduction in Turbulent Pipe Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salam Hadi Hussein
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The paper reports on studies on effect of the type of polymer on drag reduction. The study conducted through circular pipe using Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC, Xanthan gum (XG and their mixing in equal ratios as additives in pipe of diameter 0.0381m. The study covered range of parameters like concentration, mean velocity and angle of inclination of pipe. The maximum drag reduction observed was about 58%, 46% and 46% for the three polymers respectively. It is found that the drag reduction for the mixture is close to the drag reduction for XG polymer. The SPSS program has been used for correlate the data that have been obtained. The drag reduction percentage is correlated in terms of Reynolds number Re, additive concentration C (ppm and angle of inclination of pipe (deg, and the relations obtained is mentioned.
Leidenfrost Vapor Layers Reduce Drag without the Crisis in High Viscosity Liquids
Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev
2016-09-08
The drag coefficient CD of a solid smooth sphere moving in a fluid is known to be only a function of the Reynolds number Re and diminishes rapidly at the drag crisis around Re∼3×105. A Leidenfrost vapor layer on a hot sphere surface can trigger the onset of the drag crisis at a lower Re. By using a range of high viscosity perfluorocarbon liquids, we show that the drag reduction effect can occur over a wide range of Re, from as low as ∼600 to 105. The Navier slip model with a viscosity dependent slip length can fit the observed drag reduction and wake shape. © 2016 American Physical Society.
Large Fizeau's light-dragging effect in a moving electromagnetically induced transparent medium.
Kuan, Pei-Chen; Huang, Chang; Chan, Wei Sheng; Kosen, Sandoko; Lan, Shau-Yu
2016-10-03
As one of the most influential experiments on the development of modern macroscopic theory from Newtonian mechanics to Einstein's special theory of relativity, the phenomenon of light dragging in a moving medium has been discussed and observed extensively in different types of systems. To have a significant dragging effect, the long duration of light travelling in the medium is preferred. Here we demonstrate a light-dragging experiment in an electromagnetically induced transparent cold atomic ensemble and enhance the dragging effect by at least three orders of magnitude compared with the previous experiments. With a large enhancement of the dragging effect, we realize an atom-based velocimeter that has a sensitivity two orders of magnitude higher than the velocity width of the atomic medium used. Such a demonstration could pave the way for motional sensing using the collective state of atoms in a room temperature vapour cell or solid state material.
Effects of stern-foil submerged elevation on the lift and drag of a hydrofoil craft
Suastika, K.; Apriansyah
2018-03-01
Effects of the stern-foil submerged elevation on the lift and drag of a hydrofoil craft are studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and by considering three alternative stern-foil submerged elevations. The submerged elevation of the front foil is kept constant in all the alternatives. From among the alternatives, the deepest stern-foil placement results in the highest stern-foil lift with the highest foil’s lift-to-drag ratio. However, considering the lift-to-drag ratio of the whole foil-strut-hull system, the shallowest stern-foil placement results in the highest lift-to-drag ratio. The struts and the foil’s submerged elevation significantly affects the drag of the whole foil-strut-hull system.
Leidenfrost Vapor Layers Reduce Drag without the Crisis in High Viscosity Liquids
Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Berry, Joseph D.; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T
2016-01-01
The drag coefficient CD of a solid smooth sphere moving in a fluid is known to be only a function of the Reynolds number Re and diminishes rapidly at the drag crisis around Re∼3×105. A Leidenfrost vapor layer on a hot sphere surface can trigger the onset of the drag crisis at a lower Re. By using a range of high viscosity perfluorocarbon liquids, we show that the drag reduction effect can occur over a wide range of Re, from as low as ∼600 to 105. The Navier slip model with a viscosity dependent slip length can fit the observed drag reduction and wake shape. © 2016 American Physical Society.
Superhydrophobic and polymer drag reduction in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
Rajappan, Anoop; McKinley, Gareth H.
2017-11-01
We use a custom-built Taylor-Couette apparatus (radius ratio η = 0.75) to study frictional drag reduction by dilute polymer solutions and superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces in turbulent flows for 15000 analysis. We also investigate drag reduction by dilute polymer solutions, and show that natural biopolymers from plant mucilage can be an inexpensive and effective alternative to synthetic polymers in drag reduction applications, approaching the same maximum drag reduction asymptote. Finally we explore combinations of the two methods - one arising from wall slip and the other due to changes in turbulence dynamics in the bulk flow - and find that the two effects are not additive; interestingly, the effectiveness of polymer drag reduction is drastically reduced in the presence of an SH coating on the wall. This study was financially supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through Contract No. 3002453814.
