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Sample records for doxorubicin

  1. Chemomodulation of Doxorubicin Pharmacodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    doxorubicin in athymic nude mice with multidrug resistant MCF-7 human tumor xenografts. High pressure liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) will be utilized to measure...is a flavonoid that causes 50% growth tumor growth support by the host (42). The clinical efficacy of inhibition of tumor cells at 60 nM (57). It also

  2. Compound list: doxorubicin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available doxorubicin DOX 00149 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/...in_vitro/doxorubicin.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_...vitro/doxorubicin.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/...Liver/Single/doxorubicin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/...archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/doxorubicin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.bios

  3. Doxorubicin-induced second degree and complete atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Akgul, Ebru; Aksoy, Sercan; Aytemir, Kudret; Barista, Ibrahim

    2005-05-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of malignancies. Cardiotoxicity is the most important dose-limiting toxicity of doxorubicin. Although cardiomyopathy is the most well known side effect of doxorubicin, it usually occurs many years after the treatment and relates to cumulative doxorubicin dosage. Another form of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is arrhythmia which may occur at any time and after any dosage. However, doxorubicin-induced arrhythmia is rarely a life-threatening side effect. In this report, we present a case in which there were doxorubicin-induced life-threatening arrhythmias.

  4. Early and late arrhythmogenic effects of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Barista, Ibrahim; Akgul, Ebru; Aytemir, Kudret; Aksoy, Sercan; Tekuzman, Gulten

    2007-03-01

    To determine the incidence of early and late arrhythmogenic effects of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimens. A prospective study including 29 patients who were treated with doxorubicin-containing regimens. Cardiac evaluation was based on 24-hour electrocardiographic monitorization (Holter), which was performed during the first cycle of doxorubicin-containing regimens, as well as after the last cycle of chemotherapy. The mean age of the patients was 45.8 +/- 15.1 (range 18-69). Holter records obtained during the first cycle of treatment revealed varying arrhythmias in 19 patients (65.5%) and in 18 (62.1%) patients after completion of therapy. One patient presented with syncope and both Mobitz Type 2 atrioventricular block and complete atrioventricular block were demonstrated. The patient subsequently underwent permanent pacemaker implantation. Doxorubicin may result in arrhythmias both in early and late periods of treatment. These arrhythmias are rarely life threatening.

  5. Effects of quercetin on kidney injury induced by doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurca, M; Yasar, Z; Bas, O

    2015-01-01

    The anthracycline antitumor drug doxorubicine causes severe nephrotoxicity in a variety of experimental animals and may be nephrotoxic to humans. The aim of present study was to determine the protective effects of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced kidney injury with light microscopy. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, doxorubicin, doxorubicin+quercetin and quercetin. A single dose of 20 mg/kg/ i.p. doxorubicin was used to induce injury. Quercetin was administrated orally against doxorubicin toxicity. The kidneys were examined under light microscopy after H-E (hematoxylin-eosin) staining and the changes were scored. Significant tissue injury was observed in doxorubicin-administered group. Among these injuries, renal tubular dilatation, tubular vacuolar changes, glomerular vacuolization, decrease in bowman space, bowman capsule thickening, and interstitial infiltration were evident. However, the injury induced by doxorubicin was attenuated with quercetin administration. Quercetin decreased doxorubicin-induced kidney damage (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 27).

  6. Tripeptide tyroserleutide plus doxorubicin: therapeutic synergy and side effect attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhi-feng; Yao, Zhi; Chen, Li-juan; Lu, Rong; Jia, Jing; Liang, Yu; Xu, Qiong; Zhou, Chun-lei; Wang, Li; Wang, Song

    2008-01-01

    Tripeptide tyroserleutide (YSL) is a novel small molecule anti-tumor polypeptide that has been shown to inhibit the growth of human liver cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of YSL plus doxorubicin on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells that had been transplanted into nude mice. Nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 tumors were treated with successive intraperitoneal injections of saline; low-, mid-, or high-dose doxorubicin; or low-, mid-, or high-dose doxorubicin plus YSL. Effects on the weight and volume of the tumors were evaluated. Co-administration of YSL and high-dose doxorubicin (6 mg/kg every other day) prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice as compared to high-dose doxorubicin alone. As well, the anti-tumor effects of mid- and low-dose doxorubicin (2 and 0.7 mg/kg every other day, respectively) were enhanced when supplemented with YSL; the tumor growth inhibition rates for YSL plus doxorubicin were greater than the inhibition rates for the same dosages of doxorubicin alone. The combination of YSL and doxorubicin decreased chemotherapy-associated weight loss, leukocyte depression, and heart, liver, and kidney damage as compared to doxorubicin alone. The combination of YSL plus doxorubicin enhances the anti-tumor effect and reduces the side effects associated with doxorubicin chemotherapy

  7. Doxorubicin alone versus intensified doxorubicin plus ifosfamide for first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Judson, Ian; Verweij, Jaap; Gelderblom, Hans

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective targeted treatment is unavailable for most sarcomas and doxorubicin and ifosfamide-which have been used to treat soft-tissue sarcoma for more than 30 years-still have an important role. Whether doxorubicin alone or the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide should be used...

  8. A Novel Insight into the Cardiotoxicity of Antineoplastic Drug Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Heger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a consequence of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to doxorubicin on the changes in major amino acids in tissue of cardiac muscle (proline, taurine, glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, leucine, glycine, valine, alanine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine and serine. An in vitro interaction study was performed as a comparison of amino acid profiles in heart tissue before and after application of doxorubicin. We found that doxorubicin directly influences myocardial amino acid representation even at low concentrations. In addition, we performed an interaction study that resulted in the determination of breaking points for each of analyzed amino acids. Lysine, arginine, β-alanine, valine and serine were determined as the most sensitive amino acids. Additionally we compared amino acid profiles of myocardium before and after exposure to doxorubicin. The amount of amino acids after interaction with doxorubicin was significantly reduced (p = 0.05. This fact points at an ability of doxorubicin to induce changes in quantitative composition of amino acids in myocardium. Moreover, this confirms that the interactions between doxorubicin and amino acids may act as another factor most likely responsible for adverse effects of doxorubicin on myocardium.

  9. Doxorubicin hepatotoxicity and hepatic free radical metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Yusuf; Yel, Mustafa; Kalender, Suna

    2005-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is an anthracycline antibiotic, broady used in tumor therapy. In the present study we investigated whether vitamin E and catechin can reduce the toxic effects of doxorubicin. Vitamin E (200 IU/kg/week), catechin (200 mg/kg/week), doxorubicin (5 mg/kg/week), doxorubicin + vitamin E (200 IU/kg/week), doxorubicin + catechin (200 mg/kg/week) combinations were given to rats weighing 210-230 g (n = 6/group). Changes in major enzymes participating in free radical metabolism superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in the livers of all animals. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity increased in the doxorubicin-treated group compared to control (P 0.05). Electron microscopic studies supported biochemical findings. We conclude that vitamin E and catechin significantly reduce doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

  10. Role of aldo-keto reductases and other doxorubicin pharmacokinetic genes in doxorubicin resistance, DNA binding, and subcellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibein, Allan D; Guo, Baoqing; Sprowl, Jason A; MacLean, David A; Parissenti, Amadeo M

    2012-01-01

    Since proteins involved in chemotherapy drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have a strong impact on the uptake, metabolism, and efflux of such drugs, they likely play critical roles in resistance to chemotherapy drugs in cancer patients. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a whole genome microarray study to identify difference in the expression of genes between isogenic doxorubicin-sensitive and doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast tumour cells. We then assessed the degree of over-representation of doxorubicin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic genes in the dataset of doxorubicin resistance genes. Of 27,958 Entrez genes on the array, 7.4 per cent or 2,063 genes were differentially expressed by ≥ 2-fold between wildtype and doxorubicin-resistant cells. The false discovery rate was set at 0.01 and the minimum p value for significance for any gene within the “hit list” was 0.01. Seventeen and 43 per cent of doxorubicin pharmacokinetic genes were over-represented in the hit list, depending upon whether the gene name was identical or within the same gene family, respectively. The most over-represented genes were within the 1C and 1B families of aldo-keto reductases (AKRs), which convert doxorubicin to doxorubicinol. Other genes convert doxorubicin to other metabolites or affect the influx, efflux, or cytotoxicity of the drug. In further support of the role of AKRs in doxorubicin resistance, we observed that, in comparison to doxorubicin, doxorubincol exhibited dramatically reduced cytotoxicity, reduced DNA-binding activity, and strong localization to extra nuclear lysosomes. Pharmacologic inhibition of the above AKRs in doxorubicin-resistant cells increased cellular doxorubicin levels, restored doxorubicin cytotoxicity and re-established doxorubicin localization to the nucleus. The properties of doxorubicinol were unaffected. These findings demonstrate the utility of using curated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic knowledge bases to identify

  11. Doxorubicin Blocks Cardiomyocyte Autophagic Flux by Inhibiting Lysosome Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan L; Wang, Zhao V; Ding, Guanqiao; Tan, Wei; Luo, Xiang; Criollo, Alfredo; Xie, Min; Jiang, Nan; May, Herman; Kyrychenko, Viktoriia; Schneider, Jay W; Gillette, Thomas G; Hill, Joseph A

    2016-04-26

    The clinical use of doxorubicin is limited by cardiotoxicity. Histopathological changes include interstitial myocardial fibrosis and the appearance of vacuolated cardiomyocytes. Whereas dysregulation of autophagy in the myocardium has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, the role of autophagy in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy remains poorly defined. Most models of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity involve intraperitoneal injection of high-dose drug, which elicits lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, and peritoneal fibrosis, all of which confound the interpretation of autophagy. Given this, we first established a model that provokes modest and progressive cardiotoxicity without constitutional symptoms, reminiscent of the effects seen in patients. We report that doxorubicin blocks cardiomyocyte autophagic flux in vivo and in cardiomyocytes in culture. This block was accompanied by robust accumulation of undegraded autolysosomes. We go on to localize the site of block as a defect in lysosome acidification. To test the functional relevance of doxorubicin-triggered autolysosome accumulation, we studied animals with diminished autophagic activity resulting from haploinsufficiency for Beclin 1. Beclin 1(+/-) mice exposed to doxorubicin were protected in terms of structural and functional changes within the myocardium. Conversely, animals overexpressing Beclin 1 manifested an amplified cardiotoxic response. Doxorubicin blocks autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes by impairing lysosome acidification and lysosomal function. Reducing autophagy initiation protects against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Direct effects of doxorubicin on skeletal muscle contribute to fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van K.; Helvoort, van A.; Argiles, J.M.; Tuijl, van S.; Arts, K.; Gorselink, M.; Laviano, A.; Kegler, D.; Haagsman, H.P.; Beek, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced fatigue is a multidimensional symptom. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a working mechanism for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. In this study, doxorubicin (DOX) was tested on skeletal muscle function. Doxorubicin induced impaired ex vivo skeletal muscle relaxation

  13. INFLUENCE OF DOXORUBICIN ON ADHESIVE PROPERTIES OF E.COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shapoval

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence ofantineoplastic drug doxorubicin and amikacin, the aminoglycoside family on adhesive activity of Escherichia coli was studied. Antimicrobialactivity(minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC ofboth drugs against experimental strains using serial two-fold dilution method was determined. Susceptibility of E.coli to amikacin in the presence of Sand j MIC doxorubicin was studied. After 10 passages in beef-extract broth with constant and increasing doxorubicin concentrations in the presence of Sand j MIC doxorubicin, the adhesive activity of initial and passage variants according to theirability to absorb human erythrocytes 1(0 Rh+ was determined. Itwas observed that experimental strains were susceptible to amikacin (MIC 1,5-6,2 mkg/ml butwere resistantto doxorubicin (MIC 1000 mkg/ml. Subinhibitory concentrations of this cytostatic (S and j MIC raised the sensitivity of experimental strains to amikacin and differently effected on adhesive activity of passage variants of E.coli.

  14. Doxorubicin plus paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, P; Boesgaard, M; Andersen, E

    1997-01-01

    . As of February 1997, 34 patients have been enrolled, two patients are too early to evaluate, and 13 are continuing treatment. The preliminary response rate is 69% (95% confidence interval, 50% to 84%), ranging from 60% to 80% within the three schedules. The main toxicities consisted of grade 3/4 neutropenia...... in 65% of all courses, with febrile neutropenia in 2%. Stomatitis and paresthesia were rare. To date, eight of 32 patients have developed abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction values and one patient has developed congestive heart failure. Our preliminary conclusions are that bolus doxorubicin...

  15. Molecular Effects of Doxorubicin on Choline Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS detected total choline (tCho signal can serve as an early noninvasive imaging biomarker of chemotherapy response in breast cancer. We have quantified the individual components of the tCho signal, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, phosphocholine (PC and free choline (Cho, before and after treatment with the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in weakly metastatic human MCF7 and triple-negative human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. While the tCho concentration did not change following doxorubicin treatment, GPC significantly increased and PC decreased. Of the two phosphatidylcholine-specific PLD enzymes, only PLD1, but not PLD2, mRNA was down-regulated by doxorubicin treatment. For the two reported genes encoding GPC phosphodiesterase, the mRNA of GDPD6, but not GDPD5, decreased following doxorubicin treatment. mRNA levels of choline kinase α (ChKα, which converts Cho to PC, were reduced following doxorubicin treatment. PLD1 and ChKα protein levels decreased following doxorubicin treatment in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with the PLD1 specific inhibitor VU0155069 sensitized MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of 100 nM of doxorubicin increased MDA-MB-231 cell migration. GDPD6, but not PLD1 or ChKα, silencing by siRNA abolished doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell migration. Doxorubicin induced GPC increase and PC decrease are caused by reductions in PLD1, GDPD6, and ChKα mRNA and protein expression. We have shown that silencing or inhibiting these genes/proteins can promote drug effectiveness and reduce adverse drug effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of detecting PC and GPC individually.

  16. PEGylated polylysine dendrimers increase lymphatic exposure to doxorubicin when compared to PEGylated liposomal and solution formulations of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gemma M; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Bulitta, Jürgen B; McIntosh, Michelle P; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2013-11-28

    Improved delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the lymphatic system has the potential to augment outcomes for cancer therapy by enhancing activity against lymph node metastases. Uptake of small molecule chemotherapeutics into the lymphatic system, however, is limited. Nano-sized drug carriers have the potential to promote access to the lymphatics, but to this point, this has not been examined in detail. The current study therefore evaluated the lymphatic exposure of doxorubicin after subcutaneous and intravenous administration as a simple solution formulation or when formulated as a doxorubicin loaded PEGylated poly-lysine dendrimer (hydrodynamic diameter 12 nm), a PEGylated liposome (100 nm) and various pluronic micellar formulations (~5 nm) to thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats. Plasma and lymph pharmacokinetics were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic modelling in S-ADAPT, and Berkeley Madonna software was used to predict the lymphatic exposure of doxorubicin over an extended period of time. The micelle formulations displayed poor in vivo stability, resulting in doxorubicin profiles that were similar to that observed after administration of the doxorubicin solution formulation. In contrast, the dendrimer formulation significantly increased the recovery of doxorubicin in the thoracic lymph after both intravenous and subcutaneous dosing when compared to the solution or micellar formulation. Dendrimer-doxorubicin also resulted in increases in lymphatic doxorubicin concentrations when compared to the liposome formulation, although liposomal doxorubicin did increase lymphatic transport when compared to the solution formulation. Specifically, the dendrimer formulation increased the recovery of doxorubicin in the lymph up to 30 h post dose by up to 685 fold and 3.7 fold when compared to the solution and liposomal formulations respectively. Using the compartmental model to predict lymphatic exposure to longer time periods suggested that doxorubicin exposure to

  17. Role of fibronectin under conditions of doxorubicin action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Shevtsova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is no standard as to treatment of anthracycline chemotherapy complications. The reduction of cytotoxic drugs toxicity without weakening of their antitumor action remains relevant. The extracellular matrix which key component is fibronectin is present in all tissues and it continuously undergoes controlled remodeling. So, the purpose of our work was to study the level of fibronectin in the experimental model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and effects of this cytostatic and its co-administration with antioxidants of different nature.The level of fibronectin was measured by ELISA using monospecific antibodies against fibronectin (Sigma, USA, secondary anti-IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase (Sigma, USA and fibronectin standard (Sigma, USA. The study was conducted on Wistar male rats with weight of 210 ± 50 g which were divided into 4 groups by 8 animals in each group: 1 – control, rats receiving saline i/p; 2 – doxorubicin 1 mg/kg i/p once a week during 4 weeks; 3 – doxorubicin by the same scheme plus 1% 2-oxoglutarate in drinking water during 4 weeks;4 – doxorubicin by the same scheme and korvitin injection 30 min before doxorubicin application once a week during 4 weeks. Obtained data indicate the effect of doxorubicin to decrease in index mass heart in 38% of animals compared to control animals; decrease in total protein concentration by 8% (Р < 0,05 and increase of the level of fibronectin by 67% (P < 0,001 in blood plasma of rats and decrease in the level of fibronectin in the heart extract by 19% (Р < 0,05 under development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Increased fibronectin concentration in blood plasma had strong correlation with decreased total protein concentration in blood (r=0,80 and heart extract (r=0,59 in rats with doxorubicin-induced cardiomiophaty indicating the sensitive reaction of fibronectin to development of metabolic disorders under doxorubicin influence.

  18. Metabolic remodeling associated with subchronic doxorubicin cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Rui A.; Sousa, Rui P.B.; Cadete, Virgilio J.J.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Palmeira, Carlos M.M.; Bjork, James A.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2010-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Adriamycin ® ) is a potent and broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, the clinical utility of which is restricted by a cumulative and progressive cardiomyopathy that develops with repeated dosing. Fundamental to the cardiac failure is an interference with mitochondrial respiration and inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. Global gene expression arrays in cardiac tissue indicate that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by doxorubicin (DOX) is accompanied by a decreased expression of genes related to aerobic fatty acid oxidation and a corresponding increase in expression of genes involved in anaerobic glycolysis, possibly as an alternate source for ATP production. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether this is also manifest at the metabonomic level as a switch in metabolic flux in cardiac tissue, and whether this can be averted by co-administering the cardioprotective drug, dexrazoxane (DZR). 13 C-isotopomer analysis of isolated perfused hearts from male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving 6 weekly s.c. injections of 2 mg/kg DOX demonstrated a shift from the preferential oxidation of fatty acids to enhanced oxidation of glucose and lactate plus pyruvate, indicative of a compensatory shift towards increased pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Substrate-selective isotopomer analysis combined with western blots indicate an inhibition of long-chain fatty acid oxidation and not MCAD activity or fatty acyl-carnitine transport. Co-administering DZR averted many treatment-related changes in cardiac substrate metabolism, consistent with DZR being an effective cardioprotective agent against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. This switch in substrate metabolism resembles that described for other models of cardiac failure; accordingly, this change in metabolic flux may represent a general compensatory response of cardiac tissue to imbalances in bioenergetic demand and supply, and not a characteristic unique to DOX-induced cardiac failure itself.

  19. Doxorubicin Action on Mitochondria: Relevance to Osteosarcoma Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jo; Dass, Crispin R

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondria may very well determine the final commitment of the cell to death, particularly in times of energy stress. Cancer chemotherapeutics such as the anthracycline doxorubicin perturb mitochondrial structure and function in tumour cells, as evidenced in osteosarcoma, for which doxorubicin is used clinically as frontline therapy. This same mechanism of cell inhibition is also pertinent to doxorubicin's primary cause of side-effects, that to the cardiac tissue, culminating in such dire events as congestive heart failure. Reactive oxygen species are partly to blame for this effect on the mitochondria, which impact the electron transport chain. As this review highlights that, there is much more to be learnt about the mitochondria and how it is affected by such effective but toxic drugs as doxorubicin. Such information will aid researchers who search for cancer treatment able to preserve mitochondrial number and function in normal cells. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. The role of Nardostachys jatamansi against doxorubicin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUBASHINI

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... Key words: Nardostachys jatamansi, doxorubicin, cytokine, glutathione, .... hoc test LSD, *P < 0.05, (Comparisons: control vs DOX induced group; DOX induced group vs NJ ... Figure 2 A-D shows the histological pictures of the.

  1. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxit Bhatt

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The present findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 284-289

  2. Kaposi's sarcoma: Good outcome with doxorubicin, bleomycin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KS) in children in low-income countries. We prospectively treated 12 patients with an institutional review board-approved protocol consisting of four monthly courses of doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin and vincristine sulphate (ABV), with ...

  3. Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles for oral delivery of Doxorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swarnakar, Nitin K; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study explores the potential of bicontinous cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) for improving therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. METHODS: Phytantriol based Dox-LCNPs were prepared using hydrotrope method, optimized for various formulation components, process...

  4. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on kidneys in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histolopathological effect of doxorubicin on rat kidney tissue. The drug was administrated by rats at the dose of (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg/kg intrapertonial every (84 hr for the three weeks and the doses of (1, 2, 3 mg/kg intrapertonial every 84 hrs for six weeks. The animals were scarified after 48 hr. of last injection. The study revealed congestion, thrombus, blood vessels hemorrhage, vaculation in the cells of glomerular tuft and tubular, tubuo-interstitial degeneration, tubular casts. The injury score revealed significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules in the animals that received 5 mg/kg of doxorubicin for three weeks and also significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules of the animals that received 3 mg/kg of doxorubicin for six weeks as compared with control animals. We concluded that the doxorubicin has histopathological effect on kidney.

  5. Trichostatin A accentuates doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lin, Ann JE; Ververis, Katherine; Chang, Lisa; Tang, Michelle M; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a new class of anticancer therapeutics and the expectation is that they will be most effective when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies, such as the anthracycline, doxorubicin. The dose-limiting side effect of doxorubicin is severe cardiotoxicity and evaluation of the effects of combinations of the anthracycline with histone deacetylase inhibitors in relevant models is important. We used a well-established in vitro model of doxorubic...

  6. Echocardiographic changes in dogs long term treated with doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.V.

    2005-01-01

    The doxorubicin's cardiotoxity was evaluated in seven clinically healthy adult dogs by means of intravenously injections of 30 mg/m2 of doxorubicin chloridate (Adriblastina), every 21 days, for 168 days (group A), performing a total cumulative dose of 240 mg/m2. Seven other dogs received 5 ml of 0.9% saline sterile solution intravenously (group B), following the protocol described above

  7. Trichostatin A accentuates doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lin, Ann J E; Ververis, Katherine; Chang, Lisa; Tang, Michelle M; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-10-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a new class of anticancer therapeutics and the expectation is that they will be most effective when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies, such as the anthracycline, doxorubicin. The dose-limiting side effect of doxorubicin is severe cardiotoxicity and evaluation of the effects of combinations of the anthracycline with histone deacetylase inhibitors in relevant models is important. We used a well-established in vitro model of doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy to examine the effects of the prototypical histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A. Our findings indicate that doxorubicin modulates the expression of the hypertrophy-associated genes, ventricular myosin light chain-2, the alpha isoform of myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide, an effect which is augmented by Trichostatin A. Furthermore, we show that Trichostatin A amplifies doxorubicin-induced DNA double strand breaks, as assessed by γH2AX formation. More generally, our findings highlight the importance of investigating potential side effects that may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer.

  8. Protective effects of agmatine on doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohmmadi, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Nastaran; Faghir-Ghanesefat, Hedyeh; Javadian, Nina; Abdollahi, Alireza; Pasalar, Parvin; Jazayeri, Farahnaz; Ejtemaeemehr, Shahram; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2017-02-05

    The detrimental cardio-toxic effect of doxorubicin, an effective chemotherapeutic agent, limited its clinical use. It has been claimed that doxorubicin cardio-toxicity occurs through calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) overload and reactive oxygen species production. Agmatine, an endogenous imidazoline receptor agonist, induce uptake of cytosolic Ca 2+ and cause an increase in activity of calcium pumps, including Ca 2+ -ATPase. Also it shows self-scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species production. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the effects of agmatine against chronic cardio-toxicity of doxorubicin in rats. Male wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin and agmatine four times a week for a month. Agmatine significantly alleviate the adverse effect of doxorubicin on left ventricular papillary muscle stimulation threshold and contractibility. Chronic co-administration of agmatine with doxorubicin blocked electrocardiographic changes induced by doxorubicin. In addition, agmatine improved body weight and decreased the mortality rate of animals by doxorubicin. Moreover, reversing the doxorubicin induced myocardial lesions was observed in animals treated by agmatine. A significant rise in the total antioxidant capacity of rat plasma was achieved in agmatine-treated animals in comparison to doxorubicin. To conclude, agmatine may improve therapeutic outcomes of doxorubicin since it exerts protective effects against doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined doxorubicin and paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T

    1996-01-01

    -550). The main toxicities were neutropenia, parestesia, nausea/vomiting, alopecia, myalgia and cardiotoxicity. Fifteen patients (50%) had reductions of left ventricular ejection fraction of below normal levels and 6 of these patients (20%) developed congestive heart failure. CONCLUSION: The combination...... of doxorubicin and paclitaxel is highly active, but is accompanied by the dose-limiting toxic effects of neutropenia, neuropathy and cardiotoxicity....

  10. The effect of HCV serological status on Doxorubicin based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer and HCV are two frequent diseases in Egypt. There is a considerable probability of concurrent affection. This concurrence creates a subpopulation, which needs special evaluation and care. Objective: To evaluate a subset of Egyptian breast cancer patients receiving Doxorubicin based adjuvant ...

  11. INFLUENCE OF METRONIDAZOLE ON BIOLOGICAL ACTION OF DOXORUBICIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yagubov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of the effect of the Metronizatol on the biological effect of Doxirubicin.Materials and methods. The studies were performed in the CBA/Lac males and C57Bl/6 females mice grafted with melanoma B16 and mucinous ovarian cancer CaO‑1. Metronidazole and Doxorubicin were used in the work. The antitumor effect was assessed by tumor volume and inhibition of tumor growth.Results. The data obtained indicate that Metronidazole used in oncologic practice for the treatment and prevention of infectious complications, and as a radiosensitizer, can enhance the antitumor effect of Doxorubicin, but this effect is accompanied by a significant increase of the cytostatic toxicity. These effects are leveled by increasing the interval between injections of Metronidazole and Doxorubicin up to 4 hours.Conclusion. The enhancement of the antitumor activity of Doxorubicin under the influence of Metronidazole depends on the interval between the administration of these drugs. When Metronidazole is used in cancer patients, the possibility of enhancing the toxic effect of cytostatics should be considered when they are simultaneously exposed. Patients receiving chemotherapy should be administered antitumor drugs no earlier than 4 hours after exposure to Metronidazole. 

  12. Eleutheroside E inhibits doxorubicin-induced inflammation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the effects of eleutheroside E (EE) on apoptosis and inflammation induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in H9c2 cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The effect of EE on H9c2 cell viability was determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8). EE effect on DOX-induced apoptosis and ...

  13. Antitumor activity of doxorubicine-loaded nanoemulsion against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights ... Keywords: Doxorubicine, Anti-tumor activity, Mean survival time, Heart histology, Nanoemulsion, Lipid profile .... the standard kit methods using fully Automated ..... effects of this new formulation in human patients.

  14. Identification of CREB3L1 as a Biomarker Predicting Doxorubicin Treatment Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bray Denard

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin has been shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells through proteolytic activation of CREB3L1 (cAMP response element binding protein 3-like 1, a transcription factor synthesized as a membrane-bound precursor. Upon doxorubicin treatment, CREB3L1 is cleaved so that the N-terminal domain of the protein can reach the nucleus where it activates transcription of genes that inhibit cell proliferation. These results suggest that the level of CREB3L1 in cancer cells may determine their sensitivity to doxorubicin.Mice transplanted with 6 lines of renal cell carcinoma (RCC were injected with doxorubicin to observe the effect of the chemotherapy on tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics analyses were performed to compare CREB3L1 levels in types of cancer known to respond to doxorubicin versus those resistant to doxorubicin.Higher levels of CREB3L1 protein are correlated with increased doxorubicin sensitivity of xenograft RCC tumors (p = 0.017 by Pearson analysis. From patient tumor biopsies we analyzed, CREB3L1 was expressed in 19% of RCC, which is generally resistant to doxorubicin, but in 70% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that is sensitive to doxorubicin. Doxorubicin is used as the standard treatment for cancers that express the highest levels of CREB3L1 such as osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma but is not generally used to treat those that express the lowest levels of CREB3L1 such as RCC.Identification of CREB3L1 as the biomarker for doxorubicin sensitivity may markedly improve the doxorubicin response rate by applying doxorubicin only to patients with cancers expressing CREB3L1.

  15. Comparative cytotoxicity of gold-doxorubicin and InP-doxorubicin conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Chibli, Hicham; Kong, Dekun; Nadeau, Jay

    2012-07-11

    Direct comparisons of different types of nanoparticles for drug delivery have seldom been performed. In this study we compare the physical properties and cellular activity of doxorubicin (Dox) conjugates to gold nanoparticles (Au) and InP quantum dots of comparable diameter. Although the Au particles alone are non-toxic and InP is moderately toxic, Au-Dox is more effective than InP-Dox against the Dox-resistant B16 melanoma cell line. Light exposure does not augment the efficacy of InP-Dox, suggesting that conjugates are breaking down. Electron and confocal microscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy reveal that over 60% of the Au-Dox conjugates reach the cell nucleus. In contrast, InP-Dox enters cell nuclei to a very limited extent, although liberated Dox from the conjugates does eventually reach the nucleus. These observations are attributed to faster Dox release from Au conjugates under endosomal conditions, greater aggregation of InP-Dox with cytoplasmic proteins, and adherence of InP to membranes. These findings have important implications for design of active drug-nanoparticle conjugates.

  16. Preparation and characteristics of lipid nanoemulsion formulations loaded with doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang SP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1,2,* Sai-Nan He,3,* Yun-Long Li,2,3 Da-Lin Feng,2 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Yong-Zhong Du,2 He-Yong Yu,3 Fu-Qiang Hu,2 Hong Yuan2 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Safe and effective lipid nanoemulsion (LNE formulations for the antitumor delivery of doxorubicin is designed. Methods: LNEs composed of medium-chain triglyceride, soybean oil, lecithin, and doxorubicin are prepared by a solvent-diffusion method in an aqueous system. The effects of lipid material composition and polyethylene glycol (PEGylation on the size, drug encapsulation efficiency, and stability of LNEs are investigated. Based on in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake tests of A549 (human lung carcinoma cells, in-vivo biodistribution, antitumor activity, and cardiac toxicity are further examined using nude mouse bearing A549 tumor. Results: The LNE size decreases from 126.4 ± 8.7 nm to 44.5 ± 9.3 nm with increased weight ratio of medium-chain triglyceride to soybean oil from 1:4 to 3:2, whereas the encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin is slightly reduced from 79.2% ± 2.1% to 71.2% ± 2.9%. The PEGylation of LNE by 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(PEG2000] (DSPE-PEG 2000 does not significantly change the size and drug encapsulation efficiency. Three-month storage at room temperature and lyophilization process does not affect the drug encapsulation efficiency, whereas the size slightly increases to almost 100 nm. The in-vitro drug-release profiles of LNEs suggest that the present formulation can prolong drug release for 48 hours. LNEs can be internalized into tumor cells in vitro and efficiently accumulate in tumor tissues in vivo by passive targeting

  17. A Novel Submicron Emulsion System Loaded with Doxorubicin Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in MCF-7/ADR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W P; Hua, H Y; Sun, P C; Zhao, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected after autoclaving. The doxorubicin submicron emulsion significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin submicron emulsion and enhanced cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. These results may be correlated to doxorubicin submicron emulsion inhibitory effects on efflux pumps through the progressive release of intracellular free Solutol HS15 from doxorubicin submicron emulsion. Furthermore, these in vitro results suggest that the Solutol HS15-based submicron emulsion may be a potentially useful drug delivery system to circumvent multi-drug resistance of tumor cells.

  18. Antioxidant Activities of Celery and Parsley Juices in Rats Treated with Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals. Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  19. Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Zlinská, Janka; Trivic, Svetlana; Vojnovic, Matilda

    2010-09-03

    We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP) in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals). Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  20. Minoxidil (Mx) as a prophylaxis of doxorubicin--induced alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R; Machiavelli, M; Leone, B; Romero, A; Cuevas, M A; Langhi, M; Romero Acuña, L; Romero Acuña, J; Amato, S; Barbieri, M

    1994-10-01

    Minoxidil (Mx) is known to induce hair growth in men with male-pattern baldness. Based on this potential, the effectiveness of Mx 2% topical solution was evaluated in cancer patients (pts) to prevent doxorubicin-induced alopecia. 48 female pts with different types of solid tumors treated with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in a dose range of 50-60 mg/m2/cycle were randomly assigned to receive Mx 2% topical solution or placebo. 88% and 92% of pts in both arms showed severe alopecia (p = ns). No adverse effects were observed. In this study Mx 2% topical solution was non-toxic but was not effective in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  1. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  2. Poly-L-arginine: Enhancing Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake of Doxorubicin and Necrotic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movafegh, Bahareh; Jalal, Razieh; Mohammadi, Zobeideh; Aldaghi, Seyyede Araste

    2018-04-11

    Cell resistance to doxorubicin and its toxicity to healthy tissue reduce its efficiency. The use of cell penetrating peptides as drug delivery system along with doxorubicin is a strategy to reduce its side effects. In this study, the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, its cellular uptake and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis on human prostate cancer DU145 cells are assessed. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and poly-L-arginine, alone and in combination, in DU145 cells was evaluated at different exposure times using MTT assay. The influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin delivery into cells was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy. DAPI and ethidium bromide-acridine orange stainings, flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide, western blot analysis with anti-p21 antibody and caspase-3 activity were used to examine the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin-induced cell death. Poly-L-arginine had no cytotoxicity at low concentrations and short exposure times. Poly-L-arginine increased the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in DU145 cells in a time-dependent manner. But no significant reduction was found in HFF cell viability. Poly-L-arginine seems to facilitate doxorubicin uptake and increase its intracellular concentration. 24 h combined treatment of cells with doxorubicin (0.5 μM) and poly-L-arginine (1 μg ml-1) caused a small increase in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and significant elevated necrosis in DU145 cells as compared to each agent alone. Conlusion: Our results indicate that poly-L-arginine at lowest and highest concentrations act as proliferation-inducing and antiproliferative agents, respectively. Between these concentrations, poly-L-arginine increases the cellular uptake of doxorubicin and its cytotoxicity through induction of necrosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Serial exercise gated radionuclide ventriculograms (RVG) in monitoring doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.A.; Lahoda, J.; Fox, L.

    1985-01-01

    The resting RVG (Radionuclide Ventriculograms) are demonstrated to be an effective monitor of the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. The exercise RVG has not been as well studied to see if it yields additional information or detects toxicity effects earlier. Sixteen patients receiving doxorubicin for chemotherapy had 2-6 serial exercise studies with intervals between studies of 1 month to 15 months. The patients exercised varying amounts with cardiac work indicated by their double products (HR x Sys. BP). Although all patients started with a normal resting LVEF (>50%), 5 of the 16 did not have a normal response (≥5% increase in LVEF) with initial exercise study. Of the 11 patients with an initially normal response to exercise, on at least one subsequent study, 3 had an abnormal response to exercise. On a later follow up study 1 of these 3 patients again had a normal response to exercise. Six of these 11 patients had had RVG evidence of cardiotoxicity. Four of these 6 patients had continually normal exercise responses, while 2 of these 5 patients had had an abnormal exercise response. An initial exercise RVG may be reasonable to detect unsuspected CAD in cancer victims. These patients are reported to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of doxorubicin. Follow up exercise RVGs do not contribute useful information, do not predict cardiotoxicity, and may be misleading

  4. TFEB ameliorates the impairment of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in neurons induced by doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruno Manchon, Jose Felix; Uzor, Ndidi-Ese; Kesler, Shelli R.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Townley, Debra M.; Nagaraja, Archana Sidalaghatta; Pradeep, Sunila; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Sood, Anil K.; Tsvetkov, Andrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapy agent, induces severe cardio- and neurotoxicity. Molecular mechanisms of cardiotoxicity have been extensively studied, but mechanisms by which doxorubicin exhibits its neurotoxic properties remain unclear. Here, we show that doxorubicin impairs neuronal autophagy, leading to the accumulation of an autophagy substrate p62. Neurons treated with doxorubicin contained autophagosomes, damaged mitochondria, and lipid droplets. The brains from mice treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin exhibited autophagosomes, often with mitochondria, lipofuscin, and lipid droplets. Interestingly, lysosomes were less acidic in doxorubicin-treated neurons. Overexpression of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), which controls the autophagy-lysosome axis, increased survival of doxorubicin-treated neurons. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), an activator of TFEB, also promoted neuronal survival, decreased the levels of p62, and lowered the pH in lysosomes. Taken together, substantial changes induced by doxorubicin contribute to neurotoxicity, cognitive disturbances in cancer patients and survivors, and accelerated brain aging. The TFEB pathway might be a new approach for mitigating damage of neuronal autophagy caused by doxorubicin. PMID:27992857

  5. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  6. Propofol ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.C. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Y.C. [Graduate Institute of Natural Healing Sciences, Nanhua University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Wang, L.C. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ting, C.T.; Lee, W.L. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.W. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.Y. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, A. [College of Biological Science, University of California, Davis (United States); Su, C.S. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, T.J., E-mail: trliu@vghtc.gov.tw [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Background: Propofol is an anesthetic with pluripotent cytoprotective properties against various extrinsic insults. This study was designed to examine whether this agent could also ameliorate the infamous toxicity of doxorubicin, a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent against a variety of cancer diseases, on myocardial cells. Methods: Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were administrated with vehicle, doxorubicin (1 {mu}M), propofol (1 {mu}M), or propofol plus doxorubicin (given 1 h post propofol). After 24 h, cells were harvested and specific analyses regarding oxidative/nitrative stress and cellular apoptosis were conducted. Results: Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays disclosed that viability of cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced by doxorubicin. Contents of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were increased and antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, and GPx were decreased in these doxorubicin-treated cells. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and membrane potential were also depressed, along with activation of key effectors downstream of mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling. Besides, abundance of p53 was elevated and cleavage of PKC-{delta} was induced in these myocardial cells. In contrast, all of the above oxidative, nitrative and pro-apoptotic events could be suppressed by propofol pretreatment. Conclusions: Propofol could extensively counteract oxidative/nitrative and multiple apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in the heart; hence, this anesthetic may serve as an adjuvant agent to assuage the untoward cardiac effects of doxorubicin in clinical application. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how propofol prevents doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol reduces doxorubicin-imposed nitrative and oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol suppresses mitochondrion-, p53- and PKC-related apoptotic signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol ameliorates apoptosis and

  7. Molecularly imprinted fluorescent probe based on FRET for selective and sensitive detection of doxorubicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhifeng, E-mail: 897061147@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hengyang Normal University, Key Laboratory of Functional Organometallic Materials of Hunan Province University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Deng, Peihong; Li, Junhua [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hengyang Normal University, Key Laboratory of Functional Organometallic Materials of Hunan Province University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Xu, Li [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Tang, Siping [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hengyang Normal University, Key Laboratory of Functional Organometallic Materials of Hunan Province University, Hengyang 421008 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • FRET-based molecularly imprinted probe for detection of doxorubicin was prepared. • The detection limit of the probe was 13.8 nM for doxorubicin. • The FRET-based probe had a higher selectivity for the template than ordinary MIMs. - Abstract: In this work, a new type of fluorescent probe for detection of doxorubicin has been constructed by the combined use of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology and molecular imprinting technique (MIT). Using doxorubicin as the template, the molecularly imprinted polymer thin layer was fabricated on the surfaces of carbon dot (CD) modified silica by sol-gel polymerization. The excitation energy of the fluorescent donor (CDs) could be transferred to the fluorescent acceptor (doxorubicin). The FRET based fluorescent probe demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity for doxorubicin. The detection limit was 13.8 nM. The fluorescent probe was successfully applied for detecting doxorubicin in doxorubicin-spiked plasmas with a recovery of 96.8–103.8%, a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.3–2.8%. The strategy for construction of FRET-based molecularly imprinted materials developed in this work is very promising for analytical applications.

  8. Hesperidin as a preventive resistance agent in MCF–7 breast cancer cells line resistance to doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifki Febriansah

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Hesperidin has cytotoxic effect on MCF-7/Dox cells with IC50 of 11 μmol/L. Hesperidin did not increased the apoptotic induction combined with doxorubicin. Co-chemotherapy application of doxorubicin and hesperidin on MCF-7/Dox cells showed synergism effect through inhibition of Pgp expression.

  9. Correction to: Direct effects of doxorubicin on skeletal muscle contribute to fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van K.; Helvoort, van A.; Agriles, J.M.; Tuijl, van S.; Arts, K.; Gorselink, M.; Laviano, A.; Kegler, D.; Haagsman, H.P.; Beek, van der E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced fatigue is a multidimensional symptom. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a working mechanism for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. In this study, doxorubicin (DOX) was tested on skeletal muscle function. Doxorubicin induced impaired ex vivo skeletal muscle relaxation

  10. Peroxisomes contribute to oxidative stress in neurons during doxorubicin-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruno-Manchon, Jose F; Uzor, Ndidi-Ese; Kesler, Shelli R; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Townley, Debra M; Nagaraja, Archana Sidalaghatta; Pradeep, Sunila; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Sood, Anil K; Tsvetkov, Andrey S

    2018-01-01

    Doxorubicin, a commonly used anti-neoplastic agent, causes severe neurotoxicity. Doxorubicin promotes thinning of the brain cortex and accelerates brain aging, leading to cognitive impairment. Oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin contributes to cellular damage. In addition to mitochondria, peroxisomes also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promote cell senescence. Here, we investigated if doxorubicin affects peroxisomal homeostasis in neurons. We demonstrate that the number of peroxisomes is increased in doxorubicin-treated neurons and in the brains of mice which underwent doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. Pexophagy, the specific autophagy of peroxisomes, is downregulated in neurons, and peroxisomes produce more ROS. 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), an activator of the transcription factor TFEB, which regulates expression of genes involved in autophagy and lysosome function, mitigates damage of pexophagy and decreases ROS production induced by doxorubicin. We conclude that peroxisome-associated oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin may contribute to neurotoxicity, cognitive dysfunction, and accelerated brain aging in cancer patients and survivors. Peroxisomes might be a valuable new target for mitigating neuronal damage caused by chemotherapy drugs and for slowing down brain aging in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Doxorubicin loaded Polymeric Nanoparticulate Delivery System to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, Michiro; Iyer, Arun K; Ryu, Keinosuke; Hornicek, Francis J; Mankin, Henry; Amiji, Mansoor M; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2009-01-01

    Drug resistance is a primary hindrance for the efficiency of chemotherapy against osteosarcoma. Although chemotherapy has improved the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients dramatically after introduction of neo-adjuvant therapy in the early 1980's, the outcome has since reached plateau at approximately 70% for 5 year survival. The remaining 30% of the patients eventually develop resistance to multiple types of chemotherapy. In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure incurred from multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cells, we explored the possibility of loading doxorubicin onto biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles and evaluated the efficacy. Doxorubicin was loaded onto a lipid-modified dextran based polymeric nano-system. The effect of various concentrations of doxorubicin alone or nanoparticle loaded doxorubicin on KHOS, KHOS R2 , U-2OS, and U-2OS R2 cells was analyzed. Effects on drug retention, immunofluorescence, Pgp expression, and induction of apoptosis were also analyzed. Dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin had a curative effect on multidrug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in the nucleus via Pgp independent pathway. Nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin also showed increased apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells as compared with doxorubicin alone. Lipid-modified dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin showed pronounced anti-proliferative effects against osteosarcoma cell lines. These findings may lead to new treatment options for MDR osteosarcoma

  12. Antitumor Properties of Modified Detonation Nanodiamonds and Sorbed Doxorubicin on the Model of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, N N; Zhukov, E L; Inzhevatkin, E V; Bezzabotnov, V E

    2016-01-01

    We studied antitumor properties of modified detonation nanodiamonds loaded with doxorubicin on in vivo model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The type of tumor development and morphological characteristics of the liver, kidneys, and spleen were evaluated in experimental animals. Modified nanodiamonds injected intraperitoneally produced no antitumor effect on Ehrlich carcinoma. However, doxorubicin did not lose antitumor activity after sorption on modified nanodiamonds.

  13. Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Preau, Sebastien; Zannis, Konstantinos; Marchetti, Philippe; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 μM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt max of 105 ± 8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49 ± 7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0 ± 0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2 ± 0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24 ± 1 μM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14 ± 3 μM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  14. Visible-light system for detecting doxorubicin contamination on skin and surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raalte, J; Rice, C; Moss, C E

    1990-05-01

    A portable system that uses fluorescence stimulated by visible light to identify doxorubicin contamination on skin and surfaces was studied. When activated by violet-blue light in the 465-nm range, doxorubicin fluoresces, emitting orange-red light in the 580-nm range. The light source to stimulate fluorescence was a slide projector with a filter to selectively pass short-wave (blue) visible light. Fluorescence was both observed visually with viewing spectacles and photographed. Solutions of doxorubicin in sterile 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared in nine standard concentrations ranging from 2 to 0.001 mg/mL. Droplets of each admixture were placed on stainless steel, laboratory coat cloth, pieces of latex examination glove, bench-top absorbent padding, and other materials on which antineoplastics might spill or leak. These materials then were stored for up to eight weeks and photographed weekly. The relative ability of water, household bleach, hydrogen peroxide solution, and soap solution to deactivate doxorubicin was also measured. Finally, this system was used to inspect the antineoplastic-drug preparation and administration areas of three outpatient cancer clinics for doxorubicin contamination. Doxorubicin fluorescence was easily detectable with viewing spectacles when a slide projector was used as the light source. The photographic method was sensitive for doxorubicin concentrations from 2.0 to 0.001 mg/mL. Immersion of study materials in bleach for one minute eliminated detectable fluorescence. Doxorubicin contamination is detectable for at least eight weeks in the ambient environment. Probable doxorubicin contamination was detected in two of the three clinics surveyed. A safe, portable system that uses fluorescence stimulated by visible light is a sensitive method for detecting doxorubicin on skin and surfaces.

  15. Acacetin enhances the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reenu Punia

    Full Text Available Anthracyclines are efficient and potent agents to treat broad range of cancers but cytotoxicity induced by them limits their use in therapeutics. Use of plant-derived agents help to prevent or delay the process of cancer progression and their combination increases the anti-cancer potential of mainstream compound. However, multidrug resistance is major cause of treatment failure in cancer patients.In this study, combination treatments of fisetin or acacetin with doxorubicin were explored for their potential synergistic effect on non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC cells.During this study, NSCLC model cell lines A549 and H1299 were used to determine the combinatorial effect of phytochemicals namly acacetin and fisetin with doxorubicin.The effects of individual compounds and their combination on cell viability, clonogenic potential and cell cycle progression were studied. Efflux of doxorubicin was measured by spectrofluorophotometer, whereas accumulation inside the cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Expression of MDR1 was checked by semi-quantitative PCR.The results showed that the cell viability of A549 and H1299 cells were significantly decreased in time- and dose-dependent manner, although A549 cells showed more sensitivity toward doxorubicin than H1299 cells. Mostly, combination of doxorubicin showed good synergy with acacetin in both the cell lines whereas, fisetin exerted synergistic effect only at 72 h of treatment in H1299 cells. Acacetin with doxorubicin caused G2/M arrest by downregulating CDK-cyclin complex in A549 cells. Acacetin-doxorubicin combination decreased the clonogenic potential of A549 and H1299 cells upto 82% and 59%, respectively, as compared to control. Acacetin also decreased efflux of doxorubicin by 59% after 30 mins of exposure to A549 cells and further increased accumulation of doxorubicin inside the cells upto 55% in 2 h. The modulatory effect of acacetin-doxorubicin combination on

  16. Glucocorticoid Induced Leucine Zipper inhibits apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, David; Strom, Joshua; Chen, Qin M.

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an indispensable chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various forms of neoplasia such as lung, breast, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern for patients receiving Dox therapy. Previous work from our laboratory indicated that glucocorticoids (GCs) alleviate Dox-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Here we have found Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper (GILZ) to be a mediator of GC-induced cytoprotection. GILZ was found to be induced in cardiomyocytes by GC treatment. Knocking down of GILZ using siRNA resulted in cancelation of GC-induced cytoprotection against apoptosis by Dox treatment. Overexpressing GILZ by transfection was able to protect cells from apoptosis induced by Dox as measured by caspase activation, Annexin V binding and morphologic changes. Western blot analyses indicate that GILZ overexpression prevented cytochrome c release from mitochondria and cleavage of caspase-3. When bcl-2 family proteins were examined, we found that GILZ overexpression causes induction of the pro-survival protein Bcl-xL. Since siRNA against Bcl-xL reverses GC induced cytoprotection, Bcl-xL induction represents an important event in GILZ-induced cytoprotection. Our data suggest that GILZ functions as a cytoprotective gene in cardiomyocytes. - Highlights: • Corticosteroids act as a cytoprotective agent in cardiomyocytes • Corticosteroids induce GILZ expression in cardiomyocytes • Elevated GILZ results in resistance against apoptosis induced by doxorubicin • GILZ induces Bcl-xL protein without inducing Bcl-xL mRNA

  17. Zoledronic acid enhances antitumor efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Shibuya, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Kaori; Miatmoko, Andang; Kawano, Kumi; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we found that the injection of zoledronic acid (ZOL) into mice bearing tumor induced changes of the vascular structure in the tumor. In this study, we examined whether ZOL treatment could decrease interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) via change of tumor vasculature, and enhance the antitumor efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil®). When ZOL solution was injected at 40 µg/mouse per day for three consecutive days into mice bearing murine Lewis lung carcinoma LLC tumor, depletion of macrophages in tumor tissue and decreased density of tumor vasculature were observed. Furthermore, ZOL treatments induced inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-10 and -12, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum of LLC tumor-bearing mice, but not in normal mice, indicating that ZOL treatments might induce an inflammatory response in tumor tissue. Furthermore, ZOL treatments increased antitumor activity by Doxil in mice bearing a subcutaneous LLC tumor, although they did not significantly increase the tumor accumulation of doxorubicin (DXR). These results suggest that ZOL treatments might increase the therapeutic efficacy of Doxil via improvement of DXR distribution in a tumor by changing the tumor vasculature. ZOL treatment can be an alternative approach to increase the antitumor effect of liposomal drugs.

  18. Increased Dietary Leucine Reduces Doxorubicin-Associated Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats

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    Thiago M. Fidale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxicity is one of the most significant adverse effects of the oncologic treatment with doxorubicin, which is responsible for a substantial morbid and mortality. The occurrence of heart failure with ventricular dysfunction may lead to severe cardiomyopathy and ultimately to death. Studies have focused on the effects of leucine supplementation as a strategy to minimize or revert the clinical condition of induced proteolysis by several clinical onsets. However, the impact of leucine supplementation in heart failure induced by doxorubicin is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of leucine supplementation on the cardiotoxicity in the heart of rats treated with doxorubicin. Rats treated with a 7.5 mg/kg cumulative dose of doxorubicin for 14 days presented a dilatation of the left ventricle (LV, and a reduction of the ejection fraction (FE. The 5% supplementation of leucine in the rats' food prevented the malfunctioning of the LV when administered with doxorubicin. Some alterations in the extracellular matrix remodeling were confirmed by the increase of collagen fibers in the doxorubicin group, which did not increase when the treatment was associated with leucine supplementation. Leucine attenuates heart failure in this experimental model with doxorubicin. Such protection is followed by the maintenance of interstitial collagen fibers.

  19. Doxorubicin, mesenchymal stem cell toxicity and antitumour activity: implications for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Holland, Mia; Dass, Crispin R

    2018-03-01

    The use of doxorubicin, an antineoplastic medication used for the treatment of cancers via mechanisms that prevent replication of cells or lead to their death, can result in damage to healthy cells as well as malignant. Among the affected cells are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are involved in the maintenance and repair of tissues in the body. This review explores the mechanisms of biological effects and damage attributed to doxorubicin on MSCs. The PubMed database was used as a source of literature for this review. Doxorubicin has the potential to lead to significant and irreversible damage to the human bone marrow environment, including MSCs. The primary known mechanism of these changes is through free radical damage and activation of apoptotic pathways. The presence of MSCs in culture or in vivo appears to either suppress or promote tumour growth. Interactions between doxorubicin and MSCs have the potential to increase chemotherapy resistance. Doxorubicin-induced damage to MSCs is of concern clinically. However, MSCs also have been associated with resistance of tumour cells to drugs including doxorubicin. Further studies, particularly in vivo, are needed to provide consistent results of how the doxorubicin-induced changes to MSCs affect treatment and patient health. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells: A Possible New Treatment Strategy

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    Ninna Aggerholm-Pedersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the major challenges affecting sarcoma treatment outcome, particularly that of metastatic disease, is resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer-initiating cells are considered a major contributor to this resistance. Methods. An immortalised nontransformed human stromal (mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI treatment with or without doxorubicin was assessed by MTS assay. Results. Initial results showed that the hMSC-TERT4 was more doxorubicin-sensitive while hMSC-TERT20-CE8 was less doxorubicin-sensitive evidenced by monitoring cell viability in the presence of doxorubicin at different doses. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was activated in both cell lines. However hMSC-TERT20-CE8 exhibited significantly higher expression of the EGFR ligands. EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib and afatinib alone or in combination with doxorubicin failed to further decrease cell viability of hMSC-TERT20-CE8. However, inhibition with the TKI dasatinib in combination with doxorubicin decreased cell viability of the hMSC-TERT20-CE8 cell line. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that dasatinib, but not EGFR-directed treatment, can decrease cell viability of stromal cancer stem cells less sensitive to doxorubicin.

  1. Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells: A Possible New Treatment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Demuth, Christina; Safwat, Akmal; Meldgaard, Peter; Kassem, Moustapha; Sandahl Sorensen, Boe

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the major challenges affecting sarcoma treatment outcome, particularly that of metastatic disease, is resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer-initiating cells are considered a major contributor to this resistance. Methods. An immortalised nontransformed human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI) treatment with or without doxorubicin was assessed by MTS assay. Results. Initial results showed that the hMSC-TERT4 was more doxorubicin-sensitive while hMSC-TERT20-CE8 was less doxorubicin-sensitive evidenced by monitoring cell viability in the presence of doxorubicin at different doses. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was activated in both cell lines. However hMSC-TERT20-CE8 exhibited significantly higher expression of the EGFR ligands. EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib and afatinib alone or in combination with doxorubicin failed to further decrease cell viability of hMSC-TERT20-CE8. However, inhibition with the TKI dasatinib in combination with doxorubicin decreased cell viability of the hMSC-TERT20-CE8 cell line. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that dasatinib, but not EGFR-directed treatment, can decrease cell viability of stromal cancer stem cells less sensitive to doxorubicin.

  2. Cellular robustness conferred by genetic crosstalk underlies resistance against chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoey Tay

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic that is among one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in the clinical setting. The usage of doxorubicin is faced with many problems including severe side effects and chemoresistance. To overcome these challenges, it is important to gain an understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms with regards to the mode of action of doxorubicin. To facilitate this aim, we identified the genes that are required for doxorubicin resistance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We further demonstrated interplay between factors controlling various aspects of chromosome metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and membrane transport. In the nucleus we observed that the subunits of the Ino80, RSC, and SAGA complexes function in the similar epistatic group that shares significant overlap with the homologous recombination genes. However, these factors generally act in synergistic manner with the chromosome segregation regulator DASH complex proteins, possibly forming two major arms for regulating doxorubicin resistance in the nucleus. Simultaneous disruption of genes function in membrane efflux transport or the mitochondrial respiratory chain integrity in the mutants defective in either Ino80 or HR function resulted in cumulative upregulation of drug-specific growth defects, suggesting a rewiring of pathways that synergize only when the cells is exposed to the cytotoxic stress. Taken together, our work not only identified factors that are required for survival of the cells in the presence of doxorubicin but has further demonstrated that an extensive molecular crosstalk exists between these factors to robustly confer doxorubicin resistance.

  3. Circumvention of acquired resistance to doxorubicin in K562 human leukemia cells by oxatomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Fujita, R; Furusawa, S; Takayanagi, M; Sasaki, K; Satoh, S

    2001-10-01

    We studied the effect of oxatomide, an antiallergic drug, on the resistance of K562 cells to doxorubicin. Oxatomide synergistically potentiated the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in doxorubicin-resistant K562 cells (K562/DXR) at a concentration of 1-10 microM, but had hardly any synergistic effect on the parental cell line (K562) at the same concentration. Oxatomide inhibit P-glycoprotein pump-efflux activity and the binding of [3H]-azidopine to the cell-surface protein P-glycoprotein, in a dose-related manner. These results indicate that oxatomide reverses the multidrug-resistance phenotype through direct interaction with P-glycoprotein.

  4. Loading and release of doxorubicin with magnetic nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xia; Wang, Xiang; Lee, Sang Bok [Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); English, Douglas [Dept. of Chemistry, Wichita State University, Wichita (United States)

    2015-03-15

    In this work, we study magnetic nanotubes (MNTs) as drug carriers to control the loading and release of doxorubicin (Dox). The inner surfaces of MNTs where Dox molecules are stored are modified with C18-silane and pyridine–silane. By tuning the interaction between the drug molecules and inner surfaces of MNTs via pH, Dox can be effectively encapsulated at pH 7.2 and released at pH 4.5. The successful loading of Dox is confirmed with confocal microscopy studies. The release profiles of Dox from modified MNTs are detected by spectrofluorophotometry, with bare MNTs as control. With proper modifications, MNTs can be used for pH-dependent, controlled release of drug molecules.