Wave drag as the objective function in transonic fighter wing optimization
Phillips, P. S.
1984-01-01
The original computational method for determining wave drag in a three dimensional transonic analysis method was replaced by a wave drag formula based on the loss in momentum across an isentropic shock. This formula was used as the objective function in a numerical optimization procedure to reduce the wave drag of a fighter wing at transonic maneuver conditions. The optimization procedure minimized wave drag through modifications to the wing section contours defined by a wing profile shape function. A significant reduction in wave drag was achieved while maintaining a high lift coefficient. Comparisons of the pressure distributions for the initial and optimized wing geometries showed significant reductions in the leading-edge peaks and shock strength across the span.
Preliminary Theoretical Interpretation of the Tajmar Frame Dragging Effect Through the GEM Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenburg, John
2009-01-01
A preliminary theoretical explanation for the large amplitude frame dragging effect seen by Tajmar et al.(2007) is proposed. A simple theory of quantum photon fields mediating electrodynamics is derived based on concepts from QED. These are then expressed as quantum wave functions for rotating EM systems. Based on the GEM theory, it is proposed that gravitational frame dragging relies on similar photon wave functions. The constructive interference of the frame dragging fields with co-rotating EM photon fields coupled to Bose-Einstein components in matter at low temperatures results in a large frame dragging term due to a mixed gravity-EM term that is larger by a factor of approximately 10 20 than ordinary frame dragging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Persson, L.
1989-01-01
The new Radiation Protection Act (1988:220) entered into force in Sweden on July 1st, 1988. This book presents the Act as well as certain regulations connected to it. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. According to the 1988 Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Under the act, it is possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc. The Act recognises standardised approval procedures combined with technical regulations for areas where the risks are well known. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervising authority may in particular decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The possibilities of using penal provisions have been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders has been introduced. The Ordinance on Radiation Protection (1988:293) designates the National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) as the central authority referred to in the Radiation Protection Act. The book also gives a historic review of radiation protection laws in Sweden, lists regulations issued by SSI and presents explanations of radiation effects and international norms in the area. (author)
The effect of plasma actuator on the depreciation of the aerodynamic drag on box model
Harinaldi, Budiarso, Julian, James; Rabbani M., N.
2016-06-01
Recent active control research advances have provided many benefits some of which in the field of transportation by land, sea as well as by air. Flow engineering by using active control has proven advantages in energy saving significantly. One of the active control equipment that is being developed, especially in the 21st century, is a plasma actuator, with the ability to modify the flow of fluid by the approach of ion particles makes these actuators a very powerful and promising tool. This actuator can be said to be better to the previously active control such as suction, blowing and synthetic jets because it is easier to control, more flexible because it has no moving parts, easy to be manufactured and installed, and consumes a small amount of energy with maximum capability. Plasma actuator itself is the composition of a material composed of copper and a dielectric sheet, where the copper sheets act as an electricity conductor and the dielectric sheet as electricity insulator. Products from the plasma actuators are ion wind which is the result of the suction of free air around the actuator to the plasma zone. This study investigates the ability of plasma actuators in lowering aerodynamic drag which is commonly formed in the models of vehicles by varying the shape of geometry models and the flow speed.
Ponderomotive Forces in Cosmos
Lundin, R.; Guglielmi, A.
2006-12-01
This review is devoted to ponderomotive forces and their importance for the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Ponderomotive forces constitute time-averaged nonlinear forces acting on a media in the presence of oscillating electromagnetic fields. Ponderomotive forces represent a useful analytical tool to describe plasma acceleration. Oscillating electromagnetic fields are also related with dissipative processes, such as heating of particles. Dissipative processes are, however, left outside these discussions. The focus will be entirely on the (conservative) ponderomotive forces acting in space plasmas. The review consists of seven sections. In Section 1, we explain the rational for using the auxiliary ponderomotive forces instead of the fundamental Lorentz force for the study of particle motions in oscillating fields. In Section 2, we present the Abraham, Miller, Lundin-Hultqvist and Barlow ponderomotive forces, and the Bolotovsky-Serov ponderomotive drift. The hydrodynamic, quasi-hydrodynamic, and ‘`test-particle’' approaches are used for the study of ponderomotive wave-particle interaction. The problems of self-consistency and regularization are discussed in Section 3. The model of static balance of forces (Section 4) exemplifies the interplay between thermal, gravitational and ponderomotive forces, but it also introduces a set of useful definitions, dimensionless parameters, etc. We analyze the Alfvén and ion cyclotron waves in static limit with emphasis on the specific distinction between traveling and standing waves. Particular attention has been given to the impact of traveling Alfvén waves on the steady state anabatic wind that blows over the polar regions (Section~5). We demonstrate the existence of a wave-induced cold anabatic wind. We also show that, at a critical point, the ponderomotive acceleration of the wind is a factor of 3 greater than the thermal acceleration. Section 6 demonstrates various
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-05-01
This Act, which entered into force on 1 september 1989, contains a series of provisions dealing with different subjects: increase of public financing for British Nuclear Fuels plc, amendment of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 regarding the powers of the Health and Safety Executive to recover expenses directly from nuclear operators and obligation of the UKAEA to take out insurance or other financial security to cover its liability and finally, measures to enable the UK to ratify the IAEA Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency [fr
Copur, Hanifi; Bilgin, Nuh; Balci, Cemal; Tumac, Deniz; Avunduk, Emre
2017-06-01
This study aims at determining the effects of single-, double-, and triple-spiral cutting patterns; the effects of tool cutting speeds on the experimental scale; and the effects of the method of yield estimation on cutting performance by performing a set of full-scale linear cutting tests with a conical cutting tool. The average and maximum normal, cutting and side forces; specific energy; yield; and coarseness index are measured and compared in each cutting pattern at a 25-mm line spacing, at varying depths of cut per revolution, and using two cutting speeds on five different rock samples. The results indicate that the optimum specific energy decreases by approximately 25% with an increasing number of spirals from the single- to the double-spiral cutting pattern for the hard rocks, whereas generally little effect was observed for the soft- and medium-strength rocks. The double-spiral cutting pattern appeared to be more effective than the single- or triple-spiral cutting pattern and had an advantage of lower side forces. The tool cutting speed had no apparent effect on the cutting performance. The estimation of the specific energy by the yield based on the theoretical swept area was not significantly different from that estimated by the yield based on the muck weighing, especially for the double- and triple-spiral cutting patterns and with the optimum ratio of line spacing to depth of cut per revolution. This study also demonstrated that the cutterhead and mechanical miner designs, semi-theoretical deterministic computer simulations and empirical performance predictions and optimization models should be based on realistic experimental simulations. Studies should be continued to obtain more reliable results by creating a larger database of laboratory tests and field performance records for mechanical miners using drag tools.
Forces on stationary particles in near-bed turbulent flows
Schmeeckle, Mark W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Shreve, Ronald L.
2007-06-01
In natural flows, bed sediment particles are entrained and moved by the fluctuating forces, such as lift and drag, exerted by the overlying flow on the particles. To develop a better understanding of these forces and the relation of the forces to the local flow, the downstream and vertical components of force on near-bed fixed particles and of fluid velocity above or in front of them were measured synchronously at turbulence-resolving frequencies (200 or 500 Hz) in a laboratory flume. Measurements were made for a spherical test particle fixed at various heights above a smooth bed, above a smooth bed downstream of a downstream-facing step, and in a gravel bed of similarly sized particles as well as for a cubical test particle and 7 natural particles above a smooth bed. Horizontal force was well correlated with downstream velocity and not correlated with vertical velocity or vertical momentum flux. The standard drag formula worked well to predict the horizontal force, but the required value of the drag coefficient was significantly higher than generally used to model bed load motion. For the spheres, cubes, and natural particles, average drag coefficients were found to be 0.76, 1.36, and 0.91, respectively. For comparison, the drag coefficient for a sphere settling in still water at similar particle Reynolds numbers is only about 0.4. The variability of the horizontal force relative to its mean was strongly increased by the presence of the step and the gravel bed. Peak deviations were about 30% of the mean force for the sphere over the smooth bed, about twice the mean with the step, and 4 times it for the sphere protruding roughly half its diameter above the gravel bed. Vertical force correlated poorly with downstream velocity, vertical velocity, and vertical momentum flux whether measured over or ahead of the test particle. Typical formulas for shear-induced lift based on Bernoulli's principle poorly predict the vertical forces on near-bed particles. The
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012
2012-01-01
The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…
Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes
Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil
2016-04-01
Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and
On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings -or- Thinking Outside the Box
Bowers, Albion H.