  5. Doxorubicin-anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoconjugate activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V J; Ford, C H; Tsaltas, G; Gallant, M E

    1989-04-01

    An in vitro model consisting of a series of 11 human cancer cell lines with varying density of expression of membrane carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been used to evaluate conjugates of doxorubicin (Adriamycin) covalently linked by a carbodiimide method to goat polyclonal antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibodies to CEA. Conjugates were produced which retained both antigen binding and drug cytotoxicity. IC50 values were determined for free drug, free drug mixed with unconjugated antibodies and for the immunoconjugates. Cell lines that were very sensitive to free drug (IC50 less than 100 ng/ml) were also found to be highly sensitive to conjugated drug and similarly cell lines resistant to drug (IC50 greater than 1,000 ng/ml) were also resistant to conjugated drug. Although there was no correlation between CEA expression and conjugates efficacy, competitive inhibition studies using autologous antibody to block conjugate binding to cells indicated immunoconjugates specificity for the CEA target.

  6. Combined doxorubicin and radiation therapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinoff, C.; Falkson, G.; Sandison, A.G.; De Muelenaere, G.

    1982-01-01

    Ten patients with histologically confirmed inoperable malignant mesothelioma of the pleura were treated with doxorubicin and fractionated radiotherapy courses. Three patients derived significant clinical benefit from this treatment, although only one of the three had measureable tumor shrinkage that could be defined as partial response. Two of the ten patients showed only progressive disease, while the remaining five showed disease stabilization for 30--100 weeks. The treatment was subjectively well-tolerated and hematopoietic toxicity was acceptable. Radiation pneumonitis did not occur. Two of the four patients who lived greater than or equal to 94 weeks developed fibrosis of the irradiated hemithorax. The median survival time for all patients was 46 weeks. Although the combined treatment could be given with acceptable toxic effects and although four patients benefited from it, the best objective assessment, namely, survival time, did not appear to be adequately influenced to justify an extension of this series

  7. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Laxit; Joshi, Viraj

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. against cardiac stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX). Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg of M. indica leaf extract (MILE) in alone and interactive groups for 21 days. Apart from the normal and MILE control groups, all the groups were subjected to DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity for 21 days and effects of different treatments were analyzed by changes in serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidant levels, electrocardiographic parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological evaluation. Results: The MILE treated group showed decrease in serum biomarker enzyme levels and increase in tissue antioxidants levels. Compared to DOX control group, MILE treated animals showed improvement in lipid profile, electrocardiographic parameters, histological score, and mortality. Conclusion: These findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by DOX. PMID:28894627

  8. Myostatin as a Marker for Doxorubicin Induced Cardiac Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesik, Vural; Honca, Tevfik; Gulgun, Mustafa; Uysal, Bulent; Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Cayci, Tuncer; Babacan, Oguzhan; Gocgeldi, Ercan; Korkmazer, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent but causes severe cardiac failure over known doses. Thus, early detection and prevention of cardiac damage is important. Various markers have been tested for early detection of cardiac damage. Myostatin is a protein produced in skeletal muscle cells inhibits muscle differentiation and growth during myogenesis. We evaluated the role of myostatin as a marker for showing DXR induced cardiac damage and compared with well known cardiac markers like NT-proBNP, hs-TnT and CK in a rat model of chronic DXR cardiotoxicity. Myostatin, NT-proBNP, and hs-TnT but not CK rose significantly during DXR treatment. Myostatin can be used as an early marker of DXR induced cardiotoxicity. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  9. Amphipathic dextran-doxorubicin prodrug micelles for solid tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Guo, Xuelian; Dong, Lingli; Xie, Enyuan; Cao, Aoneng

    2017-10-01

    A group of micelles self-assembled from deoxycholic acid-doxorubicin-conjugated dextran (denoted as Dex-DCA-DOX) prodrugs were designed and prepared for pH-triggered drug release and cancer chemotherapy. These prodrugs could be successfully produced by chemically coupling hydrophobic deoxycholic acid (DCA) to dextran hydrazine (denoted as Dex-NHNH 2 ) and hydrazone linker formation between doxorubicin (DOX) and Dex-NHNH 2 . These Dex-DCA-DOX prodrugs self-assembled to form micelles under physiological conditions with varied particle sizes depending on molecular weight of dextran, degree of substitution (DS) of DCA and DOX. After optimization, Dex10k-DCA9-DOX5.5 conjugate comprising dextran of 10kDa, DCA of DS 9 and DOX loading content of 5.5wt%, formed the micelles with the smallest size (110nm). These prodrug micelles could slowly liberate DOX under physiological conditions but efficiently released the drug at an acidified endosomal pH by the hydrolysis of acid-labile hydrazone linker. In vitro cytotoxicity experiment indicated that Dex10k-DCA9-DOX5.5 micelles exerted marked antitumor activity against MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. Besides, intravenous administration of the micelles afforded growth inhibition of SKOV-3 tumor bearing in nude mice at a dosage of 2.5mg per kg with anti-cancer efficacy comparable to free DOX-chemotherapy but low systemic toxicity. This study highlights the feasibility of bio-safe and efficient dextran-based prodrug micelles designed for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Doxorubicin-loaded QuadraSphere microspheres: plasma pharmacokinetics and intratumoral drug concentration in an animal model of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A; Cornell, Curt; Reb, Philippe; Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  11. Doxorubicin-Loaded QuadraSphere Microspheres: Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Intratumoral Drug Concentration in an Animal Model of Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A.; Cornell, Curt; Reb, Philippe; Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A.; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  12. Schedule-dependency of doxorubicin and vinblastine in EAT tumours in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auersperg, M.; Pogacnik, A.; Kloboves-Prevodnik, V.; Sersa, G.; Cemazar, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Antitumour schedule-dependency of the doxorubicin and vinblastine combination was explored. Materials and methods. Intraperitoneal Ehrlich ascites tumours (EAT) syngeneic to CBA mice were treated with vinblastine or doxorubicin alone, or in combined treatment schedules. Results. Combinations of doxorubicin and vinblastine administered at 48-h, but not at 24-h interval, regardless of the sequence of drugs, significantly reduced the number of tumour cells in the ascites in comparison with all other treatments. In the combined treatment schedules, the predominant morphological changes as well as DNA distribution pattern were dependent on the first drug applied. Regardless of the sequence of the drugs, median survival times of animals did not significantly differ between the treatment groups. Conclusions. The effect of combination of vinblastine and doxorubicin is schedule-dependent. The time interval, but not the sequence of drugs seems to be crucial for the observed effect. The data from preclinical studies are important for planning combined treatment schedules in clinical setting. (author)

  13. The lipid lowering drug lovastatin protects against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, Christian; Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Huelsenbeck, Stefanie; Grösch, Sabine; Schad, Arno; Lackner, Karl J.; Kaina, Bernd; Fritz, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Liver is the main detoxifying organ and therefore the target of high concentrations of genotoxic compounds, such as environmental carcinogens and anticancer drugs. Here, we investigated the usefulness of lovastatin, which is nowadays widely used for lipid lowering purpose, as a hepatoprotective drug following the administration of the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin in vivo. To this end, BALB/c mice were exposed to either a single high dose or three consecutive low doses of doxorubicin. Acute and subacute hepatotoxicities were analyzed with or without lovastatin co-treatment. Lovastatin protected the liver against doxorubicin-induced acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses as indicated by an attenuated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively. Hepatoprotection by lovastatin was due to a reduced induction of DNA damage following doxorubicin treatment. The statin also mitigated subacute anthracycline-provoked hepatotoxicity as shown on the level of doxorubicin- and epirubicin-stimulated CTGF mRNA expression as well as histopathologically detectable fibrosis and serum concentration of marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity (GPT/GLDH). Kidney damage following doxorubicin exposure was not detectable under our experimental conditions. Moreover, lovastatin showed multiple inhibitory effects on doxorubicin-triggered hepatic expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response, drug transport, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell death. Doxorubicin also stimulated the formation of ceramides. Ceramide production, however, was not blocked by lovastatin, indicating that hepatoprotection by lovastatin is independent of the sphingolipid metabolism. Overall, the data show that lovastatin is hepatoprotective following genotoxic stress induced by anthracyclines. Based on the data, we hypothesize that statins might be suitable to lower hepatic injury following anthracycline

  14. The lipid lowering drug lovastatin protects against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, Christian [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Toxicology, University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Huelsenbeck, Stefanie [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grösch, Sabine [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D-60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schad, Arno [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Lackner, Karl J. [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Kaina, Bernd [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Fritz, Gerhard, E-mail: fritz@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Toxicology, University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Liver is the main detoxifying organ and therefore the target of high concentrations of genotoxic compounds, such as environmental carcinogens and anticancer drugs. Here, we investigated the usefulness of lovastatin, which is nowadays widely used for lipid lowering purpose, as a hepatoprotective drug following the administration of the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin in vivo. To this end, BALB/c mice were exposed to either a single high dose or three consecutive low doses of doxorubicin. Acute and subacute hepatotoxicities were analyzed with or without lovastatin co-treatment. Lovastatin protected the liver against doxorubicin-induced acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses as indicated by an attenuated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively. Hepatoprotection by lovastatin was due to a reduced induction of DNA damage following doxorubicin treatment. The statin also mitigated subacute anthracycline-provoked hepatotoxicity as shown on the level of doxorubicin- and epirubicin-stimulated CTGF mRNA expression as well as histopathologically detectable fibrosis and serum concentration of marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity (GPT/GLDH). Kidney damage following doxorubicin exposure was not detectable under our experimental conditions. Moreover, lovastatin showed multiple inhibitory effects on doxorubicin-triggered hepatic expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response, drug transport, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell death. Doxorubicin also stimulated the formation of ceramides. Ceramide production, however, was not blocked by lovastatin, indicating that hepatoprotection by lovastatin is independent of the sphingolipid metabolism. Overall, the data show that lovastatin is hepatoprotective following genotoxic stress induced by anthracyclines. Based on the data, we hypothesize that statins might be suitable to lower hepatic injury following anthracycline

  15. Molecular Modification of Metadherin/MTDH Impacts the Sensitivity of Breast Cancer to Doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchuan Song

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women and with an increasing worldwide incidence. Doxorubicin, as a first-line anthracycline-based drug is conventional used on breast cancer clinical chemotherapy. However, the drug resistances limited the curative effect of the doxorubicin therapy in breast cancer patients, but the molecular mechanism determinants of breast cancer resistance to doxorubicin chemotherapy are not fully understood. In order to explore the association between metadherin (MTDH and doxorubicin sensitivity, the differential expressions of MTDH in breast cancer cell lines and the sensitivity to doxorubicin of breast cancer cell lines were investigated.The mRNA and protein expression of MTDH were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot in breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, MDA-MB-435S, MCF-7/ADR cells. Once MTDH gene was knocked down by siRNA in MCF-7/ADR cells and overexpressed by MTDH plasmid transfection in MDA-MB-231 cells, the cell growth and therapeutic sensitivity of doxorubicin were evaluated using MTT and the Cell cycle assay and apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry.MCF-7/ADR cells revealed highly expressed MTDH and MDA-MB-231 cells had the lowest expression of MTDH. After MTDH gene was knocked down, the cell proliferation was inhibited, and the inhibitory rate of cell growth and apoptosis rate were enhanced, and the cell cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase in the presence of doxorubicin treatment. On the other hand, the opposite results were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells with overexpressed MTDH gene.MTDH gene plays a promoting role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells and its high expression may be associated with doxorubicin sensitivity of breast cancer.

  16. Hypothalamic Energy Metabolism Is Impaired By Doxorubicin Independently Of Inflammation In Non-tumour-bearing Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Barbara M M; Lira, Fabio Santos; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Rosa Neto, José Cesar; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Rodrigues, Bruno; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    We sought to explore the effects of doxorubicin on inflammatory profiles and energy metabolism in the hypothalamus of rats. To investigate these effects, we formed two groups: a control (C) group and a Doxorubicin (DOXO) group. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to either the control (C) or DOXO groups. The hypothalamus was collected. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and energy metabolism (malate dehydrogenase, complex I and III activities) were analysed in the hypothala...

  17. Synergistic Effect of Endogenous and Exogenous Aldehydes on Doxorubicin Toxicity in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S. Miles

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracyclines are frequently used to treat many cancers including triple negative breast cancer, which is commonly observed in African-American women (AA, and tend to be more aggressive, carry worse prognoses, and are harder to manage because they lack molecular targets. Although effective, anthracyclines use can be limited by serious side effects and eventually the development of drug resistance. In S. cerevisiae, mutants of HOM6 display hypersensitivity to doxorubicin. HOM6 is required for synthesis of threonine and interruption of the pathway leads to accumulation of the threonine intermediate L-aspartate-semialdehyde. This intermediate may synergize with doxorubicin to kill the cell. In fact, deleting HOM3 in the first step, preventing the pathway to reach the HOM6 step, rescues the sensitivity of the hom6 strain to doxorubicin. Using several S. cerevisiae strains (wild type, hom6, hom3, hom3hom6, ydj1, siz1, and msh2, we determined their sensitivity to aldehydes and to their combination with doxorubicin, cisplatin, and etoposide. Combination of formaldehyde and doxorubicin was most effective at reducing cell survival by 31-fold–39-fold (in wild type cells relative to doxorubicin and formaldehyde alone. This effect was dose dependent on doxorubicin. Cotreatment with formaldehyde and doxorubicin also showed increased toxicity in anthracycline-resistant strains siz1 and msh2. The hom6 mutant also showed sensitivity to menadione with a 2.5-fold reduction in cell survival. The potential use of a combination of aldehydes and cytotoxic drugs could potentially lead to applications intended to enhance anthracycline-based therapy.

  18. Activity of trypsin-like enzymes and gelatinases in rats with doxorubicin cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Iu. А. Gordiienko; Ya. V. Babets; А. О. Kulinich; А. І. Shevtsova; G. О. Ushakova

    2014-01-01

    Activity of trypsin-like enzymes (ATLE) and gelatinases A and B were studied in the blood plasma and extracts from cardiac muscle, cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rats with cardiomyopathy caused by anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin against the background of preventive application of corvitin and α-ketoglutarate. ATLE significantly increased in blood plasma and extracts from cerebral cortex but decreased in extracts from cardiac muscle and cerebellum in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy (DCMP). ...

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Left Ventricular Mass in Rats with Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Haydardedeoglu, Ali Evren; Boztok Özgermen, Deva Basak; Yavuz, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY: Doxorubicin is a drug that used by a majority in the treatment of carcinomas. The most obvious known side effect is cardiomyopathy. Many studies have been carried out to eliminate side effects of the doxorubicin, and stem cell studies have been added in recent years. In this study, it was aimed to investigate fetal-derived mesenchymal stem cells (F-MSCs) treatment of doxorubicininduced cardiomyopathy by morphological methods. A total of 24 rats which were divided into three separate ...

  20. Influence of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole on distribution and activity of doxorubicin in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Lee, Carol; Wang, Marina; Tannock, Ian F

    2015-10-01

    Cellular causes of resistance and limited drug distribution within solid tumors limit therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Acidic endosomes in cancer cells mediate autophagy, which facilitates survival of stressed cells, and may contribute to drug resistance. Basic drugs (e.g. doxorubicin) are sequestered in acidic endosomes, thereby diverting drugs from their target DNA and decreasing penetration to distal cells. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may raise endosomal pH, with potential to improve drug efficacy and distribution in solid tumors. We determined the effects of the PPI lansoprazole to modify the activity of doxorubicin. To gain insight into its mechanisms, we studied the effects of lansoprazole on endosomal pH, and on the spatial distribution of doxorubicin, and of biomarkers reflecting its activity, using in vitro and murine models. Lansoprazole showed concentration-dependent effects to raise endosomal pH and to inhibit endosomal sequestration of doxorubicin in cultured tumor cells. Lansoprazole was not toxic to cancer cells but potentiated the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and enhanced its penetration through multilayered cell cultures. In solid tumors, lansoprazole improved the distribution of doxorubicin but also increased expression of biomarkers of drug activity throughout the tumor. Combined treatment with lansoprazole and doxorubicin was more effective in delaying tumor growth as compared to either agent alone. Together, lansoprazole enhances the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin both by improving its distribution and increasing its activity in solid tumors. Use of PPIs to improve drug distribution and to inhibit autophagy represents a promising strategy to enhance the effectiveness of anticancer drugs in solid tumors. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  1. Studies on the effect of doxorubicin on MDA, NO2, NO3, Se-GSH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... Nitric oxide; NO2. - Nitric oxide; NO3- ... The lipid peroxides were determined by the TBA me- ... Effect of different doses of doxorubicin on rat serum nitrite (NO2 .... 2306. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. P e rc e n. t c h a n g e o v e ... Doxorubicin induced percent changes of rat serum Nitrate (NO3.

  2. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-01-01

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD 10 dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 ± 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 ± 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-α2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating the JAK/STAT3

  3. Doxorubicin-Induced Gut Toxicity in Piglets fed Bovine Milk and Colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René Liang; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We hypothesized that a milk diet containing bovine colostrum (BC) would reduce intestinal toxicity in doxorubicin-treated piglets. METHODS: Study 1 investigated intestinal parameters nine days after...... Colostrum supplementation had limited effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in milk-fed piglets suggesting that colostrum and a bovine milk diet enriched with whey protein provided similar...

  4. Transarterial chemoembolization using gelatin sponges or microspheres plus lipiodol-doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-loaded beads for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi Sheng; Ou, Ming Ching; Tsai, Yi Shan; Lin, Xi Zhang; Wang, Chien Kuo; Tsai, Hong Ming; Chuang, Ming Tsung

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively compare treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using gelatin sponges or microspheres plus lipiodol-doxorubicin vs. doxorubicin-loaded drug-eluting beads (DEB). A total of 158 patients with HCC received TACE from November 2010 to November 2011 were enrolled in this study, including 64 (40.5%) received TACE with lipiodol-doxorubicin and gelatin sponges (group A), 41 (25.9%) received TACE with lipiodol-doxorubicin and microspheres (group B), and 53 (33.5%) received TACE with doxorubicin-loaded DEB (group C). Tumor response and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. No significant difference was found at baseline among the three groups. The doxorubicin dosage in group C was significantly (p < 0.001) higher compared to the dose used in groups A or B (median, 50 mg vs. 31 mg or 25 mg). Significantly (p < 0.001) more patients in group C achieved complete response compared to those in groups A or B (32.1% vs. 6.3% or 2.4%). Significantly (p < 0.001) less patients in group C had progressive disease compared to those in groups A or B (34.0% vs. 57.8% or 68.3%). Minor AEs were more common in groups A and B compared to group C, with rates of 54.7%, 34.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. In patients with HCC, TACE with DEB offers better safety and efficacy profiles compared to either TACE with gelatin sponges or TACE with microspheres.

  5. Abatement by Naringenin of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, H.M.; Abd-Ellah, M.F.; Hafez, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in current use. It has proven efficacy in various malignancies either alone or combined with other cytocidal agents. The clinical usefulness of the anthracycline drug has been precluded by cardiac toxicity. Many therapeutic interventions have been attempted to improve the therapeutic benefits of the drug. Few, however, have been efficacious in this setting. Purpose: We have addressed in the current study the possible protective effects of naringenin, a flavonoid known to have anti-oxidant properties, on doxorubicin induced cardiac toxicity in male Swiss albino rats. Methods: Forty male Swiss albino rats were used in this study. Naringenin (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered daily by gavage for 7 consecutive days before a cumulative single dose of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg body weight, ip). Doxorubicin induced marked biochemical alterations characteristic of cardiac toxicity including, elevated activities of serum total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), enhanced lipid peroxidation measured as malonaldehyde (MDA). The anthracycline drug has also reduced the cardiac enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-Stransferase (GST) and catalase (CAT). Besides, it reduced significantly the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, but it increased the total NO content in heart tissue. Prior administration of naringenin ahead of doxorubicin challenge ameliorated all these biochemical markers. Taken together, one could conclude that naringenin has a protective role in the abatement of doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity that resides, at least in part, on its anti-radical effects and regulatory role on NO production

  6. Effects of Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanru; Brook, Caitlin L; Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lawrence, Andrew; Yazbeck, Roger; Howarth, Gordon S

    2013-08-01

    Mucositis is a debilitating intestinal side effect of chemotherapeutic regimens. Probiotics have been considered a possible preventative treatment for mucositis. Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), a newly identified probiotic, has been shown to partially alleviate mucositis induced by administration of the antimetabolite chemotherapy drug, methotrexate in rats; likely mediated through a mechanism of folate production. However, its effects against other classes of chemotherapy drug have yet to be determined. The authors investigated the effects of TH-4 in a rat model of mucositis induced by the anthracycline chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Gastrointestinal damage was induced in female Dark Agouti rats (148.3 ± 1.5 g) by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (20 mg/kg). Animals recieved a daily oral gavage of TH-4 at 10(9) cfu/ml or skim milk (vehicle) from days 0 to 8. At day 6, rats were injected with either saline or doxorubicin. At kill, small intestinal tissues were collected for determination of sucrase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and histological assessment. Body weight was significantly decreased by doxorubicin compared with normal controls (p TH-4 partially prevented the loss of body weight induced by doxorubicin (2.3% compared with 4%), but provided no further therapeutic benefit. The minimal amelioration of doxorubicin-induced mucositis by TH-4 further supports folate production as a likely mechanism of TH-4 action against methotrexate-induced mucositis. Further studies into TH-4 are required to confirm its applicability to other conventional chemotherapy regimens.

  7. Muscular pseudotumor of the breast following doxorubicin and radiation therapy for oat cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wergowske, G.; Chang, J.C.; Marger, D.

    1982-01-01

    Two male patients developed muscular pseudotumor of the breast following combined treatment of radiation and chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, methotrexate and procarbazine for oat cell carcinoma of the lung. The pathologic findings of the biopsy specimens revealed muscle and capillary changes similar to previously reported myocardiotoxicity from doxorubicin and radiation therapy. Discussed is a possible additive or synergistic toxic effect of doxorubicin and radiation therapy in the development of muscular pseudotumor of the breast

  8. HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin displays enhanced anti-tumorigenic effects without associated cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Joseph G.; Geretti, Elena; Hendriks, Bart S.; Lee, Helen; Leonard, Shannon C.; Klinz, Stephan G.; Noble, Charles O.; Lücker, Petra B.; Zandstra, Peter W.; Drummond, Daryl C.; Olivier, Kenneth J.; Nielsen, Ulrik B.; Niyikiza, Clet; Agresta, Samuel V.; Wickham, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Anthracycline-based regimens are a mainstay of early breast cancer therapy, however their use is limited by cardiac toxicity. The potential for cardiotoxicity is a major consideration in the design and development of combinatorial therapies incorporating anthracyclines and agents that target the HER2-mediated signaling pathway, such as trastuzumab. In this regard, HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin was developed to provide clinical benefit by both reducing the cardiotoxicity observed with anthracyclines and enhancing the therapeutic potential of HER2-based therapies that are currently available for HER2-overexpressing cancers. While documenting the enhanced therapeutic potential of HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin can be done with existing models, there has been no validated human cardiac cell-based assay system to rigorously assess the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines. To understand if HER2-targeting of liposomal doxorubicin is possible with a favorable cardiac safety profile, we applied a human stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte platform to evaluate the doxorubicin exposure of human cardiac cells to HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known application of a stem cell-derived system for evaluating preclinical cardiotoxicity of an investigational agent. We demonstrate that HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin has little or no uptake into human cardiomyocytes, does not inhibit HER2-mediated signaling, results in little or no evidence of cardiomyocyte cell death or dysfunction, and retains the low penetration into heart tissue of liposomal doxorubicin. Taken together, this data ultimately led to the clinical decision to advance this drug to Phase I clinical testing, which is now ongoing as a single agent in HER2-expressing cancers. -- Highlights: ► Novel approach using stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to assess preclinical safety. ► HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin has improved safety profile vs free doxorubicin

  9. HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin displays enhanced anti-tumorigenic effects without associated cardiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Joseph G.; Geretti, Elena; Hendriks, Bart S.; Lee, Helen; Leonard, Shannon C.; Klinz, Stephan G.; Noble, Charles O. [Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, 1 Kendall Square, Suite B7201, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lücker, Petra B.; Zandstra, Peter W. [University of Toronto, 160 College Street, Office 1116, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1 (Canada); Drummond, Daryl C.; Olivier, Kenneth J.; Nielsen, Ulrik B.; Niyikiza, Clet; Agresta, Samuel V. [Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, 1 Kendall Square, Suite B7201, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wickham, Thomas J., E-mail: twickham@merrimackpharma.com [Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, 1 Kendall Square, Suite B7201, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Anthracycline-based regimens are a mainstay of early breast cancer therapy, however their use is limited by cardiac toxicity. The potential for cardiotoxicity is a major consideration in the design and development of combinatorial therapies incorporating anthracyclines and agents that target the HER2-mediated signaling pathway, such as trastuzumab. In this regard, HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin was developed to provide clinical benefit by both reducing the cardiotoxicity observed with anthracyclines and enhancing the therapeutic potential of HER2-based therapies that are currently available for HER2-overexpressing cancers. While documenting the enhanced therapeutic potential of HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin can be done with existing models, there has been no validated human cardiac cell-based assay system to rigorously assess the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines. To understand if HER2-targeting of liposomal doxorubicin is possible with a favorable cardiac safety profile, we applied a human stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte platform to evaluate the doxorubicin exposure of human cardiac cells to HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known application of a stem cell-derived system for evaluating preclinical cardiotoxicity of an investigational agent. We demonstrate that HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin has little or no uptake into human cardiomyocytes, does not inhibit HER2-mediated signaling, results in little or no evidence of cardiomyocyte cell death or dysfunction, and retains the low penetration into heart tissue of liposomal doxorubicin. Taken together, this data ultimately led to the clinical decision to advance this drug to Phase I clinical testing, which is now ongoing as a single agent in HER2-expressing cancers. -- Highlights: ► Novel approach using stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to assess preclinical safety. ► HER2-targeted liposomal doxorubicin has improved safety profile vs free doxorubicin

  10. Multifunctional DNA-gold nanoparticles for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Colleen M; Hamner, Kristen L; Maye, Mathew M; Dabrowiak, James C

    2014-07-16

    In this report we describe the synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxic properties of DNA-capped gold nanoparticles having attached folic acid (FA), a thermoresponsive polymer (p), and/or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomers that could be used to deliver the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) in chemotherapy. The FA-DNA oligomer used in the construction of the delivery vehicle was synthesized through the reaction of the isolated folic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester with the amino-DNA and the conjugated DNA product was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This approach ultimately allowed control of the amount of FA attached to the surface of the delivery vehicle. Cytotoxicity studies using SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells with drug loaded delivery vehicles were carried out using a variety of exposure times (1-48 h) and recovery times (1-72 h), and in order to access the effects of varying amounts of attached FA, in culture media deficient in FA. DOX loaded delivery vehicles having 50% of the DNA strands with attached FA were more cytotoxic than when all of the strands contained FA. Since FA stimulates cell growth, the reduced cytotoxicity of vehicles fully covered with FA suggests that the stimulatory effects of FA can more than compensate for the cytotoxic effects of the drug on the cell population. While attachment of hexa-ethylene glycol PEG(18) to the surface of the delivery vehicle had no effect on cytotoxicity, 100% FA plus the thermoresponsive polymer resulted in IC50 = 0.48 ± 0.01 for an exposure time of 24 h and a recovery time of 1 h, which is an order of magnitude more cytotoxic than free DOX. Confocal microscopic studies using fluorescence detection showed that SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells exposed to DOX-loaded vehicles have drug accumulation inside the cell and, in the case of vehicles with attached FA and thermoresponsive polymer, the drug appears more concentrated. Since the biological target of DOX is DNA, the latter

  11. Optimization of doxorubicin loading for superabsorbent polymer microspheres: in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David M; Kos, Sebastian; Buczkowski, Andrzej; Kee, Stephen; Munk, Peter L; Klass, Darren; Wasan, Ellen

    2012-04-01

    This study was designed to establish the ability of super-absorbent polymer microspheres (SAP) to actively uptake doxorubicin and to establish the proof of principle of SAP's ability to phase transfer doxorubicin onto the polymer matrix and to elute into buffer with a loading method that optimizes physical handling and elution characteristics. Phase I: 50-100 μm SAP subject to various prehydration methods (normal saline 10 cc, hypertonic saline 4 cc, iodinated contrast 10 cc) or left in their dry state, and combined with 50 mg of clinical grade lyophilized doxorubicin reconstituted with various methods (normal saline 10 cc and 25 cc, sterile water 4 cc, iodinated contrast 5 cc) were placed in buffer and assessed based on loading, handling, and elution utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phase II: top two performing methods were subject to loading of doxorubicin (50, 75, 100 mg) in a single bolus (group A) or as a serial loading method (group B) followed by measurement of loading vs. time and elution vs. time. Phase I revealed the most effective loading mechanisms and easiest handling to be dry (group A) vs. normal saline prehydrated (group B) SAP with normal saline reconstituted doxorubicin (10 mg/mL) with loading efficiencies of 83.1% and 88.4%. Phase II results revealed unstable behavior of SAP with 100 mg of doxorubicin and similar loading/elution profiles of dry and prehydrated SAP, with superior handling characteristics of group B SAP at 50 and 75 mg. SAP demonstrates the ability to load and bulk phase transfer doxorubicin at 50 and 75 mg with ease of handling and optimal efficiency through dry loading of SAP.

  12. Inhibition of PKM2 sensitizes triple-negative breast cancer cells to doxorubicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Gastroenterology, The Tenth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yang, Yong, E-mail: yyang@houstonmethodist.org [Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • Suppression of PKM2 sensitizes triple-negative breast cancer cells to doxorubicin. • Repression of PKM2 affects the glycolysis and decreases ATP production. • Downregulation of PKM2 increases the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin. • Inhibition of PKM2 enhances the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin in vivo. - Abstract: Cancer cells alter regular metabolic pathways in order to sustain rapid proliferation. One example of metabolic remodeling in cancerous tissue is the upregulation of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2), which is involved in aerobic glycolysis. Indeed, PKM2 has previously been identified as a tumor biomarker and as a potential target for cancer therapy. Here, we examined the effects of combined treatment with doxorubicin and anti-PKM2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The suppression of PKM2 resulted in changes in glucose metabolism, leading to decreased synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Reduced levels of ATP resulted in the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of this drug in several triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the combined effect of PKM2 siRNA and doxorubicin was evaluated in an in vivo MDA-MB-231 orthotopic breast cancer model. The siRNA was systemically administered through a polyethylenimine (PEI)-based delivery system that has been extensively used. We demonstrate that the combination treatment showed superior anticancer efficacy as compared to doxorubicin alone. These findings suggest that targeting PKM2 can increase the efficacy of chemotherapy, potentially providing a new approach for improving the outcome of chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.

  13. Optimization of Doxorubicin Loading for Superabsorbent Polymer Microspheres: in vitro Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, David M.; Kos, Sebastian; Buczkowski, Andrzej; Kee, Stephen; Munk, Peter L.; Klass, Darren; Wasan, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to establish the ability of super-absorbent polymer microspheres (SAP) to actively uptake doxorubicin and to establish the proof of principle of SAP’s ability to phase transfer doxorubicin onto the polymer matrix and to elute into buffer with a loading method that optimizes physical handling and elution characteristics. Methods: Phase I: 50–100 μm SAP subject to various prehydration methods (normal saline 10 cc, hypertonic saline 4 cc, iodinated contrast 10 cc) or left in their dry state, and combined with 50 mg of clinical grade lyophilized doxorubicin reconstituted with various methods (normal saline 10 cc and 25 cc, sterile water 4 cc, iodinated contrast 5 cc) were placed in buffer and assessed based on loading, handling, and elution utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phase II: top two performing methods were subject to loading of doxorubicin (50, 75, 100 mg) in a single bolus (group A) or as a serial loading method (group B) followed by measurement of loading vs. time and elution vs. time. Results: Phase I revealed the most effective loading mechanisms and easiest handling to be dry (group A) vs. normal saline prehydrated (group B) SAP with normal saline reconstituted doxorubicin (10 mg/mL) with loading efficiencies of 83.1% and 88.4%. Phase II results revealed unstable behavior of SAP with 100 mg of doxorubicin and similar loading/elution profiles of dry and prehydrated SAP, with superior handling characteristics of group B SAP at 50 and 75 mg. Conclusions: SAP demonstrates the ability to load and bulk phase transfer doxorubicin at 50 and 75 mg with ease of handling and optimal efficiency through dry loading of SAP.

  14. Oxygen radical detoxification enzymes in doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant P388 murine leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramu, A.; Cohen, L.; Glaubiger, D.

    1984-01-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms for the cytotoxic effects of anthracycline compounds suggests that the effect is mediated through the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals. It is therefore possible that doxorubicin resistance is associated with increased intracellular enzyme capacity to convert these superoxide radicals to inactive metabolites. We have measured the relative activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in P388 mouse leukemia cells and in a doxorubicin-resistant subline. Since oxygen-reactive metabolites also play a role in mediating the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation, the radiosensitivity of both cell lines was also studied. No significant differences in superoxide dismutase activity between these cell lines was observed, indicating that they have a similar capacity to convert superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide. P388 cells that are resistant to doxorubicin have 1.5 times the glutathione content and 1.5 times the activity of glutathione peroxidase measured in drug-sensitive P388 cells. However, incubation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, which covalently binds glutathione, had no effect on the sensitivity of either cell line to doxorubicin. Measured catalase activity in drug-resistant P388 cells was one-third of the activity measured in doxorubicin-sensitive P388 cells. The activity of this enzyme was much higher than that of glutathione peroxidase in terms of H 2 O 2 deactivation in both cell lines. It is therefore unlikely that doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells have an increased ability to detoxify reactive oxygen metabolites when compared to drug-sensitive cells. Doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells were significantly more sensitive to X-irradiation than were drug-sensitive P388 cells. These observations suggest that the difference in catalase activity in these cell lines may be associated with the observed differences in radiosensitivity

  15. Effect of citral on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in human B-lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangkong, Darinee; Limpanasithikul, Wacharee

    2015-02-01

    Doxorubicin is a chemotherapy agent used in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but side effects limit its use. Citral is a mixture of neral and geranial found in essential oils of lemon grass. We evaluated the activity of citral, doxorubicin, and combination on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and anti-proliferative effects using human lymphoma Ramos cells. Cells were treated with doxorubicin alone or in combination with citral (10, 20, and 40 μM). Cytotoxic and apoptosis studies were done after 24 and 18 h incubations, respectively. Cytotoxic effects of citral on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also investigated for its safety. Changes in the expression of BCL-2 family genes were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Citral had cytotoxicity on cells with an IC50 value of 77.19 ± 4.95 µM. Citral at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 µM additively increased the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin, leading to decreased IC50 (µM) of the drug from 2.50 ± 0.01 to 2.16 ± 0.03, 1.90 ± 0.04, and 1.23 ± 0.04, respectively. Enhanced cytotoxicity was not observed in normal human PBMCs. Citral (40 µM) in combination with doxorubicin (1.5 µM) increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein BAK but significantly decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL to 5.26-fold compared with doxorubicin-treated cells. It did not change the anti-proliferative activity of drug. Citral potentiated cytotoxicity of doxorubicin by increasing apoptotic effects. We conclude that citral may have beneficial effects in patients with B cell lymphoma treated with chemotherapy.

  16. The same drug but a different mechanism of action: comparison of free doxorubicin with two different N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer-bound doxorubicin conjugates in EL-4 cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovár, Lubomír; Strohalm, Jirí; Chytil, Petr; Mrkvan, Tomás; Kovár, Marek; Hovorka, Ondrej; Ulbrich, Karel; Ríhová, Blanka

    2007-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most potent anti-tumor drugs with a broad spectrum of use. To reduce its toxic effect and improve its pharmacokinetics, we conjugated it to an HPMA copolymer carrier that enhances its passive accumulation within solid tumors via the EPR effect and decreases its cytotoxicity to normal, noncancer cells. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative, pro-survival, and death signals triggered in EL-4 cancer cells exposed to free doxorubicin and doxorubicin conjugated to a HPMA copolymer carrier via either enzymatically (PK1) or hydrolytically (HYD) degradable bonds. We have previously shown that the intracellular distribution of free doxorubicin, HYD, and PK1 is markedly different. Here, we demonstrated that these three agents greatly differ also in the antiproliferative effect and cell death signals they trigger. JNK phosphorylation sharply increased in cells treated with HYD, while treatment with free doxorubicin moderately decreased and treatment with PK1 even strongly decreased it. On the other hand, treatment with free doxorubicin greatly increased p38 phosphorylation, while PK1 and HYD increased it slightly. PK1 also significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, while both the free doxorubicin and HYD conjugate slightly decreased it. Long-term inhibition of JNK significantly increased both proliferation and viability of EL-4 cells treated with free doxorubicin, showing that the JNK signaling pathway could be critical for mediating cell death in EL-4 cells exposed to free doxorubicin. Both activation of caspase 3 and decreased binding activity of the p50 subunit of NFkappaB were observed in cells treated with free doxorubicin and HYD, while no such effects were seen in cells incubated with PK1. Analysis of the expression of genes involved in apoptosis and regulation of the cell cycle demonstrated that free doxorubicin and HYD have very similar mechanisms of action, while PK1 has very different characteristics.

  17. Photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for controlled doxorubicin release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cuiping; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Cecheng; Lin, Xinyi; Wei, Zuwu; Zheng, Youshi; Zhang, Da; Zhang, Zhenxi; Liu, Xiaolong

    2017-06-01

    Currently, photoresponsive nanomaterials are particularly attractive due to their spatial and temporal controlled drug release abilities. In this work, we report a photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle for remote controlled delivery of anticancer drugs. This hybrid nanoparticle comprises three distinct functional components: (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core to encapsulate doxorubicin; (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer at the interface of the core and shell to act as a molecular fence to prevent drug leakage; (iii) a photoresponsive polymeric shell with anti-biofouling properties to enhance nanoparticle stability, which could be detached from the nanoparticle to trigger the drug release via a decrease in the nanoparticle’s stability under light irradiation. In vitro results revealed that this core-shell nanoparticle had excellent light-controlled drug release behavior (76% release with light irradiation versus 10% release without light irradiation). The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results also further demonstrated the light-controlled drug release behavior inside the cancer cells. Furthermore, a CCK8 assay demonstrated that light irradiation could significantly improve the efficiency of killing cancer cells. Meanwhile, whole-animal fluorescence imaging of a tumor-bearing mouse also confirmed that light irradiation could trigger drug release in vivo. Taken together, our data suggested that a hybrid nanoparticle could be a novel light controlled drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  18. Interactions of human serum albumin with doxorubicin in different media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, Vladimir M.; Turov, Vladimir V.; Krupska, Tetyana V.; Tsapko, Magdalina D.

    2017-02-01

    Interactions of human serum albumin (10 wt% H2O and 0.3 wt% sodium caprylate) with doxorubicin hydrochloride (1 wt%) were studied alone or with addition of HCl (3.6 wt% HCl) using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A model of hydrated HSA/12DOX was calculated using PM7 method with COSMO showing large variations in the binding constant depending on structural features of DOX/HSA complexes. DOX molecules/ions displace bound water from narrow intramolecular voids in HSA that leads to diminution of freezing-melting point depression of strongly bound water (SBW). Structure of weakly bound water (WBW) depends much weaker on the presence of DOX than SBW because a major fraction of DOX is bound to adsorption sites of HSA. Addition of HCl results in strong changes in structure of macromolecules and organization of water in hydration shells of HSA (i.e., mainly SBW) and in the solution (i.e., WBW + non-bound bulk water).

  19. Nanoengineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles for smart delivery of doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Akhilesh Kumar; Pandey, Himanshu; Agarwal, Vishnu; Ramteke, Pramod W.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2014-08-01

    The motive of the at hand exploration was to contrive a proficient innovative pH-responsive nanocarrier designed for an anti-neoplastic agent that not only owns competent loading capacity but also talented to liberate the drug at the specific site. pH sensitive hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles ( MSN) have been synthesized by sequence of chemical reconstruction with an average particle size of 120 nm. MSN reveal noteworthy biocompatibility and efficient drug loading magnitude. Active molecules such as Doxorubicin (DOX) can be stocked and set free from the pore vacuities of MSN by tuning the pH of the medium. The loading extent of MSN was found up to 81.4 wt% at pH 7.8. At mild acidic pH, DOX is steadily released from the pores of MSN. Both, the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and X-ray diffraction patterns reflects that this system holds remarkable stable mesostructure. Additionally, the outcomes of cytotoxicity assessment further establish the potential of MSN as a relevant drug transporter which can be thought over an appealing choice to a polymeric delivery system.

  20. Development and Characterization of Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride with Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Sabeti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox. The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about −31 and −32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4 at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with CaelyxR on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes.

  1. Low dose radiation prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Hong, Yaqiong; Zhao, Di; Meng, Xinxin; Zhao, Lijing; Du, Yanwei; Wang, Zan; Zheng, Yan; Cai, Lu; Jiang, Hongyu

    2018-01-02

    This study aimed to develop a novel and non-invasive approach, low-dose radiation (LDR, 75 mGy X-rays), to prevent doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups, Control, LDR (a single exposure), Sham (treated same as LDR group except for irradiation), DOX (a single intraperitoneal injection of DOX at 7.5 mg/kg), and LDR/DOX (received LDR and 72 h later received DOX). Electrocardiogram analysis displayed several kinds of abnormal ECG profiles in DOX-treated mice, but less in LDR/DOX group. Cardiotoxicity indices included histopathological changes, oxidative stress markers, and measurements of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Pretreatment of DOX group with LDR reduced oxidative damages (reactive oxygen species formation, protein nitration, and lipid peroxidation) and increased the activities of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in the heart of LDR/DOX mice compared to DOX mice. Pretreatment of DOX-treated mice with LDR also decreased DOX-induced cardiac cell apoptosis (TUNEL staining and cleaved caspase-3) and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (increased p53, Bax, and caspase-9 expression and decreased Bcl2 expression and ΔΨm dissipation). These results suggest that LDR could induce adaptation of the heart to DOX-induced toxicity. Cardiac protection by LDR may attribute to attenuate DOX-induced cell death via suppressing mitochondrial-dependent oxidative stress and apoptosis signaling.

  2. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Choon [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju 660-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX (P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  3. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX (P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  4. Roles of oxidative stress and Akt signaling in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Yamada, Yoshiji; Kawai, Yoshichika; Osawa, Toshihiko; Furuhashi, Koichi; Duan Zhiwen; Ichihara, Gaku

    2007-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is a treatment-limiting side effect of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). We have now investigated the roles of oxidative stress and signaling by the protein kinase Akt in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity as well as the effects on such toxicity both of fenofibrate, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, and of polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD), an antioxidant. Mice injected intraperitoneally with DOX were treated for 4 days with fenofibrate or PEG-SOD. Fenofibrate and PEG-SOD each prevented the induction of cardiac dysfunction by DOX. Both drugs also inhibited the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and increase in lipid peroxidation in the left ventricle induced by DOX, whereas only PEG-SOD inhibited the DOX-induced activation of Akt and Akt-regulated gene expression. These results suggest that fenofibrate and PEG-SOD prevented cardiac dysfunction induced by DOX through normalization of oxidative stress and redox-regulated NF-κB signaling

  5. HPMA copolymer-bound doxorubicin induces immunogenic tumor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirova, M; Kabesova, M; Kovar, L; Etrych, T; Strohalm, J; Ulbrich, K; Rihova, B

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of murine EL4 T cell lymphoma with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates of doxorubicin (Dox) leads to complete tumor regression and to the development of therapy-dependent longlasting cancer resistance. This phenomenon occurs with two types of Dox conjugates tested, despite differences in the covalent linkage of Dox to the polymer carrier. Such a cancer resistance cannot fully express in conventional treatment with free Dox, due to substantial immunotoxicity of the treatment, which was not observed in the polymer conjugates. In this study, calreticulin (CRT) translocation and high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) release was observed in EL4 cells treated with a conjugate releasing Dox by a pH-dependent manner. As a result, the treated tumor cells were engulfed by dendritic cells (DC) in vitro, and induced their expression of CD80, CD86, and MHC II maturation markers. Conjugates with Dox bound via an amide bond only increased translocation of HSPs to the membrane, which led to an elevated phagocytosis but was not sufficient to induce increase of the maturation markers on DCs in vitro. Both types of conjugates induced engulfment of the target tumor cells in vivo, that was more intense than that seen with free Dox. It means that the induction of anti-tumor immunity documented upon treatment of EL4 lymphoma with HPMA-bound Dox conjugates does not rely solely on CRT-mediated cell death, but involves multiple mechanisms.

  6. Reduced cardiotoxicity and preserved antitumor efficacy of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide compared with conventional doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in a randomized, multicenter trial of metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batist, G; Ramakrishnan, G; Rao, C S; Chandrasekharan, A; Gutheil, J; Guthrie, T; Shah, P; Khojasteh, A; Nair, M K; Hoelzer, K; Tkaczuk, K; Park, Y C; Lee, L W

    2001-03-01

    To determine whether Myocet (liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin; The Liposome Company, Elan Corporation, Princeton, NJ) in combination with cyclophosphamide significantly reduces doxorubicin cardiotoxicity while providing comparable antitumor efficacy in first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Two hundred ninety-seven patients with MBC and no prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease were randomized to receive either 60 mg/m(2) of Myocet (M) or conventional doxorubicin (A), in combination with 600 mg/m(2) of cyclophosphamide (C), every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Cardiotoxicity was defined by reductions in left-ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by serial multigated radionuclide angiography scans, or congestive heart failure (CHF). Antitumor efficacy was assessed by objective tumor response rates (World Health Organization criteria), time to progression, and survival. Six percent of MC patients versus 21% (including five cases of CHF) of AC patients developed cardiotoxicity (P =.0002). Median cumulative doxorubicin dose at onset was more than 2,220 mg/m(2) for MC versus 480 mg/m(2) for AC (P =.0001, hazard ratio, 5.04). MC patients also experienced less grade 4 neutropenia. Antitumor efficacy of MC versus AC was comparable: objective response rates, 43% versus 43%; median time to progression, 5.1% versus 5.5 months; median time to treatment failure, 4.6 versus 4.4 months; and median survival, 19 versus 16 months. Myocet improves the therapeutic index of doxorubicin by significantly reducing cardiotoxicity and grade 4 neutropenia and provides comparable antitumor efficacy, when used in combination with cyclophosphamide as first-line therapy for MBC.

  7. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. A sensitive high performance liquid chromatography assay for the quantification of doxorubicin associated with DNA in tumor and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew T; O'Neal, Sara K; Santos, Charlene M; White, Taylor F; Zamboni, William C

    2016-02-05

    Doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer agent, exhibits antitumor activity against a wide variety of malignancies. The drug exerts its cytotoxic effects by binding to and intercalating within the DNA of tumor and tissue cells. However, current assays are unable to accurately determine the concentration of the intracellular active form of doxorubicin. Thus, the development of a sample processing method and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodology was performed in order to quantify doxorubicin that is associated with DNA in tumors and tissues, which provided an intracellular cytotoxic measure of doxorubicin exposure after administration of small molecule and nanoparticle formulations of doxorubicin. The assay uses daunorubicin as an internal standard; liquid-liquid phase extraction to isolate drug associated with DNA; a Shimadzu HPLC with fluorescence detection equipped with a Phenomenex Luna C18 (2μm, 2.0×100mm) analytical column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water or acetonitrile for separation and quantification. The assay has a lower limit of detection (LLOQ) of 10ng/mL and is shown to be linear up to 3000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision of the assay expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV%) ranged from 4.01 to 8.81%. Furthermore, the suitability of this assay for measuring doxorubicin associated with DNA in vivo was demonstrated by using it to quantify the doxorubicin concentration within tumor samples from SKOV3 and HEC1A mice obtained 72h after administration of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil(®); PLD) at 6mg/kg IV x 1. This HPLC assay allows for sensitive intracellular quantification of doxorubicin and will be an important tool for future studies evaluating intracellular pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and various nanoparticle formulations of doxorubicin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early detection of doxorubicin-induced cariotoxocity and its prevention by alpha-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmal, K.; Khan, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    To detect doxorubicin-induced myocardial injury by quantitative estimation of cardiospecific protein, Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) at early stage and to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Tocopherol. Study Design: Labbased randomized controlled in-vivo study in rabbits. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Pathology department, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, Pakistan from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012. Material and Methods: Eighteen healthy male adult rabbits were used. Cardiotoxicity was induced by single intravenous injection of 12 mg /kg of doxorubicin in a group of rabbits, control group was treated with normal saline only and the rabbits of third group were pretreated with Tocopherol 200 mg/kg of body weight for ten days before injection of doxorubicin 12mg/kg. Results: Doxorubicin produced severe cardiotoxicity confirmed by markedly raised serum levels of cTnI, CK-MB, LDH and grade 3 necrosis of the heart issue in rabbits. The pre-treatment with Tocopherol resulted in improved serum levels of cTnI and the histological picture of heart tissue. Conclusions: The quantitative cTnI estimation for detection of cardiotoxicity at subclinical level can lead to significant economic impact in management of cancer patients because the troponin-negative subjects can be excluded from long term cardiac monitoring programs, which require high cost imaging techniques. Furthermore, the outcome of most potent and widely used doxorubicin chemotherapy can be made successful with the concurrent use of alpha-Tocopherol. (author)

  10. Early transcriptional alteration of histone deacetylases in a murine model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Piotrowska

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent that is widely-used to treat a variety of cancers but causes acute and chronic cardiac injury, severely limiting its use. Clinically, the acute side effects of doxorubicin are mostly manageable, whereas the delayed consequences can lead to life-threatening heart failure, even decades after cancer treatment. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is subject to a critical cumulative dose and so dosage limitation is considered to be the best way to reduce these effects. Hence, a number of studies have defined a "safe dose" of the drug, both in animal models and clinical settings, with the aim of avoiding long-term cardiac effects. Here we show that a dose generally considered as safe in a mouse model can induce harmful changes in the myocardium, as early as 2 weeks after infusion. The adverse changes include the development of fibrotic lesions, disarray of cardiomyocytes and a major transcription dysregulation. Importantly, low-dose doxorubicin caused specific changes in the transcriptional profile of several histone deacetylases (HDACs which are epigenetic regulators of cardiac remodelling. This suggests that cardioprotective therapies, aimed at modulating HDACs during doxorubicin treatment, deserve further exploration.

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors augment doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, Katherine; Rodd, Annabelle L; Tang, Michelle M; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-12-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutics with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin) already being approved for clinical use. Numerous studies have identified that histone deacetylase inhibitors will be most effective in the clinic when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. One promising combination, particularly for hematologic malignancies, involves the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors with the anthracycline, doxorubicin. However, we previously identified that trichostatin A can potentiate doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy, the dose-limiting side-effect of the anthracycline, in cardiac myocytes. Here we have the extended the earlier studies and evaluated the effects of combinations of the histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A, valproic acid and sodium butyrate on doxorubicin-induced DNA double-strand breaks in cardiomyocytes. Using γH2AX as a molecular marker for the DNA lesions, we identified that all of the broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors tested augment doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, it is evident from the fluorescence photomicrographs of stained nuclei that the histone deacetylase inhibitors also augment doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy. These observations highlight the importance of investigating potential side-effects, in relevant model systems, which may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer.

  12. Hypothalamic energy metabolism is impaired by doxorubicin independently of inflammation in non-tumour-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Barbara M M; Lira, Fabio Santos; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Rosa Neto, José Cesar; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Rodrigues, Bruno; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2015-08-01

    We sought to explore the effects of doxorubicin on inflammatory profiles and energy metabolism in the hypothalamus of rats. To investigate these effects, we formed two groups: a control (C) group and a Doxorubicin (DOXO) group. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to either the control (C) or DOXO groups. The hypothalamus was collected. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and energy metabolism (malate dehydrogenase, complex I and III activities) were analysed in the hypothalamus. The DOXO group exhibited a decreased body weight (p hypothalamus is a central organ that regulates a great number of functions, such as food intake, temperature and energy expenditure, among others. Doxorubicin can lead to deep anorexia and metabolic chaos; thus, we observed the effect of this chemotherapeutic drug on the inflammation and metabolism in rats after the administration of doxorubicin in order to understand the central effect in the hypothalamus. Drug treatment by doxorubicin is used as a cancer therapy; however the use of this drug may cause harmful alterations to the metabolism. Thus, further investigations are needed on the impact of drug therapy over the long term. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Reverting doxorubicin resistance in colon cancer by targeting a key signaling protein, steroid receptor coactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Sang; Xiao, Gong-Wei

    2018-04-01

    Although there have been notable improvements in treatments against cancer, further research is required. In colon cancer, nearly all patients eventually experience drug resistance and stop responding to the approved drugs, making treatment difficult. Steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) is an oncogenic nuclear receptor coactivator that serves an important role in drug resistance. The present study generated a doxorubicin-resistant colon cancer cell line, in which the upregulation/activation of SRC was responsible for drug resistance, which in turn activated AKT. Overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinase-like epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor also induced SRC expression. It was observed that doxorubicin resistance in colon cancer also induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition, a decrease in expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the expression of mesenchymal markers, including N-cadherin and vimentin. Additionally, the present study indicated that SRC acts as a common signaling node, and inhibiting SRC in combination with doxorubicin treatment in doxorubicin-resistant cells aids in reversing the resistance. Thus, the present study suggests that activation of SRC is responsible for doxorubicin resistance in colon cancer. However, further research is required to understand the complete mechanism of how drug resistance occurs and how it may be tackled to treat patients.

  14. Targeting doxorubicin encapsulated in stealth liposomes to solid tumors by non thermal diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannam, Magdy M; El Gebaly, Reem; Fadel, Maha

    2016-04-05

    The use of liposomes as drug delivery systems is the most promising technique for targeting drug especially for anticancer therapy. In this study sterically stabilized liposomes was prepared from DPPC/Cholesterol/PEG-PE encapsulated doxorubicin. The effect of lyophilization on liposomal stability and hence expiration date were studied. Moreover, the effect of diode laser on the drug released from liposomesin vitro and in vivo in mice carrying implanted solid tumor were also studied. The results indicated that lyophilization of the prepared liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin led to marked stability when stored at 5 °C and it is possible to use the re-hydrated lyophilized liposomes within 12 days post reconstitution. Moreover, the use of low energy diode laser for targeting anticancer drug to the tumor cells is a promising method in cancer therapy. We can conclude that lyophilization of the liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin lead to marked stability for the liposomes when stored at 5 °C. Moreover, the use of low energy diode laser for targeting anticancer drug to the tumor cells through the use of photosensitive sterically stabilized liposomes loaded with doxorubicin is a promising method. It proved to be applicable and successful for treatment of Ehrlich solid tumors implanted in mice and eliminated toxic side effects of doxorubicin.

  15. New approaches in the management of advanced breast cancer – role of combination treatment with liposomal doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain RJ Macpherson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Iain RJ Macpherson, TR Jeffry EvansBeatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow, United KingdomAbstract: Metastatic breast cancer (MBC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. For three decades doxorubicin, alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents, has been a mainstay of systemic therapy for MBC. However, its use is limited by cumulative cardiotoxicity. More recently liposomal formulations of doxorubicin have been developed which exhibit equal efficacy but reduced cardiotoxicity in comparison to conventional doxorubicin. The novel toxicity profile of liposomal doxorubicins has prompted their evaluation with various cytotoxic agents in patients with MBC. In addition, their favorable cardiac safety profile has prompted re-evaluation of concomitant therapy with doxorubicin and trastuzumab, a regimen of proven efficacy in MBC but previously considered to be associated with significant cardiotoxicity. We review clinical trial data addressing combination therapy with both pegylated and non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with MBC.Keywords: breast cancer, anthracycline, liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, cardiotoxicity

  16. Doxorubicin induced myocardial injury is exacerbated following ischaemic stress via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharanei, M.; Hussain, A. [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom); Janneh, O. [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom); Pharmacology Research Laboratories, 70, Pembroke Place, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool. L69 3GF (United Kingdom); Maddock, H.L., E-mail: h.maddock@coventry.ac.uk [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are known to cause or exacerbate cardiovascular cell death when an underlying heart condition is present. However, the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear. Here we assess the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin in conditions of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion and the mechanistic basis of protection, in particular the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in such protection. The effects of doxorubicin (1 μM) ± cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.2 μM; inhibits mPTP) were investigated in isolated male Sprague–Dawley rats using Langendorff heart and papillary muscle contraction models subjected to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Isolated rat cardiac myocytes were used in an oxidative stress model to study the effects of drug treatment on mPTP by confocal microscopy. Western blot analysis evaluated the effects of drug treatment on p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 levels. Langendorff and the isometric contraction models showed a detrimental effect of doxorubicin throughout reperfusion/reoxygenation as well as increased p-Akt and p-Erk levels. Interestingly, CsA not only reversed the detrimental effects of doxorubicin, but also reduced p-Akt and p-Erk levels. In the sustained oxidative stress assay to study mPTP opening, doxorubicin decreased the time taken to depolarization and hypercontracture, but these effects were delayed in the presence of CsA. Collectively, our data suggest for the first that doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial injury in an ischaemia reperfusion model. If the inhibition of mPTP ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, then more selective inhibitors of mPTP should be further investigated for their utility in patients receiving doxorubicin. - Highlights: ► Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ► Co-treatment with CsA protects against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury. ► CsA delays doxorubicin induced mPTP opening in laser

  17. Doxorubicin induced myocardial injury is exacerbated following ischaemic stress via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharanei, M.; Hussain, A.; Janneh, O.; Maddock, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are known to cause or exacerbate cardiovascular cell death when an underlying heart condition is present. However, the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear. Here we assess the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin in conditions of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion and the mechanistic basis of protection, in particular the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in such protection. The effects of doxorubicin (1 μM) ± cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.2 μM; inhibits mPTP) were investigated in isolated male Sprague–Dawley rats using Langendorff heart and papillary muscle contraction models subjected to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Isolated rat cardiac myocytes were used in an oxidative stress model to study the effects of drug treatment on mPTP by confocal microscopy. Western blot analysis evaluated the effects of drug treatment on p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 levels. Langendorff and the isometric contraction models showed a detrimental effect of doxorubicin throughout reperfusion/reoxygenation as well as increased p-Akt and p-Erk levels. Interestingly, CsA not only reversed the detrimental effects of doxorubicin, but also reduced p-Akt and p-Erk levels. In the sustained oxidative stress assay to study mPTP opening, doxorubicin decreased the time taken to depolarization and hypercontracture, but these effects were delayed in the presence of CsA. Collectively, our data suggest for the first that doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial injury in an ischaemia reperfusion model. If the inhibition of mPTP ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, then more selective inhibitors of mPTP should be further investigated for their utility in patients receiving doxorubicin. - Highlights: ► Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ► Co-treatment with CsA protects against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury. ► CsA delays doxorubicin induced mPTP opening in laser

  18. Tween 20 increases intestinal transport of doxorubicin in vitro but not in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sharaf, Amal; Holm, Rene; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2016-01-01

    co-administered with P-gp inhibitors (non-ionic surfactants) in vitro and in vivo . The aim of the present study was thus to investigate if different non-ionic surfactants would have a similar effect on the in vitro and in vivo absorption of doxorubicin. This was investigated in vitro in Caco-2 cells...... and by oral co-administration of doxorubicin together with tween 20 to male Sprague Dawley rats. 200 μM (0.025%) tween 20 increased the intestinal absorptive permeability of doxorubicin in vitro by 48 ± 4% from 8.8 × 10(-6)cm/s to 13.0 × 10(-6)cm/s. Further, the efflux ratio was reduced from 2.2 ± 0.06 to 1.2...