2011-01-01
Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb.
Discovery of riblets in a bird beak (Rynchops) for low fluid drag.
Martin, Samuel; Bhushan, Bharat
2016-08-06
Riblet structures found on fast-swimming shark scales, such as those found on a mako shark, have been shown to reduce fluid drag. In previous experimental and modelling studies, riblets have been shown to provide drag reduction by lifting vortices formed in turbulent flow, decreasing overall shear stresses. Skimmer birds (Rynchops) are the only birds to catch fish in flight by flying just above the water surface with a submerged beak to fish for food. Because they need to quickly catch prey, reducing drag on their beak is advantageous. For the first time, riblet structures found on the beak of the skimmer bird have been studied experimentally and computationally for low fluid drag properties. In this study, skimmer replicas were studied for drag reduction through pressure drop in closed-channel, turbulent water flow. Pressure drop measurements are compared for black and yellow skimmer beaks in two configurations, and mako shark skin. In addition, two configurations of skimmer beak were modelled to compare drag properties and vortex structures. Results are discussed, and a conceptual model is presented to explain a possible drag reduction mechanism in skimmers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Modification of near-wall coherent structures in polymer drag reduced flow: simulation
Dubief, Yves; White, Christopher; Shaqfeh, Eric; Moin, Parviz; Lele, Sanjiva
2002-11-01
Polymer drag reduced flows are investigated through direct numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows. The solver for the viscoelastic model (FENE-P) is based on higher-order finite difference schemes and a novel implicit time integration method. Its robustness allows the simulation of all drag reduction (DR) regimes from the onset to the maximum drag reduction (MDR). It also permits the use of realistic polymer length and concentration. The maximum polymer extension in our simulation matches that of a polystyrene molecule of 10^6 molecular weight. Two distinct regimes of polymer drag reduced flows are observed: at low drag reduction (LDR, DR< 40-50%), the near-wall structure is essentially similar to Newtonian wall turbulence whereas the high drag reduction regime (HDR, DR from 40-50% to MDR) shows significant differences in the organization of the coherent structures. The 3D information provided by numerical simulations allows the determination of the interaction of polymers and near-wall coherent structures. To isolate the contribution of polymers in the viscous sublayer, the buffer and the outer region of the flow, numerical experiments are performed where the polymer concentration is varied in the wall-normal direction. Finally a mechanism of polymer drag reduction derived from our results and PIV measurements is discussed.
Numerical simulation of drag-reducing channel flow by using bead-spring chain model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, M.; Atsumi, T.; Mamori, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Murata, A.; Masuda, M.; Ando, H.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Numerical simulations of drag-reduced turbulent flow by polymer additives were performed by using a discrete element model. • A decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to drag reduction by polymer addition. • Energy transport by the polymer attenuates the turbulence. • The viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with increasing relaxation time of polymer. • The polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer. - Abstract: Numerical simulations of the drag-reducing turbulent channel flow caused by polymer addition are performed. A bead-spring chain model is employed as a model of polymer aggregation. The model consists of beads and springs to represent the polymer dynamics. Three drag-reduction cases are studied with different spring constants that correspond to the relaxation time of the polymer. The energy budget is mainly focused upon to discuss the drag-reduction mechanism. Our results show that a decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to strengthening the anisotropy of the turbulence. Furthermore, energy transport by the polymer models attenuates the turbulence. These viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with decreasing spring constant. By visualizing the flow field, it is found that this polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer.
On the Decrease of the Oceanic Drag Coefficient in High Winds
Donelan, Mark A.
2018-02-01
The sheltering coefficient - prefixing Jeffreys' concept of the exponential wave growth rate at a gas-liquid interface - is shown to be Reynolds number dependent from laboratory measurements of waves and Reynolds stresses. There are two turbulent flow regimes: wind speed range of 2.5 to 30 m/s where the drag coefficients increase with wind speed, and wind speed range of 30 to 50 m/s where sheltering/drag coefficients decrease/saturate with wind speed. By comparing model calculations of drag coefficients - using a fixed sheltering coefficient - with ocean observations over a wind speed range of 1 to 50 m/s a similar Reynolds number dependence of the oceanic sheltering coefficient is revealed. In consequence the drag coefficient is a function of Reynolds number and wave age, and not just wind speed as frequently assumed. The resulting decreasing drag coefficient above 30 m/s is shown to be critical in explaining the rapid intensification so prominent in the climatology of Atlantic hurricanes. The Reynolds number dependence of the sheltering coefficient, when employed in coupled models, should lead to significant improvements in the prediction of intensification and decay of tropical cyclones. A calculation of curvature at the wave crest suggests that at wind speeds above 56.15 m/s all waves-breaking or not-induce steady flow separation leading to a minimum in the drag coefficient. This is further evidence of the veracity of the observations of the oceanic drag coefficient at high winds.