  19. Nanoparticle bioconjugate for controlled cellular delivery of doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangtani, Ajmeeta; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Wu, Miao; Susumu, Kimihiro; Oh, Eunkeu; Huston, Alan L.; Lasarte-Aragones, Guillermo; Medintz, Igor L.; Algar, W. Russ; Delehanty, James B.

    2018-02-01

    Nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery offers the potential to overcome limitations of systemic delivery, including the ability to specifically target cargo and control release of NP-associated drug cargo. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used FDA-approved cancer therapeutic; however, multiple side effects limit its utility. Thus, there is wide interest in modulating toxicity after cell delivery. Our goal here was to realize a NP-based DOX-delivery system that can modulate drug toxicity by controlling the release kinetics of DOX from the surface of a hard NP carrier. To achieve this, we employed a quantum dot (QD) as a central scaffold which DOX was appended via three different peptidyl linkages (ester, disulfide, hydrazone) that are cleavable in response to various intracellular conditions. Attachment of a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) containing a positively charged polyarginine sequence facilitates endocytosis of the ensemble. Polyhistidine-driven metal affinity coordination was used to self-assemble both peptides to the QD surface, allowing for fine control over both the ratio of peptides attached to the QD as well as DOX dose delivered to cells. Microplate-based Förster resonance energy transfer assays confirmed the successful ratiometric assembly of the conjugates and functionality of the linkages. Cell delivery experiments and cytotoxicity assays were performed to compare the various cleavable linkages to a control peptide where DOX is attached through an amide bond. The role played by various attachment chemistries used in QD-peptide-drug assemblies and their implications for the rationale in design of NPbased constructs for drug delivery is described here.

  20. TVP1022 Protects Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes against Doxorubicin-Induced Functional Derangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevski, Alexandra; Meiry, Gideon; Milman, Felix; Reiter, Irena; Sedan, Oshra; Eliyahu, Sivan; Duffy, Heather S.; Youdim, Moussa B.; Binah, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Our recent studies demonstrated that propargylamine derivatives such as rasagiline (Azilect, Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-Parkinson drug) and its S-isomer TVP1022 protect cardiac and neuronal cell cultures against apoptotic-inducing stimuli. Studies on structure-activity relationship revealed that their neuroprotective effect is associated with the propargylamine moiety, which protects mitochondrial viability and prevents apoptosis by activating Bcl-2 and protein kinase C-ε and by down-regulating the proapoptotic protein Bax. Based on the established cytoprotective and neuroprotective efficacies of propargylamine derivatives, as well as on our recent study showing that TVP1022 attenuates serum starvation-induced and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), we tested the hypothesis that TVP1022 will also provide protection against doxorubicin-induced NRVM functional derangements. The present study demonstrates that pretreatment of NRVMs with TVP1022 (1 μM, 24 h) prevented doxorubicin (0.5 μM, 24 h)-induced elevation of diastolic [Ca2+]i, the slowing of [Ca2+]i relaxation kinetics, and the decrease in the rates of myocyte contraction and relaxation. Furthermore, pretreatment with TVP1022 attenuated the doxorubicin-induced reduction in the protein expression of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca2+) ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1, and total connexin 43. Finally, TVP1022 diminished the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on gap junctional intercellular coupling (measured by means of Lucifer yellow transfer) and on conduction velocity, the amplitude of the activation phase, and the maximal rate of activation (dv/dtmax) measured by the Micro-Electrode-Array system. In summary, our results indicate that TVP1022 acts as a novel cardioprotective agent against anthracycline cardiotoxicity, and therefore potentially can be coadmhence, the inistered with doxorubicin in the treatment of malignancies in humans. PMID:19915070

  1. Effect of doxorubicin and daunorubicin on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in acute lymphoblastic leukamia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, I.U.; Ali, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Our study was based on the alteration in the Michaelis Mentin parameters Apparent Michaelis Constant (aKm) and Apparent Maximum Velocity (aVm), which reflects activity of actyl cholinesterase (AChE). This activity decreases in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL). This decrease in aKm and aVm values shows bad prognosis. Similarly the anticancer drugs like Daunorubicin and Doxorubicin further decreases the aKm and aVm values which worsen the prognosis. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the extent of inhibition of Acetylcholine Esterase by Daunorubicin and Doxorubicin in ALL. Methods: Study of 100 patients including both male and female children who's age ranged from 4 to 8 years and were advised doxorubicin and daunorubicin separately were tested by Ellman's method using acetylcholine iodide as substrate and 5,5-dithiobis 2-nitrobenzine as a colour reagent regardless of dose regimen i.e. (once in 3 week, small dose per week or a continuous infusion for 72 to 96 hours. Results: In this study the Michaelis Mentin parameters Apparent Michaelis Constant (aKm) and Apparent Maximum Velocity (aVm) of the enzyme were estimated both in normal individuals and in the patients and also during treatment with daunorubicin and doxorubicin. The value of Michaelis Mentin parameters, aKm, aVm and percentage activity of the enzyme in normal individual are 23, 70, and 100 respectively. The values of aKm, aVm and percentage activity of the enzyme were also estimated in the patients before and after treatment. The values of aKm and aVm in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and percentage activity of enzyme is decreased. After the treatment with daunorubicin and doxorubicin the values and activity is further decreased. Conclusion: We conclude that the drugs under study both decrease the enzyme activity but daunorubicin inhibits the enzyme more than doxorubicin. (author)

  2. The influence of P-glycoprotein expression and its inhibitors on the distribution of doxorubicin in breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Krupa J; Tannock, Ian F

    2009-01-01

    Anti-cancer drugs access solid tumors via blood vessels, and must penetrate tumor tissue to reach all cancer cells. Previous studies have demonstrated steep gradients of decreasing doxorubicin fluorescence with increasing distance from blood vessels, such that many tumor cells are not exposed to drug. Studies using multilayered cell cultures show that increased P-glycoprotein (PgP) is associated with better penetration of doxorubicin, while PgP inhibitors decrease drug penetration in tumor tissue. Here we evaluate the effect of PgP expression on doxorubicin distribution in vivo. Mice bearing tumor sublines with either high or low expression of PgP were treated with doxorubicin, with or without pre-treatment with the PgP inhibitors verapamil or PSC 833. The distribution of doxorubicin in relation to tumor blood vessels was quantified using immunofluorescence. Our results indicate greater uptake of doxorubicin by cells near blood vessels in wild type as compared to PgP-overexpressing tumors, and pre-treatment with verapamil or PSC 833 increased uptake in PgP-overexpressing tumors. However, there were steeper gradients of decreasing doxorubicin fluorescence in wild-type tumors compared to PgP overexpressing tumors, and treatment of PgP overexpressing tumors with PgP inhibitors led to steeper gradients and greater heterogeneity in the distribution of doxorubicin. PgP inhibitors increase uptake of doxorubicin in cells close to blood vessels, have little effect on drug uptake into cells at intermediate distances, and might have a paradoxical effect to decrease doxorubicin uptake into distal cells. This effect probably contributes to the limited success of PgP inhibitors in clinical trials

  3. Sleep pattern and locomotor activity are impaired by doxorubicin in non-tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fabio Santos; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Rosa, José Cesar; Frank, Miriam Kannebley; Mariano, Melise Oliveira; Budni, Josiane; Quevedo, João; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Dos; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    We sought explore the effects of doxorubicin on sleep patterns and locomotor activity. To investigate these effects, two groups were formed: a control group and a Doxorubicin (DOXO) group. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to either the control or DOXO groups. The sleep patterns were examined by polysomnographic recording and locomotor activity was evaluated in an open-field test. In the light period, the total sleep time and slow wave sleep were decreased, while the wake after sleep onset and arousal were increased in the DOXO group compared with the control group (plocomotor activity.

  4. C(60 fullerene prevents genotoxic effects of doxorubicin in human lymphocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Afanasieva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The self-ordering of C60 fullerene, doxorubicin and their mixture precipitated from aqueous solutions was investigated using atomic-force microscopy. The results suggest the complexation between the two compounds. The genotoxicity of doxorubicin in complex with C60 fullerene (С60+Dox was evaluated in vitro with comet assay using human lymphocytes. The obtained results show that the C60 fullerene prevents the toxic effect of Dox in normal cells and, thus, С60+Dox complex might be proposed for biomedical application.

  5. A phase I study of Triapine in combination with doxorubicin in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelman, William R; Morgan-Meadows, Sherry; Marnocha, Rebecca; Lee, Fred; Eickhoff, Jens; Huang, Wei; Pomplun, Marcia; Jiang, Zhisheng; Alberti, Dona; Kolesar, Jill M; Ivy, Percy; Wilding, George; Traynor, Anne M

    2009-05-01

    To assess the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of Triapine administered in combination with doxorubicin. Patients were treated with doxorubicin intravenously (IV) on day 1 and Triapine IV on days 1-4 of a 21-day cycle. The starting dose (level 1) was doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and Triapine 25 mg/m(2). PK analysis was performed at various time-points before and after treatment. Twenty patients received a total of 49 courses of treatment on study. At dose level 2 (doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2), Triapine 45 mg/m(2)), two patients experienced DLTs (febrile neutropenia, grade 4 thrombocytopenia). An additional three patients were enrolled at dose level 1 without initial toxicity. Enrollment then resumed at dose level 2a with a decreased dose of doxorubicin (45 mg/m(2)) with Triapine 45 mg/m(2). The two patients enrolled on this level had two DLTs (diarrhea, CVA). Enrollment was planned to resume at dose level 1; however, the sixth patient enrolled to this cohort developed grade 5 heart failure (ejection fraction 20%, pretreatment EF 62%) after the second course. Thus, doxorubicin and Triapine were reduced to 45 and 25 mg/m(2), respectively (level 1a), prior to resuming enrollment at dose level 1, the MTD. The main drug-related toxicity was myelosuppression. Non-hematologic toxicities included mild-to-moderate fatigue, grade 3 diarrhea and grade 4 CVA. There was one treatment-related death due to heart failure. While no objective responses were observed, subjective evidence of clinical activity was observed in patients with refractory melanoma and prostate cancer. Pretreated patients with advanced malignancies can tolerate the combination of Triapine and doxorubicin at doses that achieve subjective clinical benefit with the main treatment-related toxicities being myelosuppression and fatigue. The MTD was determined to be doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) on day 1 and Triapine 25 mg/m(2) on days 1-4 of a 21-day cycle.

  6. Spatiotemporal Control of Doxorubicin Delivery from “Stealth-Like” Prodrug Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Schneider, Gregory F.; Campbell, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    In the treatment of cancer, targeting of anticancer drugs to the tumor microenvironment is highly desirable. Not only does this imply accurate tumor targeting but also minimal drug release en route to the tumor and maximal drug release once there. Here we describe high-loading, “stealth-like” doxorubicin micelles as a pro-drug delivery system, which upon light activation, leads to burst-like doxorbicin release. Through this approach, we show precise spatiotemporal control of doxorubicin delivery to cells in vitro. PMID:28937592

  7. Amifostine reduces the seminiferous epithelium damage in doxorubicin-treated prepubertal rats without improving the fertility status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraglia Sandra M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amifostine is an efficient cytoprotector against toxicity caused by some chemotherapeutic drugs. Doxorubicin, a potent anticancer anthracycline, is known to produce spermatogenic damage even in low doses. Although some studies have suggested that amifostine does not confer protection to doxorubicin-induced testicular damage, schedules and age of treatment have different approach depending on the protocol. Thus, we proposed to investigate the potential cytoprotective action of amifostine against the damage provoked by doxorubicin to prepubertal rat testes (30-day-old by assessing some macro and microscopic morphometric parameters 15, 30 and 60 days after the treatment; for fertility evaluation, quantitative analyses of sperm parameters and reproductive competence in the adult phase were also carried out. Methods Thirty-day-old male rats were distributed into four groups: Doxorubicin (5 mg/kg, Amifostine (400 mg/kg, Amifostine/Doxorubicin (amifostine 15 minutes before doxorubicin and Sham Control (0.9% saline solution. "Standard One Way Anova" parametric and "Anova on Ranks" non-parametric tests were applied according to the behavior of the obtained data; significant differences were considered when p Results The rats killed 30 and 60 days after doxorubicin treatment showed diminution of seminiferous epithelium height and reduction on the frequency of tubular sections containing at least one type of differentiated spermatogonia; reduction of sperm concentration and motility and an increase of sperm anomalous forms where observed in doxorubicin-treated animals. All these parameters were improved in the Amifostine/Doxorubicin group only when compared to Doxorubicin group. Such reduction, however, still remained below the values obtained from the Sham Control group. Nevertheless, the reproductive competence of doxorubicin-treated rats was not improved by amifostine pre-administration. Conclusions These results suggest that

  8. Comparison of Docetaxel, Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (TAC with 5-Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (FAC Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: A Phase III Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to compare the rates of complete clinical and pathologic response to docetaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC vs. 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women with locally advanced breast cancer.Methods: One hundred women with pathologically confirmed newly diagnosed locally advanced (T3-T4 or N2-N3 breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive a median of four cycles of either 5-fluorouracil (600 mg/m2, doxorubicin (60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m2 every three weeks or docetaxel (75 mg/m2, doxorubicin (50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2 every three weeks followed by modified radical mastectomy. Complete clinical and pathologic response rates and toxicity were the primary and secondary outcome measures of the study. Results: Median age for all patients was 43.4 years (range 25-63 years. Patients in the TAC arm achieved a higher clinical (16% response rate than those in the FAC arm (4%, P=0.046. The pathologic response rate was also higher in the TAC arm compared to the FAC arm [TAC (20% vs. FAC (6%, P=0.037]. Estrogen receptor-negative status correlated with a higher clinical [TAC (19% vs. FAC (4%, P=0.032]and pathologic [TAC (23% vs. FAC (4%, P=0.011] response rate in both arms. All patients generally tolerated treatment well, and treatment-related toxicities were manageable. Conclusion: Combined treatment with TAC led to higher rates of complete clinical and pathologic response with acceptable toxicity compared to FAC in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. However, further follow-up is needed to translate this response into improvements in survival.

  9. Direct interaction between verapamil and doxorubicin causes the lack of reversal effect of verapamil on P-glycoprotein mediated resistance to doxorubicin in vitro using L1210/VCR cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breier, A.; Drobna, Z.; Barancik, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mouse leukemic cell sub-line L 1210/VCR exerts expressive multidrug resistance (MDR) that is mediated by P-glycoprotein. Cells originally adapted to vincristine are also extremely resistant to doxorubicin. Resistance to both vincristine and doxorubicin is connected with depression of drug uptake. While resistance of L 121 O cells to vincristine could be reversed by verapamil as chemo-sensitizer, resistance of cells to doxorubicin was insensitive to verapamil. Action of verapamil (well-known inhibitor of PGP activity) on multidrug resistance was often used as evidence that MDR is mediated by PGP. From this point it may be possible that the resistance of L1210/VCR cells to vincristine is mediated by PGP and the resistance to doxorubicin is mediated by other PGP-independent system. Another and more probable explanation of different effect of verapamil on resistance of L1210/VCR cells to vincristine and doxorubicin may be deduced from the following fact: Using UV spectroscopy we found that doxorubicin dissolved in water buffered medium interacts effectively with verapamil. This interaction may be responsible for the decrease of concentration of both drugs in free effective form and consequently for higher survival of cells. In contrast to doxorubicin vincristine does not give any interaction with verapamil that is measurable by UV spectroscopy and resistance of L1210/VCR cells to vincristine may be fully reversed by verapamil. (authors)

  10. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin-encapsulated halloysite nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kai Li,1,* Yongxing Zhang,2,* Mengting Chen,1 Yangyang Hu,1 Weiliang Jiang,1 Li Zhou,1 Sisi Li,1 Min Xu,1 Qinghua Zhao,2 Rong Wan1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: To improve the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX and provide novel clinical treatment of gastric cancer, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs loaded with DOX were encapsulated by soybean phospholipid (LIP and the formed HNTs/DOX/LIP was systematically characterized via different techniques. The in vitro anticancer activity of HNTs/DOX/LIP was examined using an MTT assay. The antitumor efficacy and biocompatibility were monitored by measuring the tumor volume and assessing the blood routine and serum biochemistry using an ectopic implantation cancer model. The results show that when the concentration of HNTs was 3 mg/mL and the concentration of DOX was 1 mg/mL the optimal DOX loading efficiency was as high as 22.01%±0.43%. In vitro drug release behavior study demonstrated that HNTs/DOX/LIP shows a pH-responsive release property with fast drug release under acidic conditions (pH =5.4. MTT assays and in vivo experimental results revealed that HNTs/DOX/LIP exhibits a significantly higher inhibitory efficacy on the growth of mouse gastric cancer cells than free DOX at the same drug concentration. In addition, the life span of tumor-bearing mice in the HNTs/DOX/LIP-treated group was obviously prolonged compared with the control groups. Moreover, HNTs/DOX/LIP possessed excellent hemocompatibility as shown in the blood and histology studies. These findings indicated that the formed HNTs/DOX/LIP possesses higher antitumor efficacy and may be used as a targeted

  11. Stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs for targeted doxorubicin delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minghui; Qian, Junmin, E-mail: jmqian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Ting; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, stimuli-sensitive prodrugs have been extensively studied for the rapid “burst” release of antitumor drugs to enhance chemotherapeutic efficiency. In this study, a novel stimuli-sensitive prodrug containing galactosamine as a targeting moiety, poly(ethylene glycol)–doxorubicin (PEG–DOX) conjugate, was developed for targeting HepG2 human liver cancer cells. To obtain the PEG–DOX conjugate, both galactosamine-decorated poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (Gal-PEG-CHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (mPEG-CHO) were firstly synthesized and functionalized with dithiodipropionate dihydrazide (TPH) through direct reductive amination via Schiff's base formation, and then DOX molecules were chemically conjugated to the hydrazide end groups of TPH-functionalized Gal-/m-PEG chains via pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages. The chemical structures of TPH-functionalized PEG and PEG–DOX prodrug were confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The PEG–DOX conjugate could self-assemble into spherical nanomicelles with a mean diameter of 140 nm, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The drug loading content and loading efficiency in the prodrug nanomicelles were as high as 20 wt.% and 75 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release studies showed that DOX was released rapidly from the prodrug nanomicelles at the intracellular levels of pH and reducing agent. Cellular uptake and MTT experiments demonstrated that the galactosamine-decorated prodrug nanomicelles were more efficiently internalized into HepG2 cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis process and exhibited a higher toxicity, compared with pristine prodrug nanomicelles. These results suggest that the novel Gal-PEG–DOX prodrug nanomicelles have tremendous potential for targeted liver cancer therapy. - Highlights: • A novel stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs is synthesized. • PEGylated prodrugs can self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles (140 nm

  12. Interactions between N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin through spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiupei, E-mail: xiupeiyang@163.com [Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Nanchong 637000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China); Lin, Jia; Liao, Xiulin; Zong, Yingying; Gao, Huanhuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots with the diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. • The modified CdTe quantum dots showed well fluorescence properties. • The interaction between the CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin (DR) was investigated. - Abstract: N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected cadmium telluride quantum dots with a diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. The interaction between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin was investigated by ultraviolet–visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy at physiological conditions (pH 7.2, 37 °C). The results indicate that electron transfer has occurred between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin under light illumination. The quantum dots react readily with doxorubicin to form a N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex via electrostatic attraction between the −NH{sub 3}{sup +} moiety of doxorubicin and the −COO{sup −} moiety of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots. The interaction of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex with bovine serum albumin was studied as well, showing that the complex might induce the conformation change of bovine serum due to changes in microenvironment of bovine serum.

  13. Interactions between N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin through spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiupei; Lin, Jia; Liao, Xiulin; Zong, Yingying; Gao, Huanhuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots with the diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. • The modified CdTe quantum dots showed well fluorescence properties. • The interaction between the CdTe quantum dots and doxorubicin (DR) was investigated. - Abstract: N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected cadmium telluride quantum dots with a diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized in aqueous solution. The interaction between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin was investigated by ultraviolet–visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy at physiological conditions (pH 7.2, 37 °C). The results indicate that electron transfer has occurred between N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots and doxorubicin under light illumination. The quantum dots react readily with doxorubicin to form a N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex via electrostatic attraction between the −NH 3 + moiety of doxorubicin and the −COO − moiety of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dots. The interaction of N-acetyl-L-cysteine/cadmium telluride-quantum dots/doxorubicin complex with bovine serum albumin was studied as well, showing that the complex might induce the conformation change of bovine serum due to changes in microenvironment of bovine serum

  14. Proteomic Differences in Feline Fibrosarcomas Grown Using Doxorubicin-Sensitive and -Resistant Cell Lines in the Chick Embryo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zabielska-Koczywąs

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic analyses are rapid and powerful tools that are used to increase the understanding of cancer pathogenesis, discover cancer biomarkers and predictive markers, and select and monitor novel targets for cancer therapy. Feline injection-site sarcomas (FISS are aggressive skin tumours with high recurrence rates, despite treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Doxorubicin is a drug of choice for soft tissue sarcomas, including FISS. However, multidrug resistance is one of the major causes of chemotherapy failure. The main aim of the present study was to identify proteins that differentiate doxorubicin-resistant from doxorubicin-sensitive FISS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Using the three-dimensional (3D preclinical in ovo model, which resembles features of spontaneous fibrosarcomas, three significantly (p ≤ 0.05 differentially expressed proteins were identified in tumours grown from doxorubicin-resistant fibrosarcoma cell lines (FFS1 and FFS3 in comparison to the doxorubicin-sensitive one (FFS5: Annexin A5 (ANXA5, Annexin A3 (ANXA3, and meiosis-specific nuclear structural protein 1 (MNS1. Moreover, nine other proteins were significantly differentially expressed in tumours grown from the high doxorubicin-resistant cell line (FFS1 in comparison to sensitive one (FFS5. This study may be the first proteomic fingerprinting of FISS reported, identifying potential candidates for specific predictive biomarkers and research targets for doxorubicin-resistant FISS.

  15. New model system for testing effects of flavonoids on doxorubicin-related formation of hydroxyl radicals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, P.; Kondrová, E.; Heřmánek, J.; Stopka, Pavel; Boumendjel, A.; Ueng, YF.; Gut, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2011), s. 176-184 ISSN 0959-4973 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : doxorubicin * electron spin resonance * flavonoids hydroxyl radicals Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.407, year: 2011

  16. Involvement of HIF-1α activation in the doxorubicin resistance of human osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncuzzi, Laura; Pancotti, Fabia; Baldini, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer in children and adolescents. Despite aggressive treatment regimens, survival outcomes remain unsatisfactory, particularly in patients with metastatic and/or recurrent disease. Unfortunately, treatment failure is commonly due to the development of chemoresistance, for which the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF‑1α) and its signalling pathways as mediators of drug-resistance in human osteosarcoma. Toward this aim, we established two osteosarcoma cell lines selected for resistance to doxorubicin, a drug of choice in the treatment of this tumour. Our results showed that the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype was also mediated by HIF-1α, the most important regulator of cell adaptation to hypoxia. Our data showed that this transcription factor promoted the outward transport of intracellular doxorubicin by activating the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in osteosarcoma cells maintained in normoxic conditions. In addition, it hindered doxorubicin-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of c-Myc and p21. Finally, we observed that the doxorubicin-resistant cells maintained for 2 months of continuous culture in a drug-free medium, lost their drug-resistance and this effect was associated with the absence of HIF-1α expression. The emerging role of HIF-1α in osteosarcoma biology indicates its use as a valuable therapeutic target.

  17. Doxorubicin potentiates TRAIL cytotoxicity and apoptosis and can overcome TRAIL-resistance in rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, R; Meijer, C; Van Zweeden, M; De Jong, S; Wesseling, J; Hoekstra, HJ; van der Graaf, WTA

    Doxorubicin (DOX) and ifosfamide (IFO) are the most active single agents in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is used for STS in the setting of isolated limb perfusions. Like TNF-alpha, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis. In contrast to

  18. Pilot study of interaction of radiation therapy with doxorubicin by continuous infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, C.J.; Rotman, M.

    1988-01-01

    Doxorubicin was initially administered alone by continuous infusion for 5 days every 3 weeks in escalating doses to 13 patients with advanced metastatic and/or recurrent malignancies. The maximum tolerable dosage was 13 mg/m2 per day for 5 days. Kinetic data showed a steady level of 60 ng/ml for 4 days and a biphasic disappearance curve. Radiation therapy (150-200 cGy per session) was then administered in 5-day cycles, every 3 weeks, concomitantly with continuous infusion of doxorubicin (12 mg/m2 per day) to 21 patients with various advanced unresectable recurrent or metastatic malignancies. Four of 9 patients with soft tissue sarcomas achieved complete response after a radiation dose of 2,206 +/- 590 (SD) cGy and 3 had partial response; the median durations of the response were 142 +/- 65 (SD) weeks for complete response and 28 +/- 10 weeks for partial response. Of 4 patients with primary hepatoma, 2 achieved partial response after 1,290 +/- 210 cGy. No response was seen in any of the 7 patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract or breast. Complications of this regimen included moderate leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, mucositis, skin erythema, and decrease of the ventricular ejection fraction at a cumulative doxorubicin dose of 840 mg/m2. We conclude that doxorubicin given by protracted infusion can be safely administered with concomitant radiation and appears to enhance the effects of radiation on most soft tissue sarcomas and on some hepatocellular carcinomas

  19. Studies on the effect of doxorubicin on MDA, NO 2 , NO 3 , Se-GSH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doxorubicin, a highly effective anticancer drug, produces cardiotoxicity, which limits its therapeutic potential. The mechanism of this cardiotoxicity has remained elusive. The use of this drug, however, continues to be limited by its dose-related and time interval toxicity. Reactive oxygen species are hypothesized to be a major ...

  20. Retrospective evaluation of doxorubicin-piroxicam combination for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robat, C; Burton, J; Thamm, D; Vail, D

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether doxorubicin-piroxicam combination is safe and has activity against transitional cell carcinoma in dogs. Data was collected retrospectively from 34 dogs from two institutions over a 6-year period. Signalment, clinical presentation, treatment specifics, adverse events, response, progression-free survival and overall survival time were evaluated. Dogs received doxorubicin every 3 weeks and daily piroxicam; 17 dogs (50%) had surgery. Clinical presentations were those typically reported for transitional cell carcinoma. Mean number of doses administered was 3·5. Of the 23 dogs with measurable disease, 14 (60·5%) had stable disease, 7 (30·5%) had progressive disease and 2 (9%) a partial response. Adverse events were generally manageable, and gastrointestinal in origin; one dog died of treatment-related complications. Overall median progression-free survival and overall survival were 103 and 168 days, respectively. Cytoreductive surgery did not result in prolongation of progression-free survival, but significantly prolonged overall survival. All dogs but one died as a result of disease progression. Doxorubicin-piroxicam combination therapy is well-tolerated in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma although progression-free survival, overall survival and biological response rates appear modest. Combination with surgery appears to offer a survival advantage; however, this may reflect tumour location and volume. Prospective studies are necessary to compare activity of combination doxorubicin-piroxicam to currently applied therapies. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Transferrin targeted core-shell nanomedicine for combinatorial delivery of doxorubicin and sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-11-01

    Combinatorial drug delivery is an attractive, but challenging requirement of next generation cancer nanomedicines. Here, we report a transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine formed by encapsulating two clinically used single-agent drugs, doxorubicin and sorafenib against liver cancer. Doxorubicin was loaded in poly(vinyl alcohol) nano-core and sorafenib in albumin nano-shell, both formed by a sequential freeze-thaw/coacervation method. While sorafenib from the nano-shell inhibited aberrant oncogenic signaling involved in cell proliferation, doxorubicin from the nano-core evoked DNA intercalation thereby killing >75% of cancer cells. Upon targeting using transferrin ligands, the nanoparticles showed enhanced cellular uptake and synergistic cytotoxicity in ~92% of cells, particularly in iron-deficient microenvironment. Studies using 3D spheroids of liver tumor indicated efficient penetration of targeted core-shell nanoparticles throughout the tissue causing uniform cell killing. Thus, we show that rationally designed core-shell nanoparticles can effectively combine clinically relevant single-agent drugs for exerting synergistic activity against liver cancer. Transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine encapsulating doxorubicin and sorafenib was studied as a drug delivery system against hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in enhanced and synergistic therapeutic effects, paving the way towards potential future clinical applications of similar techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tetrathiomolybdate sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to anticancer drugs doxorubicin, fenretinide, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Kwang; Lange, Thilo S; Singh, Rakesh K; Brard, Laurent; Moore, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study showed that tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a drug to treat copper overload disorders, can sensitize drug-resistant endometrial cancer cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating anticancer drug doxorubicin. To expand these findings in the present study we explore TM efficacy in combination with a spectrum of ROS-generating anticancer drugs including mitomycin C, fenretinide, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin in ovarian cancer cells as a model system. The effects of TM alone or in combination with doxorubicin, mitomycin C, fenretinide, or 5-fluorouracil were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the induction of apoptosis and ROS generation. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to investigate changes in signaling pathways. TM potentiated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and modulated key regulators of apoptosis (PARP, caspases, JNK and p38 MAPK) in SKOV-3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines. These effects were linked to the increased production of ROS, as shown in SKOV-3 cells. ROS scavenging by ascorbic acid blocked the sensitization of cells by TM. TM also sensitized SKOV-3 to mitomycin C, fenretinide, and 5-fluorouracil. The increased cytotoxicity of these drugs in combination with TM was correlated with the activity of ROS, loss of a pro-survival factor (e.g. XIAP) and the appearance of a pro-apoptotic marker (e.g. PARP cleavage). Our data show that TM increases the efficacy of various anticancer drugs in ovarian cancer cells in a ROS-dependent manner

  3. The effect of vorinostat on the development of resistance to doxorubicin in neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Lautz

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, especially vorinostat, are currently under investigation as potential adjuncts in the treatment of neuroblastoma. The effect of vorinostat co-treatment on the development of resistance to other chemotherapeutic agents is unknown. In the present study, we treated two human neuroblastoma cell lines [SK-N-SH and SK-N-Be(2C] with progressively increasing doses of doxorubicin under two conditions: with and without vorinsotat co-therapy. The resultant doxorubicin-resistant (DoxR and vorinostat-treated doxorubicin resistant (DoxR-v cells were equally resistant to doxorubicin despite significantly lower P-glycoprotein expression in the DoxR-v cells. Whole genome analysis was performed using the Ilumina Human HT-12 v4 Expression Beadchip to identify genes with differential expression unique to the DoxR-v cells. We uncovered a number of genes whose differential expression in the DoxR-v cells might contribute to their resistant phenotype, including hypoxia inducible factor-2. Finally, we used Gene Ontology to categorize the biological functions of the differentially expressed genes unique to the DoxR-v cells and found that genes involved in cellular metabolism were especially affected.

  4. Extensive preclinical investigation of polymersomal formulation of doxorubicin versus Doxil-mimic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Abnous, Khalil; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Sahar; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-10-28

    Due to the severe cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin, its usage is limited. This shortcoming could be overcome by modifying pharmacokinetics of the drugs via preparation of various nanoplatforms. Doxil, a well-known FDA-approved nanoplatform of doxorubicin as antineoplastic agent, is frequently used in clinics in order to reduce cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Since Doxil shows some shortcomings in clinics including hand and food syndrome and very slow release pattern thus, there is a demand for the development and preparation of new doxorubicin nanoformulation with fewer side effects. The new formulation of the doxorubicin, synthesized previously by our group was extensively examined in the current study. This new formulation is doxorubicin encapsulated in PEG-PLGA polymersomes (PolyDOX). The main aim of the study was to compare the distribution and treatment efficacy of a new doxorubicin-polymersomal formulation (PolyDOX) with regular liposomal formulation (Doxil-mimic) in murine colon adenocarcinoma model. Additionally, the pathological, hematological changes, pharmacodynamics, biodistribution, tolerated dose and survival rate in vivo were evaluated and compared. Murine colon cancer model was induced by subcutaneous inoculation of BALB/c mice with C26 cells. Afterwards, either Doxil-mimic or PolyDOX was administered intravenously. The obtained results from biodistribution study showed a remarkable difference in the distribution of drugs in murine organs. In this regard, Doxil-mimic exhibited prolonged (48h) presence within liver tissues while PolyDOX preferentially accumulate in tumor and the presence in liver 48h post-treatment was significantly lower than that of Doxil-mimic. Obtained results demonstrated comparable final length of life for mice receiving either Doxil-mimic or PolyDOX formulations whereas tolerated dose of mice receiving Doxil-mimic was remarkably higher than those receiving PolyDOX. Therapeutic efficacy of formulation in term of tumor growth rate

  5. Efficient chemotherapy of rat glioblastoma using doxorubicin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with different stabilizers.

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    Stefanie Wohlfart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy of glioblastoma is largely ineffective as the blood-brain barrier (BBB prevents entry of most anticancer agents into the brain. For an efficient treatment of glioblastomas it is necessary to deliver anti-cancer drugs across the intact BBB. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles coated with poloxamer 188 hold great promise as drug carriers for brain delivery after their intravenous injection. In the present study the anti-tumour efficacy of the surfactant-coated doxorubicin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles against rat glioblastoma 101/8 was investigated using histological and immunohistochemical methods. METHODOLOGY: The particles were prepared by a high-pressure solvent evaporation technique using 1% polyvinylalcohol (PLGA/PVA or human serum albumin (PLGA/HSA as stabilizers. Additionally, lecithin-containing PLGA/HSA particles (Dox-Lecithin-PLGA/HSA were prepared. For evaluation of the antitumour efficacy the glioblastoma-bearing rats were treated intravenously with the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles coated with poloxamer 188 using the following treatment regimen: 3 × 2.5 mg/kg on day 2, 5 and 8 after tumour implantation; doxorubicin and poloxamer 188 solutions were used as controls. On day 18, the rats were sacrificed and the antitumour effect was determined by measurement of tumour size, necrotic areas, proliferation index, and expression of GFAP and VEGF as well as Isolectin B4, a marker for the vessel density. CONCLUSION: The results reveal a considerable anti-tumour effect of the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles. The overall best results were observed for Dox-Lecithin-PLGA/HSA. These data demonstrate that the poloxamer 188-coated PLGA nanoparticles enable delivery of doxorubicin across the blood-brain barrier in the therapeutically effective concentrations.

  6. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD 100 dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereas all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 ±14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 ± 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMPα2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 ± 2.1 μmol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 ± 1.9 μmol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway

  7. Inflammatory mediators in a short-time mouse model of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecoraro, Michela; Del Pizzo, Mariagiovanna; Marzocco, Stefania; Sorrentino, Rosalinda [Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Ciccarelli, Michele; Iaccarino, Guido [Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Baronissi, SA (Italy); Pinto, Aldo [Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Popolo, Ada, E-mail: apopolo@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) is commonly used to treat a wide range of malignant tumors, but its clinical use is limited by acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. The precise mechanism underlying DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity is still not completely elucidated, but cardiac inflammation seems to be involved. Effects of DOXO on proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrosis have been proven only when a functional impairment has already occurred, so this study aimed to investigate the acute effect of DOXO administration in mouse heart. The results of our study demonstrated alterations in cardiac function parameters assessed by ultrasound within 24 h after a single injection of DOXO, with a cumulative effect along the increase of the dose and the number of DOXO administrations. At the same time, DOXO causes a significant production of proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α and IL-6) with a concomitant reduction of IL-10, a well-known antiinflammatory cytokine. Furthermore, overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in heart tissue and increased levels of serum nitrite in DOXO-treated mice were detected. Notably, DOXO administration significantly increased nitrotyrosine expression in mouse heart. Our data support the hypothesis that these early events, could be responsible for the later onset of more severe deleterious remodeling leading to DOXO induced cardiomyopathy. - Highlights: • Doxorubicin induces echocardiographic alterations of the main cardiac functional parameters. • Doxorubicin induces increase of TNF-α and IL-6 production and iNOS expression. • Doxorubicin causes a significant reduction of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10. • The doses are lower than that used in human. • Doxorubicin administration significantly increased nitrotyrosine expression.

  8. Zinc-Modified Nanotransporter of Doxorubicin for Targeted Prostate Cancer Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Skalickova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles used as carriers for doxorubicin for targeted cancer delivery. Prepared nanocarriers were stabilized and functionalized via zinc ions incorporated into the chitosan nanoparticle backbone. We took the advantage of high expression of sarcosine in the prostate cancer cells. The prostate cancer targeting was mediated by the AntiSar antibodies decorated surface of the nanocage. Formation of the chitosan nanoparticles was determined using a ninhydrin assay and differential pulse voltammetry. Obtained results showed the strong effect of tripolyphosphine on the nanoparticle formation. The zinc ions affected strong chitosan backbone coiling both in inner and outer chitosan nanoparticle structure. Zinc electrochemical signal depended on the level of the complex formation and the potential shift from −960 to −950 mV. Formed complex is suitable for doxorubicin delivery. It was observed the 20% entrapment efficiency of doxorubicin and strong dependence of drug release after 120 min in the blood environment. The functionality of the designed nanotransporter was proven. The purposed determination showed linear dependence in the concentration range of Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled gold nanoparticles from 0 to 1000 µg/mL and the regression equation was found to be y = 3.8x − 66.7 and R2 = 0.99. Performed ELISA confirmed the ability of Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled chitosan nanoparticles with loaded doxorubicin to bind to the sarcosine molecule. Observed hemolytic activity of the nanotransporter was 40%. Inhibition activity of our proposed nanotransporter was evaluated to be 0% on the experimental model of S. cerevisiae. Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled chitosan nanoparticles, with loaded doxorubicin stabilized by Zn ions, are a perspective type of nanocarrier for targeted drug therapy managed by specific interaction with sarcosine and metallothionein for prostate cancer.

  9. Doxorubicin plus evofosfamide versus doxorubicin alone in locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma (TH CR-406/SARC021): an international, multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tap, William D; Papai, Zsuzsanna; Van Tine, Brian A; Attia, Steven; Ganjoo, Kristen N; Jones, Robin L; Schuetze, Scott; Reed, Damon; Chawla, Sant P; Riedel, Richard F; Krarup-Hansen, Anders; Toulmonde, Maud; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Hohenberger, Peter; Grignani, Giovanni; Cranmer, Lee D; Okuno, Scott; Agulnik, Mark; Read, William; Ryan, Christopher W; Alcindor, Thierry; Del Muro, Xavier F Garcia; Budd, G Thomas; Tawbi, Hussein; Pearce, Tillman; Kroll, Stew; Reinke, Denise K; Schöffski, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Evofosfamide is a hypoxia-activated prodrug of bromo-isophosphoramide mustard. We aimed to assess the benefit of adding evofosfamide to doxorubicin as first-line therapy for advanced soft-tissue sarcomas. We did this international, open-label, randomised, phase 3, multicentre trial (TH CR-406/SARC021) at 81 academic or community investigational sites in 13 countries. Eligible patients were aged 15 years or older with a diagnosis of an advanced unresectable or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma, of intermediate or high grade, for which no standard curative therapy was available, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive doxorubicin alone (75 mg/m 2 via bolus injection administered over 5-20 min or continuous intravenous infusion for 6-96 h on day 1 of every 21-day cycle for up to six cycles) or doxorubicin (given via the same dose procedure) plus evofosfamide (300 mg/m 2 intravenously for 30-60 min on days 1 and 8 of every 21-day cycle for up to six cycles). After six cycles of treatment, patients in the single-drug doxorubicin group were followed up expectantly whereas patients with stable or responsive disease in the combination group were allowed to continue with evofosfamide monotherapy until documented disease progression. A web-based central randomisation with block sizes of two and four was stratified by extent of disease, doxorubicin administration method, and previous systemic therapy. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received any amount of study drug. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01440088. Between Sept 26, 2011, and Jan 22, 2014, 640 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (317 to

  10. The stress granule protein Vgl1 and poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 are required for doxorubicin resistance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Takahiro [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Satoh, Ryosuke [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Umeda, Nanae; Kita, Ayako [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Sugiura, Reiko, E-mail: sugiurar@phar.kindai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress granules (SGs) as a mechanism of doxorubicin tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize the role of stress granules in doxorubicin tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deletion of components of SGs enhances doxorubicin sensitivity in fission yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin promotes SG formation when combined with heat shock. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin regulates stress granule assembly independent of eIF2{alpha} phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used for chemotherapy. Although doxorubicin is effective in the treatment of several cancers, including solid tumors and leukemias, the basis of its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we describe the effects of doxorubicin and its relationship with stress granules formation in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that disruption of genes encoding the components of stress granules, including vgl1{sup +}, which encodes a multi-KH type RNA-binding protein, and pab1{sup +}, which encodes a poly(A)-binding protein, resulted in greater sensitivity to doxorubicin than seen in wild-type cells. Disruption of the vgl1{sup +} and pab1{sup +} genes did not confer sensitivity to other anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel. We also showed that doxorubicin treatment promoted stress granule formation when combined with heat shock. Notably, doxorubicin treatment did not induce hyperphosphorylation of eIF2{alpha}, suggesting that doxorubicin is involved in stress granule assembly independent of eIF2{alpha} phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of fission yeast for elucidating the molecular targets of doxorubicin toxicity and suggest a novel drug-resistance mechanism involving stress granule assembly.

  11. The stress granule protein Vgl1 and poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 are required for doxorubicin resistance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Takahiro; Satoh, Ryosuke; Umeda, Nanae; Kita, Ayako; Sugiura, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stress granules (SGs) as a mechanism of doxorubicin tolerance. ► We characterize the role of stress granules in doxorubicin tolerance. ► Deletion of components of SGs enhances doxorubicin sensitivity in fission yeast. ► Doxorubicin promotes SG formation when combined with heat shock. ► Doxorubicin regulates stress granule assembly independent of eIF2α phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used for chemotherapy. Although doxorubicin is effective in the treatment of several cancers, including solid tumors and leukemias, the basis of its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we describe the effects of doxorubicin and its relationship with stress granules formation in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that disruption of genes encoding the components of stress granules, including vgl1 + , which encodes a multi-KH type RNA-binding protein, and pab1 + , which encodes a poly(A)-binding protein, resulted in greater sensitivity to doxorubicin than seen in wild-type cells. Disruption of the vgl1 + and pab1 + genes did not confer sensitivity to other anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel. We also showed that doxorubicin treatment promoted stress granule formation when combined with heat shock. Notably, doxorubicin treatment did not induce hyperphosphorylation of eIF2α, suggesting that doxorubicin is involved in stress granule assembly independent of eIF2α phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of fission yeast for elucidating the molecular targets of doxorubicin toxicity and suggest a novel drug-resistance mechanism involving stress granule assembly.

  12. Iron distribution in cancer cells following doxorubicin exposure using proton and X-ray synchrotron radiation microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, R.; Deves, G.; Bohic, S.; Simionovici, A.; Menez, B.; Bonnin-Mosbah, M.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical studies have shown that doxorubicin, a well-established anticancer agent, is a powerful iron chelator and the resultant iron-drug complex is an efficient catalyst of the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. However, the intracellular complexation of doxorubicin with iron is still debated. Using nuclear microprobe analysis (NMPA), we previously observed in human ovarian cancer cells exposed to 20 μM iodo-doxorubicin (IDX) that iodine and iron cellular distributions were spatially correlated, suggesting a mechanism of intracellular iron chelation by the anthracycline compound. Because maximal plasma drug concentrations in patients are expected to be around 5 μM, NMPA and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) experiments for iron speciation analysis were performed on cultured cells exposed to pharmacological doses of 2 μM IDX or doxorubicin

  13. A phase II study of combination chemotherapy in early relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer using gemcitabine and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Lund, Bente; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer patients relapsing with a short treatment-free interval (TFI) after prior chemotherapy is unsatisfactory. This phase II trial evaluated the activity and feasibility of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) plus gemcitabine in this setting....

  14. SIRT1 Suppresses Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Regulating the Oxidative Stress and p38MAPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ruan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: SIRT1, which belongs to the Sirtuin family of NAD-dependent enzymes, plays diverse roles in aging, metabolism, and disease biology. It could regulate cell survival and has been shown to be a protective factor in heart function. Hence, we verified the mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates doxorubicin induced cardiomyocyte injury in vivo and in vitro. Methods: We analyzed SIRT1 expression in doxorubicin-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte injury model and adult mouse heart failure model. SIRT1 was over-expressed in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocyte by adenovirus mediated gene transfer. SIRT1 agonist resveratrol was used to treat the doxorubicin-induced heart failure mouse model. Echocardiography, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, TUNEL, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting were performed to analyze cell survival, oxidative stress, and inflammatory signal pathways in cardiomyocytes. Results: SIRT1 expression was down-regulated in doxorubicin induced cardiomocyte injury, accompanied by elevated oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. SIRT1 over-expression reduced doxorubicin induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis with the attenuated ROS production. SIRT1 also reduced cell apoptosis by inhibition of p38MAPK phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. The SIRT1 agonist resveratrol was able to prevent doxorubicin-induced heart function loss. Moreover, the SIRT1 inhibitor niacinamide could reverse SIRT1's protective effect in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: These results support the role of SIRT1 as an important regulator of cardiomyocyte apoptosis during doxorubicin-induced heart injury, which may represent a potential therapeutic target for doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

  15. S-diclofenac Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Mice via Ameliorating Cardiac Gap Junction Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Alian; Guo, Changfa; Shi, Chunzhi; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Qing; Sparatore, Anna; Wang, Changqian

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a novel gaseous mediator, plays important roles in mammalian cardiovascular tissues. In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of S-diclofenac (2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino] benzeneacetic acid 4-(3H-1,2,dithiol-3-thione-5-yl)phenyl ester), a novel H2S-releasing derivative of diclofenac, in a murine model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. After a single dose injection of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg, i.p.), male C57BL/6J mice were given daily treatment of S-diclofenac (25 and 50 µmol/kg, i.p.), diclofenac (25 and 50 µmol/kg, i.p.), NaHS (50 µmol/kg, i.p.), or same volume of vehicle. The cardioprotective effect of S-diclofenac was observed after 14 days. It showed that S-diclofenac, but not diclofenac, dose-dependently inhibited the doxorubicin-induced downregulation of cardiac gap junction proteins (connexin 43 and connexin 45) and thus reversed the remodeling of gap junctions in hearts. It also dose-dependently suppressed doxorubicin-induced activation of JNK in hearts. Furthermore, S-diclofenac produced a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect in this model. As a result, S-diclofenac significantly attenuated doxorubicin-related cardiac injury and cardiac dysfunction, and improved the survival rate of mice with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These effects of S-diclofenac were mimicked in large part by NaHS. Therefore, we propose that H2S released from S-diclofenac in vivo contributes to the protective effect in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These data also provide evidence for a critical role of H2S in the pathogenesis of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:22039489

  16. Cisplatin and doxorubicin induce distinct mechanisms of ovarian follicle loss; imatinib provides selective protection only against cisplatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Morgan

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy treatment in premenopausal women has been linked to ovarian follicle loss and premature ovarian failure; the exact mechanism by which this occurs is uncertain. Here, two commonly used chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin and doxorubicin were added to a mouse ovary culture system, to compare the sequence of events that leads to germ cell loss. The ability of imatinib mesylate to protect the ovary against cisplatin or doxorubicin-induced ovarian damage was also examined.Newborn mouse ovaries were cultured for a total of six days, exposed to a chemotherapeutic agent on the second day: this allowed for the examination of the earliest stages of follicle development. Cleaved PARP and TUNEL were used to assess apoptosis following drug treatment. Imatinib was added to cultures with cisplatin and doxorubicin to determine any protective effect.Histological analysis of ovaries treated with cisplatin showed oocyte-specific damage; in comparison doxorubicin preferentially caused damage to the granulosa cells. Cleaved PARP expression significantly increased for cisplatin (16 fold, p<0.001 and doxorubicin (3 fold, p<0.01. TUNEL staining gave little evidence of primordial follicle damage with either drug. Imatinib had a significant protective effect against cisplatin-induced follicle damage (p<0.01 but not against doxorubicin treatment.Cisplatin and doxorubicin both induced ovarian damage, but in a markedly different pattern, with imatinib protecting the ovary against damage by cisplatin but not doxorubicin. Any treatment designed to block the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the ovary may need to be specific to the drug(s the patient is exposed to.

  17. Toxicity of Doxorubicin on Pig Liver After Chemoembolization with Doxorubicin-loaded Microspheres: A Pilot DNA-microarrays and Histology Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verret, Valentin, E-mail: valentin.verret@archimmed.com; Namur, Julien; Ghegediban, Saieda Homayra [ArchimMed (France); Wassef, Michel [University of Paris 7-Denis Diderot, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, AP-HP Hopital Lariboisiere (France); Moine, Laurence [Universite Paris Sud, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141-ITFM (France); Bonneau, Michel [AP-HP/INRA, Centre de Recherche En Imagerie Interventionnelle (France); Pelage, Jean-Pierre [AP-HP Hopital Ambroise Pare, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Laurent, Alexandre [AP-HP/INRA, Centre de Recherche En Imagerie Interventionnelle (France)

    2013-02-15

    The potential mechanisms accounting for the hepatotoxicity of doxorubicin-loaded microspheres in chemoembolization were examined by combining histology and DNA-microarray techniques.The left hepatic arteries of two pigs were embolized with 1 mL of doxorubicin-loaded (25 mg; (DoxMS)) or non-loaded (BlandMS) microspheres. The histopathological effects of the embolization were analyzed at 1 week. RNAs extracted from both the embolized and control liver areas were hybridized onto Agilent porcine microarrays. Genes showing significantly different expression (p < 0.01; fold-change > 2) between two groups were classified by biological process. At 1 week after embolization, DoxMS caused arterial and parenchymal necrosis in 51 and 38 % of embolized vessels, respectively. By contrast, BlandMS did not cause any tissue damage. Up-regulated genes following embolization with DoxMS (vs. BlandMS, n = 353) were mainly involved in cell death, apoptosis, and metabolism of doxorubicin. Down-regulated genes (n = 120) were mainly related to hepatic functions, including enzymes of lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Up-regulated genes included genes related to cell proliferation (growth factors and transcription factors), tissue remodeling (MMPs and several collagen types), inflammatory reaction (interleukins and chemokines), and angiogenesis (angiogenic factors and HIF1a pathway), all of which play an important role in liver healing and regeneration. DoxMS caused lesions to the liver, provoked cell death, and disturbed liver metabolism. An inflammatory repair process with cell proliferation, tissue remodeling, and angiogenesis was rapidly initiated during the first week after chemoembolization. This pilot study provides a comprehensive method to compare different types of DoxMS in healthy animals or tumor models.

  18. An integrated assessment of morphology, size, and complement activation of the PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin products Doxil®, Caelyx®, DOXOrubicin, and SinaDoxosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Peter P; Ahmadvand, Davoud; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    follow-on products DOXOrubicin (approved by the US Food and Drug Administration) and SinaDoxosome (produced in Iran) by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and assess their potential in activating the complement system in human sera. We...... found subtle physicochemical differences between the tested liposomal products and even between the tested batches of Doxil® and Caelyx®. Notably, these included differences in vesicular population aspect ratios and particle number. Among the tested products, only SinaDoxosome, in addition...

  19. Doxorubicin plus evofosfamide versus doxorubicin alone in locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma (TH CR-406/SARC021)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tap, William D; Papai, Zsuzsanna; Van Tine, Brian A

    2017-01-01

    group were followed up expectantly whereas patients with stable or responsive disease in the combination group were allowed to continue with evofosfamide monotherapy until documented disease progression. A web-based central randomisation with block sizes of two and four was stratified by extent...... of disease, doxorubicin administration method, and previous systemic therapy. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received any amount...

  20. miR-193b Modulates Resistance to Doxorubicin in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulating MCL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpei Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs family, which is involved in cancer development, proliferation, apoptosis, and drug resistance, is a group of noncoding RNAs that modulate the expression of oncogenes and antioncogenes. Doxorubicin is an active cytotoxic agent for breast cancer treatment, but the acquisition of doxorubicin resistance is a common and critical limitation to cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether miR-193b mediated the resistance of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin by targeting myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1. In this study, we found that miR-193b levels were significantly lower in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/DOXR cells than in the parental MCF-7 cells. We observed that exogenous miR-193b significantly suppressed the ability of MCF-7/DOXR cells to resist doxorubicin. It demonstrated that miR-193b directly targeted MCL-1 3′-UTR (3′-Untranslated Regions. Further studies indicated that miR-193b sensitized MCF-7/DOXR cells to doxorubicin through a mechanism involving the downregulation of MCL-1. Together, our findings provide evidence that the modulation of miR-193b may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  1. Hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin and methotrexate in human melanoma cell lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, K; Rofstad, E K

    1994-07-15

    Rodent cell lines can develop resistance to doxorubicin and methotrexate during hypoxic stress. This has so far not been observed in human tumor cell lines. The purpose of our communication is to show that doxorubicin and methotrexate resistance can also develop in human melanoma cells during exposure to hypoxia. Four cell lines (BEX-c, COX-c, SAX-c, WIX-c) have been studied. Cells were exposed to hypoxia (O2 concentration WIX-c. BEX-c and SAX-c were sensitive to methotrexate without hypoxia pre-treatment, whereas COX-c and WIX-c were resistant initially. Hypoxia-induced drug resistance was present immediately after reoxygenation and tended to decrease with time but remained statistically significant even 42 hr after reoxygenation.

  2. Activity of trypsin-like enzymes and gelatinases in rats with doxorubicin cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iu. А. Gordiienko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity of trypsin-like enzymes (ATLE and gelatinases A and B were studied in the blood plasma and extracts from cardiac muscle, cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rats with cardiomyopathy caused by anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin against the background of preventive application of corvitin and α-ketoglutarate. ATLE significantly increased in blood plasma and extracts from cerebral cortex but decreased in extracts from cardiac muscle and cerebellum in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy (DCMP. In addition, a significant increase of activity of both gelatinases in plasma and tissue extracts was observed. Preventive administration of corvitin and α-ketoglutarate resulted in differently directed changes of activity of the above mentioned enzymes in heart and brain tissues. Obtained data confirm the hypothesis about activation of proteolysis under the influence of anthracycline antibiotics and testify to selective effect of corvitin and α-ketoglutarate on ATLE and gelatinases.

  3. Activity of trypsin-like enzymes and gelatinases in rats with doxorubicin cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiienko, Iu A; Babets, Ya V; Kulinich, A O; Shevtsova, A I; Ushakova, G O

    2014-01-01

    Activity of trypsin-like enzymes (ATLE) and gelatinases A and B were studied in the blood plasma and extracts from cardiac muscle, cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rats with cardiomyopathy caused by anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin against the background of preventive application of corvitin and α-ketoglutarate. ATLE significantly increased in blood plasma and extracts from cerebral cortex but decreased in extracts from cardiac muscle and cerebellum in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy (DCMP). In addition, a significant increase of activity of both gelatinases in plasma and tissue extracts was observed. Preventive administration of corvitin and α-ketoglutarate resulted in differently directed changes of activity of the above mentioned enzymes in heart and brain tissues. Obtained data confirm the hypothesis about activation of proteolysis under the influence of anthracycline antibiotics and testify to selective effect of corvitin and α-ketoglutarate on ATLE and gelatinases.

  4. Protective effects of orally applied fullerenol nano particles in rats after a single dose of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ičević Ivana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxylated, water soluble, fullerenol C60(OH24 nano particles (FNP in vitro and in vivo models, showed an expressive biological activity. The goal of this work was to investigate the potential protective effects of orally applied FNP on rats after a single dose of doxorubicin (DOX (8 mg/kg (i.p. 6 h after the last application of FNP. After the last drug administration, the rats were sacrificed, and the blood and tissues were taken for the analysis. Biochemical and pathological results obtained in this study indicate that fullerenol (FNP, in H2O:DMSO (80:20, w/w solution given orally in final doses of 10, 14.4, and 21.2 mg/kg three days successively, has the protective (hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity via its antioxidant properties.

  5. Multimodal doxorubicin loaded magnetic nanoparticles for VEGF targeted theranostics of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkina, Alevtina S; Abakumov, Maxim A; Skorikov, Alexander S; Abakumova, Tatiana O; Melnikov, Pavel A; Grinenko, Nadejda F; Cherepanov, Sergey A; Vishnevskiy, Daniil A; Naumenko, Victor A; Ionova, Klavdiya P; Majouga, Alexander G; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2018-05-03

    In presented paper we have developed new system for cancer theranostics based on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) targeted magnetic nanoparticles. Conjugation of anti-VEGF antibodies with bovine serum albumin coated PEGylated magnetic nanoparticles allows for improved binding with murine breast adenocarcinoma 4T1 cell line and facilitates doxorubicin delivery to tumor cells. It was shown that intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded VEGF targeted nanoparticles increases median survival rate of mice bearing 4T1 tumors up to 50%. On the other hand magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 4T1 tumors 24 h after intravenous injection showed accumulation of nanoparticles in tumors, thus allowing simultaneous cancer therapy and diagnostics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Smart release of doxorubicin loaded on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface with 3D porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liping; Sun, Zhenjie; Wang, Donghui; Qiao, Yuqin; Zhu, Hongqin; Ma, Xiaohan; Liu, Xuanyong

    2018-03-01

    It is important to fabricate an implant possessing environment sensitive drug delivery. In this work, the construction of 3D porous structure on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface and pH sensitive polymer, chitosan, was introduced. The smart release of doxorubicin can be realized on the 3D porous surface of PEEK loading chitosan. We give a feasible explanation for the effect of chitosan on smart drug release according to Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Furthermore, the intracellular drug content of the cell cultured on the samples with highest chitosan is significantly higher at pH 4.0, whereas lower at pH 7.4 than other samples. The smart release of doxorubicin via modification with chitosan onto 3D porous PEEK surface paves the way for the application of PEEK in drug loading platform for recovering bone defect caused by malignant bone tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. JS-K, a GST-activated nitric oxide donor prodrug, enhances chemo-sensitivity in renal carcinoma cells and prevents cardiac myocytes toxicity induced by Doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingning; Ke, Longzhi; Zhang, Sai; Zeng, Xin; Fang, Zesong; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    Doxorubicin, a highly effective and widely used anthracycline antibiotic in multiple chemotherapy regimens, has been limited by its cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of nitric oxide donor prodrug JS-K on proliferation and apoptosis in renal carcinoma cells and cardiac myocytes toxicity induced by Doxorubicin and to explore possible p53-related mechanism in renal carcinoma cells. The effect of JS-K on anti-cancer activity of Doxorubicin was investigated in renal carcinoma cells via detecting cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, cell death and apoptosis and expressions of apoptotic-related proteins. Effect of p53 on the combination of JS-K and Doxorubicin was determined using p53 inhibitor Pifithrin-α and p53 activator III. Furthermore, the effect of JS-K on cardiac myocytes toxicity of Doxorubicin was investigated in H9c2 (2-1) cardiac myocytes via measuring cell growth, cell death and apoptosis, expressions of proteins involved in apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. We demonstrated that JS-K could increase Doxorubicin-induced renal carcinoma cell growth suppression and apoptosis and could increase expressions of proteins that are involved in apoptosis. Additionally, Pifithrin-α reversed the promoting effect of JS-K on Doxorubicin-induced renal carcinoma cell apoptosis; conversely, the p53 activator III exacerbated the promoting effect of JS-K on Doxorubicin-induced renal carcinoma cell apoptosis. Furthermore, JS-K protected H9c2 (2-1) cardiac myocytes against Doxorubicin-induced toxicity and decreased Doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species production. JS-K enhances the anti-cancer activity of Doxorubicin in renal carcinoma cells by upregulating p53 expression and prevents cardiac myocytes toxicity of Doxorubicin by decreasing oxidative stress.

  8. p21WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1 knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve; Dinh, Thai Nho; Williams, Stuart; Chen, Qin M.

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21 WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1 (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significant changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: ► Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. ► Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. ► p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. ► Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.

  9. Early transcriptional changes in cardiac mitochondria during chronic doxorubicin exposure and mitigation by dexrazoxane in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L.; Han, Tao; Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Mathematics, Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Herman, Eugene H. [Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, The National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850-9734 (United States); Jenkins, G. Ronald [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Cummings, Connie A. [UltraPath Imaging, 2228 Page Road, Durham, NC 27703 (United States); Gao, Yuan; Cao, Zhijun; Yu, Li-Rong [Biomarkers and Alternative Models Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: varsha.desai@fda.hhs.gov [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Identification of early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity could help initiate means to ameliorate the cardiotoxic actions of clinically useful drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX). Since DOX has been shown to target mitochondria, transcriptional levels of mitochondria-related genes were evaluated to identify early candidate biomarkers in hearts of male B6C3F{sub 1} mice given a weekly intravenous dose of 3 mg/kg DOX or saline (SAL) for 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 weeks (6, 9, 12, 18, or 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively). Also, a group of mice was pretreated (intraperitoneally) with the cardio-protectant, dexrazoxane (DXZ; 60 mg/kg) 30 min before each weekly dose of DOX or SAL. At necropsy a week after the last dose, increased plasma concentrations of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were detected at 18 and 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, whereas myocardial alterations were observed only at the 24 mg/kg dose. Of 1019 genes interrogated, 185, 109, 140, 184, and 451 genes were differentially expressed at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively, compared to concurrent SAL-treated controls. Of these, expression of 61 genes associated with energy metabolism and apoptosis was significantly altered before and after occurrence of myocardial injury, suggesting these as early genomics markers of cardiotoxicity. Much of these DOX-induced transcriptional changes were attenuated by pretreatment of mice with DXZ. Also, DXZ treatment significantly reduced plasma cTnT concentration and completely ameliorated cardiac alterations induced by 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX. This information on early transcriptional changes during DOX treatment may be useful in designing cardioprotective strategies targeting mitochondria. - Highlights: • Altered mitochondria-related gene expression before heart injury by doxorubicin • Dexrazoxane mitigated doxorubicin-induced early expression changes in mitochondria. • Dexrazoxane completely ameliorated doxorubicin-induced pathology in mouse heart.

  10. Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome secondary to hepatic transarterial chemoembolization with doxorubicin drug eluting beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, C. Andrew; McCall, Joseph Caleb; Ghumman, Saad Sultan; Ali, Ijlal Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) used to treat liver metastases and has never been reported in a patient with metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) to the liver. We report the first case of PRES secondary to TACE with drug eluting beads (DEBs) loaded with doxorubicin in a 56-year-old woman with metastatic UM to the liver. PMID:24772346

  11. Biodegradable star HPMA polymer conjugates of doxorubicin for passive tumor targeting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Etrych, Tomáš; Strohalm, Jiří; Chytil, Petr; Černoch, Peter; Starovoytova, Larisa; Pechar, Michal; Ulbrich, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2011), s. 527-539 ISSN 0928-0987 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500806; GA AV ČR IAAX00500803; GA ČR GA203/08/0543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : dendrimer * HPMA copolymers * doxorubicin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.212, year: 2011

  12. Chemoembolization (TACE) of Unresectable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma with Slow-Release Doxorubicin-Eluting Beads: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliberti, Camillo; Benea, Giorgio; Tilli, Massimo; Fiorentini, Giammaria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TACE with microspheres preloaded with doxorubicin in unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (UCH). Twenty patients with UCH were observed; 9 refused, preferring other palliative care or chemotherapy, and 11 agreed to be treated with one or more cycles of DC beads loaded with doxorubicin (100-150 mg) in a TACE procedure between February 2006 and September 2007. A total of 29 individual TACE procedures were performed. Follow-up imaging was performed on all patients before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after each TACE procedure to evaluate the response and need for further treatment. Each patient received i.v hydration, antibiotics, and medications against nausea and pain before TACE. Survival rate was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival curve. A response rate of 100% followed RECIST criteria was observed. Eight of eleven patients are alive, with a median survival of 13 months. TACE was well tolerated by all patients. One patient developed hepatic abscess requiring antibiotic therapy. No evidence of marrow toxicity has been reported. Only one of nine patients treated with chemotherapy or palliative care is alive (with a median survival of 7 months in this group of patients). In conclusion, we suggest that doxorubicin-eluting beads TACE is a feasible and effective treatment in patients with UCH. Survival seems to be clearly prolonged in the treated group with respect to the palliative group. We consider that doxorubicin-eluting beads TACE of 100-150 mg may be an appropriate palliative therapy for these patients. Further studies are warranted to confirm these interesting preliminary data.

  13. Spectral analysis of doxorubicin accumulation and the indirect quantification of its DNA intercalation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hovorka, Ondřej; Šubr, Vladimír; Větvička, David; Kovář, Lubomír; Strohalm, Jiří; Strohalm, Martin; Benda, Aleš; Hof, Martin; Ulbrich, Karel; Říhová, Blanka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 3 (2010), s. 514-524 ISSN 0939-6411 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400200702; GA AV ČR IAAX00500803; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : doxorubicin * spectral analysis * fluorescence Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.304, year: 2010

  14. Effects of fermented Cordyceps sinensis on oxidative stress in doxorubicin treated rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Rong; Gao, Jian-Ping; Wang, Hui-Lin; Gao, Yan; Wu, Qian; Cui, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is one of the rare traditional Chinese herbs, only a very limited amount of natural CS is produced. Fermented CS, as a substitute for natural CS, is widely used in the field of supplementary medical treatment and health products. Its antagonistic effect on oxidative stress (OS) in vivo has not been investigated. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the antagonistic effect of fermented CS on OS in doxorubicin (DOX) treated rats and to compare the anti-OS ef...

  15. Protective effects of Bombyx mori, quercetin and benazepril against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul S. Nazmi; Shibli J. Ahmad; Krishna K. Pillai; Mohammad Akhtar; Aftab Ahmad; Abul K. Najmi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the protective effects of Bombyx mori, quercetin and benazepril on doxorubicin (DXR) induced cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats. B. mori, quercetin and benazepril were administered for 7 days, and a single intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg body weight of DXR on day five. The animals were sacrificed 48 h after DXR administration. DXR produced a significant elevation in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and significantly inhibited ...

  16. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Therapeutic Effect of Cationic Thermosensitive Liposomal Doxorubicin Upon Mild Hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Dicheva, Bilyana M.; Seynhaeve, Ann L. B.; Soulie, Thomas; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Koning, Gerben A.

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To evaluate pharmacokinetic profile, biodistribution and therapeutic effect of cationic thermosensitive liposomes (CTSL) encapsulating doxorubicin (Dox) upon mild hyperthermia (HT). Methods: Non-targeted thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) and CTSL were developed, loaded with Dox and characterized. Blood kinetics and biodistribution of Dox-TSL and Dox-CTSL were followed in B16BL6 tumor bearing mice upon normothermia (NT) or initial hyperthermia conditions. Efficacy study in B...

  17. Protolichesterinic acid enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisdelli, Fabrizia; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Sellitri, Doriana; Bellio, Pierangelo; Bozzi, Argante; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Nicoletti, Marcello; Piovano, Marisa; Celenza, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protolichesterinic acid, a lichen secondary metabolite, on anti-proliferative activity of doxorubicin in three human cancer cell lines, HeLa, SH-SY5Y and K562 cells. The data obtained from MTT assays, performed on cells treated with protolichesterinic acid and doxorubicin alone and in combination, were analysed by the median-effect method as proposed by Chou and Talalay and the Bliss independence model. Apoptosis rate was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, caspase-3, 8 and 9 activities were detected by spectrofluorimetric analysis and protein expression of Bim, Bid, Bax and Mcl-2 was analysed by Western blotting. The interaction of protolichesterinic acid with thioesterase domain of human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) was investigated by a molecular docking study. The in vitro activity of doxorubicin against HeLa cancer cell line, but not against SH-SY5Y and K562 cells, was synergically increased by protolichesterinic acid. The increased cytotoxicity caused by protolichesterinic acid in HeLa cells was due to a pro-apoptotic effect and was associated to caspase-3, 8 and 9 activation. The simultaneous treatment for 24h with protolichesterinic acid plus doxorubicin caused an increase of Bim protein expression and the appearance of cleaved form of Bid protein. The molecular modelling analysis showed that protolichesterinic acid seemed to behave as a competitive inhibitor of hFAS. These results suggest that protolichesterinic acid could be envisaged as an useful tool against certain types of tumor cells in combination with anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Doxorubicin Loaded Magnetic Polymersomes: Theranostic Nanocarriers for MR Imaging and Magneto-Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanson , Charles; Diou , Odile; Thevenot , Julie; Ibarboure , Emmanuel; Soum , Alain; Brûlet , Annie; Miraux , Sylvain; Thiaudière , Eric; Tan , Sisareuth; Brisson , Alain; Dupuis , Vincent; Sandre , Olivier; Lecommandoux , Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Hydrophobically modified maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were encapsulated within the membrane of poly(trimethylene carbonate)-b-poly(L-glutamic acid) (PTMC-b-PGA) block copolymer vesicles using a nanoprecipitation process. This formation method gives a simple access to highly magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) (loaded up to 70 wt %) together with a good control over the vesicles size (100 to 400 nm). The simultaneous loading of maghemite nanoparticles and doxorubicin was...

  19. Synergistic effect of pyrazoles derivatives and doxorubicin in claudin-low breast cancer subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saueressig, Silvia; Tessmann, Josiane; Mastelari, Rosiane; da Silva, Liziane Pereira; Buss, Julieti; Segatto, Natalia Vieira; Begnini, Karine Rech; Pacheco, Bruna; de Pereira, Cláudio Martin Pereira; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer is a global public health problem. For some subtypes, such as Claudin-low, the prognosis is poorer and the treatment is still a challenge. Pyrazoles are an important class of heterocyclic compounds and are promising anticancer agents based on their chemical properties. The present study was aimed not only at testing pyrazoles previously prepared by our research group in two breast cancer cell lines characterized by intermediated response to conventional chemotherapy but also at analyzing the possible synergistic effect of these pyrazoles associated with doxorubicin. Four 1-thiocarbamoyl-3,5-diaryl-4,5-dihydro-1H pyrazoles were tested for the first time in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 culture cells. The pyrazoles with best results in cytotoxicity were used in combination with doxorubicin and compared with this drug alone as standard. The synergic effect was analyzed using Combination Index method. In addition, cell death and apoptosis assays were carried out. Two pyrazoles with cytotoxic effect in MCF-7 and especially in MDA-MB-231 were identified. This activity was markedly higher in pyrazoles containing bromine and chlorine substituents. The combination of these pyrazoles with doxorubicin had a significant synergic effect in both cells tested and mainly in MDA-MB-231. These data were confirmed with apoptosis and cell death analysis. The synergic effect observed with combination of these pyrazoles and doxorubicin deserves special attention in Claudin-low breast cancer subtype. This should be explored in order to improve treatment results and minimize side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Real time in vitro studies of doxorubicin release from PHEMA nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai AK

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many anticancer agents have poor water solubility and therefore the development of novel delivery systems for such molecules has received significant attention. Nanocarriers show great potential in delivering therapeutic agents into the targeted organs or cells and have recently emerged as a promising approach to cancer treatments. The aim of this study was to prepare and use poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA nanoparticles for the controlled release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. Results PHEMA nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized using FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis and surface charge measurements. We also studied the effects of various parameters such as percent loading of drugs, chemical architecture of the nanocarriers, pH, temperature and nature of the release media on the release profiles of the drug. The chemical stability of doxorubicin in PBS was assessed at a range of pH. Conclusion Suspension polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA results in the formation of swellable nanoparticles of defined composition. PHEMA nanoparticles can potentially be used for the controlled release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin.

  1. Preparation, quality control and biodistribution of [61Cu]-doxorubicin for PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian, A.R.; Akhlaghi, M.; Zandi, H.; Yousefnia, H.; Faghihi, R.

    2009-01-01

    This work was conducted for radiolabeling of an anticancer antibiotic, i.e. doxorubicin with 61 Cu for production of possible tracer used in PET oncology. 61 Cu was prepared with natural zinc target and 22 MeV 150 μA protons via nat Zn(p, xn) 61 Cu reaction with a yield of 123.2 MBq·μA -1 ·h -1 . Optimization reactions were performed for pH, temperature and concentration. Biodistribution of the tracer was studied in normal and fibrosarcoma bearing mice. At the optimized conditions, ITLC showed that radiochemical purity was over 97% with a specific activity of 2.22 X 10 3 MBq·mmol -1 ·L -1 . This was kept unchanged even with presence of human serum as well as room temperature for 5 h. Biodistribution of the tracer in fibrosarcoma bearing mice demonstrated significant tumor uptake after 2 h. This tracer can be used in the detection of various tumors responding to doxorubicin chemotherapy using PET scan and/or determination of tumor therapy response to doxorubicin chemotherapy. (authors)

  2. Safety and efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in HIV-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cainelli

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Cainelli1, Alfredo Vallone21Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; 2Infectious Diseases Unit, Annunziata Hospital, Cosenza, ItalyAbstract: Kaposi’s sarcoma is a vascular tumor linked to the presence of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus-8 and the incidence of which has increased considerably the world over after the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV pandemic. Antiretroviral therapy combined with cytotoxic agents has been established as the treatment of choice in the past 10 years. Among chemotherapeutic agents, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin has become the preferred one for patients with HIV-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma in Western countries. The drug in this formulation localizes better to the tumor and has higher efficacy. Skin toxicity, mucositis, and leukopenia/neutropenia are the main side effects. Hepatotoxicity and mild cardiotoxicity are observed less frequently. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin impacts favorably on quality of life. Although cost effective in Western countries, the drug is less so in developing countries.Keywords: pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, Kaposi’s sarcoma, HIV infection

  3. The management of non-invasive bladder tumours with Doxorubicin intravesical instillation after transurethral resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gallab, Musa I; Naddaf, Louai A; Kanan, Mohamad R

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of the intravesical instillation of doxorubicin for its effect on disease recurrence for patients with non-invasive bladder tumour. The study was performed at Al Assad University Hospital in Lattakia, Syria and included patients with non-invasive bladder tumours who were managed with transurethral resection and induction and maintenance therapy with intravesical doxorubicin. They were followed up by cystoscopy every 3 months for 2 years and every 6 months thereafter with special emphasis on recurrence rates. The study included 85 patients with non-invasive bladder tumours: 23 with non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Stage Ta), 62 with tumour invading subepithelial connective tissue (Stage T1). Twelve patients had well differentiated tumours (Grade 1), 48 had moderately differentiated (Grade 2), 25 had poorly differentiated (Grade 3) tumours. The total recurrence rate was 23%. The rates of recurrence were 56% in Grade 3 and 0% in Grade 1. The recurrence rate was 41% in patients with large tumours versus 17% in those with small tumours; 44% in those with multiple tumours compared to 18% in those with solitary tumours; 30% of Stage Ta tumours recurred and 21% of Stage T1 tumours. In short term follow-up, our rate of recurrence was 23%. Adjuvant intravesical doxorubicin was shown to reduce the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Tumour grade, size and number were shown to be prognostic factors for recurrence.

  4. Clinical Trials with Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Pisano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the pharmaceutical options available for treatment of ovarian cancer, increasing attention has been progressively focused on pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD, whose unique formulation prolongs the persistence of the drug in the circulation and potentiates intratumor accumulation. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD has become a major component in the routine management of epithelial ovarian cancer. In 1999 it was first approved for platinum-refractory ovarian cancer and then received full approval for platinum-sensitive recurrent disease in 2005. PLD remains an important therapeutic tool in the management of recurrent ovarian cancer in 2012. Recent interest in PLD/carboplatin combination therapy has been the object of phase III trials in platinum-sensitive and chemonaïve ovarian cancer patients reporting response rates, progressive-free survival, and overall survival similar to other platinum-based combinations, but with a more favorable toxicity profile and convenient dosing schedule. This paper summarizes data clarifying the role of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD in ovarian cancer, as well as researches focusing on adding novel targeted drugs to this cytotoxic agent.

  5. Polymeric composite membranes for temperature and pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mohamaddoust Aliabadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nowadays hydrogels are one of the upcoming classes of polymer-based controlled-release drug delivery systems. Temperature and pH-responsive delivery systems have drawn much attention because some diseases reveal themselves by a change in temperature and/or pH. The objective of this work is to prepare and characterize composite membrane using responsive nanoparticles into a polymer matrix. Materials and Methods: These nanoparticles were made of the copolymer poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methaçrylic acid by an aqueous dispersion polymerization process and are responsible for dual sensitivity to temperature and pH. Morphology study with SEM, swelling behavior with Dynamic Light Scattering Technique, in vitro drug release behavior with side-by-side Diffusion Cells were also investigated in this paper. Doxorubicin hydrochloride was used as a model solute. Results:The study on the release of doxorubicin hydrochloride showed that the release rate was higher at pH 5 than pH 7.4, increased with the increase of temperature. Nevertheless, ionic strength only poses a minor direct effect at higher pH. Conclusion:Such system may be potentially used as a tumor-targeting doxorubicin hydrochloride delivery in the body.

  6. Tumor targeted delivery of doxorubicin in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Madhankumar

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are benign tumors that have the potential to transform into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs. Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13Rα2 is a cancer associated receptor expressed in glioblastoma and other invasive cancers. We analyzed IL13Rα2 expression in several MPNST cell lines including the STS26T cell line, as well as in several peripheral nerve sheath tumors to utilize the IL13Rα2 receptor as a target for therapy. In our studies, we demonstrated the selective expression of IL13Rα2 in several peripheral nerve sheath tumors by immunohistochemistry (IHC and immunoblots. We established a sciatic nerve MPNST mouse model in NIH III nude mice using a luciferase transfected STS26T MPNST cell line. Similarly, analysis of the mouse sciatic nerves after tumor induction revealed significant expression of IL13Rα2 by IHC when compared to a normal sciatic nerve. IL13 conjugated liposomal doxorubicin was formulated and shown to bind and internalized in the MPNST cell culture model demonstrating cytotoxic effect. Our subsequent in vivo investigation in the STS26T MPNST sciatic nerve tumor model indicated that IL13 conjugated liposomal doxorubicin (IL13LIPDXR was more effective in inhibiting tumor progression compared to unconjugated liposomal doxorubicin (LIPDXR. This further supports that IL13 receptor targeted nanoliposomes is a potential approach for treating MPNSTs.

  7. Simultaneous hyperthermia and doxorubicin delivery from polymer-coated magnetite nanoparticles

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    Iglesias, G.R., E-mail: iglesias@ugr.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Delgado, A.V.; González-Caballero, F. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Ramos-Tejada, M.M. [Department of Physics, University of Jaén, Linares 23700 (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the hyperthermia response, (i.e., heating induced by an externally applied alternating magnetic field) and the simultaneous release of an anti-cancer drug (doxorubicin) by polymer-coated magnetite nanoparticles have been investigated. After describing the setup for hyperthermia measurements in suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles, the hyperthermia (represented by the rate of suspension heating and, ultimately, by the specific absorption rate or SAR) of magnetite nanoparticles (both bare and polymer-coated as drug nanocarriers) is discussed. The effect of the applied ac magnetic field on doxorubicin release is also studied, and it is concluded that the field does not interfere with the release process, demonstrating the double functionality of the investigated particles. - Highlights: • Magnetite NPs coated with polymers are used for drug delivery and hyperthermia. • The SAR of polyelectrolyte-coated NPs is larger because of their improved stability. • The antitumor drug doxorubicin is adsorbed on the coated particles. • The release rate of the drug is not affected by the ac magnetic field used in hyperthermia.

  8. Substrate Stiffness Influences Doxorubicin-Induced p53 Activation via ROCK2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ebata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM, such as stiffness, are involved in the determination of the characteristics of cancer cells, including chemotherapy sensitivity. Resistance to chemotherapy is often linked to dysfunction of tumor suppressor p53; however, it remains elusive whether the ECM microenvironment interferes with p53 activation in cancer cells. Here, we show that, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, extracellular stiffness influences p53 activation induced by the antitumor drug doxorubicin. Cell growth inhibition by doxorubicin was increased in response to ECM rigidity in a p53-dependent manner. The expression of Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK 2, which induces the activation of myosin II, was significantly higher when cells were cultured on stiffer ECM substrates. Knockdown of ROCK2 expression or pharmacological inhibition of ROCK decreased doxorubicin-induced p53 activation. Our results suggest that a soft ECM causes downregulation of ROCK2 expression, which drives resistance to chemotherapy by repressing p53 activation.

  9. Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Doxorubicin and Tacrolimus (FK506 on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines

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    Francesca Capone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and shows a complex clinical course, poor response to pharmacological treatment, and a severe prognosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether tacrolimus (FK506 has synergistic antitumor effects with doxorubicin on two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, Huh7 and HepG2. Cell viability was analyzed by Sulforhodamine B assay and synergic effect was evaluated by the software CalcuSyn. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin V and Dead Cell assay. Apoptosis-related protein PARP-1 cleaved and autophagy-related protein expressions (Beclin-1 and LC3B were measured by western blotting analysis. Cytokines concentration in cellular supernatants after treatments was studied by Bio-Plex assay. Interestingly the formulation with doxorubicin and tacrolimus induced higher cytotoxicity level on tumor cells than single treatment. Moreover, our results showed that the mechanisms involved were (i a strong cell apoptosis induction, (ii contemporaneous decrease of autophagy activation, understood as prosurvival process, and (iii downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, future studies could relate to the doxorubicin/tacrolimus combination effects in mice models bearing HCC in order to see if this formulation could be useful in HCC treatment.

  10. APC loss in breast cancer leads to doxorubicin resistance via STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKlompenberg, Monica K; Leyden, Emily; Arnason, Anne H; Zhang, Jian-Ting; Stefanski, Casey D; Prosperi, Jenifer R

    2017-11-28

    Resistance to chemotherapy is one of the leading causes of death from breast cancer. We recently established that loss of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) in the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus - Polyoma middle T (MMTV-PyMT) transgenic mouse model results in resistance to cisplatin or doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Herein, we aim to establish the mechanism that is responsible for APC-mediated chemotherapeutic resistance. Our data demonstrate that MMTV-PyMT; Apc Min/+ cells have increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. STAT3 can be constitutively activated in breast cancer, maintains the tumor initiating cell (TIC) population, and upregulates multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). The activation of STAT3 in the MMTV-PyMT; Apc Min/+ model is independent of interleukin 6 (IL-6); however, enhanced EGFR expression in the MMTV-PyMT; Apc Min/+ cells may be responsible for the increased STAT3 activation. Inhibiting STAT3 with a small molecule inhibitor A69 in combination with doxorubicin, but not cisplatin, restores drug sensitivity. A69 also decreases doxorubicin enhanced MDR1 gene expression and the TIC population enhanced by loss of APC. In summary, these results have revealed the molecular mechanisms of APC loss in breast cancer that can guide future treatment plans to counteract chemotherapeutic resistance.

  11. A facile doxorubicin-dichloroacetate conjugate nanomedicine with high drug loading for safe drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Conglian; Wu, Tingting; Qin, Yuting; Qi, Yan; Sun, Yu; Kong, Miao; Jiang, Xue; Qin, Xianya; Shen, Yaqi; Zhang, Zhiping

    2018-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent but severe side effects limit its clinical application. Nanoformulations can reduce the toxicity while still have various limitations, such as complexity, low drug loading capability and excipient related concerns. An amphiphilic conjugate, doxorubicin-dichloroacetate, was synthesized and the corresponding nanoparticles were prepared. The in vitro cytotoxicity and intracellular uptake, in vivo imaging, antitumor effects and systemic toxicities of nanoparticles were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of tumor. Doxorubicin-dichloroacetate conjugate can self-assemble into nanoparticles with small amount of DSPE-PEG 2000 , leading to high drug loading (71.8%, w/w) and diminished excipient associated concerns. The nanoparticles exhibited invisible systemic toxicity and high maximum tolerated dose of 75 mg DOX equiv./kg, which was 15-fold higher than that of free DOX. It also showed good tumor targeting capability and enhanced antitumor efficacy in murine melanoma model. This work provides a promising strategy to simplify the drug preparation process, increase drug loading content, reduce systemic toxicity as well as enhance antitumor efficiency.

  12. [The therapeutic effect of HSV1-hGM-CSF combined with doxorubicin on the mouse breast cancer model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, X F; Zhang, S R; Liu, B L; Wu, J L; Li, X Q; Gu, H G; Shu, Y

    2018-03-23

    Objective: To evaluate the oncolytic effect of herpes simplex virus type 1 which carried recombined human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (HSV1-hGM-CSF) on the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1 and compare the anticancer effects of HSV1-hGM-CSF, doxorubicin alone or combination on the breast cancer in mice. Methods: We investigated the cytotoxic effect on 4T1 cells in vitro, the cell growth, cell apoptosis and cell cycle of 4T1 cells treated with oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF at different MOIs (0, 0.5, 1 and 2) and doxorubicin at different concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml). The effects of oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF and doxorubicin on the tumor growth, survival time and their side effects on the mouse breast cancer model were observed. Results: Both oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF and doxorubicin significantly inhibited the proliferation of 4T1 cells in vitro . Doxorubicin induced the G(2)/M phase arrest of 4T1 cells, while the cytotoxicity of oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF was no cell cycle-dependent.At day 16 after treatment with doxorubicin and HSV1-hGM-CSF, the tumor volume of 4T1 tumor bearing mice were (144.40±27.68)mm(3,) (216.80±57.18)mm(3,) (246.10±21.90)mm(3,) (327.50±44.24)mm(3,) (213.30±32.31)mm(3) and (495.80±75.87)mm(3) in the groups of doxorubicin combined with high dose HSV1-hGM-CSF, doxorubicin combined with low dose HSV1-hGM-CSF, doxorubicin alone, high dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone, low dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone and control, respectively.Compared with the control group, both doxorubicin and HSV1-hGM-CSF treatment exhibited significant reduction of primary tumor volume in vivo ( P CSF alone and low dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone were significantly longer than that of control ( P CSF is observed in 4T1 mouse breast cancer.

  13. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn 2+ and albumin levels (P < 0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P < 0.01). qBase + was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. - Highlights:

  14. Enzyme-responsive doxorubicin release from dendrimer nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sang Joon Lee,1,* Young-Il Jeong,2,* Hyung-Kyu Park,3 Dae Hwan Kang,2,4 Jong-Suk Oh,3 Sam-Gyu Lee,5 Hyun Chul Lee31Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 2Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 4Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Gyeongnam, 5Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Since cancer cells are normally over-expressed cathepsin B, we synthesized dendrimer-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol (MPEG-doxorubicin (DOX conjugates using a cathepsin B-cleavable peptide for anticancer drug targeting.Methods: Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide was conjugated with the carboxylic acid end groups of a dendrimer, which was then conjugated with MPEG amine and doxorubicin by aid of carbodiimide chemistry (abbreviated as DendGDP. Dendrimer-MPEG-DOX conjugates without Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide linkage was also synthesized for comparison (DendDP. Nanoparticles were then prepared using a dialysis procedure.Results: The synthesized DendGDP was confirmed with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DendDP and DendGDP nanoparticles had a small particle size of less than 200 nm and had a spherical morphology. DendGDP had cathepsin B-sensitive drug release properties while DendDP did not show cathepsin B sensitivity. Further, DendGDP had improved anticancer activity when compared with doxorubicin or DendDP in an in vivo CT26 tumor xenograft model, ie, the volume of the CT26 tumor xenograft was significantly inhibited when compared with xenografts treated with doxorubicin or DendDP nanoparticles. The DendGDP nanoparticles were found to be relatively concentrated in the tumor tissue and

  15. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui, E-mail: Donghuixu007@163.com

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn{sup 2+} and albumin levels (P < 0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P < 0.01). qBase{sup +} was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. - Highlights:

  16. Doxorubicin increases the effectiveness of Apo2L/TRAIL for tumor growth inhibition of prostate cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Ahmed; McKillop, John; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a significant health problem among American men. Treatment strategies for androgen-independent cancer are currently not available. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) is a death receptor ligand that can induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines, including androgen-independent PC3 prostate carcinoma cells. In vitro, TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of prostate cancer cell lines can be enhanced by doxorubicin and correlates with the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP. This study evaluated the effects of doxorubicin on c-FLIP expression and tumor growth in combination with Apo2L/TRAIL in a xenograft model. In vitro cytotoxic effects of TRAIL were measured using a MTS-based viability assay. For in vivo studies, PC3 prostate carcinoma cells were grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice and tumor growth was measured following treatment with doxorubicin and/or Apo2L/TRAIL. c-FLIP expression was determined by western blot analysis. Apoptosis in xenografts was detected using TUNEL. Statistical analysis was performed using the student t-test. In vitro experiments show that PC3 cells are partially susceptible to Apo2L/TRAIL and that susceptibility is enhanced by doxorubicin. In mice, doxorubicin did not significantly affect the growth of PC3 xenografts but reduced c-FLIP expression in tumors. Expression of c-FLIP in mouse heart was decreased only at the high doxorubicin concentration (8 mg/kg). Combination of doxorubicin with Apo2L/TRAIL resulted in more apoptotic cell death and tumor growth inhibition than Apo2L/TRAIL alone. Combination of doxorubicin and Apo2L/TRAIL is more effective in growth inhibition of PC3 xenografts in vivo than either agent alone and could present a novel treatment strategy against hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The intracellular mechanism by which doxorubicin enhances the effect of Apo2L/TRAIL on PC3 xenografts may be by reducing expression of c-FLIP

  17. siRNA inhibition of telomerase enhances the anti-cancer effect of doxorubicin in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xuejun; Liu, Anding; Zer, Cindy; Feng, Jianguo; Zhen, Zhuan; Yang, Mingfeng; Zhong, Li

    2009-01-01

    Doxorubicin is an effective breast cancer drug but is hampered by a severe, dose-dependent toxicity. Concomitant administration of doxorubicin and another cancer drug may be able to sensitize tumor cells to the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and lowers the therapeutic dosage. In this study, we examined the combined effect of low-dose doxorubicin and siRNA inhibition of telomerase on breast cancer cells. We found that when used individually, both treatments were rapid and potent apoptosis inducers; and when the two treatments were combined, we observed an enhanced and sustained apoptosis induction in breast cancer cells. siRNA targeting the mRNA of the protein component of telomerase, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), was transfected into two breast cancer cell lines. The siRNA inhibition was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blot on hTERT mRNA and protein levels, respectively, and by measuring the activity level of telomerase using the TRAP assay. The effect of the hTERT siRNA on the tumorigenicity of the breast cancer cells was also studied in vivo by injection of the siRNA-transfected breast cancer cells into nude mice. The effects on cell viability, apoptosis and senescence of cells treated with hTERT siRNA, doxorubicin, and the combined treatment of doxorubicin and hTERT siRNA, were examined in vitro by MTT assay, FACS and SA-β-galactosidase staining. The hTERT siRNA effectively knocked down the mRNA and protein levels of hTERT, and reduced the telomerase activity to 30% of the untreated control. In vivo, the tumors induced by the hTERT siRNA-transfected cells were of reduced sizes, indicating that the hTERT siRNA also reduced the tumorigenic potential of the breast cancer cells. The siRNA treatment reduced cell viability by 50% in breast cancer cells within two days after transfection, while 0.5 μM doxorubicin treatment had a comparable effect but with a slower kinetics. The combination of hTERT siRNA and 0.5 μM doxorubicin killed twice as many

  18. pH-Switch Nanoprecipitation of Polymeric Nanoparticles for Multimodal Cancer Targeting and Intracellular Triggered Delivery of Doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz-Blanco, Bárbara; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Correia, Alexandra R; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Kohout, Tomáš; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2016-08-01

    Theranostic nanoparticles are emerging as potent tools for noninvasive diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of solid tumors. Herein, an advanced targeted and multistimuli responsive theranostic platform is presented for the intracellular triggered delivery of doxorubicin. The system consists of a polymeric-drug conjugate solid nanoparticle containing encapsulated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IO@PNP) and decorated with a tumor homing peptide, iRGD. The production of this nanosystem is based on a pH-switch nanoprecipitation method in organic-free solvents, making it ideal for biomedical applications. The nanosystem shows sufficient magnetization saturation for magnetically guided therapy along with reduced cytotoxicity and hemolytic effects. IO@PNP are largely internalized by endothelial and metastatic cancer cells and iRGD decorated IO@PNP moderately enhance their internalization into endothelial cells, while no enhancement is found for the metastatic cancer cells. Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(histidine) with pH-responsive and proton-sponge properties promotes prompt lysosomal escape once the nanoparticles are endocyted. In addition, the polymer-doxorubicin conjugate solid nanoparticles show both intracellular lysosomal escape and efficient translocation of doxorubicin to the nuclei of the cells via cleavage of the amide bond. Overall, IO@PNP-doxorubicin and the iRGD decorated counterpart demonstrate to enhance the toxicity of doxorubicin in cancer cells by improving the intracellular delivery of the drug carried in the IO@PNP. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Targeting PEPT1: a novel strategy to improve the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin in human hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanxia; Wu, Xiang; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Xi; Yao, Zhi; Zhang, Qingyu; Jian, Xu

    2017-06-20

    Proton coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) is a member of the peptide transporter superfamily and plays important role in the absorption of oligopeptide and peptidomimetic drugs. Our previous research verified that PEPT1 expressed specifically in human Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and cell lines and showed potential transport activity to be a new candidate of the tumor therapeutic target. In this study, we aim to explore the feasibility of a novel tumor target therapeutic strategy: Targeting PEPT1 to improve the antitumor efficacy of Doxorubicin in human HCC therapy. First, Doxorubicin was conjugated with Glycylglycylglycine (Gly-Gly-Gly) - a tripeptide which was known as the substrate of PEPT1 and characterized by HPLC and MS successfully. Doxorubicin-tripeptide conjugate was then observed to clarify the target delivery by PEPT1 and the antitumor effect on human hepatocarcinoma in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the improvement of the toxic and side effect of Doxorubicin after conjugation was also evaluated by some biochemical tests. Our results reveal that targeting PEPT1 may contribute to the efficient delivery of Doxorubicin to hepatocarcinoma cells and the reduction of drug toxicity. PEPT1 has the prospect to be a novel target of HCC therapy.

  20. Sildenafil citrate improves the delivery and anticancer activity of doxorubicin formulations in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greish, Khaled; Fateel, Maryam; Abdelghany, Sara; Rachel, Nanitha; Alimoradi, Houman; Bakhiet, Moiz; Alsaie, Ahmed

    2017-11-21

    Sildenafil is an approved drug for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The drug exerts its action through the relaxation of smooth muscles and the modulation of vascular endothelial permeability. In this work, we tested whether the aforementioned effects of sildenafil on tumour vasculatures could result in an improvement of anticancer drug concentration in tumour tissues and hence improves its anticancer effect. Sildenafil when added to doxorubicin showed synergistic anticancer activity against 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitro. Adding 1, 30 and 100 μM of Viagra to 1 μM of doxorubicin resulted in 1.8-fold, 6.2-fold and 21-fold statistically significant increases in its cytotoxic effect, respectively. As a result, 4T1 tumour-bearing mice showed up to 2.7-fold increase in drug concentrations of the fluorescent Dye DiI and doxorubicin in tumour tissues, as well as their nanoformulations. Animals treated with the combinations of both Sildenafil citrate and doxorubicin showed a statistically significant 4.7-fold reduction in tumour size compared to doxorubicin alone. This work highlights the effect of Sildenafil on tumour vasculatures and provides a rational for further testing the combination on breast cancer patients.

  1. Pharmacological stimulation of p53 with low-dose doxorubicin ameliorates diet-induced nonalcoholic steatosis and steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Porteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent reports have implicated the p53 tumor suppressor in the regulation of lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that the pharmacological activation of p53 with low-dose doxorubicin, which is widely used to treat several types of cancer, may have beneficial effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods: We used long-term pharmacological activation of p53 by i.p. or oral administration of low-dose doxorubicin in different animal models of NAFLD (high fat diet containing 45% and 60% kcal fat and NASH (methionine- and choline-deficient diet and choline deficiency combined with high fat diet. We also administered doxorubicin in mice lacking p53 in the liver and in two human hepatic cells lines (HepG2 and THLE2. Results: The attenuation of liver damage was accompanied by the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and decrease of lipogenesis, inflammation, and ER stress. The effects of doxorubicin were abrogated in mice with liver-specific ablation of p53. Finally, the effects of doxorubicin on lipid metabolism found in animal models were also present in two human hepatic cells lines, in which the drug stimulated fatty acid oxidation and inhibited de novo lipogenesis at doses that did not cause changes in apoptosis or cell viability. Conclusion: These data provide new evidence for targeting p53 as a strategy to treat liver disease. Keywords: Obesity, Lipid metabolism, Inflammation

  2. Doxorubicin-mediated bone loss in breast cancer bone metastases is driven by an interplay between oxidative stress and induction of TGFβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapasi Rana

    Full Text Available Breast cancer patients, who are already at increased risk of developing bone metastases and osteolytic bone damage, are often treated with doxorubicin. Unfortunately, doxorubicin has been reported to induce damage to bone. Moreover, we have previously reported that doxorubicin treatment increases circulating levels of TGFβ in murine pre-clinical models. TGFβ has been implicated in promoting osteolytic bone damage, a consequence of increased osteoclast-mediated resorption and suppression of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that in a preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis model, administration of doxorubicin would accelerate bone loss in a TGFβ-mediated manner. Administration of doxorubicin to 4T1 tumor-bearing mice produced an eightfold increase in osteolytic lesion areas compared untreated tumor-bearing mice (P = 0.002 and an almost 50% decrease in trabecular bone volume expressed in BV/TV (P = 0.0005, both of which were rescued by anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11. Doxorubicin, which is a known inducer of oxidative stress, decreased osteoblast survival and differentiation, which was rescued by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC. Furthermore, doxorubicin treatment decreased Cu-ZnSOD (SOD1 expression and enzyme activity in vitro, and treatment with anti-TGFβ antibody was able to rescue both. In conclusion, a combination therapy using doxorubicin and anti-TGFβ antibody might be beneficial for preventing therapy-related bone loss in cancer patients.

  3. Carboplatin versus alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin for the adjuvant treatment of canine appendicular osteosarcoma: a randomized, phase III trial†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, K. A.; Uhl, J. M.; Szivek, A; Allstadt Frazier, S. D.; Rebhun, R. B.; Rodriguez, C. O.

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous published studies describing adjuvant chemotherapy for canine appendicular osteosarcoma, there is no consensus as to the optimal chemotherapy protocol. The purpose of this study was to determine whether either of two protocols would be associated with longer disease-free interval (DFI) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma following amputation. Dogs with histologically confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma that were free of gross metastases and underwent amputation were eligible for enrollment. Dogs were randomized to receive either six doses of carboplatin or three doses each of carboplatin and doxorubicin on an alternating schedule. Fifty dogs were included. Dogs receiving carboplatin alone had a significantly longer DFI (425 versus 135 days) than dogs receiving alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin (P = 0.04). Toxicity was similar between groups. These results suggest that six doses of carboplatin may be associated superior DFI when compared to six total doses of carboplatin and doxorubicin. PMID:24118677

  4. Carboplatin versus alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin for the adjuvant treatment of canine appendicular osteosarcoma: a randomized, phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, K A; Uhl, J M; Szivek, A; Allstadt Frazier, S D; Rebhun, R B; Rodriguez, C O

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous published studies describing adjuvant chemotherapy for canine appendicular osteosarcoma, there is no consensus as to the optimal chemotherapy protocol. The purpose of this study was to determine whether either of two protocols would be associated with longer disease-free interval (DFI) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma following amputation. Dogs with histologically confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma that were free of gross metastases and underwent amputation were eligible for enrollment. Dogs were randomized to receive either six doses of carboplatin or three doses each of carboplatin and doxorubicin on an alternating schedule. Fifty dogs were included. Dogs receiving carboplatin alone had a significantly longer DFI (425 versus 135 days) than dogs receiving alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin (P = 0.04). Toxicity was similar between groups. These results suggest that six doses of carboplatin may be associated superior DFI when compared to six total doses of carboplatin and doxorubicin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Theragnosis-based combined cancer therapy using doxorubicin-conjugated microRNA-221 molecular beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Choi, Kyung-Ju; Moon, Sung Ung; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microRNA (miRNA or miR) has emerged as a new cancer biomarker because of its high expression level in various cancer types and its role in the control of tumor suppressor genes. In cancer studies, molecular imaging and treatment based on target cancer markers have been combined to facilitate simultaneous cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, for combined therapy with diagnosis of cancer, we developed a doxorubicin-conjugated miR-221 molecular beacon (miR-221 DOXO MB) in a single platform composed of three different nucleotides: miR-221 binding sequence, black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1), and doxorubicin binding site. Imaging of endogenous miR-221 was achieved by specific hybridization between miR-221 and the miR-221 binding site in miR-221 DOXO MB. The presence of miR-221 triggered detachment of the quencher oligo and subsequent activation of a fluorescent signal of miR-221 DOXO MB. Simultaneous cancer therapy in C6 astrocytoma cells and nude mice was achieved by inhibition of miRNA-221 function that downregulates tumor suppressor genes. The detection of miR-221 expression and inhibition of miR-221 function by miR-221 DOXO MB provide the feasibility as a cancer theragnostic probe. Furthermore, a cytotoxic effect was induced by unloading of doxorubicin intercalated into miR-221 DOXO MB inside cells. Loss of miR-221 function and cytotoxicity induced by the miR-221 DOXO MB provides combined therapeutic efficacy against cancers. This method could be used as a new theragnostic probe with enhanced therapy to detect and inhibit many cancer-related miRNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy with Doxorubicin and Cisplatin Is Effective for Advanced Hepatocellular Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains a fatal disease even in the era of targeted therapies. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IACT can provide therapeutic benefits for patients with locally advanced HCC who are not eligible for local therapies or are refractory to targeted therapies. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the effect of IACT with cisplatin and doxorubicin on advanced HCC. Methods. Patients with advanced HCC who were not eligible for local therapies or were refractory to sorafenib received doxorubicin (50 mg/m2 and cisplatin (50 mg/m2 infusions into the liver via the transhepatic artery. Between January 2005 and December 2011, a total of 50 patients with advanced HCC received this treatment regimen. The overall response rate (ORR was 22% in all treated patients. In patients who received at least 2 cycles of IACT, the ORR was 36.7%, and the disease control rate was 70%. Survival rate differed significantly between patients who received only one cycle of IACT (group I and those who received several cycles (group II. The median progression-free survival was 1.3 months and 5.8 months in groups I and II, respectively (P<0.0001. The median overall survival was 8.3 months for all patients and was 3.1 months and 12.0 months in groups I and II, respectively (P<0.0001. The most common toxicity was alopecia. Four patients developed grade 3 or 4 leukopenia. Worsening of liver function, nausea, and vomiting were uncommon side effects. This study demonstrated clinical efficacy and tolerable side effects of repeated IACT with doxorubicin and cisplatin in advanced HCC. Our regimen can be an alternative choice for patients with adequate liver function who do not want to receive continuous infusion of IACT.

  7. Downregulation of CD44 reduces doxorubicin resistance of CD44+CD24- breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc PV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pham Van Phuc, Phan Lu Chinh Nhan, Truong Hai Nhung, Nguyen Thanh Tam, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Vuong Gia Tue, Duong Thanh Thuy, Phan Kim NgocLaboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, VietnamBackground: Cells within breast cancer stem cell populations have been confirmed to have a CD44+CD24- phenotype. Strong expression of CD44 plays a critical role in numerous types of human cancers. CD44 is involved in cell differentiation, adhesion, and metastasis of cancer cells.Methods: In this study, we reduced CD44 expression in CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells and investigated their sensitivity to an antitumor drug. The CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells were isolated from breast tumors; CD44 expression was downregulated with siRNAs followed by treatment with different concentrations of the antitumor drug.Results: The proliferation of CD44 downregulated CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells was decreased after drug treatment. We noticed treated cells were more sensitive to doxorubicin, even at low doses, compared with the control groups.Conclusions: It would appear that expression of CD44 is integral among the CD44+CD24- cell population. Reducing the expression level of CD44, combined with doxorubicin treatment, yields promising results for eradicating breast cancer stem cells in vitro. This study opens a new direction in treating breast cancer through gene therapy in conjunction with chemotherapy.Keywords: antitumor drugs, breast cancer stem cells, CD44, CD44+CD24- cells, doxorubicin

  8. Tissue factor/FVIIa activates Bcl-2 and prevents doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jun; Gu, Lubing; Zhu, Ningxi; Tang, Hao; Alvarado, Carlos S; Zhou, Muxiang

    2008-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane protein that acts as a receptor for activated coagulation factor VII (FVIIa), initiating the coagulation cascade. Recent studies demonstrate that expression of tumor-derived TF also mediates intracellular signaling relevant to tumor growth and apoptosis. Our present study investigates the possible mechanism by which the interaction between TF and FVIIa regulates chemotherapy resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines. Gene and siRNA transfection was used to enforce TF expression in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line and to silence endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma line, respectively. The expression of TF, Bcl-2, STAT5, and Akt as well as the phosphorylation of STAT5 and Akt in gene transfected cells or cells treated with JAK inhibitor and LY294002 were determined by Western blot assay. Tumor cell growth was determined by a clonogenic assay. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of doxorubicin on neuroblastoma cell lines was analyzed by WST assay and annexin-V staining (by flow cytometry) respectively. Enforced expression of TF in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line in the presence of FVIIa induced upregulation of Bcl-2, leading to resistance to doxorubicin. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma cell line using siRNA resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2 and sensitization to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Additionally, neuroblastoma cells expressing high levels of either endogenous or transfected TF treated with FVIIa readily phosphorylated STAT5 and Akt. Using selective pharmacologic inhibitors, we demonstrated that JAK inhibitor I, but not the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, blocked the TF/FVIIa-induced upregulation of Bcl-2. This study shows that in neuroblastoma cell lines overexpressed TF ligated with FVIIa produced upregulation of Bcl-2 expression through the JAK/STAT5 signaling pathway, resulting in resistance to apoptosis. We surmise that this TF

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced resistance to doxorubicin is reversed by paeonol treatment in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress is generally activated in solid tumors and results in tumor cell anti-apoptosis and drug resistance. Paeonol (Pae, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone, is a natural product extracted from the root of Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrew. Although Pae displays anti-neoplastic activity and increases the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in various cell lines and in animal models, studies related to the effect of Pae on ER stress-induced resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response during resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to doxorubicin. Treatment with the ER stress-inducer tunicamycin (TM before the addition of doxorubicin reduced the rate of apoptosis induced by doxorubicin. Interestingly, co-pretreatment with tunicamycin and Pae significantly increased apoptosis induced by doxorubicin. Furthermore, induction of ER stress resulted in increasing expression of COX-2 concomitant with inactivation of Akt and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP (GADD153 in HepG2 cells. These cellular changes in gene expression and Akt activation may be an important resistance mechanism against doxorubicin in hepatocellular carcinoma cells undergoing ER stress. However, co-pretreatment with tunicamycin and Pae decreased the expression of COX-2 and levels of activation of Akt as well as increasing the levels of CHOP in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that Pae reverses ER stress-induced resistance to doxorubicin in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting COX-2 mediated inactivation of PI3K/AKT/CHOP.

  10. Influence of doxorubicin on fluconazole susceptibility and efflux pump gene expression of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schulz, Bettina

    2012-05-01

    The effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on the fluconazole (FLU) susceptibility of C. dubliniensis was investigated. Isolates were exposed to DOX and FLU in a chequerboard assay and resistance gene expressions were analysed after DOX exposure. The susceptibility of the yeast to FLU was decreased in the presence of DOX in the chequerboard assay with FIC indices suggesting an antagonistic effect. Gene expression analyses showed an overexpression of CdCDR2. Hence, DOX was found to have an impact on resistance mechanisms in C. dubliniensis isolates.

  11. Lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and synergizes with doxorubicin: potential therapeutic relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosyan, Anna; Clendening, James W; Goard, Carolyn A; Penn, Linda Z

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is a rarely curable disease, for which new treatment options are required. As agents that block HMG-CoA reductase and the mevalonate pathway, the statin family of drugs are used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have been shown to trigger apoptosis in a tumor-specific manner. Recent clinical trials show that the addition of statins to traditional chemotherapeutic strategies can increase efficacy of targeting statin-sensitive tumors. Our goal was to assess statin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics, and then determine these mechanisms of action. The effect of lovastatin on ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated alone and in combination with cisplatin and doxorubicin using several assays (MTT, TUNEL, fixed PI, PARP cleavage) and synergy determined by evaluating the combination index. The mechanisms of action were evaluated using functional, molecular, and pharmacologic approaches. We demonstrate that lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells in a p53-independent manner and synergizes with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat recurrent cases of ovarian cancer. Lovastatin drives ovarian tumor cell death by two mechanisms: first, by blocking HMG-CoA reductase activity, and second, by sensitizing multi-drug resistant cells to doxorubicin by a novel mevalonate-independent mechanism. This inhibition of drug transport, likely through inhibition of P-glycoprotein, potentiates both DNA damage and tumor cell apoptosis. The results of this research provide pre-clinical data to warrant further evaluation of statins as potential anti-cancer agents to treat ovarian carcinoma. Many statins are inexpensive, off-patent generic drugs that are immediately available for use as anti-cancer agents. We provide evidence that lovastatin triggers apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells as a single agent by a mevalonate-dependent mechanism. Moreover, we also show lovastatin synergizes

  12. Biodistribution of doxorubicin and nanostructured ferrocarbon carrier particles in organism during magnetically controlled drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.; Filippov, Victor I.; Nikolskaya, Tatiana A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Budko, Andrei P. [Oncological Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kovarskii, Alexander L. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Zontov, Sergei V. [Oncological Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kogan, Boris Ya. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Oleg A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kuznetsov_oa@yahoo.com

    2009-05-15

    Biodistribution of doxorubicin and ferrocarbon carrier particles in organism during and after magnetically controlled anti-tumor drug delivery and deposition was studied. Animal tests show high concentration of the cytostatic drug in the target zone, while its concentration is three orders of magnitude lower in bloodstream and other organs. A significant depot of the drug remains on the deposited particles days after the procedure. Macrophages actively phagocytose the ferrocarbon (FeC) particles and remain viable long enough to carry them to the lymph nodes.

  13. Biodistribution of doxorubicin and nanostructured ferrocarbon carrier particles in organism during magnetically controlled drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.; Filippov, Victor I.; Nikolskaya, Tatiana A.; Budko, Andrei P.; Kovarskii, Alexander L.; Zontov, Sergei V.; Kogan, Boris Ya.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.

    2009-01-01

    Biodistribution of doxorubicin and ferrocarbon carrier particles in organism during and after magnetically controlled anti-tumor drug delivery and deposition was studied. Animal tests show high concentration of the cytostatic drug in the target zone, while its concentration is three orders of magnitude lower in bloodstream and other organs. A significant depot of the drug remains on the deposited particles days after the procedure. Macrophages actively phagocytose the ferrocarbon (FeC) particles and remain viable long enough to carry them to the lymph nodes.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin in an intracranial model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey K Anders

    Full Text Available Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM are a challenging consequence of advanced BC. Nanoparticle agents, including liposomes, have shown enhanced delivery to solid tumors and brain. We compared pharmacokinetics (PK and efficacy of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD with non-liposomal doxorubicin (NonL-doxo in an intracranial model of BC.Athymic mice were inoculated intracerebrally with MDA-MB-231-BR-luciferase-expressing cells. Tumor-bearing mice were administered PLD or NonL-doxo at 6 mg/kg IV × 1 and were euthanized prior to and 0.083, 1, 3, 6, 24, 72 and 96 h post-treatment. Samples were processed to measure sum total doxorubicin via HPLC. PLD and NonL-doxo were administered IV weekly as single agents (6 mg/kg or in combination (4.5 mg/kg with the PARP inhibitor, ABT-888, PO 25 mg/kg/day. Efficacy was assessed by survival and bioluminescence.Treatment with PLD resulted in approximately 1,500-fold higher plasma and 20-fold higher intracranial tumor sum total doxorubicin AUC compared with NonL-doxo. PLD was detected at 96 h; NonL-doxo was undetectable after 24 h in plasma and tumor. Median survival of PLD-treated animals was 32 days (d, [CI] 31-38, which was significantly longer than controls (26d [CI 25-28]; p = 0.0012 or NonL-doxo treatment (23.5d [CI 18-28], p = 0.0002. Combination treatment with PLD/ABT-888 yielded improved survival compared to NonL-doxo/ABT-888 (35d [CI 31-38] versus 29.5d [CI 25-34]; p = 0.006.PLD provides both PK and efficacy advantage over NonL-doxo in the treatment of an in vivo model of BCBM. The results provide preclinical rationale to translate findings into early phase trials of PLD, with or without ABT-888, for patients with BCBM.

  15. Photostabilization of doxorubicin hydrochloride with radioprotective and photoprotective agents: Potential mechanism for enhancing chemotherapy during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M.J.; Asker, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA), urocanic acid, and sodium urate were found to significantly enhance the photostability of doxorubicin hydrochloride [adriamycin, (ADR)]. d1-Methionine, thiourea, and glycine also increased the photostability of this drug, but to a lesser degree. Sodium thiosulfate on the other hand, was found to be detrimental to the photostability of ADR. The photostabilizing effect of PABA was found to increase with increase of its concentration and was influenced by the pH and the buffer species of the vehicle. The findings would have an impact on the enhancement of therapeutic efficacy of adriamycin when administered during radiation therapy

  16. Early biomarkers of doxorubicin-induced heart injury in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: varsha.desai@fda.hhs.gov [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kwekel, Joshua C.; Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, The National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850-9734 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Mathematics, Korea University, Sejong, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tao [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J.; Muskhelishvili, Levan [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac troponins, which are used as myocardial injury markers, are released in plasma only after tissue damage has occurred. Therefore, there is a need for identification of biomarkers of earlier events in cardiac injury to limit the extent of damage. To accomplish this, expression profiling of 1179 unique microRNAs (miRNAs) was performed in a chronic cardiotoxicity mouse model developed in our laboratory. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were injected intravenously with 3 mg/kg doxorubicin (DOX; an anti-cancer drug), or saline once a week for 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were euthanized a week after the last dose. Cardiac injury was evidenced in mice exposed to 18 mg/kg and higher cumulative DOX dose whereas examination of hearts by light microscopy revealed cardiac lesions at 24 mg/kg DOX. Also, 24 miRNAs were differentially expressed in mouse hearts, with the expression of 1, 1, 2, 8, and 21 miRNAs altered at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg DOX, respectively. A pro-apoptotic miR-34a was the only miRNA that was up-regulated at all cumulative DOX doses and showed a significant dose-related response. Up-regulation of miR-34a at 6 mg/kg DOX may suggest apoptosis as an early molecular change in the hearts of DOX-treated mice. At 12 mg/kg DOX, up-regulation of miR-34a was associated with down-regulation of hypertrophy-related miR-150; changes observed before cardiac injury. These findings may lead to the development of biomarkers of earlier events in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity that occur before the release of cardiac troponins. - Highlights: • Upregulation of miR-34a before doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue injury • Apoptosis might be an early event in mouse heart during doxorubicin treatment. • Expression of miR-150 declined before doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue injury.