Bal, M.
2012-01-01
In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,
Research on the aerodynamic characteristics of a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaojing Sun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Compared with a drag-type vertical axis wind turbines, one of the greatest advantages for a lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is its higher power coefficient (Cp. However, the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is not a self-starting turbine as its starting torque is very low. In order to combine the advantage of both the drag-type and the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines was designed in this article and its aerodynamics and starting performance was studied in detail with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations. Numerical results indicate that the power coefficient of this lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines declines when the distance between its drag-type blades and the center of rotation of the turbine rotor increases, whereas its starting torque can be significantly improved. Studies also show that unlike the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, this lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines could be able to solve the problem of low start-up torque. However, the installation position of the drag blade is very important. If the drag blade is mounted very close to the spindle, the starting torque of the lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines may not be improved at all. In addition, it has been found that the power coefficient of the studied vertical axis wind turbines is not as good as expected and possible reasons have been provided in this article after the pressure distribution along the surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blades of the hybrid turbine was analyzed.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured Strain
Pak, Chan-Gi
2016-01-01
, velocity, and acceleration sensors. This research demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining induced drag and lift forces through the use of distributed sensor technology with measured strain data. An active induced drag control system thus can be designed using the two computed aerodynamic forces, induced drag and lift, to improve the fuel efficiency of an aircraft. Interpolation elements between structural finite element grids and the CFD grids and centroids are successfully incorporated with the unsteady aeroelastic computation scheme. The most critical technology for the success of the proposed approach is the robust on-line parameter estimator, since the least-squares curve fitting method depends heavily on aeroelastic system frequencies and damping factors.
Departure of microscopic friction from macroscopic drag in molecular fluid dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanasaki, Itsuo [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Naka-cho 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Fujiwara, Daiki; Kawano, Satoyuki, E-mail: kawano@me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)
2016-03-07
Friction coefficient of the Langevin equation and drag of spherical macroscopic objects in steady flow at low Reynolds numbers are usually regarded as equivalent. We show that the microscopic friction can be different from the macroscopic drag when the mass is taken into account for particles with comparable scale to the surrounding fluid molecules. We illustrate it numerically by molecular dynamics simulation of chloride ion in water. Friction variation by the atomistic mass effect beyond the Langevin regime can be of use in the drag reduction technology as well as the electro or thermophoresis.
Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdellah Ait Moussa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.
Determining the drag coefficient of rotational symmetric objects falling through liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houari, Ahmed
2012-01-01
I will propose here a kinematic approach for measuring the drag coefficient of rotational symmetric objects falling through liquids. For this, I will show that one can obtain a measurement of the drag coefficient of a rotational symmetric object by numerically solving the equation of motion describing its fall through a known liquid contained in a vertical tube. The experimental value of the drag coefficient of an object with a particular shape is obtained by measuring the fall distance of the object at any recorded time along its entire falling path. (paper)
Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi
2012-01-01
In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...
Characteristics of electromagnetic forces of a single winding EDS MAGLEV system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Soon Heum [Korea High Speed Rail Construction Authority (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Guee Soo [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Song Yop [Soonchunhyang University (Korea, Republic of)
1995-07-01
This paper describes the characteristics of electromagnetic forces of Combined superconducting maglev system. Generation of the levitation, the propulsion and the guidance force by a single coil is proved by the phasor analysis. It is also shown that double-layered configuration has better characteristics in efficiency, pulsation of the forces and drag ration than single-layered configuration. (author). 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Endothelial cell impact on smooth muscle cell properties: role of hemodynamic forces
Killeen, Maria T.
2009-01-01
The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cell monolayer located at the interface of the vessel wall and bloodstream, where it regulates the physiological effects of humoral and hemodynamic stimuli on vessel tone and remodelling. Hemodynamic forces are of particular interest and include shear stress, the frictional force generated by blood as it drags against the endothelium, and cyclic strain, transmural pressure due to the pulsatile nature of blood flow. Both forces can profoundly modulate vasc...