  17. Four new degradation products of doxorubicin: An application of forced degradation study and hyphenated chromatographic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Kaushik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Forced degradation study on doxorubicin (DOX was carried out under hydrolytic condition in acidic, alkaline and neutral media at varied temperatures, as well as under peroxide, thermal and photolytic conditions in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines Q1(R2. It was found extremely unstable to alkaline hydrolysis even at room temperature, unstable to acid hydrolysis at 80 °C, and to oxidation at room temperature. It degraded to four products (O-I–O-IV in oxidative condition, and to single product (A-I in acid hydrolytic condition. These products were resolved on a C8 (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm column with isocratic elution using mobile phase consisting of HCOONH4 (10 mM, pH 2.5, acetonitrile and methanol (65:15:20, v/v/v. Liquid chromatography–photodiode array (LC–PDA technique was used to ascertain the purity of the products noted in LC–UV chromatogram. For their characterization, a six stage mass fragmentation (MS6 pattern of DOX was outlined through mass spectral studies in positive mode of electrospray ionization (+ESI as well as through accurate mass spectral data of DOX and the products generated through liquid chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–MS–TOF on degraded drug solutions. Based on it, O-I–O-IV were characterized as 3-hydroxy-9-desacetyldoxorubicin-9-hydroperoxide, 1-hydroxy-9-desacetyldoxorubicin-9-hydroperoxide, 9-desacetyldoxorubicin-9-hydroperoxide and 9-desacetyldoxorubicin, respectively, whereas A-I was characterized as deglucosaminyl doxorubicin. While A-I was found to be a pharmacopoeial impurity, all oxidative products were found to be new degradation impurities. The mechanisms and pathways of degradation of doxorubicin were outlined and discussed. Keywords: Doxorubicin, TOF, Forced degradation, Liquid chromatography, Degradation product, Mass fragmentation pattern

  18. Treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma with carboplatin, liposomized doxorubicin, and gemcitabine: a phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerdal, G.; Sundstrom, S.; Riska, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma has a poor prognosis and there is limited effect of treatment. The Nordic Mesothelioma groups decided in the year 2000 to investigate a combination of liposomized doxorubicin, carboplatin, and gemcitabine for this disease in a phase II study. METHODS: From...... January 2001, to December 2003, 173 evaluable patients with biopsy-verified malignant mesothelioma were included. Two patients were lost to follow-up, but all the others were followed for at least 4 years or until death. RESULTS: Toxicity was fairly low. There were 56 responses (32.4%), of which 2 were...

  19. Thermo-sensitive liposomes loaded with doxorubicin and lysine modified single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor-targeting drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiali; Xie, Yingxia; Zhang, Yingjie; Huang, Heqing; Huang, Shengnan; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Zhi; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the thermo-sensitive liposomes loaded with doxorubicin and lysine-modified single-walled carbon nanotube drug delivery system, which was designed to enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the side effects of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method, the mean particle size was 232.0 ± 5.6 nm, and drug entrapment efficiency was 86.5 ± 3.7%. The drug release test showed that doxorubicin released more quickly at 42℃ than at 37℃. Compared with free doxorubicin, doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes could efficiently cross the cell membranes and afford higher anti-tumor efficacy on the human hepatic carcinoma cell line (SMMC-7721) cells in vitro. For in vivo experiments, the relative tumor volumes of the sarcomaia 180-bearing mice in thermo-sensitive liposomes group and doxorubicin group were significantly smaller than those of N.S. group. Meanwhile, the combination of near-infrared laser irradiation at 808 nm significantly enhanced the tumor growth inhibition both on SMMC-7721 cells and the sarcomaia 180-bearing mice. The quality of life such as body weight, mental state, food and water intake of sarcomaia 180 tumor-bearing mice treated with doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes were much higher than those treated with doxorubicin. In conclusion, doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes combined with near-infrared laser irradiation at 808 nm may potentially provide viable clinical strategies for targeting delivery of anti-cancer drugs. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. A Phase I Study of Triapine® in Combination with Doxorubicin in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelman, William R.; Morgan-Meadows, Sherry; Marnocha, Rebecca; Lee, Fred; Eickhoff, Jens; Huang, Wei; Pomplun, Marcia; Jiang, Zhisheng; Alberti, Dona; Kolesar, Jill M.; Ivy, Percy; Wilding, George; Traynor, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of Triapine® administered in combination with doxorubicin. Study Design Patients were treated with doxorubicin intravenously (IV) on day 1 and Triapine® IV on days 1-4 of a 21-day cycle. The starting dose (level 1) was doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 and Triapine® 25 mg/m2. PK analysis was performed at various time-points before and after treatment. Results Twenty patients received a total of 49 courses of treatment on study. At dose level 2 (doxorubicin 60 mg/m2, Triapine® 45 mg/m2), 2 patients experienced DLTs (febrile neutropenia, grade 4 thrombocytopenia). An additional 3 patients were enrolled at dose level 1 without initial toxicity. Enrollment then resumed at dose level 2a with a decreased dose of doxorubicin (45 mg/m2) with Triapine® 45 mg/m2. The 2 patients enrolled on this level had 2 DLTs (diarrhea, CVA). Enrollment was planned to resume at dose level 1; however, the sixth patient enrolled to this cohort developed grade 5 heart failure (ejection fraction 20%, pretreatment EF 62%) after the second course. Thus, doxorubicin and Triapine® were reduced to 45 mg/m2 and 25 mg/m2, respectively (level 1a), prior to resuming enrollment at dose level 1, the MTD. The main drug-related toxicity was myelosuppression. Non-hematologic toxicities included mild-to-moderate fatigue, grade 3 diarrhea and grade 4 CVA. There was one treatment-related death due to heart failure. While no objective responses were observed, subjective evidence of clinical activity was observed in patients with refractory melanoma and prostate cancer. Conclusions Pretreated patients with advanced malignancies can tolerate the combination of Triapine® and doxorubicin at doses that achieve subjective clinical benefit with the main treatment-related toxicities being myelosuppression and fatigue. The MTD was determined to be doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 on day 1 and Triapine® 25 mg/m2 on

  1. P53-dependent upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase-2: role in doxorubicin-induced growth arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddine, A A; Clarke, C J; Carroll, B; Airola, M V; Mohammed, S; Rella, A; Obeid, L M; Hannun, Y A

    2015-10-29

    Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) is a ceramide-generating enzyme that has been implicated in growth arrest, apoptosis and exosome secretion. Although previous studies have reported transcriptional upregulation of nSMase2 in response to daunorubicin, through Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, the role of the DNA damage pathway in regulating nSMase2 remains unclear. In this study, we show that doxorubicin induces a dose-dependent induction of nSMase2 mRNA and protein with concomitant increases in nSMase activity and ceramide levels. Upregulation of nSMase2 was dependent on ATR, Chk1 and p53, thus placing it downstream of the DNA damage pathway. Moreover, overexpression of p53 was sufficient to transcriptionally induce nSMase2, without the need for DNA damage. DNA-binding mutants as well as acetylation mutants of p53 were unable to induce nSMase2, suggesting a role of nSMase2 in growth arrest. Moreover, knockdown of nSMase2 prevented doxorubicin-induced growth arrest. Finally, p53-induced nSMase2 upregulation appears to occur via a novel transcription start site upstream of exon 3. These results identify nSMase2 as a novel p53 target gene, regulated by the DNA damage pathway to induce cell growth arrest.

  2. RPAP3 enhances cytotoxicity of doxorubicin by impairing NF-kappa B pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kana; Saeki, Makio; Egusa, Hiroshi; Fukuyasu, Sho; Yura, Yoshiaki; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Kamisaki, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3 (RPAP3) possesses an activity to bind with NEMO and to inhibit the ubiquitination of NEMO. → RPAP3 enhances doxorubicin-induced cell death in breast cancer cell line T-47D through the marked impairment of NF-κB pathway. → RPAP3 is a novel modulator of NF-κB pathway in apoptosis induced by anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents. -- Abstract: Activation of anti-apoptotic gene transcription by NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) has been reported to be linked with a resistance of cancer cells against chemotherapy. NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) interacts with a number of proteins and modulates the activity of NF-κB pathway. In this study, we revealed that RPAP3 (RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3) possesses an activity to bind with NEMO and to inhibit the ubiquitination of NEMO and that RPAP3 enhances doxorubicin-induced cell death in breast cancer cell line T-47D through the marked impairment of NF-κB pathway. These results indicate that RPAP3 may be a novel modulator of NF-κB pathway in apoptosis induced by anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  3. MADD knock-down enhances doxorubicin and TRAIL induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Turner

    Full Text Available The Map kinase Activating Death Domain containing protein (MADD isoform of the IG20 gene is over-expressed in different types of cancer tissues and cell lines and it functions as a negative regulator of apoptosis. Therefore, we speculated that MADD might be over-expressed in human breast cancer tissues and that MADD knock-down might synergize with chemotherapeutic or TRAIL-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Analyses of breast tissue microarrays revealed over-expression of MADD in ductal and invasive carcinomas relative to benign tissues. MADD knockdown resulted in enhanced spontaneous apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, MADD knockdown followed by treatment with TRAIL or doxorubicin resulted in increased cell death compared to either treatment alone. Enhanced cell death was found to be secondary to increased caspase-8 activation. These data indicate that strategies to decrease MADD expression or function in breast cancer may be utilized to increase tumor cell sensitivity to TRAIL and doxorubicin induced apoptosis.

  4. Doxorubicin Loaded Chitosan-W18 O49 Hybrid Nanoparticles for Combined Photothermal-Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shanmei; Hua, Jisong; Zhou, Yinyin; Ding, Yin; Hu, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Combined treatment is more effective than single treatment against most forms of cancer. In this work, doxorubicin loaded chitosan-W 18 O 49 nanoparticles combined with the photothermal therapy and chemotherapy are fabricated through the electrostatic interaction between positively charged chitosan and negatively charged W 18 O 49 nanoparticles. The in vitro and in vivo behaviors of these nanoparticles are examined by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, cytotoxicity, near-infrared fluorescence imaging, and tumor growth inhibition experiment. These nanoparticles have a mean size around 110 nm and show a pH sensitive drug release behavior. After irradiation by the 980 nm laser, these nanoparticles show more pronounced cytotoxicity against HeLa cells than that of free doxorubicin or photothermal therapy alone. The in vivo experiments confirm that their antitumor ability is significantly improved, resulting in superior efficiency in impeding tumor growth and extension of the lifetime of mice. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Distribution of the anticancer drugs doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and topotecan in tumors and normal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krupa J; Trédan, Olivier; Tannock, Ian F

    2013-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic analyses estimate the mean concentration of drug within a given tissue as a function of time, but do not give information about the spatial distribution of drugs within that tissue. Here, we compare the time-dependent spatial distribution of three anticancer drugs within tumors, heart, kidney, liver and brain. Mice bearing various xenografts were treated with doxorubicin, mitoxantrone or topotecan. At various times after injection, tumors and samples of heart, kidney, liver and brain were excised. Within solid tumors, the distribution of doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and topotecan was limited to perivascular regions at 10 min after administration and the distance from blood vessels at which drug intensity fell to half was ~25-75 μm. Although drug distribution improved after 3 and 24 h, there remained a significant decrease in drug fluorescence with increasing distance from tumor blood vessels. Drug distribution was relatively uniform in the heart, kidney and liver with substantially greater perivascular drug uptake than in tumors. There was significantly higher total drug fluorescence in the liver than in tumors after 10 min, 3 and 24 h. Little to no drug fluorescence was observed in the brain. There are marked differences in the spatial distributions of three anticancer drugs within tumor tissue and normal tissues over time, with greater exposure to most normal tissues and limited drug distribution to many cells in tumors. Studies of the spatial distribution of drugs are required to complement pharmacokinetic data in order to better understand and predict drug effects and toxicities.

  6. High intratumoral accumulation of stealth liposomal doxorubicin in sarcomas--rationale for combination with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukourakis, M.I.; Koukouraki, S.; Giatromanolaki, A.; Kakolyris, S.; Georgoulias, V.; Velidaki, A.; Archimandritis, S.; Karkavitsas, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    Sarcomas are radioresistant tumors, the only curative therapy being radical surgical resection. Stealth liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx) is a novel drug formulation that allows prolonged circulation and high intratumoral concentration. This study investigates the concurrent use of radiotherapy with Caelyx in a cohort of 7 patients with locally advanced or recurrent sarcoma. Radiotherapy was given as a standard fractionation regimen to a total dose of 70 Gy. Caelyx was given as a 30-min infusion at a dose of 25 mg/m 2 every 2 weeks. Scintigraphic imaging with Caelyx- 99m Tc-DTPA showed an increased (2.8 +/- 0.9 times higher) intratumoral drug accumulation compared to the surrounding healthy tissue. The regimen was well tolerated without any severe hematological or systemic toxicity. 'In field' radiation toxicity was not increased. Complete response was observed in 4/7 cases. It is concluded that combined chemo-radiotherapy with stealth liposomal doxorubicin for locally advanced sarcomas is feasible and promising, the benefit expected from the unique ability of the stealth liposomes to accumulate selectively in the tumoral tissue

  7. Cytotoxicity and inhibitory properties against topoisomerase II of doxorubicin and its formamidine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Krzysztof; Studzian, Kazimierz; Wasowska-Łukawska, Małgorzata; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    This work was undertaken to compare cytotoxicity, DNA damaging properties and effect on DNA cleavage by topoisomerase II of the anthracycline drug doxorubicin (DOX) and its two derivatives with a formamidino group containing a cyclic amine moiety such as morpholine (DOXM) or hexamethyleneimine (DOXH). The tetrazolium dye colorimetric assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity of anthracyclines toward L1210 leukemia cells. DNA damage was measured by alkaline elution technique. The effect of anthracyclines on DNA cleavage was studied in a cell-free system containing supercoiled pBR322 DNA and purified human topoisomerase II. The cytotoxicity data and the results of studies on the mechanism of DNA break formation by anthracyclines at the cellular level and in the cell-free system showed that the presence of the formamidino group in the doxorubicin molecule reduced its ability to stimulate DNA cleavage by DNA topoisomerase II. DNA topoisomerase II is not a primary cellular target for DOXM or DOXH. An advantageous feature of formamidinoanthracyclines is their mechanism of cytotoxic action which is not related to the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II. Therefore this class of anthracyclines seems to be a good source for selection of an anticancer drug directed toward cancer cells with the developed multidrug resistance attributed to the presence of altered DNA topoisomerase II.

  8. Magnetic lipid nanoparticles loading doxorubicin for intracellular delivery: Preparation and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Xiaoying; Du Yongzhong; Hong Linghong; Yuan Hong; Hu Fuqiang

    2011-01-01

    Tumor intracellular delivery is an effective route for targeting chemotherapy to enhance the curative effect and minimize the side effect of a drug. In this study, the magnetic lipid nanoparticles with an uptake ability by tumor cells were prepared dispersing ferroso-ferric oxide nanoparticles in aqueous phase using oleic acid (OA) as a dispersant, and following the solvent dispersion of lipid organic solution. The obtained nanoparticles with 200 nm volume average diameter and -30 mV surface zeta potential could be completely removed by external magnetic field from aqueous solution. Using doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug, the drug-loaded magnetic lipid nanoparticles were investigated in detail, such as the effects of OA, drug and lipid content on volume average diameter, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and in vitro drug release. The drug loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency were enhanced with increasing drug or lipid content, reduced with increasing OA content. The in vitro drug release could be controlled by changing drug or lipid content. Cellular uptake by MCF-7 cells experiment presented the excellent internalization ability of the prepared magnetic lipid nanoparticles. These results evidenced that the present magnetic lipid nanoparticles have potential for targeting therapy of antitumor drugs. - Research highlights: → A simple solvent diffusion method was developed to prepare magnetic lipid nanoparticles. → The doxorubicin-loaded magnetic lipid nanoparticles could be controlled by preparation recipe. → Magnetic lipid nanoparticles had internalization ability into tumor cells.

  9. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn(2+) and albumin levels (Ptaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (PTaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (Ptaurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting thyroid cancer with acid-triggered release of doxorubicin from silicon dioxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shijie Li,1 Daqi Zhang,1 Shihou Sheng,2 Hui Sun1 1Department of Thyroid Surgery, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Colorectal and Anal Surgery, China–Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Chang Chun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Currently, therapy for thyroid cancer mainly involves surgery and radioiodine therapy. However, chemotherapy can be used in advanced and aggressive thyroid cancer that cannot be treated by other options. Nevertheless, a major obstacle to the successful treatment of thyroid cancer is the delivery of drugs to the thyroid gland. Here, we present an example of the construction of silicon dioxide nanoparticles with thyroid–stimulating-hormone receptor-targeting ligand that can specifically target the thyroid cancer. Doxorubicin nanoparticles can be triggered by acid to release the drug payload for cancer therapy. These nanoparticles shrink the tumor size in vivo with less toxic side effects. This research paves the way toward effective chemotherapy for thyroid cancer. Keywords: thyroid cancer, silicon dioxide nanoparticle, doxorubicin, acid-triggered release

  11. Targeting HSP70 and GRP78 in canine osteosarcoma cells in combination with doxorubicin chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asling, Jonathan; Morrison, Jodi; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones subdivided into several families based on their molecular weight. Due to their cytoprotective roles, these proteins may help protect cancer cells against chemotherapy-induced cell death. Investigation into the biologic activity of HSPs in a variety of cancers including primary bone tumors, such as osteosarcoma (OSA), is of great interest. Both human and canine OSA tumor samples have aberrant production of HSP70. This study assessed the response of canine OSA cells to inhibition of HSP70 and GRP78 by the ATP-mimetic VER-155008 and whether this treatment strategy could sensitize cells to doxorubicin chemotherapy. Single-agent VER-155008 treatment decreased cellular viability and clonogenic survival and increased apoptosis in canine OSA cell lines. However, combination schedules with doxorubicin after pretreatment with VER-155008 did not improve inhibition of cellular viability, apoptosis, or clonogenic survival. Treatment with VER-155008 prior to chemotherapy resulted in an upregulation of target proteins HSP70 and GRP78 in addition to the co-chaperone proteins Herp, C/EBP homologous transcription protein (CHOP), and BAG-1. The increased GRP78 was more cytoplasmic in location compared to untreated cells. Single-agent treatment also revealed a dose-dependent reduction in activated and total Akt. Based on these results, targeting GRP78 and HSP70 may have biologic activity in canine osteosarcoma. Further studies are required to determine if and how this strategy may impact the response of osteosarcoma cells to chemotherapy.

  12. Chemotherapeutic Drugs and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Focus on Doxorubicin, Trastuzumab, and Sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gorini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cancer therapies produce toxic side effects whose molecular mechanisms await full elucidation. The most feared and studied side effect of chemotherapeutic drugs is cardiotoxicity. Also, skeletal muscle physiology impairment has been recorded after many chemotherapeutical treatments. However, only doxorubicin has been extensively studied for its side effects on skeletal muscle. Chemotherapeutic-induced adverse side effects are, in many cases, mediated by mitochondrial damage. In particular, trastuzumab and sunitinib toxicity is mainly associated with mitochondria impairment and is mostly reversible. Vice versa, doxorubicin-induced toxicity not only includes mitochondria damage but can also lead to a more robust and extensive cell injury which is often irreversible and lethal. Drugs interfering with mitochondrial functionality determine the depletion of ATP reservoirs and lead to subsequent reversible contractile dysfunction. Mitochondrial damage includes the impairment of the respiratory chain and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent disruption of cellular energetic. In a context of increased stress, AMPK has a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis, and inhibition of the AMPK pathway is one of the proposed mechanisms possibly mediating mitochondrial toxicity due to chemotherapeutics. Therapies targeting and protecting cell metabolism and energy management might be useful tools in protecting muscular tissues against the toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic drugs.

  13. Fullerenol/doxorubicin nanocomposite mitigates acute oxidative stress and modulates apoptosis in myocardial tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seke, Mariana; Petrovic, Danijela; Djordjevic, Aleksandar; Jovic, Danica; Labudovic Borovic, Milica; Kanacki, Zdenko; Jankovic, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Fullerenol (C60(OH)24) is present in aqueous solutions in the form of polyanion nanoparticles with particles’ size distribution within the range from 15 to 42 nm. In this research it is assumed that these features could enable fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs) to bind positively charged molecules like doxorubicin (DOX) and serve as drug carriers. Considering this, fullerenol/doxorubicin nanocomposite (FNP/DOX) is formed and characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements have shown that DOX did not significantly affect particle size (23 nm). It is also assumed that FNP/DOX could reduce the acute cardiotoxic effects of DOX in vivo (Wistar rats treated i.p.). In this study, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction results have shown that treatment with DOX alone caused significant increase in mRNA levels of catalase (p effect is significantly reduced by the treatment with FNP/DOX (p < 0.05). Furthermore, mRNA levels of antiapoptotic enzyme (Bcl-2) are significantly increased (p < 0.05) in all treated groups, particularly where FNP/DOX was applied, suggesting cell resistance to apoptosis. Moreover, ultrastructural analysis has shown the absence of myelin figures within the mitochondria in the heart tissue with FNP/DOX treatment, indicating reduction of oxidative stress. Hence, our results have implied that FNP/DOX is generally less harmful to the heart compared to DOX.

  14. Metabolic changes during development of Walker-256 carcinosarcoma resistance to doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, I N; Lukyanova, N Yu; Shvets, Yu V; Lozovska, Yu V; Chekhun, V F

    2015-03-01

    To study indices of energy metabolism, content of K(+) and Mg(++) both in peripheral blood and in Walker-256 carcinosarcoma during development of resistance to doxorubicin. Resistance of Walker-256 carcinosarcoma to doxorubicin has been developed through 12 subsequent transplantations of tumor after the chemotherapy. Parental strain was inhibited by drug by 65%, while transitional resistant substrains - by 30% and 2%, respectively. Determination of biochemical indices in blood serum and homogenates of tumor tissue, level of potassium, magnesium, lactate, glucose, activities of lactate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was performed with the help of biochemical and immune-enzyme analyzer GBG ChemWell 2990 (USA) using standard kits. Polarography was used to determine indices of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Study of mitochondrial membrane potential was carried out on flow cytometer Beckman Coulter Epics XL using dye JC-1. It has been determined that development of drug resistance causes the decrease of K(+), Mg(++), glucose content in blood serum and increase of these indices in tumor tissue. At the same time, gradual tumor's loss of sensitivity is characterized by decrease of glycolysis activity in it and activation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and pentose phosphate pathway of glucose degradation, which causes more intensive formation of NADPH. Development of drug resistance of tumor causes certain metabolic changes in organism and tumor. Further study of such changes will make possible to determine tumor and extratumor markers of resistance.

  15. Newly Synthesized Doxorubicin Complexes with Selected Metals—Synthesis, Structure and Anti-Breast Cancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jabłońska-Trypuć

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is very effective chemotherapeutic agent, however it has several major drawbacks. Therefore the motivation for developing novel drug complexes as anticancer agents with different mechanism of action has arisen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of newly synthesized DOX complexes with selected metals (Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn on apoptosis, cell cycle, viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Complexation of DOX with metals has likewise been the subject of our research. The current work showed that the tested bivalent metals at a given pH condition formed metal:DOX complexes in a ratio of 2:1, while iron complexes with DOX in a ratio of 3:1. The studies also showed that selected metal-DOX complexes (Mg-DOX, Mn-DOX, Ni-DOX at 0.5 µM concentration significantly decreased cell viability and proliferation, however they increased caspase 7 activity. Results also indicated that studied metal-DOX complexes showed high cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Therefore they were chosen for cell cycle check-points and apoptosis/necrosis analysis studied by flow cytometry. Obtained results suggest that doxorubicin complexed by specified metals can be considered as a potential anti-breast cancer agent, which is characterized by a higher efficacy than a parent drug.

  16. Systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine for metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Soo-Mee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous chemotherapeutic agents have been tested, the role of systemic chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has not been clarified. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed to improve outcomes, and we designed this study with new effective drug combination. Methods Twenty-nine patients with histologically-confirmed, metastatic HCC received a combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 and cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on day 1, plus capecitabine 2000 mg/m2/day as an intermittent regimen of 2 weeks of treatment followed by a 1-week rest. Results The median age was 49 years (range, 32–64 and 19 patients were hepatitis B virus seropositive. Child-Pugh class was A in all patients and 4 had Zubrod performance status of 2. The objective response rate was 24% (95% CI 9–40 with 6 stable diseases. The chemotherapy was generally well tolerated despite one treatment-related death. Conclusion Combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine produced modest antitumor activity with tolerable adverse effects in patients with metastatic HCC.

  17. Doxorubicin loaded magnetic polymersomes: theranostic nanocarriers for MR imaging and magneto-chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Charles; Diou, Odile; Thévenot, Julie; Ibarboure, Emmanuel; Soum, Alain; Brûlet, Annie; Miraux, Sylvain; Thiaudière, Eric; Tan, Sisareuth; Brisson, Alain; Dupuis, Vincent; Sandre, Olivier; Lecommandoux, Sébastien

    2011-02-22

    Hydrophobically modified maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) nanoparticles were encapsulated within the membrane of poly(trimethylene carbonate)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid) (PTMC-b-PGA) block copolymer vesicles using a nanoprecipitation process. This formation method gives simple access to highly magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) (loaded up to 70 wt %) together with good control over the vesicles size (100-400 nm). The simultaneous loading of maghemite nanoparticles and doxorubicin was also achieved by nanoprecipitation. The deformation of the vesicle membrane under an applied magnetic field has been evidenced by small angle neutron scattering. These superparamagnetic hybrid self-assemblies display enhanced contrast properties that open potential applications for magnetic resonance imaging. They can also be guided in a magnetic field gradient. The feasibility of controlled drug release by radio frequency magnetic hyperthermia was demonstrated in the case of encapsulated doxorubicin molecules, showing the viability of the concept of magneto-chemotherapy. These magnetic polymersomes can be used as efficient multifunctional nanocarriers for combined therapy and imaging.

  18. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in malignant pleural mesothelioma: a possible guardian for long-term survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarogoulidis P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul Zarogoulidis,1,2 Maria Mavroudi,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,1 Kalliopi Domvri,1 Antonios Sakkas,3 Nikolaos Machairiotis,1 Aikaterini Stylianaki,1 Anastasios Tsiotsios,1 Nikolaos Courcoutsakis,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis11Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department-Interventional Unit, Ruhrland Klinik, University of Essen, Essen, Germany; 3Department of Pathology, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Department of Radiology, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreeceAbstract: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive malignancy of the pleura correlated with exposure to asbestos, with a medium survival of 11–12 months after diagnosis. A case of a 67-year-old male who had previously worked in the asbestos industry and is a current smoker is reported. The computed tomography evaluation revealed a right pleural mass with pleural thickening, and the pleural biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. He was treated with chemotherapy consisting of etoposide, paclitaxel, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride. After completion of chemotherapy, radiologic evaluation confirmed a reduction of pleural thickening and improvement in his symptoms. A complete presentation of each drug formulation and characteristics are also included in this paper. The patient’s follow-up is continuing, and computed tomography reveals stable disease 9 years after initial examination.Keywords: mesothelioma, asbestos, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin

  19. Overall survival benefit for sequential doxorubicin-docetaxel compared with concurrent doxorubicin and docetaxel in node-positive breast cancer--8-year results of the Breast International Group 02-98 phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oakman, C; Francis, P A; Crown, J

    2013-01-01

    Background In women with node-positive breast cancer, the Breast International Group (BIG) 02-98 tested the incorporation of docetaxel (Taxotere) into doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-based chemotherapy, and compared sequential and concurrent docetaxel. At 5 years, there was a trend for improved disease...

  20. Potentiation of apoptosis by histone deacetylase inhibitors and doxorubicin combination: cytoplasmic cathepsin B as a mediator of apoptosis in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyath, V; Kuhns, M A; Kalaycio, M E; Borden, E C

    2011-03-15

    Although inhibitors of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) in combination with genotoxins potentiate apoptosis, the role of proteases other than caspases in this process remained elusive. Therefore, we examined the potentiation of apoptosis and related mechanisms of HDACis and doxorubicin combination in a panel of myeloma cell lines and in 25 primary myelomas. At IC(50) concentrations, sodium butyrate (an HDACi) or doxorubicin alone caused little apoptosis. However, their combination potentiated apoptosis and synergistically reduced the viability of myeloma cells independent of p53 and caspase 3-7 activation. Potentiated apoptosis correlated with nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, suggesting the induction of caspase 3- and 7-independent pathways. Consistent with this, butyrate and doxorubicin combination significantly increased the activity of cytoplasmic cathepsin B. Inhibition of cathepsin B either with a small-molecule inhibitor or downregulation with a siRNA reversed butyrate- and doxorubicin-potentiated apoptosis. Finally, ex vivo, clinically relevant concentrations of butyrate or SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, vorinostat, an HDACi in clinical testing) in combination with doxorubicin significantly (Pmediating apoptosis potentiated by HDACi and doxorubicin combinations in myeloma. Our results support a molecular model of lysosomal-mitochondrial crosstalk in HDACi- and doxorubicin-potentiated apoptosis through the activation of cathepsin B.

  1. Age-related effect of aerobic exercise training on antioxidant and oxidative markers in the liver challenged by doxorubicin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Leicht, Anthony S

    2018-05-16

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the oxidant and antioxidant status of liver tissue challenged by doxorubicin and to examine the possible protective effects of aerobic exercise on doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Seventy-two rats were divided into three age groups (Young, Adult, and Elderly) with three treatment subgroups consisting of eight rats per age group: doxorubicin, aerobic exercise + doxorubicin, and aerobic exercise + saline. The experimental groups performed regular treadmill running for 3 weeks. Doxorubicin was administered by i.p. injection at a dosage of 20 mg kg -1 while the aerobic exercise + saline group received saline of a comparable volume. Heat shock protein 70, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, and protein carbonyl were determined from the liver homogenates following the intervention period. Treatment with doxorubicin induced hepatotoxicity in all groups with lower values of oxidative stress in young compared with the older groups. The inclusion of aerobic exercise training significantly increased heat shock protein 70 and antioxidant enzyme levels (glutathione peroxidase) whereas it decreased oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl) for all age groups. These results suggest that aerobic exercise training may be a potential, non-drug strategy to modulate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity through its positive impact on antioxidant levels and oxidative stress biomarkers.

  2. Prognostic and predictive value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in a phase III randomized adjuvant breast cancer trial in node-positive breast cancer comparing the addition of docetaxel to doxorubicin with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy: BIG 02-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Sherene; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Piette, Fanny; Salgado, Roberto; Viale, Giuseppe; Van Eenoo, Françoise; Rouas, Ghizlane; Francis, Prudence; Crown, John P A; Hitre, Erika; de Azambuja, Evandro; Quinaux, Emmanuel; Di Leo, Angelo; Michiels, Stefan; Piccart, Martine J; Sotiriou, Christos

    2013-03-01

    Previous preclinical and clinical data suggest that the immune system influences prognosis and response to chemotherapy (CT); however, clinical relevance has yet to be established in breast cancer (BC). We hypothesized that increased lymphocytic infiltration would be associated with good prognosis and benefit from immunogenic CT-in this case, anthracycline-only CT-in selected BC subtypes. We investigated the relationship between quantity and location of lymphocytic infiltrate at diagnosis with clinical outcome in 2009 node-positive BC samples from the BIG 02-98 adjuvant phase III trial comparing anthracycline-only CT (doxorubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil [CMF] or doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide followed by CMF) versus CT combining doxorubicin and docetaxel (doxorubicin plus docetaxel followed by CMF or doxorubicin followed by docetaxel followed by CMF). Readings were independently performed by two pathologists. Disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and interaction with type of CT associations were studied. Median follow-up was 8 years. There was no significant prognostic association in the global nor estrogen receptor (ER) -positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative population. However, each 10% increase in intratumoral and stromal lymphocytic infiltrations was associated with 17% and 15% reduced risk of relapse (adjusted P = .1 and P = .025), respectively, and 27% and 17% reduced risk of death in ER-negative/HER2-negative BC regardless of CT type (adjusted P = .035 and P = .023), respectively. In HER2-positive BC, there was a significant interaction between increasing stromal lymphocytic infiltration (10% increments) and benefit with anthracycline-only CT (DFS, interaction P = .042; OS, P = .018). In node-positive, ER-negative/HER2-negative BC, increasing lymphocytic infiltration was associated with excellent prognosis. Further validation of the clinical utility of tumor

  3. Therapeutic Efficacy of Orally Delivered Doxorubicin Nanoparticles in Rat Tongue Cancer Induced by 4-Nitroquinoline 1-Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Moradzadeh Khiavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oral cancer is one of the most significant cancers in the world, and squamous cell carcinoma makes up about 94% of oral malignancies. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of doxorubicin plus methotrexate - loaded nanoparticles on tongue squamous cell carcinoma induced by 4NQO and compare it with the commercial doxorubicin and methotrexate delivered orally on seventy SD male rats. Methods: 70 rats were divided into five groups. During the study, the animals were weighed by a digital scale once a week. Number of mortalities was recorded in the data collection forms. At the end of the treatment, biopsy samples were taken from rat tongues in order to evaluate the severity of dysplasia and the extent of cell proliferation. The results were analyzed using ANOVA, descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the mean weight of five groups (p>0.05. No significant relationship was found between groups and mortality rate (P = 0. 39. In addition, there was a significant relationship between groups and the degree of dysplasia (P <0.001. The statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between groups and the rate of cell proliferation (p <0.001. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the use of doxorubicin plus methotrexate - loaded nanoparticles orally had more therapeutic effects than commercial doxorubicin plus methotrexate.

  4. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Chalcone from Hops, Inhibits the Viability and Stemness of Doxorubicin-Resistant MCF-7/ADR Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is a unique prenylated flavonoid in hops (Humulus lupulus L. and beer. Xanthohumol has been shown to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. There is little research on its effect on doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR and the cancer stem-like cells exiting in this cell line. In the present study, we investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the viability and stemness of MCF-7/ADR cells. Xanthohumol inhibits viability, induces apoptosis, and arrests the cell cycle of MCF-7/ADR cells in a dose-dependent manner; in addition, xanthohumol sensitizes the inhibition effect of doxorubicin on MCF-7/ADR cells. Interestingly, we also find that xanthohumol can reduce the stemness of MCF-7/ADR cells evidenced by the xanthohumol-induced decrease in the colony formation, the migration, the percentage of side population cells, the sphere formation, and the down-regulation of stemness-related biomarkers. These results demonstrate that xanthohumol is a promising compound targeting the doxorubicin resistant breast cancer cells and regulating their stemness, which, therefore, will be applied as a potential candidate for the development of a doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer agent and combination therapy of breast cancer.

  5. Involvement of miR-30c in resistance to doxorubicin by regulating YWHAZ in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Y. [Department of Central Laboratory, The First Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Shen, H. [Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Cao, Y. [Department of Central Laboratory, The First Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Li, H. [Department of Central Laboratory, The Fourth Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Qin, R. [Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Q. [Department of Central Laboratory, The First Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Long, L. [Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Zhu, X.L. [Department of Central Laboratory, The Fourth Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Xie, C.J. [Department of Central Laboratory, The First Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Xu, W.L. [Department of Central Laboratory, The Fourth Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that modulate gene expression implicated in cancer, which play crucial roles in diverse biological processes, such as development, differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether miR-30c mediated the resistance of breast cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (ADR) by targeting tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta (YWHAZ). miR-30c was downregulated in the doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/ADR and MDA-MB-231/ADR compared with their parental MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, we observed that transfection of an miR-30c mimic significantly suppressed the ability of MCF-7/ADR to resist doxorubicin. Moreover, the anti-apoptotic gene YWHAZ was confirmed as a target of miR-30c by luciferase reporter assay, and further studies indicated that the mechanism for miR-30c on the sensitivity of breast cancer cells involved YWHAZ and its downstream p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) pathway. Together, our findings provided evidence that miR-30c was one of the important miRNAs in doxorubicin resistance by regulating YWHAZ in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR.

  6. TVP1022 and propargylamine protect neonatal rat ventricular myocytes against doxorubicin-induced and serum starvation-induced cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Yana; Bar-Am, Orit; Amit, Tamar; Berdichevski, Alexandra; Liani, Esti; Maor, Gila; Reiter, Irina; Youdim, Moussa B H; Binah, Ofer

    2008-09-01

    We recently reported that propargylamine derivatives such as rasagiline (Azilect) and its S-isomer TVP1022 are neuroprotective. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the neuroprotective agents TVP1022 and propargylamine (the active moiety of propargylamine derivatives) are also cardioprotective. We specifically investigated the protective efficacy of TVP1022 and propargylamine in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) against apoptosis induced by the anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin and by serum starvation. We demonstrated that pretreatment of NRVM cultures with TVP1022 or propargylamine attenuated doxorubicin-induced and serum starvation-induced apoptosis, inhibited the increase in cleaved caspase 3 levels, and reversed the decline in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These cytoprotective effects were shown to reside in the propargylamine moiety. Finally, we showed that TVP1022 neither caused proliferation of the human cancer cell lines HeLa and MDA-231 nor interfered with the anti-cancer efficacy of doxorubicin. These results suggest that TVP1022 should be considered as a novel cardioprotective agent against ischemic insults and against anthracycline cardiotoxicity and can be coadministered with doxorubicin in the treatment of human malignancies.

  7. Cordycepin enhances Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection and Epstein-Barr virus-positive tumor treatment efficacy by doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yinping; Yu, Jieshi; Du, Li; Tang, Jun; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The consistent latent presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in tumor cells offers potential for virus-targeted therapies. The switch from the latent form of EBV to the lytic form in tumor cells can lead to tumor cell lysis. In this study, we report that a natural small molecule compound, cordycepin, can induce lytic EBV infection in tumor cells. Subsequently, we demonstrate that cordycepin can enhance EBV reactivating capacity and EBV-positive tumor cell killing ability of low dose doxorubicin. The combination of cordycepin and doxorubicin phosphorylates CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) through protein kinase C (PKC)-p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway, and C/EBPβ is required for the activation of lytic EBV infection. Most importantly, an in vivo experiment demonstrates that the combination of cordycepin and doxorubicin is more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in SCID mice than is doxorubicin alone. Our findings establish that cordycepin can enhance the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy for treatment of EBV-positive tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetic models for the release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin from biodegradable polylactide/metal oxide-based hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, studies on drug-release kinetics have been an important topic in the field of drug delivery because they provide important insights into the mechanism of drug release from carriers. In this work, polylactide (PLA), doxorubicin (DOX...

  9. Release of doxorubicin from hydrogels of poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide obtained by gamma radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Rapado Paneque, M.; Covac Peniche, C.

    2013-01-01

    The release matrixes used were a hydrogel based on HEMA-co-AAm copolymers obtained by gamma radiation; the synthesis was conducted by varying the absorbed dose with the same composition, with the aim to establish the swelling behavior according to the absorbed dose in synthesis. Similarly was settled release profiles of doxorubicin. The mechanism of drug diffusion was established. (Author)

  10. Alginate microspheres containing temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL) for MR-guided embolization and triggered release of doxorubicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.; Ozbakir, B.; Barten-Rijbroek, A.D.; Storm, Gerrit; Nijsen, F.; Hennink, W.E.; Vermonden, T.; Deckers, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to develop and characterize alginate microspheres suitable for embolization with on-demand triggered doxorubicin (DOX) release and whereby the microspheres as well as the drug releasing process can be visualized in vivo using MRI. Methods and Findings For

  11. Alginate Microspheres Containing Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSL) for MR-Guided Embolization and Triggered Release of Doxorubicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, Merel; Ozbakir, Burcin; Barten-Rijbroek, Angelique D.; Storm, Gert; Nijsen, JFW; Hennink, Wim E.; Vermonden, Tina; Deckers, RHR

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to develop and characterize alginate microspheres suitable for embolization with on-demand triggered doxorubicin (DOX) release and whereby the microspheres as well as the drug releasing process can be visualized in vivo using MRI. Methods and Findings For

  12. REPEATED TREATMENTS WITH DOXORUBICIN CAUSES ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) CHANGES AND INCREASED VENTRICULAR PREMATURE BEATS IN WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anthracycline anti-neoplastic drug used to treat tumors. However it has been implicated in irreversible cardiac toxicity via the generation of a proxidant semiquinone free radical, which often results in cardiomyopathy and changes in the ECG. Ac...

  13. The role of nibrin in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and cell senescence in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome patients lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alster

    Full Text Available Nibrin plays an important role in the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair. DDR is a crucial signaling pathway in apoptosis and senescence. To verify whether truncated nibrin (p70, causing Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS, is involved in DDR and cell fate upon DNA damage, we used two (S4 and S3R spontaneously immortalized T cell lines from NBS patients, with the founding mutation and a control cell line (L5. S4 and S3R cells have the same level of p70 nibrin, however p70 from S4 cells was able to form more complexes with ATM and BRCA1. Doxorubicin-induced DDR followed by cell senescence could only be observed in L5 and S4 cells, but not in the S3R ones. Furthermore the S3R cells only underwent cell death, but not senescence after doxorubicin treatment. In contrary to doxorubicin treatment, cells from all three cell lines were able to activate the DDR pathway after being exposed to γ-radiation. Downregulation of nibrin in normal human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs did not prevent the activation of DDR and induction of senescence. Our results indicate that a substantially reduced level of nibrin or its truncated p70 form is sufficient to induce DNA-damage dependent senescence in VSMCs and S4 cells, respectively. In doxorubicin-treated S3R cells DDR activation was severely impaired, thus preventing the induction of senescence.

  14. Overcoming multidrug resistance using folate receptor-targeted and pH-responsive polymeric nanogels containing covalently entrapped doxorubicin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Tezcan, O.; Li, D.; Beztsinna, N.; Lou, B.; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel; Metselaar, J. M.; Lammers, T.; Hennink, W. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 29 (2017), s. 10404-10419 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : drug delivery * doxorubicin * pH controlled release Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.367, year: 2016

  15. RITA enhances chemosensivity of pre-B ALL cells to doxorubicin by inducing p53-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ahmad; Safa, Majid; Shahbazi, Atefeh

    2011-07-01

    The use of low-molecular-weight, non-peptidic molecules that disrupt the interaction between the p53 tumor suppressor and its negative regulator MDM2 has provided a promising alternative for the treatment of different types of cancer. Here, we used small-molecule reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA) to sensitize leukemic NALM-6 cells to doxorubicin by upregulating p53 protein. RITA alone effectively inhibited NALM-6 cells viability in dose-dependent manner as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and induced apoptosis as evaluated by flow cytometry, whereas RITA in combination with doxorubicin enhanced NALM-6 cells to doxorubicin-sensitivity and promoted doxorubicin induced apoptosis. Levels of p53 protein and its proapoptotic target genes, quantified by western blot and real-time PCR respectively, showed that expression of p53 was significantly increased after RITA treatment. Using p53 inhibitors PFT-alpha and PFT-mu it was shown that p53-mediated apoptosis induced by RITA can be regulated by both p53-transcription-dependent and -independent pathways. Moreover, RITA-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Therefore, exploiting synergistic effects between RITA and chemotherapeutics might be an effective clinical strategy for leukemia chemotherapy.

  16. Selective Killing of Breast Cancer Cells by Doxorubicin-Loaded Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters: Confocal Microscopy and FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Amin, Asif; Jana, Batakrishna; Mohapatra, Saswat; Ghosh, Surajit; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2016-01-18

    Fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) capped with lysozymes are used to deliver the anticancer drug doxorubicin to cancer and noncancer cells. Doxorubicin-loaded AuNCs cause the highly selective and efficient killing (90 %) of breast cancer cells (MCF7) (IC50 =155 nm). In contrast, the killing of the noncancer breast cells (MCF10A) by doxorubicin-loaded AuNCs is only 40 % (IC50 =4500 nm). By using a confocal microscope, the fluorescence spectrum and decay of the AuNCs were recorded inside the cell. The fluorescence maxima (at ≈490-515 nm) and lifetime (≈2 ns), of the AuNCs inside the cells correspond to Au10-13 . The intracellular release of doxorubicin from AuNCs is monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Quantification of Liposome-Delivered Doxorubicin in Arthritic Joints of Collagen-Induced Arthritis Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongqing; Xu, Menghua; Li, Shuangtian; Chen, Junwei; Luo, Jing; Zhao, Xiangcong; Gao, Chong; Li, Xiaofeng

    2017-04-14

    BACKGROUND Neoangiogenesis occurring in inflamed articular synovium in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by enhanced vascular permeability that allows nanoparticle agents, including liposomes, to deliver encapsulated drugs to arthritic joints and subsequently improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce adverse effects. However, the targeting distribution of liposomes in arthritic joints during RA has not been quantitatively demonstrated. We performed this study to evaluate the targeting distribution of PEGylated doxorubicin liposomes in the arthritic joints of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Two doxorubicin formulations were administered to CIA rats via tail intravenous injection at a single dose (50 mg/m²). CIA rats were sacrificed and the tissues of the inflamed ankle joints were collected. The content of doxorubicin in the arthritic joints was analyzed by a validated and reproducible HPLC method. A two-way ANOVA for 2×5 factorial design was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS The developed HPLC method was sensitive, precise, and reproducible. The method was successfully applied to quantify doxorubicin content in arthritic tissues. At each time point (6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h), doxorubicin content in the arthritic joints of the doxorubicin liposome group (DOX-LIP group) was higher than in the free doxorubicin group (DOX group) (P<0.05). In the DOX-LIP group, doxorubicin levels in the arthritic joints increased gradually and significantly in the interval of 6-72 h post-administration. CONCLUSIONS PEGylated doxorubicin liposomes were targeted to, accumulated, and retained in the arthritic joints of CIA rats. The present study indicates that liposome encapsulation increases the therapeutic efficacy of antirheumatic drugs, presenting a promising therapeutic strategy for RA.

  18. Effect of doxorubicin on cell survival and micronuclei formation in HeLa cells exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, G.C.; Nayak, V.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to obtain an insight into the combined effects of doxorubicin with radiation on the cell survival and micronuclei induction in HeLa cells. Material and Methods: HeLa S3 cells were allowed to grow till they reached plateau phase, inoculated with 10 μg/ml doxorubicin hydrochloride and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Gy γ-radiation. Clonogenicity of cell was measured using the colony forming assay, micronuclei formation using the micronucleus assay. Results: The treatment of HeLa cells with doxorubicin (adriamycin) for 2 hours before exposure to different doses of γ-radiation resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decline in the cell survival and cell proliferation when compared to the PBS+irradiation group. Conversely, the frequency of micronuclei increased in a dose-related manner in both the PBS+irradiation and doxorubicin+irradiation groups. The pretreatment of HeLa cells with doxorubicin before irradiation to various doses of γ-rays resulted in a significant elevation in the frequency of micronuclei when compared with the concurrent PBS+irradiation group. The dose-response relationship for both PBS+irradiation and doxorubicin+irradiation groups was linear. The correlation between cell survival and micronuclei induction was also determined for PBS or doxorubicin+irradiation group, where the clonogenicity of cells declined with the increase in micronuclei formation. The correlation between cell survical and micronuclei induction was linear quadratic for both PBS+irradiation and doxorubicin+irradiation groups. Conclusion: From our study it can be concluded that combination treatment with doxorubicin and radiation increased the genotoxic effect of the either treatment given alone. (orig.) [de

  19. Doxorubicin-conjugated bacteriophages carrying anti-MHC class I chain-related A for targeted cancer therapy in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumyen A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Achara Phumyen,1–3 Siriporn Jantasorn,1 Amonrat Jumnainsong,1 Chanvit Leelayuwat1–4 1The Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories (CMDL, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, 2The Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, 3Research Cluster: Specific Health Problem of Grater Maekong Subregion (SHeP-GMS, 4Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Sciences, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Cancer therapy by systemic administration of anticancer drugs, besides the effectiveness shown on cancer cells, demonstrated the side effects and cytotoxicity on normal cells. The targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles may decrease the required drug concentration at the site and the distribution of drugs to normal tissues. Overexpression of major histocompatibility complex class I chain–related A (MICA in cancer is useful as a targeted molecule for the delivery of doxorubicin to MICA-expressing cell lines. Methods: The application of 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide (EDC chemistry was employed to conjugate the major coat protein of bacteriophages carrying anti-MICA and doxorubicin in a mildly acid condition. Doxorubicin (Dox on phages was determined by double fluorescence of phage particles stained by M13-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and drug autofluorescence by flow cytometry. The ability of anti-MICA on phages to bind MICA after doxorubicin conjugation was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One cervical cancer and four cholangiocarcinoma cell lines expressing MICA were used as models to evaluate targeting activity by cell cytotoxicity test. Results: Flow cytometry and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that most of the phages (82% could be conjugated with doxorubicin, and the Dox-carrying phage-displaying anti-MICA (Dox-phage remained the binding activity against MICA

  20. Inhibition of doxorubicin-induced senescence by PPARδ activation agonists in cardiac muscle cells: cooperation between PPARδ and Bcl6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Altieri

    Full Text Available Senescence and apoptosis are two distinct cellular programs that are activated in response to a variety of stresses. Low or high doses of the same stressor, i.e., the anticancer drug doxorubicin, may either induce apoptosis or senescence, respectively, in cardiac muscle cells. We have demonstrated that PPARδ, a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that controls lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation, is also involved in the doxorubicin-induced senescence program. This occurs through its interference with the transcriptional repressor protein B cell lymphoma-6 (Bcl6. Low doses of doxorubicin increase the expression of PPARδ that sequesters Bcl6, thus preventing it from exerting its anti-senescent effects. We also found that L-165041, a specific PPARδ activator, is highly effective in protecting cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced senescence through a Bcl6 related mechanism. In fact, L-165041 increases Bcl6 expression via p38, JNK and Akt activation, and at the same time it induces the release of Bcl6 from PPARδ, thereby enabling Bcl6 to bind to its target genes. L-165041 also prevented apoptosis induced by higher doses of doxorubicin. However, while experiments performed with siRNA analysis techniques very clearly showed the weight of Bcl6 in the cellular senescence program, no role was found for Bcl6 in the anti-apoptotic effects of L-165041, thus confirming that senescence and apoptosis are two very distinct stress response cellular programs. This study increases our understanding of the molecular mechanism of anthracycline cardiotoxicity and suggests a potential role for PPARδ agonists as cardioprotective agents.

  1. Efficacy, safety and anticancer activity of protein nanoparticle-based delivery of doxorubicin through intravenous administration in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Golla

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is a potent anticancer drug and a major limiting factor that hinders therapeutic use as its high levels of systemic circulation often associated with various off-target effects, particularly cardiotoxicity. The present study focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of doxorubicin when it is loaded into the protein nanoparticles and delivered intravenously in rats bearing Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The proteins selected as carrier were Apotransferrin and Lactoferrin, since the receptors for these two proteins are known to be over expressed on cancer cells due to their iron transport capacity.Doxorubicin loaded apotransferrin (Apodoxonano and lactoferrin nanoparticles (Lactodoxonano were prepared by sol-oil chemistry. HCC in the rats was induced by 100 mg/l of diethylnitrosamine (DENA in drinking water for 8 weeks. Rats received 5 doses of 2 mg/kg drug equivalent nanoparticles through intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of nanoformulations was evaluated in healthy rats and anticancer activity was studied in DENA treated rats. The anticancer activity was evaluated through counting of the liver nodules, H & E analysis and by estimating the expression levels of angiogenic and antitumor markers.In rats treated with nanoformulations, the numbers of liver nodules were found to be significantly reduced. They showed highest drug accumulation in liver (22.4 and 19.5 µg/g. Both nanoformulations showed higher localization compared to doxorubicin (Doxo when delivered in the absence of a carrier. Higher amounts of Doxo (195 µg/g were removed through kidney, while Apodoxonano and Lactodoxonano showed only a minimal amount of removal (<40 µg/g, suggesting the extended bioavailability of Doxo when delivered through nanoformulation. Safety analysis shows minimal cardiotoxicity due to lower drug accumulation in heart in the case of nanoformulation.Drug delivery through nanoformulations not only minimizes the cardiotoxicity of

  2. Sulfur amino acid metabolism in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Chang Seon; Kwak, Hui Chan; Lee, Kye Sook; Kang, Keon Wook; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Ki Ho; Kim, Hwan Mook; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2011-01-01

    Although methionine dependency is a phenotypic characteristic of tumor cells, it remains to be determined whether changes in sulfur amino acid metabolism occur in cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutic medications. We compared expression/activity of sulfur amino acid metabolizing enzymes and cellular levels of sulfur amino acids and their metabolites between normal MCF-7 cells and doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/Adr) cells. The S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, an index of transmethylation potential, in MCF-7/Adr cells decreased to ∼ 10% relative to that in MCF-7 cells, which may have resulted from down-regulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. Expression of homocysteine-clearing enzymes, such as cystathionine beta-synthase, methionine synthase/methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, was up-regulated in MCF-7/Adr cells, suggesting that acquiring doxorubicin resistance attenuated methionine-dependence and activated transsulfuration from methionine to cysteine. Homocysteine was similar, which is associated with a balance between the increased expressions of homocysteine-clearing enzymes and decreased extracellular homocysteine. Despite an elevation in cysteine, cellular GSH decreased in MCF-7/Adr cells, which was attributed to over-efflux of GSH into the medium and down-regulation of the GSH synthesis enzyme. Consequently, MCF-7/Adr cells were more sensitive to the oxidative stress induced by bleomycin and menadione than MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that regulating sulfur amino acid metabolism may be a possible therapeutic target for chemoresistant cancer cells. These results warrant further investigations to determine the role of sulfur amino acid metabolism in acquiring anticancer drug resistance in cancer cells using chemical and biological regulators involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism. - Research highlights: → MCF-7/Adr cells showed decreases in cellular GSH

  3. Partial circumvention of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by doxorubicin-14-O-hemiadipate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontieva, Olga V; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N; Bernacki, Ralph J

    2002-02-01

    Previously, we have reported partial circumvention of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-associated resistance to doxorubicin (Dox) in MCF7/R human breast carcinoma and P388/R murine leukemia cell lines by doxorubicin-14-O-hemiadipate (H-Dox) [Povarov L.S. et al. (1995) Russian J. Bioorganic Chemistry 21: 797-803]. We felt that these changes were due to alterations in the cellular pharmacokinetics of the analog in multidrug (MDR) resistant cells, as compared to that of Dox. To address this hypothesis, we performed comparative studies of the accumulation, retention and intracellular localization of H-Dox and Dox in Dox-sensitive murine leukemia cell line P388/S and its Dox-selected. Pgp-positive drug resistant P388/R subline. These studies were performed in the presence or absence of cyclosporin A (CsA), a competitive inhibitor of Pgp. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significant differences in Dox and H-Dox accumulation in P388/R cells when compared to P388/S cells. In P388/R versus P388/S cells, there was a 38-fold decrease in Dox accumulation, but only a 5-fold decrease in H-Dox accumulation, indicating over a 7-fold increase in H-Dox buildup in resistant cells. CsA did not affect uptake or retention of either drug by sensitive cells. However, coincubation with CsA resulted in a 54-fold increase in Dox accumulation and only a 5-fold increase in H-Dox uptake in P388/R cells, restoring anthracycline levels in P388/R to 100% of that found in P388/S cells. Once internalized by the resistant cells, H-Dox was retained better than Dox regardless of presence or absence of CsA. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed the presence of H-Dox but no Dox in cellular nuclei of P388/R cells. Thus, increased activity of H-Dox toward P388/R cells was correlated with its enhanced ability to enter and be retained in these cells, and also with redistribution of H-Dox into the nuclei of the resistant cells as compared to Dox. Overall, our findings support our initial hypothesis and provide evidence

  4. Ultrasound-enhanced delivery of doxorubicin/all-trans retinoic acid-loaded nanodiamonds into tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Zeng, Deping; Wang, Zhenyu; Fang, Liaoqiong; Li, Faqi; Wang, Zhibiao

    2018-03-14

    To build up a combined therapy strategy to address limitations of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and improve the efficiency of tumor therapy. A pH-sensitive nanocomplex for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was developed based on nanodiamonds (DOX/ATRA-NDs) to enhance intracellular retention of drugs. Meanwhile, ultrasound was employed to enhance tumor vascular penetration of DOX-ATRA-NDs. The distribution of DOX/ATRA-NDs in the tumor tissues increased threefold when ultrasound was applied at 1 MHz and 0.6 W/cm 2 . Comparing with unmodified chemotherapeutics, the combined therapy induced more tumor cells apoptosis and greater tumor growth inhibition in both liver and breast tumor models. DOX-ATRA-NDs demonstrate great potential in clinical applications.

  5. Graphene quantum dot modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of doxorubicin hydrochloride in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hashemzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low toxic graphene quantum dot (GQD was synthesized by pyrolyzing citric acid in alkaline solution and characterized by ultraviolet--visible (UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, spectrofluorimetery and dynamic light scattering (DLS techniques. GQD was used for electrode modification and electro-oxidation of doxorubicin (DOX at low potential. A substantial decrease in the overvoltage (−0.56 V of the DOX oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary electrodes was observed using GQD as coating of glassy carbon electrode (GCE. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to evaluate the analytical performance of DOX in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.0 and good limit of detection was obtained by the proposed sensor. Such ability of GQD to promote the DOX electron-transfer reaction suggests great promise for its application as an electrochemical sensor.

  6. Direct labeling of doxorubicin with technetium-99m. Its optimization, characterization and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, F.A.; Bokhari, T.H.; Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A.

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antineoplastic and one of the most potent and widely used drugs in clinical oncology. It is used in the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. The aim of this study was the direct labeling of DOX with 99m Tc; its optimization, characterization and quality control of the radiolabeled DOX. Labeling efficiency was determined by paper chromatography. More than 92% labeling was obtained at pH 6-7, 10-12 μg stannous chloride and 200 μg of DOX. The stability of 99m Tc-DOX was studied up to 5 h. All the experiments were performed at room temperature (25 ± 2 deg C). The characterization of the labeling compound was performed by HPLC and electrophoresis. Electrophoresis indicates that labeled DOX has no charge and HPLC shows single specie of labeled compound. (author)

  7. Enhanced reactive oxygen species through direct copper sulfide nanoparticle-doxorubicin complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajuan; Cupo, Michela; Guo, Liangran; Scott, Julie; Chen, Yi-Tzai; Yan, Bingfang; Lu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    CuS-based nanostructures loading the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) exerted excellent cancer photothermal chemotherapy under multi-external stimuli. The DOX loading was generally designed through electrostatic interaction or chemical linkers. However, the interaction between DOX molecules and CuS nanoparticles has not been investigated. In this work, we use PEGylated hollow copper sulfide nanoparticles (HCuSNPs) to directly load DOX through the DOX/Cu2+ chelation process. Distinctively, the synthesized PEG-HCuSNPs-DOX release the DOX/Cu2+ complexes into surrounding environment, which generate significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a controlled manner by near-infrared laser. The CuS nanoparticle-mediated photothermal ablation facilitates the ROS-induced cancer cell killing effect. Our current work reveals a DOX/Cu2+-mediated ROS-enhanced cell-killing effect in addition to conventional photothermal chemotherapy through the direct CuS nanoparticle-DOX complexation.

  8. The lipid content of cisplatin- and doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, I N; Lukyanova, N Yu; Chekhun, V F

    2012-07-01

    To perform the comparative study both of qualitative and quantitative content of lipids in parental and drug resistant breast cancer cells. Parental (MCF-7/S) and resistant to cisplatin (MCF-7/CP) and doxorubicin (MCF-7/Dox) human breast cancer cells were used in the study. Cholesterol, total lipids and phospholipids content were determined by means of thin-layer chromatography. It was found that cholesterol as well as cholesterol ethers content are significantly higher but diacylglycerols, triacyl-glycerols content are significantly lower in resistant cell strains than in parental (sensitive) cells. Moreover the analysis of individual phospholipids showed the increase of sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin, phosphatidic acid and the decrease of phosphatidy-lethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine in MCF-7/CP and MCF-7/Dox cells. Obtained results allow to suggest that the lipid profile changes can mediate the modulation of membrane fluidity in drug resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

  9. Sustained release of doxorubicin from zeolite-magnetite nanocomposites prepared by mechanical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruebo, Manuel; Fernandez-Pacheco, Rodrigo; Irusta, Silvia; Arbiol, Jordi; Ibarra, M Ricardo; SantamarIa, Jesus

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of magnetite and FAU zeolite with a high surface area and adsorption capacity have been prepared by mechanical activation using high-energy milling at room temperature. FTIR results, as well as HRTEM, EFTEM, and XPS measurements, show that the resulting magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a thin aluminosilicate coating. A saturation magnetization as high as 16 emu g -1 and 94.2 Oe of coercivity were observed for the obtained composites. The main advantages of this synthesis procedure are (i) simplicity of the preparation procedure (ii) prevention of agglomeration of the magnetite nanoparticles to a large extent, and (iii) absence of free magnetite outside the zeolitic matrix. In addition, in vitro experiments revealed that the nanoparticles prepared were able to store and release substantial amounts of doxorubicin. In view of these advantages, these magnetic nanoparticles can be considered as potential candidates for drug-delivery applications

  10. An Oral Selective Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Prevents Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Youn Beak, PhD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs play adaptive and protective roles in the heart. Dabuzalgron is an oral selective α1A-AR agonist that was well tolerated in multiple clinical trials of treatment for urinary incontinence, but has never been used to treat heart disease in humans or animal models. In this study, the authors administered dabuzalgron to mice treated with doxorubicin (DOX, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent with dose-limiting cardiotoxicity that can lead to heart failure (HF. Dabuzalgron protected against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, likely by preserving mitochondrial function. These results suggest that activating cardiac α1A-ARs with dabuzalgron, a well-tolerated oral agent, might represent a novel approach to treating HF. Key Words: alpha adrenergic receptors, anthracyclines, cardioprotection, catecholamines, heart failure

  11. Nanodiamonds-mediated doxorubicin nuclear delivery to inhibit lung metastasis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jisheng; Duan, Xiaopin; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Yu, Haijun; Li, Yaping

    2013-12-01

    Lung metastasis is one of the greatest challenges for breast cancer treatment. Here, a nanodiamonds (NDs)-mediated doxorubicin (DOX) delivery system was first designed to inhibit the lung metastasis of breast cancer effectively. DOX was non-covalently bound to NDs via physical adsorption in an aqueous solution, then DSPE-PEG 2K was coated to the NDs-DOX complex (NDX) to increase the dispersibility and prolong the circulation time. DSPE-PEG 2K coating NDX (DNX) displayed high drug loading and excellent ability to deliver DOX to the nucleus, thereby significantly enhancing cytotoxicity and inducing cell apoptosis. Furthermore, DNX showed good histocompatibility and could improve drug accumulation in lung, as a result, markedly inhibited the lung metastasis of breast cancer. The high anti-metastasis efficacy with the decreased systemic toxicity suggested that DNX could be a promising drug delivery system for the therapy of lung metastasis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enrichment of Nanodiamond Surfaces with Carboxyl Groups for Doxorubicin Loading and Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Y.; Saputra, F. D.; Wuning, S.; Arnelli; Bhaduri, G.

    2017-02-01

    In their pristine state, nanodiamond crystals produced via detonation techniques containing several functional groups present on the surface including amine, amide, alcohol, carbonyl, and carboxyl. These functional groups facilitate nanodiamond to interact drugs so as to nanodiamond is potential for medical application such as drug delivery. Even though research on t he use of nanodiamond for this application has been conducted widely, research on the effect of enrichment of nanodiamond surface with carboxyl functional groups for drug loading and release has not been explored extensively. Therefore, in this paper, the effect of carboxyl-terminated nanodiamond (ND-COOH) on drug loading and release will be presented. The enrichment of nanodiamond with carboxyl groups was undertaken by treating nanodiamond with sulphuric acid and nitric acid. The results show that the doxorubicin (DOX) loading and release efficiencies of ND pristine are higher than that of ND-COOH.

  13. ZnO nanofluids for the improved cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Soleymani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Combination anticancer therapy holds promise for improving the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX as well as decreasing their dose-limiting side effects. Overcoming the side effects of doxorubicin (DOX is a major challenge to the effective treatment of cancer. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs are emerging as potent tools for a wide variety of biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to develop a combinatorial approach for enhancing the anticancer efficacy and cellular uptake of DOX. Materials and Methods: ZnO NPs were synthesized by the solvothermal method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. ZnO NPs were dispersed in 10% bovine serum albumin (BSA and the cytotoxic effect of the resulting ZnO nanofluids was evaluated alone and in combination with DOX on DU145 cells. The influence of ZnO nanofluids on the cellular uptake of DOX and DOX-induced catalase mRNA expression were investigated by fluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, respectively. Results: The MTT results revealed that ZnO nanofluids decreased the cell viability of DU145 cells in a timeand dose-dependent manner. Simultaneous combination treatment of DOX and ZnO nanofluid showed a significant increase in anticancer activity and the cellular uptake of DOX compared to DOX alone. Also, a time-dependent reduction of catalase mRNA expression was observed in the cells treated with ZnO nanofluids and DOX, alone and in combination with each other. Conclusion: These results indicate the role of ZnO nanofluid as a growth-inhibitory agent and a drug delivery system for DOX in DU145 cells. Thus, ZnO nanofluid could be a candidate for combination chemotherapy.

  14. NFκBP65 transcription factor modulates resistance to doxorubicin through ABC transporters in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaei, Kobra; Samadi, Nasser; Soltani, Sina; Barazvan, Balal; Soleimani Rad, Jafar

    2017-07-01

    Shedding light on chemoresistance biology of breast cancer could contribute to enhance the clinical outcome. Intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy is a major problem in breast cancer treatment. The NFκB pathway by siRNAP65 and JSH-23 as a translocational inhibitor of NFκBP65 in the doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/Dox) and MCF-7 cells was blocked. Then, the ABC transporter expression and function were assessed by real-time qRT-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was evaluated after inhibition of the NFΚB pathway as well. Our study underlined the upregulation of NFκBP65 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and downregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax in the MCF-7/Dox cells compared with control MCF-7 cells. Here, we showed that interplay between nuclear factor kappa B P65 (NFkBP65) as a transcriptional regulator and ABC transporters in the MCF-7/Dox cancer cells. We found that inhibition of the elevated expression of NFκBP65 in the resistant breast cancer, whether translocational inhibition or silencing by siRNA, decreased the expression and function of MDR1 and MRP1 efflux pumps. Furthermore, the blockade of NFκBP65 promoted apoptosis via modulating Bcl-2 and BAX expression. After inhibition of the NFκBP65 signaling pathway, elevated baseline expression of survival Bcl-2 gene in the resistant breast cells significantly decreased. Suppression of the NFκB pathway has a profound dual impact on promoting the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and reducing ABC transporter function and expression, which are some of the chemoresistance features. It was speculated that the NFκB pathway directly acts on doxorubicin-induced MDR1 and MRP1 expression in MCF-7/Dox cells.

  15. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loading doxorubicin reverse multidrug resistance: performance and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianan; He, Qianjun; Gao, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Li, Yaping

    2011-10-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles for successful chemotherapy in cancer. One of the effective approaches to overcome MDR is to use nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to increase drug accumulation in drug resistant cancer cells. In this work, we first report that the performance and mechanism of an inorganic engineered delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loading doxorubicin (DMNs) to overcome the MDR of MCF-7/ADR (a DOX-resistant and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression cancer cell line). The experimental results showed that DMNs could enhance the cellular uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) and increase the cell proliferation suppression effect of DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells. The IC50 of DMNs against MCF-7/ADR cells was 8-fold lower than that of free DOX. However, an improved effect of DOX in DMNs against MCF-7 cells (a DOX-sensitive cancer cell line) was not found. The increased cellular uptake and nuclear accumulation of DOX delivered by DMNs in MCF-7/ADR cells was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and could result from the down-regulation of P-gp and bypassing the efflux action by MSNs themselves. The cellular uptake mechanism of DMNs indicated that the macropinocytosis was one of the pathways for the uptake of DMNs by MCF-7/ADR cells. The in vivo biodistribution showed that DMNs induced a higher accumulation of DOX in drug resistant tumors than free DOX. These results suggested that MSNs could be an effective delivery system to overcome multidrug resistance.

  16. Abnormally banded chromosomal regions in doxorubicin-resistant B16-BL6 murine melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, M L; Hoeltge, G A; Ganapathi, R

    1986-08-01

    B16-BL6 murine melanoma cells were selected for cytogenetic evaluation during the stepwise development of increasing resistance in vitro to the antitumor antibiotic, doxorubicin (DOX). Karyotypic studies demonstrated extensive heteroploidy with both numerical and structural abnormalities which were not present in the parental DOX-sensitive B16-BL6 cells. Trypsin-Giemsa banding revealed the presence of several marker chromosomes containing abnormally banding regions (ABRs) in the 44-fold B16-BL6 DOX-resistant subline. These ABRs appeared to be more homogeneously staining at the higher DOX concentrations. Length measurements (ABR index) in seven banded metaphases indicated a direct correlation with increasing DOX concentration. When the DOX-resistant cells were grown in drug-free medium for 1 yr, the drug-resistant phenotype gradually declined in parallel with the level of resistance and the ABR index. DOX-induced cytogenetic damage examined by sister chromatid exchange methodology in parental B16-BL6 cells indicated a linear sister chromatid exchange:DOX dose-response relationship. However, after continuous treatment of parental B16-BL6 cells with DOX (0.01 microgram/ml) for 30 days, sister chromatid exchange scores were found to return to base-line values. The B16-BL6 resistant cells demonstrated a cross-resistant phenotype with N-trifluoroacetyladriamycin-14-valerate, actinomycin D, and the Vinca alkaloids but not with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. The results suggest that ABR-containing chromosomes in DOX-resistant sublines may represent cytogenetic alterations of specific amplified genes involved in the expression of DOX resistance. Further studies are required to identify and define the possible gene products and to correlate their relationship to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin.

  17. Survey of the effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract of white Morus alba leaf on apoptosis induction in a-172 GBM cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabili, Sheyda; Fallah, Soudabeh; Aein, Mojdeh; Vatannejad, Akram; Panahi, Ghodratollah; Fadaei, Reza; Moradi, Nariman; Shojaii, Asie

    2018-02-20

    In this study, the effect of doxorubicin, flavonoid extract of white Morus alba leaf (MFE) and a combination of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on Bax and Bcl2 levels and caspase 3 activity of cancer A-172 GBM cell line was investigated. Bax/Bcl2 levels of treated A-172 GBM cell line with flavonoid extract of white mulberry leaf were estimated by ELISA methods. Caspase 3 activity of treated A-172 GBM cells was determined by calorimetric assay. The flow cytometry assessment was used to estimate the apoptosis percent of treated A-172 GBM cells. Treatment of A-172 GBM cells with MFE, doxorubicin and a combination of MFE and doxorubicin caused a significant decrease in Bcl2 level and an increase in Bax level. The apoptosis percent of treated cells were also elevated significantly. Present results suggest that concomitant use of herbal medicine and chemotherapy may be an effective alternative method for the treatment of cancers.

  18. Effect of doxorubicin on the order and dynamics of the acyl chains of anionic and zwitterionic phospholipids in liquid-crystalline mixed model membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de F.A.; Nicolaij, K.; Kruijff, de B.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin on the order of the acyl chains in liquid-crystalline mixed bilayers consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) or -phosphatidic acid (DOPA), and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) or - hosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Previous

  19. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin-utilizing chitosan nanoparticles surface-functionalized with anti-Her2 trastuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefpour P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Parisa Yousefpour1, Fatemeh Atyabi2, Ebrahim Vasheghani-Farahani3, Ali-Akbar Mousavi Movahedi1, Rassoul Dinarvand21Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Tehran, 2Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 3Biotechnology Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IranBackground: Targeting drugs to their sites of action to overcome the systemic side effects associated with most antineoplastic agents is still a major challenge in pharmaceutical research. In this study, the monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, was used as a targeting agent in nanoparticles carrying the antitumor drug, doxorubicin, specifically to its site of action.Methods: Chitosan-doxorubicin conjugation was carried out using succinic anhydride as a crosslinker. Trastuzumab was conjugated to self-assembled chitosan-doxorubin conjugate (CS-DOX nanoparticles (particle size, 200 nm via thiolation of lysine residues and subsequent linking of the resulted thiols to chitosan. Conjugation was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential determination were used to characterize the nanoparticles.Results: CS-DOX conjugated nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface with a narrow size distribution and core-shell structure. Increasing the ratio of doxorubicin to chitosan in the conjugation reaction gave rise to a higher doxorubicin content but lower conjugation efficiency. Trastuzumab-decorated nanoparticles (CS-DOX-mAb contained 47 µg/mg doxorubicin and 33.5 µg/mg trastuzumab. Binding of trastuzumab to the nanoparticles was further probed thermodynamically by isothermal titration calorimetry. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated enhanced and

  20. Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2 directs doxorubicin resistance of B cell lymphoma through CCL3 and CCL4-mediated activation of NF-κB and Btk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Won Seog; Hong, Jung Yong; Ryu, Kung Ju; Kim, Seok Jin; Park, Chaehwa

    2017-01-17

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded nuclear antigen, EBNA2, expressed in EBV-infected B lymphocytes is critical for lymphoblastoid cell growth. Microarray profiling and cytokine array screening revealed that EBNA2 is associated with upregulation of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 in lymphoma cells. Depletion or inactivation of CCL3 or CCL4 sensitized DLBCL cells to doxorubicin. Our results indicate that EBV influences cell survival via an autocrine mechanism whereby EBNA2 increases CCL3 and CCL4, which in turn activate the Btk and NF-κB pathways, contributing to doxorubicin resistance of B lymphoma cells. Western blot data further confirmed that CCL3 and CCL4 direct activation of Btk and NF-κB. Based on these findings, we propose that a pathway involving EBNA2/Btk/NF-κB/CCL3/CCL4 plays a key role in doxorubicin resistance, and therefore, inhibition of specific components of this pathway may sensitize lymphoma cells to doxorubicin. Evaluation of the relationship between CCL3 expression and EBV infection revealed high CCL3 levels in EBV-positive patients. Our data collectively suggest that doxorubicin treatment for EBNA2-positive DLBCL cells may be effectively complemented with a NF-κB or Btk inhibitor. Moreover, evaluation of the CCL3 and CCL4 levels may be helpful for selecting DLBCL patients likely to benefit from doxorubicin treatment in combination with the velcade or ibrutinib.

  1. Anti-cancer effect of oncolytic adenovirus-armed shRNA targeting MYCN gene on doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zhuo, Baobiao; Yin, Yiyu; Han, Tao; Li, Shixian; Li, Zhengwei; Wang, Jian

    2017-09-09

    Chemotherapy is one of the few effective choices for patients with neuroblastoma. However, the development of muti-drug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy is a major obstacle to the effective treatment of advanced or recurrent neuroblastoma. The muti-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP), which encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein, is a key regulator of MDR. The expression of MRP is a close correlation with MYCN oncogene in neuroblastoma. We have recently shown ZD55-shMYCN (oncolytic virus armed with shRNA against MYCN) can down-regulate MYCN to inhibit tumor cells proliferation and induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Here we further report ZD55-shMYCN re-sensitized doxorubicin-resistant cells to doxorubicin (as shown by reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and inhibited cell migration), and reduced the in vivo growth rate of neuroblastoma xenografts by down-regulation of MRP expression. Sequential therapy with doxorubicin did not affect the replication of ZD55-shMYCN in doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma cells, but decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-X L , MMP-1. Thus, this synergistic effect of ZD55-shMYCN in combination with doxorubicin provides a novel therapy strategy for doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma, and is a promising approach for further clinical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aptamer-Mediated Codelivery of Doxorubicin and NF-κB Decoy Enhances Chemosensitivity of Pancreatic Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Porciani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers able to bind efficiently cell-surface receptors differentially expressed in tumor and in healthy cells are emerging as powerful tools to perform targeted anticancer therapy. Here, we present a novel oligonucleotide chimera, composed by an RNA aptamer and a DNA decoy. Our assembly is able to (i target tumor cells via an antitransferrin receptor RNA aptamer and (ii perform selective codelivery of a chemotherapeutic drug (Doxorubicin and of an inhibitor of a cell-survival factor, the nuclear factor κB decoy oligonucleotide. Both payloads are released under conditions found in endolysosomal compartments (low pH and reductive environment. Targeting and cytotoxicity of the oligonucleotidic chimera were assessed by confocal microscopy, cell viability, and Western blot analysis. These data indicated that the nuclear factor κB decoy does inhibit nuclear factor κB activity and ultimately leads to an increased therapeutic efficacy of Doxorubicin selectively in tumor cells.

  3. A simple route to develop transparent doxorubicin-loaded nanodiamonds/cellulose nanocomposite membranes as potential wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaogang; Zhang, Hao; Cao, Zhenni; Cai, Ning; Xue, Yanan; Yu, Faquan

    2016-06-05

    The objective of this study is to develop transparent porous nanodiamonds/cellulose nanocomposite membranes with controlled release of doxorubicin for potential applications as wound dressings, which were fabricated by tape casting method from dispersing carboxylated nanodiamonds and dissolving cellulose homogeneously in 7 wt% NaOH/12 wt% urea aqueous solution. By adjusting the carboxylated nanodiamonds content, various nanocomposite membranes were obtained. The structure and properties of these membranes have been investigated by light transmittance measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile tests, water loss analyses, etc. The drug loading and release was investigated using doxorubicin hydrochloride as a model drug. In vitro cytotoxicity assay of the membranes was also studied. This work presented a proof-of-concept utility of these membranes for loading and release of bioactive compounds to be employed as a candidate for wound dressing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin on expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panozzo, J.; Akan, E.; Griffiths, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Previous work by many groups has documented induction of the HIV-LTR following exposure of cells to ultraviolet light and other DNA damaging agents. Our experiments set out to determine the relative activation or repression of the HIV-LTR in response to two classes of chemotherapeutic agents: Doxorubicin is a DNA-damage inducing agent, and 5-fluorouracil has an antimetabolic mode of action. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct in which HIV-LTR drives expression of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene, we demonstrated an up to 10-fold induction following doxorubicin treatment in 24 h post-treatment. This induction was repressed by treatment with salicylic acid, suggesting a role for prostaglandin/cyclo-oxygenase pathways and/or NFKB in the inductive response. Induction by 5-fluorouracil, in contrast, was more modest (two-fold at most) though it was consistently elevated over controls

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase α2 and E2F1 transcription factor mediate doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity by forming a positive signal loop in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and non-carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wookyeom; Park, In-Ja; Yun, Hee; Im, Dong-Uk; Ock, Sangmi; Kim, Jaetaek; Seo, Seon-Mi; Shin, Ha-Yeon; Viollet, Benoit; Kang, Insug; Choe, Wonchae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2014-02-21

    Doxorubicin is one of the most widely used anti-cancer drugs, but its clinical application is compromised by severe adverse effects in different organs including cardiotoxicity. In the present study we explored mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity by revealing a novel role for the AMP-activated protein kinase α2 (AMPKα2) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Doxorubicin robustly induced the expression of AMPKα2 in MEFs but slightly reduced AMPKα1 expression. Our data support the previous notion that AMPKα1 harbors survival properties under doxorubicin treatment. In contrast, analyses of Ampkα2(-/-) MEFs, gene knockdown of AMPKα2 by shRNA, and inhibition of AMPKα2 activity with an AMPK inhibitor indicated that AMPKα2 functions as a pro-apoptotic molecule under doxorubicin treatment. Doxorubicin induced AMPKα2 at the transcription level via E2F1, a transcription factor that regulates apoptosis in response to DNA damage. E2F1 directly transactivated the Ampkα2 gene promoter. In turn, AMPKα2 significantly contributed to stabilization and activation of E2F1 by doxorubicin, forming a positive signal amplification loop. AMPKα2 directly interacted with and phosphorylated E2F1. This signal loop was also detected in H9c2, C2C12, and ECV (human epithelial cells) cells as well as mouse liver under doxorubicin treatment. Resveratrol, which has been suggested to attenuate doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity, significantly blocked induction of AMPKα2 and E2F1 by doxorubicin, leading to protection of these cells. This signal loop appears to be non-carcinoma-specific because AMPKα2 was not induced by doxorubicin in five different tested cancer cell lines. These results suggest that AMPKα2 may serve as a novel target for alleviating the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin.

  6. Mitochondrial nucleoid clusters protect newly synthesized mtDNA during Doxorubicin- and Ethidium Bromide-induced mitochondrial stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alán, Lukáš; Špaček, Tomáš; Pajuelo-Reguera, David; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 302, Jul 1 (2016), s. 31-40 ISSN 0041-008X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/1247; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Doxorubicin * Ethidium Bromide * nucleoid clusters * mitochondrial DNA stress * mitochondrial transcription factor A Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.791, year: 2016

  7. Carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus carboplatin and paclitaxel in very platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahner, Sven; Meier, Werner; du Bois, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    - and paclitaxel-based therapies. Patients were randomised to CD [carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD)] or CP (carboplatin-paclitaxel) and stratified by treatment-free interval (TFI). In this analysis, patients with a TFI>24 months were analysed separately for progression free survival (PFS...... (8% versus 3.1%; P=0.082) sensory neuropathy (4.8% versus 2.3%; P=0.27) and grade 2 alopecia (88% versus 9.2%; P

  8. Human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein as an early diagnostic marker of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. ElGhandour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cardiotoxicity following treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL may lead to late onset cardiomyopathy. So, early prediction of toxicity can lead to prevention of heart failure in these patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of H-FABP as an early diagnostic marker of anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity together with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP as an indication of ventricular dysfunction in such patients. Our study was conducted on 40 NHL patients who received 6 cycles of a doxorubicin containing chemotherapy protocol (CHOP, not exceeding the total allowed dose of doxorubicin (500 mg/m2. Ten healthy controls were included in our study. Human heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was assessed 24 hours after the first cycle of CHOP. Plasma levels of BNP were estimated both before starting chemotherapy and after the last cycle of CHOP. Resting echocardiography was also performed before and at the end of chemotherapy cycles. The ejection fraction (EF of 8 of our patients decreased below 50% at the end of the sixth cycle. Elevated levels of both H-FABP and BNP were found in all patients wth EF below 50% and both markers showed a positive correlation with each other. We concluded that H-FABP may serve as a reliable early marker for prediction of cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin. Thus, in patients with elevated H-FABP, alternative treatment modalities with no cardiac toxicity may be considered in order to prevent subsequent heart failure in these patients.

  9. p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve; Dinh, Thai Nho [Department of Pharmacology,College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Williams, Stuart [Biomedical Engineering Program, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Qin M., E-mail: qchen@email.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology,College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significant changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.

  10. Evaluation of the topoisomerase II-inactive bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-161 as a protectant against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, E.; Thougaard, A.V.; Grauslund, M.

    2009-01-01

    of topoisomerase II, resulting in the risk of additional myelosuppression in patients receiving ICRF-187 as a cardioprotectant in combination with doxorubicin. The development of a topoisomerase II-inactive iron chelating compound thus appeared attractive. In the present paper we evaluate the topoisomerase II...... chelation alone does not appear to be sufficient for protection against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/8...

  11. Protective effect of the edible brown alga Ecklonia stolonifera on doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Kim, Jae-I; Choung, Se Young; Choi, Jae Sue

    2014-08-01

    As part of our efforts to isolate anti-hepatotoxic agents from marine natural products, we screened the ability of 14 edible varieties of Korean seaweed to protect against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes. Among the crude extracts of two Chlorophyta (Codium fragile and Capsosiphon fulvescens), seven Phaeophyta (Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum thunbergii, Pelvetia siliquosa, Ishige okamurae, Ecklonia cava, Ecklonia stolonifera and Eisenia bicyclis), five Rhodophyta (Chondrus ocellatus, Gelidium amansii, Gracilaria verrucosa, Symphycladia latiuscula and Porphyra tenera), and the extracts of Ecklonia stolonifera, Ecklonia cava, Eisenia bicyclis and Pelvetia siliquosa exhibited significant protective effects on doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity, with half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 15.0 μg/ml, respectively. Since Ecklonia stolonifera exhibits a significant protective potential and is frequently used as foodstuff, we isolated six phlorotannins, including phloroglucinol (1), dioxinodehydroeckol (2), eckol (3), phlorofucofuroeckol A (4), dieckol (5) and triphloroethol-A (6). Phlorotannins 2 ∼ 6 exhibited potential protective effects on doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity, with corresponding EC50 values of 3.4, 8.3, 4.4, 5.5 and 11.5 μg/ml, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that the anti-hepatotoxic effects of Ecklonia stolonifera and its isolated phlorotannins are useful for further exploration and development of therapeutic modalities for treatment of hepatotoxicity. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Citrate- and Succinate-Modified Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles with Loaded Doxorubicin Exhibit Potent Anticancer Activity against Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Mehbuba Hossain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable inorganic apatite-based particle complex is popular for its pH-sensitivity at the endosomal acidic environment to facilitate drug release following cellular uptake. Despite being a powerful anticancer drug, doxorubicin shows severe off-target effects and therefore would need a carrier for the highest effectiveness. We aimed to chemically modify carbonate apatite (CA with Krebs cycle intermediates, such as citrate and succinate in order to control the growth of the resultant particles to more efficiently carry and transport the anticancer drug into the cancer cells. Citrate- or succinate-modified CA particles were synthesized with different concentrations of sodium citrate or sodium succinate, respectively, in the absence or presence of doxorubicin. The drug loading efficiency of the particles and their cellular uptake were observed by quantifying fluorescence intensity. The average diameter and surface charge of the particles were determined using Zetasizer. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Citrate-modified carbonate apatite (CMCA exhibited the highest (31.38% binding affinity for doxorubicin and promoted rapid cellular uptake of the drug, leading to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration 1000 times less than that of the free drug in MCF-7 cells. Hence, CMCA nanoparticles with greater surface area enhance cytotoxicity in different breast cancer cells by enabling higher loading and more efficient cellular uptake of the drug.

  13. Quercetin and doxorubicin co-encapsulated biotin receptor-targeting nanoparticles for minimizing drug resistance in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Li; Liu, Chunxia; Chen, Chuxiong; Yu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Guanghui; Shi, Yonghui; Qin, Fengchao; Ou, Jiebin; Qiu, Kaifeng; Li, Guocheng

    2016-05-31

    The combination of a chemotherapeutic drug with a chemosensitizer has emerged as a promising strategy for cancers showing multidrug resistance (MDR). Herein we describe the simultaneous targeted delivery of two drugs to tumor cells by using biotin-decorated poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles encapsulating the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin and the chemosensitizer quercetin (BNDQ). Next, the potential ability of BNDQ to reverse MDR in vitro and in vivo was investigated. Studies demonstrated that BNDQ was more effectively taken up with less efflux by doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR cells) than by the cells treated with the free drugs, single-drug-loaded nanoparticles, or non-biotin-decorated nanoparticles. BNDQ exhibited clear inhibition of both the activity and expression of P-glycoprotein in MCF-7/ADR cells. More importantly, it caused a significant reduction in doxorubicin resistance in MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, among all the groups. Overall, this study suggests that BNDQ has a potential role in the treatment of drug-resistant breast cancer.

  14. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effect of the Brittle Star (Ophiocoma Erinaceus) Dichloromethane Extract and Doxorubicin on EL4 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Mahbubeh; Baharara, Javad; Nezhad Shahrokhabadi, Khadijeh; Amini, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    Leukemia is a blood disease that creates from inhibition of differentiation and increased proliferation rate. The nature has been known as a rich source of medically useful substances. High diversity of bioactive molecules, extracted from marine invertebrates, makes them as ideal candidates for cancer research. The study has been done to investigate cytotoxic effects of dichloromethane brittle star extract and doxorubicin on EL4 cancer cells. Blood cancer EL4 cells were cultured and treated at different concentrations of brittle star ( Ophiocoma erinaceus ) dichloromethane extract at 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell toxicity was studied using MTT assay. Cell morphology was examined using an invert microscope. Further, apoptosis was examined using Annexin V-FITC, propodium iodide, DAPI, and Acridine orange/propodium iodide staining. Eventually, the apoptosis pathways were analyzed using measurement of Caspase-3 and -9 activity. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, ANOVA software, and Tukey's test. P EL4 proliferation as IC 50 =32 µg/mL. All experiments related to apoptosis analysis confirmed that dichloromethane brittle star extract and doxorubicin have a cytotoxic effect on EL4 cells inIC 50 concentration. The study showed that dichloromethane brittle star extract is as an adjunct to doxorubicin in treatment of leukemia cells.

  15. Assessment of Subclinical Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity in a Rat Model by Speckle-Tracking Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Hang; Qiao, Zhiqing; Shen, Xuedong; He, Ben

    2017-07-10

    Despite their clear therapeutic benefits, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is a major concern limiting the ability to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cancers. The early identification of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is of vital importance to assess the cardiac risk against the potential cancer treatment. To investigate whether speckle-tracking analysis can provide a sensitive and accurate measurement when detecting doxorubicin-induced left ventricular injury. Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups with 8 rats each, given doxorubicin intraperitoneally at weekly intervals for up to 4 weeks. Group 1: 2.5 mg/kg/week; group 2: 3 mg/kg/week; group 3: 3.5mg/kg/week; group 4: 4mg/kg/week. An additional 5 rats were used as controls. Echocardiographic images were obtained at baseline and 1 week after the last dose of treatment. Radial (Srad) and circumferential (Scirc) strains, radial (SRrad) and circumferential (SRcirc) strain rates were analyzed. After the experiment, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was analyzed and the heart samples were histologically evaluated. After doxorubicin exposure, LVEF was significantly reduced in group 4 (p = 0.006), but remained stable in the other groups. However, after treatment, Srads were reduced in groups 2, 3 and 4 (p all grupos de 8 ratos cada, e doxorrubicina foi administrada intraperitonealmente em intervalos semanais de até 4 semanas. Grupo 1: 2,5 mg/kg/semana; Grupo 2: 3 mg/kg/semana; Grupo 3: 3,5 mg/kg/semana; Grupo 4: 4 mg/kg/semana. Foram utilizados 5 ratos adicionais como controles. As imagens ecocardiográficas foram obtidas na linha basal e 1 semana após a última dose do tratamento. Foram analisados o strain radial (Srad) e circunferencial (Scirc) e as taxas de strain radial (TSrad) e circunferencial (TScirc). Após o experimento, a troponina cardíaca I (cTnI) foi analisada e as amostras cardíacas foram avaliadas histologicamente. Após a exposição à doxorrubicina, a FEVE foi significativamente

  16. Exploration of a Doxorubicin-Polymer Conjugate in Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticle Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Emily

    Nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery is a major focus in the research community because of its potential to use existing drugs in safer and more effective ways. Chemotherapy encapsulation in NPs shields the drug from the rest of the body while it is within the NP, with less systemic exposure leading to fewer off-target effects of the drug. However, passive loading of drugs into NPs is a suboptimal method, often leading to burst release upon administration. This work explores the impact of incorporating the drug-polymer conjugate doxorubicin-poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (Dox-PLGA) into a lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle (LPN). The primary difference in using a drug-polymer conjugate for NP drug delivery is the drug's release kinetics. Dox-PLGA LPNs showed a more sustained and prolonged release profile over 28 days compared to LPNs with passively loaded, unconjugated doxorubicin. This sustained release translates to cytotoxicity; when systemic circulation was simulated using dialysis, Dox-PLGA LPNs retained their cytotoxicity at a higher level than the passively loaded LPNs. The in vivo implication of preserving cytotoxic potency through a slower release profile is that the majority of Dox delivered via Dox-PLGA LPNs will be kept within the LPN until it reaches the tumor. This will result in fewer systemic side effects and more effective treatments given the higher drug concentration at the tumor site. An intriguing clinical application of this drug delivery approach lies in using Dox-PLGA LPNs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The incorporation of Dox-PLGA is hypothesized to have a protective effect on the BBB as its slow release profile will prevent drug from harming the BBB. Using induced pluripotent stem cells differentiated to human brain microvascular endothelial cells that comprise the BBB, the Dox-PLGA LPNs were shown to be less destructive to the BBB than their passively loaded counterparts. Dox-PLGA LPNs showed superior cytotoxicity against plated tumor

  17. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of doxorubicin through surface modified biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Niyaz; Ahmad, Rizwan; Alam, Md Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2018-05-23

    Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl), an anthracycline glycoside antibiotic, exhibits low oral bioavailability due to active efflux from intestinal P-glycoprotein receptors. The oral administration of DOX remains a challenge hence; no oral formulation for DOX is marketed, till date. To improve the oral bioavailability of DOX through, preparation of a nanoformulation i.e. PEGylated-doxorubicin(DOX)-loaded-poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-Nanoparticles (NPs) and to develop and validate an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-synapt mass spectrometric bioanalytical method (UHPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) for plasma (Wistar rats) DOX quantification. For chromatography, Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ along with a BEH C-18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm; 1.7 μm), mobile phase conditions (acetonitrile: 0.1% formic acid::1:1 v/v) and flow rate (0.20 ml/min) was used. For analyte recovery from rat plasma, a liquid-liquid extraction method (LLE), using Acetonitrile: 5 mM ammonium acetate in a ratio of 6:4 v/v at pH 3.5, was used. Nanoformulation with a particle size (183.10 ± 7.41 nm), zeta potential (- 13.10 ± 1.04 mV), drug content (42.69 ± 1.97 µg/mg) and a spherical shape and smooth surface was developed. An elution time of 1.61 and 1.75 min along with a transition at m/z 544.42/397.27 and 528.46/321.41 were observed for DOX and internal standard (IS) Daunorubicin, respectively. In addition, a linear dynamic range with r 2  ≥ 0.9985 over a concentration range of 1.00-2500.0 ng/ml was observed for different processes and parameters used in the study. Similarly a marked improvement i.e. 6.8 fold was observed, in PEGylated-DOX-PLGA-NPs as compared to DOX-S, in pharmacokinetics studies. The promising approach of PEGylated-DOX-PLGA-NPs may provide an alternate to intravenous therapy for better patient care.

  18. Doxorubicin impairs the insulin-like growth factor-1 system and causes insulin-like growth factor-1 resistance in cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Fabbi

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 promotes the survival of cardiomyocytes by activating type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R. Within the myocardium, IGF-1 action is modulated by IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, which sequesters IGF-1 away from IGF-1R. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is implicated in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, we investigated the effects of the anthracycline, doxorubicin, on the IGF-1 system in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.Besides inducing apoptosis, concentrations of doxorubicin comparable to those observed in patients after bolus infusion (0.1-1 µM caused a progressive decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3 expression. Exogenous IGF-1 was capable to rescue cardiomyocytes from apoptosis triggered by 0.1 and 0.5 µM, but not 1 µM doxorubicin. The loss of response to IGF-1 was paralleled by a significant reduction in IGF-1 availability and signaling, as assessed by free hormone levels in conditioned media and Akt phosphorylation in cell lysates, respectively. Doxorubicin also dose-dependently induced p53, which is known to repress the transcription of IGF1R and induce that of IGFBP3. Pre-treatment with the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, prevented apoptosis and the changes in IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 elicited by doxorubicin. The decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3, as well as apoptosis, were also antagonized by pre-treatment with the antioxidant agents, N-acetylcysteine, dexrazoxane, and carvedilol.Doxorubicin down-regulates IGF-1R and up-regulates IGFBP-3 via p53 and oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. This leads to resistance to IGF-1 that may contribute to doxorubicin-initiated apoptosis. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in human cardiomyocytes and explore the possibility of manipulating the IGF-1 axis to protect against anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

  19. Multiple sessions of liposomal doxorubicin delivery via focused ultrasound mediated blood-brain barrier disruption: a safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Muna; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Zhang, Yong-Zhi; McDannold, Nathan

    2015-04-28

    Transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound is a rapidly advancing method for delivering therapeutic and imaging agents to the brain. It has the ability to facilitate the passage of therapeutics from the vasculature to the brain parenchyma, which is normally protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The method's main advantages are that it is both targeted and noninvasive, and that it can be easily repeated. Studies have shown that liposomal doxorubicin (Lipo-DOX), a chemotherapy agent with promise for tumors in the central nervous system, can be delivered into the brain across BBB. However, prior studies have suggested that doxorubicin can be significantly neurotoxic, even at small concentrations. Here, we studied whether multiple sessions of Lipo-DOX administered after FUS-induced BBB disruption (FUS-BBBD) induces severe adverse events in the normal brain tissues. First, we used fluorometry to measure the doxorubicin concentrations in the brain after FUS-BBBD to ensure that a clinically relevant doxorubicin concentration was achieved in the brain. Next, we performed three weekly sessions with FUS-BBBD±Lipo-DOX administration. Five to twelve targets were sonicated each week, following a schedule described previously in a survival study in glioma-bearing rats (Aryal et al., 2013). Five rats received three weekly sessions where i.v. injected Lipo-DOX was combined with FUS-BBBD; an additional four rats received FUS-BBBD only. Animals were euthanized 70days from the first session and brains were examined in histology. We found that clinically-relevant concentrations of doxorubicin (4.8±0.5μg/g) were delivered to the brain with the sonication parameters (0.69MHz; 0.55-0.81MPa; 10ms bursts; 1Hz PRF; 60s duration), microbubble concentration (Definity, 10μl/kg), and the administered Lipo-DOX dose (5.67mg/kg) used. The resulting concentration of Lipo-DOX was reduced by 32% when it was injected 10min after the last sonication compared to cases where the agent was

  20. Electronic structure and partial charge distribution of Doxorubicin in different molecular environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Lokendra; Wen, Amy M; French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian; Podgornik, Rudolf; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2015-05-18

    The electronic structure and partial charge of doxorubicin (DOX) in three different molecular environments-isolated, solvated, and intercalated in a DNA complex-are studied by first-principles density functional methods. It is shown that the addition of solvating water molecules to DOX, together with the proximity to and interaction with DNA, has a significant impact on the electronic structure as well as on the partial charge distribution. Significant improvement in estimating the DOX-DNA interaction energy is achieved. The results are further elucidated by resolving the total density of states and surface charge density into different functional groups. It is concluded that the presence of the solvent and the details of the interaction geometry matter greatly in determining the stability of DOX complexation. Ab initio calculations on realistic models are an important step toward a more accurate description of the long-range interactions in biomolecular systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thiolated pectin-doxorubicin conjugates: Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheewatanakornkool, Kamonrak; Niratisai, Sathit; Manchun, Somkamol; Dass, Crispin R; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2017-10-15

    In this paper, pectin was cross-linked by a coupling reaction with either thioglycolic acid or cystamine dihydrochloride to form thiolated pectins. The thiolated pectins were then coupled with doxorubicin (DOX) derivative to obtain thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates by two different methods, disulfide bond formation and disulfide bond exchange. The disulfide bond exchange method provided a simple, fast, and efficient approach for synthesis of thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates, compared to the disulfide bond formation. Characteristics, physicochemical properties, and morphology of thiolated pectins and thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates were determined. DOX content in thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates using low methoxy pectin was found to be higher than that using high methoxy pectin. The in vitro anticancer activity of thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates was significantly higher than that of free DOX, in mouse colon carcinoma and human bone osteosarcoma cells, but insignificantly different from that of free DOX, in human prostate cancer cells. Due to their promising anticancer activity in mouse colon carcinoma cells, the thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates might be suitable for building drug platform for colorectal cancer-targeted delivery of DOX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zingiber officinale Roscoe ameliorates anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Hema, Unnikrishnan; Aswathi, Sreedharan

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested in the cardiotoxicity induced by anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin (DXN). The cardioprotective effects of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against DXN-induced acute cardiac damage in rat. The results of the study demonstrated that Z. officinale significantly and dose dependently protected the cardiotoxicity induced by DXN. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in the DXN alone treated group of animals were significantly (pofficinale (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) plus DXN treated groups. The cardiac malondialdehyde was elevated in the DXN alone treated group and declined significantly in the Z. officinale (400 mg/kg) plus DXN treated group. The results concluded that aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale ameliorated DXN-induced cardiotoxicity. The protection can be ascribed to the free radical scavenging activity of Z. officinale. This protective effect may suggest the adjuvant role of Z. officinale against OS induced by cancer chemotherapeutants, which warrant further research. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  3. Phase II study of neoadjuvant gemcitabine, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, and docetaxel in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Grazia; Grazia, Artioli; Mocellin, Simone; Simone, Mocellin; Borgato, Lucia; Lucia, Borgato; Cappetta, Alessandro; Alessandro, Cappetta; Bozza, Fernando; Fernando, Bozza; Zavagno, Giorgio; Giorgio, Zavagno; Zovato, Stefania; Stefania, Zovato; Marchet, Alberto; Alberto, Marchet; Pastorelli, Davide; Davide, Pastorelli

    2010-09-01

    This was a phase II study to assess the activity of a novel neoadjuvant regimen in locally-advanced breast cancer. Fifty patients with histological confirmation of locally advanced breast cancer received treatment with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) (day 1) followed by gemcitabine 800 mg/m(2) plus docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) 30 mg/m(2) (day 8) every 3 weeks for at least 4 cycles, plus a final 2 additional cycles. Tumour size was T1 (n=2), T2 (n=32), T3 (n=14), T4 (n=2). All 50 patients underwent surgery. Clinical complete, partial and no response were observed in 13 (26%), 24 (48%) and 11 (22%) patients, respectively (overall response rate: 74%). The number of chemotherapy cycles was found to be an independent predictor of a pathologic complete response. The combination of gemcitabine-docetaxel-PLD can yield high tumour response rates in patients with locally-advanced breast cancer who undergo a full treatment of 6 cycles.

  4. Multifunctional polymersomes for cytosolic delivery of gemcitabine and doxorubicin to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahire, Rahul; Haldar, Manas K; Paul, Shirshendu; Ambre, Avinash H; Meghnani, Varsha; Layek, Buddhadev; Katti, Kalpana S; Gange, Kara N; Singh, Jagdish; Sarkar, Kausik; Mallik, Sanku

    2014-08-01

    Although liposomes are widely used as carriers of drugs and imaging agents, they suffer from a lack of stability and the slow release of the encapsulated contents at the targeted site. Polymersomes (vesicles of amphiphilic polymers) are considerably more stable compared to liposomes; however, they also demonstrate a slow release for the encapsulated contents, limiting their efficacy as a drug-delivery tool. As a solution, we prepared and characterized echogenic polymersomes, which are programmed to release the encapsulated drugs rapidly when incubated with cytosolic concentrations of glutathione. These vesicles encapsulated air bubbles inside and efficiently reflected diagnostic-frequency ultrasound. Folate-targeted polymersomes showed an enhanced uptake by breast and pancreatic-cancer cells in a monolayer as well as in three-dimensional spheroid cultures. Polymersomes encapsulated with the anticancer drugs gemcitabine and doxorubicin showed significant cytotoxicity to these cells. With further improvements, these vesicles hold the promise to serve as multifunctional nanocarriers, offering a triggered release as well as diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acridine Orange Conjugated Polymersomes for Simultaneous Nuclear Delivery of Gemcitabine and Doxorubicin to Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anajafi, Tayebeh; Scott, Michael D; You, Seungyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Choi, Yongki; Qian, Steven Y; Mallik, Sanku

    2016-03-16

    Considering the systemic toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents, there is an urgent need to develop new targeted drug delivery systems. Herein, we have developed a new nuclear targeted, redox sensitive, drug delivery vehicle to simultaneously deliver the anticancer drugs gemcitabine and doxorubicin to the nuclei of pancreatic cancer cells. We prepared polymeric bilayer vesicles (polymersomes), and actively encapsulated the drug combination by the pH gradient method. A redox-sensitive polymer (PEG-S-S-PLA) was incorporated to sensitize the formulation to reducing agent concentration. Acridine orange (AO) was conjugated to the surface of the polymersomes imparting nuclear localizing property. The polymersomes' toxicity and efficacy were compared with those of a free drug combination using monolayer and three-dimensional spheroid cultures of pancreatic cancer cells. We observed that the redox sensitive, nuclear-targeted polymersomes released more than 60% of their encapsulated contents in response to 50 mM glutathione. The nanoparticles are nontoxic; however, the drug encapsulated vesicles have significant toxicity. The prepared formulation can increase the drug's therapeutic index by delivering the drugs directly to the cells' nuclei, one of the key organelles in the cells. This study is likely to initiate research in targeted nuclear delivery using other drug formulations in other types of cancers.

  6. Src kinases in chondrosarcoma chemoresistance and migration: dasatinib sensitises to doxorubicin in TP53 mutant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterwijk, J G; van Ruler, M A J H; Briaire-de Bruijn, I H; Herpers, B; Gelderblom, H; van de Water, B; Bovée, J V M G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage-forming tumours of bone. Because of their resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, currently no treatment strategies exist for unresectable and metastatic chondrosarcoma. Previously, PI3K/AKT/GSK3β and Src kinase pathways were shown to be activated in chondrosarcoma cell lines. Our aim was to investigate the role of these kinases in chemoresistance and migration in chondrosarcoma in relation to TP53 mutation status. Methods: We used five conventional and three dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell lines and investigated the effect of PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway inhibition (enzastaurin) and Src pathway inhibition (dasatinib) in chemoresistance using WST assay and live cell imaging with AnnexinV staining. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing 157 cartilaginous tumours was performed for Src family members. Migration assays were performed with the RTCA xCelligence System. Results: Src inhibition was found to overcome chemoresistance, to induce apoptosis and to inhibit migration. Cell lines with TP53 mutations responded better to combination therapy than wild-type cell lines (P=0.002). Tissue microarray immunohistochemistry confirmed active Src (pSrc) signalling, with Fyn being most abundantly expressed (76.1%). Conclusion: These results strongly indicate Src family kinases, in particular Fyn, as a potential target for the treatment of inoperable and metastatic chondrosarcomas, and to sensitise for doxorubicin especially in the presence of TP53 mutations. PMID:23922104

  7. Functionalization of Carbon Nanomaterial Surface by Doxorubicin and Antibodies to Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelytsina, Olena M.; Yakymchuk, Olena M.; Sydorenko, Mychailo V.; Bakalinska, Olga N.; Bloisi, Francesco; Vicari, Luciano Rosario Maria

    2016-06-01

    The actual task of oncology is effective treatment of cancer while causing a minimum harm to the patient. The appearance of polymer nanomaterials and technologies launched new applications and approaches of delivery and release of anticancer drugs. The goal of work was to test ultra dispersed diamonds (UDDs) and onion-like carbon (OLCs) as new vehicles for delivery of antitumor drug (doxorubicin (DOX)) and specific antibodies to tumor receptors. Stable compounds of UDDs and OLCs with DOX were obtained. As results of work, an effectiveness of functionalization was 2.94 % w/ w for OLC-DOX and 2.98 % w/ w for UDD-DOX. Also, there was demonstrated that UDD-DOX and OLC-DOX constructs had dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on tumor cells in the presence of trypsin. The survival of adenocarcinoma cells reduced from 52 to 28 % in case of incubation with the UDD-DOX in concentrations from 8.4-2.5 to 670-20 μg/ml and from 72 to 30 % after incubation with OLC-DOX. Simultaneously, antibodies to epidermal growth factor maintained 75 % of the functional activity and specificity after matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation deposition. Thus, the conclusion has been made about the prospects of selected new methods and approaches for creating an antitumor agent with capabilities targeted delivery of drugs.

  8. Green Tea Catechin-Based Complex Micelles Combined with Doxorubicin to Overcome Cardiotoxicity and Multidrug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tangjian; Liu, Jinjian; Ren, Jie; Huang, Fan; Ou, Hanlin; Ding, Yuxun; Zhang, Yumin; Ma, Rujiang; An, Yingli; Liu, Jianfeng; Shi, Linqi

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer treatment has been demonstrated to cause some side effects on healthy tissues and multidrug resistance of the tumor cells, which greatly limits therapeutic efficacy. To address these limitations and achieve better therapeutic efficacy, combination therapy based on nanoparticle platforms provides a promising approach through delivering different agents simultaneously to the same destination with synergistic effect. In this study, a novel green tea catechin-based polyion complex (PIC) micelle loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was constructed through electrostatic interaction and phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction between poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lysine-co-lysine-phenylboronic acid) (PEG-PLys/PBA) and EGCG. DOX was co-loaded in the PIC micelles through π-π stacking interaction with EGCG. The phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction endowed the PIC micelles with high stability under physiological condition. Moreover, acid cleavability of phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction in the micelle core has significant benefits for delivering EGCG and DOX to same destination with synergistic effects. In addition, benefiting from the oxygen free radicals scavenging activity of EGCG, combination therapy with EGCG and DOX in the micelle core could protect the cardiomyocytes from DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity according to the histopathologic analysis of hearts. Attributed to modulation of EGCG on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, this kind of PIC micelles could effectively reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. These results suggested that EGCG based PIC micelles could effectively overcome DOX induced cardiotoxicity and multidrug resistance. PMID:27375779

  9. A33 antibody-functionalized exosomes for targeted delivery of doxorubicin against colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Gao, Yuan; Gong, Chunai; Wang, Zhuo; Xia, Qingming; Gu, Fenfen; Hu, Chuling; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Huiling; Gao, Shen

    2018-06-20

    Exosomes have emerged as a promising drug carrier with low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and delivery efficiency. Here in, we isolated exosomes from A33-positive LIM1215 cells (A33-Exo) and loaded them with doxorubicin (Dox). Furthermore, we coated surface-carboxyl superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (US) with A33 antibodies (A33Ab-US), expecting that these A33 antibodies on the surface of the nanoparticles could bind to A33-positive exosomes and form a complex (A33Ab-US-Exo/Dox) to target A33-positive colon cancer cells. The results showed that A33Ab-US-Exo/Dox had good binding affinity and antiproliferative effect in LIM1215 cells, as shown by increased uptake of the complex. In vivo study showed that A33Ab-US-Exo/Dox had an excellent tumor targeting ability, and was able to inhibit tumor growth and prolong the survival of the mice with reduced cardiotoxicity. In summary, exosomes functionalized by targeting ligands through coating with high-density antibodies may prove to be a novel delivery system for targeted drugs against human cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential effects of doxorubicin on atrial natriuretic peptide expression in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASIM RAHMAN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (Dox is a potent anti-cancer agent with cardiotoxic side-effects but the mechanism of its cardiotoxicity and its effect on expression of the vasoactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, an important marker for cardiac hypertrophy, are little understood. The present study examined Dox-induced changes in vivo in hearts of 6 mongrel dogs and 5 Sprague-Dawley rats and in vitro in cardiac cultures of neonatal rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis using g32-p labeled primers for ß-actin, phospholamban (PLB and ANP showed a selective 5-fold increase of ANP mRNA in Dox-treated dog hearts in comparison to controls. Similarly, northern analysis of GAPD, ß-actin, cardiac a-actin and ANP gave a selective 4.5-fold increase in ANP transcripts in Dox-treated rat hearts. On the other hand, there was a selective decrease (approximately 39% of ANP transcripts in Dox-treated cardiac cultures relative to controls. Immunohistochemistry localized the ANP changes both in tissue sections and in cultures to the cardiomyocytes. The data clearly showed that Dox selectively increases ANP expression in dog and rat hearts in absence of cardiocyte hypertrophy but selectively decreases it in cardiac cultures. This differential effect of Dox on cardiocytes in vivo and in vitro should be a useful parameter for studies of transcriptional control of ANP expression.

  11. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis vs autophagy with prolonged doxorubicin treatment: comparison with osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacar, Oktay; Indumathy, Sivanjah; Tan, Mei Lin; Baindur-Hudson, Swati; Friedhuber, Anna M; Dass, Crispin R

    2015-02-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is a frontline chemotherapeutic against osteosarcoma (OS) that is plagued by side effects, particularly in the heart. The specific objective of this article is to investigate whether low-dose Dox treatment had pro-autophagic effects in cardiomyocytes as well as osteosarcoma cells. This study characterises apoptotic (Bax) and autophagic (Beclin-1) biomarker levels in human OS and cardiomyocyte cell lines as well as in various tissues when mice are exposed to low (1 mg/kg, thrice weekly) and high (3 mg/kg thrice weekly) dose Dox for a month. There was a decrease in Bax and increase in Beclin-1 in cardiac tissue in the high-dose group. Dox decreased Beclin-1 in the skin and liver, with no clear indication in the stomach, small intestine and testis. At low Dox doses of 10 and 100 nm in cardiomyocytes and OS cells, there is a pro-apoptotic effect, with a quicker response in the 100-nm condition, and a slower but steady increase of a pro-apoptotic response at the lower 10-nm dose. However, electron microscopy images revealed changes to human OS cells that resembled autophagy. Human prostate, breast and colorectal cells treated with 10-nm Dox showed ∼ 40% reduction in cell viability after 24 h. In culture, cells of both cardiomyocytes and OS revealed a predominant pro-apoptotic response at the expense of autophagy, although both seemed to be occurring in vivo. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Effect of Coenzyme-Q10 on Doxorubicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. K. El-Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is one of the limiting factors for using doxorubicin (Dox as an anticancer chemotherapeutic. Here, we investigated possible protective effect of coenzyme-Q10 (CoQ10 on Dox-induced nephrotoxicity and the mechanisms involved. Two doses (10 and 100 mg/kg of CoQ10 were administered orally to rats for 8 days, in the presence or absence of nephrotoxicity induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Dox (15 mg/kg at day 4 of the experiment. Our results showed that the low dose of CoQ10 succeeded in reversing Dox-induced nephrotoxicity to control levels (e.g., levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, concentrations of renal reduced glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde, catalase activity and caspase 3 expression, and renal histopathology. Alternatively, the high dose of CoQ10 showed no superior nephroprotection over the low dose, as there were no significant improvements in renal histopathology, catalase activity, or caspase 3 expression compared to the Dox-treated group. Interestingly, the high dose of CoQ10 alone significantly decreased renal GSH level as well as catalase activity and caused a mild induction of caspase 3 expression compared to control, probably due to a prooxidant effect at this dose of CoQ10. We conclude that CoQ10 protects from Dox-induced nephrotoxicity with a precaution to dosage adjustment.

  13. Quality of Life Patients with Breast Cancer Therapy Combination Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, and Cyclofosfamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi D. Agustini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of breast cancer with combination chemotherapy Florouracil, doxorubicin, and Cyclofosfamide (FAC lead to differences in the quality of life of patients is important to know because it can support the effectiveness of patient treatment. The aim of the study was to measure the difference and know the dimensions that affect the quality of life of breast cancer patients from each cycle of chemotherapy in Hasan Sadikin Hospital. This research is an observational analytic cross sectional approach. A sample of 200 breast cancer patients who were selected purposively and separated based on cycles of therapy. Assessment of quality of life of patients is done using a multidimensional instrument EORTC QLQ (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and BR23. Data analysis was calculated using independent t test and linear regression. The results showed that there are differences in quality of life is very significant between QLQ-C30 functioning scale baseline with treatment 5, the QLQ-C30 symptom scale baseline therapy 5th, QLQ-BR23 function scale baseline with therapy 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th, QLQ-BR23 symptoms scale baseline with therapy 4th, then a significant difference between scale symptoms of QLQ-BR23 baseline therapy with the 1st, 3rd, and 5th. Dimensions have a significant effect on quality of life is a social function, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, sleep disorders and financial difficulties.

  14. Tumor-activated prodrug (TAP)-conjugated nanoparticles with cleavable domains for safe doxorubicin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Daniela; Biondi, Marco; Yu, Hui; Belli, Valentina; Falanga, Andrea P; Cantisani, Marco; Galdiero, Stefania; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-03-01

    A major issue in chemotherapy is the lack of specificity of many antitumor drugs, which cause severe side effects and an impaired therapeutic response. Here we report on the design and characterization of model tumor activated prodrug-conjugated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (TAP-NPs) for the release of doxorubicin (Dox) triggered by matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in the extracellular matrix of tumors. In particular, TAP-NPs were produced by attaching Dox to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) through two MMP2-cleavable enzymes. The resulting adduct was then tethered to PS NPs. Results showed that Dox release was actually triggered by MMP2 cleavage and was dependent on enzyme concentration, with a plateau around 20 nM. Furthermore, significant cell cytotoxicity was observed towards three cell lines only in the presence of MMP2, but not in cells without enzyme pre-treatment, even after NP internalization by cells. These findings indicate the potential of TAP-NPs as suitable nanocarriers for an on demand, tumor--specific delivery of antitumor drugs after the response to an endogenous stimulus. Further advancements will focus on the translation of this production technology to biodegradable systems for the safe transport of cytotoxic drug to tumor tissues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Improving anticancer activity and reducing systemic toxicity of doxorubicin by self-assembled polymeric micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Maling; Shi Huashan; Guo Gang; Men Ke; Zhang Juan; Li Zhiyong; Luo Feng; Qian Zhiyong; Wei Yuquan; Zheng Lan; Zhao Xia

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to improve anticancer activity and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (Dox), we encapsulated Dox in monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles by a novel self-assembly procedure without using surfactants, organic solvents or vigorous stirring. These Dox encapsulated MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 4.2% were monodisperse and ∼ 20 nm in diameter. The Dox can be released from the Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles; the Dox-release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Dox on the C-26 colon carcinoma cell in vitro, and slowed the extravasation of Dox in the transgenic zebrafish model. Compared to free Dox, Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in the subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models, and prolonging survival of mice bearing these tumors. Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles also induced lower systemic toxicity than free Dox. In conclusion, incorporation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity and decreased the systemic toxicity of Dox; these Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles are an interesting formulation of Dox and may have potential clinical applications in cancer therapy.

  16. DNA Tetrahedron Delivery Enhances Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis of HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Junen

    2017-08-01

    As a nano-sized drug carrier with the advantage of modifiability and proper biocompatibility, DNA tetrahedron (DNA tetra) delivery is hopeful to enhance the inhibitory efficiency of nontargeted anticancer drugs. In this investigation, doxorubicin (Dox) was assembled to a folic acid-modified DNA tetra via click chemistry to prepare a targeted antitumor agent. Cellular uptake efficiency was measured via fluorescent imaging. Cytotoxicity, inhibition efficiency, and corresponding mechanism on colon cancer cell line HT-29 were evaluated by MTT assay, cell proliferation curve, western blot, and flow cytometry. No cytotoxicity was induced by DNA tetra, but the cellular uptake ratio increased obviously resulting from the DNA tetra-facilitated penetration through cellular membrane. Accordingly, folic acid-DNA tetra-Dox markedly increased the antitumor efficiency with increased apoptosis levels. In details, 100 μM was the effective concentration and a 6-h incubation period was needed for apoptosis induction. In conclusion, nano-sized DNA tetrahedron was a safe and effective delivery system for Dox and correspondingly enhanced the anticancer efficiency.

  17. Carvedilol-mediated antioxidant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo J.; Bjork, James A.; Santos, Maria S.; Leino, Richard L.; Froberg, M. Kent; Moreno, Antonio J.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2004-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin (DOX) therapy limits the total cumulative dose and therapeutic success of active anticancer chemotherapy. Cardiac mitochondria are implicated as primary targets for DOX toxicity, which is believed to be mediated by the generation of highly reactive free radical species of oxygen from complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The objective of this study was to determine if the protection demonstrated by carvedilol (CV), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist with strong antioxidant properties, against DOX-induced mitochondrial-mediated cardiomyopathy [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185 (2002) 218] is attributable to its antioxidant properties or its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism. Our results confirm that DOX induces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and histopathological lesions in the cardiac tissue, all of which are inhibited by carvedilol. In contrast, atenolol (AT), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist lacking antioxidant properties, preserved phosphate energy charge but failed to protect against any of the indexes of DOX-induced oxidative mitochondrial toxicity. We therefore conclude that the cardioprotective effects of carvedilol against DOX-induced mitochondrial cardiotoxicity are due to its inherent antioxidant activity and not to its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism

  18. Fosaprepitant-induced phlebitis: a focus on patients receiving doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, A D; Kadakia, K C; Looker, S; Hilger, C; Sorgatz, K; Anderson, K; Jacobson, A; Grendahl, D; Seisler, D; Hobday, T; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of fosaprepitant-associated infusion site adverse events (ISAEs) among a cohort of breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy. A retrospective review of electronic medical record (EMR) data was performed for all patients who were initiated on AC from January 2011 to April 2012. Data collected included baseline demographics, antiemetic regimen, documentation of ISAEs, and type of intravenous (IV) access. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation or percentages) were summarized overall, by type of IV access and initial antiemetic given. Among the 148 patients included in this analysis, 98 initially received fosaprepitant and 44 received aprepitant. The incidence of ISAEs associated with fosaprepitant administration was 34.7 % (n=34), while the incidence of aprepitant-associated ISAEs was 2.3 % (n=1). All ISAEs were associated with peripheral IV access. The most commonly reported ISAEs were infusion site pain (n=26), erythema (n=22), swelling (n=12), superficial thrombosis (n=8), infusion site hives (n=5), and phlebitis/thrombophlebitis (n=5). Twenty-six patients experienced more than one type of ISAE. The incidence and severity of ISAEs associated with fosaprepitant administration among a group of patients receiving AC chemotherapy are significant and appreciably higher than what has been previously reported.

  19. Polymeric micellar pH-sensitive drug delivery system for doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubý, Martin; Konák, Cestmír; Ulbrich, Karel

    2005-03-02

    A novel polymeric micellar pH-sensitive system for delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) is described. Polymeric micelles were prepared by self-assembly of amphiphilic diblock copolymers in aqueous solutions. The copolymers consist of a biocompatible hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block and a hydrophobic block containing covalently bound anthracycline antibiotic DOX. The starting block copolymers poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(allyl glycidyl ether) (PEO-PAGE) with a very narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn ca. 1.05) were prepared by anionic ring opening polymerization using sodium salt of poly(ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether as macroinitiator and allyl glycidyl ether as functional monomer. The copolymers were covalently modified via reactive double bonds by the addition of methyl sulfanylacetate. The resulting ester subsequently reacted with hydrazine hydrate yielding polymer hydrazide. The hydrazide was coupled with DOX yielding pH-sensitive hydrazone bonds between the drug and carrier. The resulting conjugate containing ca. 3 wt.% DOX forms micelles with Rh(a)=104 nm in phosphate-buffered saline. After incubation in buffers at 37 degrees C DOX was released faster at pH 5.0 (close to pH in endosomes; 43% DOX released within 24 h) than at pH 7.4 (pH of blood plasma; 16% DOX released within 24 h). Cleavage of hydrazone bonds between DOX and carrier continues even after plateau in the DOX release from micelles incubated in aqueous solutions is reached.

  20. Liposomal Doxorubicin in the Treatment of Breast Cancer Patients: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery systems can provide enhanced efficacy and/or reduced toxicity for anticancer agents. Liposome drug delivery systems are able to modify the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of cytostatic agents, increasing the concentration of the drug released to neoplastic tissue and reducing the exposure of normal tissue. Anthracyclines are a key drug in the treatment of both metastatic and early breast cancer, but one of their major limitations is cardiotoxicity. One of the strategies designed to minimize this side effect is liposome encapsulation. Liposomal anthracyclines have achieved highly efficient drug encapsulation and they have proven to be effective and with reduced cardiotoxicity, as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of either anthracyclines-treated or naïve metastatic breast cancer patients. Of particular interest is the use of the combination of liposomal anthracyclines and trastuzumab in patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. In this paper, we discuss the different studies on liposomal doxorubicin in metastatic and early breast cancer therapy.

  1. Combination therapy with gefitinib and doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth in transgenic mice with adrenal neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Kumi; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Akamizu, Takashi; Maitani, Yoshie

    2013-01-01

    Highly relevant mouse models of human neuroblastoma (NB) are needed to evaluate new therapeutic strategies against NB. In this study, we characterized transgenic mice with bilateral adrenal tumors. On the basis of information from the tumoral gene expression profiles, we examined the antitumor effects of unencapsulated and liposomal doxorubicin (DXR), alone and in combination with gefitinib, on adrenal NB. We showed that intravenous injection of unencapsulated or liposomal DXR alone inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, liposomal DXR did not exhibit greater antitumor effect than unencapsulated DXR. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the adrenal tumor vasculature with abundant pericyte coverage was a less leaky structure for liposomes. Combination therapy with unencapsulated or liposomal DXR plus gefitinib strongly suppressed tumor growth and delayed tumor regrowth than treatment with unencapsulated or liposomal DXR alone, even at a lower dose of DXR. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI analysis revealed that gefitinib treatment increased blood flow in the tumor, indicating that gefitinib treatment changes the tumor vascular environment in a manner that may increase the antitumor effect of DXR. In conclusion, the combination of gefitinib and DXR induces growth inhibition of adrenal NBs in transgenic mice. These findings will provide helpful insights into new treatments for NB

  2. Celecoxib-Induced Self-Assembly of Smart Albumin-Doxorubicin Conjugate for Enhanced Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Leilei; Xu, Li; Wu, Chenwei; Xue, Bai; Jin, Xin; Yang, Jiapei; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2018-03-14

    Recent years have witnessed the great contributions that drug combination therapy has made for enhanced cancer therapy. However, because of the complicated pharmacokinetics of combined drug formulations, the majority of combination strategies show severe adverse effects at high dosage and poor biodistribution in vivo. To overcome these deficiencies and achieve enhanced cancer therapy, we put forward a method to construct a smart albumin-based nanoplatform, denoted as K237-HSA-DC, for codelivery of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (celecoxib) and chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin, DOX). Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that K237-HSA-DC exhibits the best therapeutic efficacy on tumor cells compared with all the other formulations. Moreover, K237-HSA-DC shows fewer side effects on normal organs in contrast to other formulations. To understand the reasons behind the improved drug efficacy in depth, we performed a cell metabonomics-based mechanism study and found that celecoxib could enhance the inhibitory effect of DOX on the transport of glucose into cells and then lead to subsequent significant energy metabolism inhibition. Considering the above-mentioned advantages of K237-HSA-DC, we believe the smart albumin-based nanoplatform can serve as a promising drug delivery system for enhanced cancer therapy.

  3. Hyaluronate tethered, "smart" multiwalled carbon nanotubes for tumor-targeted delivery of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datir, Satyajit R; Das, Manasmita; Singh, Raman Preet; Jain, Sanyog

    2012-11-21

    The present study reports the optimized synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and biological evaluation of a novel, multiwalled carbon nanotube-hyaluronic acid (MWCNT-HA) conjugate, complexed with an anticancer agent, Doxorubicin (DOX) via π-π stacking interaction. The therapeutic conjugate was concomitantly labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent dye, Alexa-Flour-647 (AF-647), and radiotracer Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) to track its whereabouts both in vitro and in vivo via optical and scintigraphic imaging techniques. Covalent functionalization of MWCNTs with HA facilitated their internalization into human lung adenocarcinoma, A549 cells via hyaluronan receptors (HR) mediated endocytosis. Internalized nanotubes showed lysosomal trafficking, followed by low pH-triggered DOX release under endolysosomal conditions. Consequently, DOX-loaded HA-MWCNTs exhibited 3.2 times higher cytotoxicity and increased apoptotic activity than free DOX in equivalent concentrations. Organ distribution studies in Ehlrich ascites tumor (EAT) bearing mice model indicated that tumor specific localization of (99m)Tc-MWCNT-HA-DOX is significantly higher than both free drug and nontargeted MWCNTs. Pharmacodynamic studies in chemically breast-cancer-induced rats showed that the tumor-growth inhibitory effect of HA-MWCNT-DOX was 5 times higher than free DOX in equivalent concentration. DOX delivered through HA-MWCNTs was devoid of any detectable cardiotoxity, hepatotoxicity, or nephrotoxicity. All these promising attributes make HA-MWCNTs a "smart" platform for tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer agents.

  4. Toxic effect of C60 fullerene-doxorubicin complex towards tumor and normal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prylutska S. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Creation of new nanostructures possessing high antitumor activity is an important problem of modern biotechnology. Aim. To evaluate cytotoxicity of created complex of pristine C60 fullerene with the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (Dox, as well as of free C60 fullerene and Dox, towards different cell types – tumor, normal immunocompetent and hepatocytes. Methods. Measurement of size distribution for particles in C60 + Dox mixture was performed by a dynamic light scattering (DLS technique. Toxic effect of C60 + Dox complex in vitro towards tumor and normal cells was studied using the MTT assay. Results. DLS experiment demonstrated that the main fraction of the particles in C60 + Dox mixture had a diameter in the range of about 132 nm. The toxic effect of C60 + Dox complex towards normal (lymphocytes, macrophages, hepatocytes and tumor (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, leukemia L1210, Lewis lung carcinoma cells was decreased by ~10–16 % and ~7–9 %, accordingly, compared with the same effect of free Dox. Conclusions. The created C60 + Dox composite may be considered as a new pharmacological agent that kills effectively tumor cells in vitro and simultaneously prevents a toxic effect of the free form of Dox on normal cells.

  5. Doxorubicin loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayal, S.; Ramanujan, R.V.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery system that can be used in locoregional cancer treatment. Coated magnetic particles, called carriers, are very useful for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs. Magnetic carriers were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron oxide followed by coating with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, TEM, TGA, FTIR and VSM techniques. The magnetic core of the carriers was magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), with average size of 10 nm. The room temperature VSM measurements showed that magnetic particles were superparamagnetic. The amount of PVA bound to the iron oxide nanoparticles were estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the attachment of PVA to the iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Doxorubicin (DOX) drug loading and release profiles of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed that up to 45% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h, the drug release followed the Fickian diffusion-controlled process. The binding of DOX to the PVA was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The present findings show that DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery.

  6. Improving anticancer activity and reducing systemic toxicity of doxorubicin by self-assembled polymeric micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou Maling; Shi Huashan; Guo Gang; Men Ke; Zhang Juan; Li Zhiyong; Luo Feng; Qian Zhiyong; Wei Yuquan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zheng Lan; Zhao Xia, E-mail: anderson-qian@163.com [West China Second University Hospital, West China Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2011-03-04

    In an attempt to improve anticancer activity and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (Dox), we encapsulated Dox in monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles by a novel self-assembly procedure without using surfactants, organic solvents or vigorous stirring. These Dox encapsulated MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 4.2% were monodisperse and {approx} 20 nm in diameter. The Dox can be released from the Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles; the Dox-release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Dox on the C-26 colon carcinoma cell in vitro, and slowed the extravasation of Dox in the transgenic zebrafish model. Compared to free Dox, Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in the subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models, and prolonging survival of mice bearing these tumors. Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles also induced lower systemic toxicity than free Dox. In conclusion, incorporation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity and decreased the systemic toxicity of Dox; these Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles are an interesting formulation of Dox and may have potential clinical applications in cancer therapy.

  7. Glutathione responsive micelles incorporated with semiconducting polymer dots and doxorubicin for cancer photothermal-chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhixiong; Zhang, Da; Lin, Xinyi; Chen, Yunzhu; Wu, Ming; Wei, Zuwu; Zhang, Zhenxi; Liu, Xiaolong; Yao, Cuiping

    2017-10-01

    Nanoplatform integrated with photothermal therapy (PTT) and chemotherapy has been recognized a promising agent for enhancing cancer therapeutic outcomes, but still suffer from less controllability for optimizing their synergistic effects. We fabricated glutathione (GSH) responsive micelles incorporated with semiconducting polymer dots and doxorubicin (referred as SPDOX NPs) for combining PTT with chemotherapy to enhance cancer therapeutic efficiency. These micelles, with excellent water dispersibility, comprises of three distinct functional components: (1) the monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-S-S-hexadecyl (mPEG-S-S-C16), which forms the micelles, can render hydrophobic substances water-soluble and improve the colloidal stability; (2) disulfide linkages can be cleaved in a reductive environment for tumor specific drug release due to the high GSH concentrations of tumor micro-environment; (3) PCPDTBT dots and anti-cancer drug DOX that are loaded inside the hydrophobic core of the micelle can be applied to simultaneously perform PTT and chemotherapy to achieve significantly enhanced tumor killing efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our studies demonstrated that our SPDOX NPs with simultaneous photothermal-chemotherapy functions could be a promising platform for a tumor specific responsive drug delivery system.

  8. Doxorubicin hinders DNA condensation promoted by the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C H M; de Paula, H M C; da Silva, L H M; Rocha, M S

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we have studied the interaction between the anticancer drug doxorubicin (doxo) and condensed DNA, using optical tweezers. To perform this task, we use the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the working buffer to mimic two key conditions present in the real intracellular environment: the condensed state of the DNA and the abundant presence of charged macromolecules in the surrounding medium. In particular, we have found that, when doxo is previously intercalated in disperse DNA, the drug hinders the DNA condensation process upon the addition of BSA in the buffer. On the other hand, when bare DNA is firstly condensed by BSA, doxo is capable to intercalate and to unfold the DNA condensates at relatively high concentrations. In addition, a specific interaction between BSA and doxo was verified, which significantly changes the chemical equilibrium of the DNA-doxo interaction. Finally, the presence of BSA in the buffer stabilizes the double-helix structure of the DNA-doxo complexes, preventing partial DNA denaturation induced by the stretching forces. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characterization of fungal sulfated polysaccharides and their synergistic anticancer effects with doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Chao, Chi-Hsein; Lu, Mei-Kuang

    2012-09-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SPSs) from two edible fungal species, including two strains of Antrodia cinnamomea and Poria cocos, were isolated. Fucose, glucosamine, galactose, glucose, and mannose were the major sugars in the SPSs, and these SPSs had a high sulfate content. The area percentage of low-molecular-weight SPSs (1-100 kDa) covered almost half of the SPS mixture of the A. cinnamomea strains. In contrast, high-molecular-weight SPSs (>1000 kDa) of P. cocos covered a large proportion of the area at 30.06%. SPSs from A. cinnamomea B86 showed stronger inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) tube formation in an in vitro assay of angiogenesis, than did A. cinnamomea 35396 or P. cocos. The degree of sulfation paralleled their antiangiogenic activity. When tumor cells were concurrently exposed to doxorubicin (DOX) and fungal SPSs, SPSs synergistically increased the cytotoxicity of DOX to different degree up to 50-fold. Fungal SPSs may offer new applications for combinational-therapy drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel nanostructured enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid carriers overcome tumor multidrug resistance of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Lei; Kou, Longfa; Xu, Meng; Sun, Jin; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peng; He, Zhonggui

    2016-11-20

    Novel enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid nanocarries (EPNs) were successfully designed for sustained delivery of hydrophilic cationic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). By incorporation of the negative polymer of enoxaparin sodium (ES), DOX was highly encapsulated into EPNs with an encapsulation efficiency of 92.49%, and ES effectively inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC cell lines. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study after intravenous injection indicated that DOX-loaded EPNs (DOX-EPNs) exhibited a higher area under the curve (AUC) and a longer half-life (t 1/2 ) in comparison with DOX solution (DOX-Sol). The biodistribution study demonstrated that DOX-EPNs increased the DOX level in plasma and decreased the accumulation of DOX in liver and spleen. Compared with DOX-Sol, DOX-EPNs increased the cytotoxicity in P-gp over-expressing MCF-7/Adr cells, attributed to the higher intracellular efficiency of DOX produced by the EPNs. DOX-EPNs entered into resistant tumor cells by multiple endocytosis pathways, which resulted in overcoming the multidrug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells by escaping the efflux induced by P-gp transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiotoxic Effects of Short-Term Doxorubicin Administration: Involvement of Connexin 43 in Calcium Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Michela; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Marzocco, Stefania; Ciccarelli, Michele; Iaccarino, Guido; Pinto, Aldo; Popolo, Ada

    2017-10-11

    The use of Doxorubicin (DOXO), a potent antineoplastic agent, is limited by the development of cardiotoxicity. DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity is multifactorial, although alterations in calcium homeostasis, seem to be involved. Since even the Connexin43 (Cx43) plays a pivotal role in these two phenomena, in this study we have analyzed the effects of DOXO on Cx43 expression and localization. Damage caused by anthracyclines on cardiomyocytes is immediate after each injection, in the present study we used a short-term model of DOXO-induced cardiomyopathy. C57BL/6j female mice were randomly divided in groups and injected with DOXO (2 or 10 mg/kg i.p.) for 1-3 or 7 days once every other day. Cardiac function was assessed by Echocardiography. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCAII) and phospholamban (PLB) expression were assessed by Western blot analysis, intracellular [Ca 2+ ] were detected spectrofluorometrically by means of Fura-2 pentakis (acetoxymethyl) ester (FURA-2AM), and Cx43 and pCx43 expression and localization was analyzed by Western blot and confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. DOXO induces impairment in Ca 2+ homeostasis, already evident after a single administration, and affects Cx43 expression and localization. Our data suggest that DOXO-induced alterations in Ca 2+ homeostasis causes in the cells the induction of compensatory mechanisms until a certain threshold, above which cardiac injury is triggered.

  12. Effects of fermented Cordyceps sinensis on oxidative stress in doxorubicin treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Gao, Jian-Ping; Wang, Hui-Lin; Gao, Yan; Wu, Qian; Cui, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is one of the rare traditional Chinese herbs, only a very limited amount of natural CS is produced. Fermented CS, as a substitute for natural CS, is widely used in the field of supplementary medical treatment and health products. Its antagonistic effect on oxidative stress (OS) in vivo has not been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the antagonistic effect of fermented CS on OS in doxorubicin (DOX) treated rats and to compare the anti-OS effects in heart and liver tissues. OS rats were induced by tail-intravenous injection of DOX (total of 7.5 mg/kg), and then administered intragastrically with fermented CS (1.5 g/kg) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, heart, liver and serum samples were taken for and biochemical analyses. Fermented CS significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase and the scavenging activity of O2 (-) in serum, and the total superoxide dismutase activity in cardiac tissue; reduced the malondialdehyde content in liver and cardiac tissues. Fermented CS can inhibit DOX-induced OS reactions, and the anti-OS effects have high selectivity to heart and liver, especially to heart. Thus, fermented CS may be a candidate used for the prevention against various cardiac diseases induced by OS.

  13. Dual stimuli polysaccharide nanovesicles for conjugated and physically loaded doxorubicin delivery in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, P. S.; Shah, Ruchira; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-04-01

    The present work reports the development of pH and enzyme dual responsive polysaccharide vesicular nano-scaffolds for the administration of doxorubicin via physical loading and polymer-drug conjugation to breast cancer cells. Dextran was suitably modified with a renewable resource 3-pentadecyl phenol unit through imine and aliphatic ester chemical linkages that acted as pH and esterase enzyme stimuli, respectively. These dual responsive polysaccharide derivatives self-organized into 200 +/- 10 nm diameter nano-vesicles in water. The water soluble anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX.HCl) was encapsulated in the hydrophilic pocket to produce core-loaded polysaccharide vesicles whereas chemical conjugation produced DOX anchored at the hydrophobic layer of the dextran nano-vesicles. In vitro studies revealed that about 70-80% of the drug was retained under circulatory conditions at pH = 7.4 and 37 °C. At a low pH of 6.0 to 5.0 and in the presence of esterase; both imine and ester linkages were cleaved instantaneously to release 100% of the loaded drugs. Cytotoxicity assays on Wild Type Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (WTMEFs) confirmed the non-toxicity of the newly developed dextran derivatives at up to 500 μg mL-1 in PBS. MTT assays on fibroblast cells revealed that DOX.HCl loaded nano-vesicles exhibited better killing abilities than DOX conjugated polymer nano-vesicles. Both DOX loaded and DOX conjugated nano-vesicles were found to show significant killing in breast cancer cells (MCF 7). Confocal microscopy images confirmed the uptake of DOX loaded (or conjugated) nano-vesicles by cells compared to free DOX. Thus, the newly developed pH and enzyme dual responsive polysaccharide vesicular assemblies are potential drug vectors for the administration of DOX in both loaded and chemically conjugated forms for the efficient killing of breast cancer cells.The present work reports the development of pH and enzyme dual responsive polysaccharide vesicular nano-scaffolds for the

  14. Protective effects of Bombyx mori, quercetin and benazepril against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul S. Nazmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the protective effects of Bombyx mori, quercetin and benazepril on doxorubicin (DXR induced cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats. B. mori, quercetin and benazepril were administered for 7 days, and a single intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg body weight of DXR on day five. The animals were sacrificed 48 h after DXR administration. DXR produced a significant elevation in the malondialdehyde (MDA level and significantly inhibited the activity of glutathione (GSH in the heart and the kidney followed by the activity of catalase (CAT in the heart tissue with a significant rise in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine and a reduction in serum GSH levels indicating acute cardiac toxicity. B. mori, quercetin and benazepril pretreatment significantly reduced the MDA concentration and ameliorated the inhibition of cardiac GSH and CAT activity. B. mori, quercetin and benazepril also significantly improved the serum levels of AST, LDH, BUN, creatinine and GSH in DXR-treated rats. Furthermore, histological examination of the heart sections confirmed the myocardial injury with DXR administration, and the near normal pattern with B. mori, quercetin and benazepril pretreatment. The results provide clear evidence that the B. mori, quercetin and benazepril pretreatments offer significant protection against DXR-induced enzymatic changes in serum, cardiac and renal tissue damage.

  15. PI3K inhibition enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in sarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marklein

    Full Text Available We searched for a drug capable of sensitization of sarcoma cells to doxorubicin (DOX. We report that the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PI103 enhances the efficacy of DOX in several sarcoma cell lines and interacts with DOX in the induction of apoptosis. PI103 decreased the expression of MDR1 and MRP1, which resulted in DOX accumulation. However, the enhancement of DOX-induced apoptosis was unrelated to DOX accumulation. Neither did it involve inhibition of mTOR. Instead, the combination treatment of DOX plus PI103 activated Bax, the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and caspase 3. Caspase 3 activation was also observed in xenografts of sarcoma cells in nude mice upon combination of DOX with the specific PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941. Although the increase in apoptosis did not further impact on tumor growth when compared to the efficient growth inhibition by GDC-0941 alone, these findings suggest that inhibition of PI3K may improve DOX-induced proapoptotic effects in sarcoma. Taken together with similar recent studies of neuroblastoma- and glioblastoma-derived cells, PI3K inhibition seems to be a more general option to sensitize tumor cells to anthracyclines.

  16. Chronophin activation is necessary in Doxorubicin-induced actin cytoskeleton alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Park, Jeen Woo; Kang, Beom Sik; Lee, Dong-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Choi, Sooyoung; Kwon, Oh-Shin

    2017-06-01

    Although doxorubicin (Dox)-induced oxidative stress is known to be associated with cytotoxicity, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Genotoxic stress not only generates free radicals, but also affects actin cytoskeleton stability. We showed that Dox-induced RhoA signaling stimulated actin cytoskeleton alterations, resulting in central stress fiber disruption at early time points and cell periphery cortical actin formation at a later stage, in HeLa cells. Interestingly, activation of a cofilin phosphatase, chronophin (CIN), was initially evoked by Dox-induced RhoA signaling, resulting in a rapid phosphorylated cofilin turnover leading to actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In addition, a novel interaction between CIN and 14-3-3ζ was detected in the absence of Dox treatment. We demonstrated that CIN activity is quite contrary to 14-3-3ζ binding, and the interaction leads to enhanced phosphorylated cofilin levels. Therefore, initial CIN activation regulation could be critical in Dox-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling through RhoA/cofilin signaling. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(6): 335-340].

  17. Electrochemical examination of ability of dsDNA/PAM composites for storing and releasing of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabost, Ewelina; Liwinska, Wioletta; Karbarz, Marcin; Kurek, Eliza; Lyp, Marek; Donten, Mikolaj; Stojek, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Composites consisting of ss- and ds-DNA strands and polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel have been synthesized. DNA was entrapped non-covalently. The obtained DNA biomaterial exhibited a strong increase in guanine and adenine anodic currents when temperature reached the physiological level. This increase was related to the unique oligonucleotide structural changes in the composite. The structural alterations in the PAM lattices were employed for the release of the drug accumulated in the composite. Doxorubicin (Dox) was selected as the drug; it was accumulated by intercalation to dsDNA and was slowly released from the dsDNA/PAM system by using a minor temperature increase (up to 40÷45 °C) as it is routinely done in hyperthermia. The applied release temperature was either constant or oscillating. The binding strength, the rate of Dox release and the properties of the composite were examined using voltammetry, SEM and ICP-MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An overview on the delivery of antitumor drug doxorubicin by carrier proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, D; Bérubé, G; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-07-01

    Serum proteins play an increasing role as drug carriers in the clinical settings. In this review, we have compared the binding modalities of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) to three model carrier proteins, human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (β-LG) in order to determine the potential application of these model proteins in DOX delivery. Molecular modeling studies showed stronger binding of DOX with HSA than BSA and β-LG with the free binding energies of -10.75 (DOX-HSA), -9.31 (DOX-BSA) and -8.12kcal/mol (DOX-β-LG). Extensive H-boding network stabilizes DOX-protein conjugation and played a major role in drug-protein complex formation. DOX complexation induced major alterations of HSA and BSA conformations, while did not alter β-LG secondary structure. The literature review shows that these proteins can potentially be used for delivery of DOX in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gold nanoparticles as a factor of influence on doxorubicin-bovine serum albumin complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharenko, N. A.; Pavlenko, O. L.; Dmytrenko, O. P.; Kulish, M. P.; Lopatynskyi, A. M.; Chegel, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    The interaction between doxorubicin (Dox) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) complex with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated by optical spectroscopy. The optical absorption of Dox and BSA solutions was studied. The formation of Dox-BSA complexes with a binding constant K = 7.56 × 106 M-2 and the number of binding sites n = 2 was found out. With pH 6.9, the concentration of complexes is an order of magnitude lower than the concentration of unbound antibiotic molecules. Optical absorption in solutions of Dox-BSA conjugates in the presence of AuNPs undergoes a significant rearrangement, which manifests the changes in the magnitude of the hydrophobic interaction of BSA with Dox, changes in the conformational state of antibiotic, and, as a consequence, a plasmon-induced change in the mechanism of complex formation. The aggregation of the Dox-AuNPs conjugate depends on the presence and concentration of BSA and in the case of formation of the Dox-BSA complex is minimal.

  20. Chondroitin sulfate-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential carriers of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Neha; Anwar, Mohammed; Asfer, Mohammed; Mehdi, Syed Hassan; Rizvi, Mohammed Moshahid Alam; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2016-10-20

    Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, was used to prepare CS-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which were further employed for loading a water-soluble chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX). CS-capped SPIONs have potential biomedical application in cancer targeting. The optimized formulation had a hydrodynamic size of 91.2±0.8nm (PDI; 0.228±0.004) and zeta potential of -49.1±1.66mV. DOX was loaded onto the formulation up to 2% (w/w) by physical interaction with CS. TEM showed nano-sized particles having a core-shell structure. XRD confirmed crystal phase of iron oxide. FT-IR conceived the interaction of iron oxide with CS as bidentate chelation and also confirmed DOX loading. Vibration sample magnetometry confirmed super-paramagnetic nature of nanoparticles, with saturation magnetization of 0.238emug(-1). In vitro release profile at pH 7.4 showed that 96.67% of DOX was released within 24h (first order kinetics). MTT assay in MCF7 cells showed significantly higher (p<0.0001) cytotoxicity for DOX in SPIONs than DOX solution (IC50 values 6.294±0.4169 and 11.316±0.1102μgmL(-1), respectively). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrospinning of doxorubicin loaded silica/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) hybrid fiber mats for sustained drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, Mohammed I.; El Hady, Bothaina M. Abd; Saeed, Aziza A. Al; Tolba, Emad; El Rashedi, Ahlam M. I.; Saleh, Safaa

    2018-06-01

    Loading of anticancer drugs into electrospun fiber matrices is a portentous approach for clinical treatment of diseased tissues or organs. In this study, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is added to silica nanoparticles () during the formation of via the sol-gel approach. The obtained nanoparticles are then added to poly(-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blend before electrospinning process via different methods. The effects of DOX addition as a free form or as nanoparticles on physical and chemical properties of obtained PCL-PEO fibers, as well as release profiles are evaluated to give a continual DOX release for several days. The morphology observed with scanning electron microscope (FESEM) revealed significant changes in the average diameter of obtained fibers ranging from 2164 nm to 659 nm and distribution of drug-loaded nanoparticles in the final mats according to the mode of additions. With the same manner, the releasing performances of obtained mats are quite different. Therefore, fabrication of drug loaded mats would offer a powerful approach to minimize serious side effects for clinical patients and allows us to control the drug concentration in the bloodstream.

  2. High hydrostatic pressure encapsulation of doxorubicin in ferritin nanocages with enhanced efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Liping; Li, Zenglan; Guo, Fangxia; Li, Xiunan; Luo, Jian; Zhao, Dawei; Liu, Yongdong; Su, Zhiguo

    2017-07-20

    Human ferritin (HFn) nanocaging is becoming an appealing platform for anticancer drugs delivery. However, protein aggregation always occurs during the encapsulation process, resulting in low production efficiency. A new approach using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was explored in this study to overcome the problem of loading doxorubicin (DOX) in HFn. At the pressure of 500MPa and pH 5.5, DOX molecules were found to be encapsulated into HFn. Meanwhile, combining it with an additive of 20mM arginine completely inhibited precipitation and aggregation, resulting in highly monodispersed nanoparticles with almost 100% protein recovery. Furthermore, stepwise decompression and incubation of the complex in atmospheric pressure at pH 7.4 for another period could further increase the DOX encapsulation ratio. The HFn-DOX nanoparticles (NPs) showed similar morphology and structural features to the hollow cage and no notable drug leakage occurred for HFn-DOX NPs when stored at 4°C and pH 7.4 for two weeks. HFn-DOX NPs prepared through HHP also showed significant cytotoxicity in vitro and higher antitumor bioactivity in vivo than naked DOX. Moreover, This HHP encapsulation strategy could economize on DOX that was greatly wasted during the conventional preparation process simply through a desalting column. These results indicated that HHP could offer a feasible approach with high efficiency for the production of HFn-DOX NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adsorption Properties of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride onto Graphene Oxide: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonghua Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX is an effective anticancer agent for leukemia chemotherapy, although its clinical use has been limited because of its side effects such as cardiotoxicity, alopecia, vomiting, and leucopenia. Attention has been focussed on developing new drug carriers with high adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption rate in order to minimize the side effects of DOX. Graphene oxide (GO, a new type of nanomaterial in the carbon family, was prepared by Hummers method and used as adsorbent for DOX from aqueous solution. The physico-chemical properties of GO were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, zeta potential, and element analysis. The adsorption properties of DOX on GO were studied as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, temperature and pH value. The results showed that GO had a maximum adsorption capacity of 1428.57 mg/g and the adsorption isotherm data fitted the Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption fits a pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic studies indicate that the adsorption of DOX on GO is spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  4. Fraction From Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduces Immunotoxicity and Enhances Antitumor Activity of Doxorubicin in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangliang; Luo, Shuang; Luo, Xia; Hu, Minghua; Ma, Fangli; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lian; Huang, Rongrong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether fraction from Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) could reduce immunotoxicity and enhance antitumor activity of doxorubicin (Dox) in mice. A water-soluble LBP fraction, designated LBP3, was isolated from edible Chinese herbal Lycium barbarum and used in this study. To investigate the effect of LBP3 on Dox-induced immunotoxicity, tumor-free mice were used and treated with either normal saline, Dox, or Dox plus LBP3. To investigate the effect of LBP3 on antitumor activity of Dox, H22 tumor-bearing mice were used and treated with either normal saline, Dox, LBP3, or Dox plus LBP3. The results showed that LBP3 did not protect against the body weight loss caused by Dox, but it promoted the recovery of body weight starting at day 5 after Dox treatment in tumor-free mice. LBP3 also improved peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, promoted cell cycle recovery in bone marrow cells, and restored the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. Furthermore, in H22 tumor-bearing mice, LBP3 enhanced antitumor activity of Dox and improved peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and the cytotoxicity of splenocytes. In brief, our results demonstrated that LBP3 could reduce the immunotoxicity and enhance antitumor activity of Dox.

  5. Quercetin-Based Modified Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Enhanced Inhibition of Doxorubicin-Resistant Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zehua; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Bhat, Chinmay; Vahermo, Mikko; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kemell, Marianna; Fontana, Flavia; Janoniene, Agne; Petrikaite, Vilma; Salonen, Jarno; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Hirvonen, Jouni; Zhang, Hongbo; Santos, Hélder A

    2017-02-01

    One of the most challenging obstacles in nanoparticle's surface modification is to achieve the concept that one ligand can accomplish multiple purposes. Upon such consideration, 3-aminopropoxy-linked quercetin (AmQu), a derivative of a natural flavonoid inspired by the structure of dopamine, is designed and subsequently used to modify the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles. This nanosystem inherits several advanced properties in a single carrier, including promoted anticancer efficiency, multiple drug resistance (MDR) reversing, stimuli-responsive drug release, drug release monitoring, and enhanced particle-cell interactions. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) is efficiently loaded into this nanosystem and released in a pH-dependent manner. AmQu also effectively quenches the fluorescence of the loaded DOX, thereby allowing the use of the nanosystem for monitoring the intracellular drug release. Furthermore, a synergistic effect with the presence of AmQu is observed in both normal MCF-7 and DOX-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Due to the similar structure as dopamine, AmQu may facilitate both the interaction and internalization of PSi into the cells. Overall, this PSi-based platform exhibits remarkable superiority in both multifunctionality and anticancer efficiency, making this nanovector a promising system for anti-MDR cancer treatment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Targeted Tumor Therapy Based on Nanodiamonds Decorated with Doxorubicin and Folic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Tae-Kyung; Baek, Seung Woon; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Wook

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of nanodiamond (ND)-based drug carriers for tumor-targeted drug delivery is described. The ND clusters with an average size of 52.84 nm are fabricated using a simple fluidic device combined with a precipitation method and then conjugated with folic acid (FA) and doxorubicin (Dox) via carbodiimide chemistry to obtain FA/Dox-modified ND (FA/Dox-ND) clusters. Cell culture experiments revealed that KB (folate receptor-positive) cells are preferentially ablated by FA/Dox-ND clusters compared to A549 (folate receptor-negative) cells. In vivo results revealed that FA/Dox-ND clusters are specifically accumulated in tumor tissues after intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice, effectively reducing the volume of tumor. Based on these results, this study suggests that FA/Dox-ND clusters can be a good candidate as tumor-targeted nanovehicles for delivery of antitumor drug. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Doxorubicin loaded nanodiamond-silk spheres for fluorescence tracking and controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Asma; Mitropoulos, Alexander N.; Marelli, Benedetto; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) based technologies have proved to be considerably beneficial for advances in biomedicine especially in the areas of disease detection, drug delivery and bioimaging. Over the last few decades, NPs have garnered interest for their exemplary impacts on the detection, treatment, and prevention of cancer. The full potential of these technologies are yet to be employed for clinical use. The ongoing research and development in this field demands single multifunctional composite materials that can be employed simultaneously for drug delivery and biomedical imaging. In this manuscript, a unique combination of silk fibroin (SF) and nanodiamonds (NDs) in the form of nanospheres are fabricated and investigated. The spheres were loaded with the anthracyline Doxorubicin (DoX) and the drug release kinetics for these ND-SF-DoX (NDSX) spheres were studied. NDs provided the fluorescence modality for imaging while the degradable SF spheres stabilized and released the drug in a controlled manner. The emission and structural properties of the spheres were characterized during drug release. The degradability of SF and the subsequent release of DoX from the spheres were monitored through fluorescence of NDs inside the spheres. This research demonstrates the enormous potential of the ND-SF nanocomposite platforms for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, which are both important for pharmaceutical research and clinical settings. PMID:26819823

  8. Folate-containing reduction-sensitive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for targeted delivery of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Yu, Ping; Cui, Can; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Lei; Wang, Cai-Xia; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Huang, Shi-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The development and evaluation of folate-targeted and reduction-triggered biodegradable nanoparticles are introduced to the research on targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). This type of folate-targeted lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (FLPNPs) is comprised of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core, a soybean lecithin monolayer, a monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-S-S-hexadecyl (mPEG-S-S-C16) reduction-sensitive shell, and a folic acid-targeted ligand. FLPNPs exhibited high size stability but fast disassembly in a simulated cancer cell reductive environment. The experiments on the release process in vitro revealed that as a reduction-sensitive drug delivery system, FLPNPs released DOX faster in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). Results from flow cytometry, confocal image and in vitro cytotoxicity assays revealed that FLPNPs further enhanced cell uptake and generated higher cytotoxicity against human epidermoid carcinoma in the oral cavity than non-targeted redox-sensitive and targeted redox-insensitive controls. Furthermore, in vivo animal experiments demonstrated that systemic administration of DOX-loaded FLPNPs remarkably reduced tumor growth. Experiments on biodistribution of DOX-loaded FLPNPs showed that an increasing amount of DOX accumulated in the tumor. Therefore, FLPNPs formulations have proved to be a stable, controllable and targeted anticancer drug delivery system.

  9. Lipid-Polymer Nanoparticles for Folate-Receptor Targeting Delivery of Doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingbin; Gong, Ping; Zheng, Cuifang; Zhao, Pengfei; Luo, Zhenyu; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2015-07-01

    A biocompatible PLGA-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) was developed for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs with doxorubicin (DOX). The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of DOX-loaded PLGA-lipid NPs (DNPs) were affected by the mass ratio of Lipid/PLGA or DSPE-PEG-COOH/Lecithin. At the 1:20 drug/polymer mass ratio, the mean hydrodynamic diameter of DNPs was the lowest (99.2 1.83 nm) and the NPs presented the encapsulation efficiency of DOX with 42.69 1.30%. Due to the folate-receptor mediated endocytosis, the PLGA-lipid NPs with folic acid (FA) targeting ligand showed significant higher uptake by folate-receptor-positive MCF-7 cells as compared to PLGA-lipid NPs without folate. Confocal microscopic observation and flow cytometry analysis also supported the enhanced cellular uptake of the FA-targeted NPs. The results indicated that the FA-targeted DNPs exhibited higher cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells compared with non-targeted NPs. The lipid-polymer nanoparticles provide a solution of biocompatible nanocarrier for cancer targeting therapy.

  10. MRI-guided targeting delivery of doxorubicin with reduction-responsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Lu, Shu-Ting; Deng, Kai; Yu, Hui; Cui, Can; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Ming; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Xu, Hai-Bo; Huang, Shi-Wen

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing a multifunctional nanoscale platform for cancer monitoring and chemotherapy. However, there is still a big challenge for current clinic contrast agents to improve their poor tumor selectivity and response. Herein, we report a new kind of Gd complex and folate-coated redox-sensitive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle (Gd-FLPNP) for tumor-targeted magnetic resonance imaging and therapy. Gd-FLPNPs can simultaneously accomplish diagnostic imaging, and specific targeting and controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX). They exhibit good monodispersity, excellent size stability, and a well-defined core-shell structure. Paramagnetic nanoparticles based on gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bis-cetylamine have paramagnetic properties with an approximately two-fold enhancement in the longitudinal relaxivity compared to clinical used Magnevist. For targeted and reduction-sensitive drug delivery, Gd-FLPNPs released DOX faster and enhanced cell uptake in vitro, and exhibited better antitumor effect both in vitro and in vivo.

  11. MRI-guided targeting delivery of doxorubicin with reduction-responsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu B

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bo Wu,1,2 Shu-Ting Lu,1 Kai Deng,2 Hui Yu,2 Can Cui,2 Yang Zhang,2 Ming Wu,2 Ren-Xi Zhuo,2 Hai-Bo Xu,1 Shi-Wen Huang2 1Department of Radiology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 2Key Laboratory of Biomedical Polymers, Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing a multifunctional nanoscale platform for cancer monitoring and chemotherapy. However, there is still a big challenge for current clinic contrast agents to improve their poor tumor selectivity and response. Herein, we report a new kind of Gd complex and folate-coated redox-sensitive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle (Gd-FLPNP for tumor-targeted magnetic resonance imaging and therapy. Gd-FLPNPs can simultaneously accomplish diagnostic imaging, and specific targeting and controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX. They exhibit good monodispersity, excellent size stability, and a well-defined core-shell structure. Paramagnetic nanoparticles based on gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bis-cetylamine have paramagnetic properties with an approximately two-fold enhancement in the longitudinal relaxivity compared to clinical used Magnevist. For targeted and reduction-sensitive drug delivery, Gd-FLPNPs released DOX faster and enhanced cell uptake in vitro, and exhibited better antitumor effect both in vitro and in vivo. Keywords: redox-sensitive, tumor-targeted, gadolinium, contrast agents, PLGA

  12. Resveratrol Modulates the Topoisomerase Inhibitory Potential of Doxorubicin in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Schroeter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RSV is currently being widely discussed as potentially useful for anticancer therapy in combination with classical chemotherapeutics, e.g., the topoisomerase II (TOP II poison doxorubicin (DOX. However, there is still a lack of knowledge of possible interference at the target enzyme, especially since RSV itself has recently been described to act as a TOP poison. We therefore sought to address the question whether RSV affects DOX-induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects with special emphasis on TOP II in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. RSV was found to counteract DOX-induced formation of DNA-TOP-intermediates at ≥100 µM for TOP IIα and at 250 µM for TOP IIβ. As a consequence, RSV modulated the DNA-strand breaking potential of DOX by mediating protective effects with an apparent maximum at 100 µM. At higher concentration ranges (≥200 µM RSV diminished the intracellular concentrations of DOX. Nevertheless, the presence of RSV slightly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of DOX after 1.5 h and 24 h of incubation. Taken together, at least in cell culture RSV was found to affect the TOP-poisoning potential of DOX and to modulate its cytotoxic effectiveness. Thus, further studies are needed to clarify the impact of RSV on the therapeutic effectiveness of DOX under in vivo conditions.

  13. Evaluation of the potential cardioprotective activity of some Saudi plants against doxorubicin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Osama M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nagy, Ayman A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of several tumours. However, its cardiac toxicity limits its use at maximum therapeutic doses. Most studies implicated increased oxidative stress as the major determinant of DOX cardiotoxicity. The local Saudi flora is very rich in a variety of plants of quite known folkloric or traditional medicinal uses. Tribulus macropterus Boiss., Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P. S. Green, Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst., Cynomorium coccineum L., Cordia myxa L., Calligonum comosum L' Hér, and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal are Saudi plants known to have antioxidant activities. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effects of methanolic extracts of these seven Saudi plants against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Two plants showed promising cardioprotective potential in the order Calligonum comosum > Cordia myxa. The two plant extracts showed potent in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. They significantly protected against DOX-induced alterations in cardiac oxidative stress markers (GSH and MDA) and cardiac serum markers (CK-MB and LDH activities). Additionally, histopathological examination indicated a protection against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. In conclusion, C. comosum and C. myxa exerted protective activity against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, which is, at least partly, due to their antioxidant effect.

  14. Synergistic Cytotoxicity Effect by Combination Treatment of Polyketide Derivatives from Annona muricata Linn Leaves and Doxorubicin as Potential Anticancer Material on Raji Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, A. N.; Astirin, O. P.; Prayito, A.; Fisma, R.; Prihapsara, F.

    2018-03-01

    Nasopharynx cancer is one of the most deadly cancer. The main priority of nasopharynx cancer treatment is the use of chemotherapeutic agents, especially doxorubicin. However, doxorubicin might also lead to diverse side effect. An approach recently develop to overcome side effect of doxorubicin is to used of combined chemotherapeutic agent. One of the compounds found effication as an anticancer agent on nasopharynx cancer is acetogenin, a polyketide compound that is abundant in Annona muricata L. leaves. This study has been done to examine polyketide derivatives was isolated from Annona muricata L. which has potency to induce apoptosis by p53 expression on raji cell line. The determination of cytotoxic combination activity from polyketide derivative and doxorubicin was evaluated using MTT assay to obtain the value of CI (combination index). Data analysis showed that combination of polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. (14,4 µg/ml) and doxorubicin with all of concentration performed synergistic effect on raji cell line with CI value from 0.13 – 0.65.

  15. Maximizing the Benefit-Cost Ratio of Anthracyclines in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Case Report of a Patient with a Complete Response to High-Dose Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Shee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the clinical efficacy of anthracycline agents such as doxorubicin, dose-limiting cardiac toxicities significantly limit their long-term use. Here, we present the case of a 33-year-old female patient with extensive metastatic ER+/PR+/HER2– mucinous adenocarcinoma of the breast, who was started on doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide therapy after progressing on paclitaxel and ovarian suppressor goserelin with aromatase inhibitor exemestane. The patient was comanaged by cardiology, who carefully monitored measures of cardiac function, including EKGs, serial echocardiograms, and profiling of lipids, troponin, and pro-BNP every 2 months. The patient was treated with the cardioprotective agent dexrazoxane, and changes in cardiac markers [e.g. decreases in ejection fraction (EF] were immediately addressed by therapeutic intervention with the ACE inhibitor lisinopril and beta-blocker metoprolol. The patient had a complete response to doxorubicin therapy, with a cumulative dose of 1,350 mg/m2, which is significantly above the recommended limits, and to our knowledge, the highest dose reported in literature. Two and a half years after the last doxorubicin cycle, the patient is asymptomatic with no cardiotoxicity and an excellent quality of life. This case highlights the importance of careful monitoring and management of doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity, and that higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines can be considered in patients with ongoing clinical benefit.

  16. Phase III trial of two investigational schedules of ifosfamide compared with standard-dose doxorubicin in advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorigan, Paul; Verweij, Jaap; Papai, Zsuzsa; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Le Cesne, Axel; Leahy, Michael G.; Radford, John A.; van Glabbeke, Martine M.; Kirkpatrick, Anne; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Single-agent doxorubicin remains the standard treatment for advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Combining doxorubicin with standard-dose ifosfamide has not been shown to improve survival and is associated with a significantly increased toxicity; it is not known whether higher dose single-agent

  17. Concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous Infusion in advanced malignancies - A phase I-II study - evidence of synergistic effect in Soft tissue sarcomas and hepatomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, C.J.; Bhutiani, I.; Rotman, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish the dose and the duration of administration of doxorubicin infusion having the best therapeutic index and to determine the dose of radiation which in combination with the optimal dose of doxorubicin administered by continuous infusion would have the best therapeutic index. The authors attempt to find the nature and the incidence of side effects of these combined modalities of therapy. The therapeutic effect of the optimal doxorubicin infusion dose in combination with concomitant radiotherapy is assessed in a preliminary study and it was found to have a significant enhancing effect in a few cases of hepatomas and in most of the cases of recurrent and metastatic soft tissue sarcomas

  18. Monitoring the effects of doxorubicin on 3D-spheroid tumor cells in real-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek N

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available NamHuk Baek,1,* Ok Won Seo,1,* MinSung Kim,1 John Hulme,2 Seong Soo A An2 1Department of R & D, NanoEntek Inc., Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of BioNano Technology Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Recently, increasing numbers of cell culture experiments with 3D spheroids presented better correlating results in vivo than traditional 2D cell culture systems. 3D spheroids could offer a simple and highly reproducible model that would exhibit many characteristics of natural tissue, such as the production of extracellular matrix. In this paper numerous cell lines were screened and selected depending on their ability to form and maintain a spherical shape. The effects of increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (DXR on the integrity and viability of the selected spheroids were then measured at regular intervals and in real-time. In total 12 cell lines, adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial (A549, muscle (C2C12, prostate (DU145, testis (F9, pituitary epithelial-like (GH3, cervical cancer (HeLa, HeLa contaminant (HEp2, embryo (NIH3T3, embryo (PA317, neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, osteosarcoma U2OS, and embryonic kidney cells (293T, were screened. Out of the 12, 8 cell lines, NIH3T3, C2C12, 293T, SH-SY5Y, A549, HeLa, PA317, and U2OS formed regular spheroids and the effects of DXR on these structures were measured at regular intervals. Finally, 5 cell lines, A549, HeLa, SH-SY5Y, U2OS, and 293T, were selected for real-time monitoring and the effects of DXR treatment on their behavior were continuously recorded for 5 days. A potential correlation regarding the effects of DXR on spheroid viability and ATP production was measured on days 1, 3, and 5. Cytotoxicity of DXR seemed to occur after endocytosis, since the cellular activities and ATP productions were still viable after 1 day of the treatment in all spheroids, except SH-SY5Y. Both cellular activity and ATP production were

  19. Chrysin enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung epithelial cancer cell lines: The role of glutathione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechbuhl, Heather M. [Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado (United States); Kachadourian, Remy; Min, Elysia [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado (United States); Chan, Daniel [Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Day, Brian J., E-mail: dayb@njhealth.org [Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Immunology, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that flavonoid-induced glutathione (GSH) efflux through multi-drug resistance proteins (MRPs) and subsequent intracellular GSH depletion is a viable mechanism to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapies. This concept was demonstrated using chrysin (5–25 μM) induced GSH efflux in human non-small cell lung cancer lines exposed to the chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX). Treatment with chrysin resulted in significant and sustained intracellular GSH depletion and the GSH enzyme network in the four cancer cell types was predictive of the severity of chrysin induced intracellular GSH depletion. Gene expression data indicated a positive correlation between basal MRP1, MRP3 and MRP5 expression and total GSH efflux before and after chrysin exposure. Co-treating the cells for 72 h with chrysin (5–30 μM) and DOX (0.025–3.0 μM) significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to DOX as compared to 72-hour DOX alone treatment in all four cell lines. The maximum decrease in the IC{sub 50} values of cells treated with DOX alone compared to co-treatment with chrysin and DOX was 43% in A549 cells, 47% in H157 and H1975 cells and 78% in H460 cells. Chrysin worked synergistically with DOX to induce cancer cell death. This approach could allow for use of lower concentrations and/or sensitize cancer cells to drugs that are typically resistant to therapy. -- Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms by which chrysin enhances doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cancer cells. Highlights: ► Chyrsin sustains a significant depletion of GSH levels in lung cancer cells. ► Chyrsin synergistically potentiates doxorubicin-induced cancer cell cytotoxicity. ► Cancer cell sensitivity correlated with GSH and MRP gene network expression. ► This approach could allow for lower side effects and targeting resistant tumors.

  20. Doxorubicin: Comparison between 3-h continuous and bolus intravenous administration paradigms on cardio-renal axis, mitochondrial sphingolipids and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamendi, Harriet; Zhou, Ying; Crosby, Meredith; Keirstead, Natalie; Snow, Debra; Bentley, Patricia; Patel, Nilaben; Barthlow, Herbert; Luo, Wenli; Dragan, Yvonne; Bialecki, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and effective broad-spectrum anthracycline antitumor agent, but its clinical usefulness is restricted by cardiotoxicity. This study compared pharmacokinetic, functional, structural and biochemical effects of single dose DOX bolus or 3-h continuous iv infusion (3-h iv) in the Han–Wistar rat to characterize possible treatment-related differences in drug safety over a 72 h observation period. Both DOX dosing paradigms significantly altered blood pressure, core body temperature and QA interval (indirect measure of cardiac contractility); however, there was no recovery observed in the bolus iv treatment group. Following the 3-h iv treatment, blood pressures and QA interval normalized by 36 h then rose above baseline levels over 72 h. Both treatments induced biphasic changes in heart rate with initial increases followed by sustained decreases. Cardiac injury biomarkers in plasma were elevated only in the bolus iv treatment group. Tissue cardiac injury biomarkers, cardiac mitochondrial complexes I, III and V and cardiac mitochondrial sphingolipids were decreased only in the bolus iv treatment group. Results indicate that each DOX dosing paradigm deregulates sinus rhythm. However, slowing the rate of infusion allows for functional compensation of blood pressure and may decrease the likelihood of cardiac myocyte necrosis via a mechanism associated with reduced mitochondrial damage. - Highlights: • Despite damaging cardiomyocytes, continuous iv doxorubicin improves cardiovascular outcomes. • This study supports administration of doxorubicin via slow continuous iv infusion limits acute cardio-toxicity. • This study supports use of metabolomic-derived lipid biomarkers for improved quantification of cardiovascular risk. • This study supports systems-based physiological approach to generate a data that can greatly inform risk assessments.

  1. Proteomic profiling reveals that resveratrol inhibits HSP27 expression and sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz-Chávez

    Full Text Available The use of chemopreventive natural compounds represents a promising strategy in the search for novel therapeutic agents in cancer. Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbilene is a dietary polyphenol found in fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants that exhibits chemopreventive and antitumor effects. In this study, we searched for modulated proteins with preventive or therapeutic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we found significant changes (FC >2.0; p≤0.05 in the expression of 16 proteins in resveratrol-treated MCF-7 cells. Six down-regulated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS as heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, translationally-controlled tumor protein, peroxiredoxin-6, stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1, pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase-1 and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; whereas one up-regulated protein was identified as triosephosphate isomerase. Particularly, HSP27 overexpression has been associated to apoptosis inhibition and resistance of human cancer cells to therapy. Consistently, we demonstrated that resveratrol induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis was associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release in cytoplasm, and caspases -3 and -9 independent cell death. Then, we evaluated the chemosensitization effect of increasing concentrations of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin anti-neoplastic agent in vitro. We found that resveratrol effectively sensitize MCF-7 cells to cytotoxic therapy. Next, we evaluated the relevance of HSP27 targeted inhibition in therapy effectiveness. Results evidenced that HSP27 inhibition using RNA interference enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. In conclusion, our data indicate that resveratrol may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in part by cell death induction. We propose that potential modulation of HSP27

  2. Proteomic profiling reveals that resveratrol inhibits HSP27 expression and sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Chávez, José; Fonseca-Sánchez, Miguel A; Arechaga-Ocampo, Elena; Flores-Pérez, Ali; Palacios-Rodríguez, Yadira; Domínguez-Gómez, Guadalupe; Marchat, Laurence A; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Gariglio, Patricio; López-Camarillo, César

    2013-01-01

    The use of chemopreventive natural compounds represents a promising strategy in the search for novel therapeutic agents in cancer. Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbilene) is a dietary polyphenol found in fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants that exhibits chemopreventive and antitumor effects. In this study, we searched for modulated proteins with preventive or therapeutic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we found significant changes (FC >2.0; p≤0.05) in the expression of 16 proteins in resveratrol-treated MCF-7 cells. Six down-regulated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), translationally-controlled tumor protein, peroxiredoxin-6, stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1, pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase-1 and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; whereas one up-regulated protein was identified as triosephosphate isomerase. Particularly, HSP27 overexpression has been associated to apoptosis inhibition and resistance of human cancer cells to therapy. Consistently, we demonstrated that resveratrol induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis was associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release in cytoplasm, and caspases -3 and -9 independent cell death. Then, we evaluated the chemosensitization effect of increasing concentrations of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin anti-neoplastic agent in vitro. We found that resveratrol effectively sensitize MCF-7 cells to cytotoxic therapy. Next, we evaluated the relevance of HSP27 targeted inhibition in therapy effectiveness. Results evidenced that HSP27 inhibition using RNA interference enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. In conclusion, our data indicate that resveratrol may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in part by cell death induction. We propose that potential modulation of HSP27 levels using natural

  3. Kinetic Targeting of pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin: a new Approach to Reduce Toxicity during Chemotherapy (CARL-trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic success of chemotherapeutic agents is often limited by severe adverse effects. To reduce toxicity of these drugs, nanoscale particle-based drug delivery systems (DDS are used. DDS accumulate to some extent in tumor tissues, but only a very small portion of a given dose reaches this target. Accumulation of DDS in tumor tissues is supposed to be much faster than in certain other tissues in which side effects occur ("Kinetic Targeting". Once saturation in tumor tissue is achieved, most of the administered DDS still circulate in the plasma. The extracorporeal elimination of these circulating nanoparticles would probably reduce toxicity. Methods For the CARL-trial (Controlled Application and Removal of Liposomal chemotherapeutics, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD was used as chemotherapeutic agent and double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP was performed for extracorporeal elimination of liposomes. PLD was given as 40 mg/m2 every 3 weeks in combination with vinorelbine 2 × 25 mg/m2 (neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer, 12 patients, or as 40 mg/m2 every 4 weeks (recurrent ovarian cancer, 3 patients. Primary endpoints were the efficiency and safety profile of DFPP, and secondary endpoints were side effects and tumor response. Results DFPP eliminated ~62% of circulating PLD, corresponding to ~45% of the total dose (n = 57 cycles. AUC of doxorubicin was reduced by 50%. No leakage of doxorubicin was detected during elimination, and no relevant DFPP-related side effects occurred. Reduction in tumor size > 30% occurred in 10/12 (neoadjuvant and in 1/3 patients (recurrent. Only five grade 2 events and one grade 3 event (mucositis, neutropenia or leucopenia and a single palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia grade 2 were reported. Conclusion Extracorporeal elimination of PLD by DFPP is safe and efficient. CARL can diminish the main dose-limiting side effects of PLD, and probably many different DDS alike. Trial

  4. Comparison of carboplatin and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocols in 470 dogs after amputation for treatment of appendicular osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmic, L E; Burton, J H; Thamm, D H; Withrow, S J; Lana, S E

    2014-01-01

    Many chemotherapy protocols have been reported for treatment of canine appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA), but outcome comparisons in a single population are lacking. To evaluate the effects of protocol and dose intensity (DI) on treatment outcomes for carboplatin and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocols. Four hundred and seventy dogs with appendicular OSA. A retrospective cohort study was performed comprising consecutive dogs treated (1997-2012) with amputation followed by 1 of 5 chemotherapy protocols: carboplatin 300 mg/m(2) IV q21d for 4 or 6 cycles (CARBO6), doxorubicin 30 mg/m(2) IV q14d or q21d for 5 cycles, and alternating carboplatin 300 mg/m(2) IV and doxorubicin 30 mg/m(2) IV q21d for 3 cycles. Adverse events (AE) and DI were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare disease-free interval (DFI) and survival time (ST) among protocols. The overall median DFI and ST were 291 days and 284 days, respectively. A lower proportion of dogs prescribed CARBO6 experienced AEs compared to other protocols (48.4% versus 60.8-75.8%; P = .001). DI was not associated with development of metastases or death. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and prognostic factors, none of the protocols provided a significant reduction in risk of development of metastases or death. Although choice of protocol did not result in significant differences in DFI or ST, the CARBO6 protocol resulted in a lower proportion of dogs experiencing AEs, which could be advantageous in maintaining high quality of life during treatment. DI was not a prognostic indicator in this study. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. On–off switch-controlled doxorubicin release from thermo- and pH-responsive coated bimagnetic nanocarriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammad, Mohaned; Nica, Valentin; Hempelmann, Rolf, E-mail: r.hempelmann@mx.uni-saarland.de [Saarland University, Department of Physical Chemistry (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    A switch-controlled drug release system is designed by coating of core/shell bimagnetic nanoparticles with a pH- and thermo-responsive polymer shell, which can be used as hyperthermic agent, drug carrier, and for controlled release. Doxorubicin is loaded onto the surface of the last coating layer, and a high loading efficiency of 90.5 % is obtained. The nanocarriers are characterized by FTIR, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, TEM, In vitro hyperthermia, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The core/shell magnetic nanoparticles (Zn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@Zn{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization around 45.6 emu/g and a high specific absorption rate of up to 360 W/g. The in vitro drug release experiments confirm that only a small amount of doxorubicin is released at body temperature and physiological pH, whereas a high drug release is obtained at acidic tumor pH under hyperthermia conditions (43 °C). The functionalized core/shell bimagnetic nanocarriers facilitate controllable release of doxorubicin as an effect of induced thermo- and pH-responsiveness of the polymer when are subjected to a high-frequency alternating magnetic field at acidic pH; thereby the drug release rate is controlled using on–off cycles of the applied field.Graphical Abstract.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of novel polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles for controlled delivery of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarzadeh A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abolfazl Akbarzadeh1, Nosratollah Zarghami2, Haleh Mikaeili3, Davoud Asgari4, Amir Mohammad Goganian5, Hanie Khaksar Khiabani5, Mohammad Samiei6, Soodabeh Davaran31Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 3Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 4Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, 6Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranAbstract: Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-methyl methacrylic acid, PNIPAAm-MAA-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using silane-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a template for radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and methacrylic acid. Properties of these nanoparticles, such as size, drug-loading efficiency, and drug release kinetics, were evaluated in vitro for targeted and controlled drug delivery. The resulting nanoparticles had a diameter of 100 nm and a doxorubicin-loading efficiency of 75%, significantly higher doxorubicin release at 40°C compared with 37°C, and pH 5.8 compared with pH 7.4, demonstrating their temperature and pH sensitivity, respectively. In addition, the particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. In vitro cytotoxicity testing showed that the PNIPAAm-MAA-coated magnetic nanoparticles had no cytotoxicity and were biocompatible, indicating their potential for biomedical application.Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, drug loading, doxorubicin release, biocompatibility

  7. Doxorubicin: Comparison between 3-h continuous and bolus intravenous administration paradigms on cardio-renal axis, mitochondrial sphingolipids and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamendi, Harriet, E-mail: harriet_kamendi@kandih.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Zhou, Ying, E-mail: yingzhou526@gmail.com [Oncology Innovative Medicines and Early Development, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Crosby, Meredith, E-mail: Meredith.crosby@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Keirstead, Natalie, E-mail: Nkeirstead@alnylam.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Snow, Debra, E-mail: Debra.snow@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Bentley, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.bentley@abbvie.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Patel, Nilaben, E-mail: patelnilaben@yahoo.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Barthlow, Herbert, E-mail: Herbert.barthlow@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Luo, Wenli, E-mail: Wenli.luo@astrazeneca.com [Discovery Sciences, Innovative Medicines, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Dragan, Yvonne, E-mail: Yvonne.P.Dragan@takeda.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Bialecki, Russell, E-mail: russell.bialecki@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and effective broad-spectrum anthracycline antitumor agent, but its clinical usefulness is restricted by cardiotoxicity. This study compared pharmacokinetic, functional, structural and biochemical effects of single dose DOX bolus or 3-h continuous iv infusion (3-h iv) in the Han–Wistar rat to characterize possible treatment-related differences in drug safety over a 72 h observation period. Both DOX dosing paradigms significantly altered blood pressure, core body temperature and QA interval (indirect measure of cardiac contractility); however, there was no recovery observed in the bolus iv treatment group. Following the 3-h iv treatment, blood pressures and QA interval normalized by 36 h then rose above baseline levels over 72 h. Both treatments induced biphasic changes in heart rate with initial increases followed by sustained decreases. Cardiac injury biomarkers in plasma were elevated only in the bolus iv treatment group. Tissue cardiac injury biomarkers, cardiac mitochondrial complexes I, III and V and cardiac mitochondrial sphingolipids were decreased only in the bolus iv treatment group. Results indicate that each DOX dosing paradigm deregulates sinus rhythm. However, slowing the rate of infusion allows for functional compensation of blood pressure and may decrease the likelihood of cardiac myocyte necrosis via a mechanism associated with reduced mitochondrial damage. - Highlights: • Despite damaging cardiomyocytes, continuous iv doxorubicin improves cardiovascular outcomes. • This study supports administration of doxorubicin via slow continuous iv infusion limits acute cardio-toxicity. • This study supports use of metabolomic-derived lipid biomarkers for improved quantification of cardiovascular risk. • This study supports systems-based physiological approach to generate a data that can greatly inform risk assessments.

  8. Acute doxorubicin insult in the mouse ovary is cell- and follicle-type dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon C Roti Roti

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is one of the many unintended consequences of chemotherapy faced by the growing number of female cancer survivors. While ovarian repercussions of chemotherapy have long been recognized, the acute insult phase and primary sites of damage are not well-studied, hampering efforts to design effective intervention therapies to protect the ovary. Utilizing doxorubicin (DXR as a model chemotherapy agent, we defined the acute timeline for drug accumulation, induced DNA damage, and subsequent cellular and follicular demise in the mouse ovary. DXR accumulated first in the core ovarian stroma cells, then redistributed outwards into the cortex and follicles in a time-dependent manner, without further increase in total ovarian drug levels after four hours post-injection. Consistent with early drug accumulation and intimate interactions with the blood supply, stroma cell-enriched populations exhibited an earlier DNA damage response (measurable at 2 hours than granulosa cells (measurable at 4 hours, as quantified by the comet assay. Granulosa cell-enriched populations were more sensitive however, responding with greater levels of DNA damage. The oocyte DNA damage response was delayed, and not measurable above background until 10-12 hours post-DXR injection. By 8 hours post-DXR injection and prior to the oocyte DNA damage response, the number of primary, secondary, and antral follicles exhibiting TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive granulosa cells plateaued, indicating late-stage apoptosis and suggesting damage to the oocytes is subsequent to somatic cell failure. Primordial follicles accumulate significant DXR by 4 hours post-injection, but do not exhibit TUNEL-positive granulosa cells until 48 hours post-injection, indicating delayed demise. Taken together, the data suggest effective intervention therapies designed to protect the ovary from chemotherapy accumulation and induced insult

  9. Attenuation of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by esculetin through modulation of Bmi-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Li, Xiao; Liu, Lanfang; Xiao, Xu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shenglin; Lin, Pingping; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Yongwei; Li, Qingshan

    2017-09-01

    The protective effects and mechanisms of esculetin on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced injury of H9c2 cells were investigated. H9c2 cells were cultured and the logarithmic growth phase of the cells was divided into a control group, a DOX group and an esculetin + DOX group. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Annexin V-PI (AV-PI) double staining flow cytometry was carried out to detect cell apoptosis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to evaluate cell ultrastructure. Cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bcl-2, Bid and Bmi-1 proteins levels were investigated by western blot analysis. Bmi-1 siRNA was used to detect the role of Bmi-1 in the protective effects of esculetin against DOX-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. The MTT and AV-PI double staining results showed that esculetin significantly increased H9c2 cell viability. Compared with the control group, the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bid and ROS levels were significantly decreased, but the expression of Bcl-2 and Bmi-1 were significantly increased in the esculetin + DOX group. TEM showed that the cell structure of the mitochondria was protected by esculetin. The results of Bmi-1 siRNA showed that esculetin could protect DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by modulating Bmi-1 expression. Esculetin can protect DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and the effects may be attributable to modulation of Bmi-1 expression, provoking intracellular ROS accumulation, protecting the structure of mitochondria and reducing cell apoptosis.

  10. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi; Guo, Cheng; Li, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC 0–t and C max of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart

  11. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi-yong [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Guo, Cheng, E-mail: guochengphd@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: lixiao3326@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Sixth people' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China)

    2013-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0–t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

  12. Protective effect of guggulsterone against cardiomyocyte injury induced by doxorubicin in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen-Ching

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doxorubicin (DOX is an effective antineoplastic drug; however, clinical use of DOX is limited by its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS play a vital role in the pathological process of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. For this study, we evaluated the protective effects of guggulsterone (GS, a steroid obtained from myrrh, to determine its preliminary mechanisms in defending against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. Methods In this study, we used a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release measurements, and Hoechst 33258 staining to evaluate the protective effect of GS against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. In addition, we observed the immunofluorescence of intracellular ROS and measured lipid peroxidation, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis-related proteins by using Western blotting. Results The MTT assay and LDH release showed that treatment using GS (1–30 μM did not cause cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GS inhibited DOX (1 μM-induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Hoechst 33258 staining showed that GS significantly reduced DOX-induced apoptosis and cell death. Using GS at a dose of 10–30 μM significantly reduced intracellular ROS and the formation of MDA in the supernatant of DOX-treated H9C2 cells and suppressed caspase-3 activity to reference levels. In immunoblot analysis, pretreatment using GS significantly reversed DOX-induced decrease of PARP, caspase-3 and bcl-2, and increase of bax, cytochrome C release, cleaved-PARP and cleaved-caspase-3. In addition, the properties of DOX-induced cancer cell (DLD-1 cells death did not interfere when combined GS and DOX. Conclusion These data provide considerable evidence that GS could serve as a novel cardioprotective agent against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.

  13. Enhanced anticancer activity and circumvention of resistance mechanisms by novel polymeric/ phospholipidic nanocarriers of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkiv, Y; Riabtseva, A; Heffeter, P; Boiko, N; Kowol, C R; Jungwith, U; Shlyakhtina, Y; Garasevych, S G; Mitina, N; Berger, W; Zaichenko, A; Stoika, R

    2014-07-01

    Severe toxic side effects and drug resistance are the major limitations of doxorubicin (Dox), one of the most potent anticancer agents in clinical use. Nanocarrier preparations offer the opportunity to overcome these drawbacks, which is reflected in the clinical approval of two liposomal Dox preparations. Additionally, there are many attempts to enhance the activity of Dox against multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer cells. However, most of these strategies resulted in the increased uptake of Dox in resistant cells, only, while it remained unchanged in chemo-sensitive cells. Here, we present a new polymeric-phospholipidic hybrid delivery system which distinctly enhanced the accumulation and activity of Dox in all tested cancer cell lines including several MDR cell models. Notably, the resistance levels against Dox were reduced from about 6-fold to about 2-fold. Moreover, the new nanocarriers were shown to rapidly (within 10 min) and effectively transport Dox into resistant as well as sensitive cancer cells. Consequently, treatment with the new Dox-containing nanocarriers resulted in effective cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and ROS-induced cell death induction. Finally, the new nanocarriers were tested against NK/Ly lymphoma and L1210 leukemia cells in vivo. In both cell models, the nanoformulation of Dox resulted in 100% cured animals already at low concentrations (0.1 mg/kg), while free Dox solely extended survival time. This indicates that the incorporation of phospholipids into PEGylated polymeric nanocarriers is a promising strategy to enhance efficacy and reduce toxicity of Dox treatment against both sensitive and resistant cancer models in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Circumvention of resistance to photodynamic therapy in doxorubicin-resistant sarcoma by photochemical internalization of gelonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cathrine Elisabeth; Berg, Kristian; Selbo, Pål Kristian; Weyergang, Anette

    2013-12-01

    A wide range of anti-cancer therapies have been shown to induce resistance upon repetitive treatment and such adapted resistance may also cause cross-resistance to other treatment modalities. We here show that MES-SA/Dx5 cells with adapted resistance to doxorubicin (DOX) are cross-resistant to photodynamic therapy (PDT). A DOX-induced increased expression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 1 and GPx4 in MES-SA/Dx5 cells was indicated as the mechanism of resistance to PDT in line with the reduction in PDT-generated ROS observed in this cell line. ROS-induced p38 activation was, in addition, shown to be reduced to one-third of the signal of the parental MES-SA cells 2h after PDT, and addition of the p38 inhibitor SB203580 confirmed p38 activation as a death signal after PDT in the MES-SA cells. The MES-SA/Dx5 cells were also cross-resistant to ionizing radiation in agreement with the increased GPx1 and GPx4 expression. Surprisingly, PDT-induced endo/lysosomal release of the ribosome-inactivating protein gelonin (photochemical internalization (PCI)) was more effective in the PDT-resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells, as measured by synergy calculations in both cell lines. Analysis of death-inducing signaling indicated a low activation of caspase-3 and a strong PARP I cleavage after PDT and PCI in both cell lines. The PARP I activation was, however, stronger after PCI than after PDT in the MES-SA cells, but not in the MES-SA/Dx5 cells, and therefore cannot explain the strong PCI effect in the MES-SA/Dx5 cells. In conclusion PCI of recombinant gelonin circumvents ROS resistance in an apoptosis-independent manner. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kropp

    Full Text Available Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2-24 hours post-injection, Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the "infertility index" (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health

  16. Acute Doxorubicin Insult in the Mouse Ovary Is Cell- and Follicle-Type Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roti Roti, Elon C.; Leisman, Scott K.; Abbott, David H.; Salih, Sana M.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is one of the many unintended consequences of chemotherapy faced by the growing number of female cancer survivors. While ovarian repercussions of chemotherapy have long been recognized, the acute insult phase and primary sites of damage are not well-studied, hampering efforts to design effective intervention therapies to protect the ovary. Utilizing doxorubicin (DXR) as a model chemotherapy agent, we defined the acute timeline for drug accumulation, induced DNA damage, and subsequent cellular and follicular demise in the mouse ovary. DXR accumulated first in the core ovarian stroma cells, then redistributed outwards into the cortex and follicles in a time-dependent manner, without further increase in total ovarian drug levels after four hours post-injection. Consistent with early drug accumulation and intimate interactions with the blood supply, stroma cell-enriched populations exhibited an earlier DNA damage response (measurable at 2 hours) than granulosa cells (measurable at 4 hours), as quantified by the comet assay. Granulosa cell-enriched populations were more sensitive however, responding with greater levels of DNA damage. The oocyte DNA damage response was delayed, and not measurable above background until 10–12 hours post-DXR injection. By 8 hours post-DXR injection and prior to the oocyte DNA damage response, the number of primary, secondary, and antral follicles exhibiting TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive granulosa cells plateaued, indicating late-stage apoptosis and suggesting damage to the oocytes is subsequent to somatic cell failure. Primordial follicles accumulate significant DXR by 4 hours post-injection, but do not exhibit TUNEL-positive granulosa cells until 48 hours post-injection, indicating delayed demise. Taken together, the data suggest effective intervention therapies designed to protect the ovary from chemotherapy accumulation and induced insult in the ovary

  17. Sildenafil (Viagra) sensitizes prostate cancer cells to doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis through CD95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Durrant, David; Mitchell, Clint; Dent, Paul; Batra, Surinder K.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that Sildenafil enhances apoptosis and antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) while attenuating its cardiotoxic effect in prostate cancer. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which sildenafil sensitizes DOX in killing of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, DU145. The death receptor Fas (APO-1 or CD95) induces apoptosis in many carcinoma cells, which is negatively regulated by anti-apoptotic molecules such as FLIP (Fas-associated death domain (FADD) interleukin-1-converting enzyme (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein). Co-treatment of PCa cells with sildenafil and DOX for 48 hours showed reduced expression of both long and short forms of FLIP (FLIP-L and -S) as compared to individual drug treatment. Over-expression of FLIP-s with an adenoviral vector attentuated the enhanced cell-killing effect of DOX and sildenafil. Colony formation assays also confirmed that FLIP-S over-expression inhibited the DOX and sildenafil-induced synergistic killing effect as compared to the cells infected with an empty vector. Moreover, siRNA knock-down of CD95 abolished the effect of sildenafil in enhancing DOX lethality in cells, but had no effect on cell killing after treatment with a single agent. Sildenafil co-treatment with DOX inhibited DOX-induced NF-κB activity by reducing phosphorylation of IκB and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, in addition to down regulation of FAP-1 (Fas associated phosphatase-1, a known inhibitor of CD95-mediated apoptosis) expression. This data provides evidence that the CD95 is a key regulator of sildenafil and DOX mediated enhanced cell death in prostate cancer. PMID:26716643

  18. The Effects of Mangiferin (Mangifera indica L) in Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arozal, W; Suyatna, F D; Juniantito, V; Rosdiana, D S; Amurugam, S; Aulia, R; Monayo, E R; Siswandi, R

    2015-11-01

    The cardiotoxicity effect of doxorubicin (DOX), a widely used antitumor agent has restricted its clinical application. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effect of mangiferin, a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone, that have antioxidant activity by its iron-complexing ability in mitochondria, against DOX-induced cardiac toxicity in rats in comparison with other antioxidants namely Sylimarin (SYL) and Vitamin E (VitE). Mangiferin was given orally to rats at a dose of 50, and 100 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and DOX was injected at a total dose of 15 mg/kg. Cardiac toxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the serum, malondialdehyde (MDA) level in plasma and cardiac tissue, and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cardiac tissue. Mangiferin protected against DOX-induced increased mortality and electrocardiogram abnormality and decreased biochemical markers of cardiac toxicity i. e., lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme. In addition, elevation of plasma and cardiac tissue levels of MDA in response to DOX treatment were significantly attenuated. The reduction of cardiac activity of SOD was significantly reduced in contrast with the other antioxidant SYL and Vit E. Histopathologically, mangiferin treatment showed significant reduction in inflammatory cell number, fibrotic area, and necrotic foci as compared with DOX only-treated rats. These results suggested that mangiferin had better protective effect against DOX-induced cardiac toxicity in comparison with SYL and VitE, thus besides the antioxidant activity, different mechanism may be involved in the action of mangiferin and need to be clarified in the future studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Contractile profile of esophageal and gastric fundus strips in experimental doxorubicin-induced esophageal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Capeto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal atresia (EA is characterized by esophageal and gastric motility changes secondary to developmental and postsurgical damage. This study evaluated the in vitro contractile profile of the distal esophagus and gastric fundus in an experimental model of EA induced by doxorubicin (DOXO. Wistar pregnant rats received DOXO 2.2 mg/kg on the 8th and 9th gestational days. On day 21.5, fetuses were collected, sacrificed, and divided into groups: control, DOXO without EA (DOXO-EA, and DOXO with EA (DOXO+EA. Strips from the distal esophagus and gastric fundus were mounted on a wire myograph and isolated organ-bath system, respectively, and subjected to increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol, CCh. The isolated esophagus was also stimulated with increasing concentrations of KCl. In esophagus, the concentration-effect curves were reduced in response to CCh in the DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA groups compared to the control group (P0.05. In response to KCl, the distal esophagus samples in the three groups were not statistically different with regard to Emax or EC50 values (P>0.05. No significant difference was noted for EC50 or Emax values in fundic strips stimulated with CCh (P>0.05. In conclusion, exposure of dams to DOXO during gestation inhibited the contractile behavior of esophageal strips from offspring in response to CCh but not KCl, regardless of EA induction. The gastric fundus of DOXO-exposed offspring did not have altered contractile responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation.

  20. Fabrication of doxorubicin nanoparticles by controlled antisolvent precipitation for enhanced intracellular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Yu Tong; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Chow, Albert Hee Lum

    2016-03-01

    Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance. Here, we aimed to develop a stable polymeric nanoparticle system by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) for enhanced anticancer drug delivery into drug resistant cancer cells. As an antisolvent precipitation process, FNP works best for highly lipophilic solutes (logP>6). Thus we also aimed to evaluate the applicability of FNP to drugs with relatively low lipophilicity (logP=1-2). To this end, doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline anticancer agent and a P-gp substrate with a logP of 1.3, was selected as a model drug for the assessment. DOX was successfully incorporated into the amphiphilic diblock copolymer, polyethylene glycol-b-polylactic acid (PEG-b-PLA), by FNP using a four-stream multi-inlet vortex mixer. Optimization of key processing parameters and co-formulation with the co-stabilizer, polyvinylpyrrolidone, yielded highly stable, roughly spherical DOX-loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles (DOX.NP) with mean particle size below 100nm, drug loading up to 14%, and drug encapsulation efficiency up to 49%. DOX.NP exhibited a pH-dependent drug release profile with higher cumulative release rate at acidic pHs. Surface analysis of DOX.NP by XPS revealed an absence of DOX on the particle surface, indicative of complete drug encapsulation. While there were no significant differences in cytotoxic effect on P-gp over-expressing LCC6/MDR cell line between DOX.NP and free DOX in buffered aqueous media, DOX.NP exhibited a considerably higher cellular uptake and intracellular retention after efflux. The apparent lack of cytotoxicity enhancement with DOX.NP may be attributable to its slow DOX release inside the cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anti-cancer effect of HIV-1 viral protein R on doxorubicin resistant neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Y Zhao

    Full Text Available Several unique biological features of HIV-1 Vpr make it a potentially powerful agent for anti-cancer therapy. First, Vpr inhibits cell proliferation by induction of cell cycle G2 arrest. Second, it induces apoptosis through multiple mechanisms, which could be significant as it may be able to overcome apoptotic resistance exhibited by many cancerous cells, and, finally, Vpr selectively kills fast growing cells in a p53-independent manner. To demonstrate the potential utility of Vpr as an anti-cancer agent, we carried out proof-of-concept studies in vitro and in vivo. Results of our preliminary studies demonstrated that Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer types. Moreover, the same Vpr effects could also be detected in some cancer cells that are resistant to anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX. To further illustrate the potential value of Vpr in tumor growth inhibition, we adopted a DOX-resistant neuroblastoma model by injecting SK-N-SH cells into C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J-scid/scid mice. We hypothesized that Vpr is able to block cell proliferation and induce apoptosis regardless of the drug resistance status of the tumors. Indeed, production of Vpr via adenoviral delivery to neuroblastoma cells caused G2 arrest and apoptosis in both drug naïve and DOX-resistant cells. In addition, pre-infection or intratumoral injection of vpr-expressing adenoviral particles into neuroblastoma tumors in SCID mice markedly inhibited tumor growth. Therefore, Vpr could possibly be used as a supplemental viral therapeutic agent for selective inhibition of tumor growth in anti-cancer therapy especially when other therapies stop working.

  2. Metformin Mitigates Fibrosis and Glucose Intolerance Induced by Doxorubicin in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana A. Biondo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DX is a chemotherapeutic drug that is used in clinical practice that promotes deleterious side effects in non-tumor tissues such as adipose tissue. We showed that DX leads to extensive damage in adipose tissue via a disruption in 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and PPAR-gamma signaling. Thus, we investigated whether co-treatment with the biguanide drug metformin (MET could prevent the side effects of DX through the activation of AMPK in adipose tissue. The goal of the present study was to verify the effects of DX and adjuvant MET treatment in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and to determine whether MET could protect against chemotherapy-induced side effects. C57/BL6 mice received DX hydrochloride (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally 2 times per week for 2 weeks (DX, concomitantly or not, with MET administration (300 mg/kg oral daily (DX + MET. The control group (CTRL was pair-fed according to the food consumption of the DX group. After euthanasia, adipose tissue fat pads were collected, and SAT was extracted so that adipocytes could be isolated. Glucose uptake was then measured, and histological, gene, and protein analyses were performed. One-way analysis of variance was also performed, and significance was set to 5%. DX reduced retroperitoneal fat mass and epididymal pads and decreased glycemia. In cultured primary subcutaneous adipocytes, mice in the DX group had lower glucose uptake when stimulated with insulin compared with mice in the CTRL group. Adipocytes in the DX group exhibited a reduced area, perimeter, and diameter; decreased adiponectin secretion; and decreased fatty acid synthase gene expression. SAT from MET-treated mice also showed a reduction in collagen deposition. Treatment with MET prevented fibrosis and restored glucose uptake in SAT after insulin stimulation, yet the drug was unable to prevent other side effects of DX such as tissue loss and inflammatory response.

  3. Nanodiamonds enhance therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in treating metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Amanee D; Hwang, Patrick T J; Poonawalla, Aliza; Green, Hadiyah N; Jun, Ho-wook; Dean, Derrick

    2014-10-24

    Enhancing therapeutic efficacy is essential for successful treatment of chemoresistant cancers such as metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). To improve the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) for treating chemoresistant disease, the feasibility of using nanodiamond (ND) particles was investigated. Utilizing the pH responsive properties of ND, a novel protocol for complexing NDs and DOX was developed using a pH 8.5 coupling buffer. The DOX loading efficiency, loading on the NDs, and pH responsive release characteristics were determined utilizing UV-Visible spectroscopy. The effects of the ND-DOX on HRPC cell line PC3 were evaluated with MTS and live/dead cell viability assays. ND-DOX displayed exceptional loading efficiency (95.7%) and drug loading on NDs (23.9 wt%) with optimal release at pH 4 (80%). In comparison to treatment with DOX alone, cell death significantly increased when cells were treated with ND-DOX complexes demonstrating a 50% improvement in DOX efficacy. Of the tested treatments, ND-DOX with 2.4 μg mL(-1) DOX exhibited superior efficacy (60% cell death). ND-DOX with 1.2 μg mL(-1) DOX achieved 42% cell death, which was comparable to cell death in response to 2.4 μg mL(-1) of free DOX, suggesting that NDs aid in decreasing the DOX dose necessary to achieve a chemotherapeutic efficacy. Due to its enhanced efficacy, ND-DOX can be used to successfully treat HRPC and potentially decrease the clinical side effects of DOX.

  4. Nanodiamond-DGEA peptide conjugates for enhanced delivery of doxorubicin to prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanee D Salaam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of nanomedicine has emerged as an approach to enhance the specificity and efficacy of cancer treatments as stand-alone therapies and in combination with standard chemotherapeutic treatment regimens. The current standard of care for metastatic cancer, doxorubicin (DOX, is presented with challenges, namely toxicity due to a lack of specificity and targeted delivery. Nano-enabled targeted drug delivery systems can provide an avenue to overcome these issues. Nanodiamonds (ND, in particular, have been researched over the past five years for use in various drug delivery systems but minimal work has been done that incorporates targeting capability. In this study, a novel targeted drug delivery system for bone metastatic prostate cancer was developed, characterized, and evaluated in vitro. NDs were conjugated with the Asp–Gly–Glu–Ala (DGEA peptide to target α2β1 integrins over-expressed in prostate cancers during metastasis. To facilitate drug delivery, DOX was adsorbed to the surface of the ND-DGEA conjugates. Successful preparation of the ND-DGEA conjugates and the ND-DGEA+DOX system was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential measurements. Since traditional DOX treatment regimens lack specificity and increased toxicity to normal tissues, the ND-DGEA conjugates were designed to distinguish between cells that overexpress α2β1 integrin, bone metastatic prostate cancers cells (PC3, and cells that do not, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC. Utilizing the ND-DGEA+DOX system, the efficacy of 1 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL DOX doses increased from 2.5% to 12% cell death and 11% to 34% cell death, respectively. These studies confirmed that the delivery and efficacy of DOX were enhanced by ND-DGEA conjugates. Thus, the targeted ND-DGEA+DOX system provides a novel approach for decreasing toxicity and drug doses.

  5. Doxorubicin attached to HPMA copolymer via amide bond modifies the glycosylation pattern of EL4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Lubomir; Etrych, Tomas; Kabesova, Martina; Subr, Vladimir; Vetvicka, David; Hovorka, Ondrej; Strohalm, Jiri; Sklenar, Jan; Chytil, Petr; Ulbrich, Karel; Rihova, Blanka

    2010-08-01

    To avoid the side effects of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (Dox), we conjugated this drug to a N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer backbone. Dox was conjugated via an amide bond (Dox-HPMA(AM), PK1) or a hydrazone pH-sensitive bond (Dox-HPMA(HYD)). In contrast to Dox and Dox-HPMA(HYD), Dox-HPMA(AM) accumulates within the cell's intracellular membranes, including those of the Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum, both involved in protein glycosylation. Flow cytometry was used to determine lectin binding and cell death, immunoblot to characterize the presence of CD7, CD43, CD44, and CD45, and high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detector analysis for characterization of plasma membrane saccharide composition. Incubation of EL4 cells with Dox-HPMA(AM) conjugate, in contrast to Dox or Dox-HPMA(HYD), increased the amounts of membrane surface-associated glycoproteins, as well as saccharide moieties recognized by peanut agglutinin, Erythrina cristagalli, or galectin-1 lectins. Only Dox-HPMA(AM) increased expression of the highly glycosylated membrane glycoprotein CD43, while expression of others (CD7, CD44, and CD45) was unaffected. The binding sites for galectin-1 are present on CD43 molecule. Furthermore, we present that EL4 treated with Dox-HPMA(AM) possesses increased sensitivity to galectin-1-induced apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate that Dox-HPMA(AM) treatment changes glycosylation of the EL4 T cell lymphoma surface and sensitizes the cells to galectin-1-induced apoptosis.

  6. p-Glycoprotein ABCB5 and YB-1 expression plays a role in increased heterogeneity of breast cancer cells: correlations with cell fusion and doxorubicin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ji Yeon; Ha, Seon-Ah; Yang, Yun-Sik; Kim, Jin Woo

    2010-01-01

    Cancer cells recurrently develop into acquired resistance to the administered drugs. The iatrogenic mechanisms of induced chemotherapy-resistance remain elusive and the degree of drug resistance did not exclusively correlate with reductions of drug accumulation, suggesting that drug resistance may involve additional mechanisms. Our aim is to define the potential targets, that makes drug-sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cells turn to drug-resistant, for the anti-cancer drug development against drug resistant breast cancer cells. Doxorubicin resistant human breast MCF-7 clones were generated. The doxorubicin-induced cell fusion events were examined. Heterokaryons were identified and sorted by FACS. In the development of doxorubicin resistance, cell-fusion associated genes, from the previous results of microarray, were verified using dot blot array and quantitative RT-PCR. The doxorubicin-induced expression patterns of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic genes were validated. YB-1 and ABCB5 were up regulated in the doxorubicin treated MCF-7 cells that resulted in certain degree of genomic instability that accompanied by the drug resistance phenotype. Cell fusion increased diversity within the cell population and doxorubicin resistant MCF-7 cells emerged probably through clonal selection. Most of the drug resistant hybrid cells were anchorage independent. But some of the anchorage dependent MCF-7 cells exhibited several unique morphological appearances suggesting minor population of the fused cells maybe de-differentiated and have progenitor cell like characteristics. Our work provides valuable insight into the drug induced cell fusion event and outcome, and suggests YB-1, GST, ABCB5 and ERK3 could be potential targets for the anti-cancer drug development against drug resistant breast cancer cells. Especially, the ERK-3 serine/threonine kinase is specifically up-regulated in the resistant cells and known to be susceptible to synthetic antagonists

  7. Comparing Apoptosis and Necrosis Effects of Arctium Lappa Root Extract and Doxorubicin on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Fereshteh; Rajabi, Mohammad Reza; Mazoochi, Tahereh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Nikzad, Hossein; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Taherian, Aliakbar

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and very common malignancy in women worldwide. The efficacy of chemotherapy as an important part of breast cancer treatment is limited due to its side effects. While pharmaceutical companies are looking for better chemicals, research on traditional medicines that generally have fewer side effects is quite interesting. In this study, apoptosis and necrosis effect of Arctium lappa and doxorubicin was compared in MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Materials and Methods: MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 containing 10% FBS and 100 U/ml penicillin/streptomycin. MTT assay and an annexin V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) kit were used respectively to compare the survival rate and apoptotic effects of different concentrations of doxorubicin and Arctium lappa root extract on MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. Results: Arctium lappa root extract was able to reduce cell viability of the two cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner similar to doxorubicin. Flow cytometry results showed that similar to doxorubicin, Arctium Lappa root extract had a dose and time dependent apoptosis effect on both cell lines. 10μg/mL of Arctium lappa root extract and 5 μM of doxorubicin showed the highest anti-proliferative and apoptosis effect in MCF7 and MDA231 cells. Conclusion: The MCF7 (ER/PR-) and MDA-MB-231 (ER/PR+) cell lines represent two major breast cancer subtypes. The similar anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Arctium lappa root extract and doxorubicin (which is a conventional chemotherapy drug) on two different breast cancer cell lines strongly suggests its anticancer effects and further studies. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. p38 MAPK and JNK antagonistically control senescence and cytoplasmic p16INK4A expression in doxorubicin-treated endothelial progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spallarossa

    Full Text Available Patients treated with low-dose anthracyclines often show late onset cardiotoxicity. Recent studies suggest that this form of cardiotoxicity is the result of a progenitor cell disease. In this study we demonstrate that Cord Blood Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs exposed to low, sub-apoptotic doses of doxorubicin show a senescence phenotype characterized by increased SA-b-gal activity, decreased TRF2 and chromosomal abnormalities, enlarged cell shape, and disarrangement of F-actin stress fibers accompanied by impaired migratory ability. P16( INK4A localizes in the cytoplasm of doxorubicin-induced senescent EPCs and not in the nucleus as is the case in EPCs rendered senescent by different stimuli. This localization together with the presence of an arrest in G2, and not at the G1 phase boundary, which is what usually occurs in response to the cell cycle regulatory activity of p16(INK4A, suggests that doxorubicin-induced p16( INK4A does not regulate the cell cycle, even though its increase is closely associated with senescence. The effects of doxorubicin are the result of the activation of MAPKs p38 and JNK which act antagonistically. JNK attenuates the senescence, p16( INK4A expression and cytoskeleton remodeling that are induced by activated p38. We also found that conditioned medium from doxorubicin-induced senescent cardiomyocytes does not attract untreated EPCs, unlike conditioned medium from apoptotic cardiomyocytes which has a strong chemoattractant capacity. In conclusion, this study provides a better understanding of the senescence of doxorubicin-treated EPCs, which may be helpful in preventing and treating late onset cardiotoxicity.

  9. Structural organization of C{sub 60} fullerene, doxorubicin, and their complex in physiological solution as promising antitumor agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prylutskyy, Yu. I. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Ukraine); Evstigneev, M. P., E-mail: max-evstigneev@mail.ru [Belgorod State University, Department of Biology and Chemistry (Russian Federation); Cherepanov, V. V. [Institute of Physics of NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Kyzyma, O. A.; Bulavin, L. A.; Davidenko, N. A. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Ukraine); Scharff, P. [Ilmenau University of Technology (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Specific features of structural self-organization of C{sub 60} fullerene (1 nm size range), antitumor antibiotic doxorubicin (Dox) and their complex in physiological solution (0.9 % NaCl) have been investigated by means of atomic-force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Significant ordering of the mixed system, C{sub 60} + Dox, was observed, suggesting the complexation between these drugs, and giving insight into the mechanism of enhancement of Dox antitumor effect on simultaneous administration with C{sub 60} fullerene.

  10. The reduction of doxorubicin at a mercury electrode and monitoring its interaction with DNA using constant current chronopotentiometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacek, J.; Havran, Luděk; Fojta, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, 11-12 (2009), s. 1727-1738 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1195; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040903 Program:IA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : doxorubicin * mercury electrode * chronopotentiometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.856, year: 2009

  11. Pronounced cellular uptake of pirarubicin versus that of other anthracyclines: comparison of HPMA copolymer conjugates of pirarubicin and doxorubicin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakamura, H.; Koziolová, Eva; Chytil, Petr; Tsukigawa, K.; Fang, J.; Haratake, M.; Ulbrich, Karel; Etrych, Tomáš; Maeda, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 12 (2016), s. 4106-4115 ISSN 1543-8384 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:AV ČR,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(CZ) JSPS-16-05 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : HPMA polymer conjugate * pirarubicin (THP) * doxorubicin (DOX) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.440, year: 2016

  12. Panitumumab and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer with KRAS wild-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Pallisgård, Niels

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The increasing number of negative trials for ovarian cancer treatment has prompted an evaluation of new biologic agents, which in combination with chemotherapy may improve survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild-type ovarian...... cancer patients treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) supplemented with panitumumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Major eligibility criteria were relapsed ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with platinum-resistant disease, measurable disease by GCIG CA125 criteria and KRAS wild-type...

  13. Development of doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: varsha.desai@fda.hhs.gov [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Division of Drug Safety Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Information and Mathematics, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of cardiac troponins serve as biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, troponins are released into the serum only after damage to cardiac tissue has occurred. Here, we report development of a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chronic cardiotoxicity to aid in the identification of predictive biomarkers of early events of cardiac tissue injury. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered intravenous DOX at 3 mg/kg body weight, or an equivalent volume of saline, once a week for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were sacrificed a week following the last dose. A significant reduction in body weight gain was observed in mice following exposure to a weekly DOX dose for 1 week and longer compared to saline-treated controls. DOX treatment also resulted in declines in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit compared to saline-treated controls after the 2nd weekly dose until the 8th and 9th doses, followed by a modest recovery. All DOX-treated mice had significant elevations in cardiac troponin T concentrations in plasma compared to saline-treated controls, indicating cardiac tissue injury. Also, a dose-related increase in the severity of cardiac lesions was seen in mice exposed to 24 mg/kg DOX and higher cumulative doses. Mice treated with cumulative DOX doses of 30 mg/kg and higher showed a significant decline in heart rate, suggesting drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the development of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice. -- Highlights: ► 24 mg/kg was a cumulative cardiotoxic dose of doxorubicin in male B6C3F{sub 1} mice. ► Doxorubicin-induced hematological toxicity was in association with splenomegaly. ► Doxorubicin induced severe testicular toxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} male mice.

  14. Potentiation of in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P276-00 in human non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathos, Maggie J; Khanwalkar, Harshal; Joshi, Kavita; Manohar, Sonal M; Joshi, Kalpana S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we show that the combination of doxorubicin with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P276-00 was synergistic at suboptimal doses in the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines and induces extensive apoptosis than either drug alone in H-460 human NSCLC cells. Synergistic effects of P276-00 and doxorubicin on growth inhibition was studied using the Propidium Iodide (PI) assay. The doses showing the best synergistic effect was determined and these doses were used for further mechanistic studies such as western blotting, cell cycle analysis and RT-PCR. The in vivo efficacy of the combination was evaluated using the H-460 xenograft model. The combination of 100 nM doxorubicin followed by 1200 nM P276-00 showed synergistic effect in the p53-positive and p53-mutated cell lines H-460 and H23 respectively as compared to the p53-null cell line H1299. Abrogation of doxorubicin-induced G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis was observed in the combination treatment. This was associated with induction of tumor suppressor protein p53 and reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Furthermore, doxorubicin alone greatly induced COX-2, a NF-κB target and Cdk-1, a target of P276-00, which was downregulated by P276-00 in the combination. Doxorubicin when combined with P276-00 in a sequence-specific manner significantly inhibited tumor growth, compared with either doxorubicin or P276-00 alone in H-460 xenograft model. These findings suggest that this combination may increase the therapeutic index over doxorubicin alone and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin most likely via an inhibition of doxorubicin-induced chemoresistance involving NF-κB signaling and inhibition of Cdk-1 which is involved in cell cycle progression

  15. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in previously treated acute leukemia in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D H; Bickers, J N; Vial, R H; Hussein, K; Bottomley, R; Hewlett, J S; Wilson, H E; Stuckey, W J

    1980-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group did a limited institutional pilot study of the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide in the treatment of previously treated adult patients with acute leukemia. Thirty-four patients received one or two courses of the combination. All patients had received prior chemotherapy and 32 had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy. Three patients died before their responses could be fully evaluated. Fourteen patients achieved complete remission (41%) and one patient achieved partial remission. The complete remission rate was 27% for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (myelomonoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia, and erythroleukemia) and 89% for patients with acute lymphocytic and undifferentiated leukemia (ALL). Toxic effects included severe hematologic reactions in 33 of 34 patients, hematuria in six patients, altered sensorium in one patient, and congestive heart failure in one patient. The safety of the combination was established and toxic side effects of this therapy were tolerable. The 89% complete remission rate for previously treated patients with ALL suggests that the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide may be particularly effective in ALL.

  16. Multifunctional doxorubicin/superparamagnetic iron oxide-encapsulated Pluronic F127 micelles used for chemotherapy/magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jian-Ren; Chang, Yong-Wei; Yen, Hung-Chi; Yuan, Nai-Yi; Liao, Ming-Yuan; Hsu, Chia-Yen; Tsai, Jai-Lin; Lai, Ping-Shan

    2010-05-01

    Polymeric micelles are frequently used to transport and deliver drugs throughout the body because they protect against degradation. Research on functional polymeric micelles for biomedical applications has generally shown that micelles have beneficial properties, such as specific functionality, enhanced specific tumor targeting, and stabilized nanostructures. The particular aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize multifunctional polymeric micelles for use in controlled drug delivery systems and biomedical imaging. In this study, a theranostic agent, doxorubicin/superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-encapsulated Pluronic F127 (F127) micelles, was developed for dual chemotherapy/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) purposes, and the structure and composition of the micellar SPIO were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. Our results revealed that the micellar SPIO with a diameter of around 100 nm led to a significant advantage in terms of T2 relaxation as compared with a commercial SPIO contrast agent (Resovist®) without cell toxicity. After doxorubicin encapsulation, a dose-dependent darkening of MR images was observed and HeLa cells were killed by this theranostic micelle. These findings demonstrate that F127 micelles containing chemotherapeutic agents and SPIO could be used as a multifunctional nanocarrier for cancer treatment and imaging.

  17. Membrane organization determines barrier properties of endothelial cells and short-chain sphingolipid-facilitated doxorubicin influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hell, A J; Klymchenko, A; Gueth, D M; van Blitterswijk, W J; Koning, G A; Verheij, M

    2014-09-01

    The endothelial lining and its outer lipid membrane are the first major barriers drug molecules encounter upon intravenous administration. Our previous work identified lipid analogs that counteract plasma membrane barrier function for a series of amphiphilic drugs. For example, short-chain sphingolipids (SCS), like N-octanoyl-glucosylceramide, effectively elevated doxorubicin accumulation in tumor cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and in endothelial cells, whereas other (normal) cells remained unaffected. We hypothesize here that local membrane lipid composition and the degree of lipid ordering define SCS efficacy in individual cells. To this end, we study the differential effect of SCS on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in its confluent versus proliferative state, as a model system. While their (plasma membrane) lipidome stays remarkably unaltered when BAECs reach confluency, their lipids segregate to form apical and basolateral domains. Using probe NR12S, we reveal that lipids in the apical membrane are more condensed/liquid-ordered. SCS preferentially attenuate the barrier posed by these condensed membranes and facilitate doxorubicin influx in these particular membrane regions. We confirm these findings in MDCK cells and artificial membranes. In conclusion, SCS-facilitated drug traversal acts on condensed membrane domains, elicited by confluency in resting endothelium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Doxorubicin-induced Cytotoxicity in H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Azar; Bakhtiari, Elham; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anticancer drug. But its clinical application is limited, because DOX induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and it leads to permanent degenerative cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Recent trainings showed that Hibiscus sabdariffa exhibit pharmacological actions such as potent antioxidant. So, in this study we explored the protective effect of H. sabdariffa extract on doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using PI staining of DNA fragmentation by flowcytometry (sub-G1 peak). Cells were cultured with 5 μM DOX for 24 h to create the cell damage. H9c2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations (7.81-500 μg/mL) of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) for 2 h before DOX treatment in all trials. Pretreatment with HSE increased cell viability at concentration of 31.25-500 μg/mL. Compared to control cells, apoptosis was induced in DOX treated cells after 24 h, (sabdariffa could exert the cardioprotective effects on DOX-induced toxicity partly by antiapoptotic activity.

  19. Fabrication of an electrochemical sensor for determination of doxorubicin in human plasma and its interaction with DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hajian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an electrochemical sensor was fabricated for determination of an anthracycline, doxorubicin (DOX as a chemotherapy drug in plasma based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified platinum electrode (Pt/MWCNTs. DOX was effectively accumulated on the surface of modified electrode and generated a pair of redox peaks at around 0.522 and 0.647 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in Britton Robinson (B-R buffer (pH 4.0, 0.1 M. The electrochemical parameters including pH, type of buffer, accumulation time, amount of modifier and scan rate were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, there was a linear correlation between cathodic peak current and concentration of DOX in the range of 0.05–4.0 µg/mL with the detection limit of 0.002 µg/mL. The number of electron transfers (n and electron transfer-coefficient (α were estimated as 2.0 and 0.25, respectively. The constructed sensor displayed excellent precision, sensitivity, repeatability and selectivity in the determination of doxorubicin in plasma. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry studies of DOX in the presence of DNA showed an intercalation mechanism with binding constant (Kb of 1.12×105 L/mol.

  20. Enhanced antitumor efficacy and reduced systemic toxicity of sulfatide-containing nanoliposomal doxorubicin in a xenograft model of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Lin

    Full Text Available Sulfatide is a glycosphingolipid known to interact with several extracellular matrix proteins, such as tenascin-C which is overexpressed in many types of cancer including that of the colon. In view of the limited success of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer and high toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX, a sulfatide-containing liposome (SCL encapsulation approach was taken to overcome these barriers. This study assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity, biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity in vivo of sulfatide-containing liposomal doxorubicin (SCL-DOX using human colonic adenocarcinoma HT-29 xenograft as the experimental model. In vitro, SCL-DOX was shown to be delivered into the nuclei and displayed prolonged retention compared with the free DOX. The use of this nanodrug delivery system to deliver DOX for treatment of tumor-bearing mice produced a much improved therapeutic efficacy in terms of tumor growth suppression and extended survival in contrast to the free drug. Furthermore, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with SCL-DOX resulted in a lower DOX uptake in the principal sites of toxicity of the free drug, namely the heart and skin, as well as reduced myelosuppression and diminished cardiotoxicity. Such natural lipid-guided nanodrug delivery systems may represent a new strategy for the development of effective anticancer chemotherapeutics targeting the tumor microenvironment for both primary tumor and micrometastases.

  1. Rapid emergence and mechanisms of resistance by U87 glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin in an in vitro tumor microfluidic ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert; Lee, Sanghyuk; Park, Sungsu

    We have developed a microfluidic device consisting of approximately 500 hexagonal micro-compartments which provides a complex ecology with wide ranges of drug and nutrient gradients and local populations. This ecology of a fragmented metapopulation induced the drug resistance in stage IV U87 glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin in seven days. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of the resistant cells identified mutations and differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of the genes identified showed that they were functionally relevant with the established mechanisms of doxorubicin action. Functional experiments support the in silico analyses and together demonstrate the effects of these genetic changes. Our findings suggest that given the rapid evolution of resistance and the focused response, this technology could act as a rapid screening modality for genetic aberrations leading to resistance to chemotherapy as well as counter-selection of drugs unlikely to be successful ultimately. Technology Innovation Program of the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (10050154 to S.L. and S.P.), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2014M3C9A3065221 to S.L., NRF-2015K1A4A3047851 to J.K. and S.L.) funded by the Minis.

  2. Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Richard F.; Aleman, Karen; Kumar, Pallavi; Wyvill, Kathleen M.; Pluda, James M.; Read-Connole, Elizabeth; Wang, Victoria; Pittaluga, Stefania; Catanzaro, Andrew T.; Steinberg, Seth M.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) requiring chemotherapy were treated for six 3-week cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m2) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12; 300 ng/kg subcutaneously twice weekly), followed by 500 ng/kg subcutaneous IL-12 twice weekly for up to 3 years. All received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty-two had poor-prognosis KS (T1S1). Thirty patients had a major response, including 9 with complete response, yielding an 83.3% major response rate (95% confidence interval: 67.2%-93.6%). Median time to first response was 2 cycles. Median progression was not reached at median potential follow-up of 46.9 months. Of 27 patients with residual disease when starting maintenance IL-12, 15 had a new major response compared with this new baseline. The regimen was overall well tolerated; principal toxicities were neutropenia, anemia, transaminitis, and neuropsychiatric toxicity. Patients had increases in serum IL-12, interferon gamma, and inducible protein-10 (IP-10), and these remained increased at weeks 18 and 34. The regimen of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin yielded rapid tumor responses and a high response rate in patients with AIDS-KS receiving HAART, and responses were sustained on IL-12 maintenance therapy. A randomized trial of IL-12 in this setting may be warranted. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as no. NCT00020449. PMID:17846226

  3. Use of Magnetic Folate-Dextran-Retinoic Acid Micelles for Dual Targeting of Doxorubicin in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Varshosaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic copolymer of folate-conjugated dextran/retinoic acid (FA/DEX-RA was self-assembled into micelles by direct dissolution method. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs coated with oleic acid (OA were prepared by hydrothermal method and encapsulated within the micelles. Doxorubicin HCl was loaded in the magnetic micelles. The characteristics of the magnetic micelles were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The crystalline state of OA-coated MNPs and their heat capacity were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods, respectively. The iron content of magnetic micelles was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was used to test the protein binding of magnetic micelles. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin loaded magnetic micelles was studied on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells using MTT assay and their quantitative cellular uptake by fluorimetry method. TEM results showed the MNPs in the hydrophobic core of the micelles. TGA results confirmed the presence of OA and FA/DEX-RA copolymer on the surface of MNPs and micelles, respectively. The magnetic micelles showed no significant protein bonding and reduced the IC50 of the drug to about 10 times lower than the free drug.

  4. Characterization of the interaction forces in a drug carrier complex of doxorubicin with a drug-binding peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocheva, Gergana; Ilieva, Nina; Peneva, Kalina; Ivanova, Anela

    2018-04-01

    Polypeptide-based materials are used as building blocks for drug delivery systems aimed at toxicity decrease in chemotherapeutics. A molecular-level approach is adopted for investigating the non-covalent interactions between doxorubicin and a recently synthesized drug-binging peptide as a key part of a system for delivery to neoplastic cells. Molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution at room and body temperature are applied to investigate the structure and the binding modes within the drug-peptide complex. The tryptophans are outlined as the main chemotherapeutic adsorption sites, and the importance of their placement in the peptide sequence is highlighted. The drug-peptide binging energy is evaluated by density functional theory calculations. Principal component analysis reveals comparable importance of several types of interaction for the binding strength. π-Stacking is dominant, but other factors are also significant: intercalation, peptide backbone stacking, electrostatics, dispersion, and solvation. Intra- and intermolecular H-bonding also stabilizes the complexes. The influence of solvent molecules on the binding energy is mild. The obtained data characterize the drug-to-peptide attachment as a mainly attractive collective process with interactions spanning a broad range of values. These results explain with atomistic detail the experimentally registered doxorubicin-binging ability of the peptide and outline the complex as a prospective carrying unit that can be employed in design of drug delivery systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of poly(caprolactone fumarate nanoparticles containing doxorubicin HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shokri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Biodegradable Poly(caprolactone fumarate (PCLF has been used as bioresorbable sutures. In this study, doxorubicin HCl (Dox loaded PCLF nanoparticles were prepared and characterized.  Materials and methods: PCLFs were synthesized by polycondensation of PCL diols (Mws of 530, 1250 and 2000 with fumaryl chloride. The degradation of PCLF in NaOH, water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS, was determined in terms of Mw. Nanoparticles (NPs were prepared by two methods. In microemulsion polymerization method, dichloromethane containing PCLF and photoinitiator were combined with the water containing surfactants and then placed under light for crosslinking. In nanoprecipitation method, the organic solvent containing PCLF was poured into the stirring water. The effect of several variables concentration of PCLF, poly vinyl alcohol (PVA, Dox and Trypan blue (Trb and the Mw of PCLF and PVA on NP size and loading were evaluated. Results: PCLF 530, 1250 and 2000 in PBS or water were not degrade over 28 days. Nanoprecipitaion method gave spherical (revealed by SEM images stable NPs of about 225 with narrow size distribution and a zeta potential of -43 mV. The size of NP increased significantly with increase in Mw or concentration of PCLF. Although PVA was not necessary for formation of NPs but decreased the NP size. Dox loading and EE were 2.5-6.8% and 15-20%, respectively. Increasing the drug concentration, increased the drug loading (DL and NP size. The entrapment efficiency (EE for Trb ranged from 1% for PCLF530 to 6% for PCLF2000. An increase in PCLF concentration resulted in an increase in EE. Dox and Trb release showed a burst followed by 80% and 78% release during 3 and 4 days respectively.                                                                                                           

  6. Heparin modified graphene oxide for pH-sensitive sustained release of doxorubicin hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Baomei; Yang, Xiaoye; Wang, Yang; Zhai, Guangxi, E-mail: professorgxzhai@126.com

    2017-06-01

    A novel nanocarrier of heparin (Hep) modified graphene oxide (GO) was fabricated via a linker (adipic dihydrazide) and used as a pH-sensitive drug delivery system for controlling the release of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for anti-tumor therapy. The finally obtained nanocarrier was GO-ADH-Hep with better stability, blood compatibility and biocompatibility confirmed by the hemolytic test and in vitro cytotoxicity study. Its safety issue was greatly improved via Hep modification. The amount of DOX loaded onto GO-ADH-Hep was significantly high and dependent on pH value. The release rate of DOX from GO- ADH-Hep/DOX was pH-sensitive and much-slower than that of free DOX solution suggesting the sustained drug-release capacity of this prepared nanocomplexes. In addition, the results of cytotoxicity study illustrated that this fabricated nanocomplexes displayed effective cytotoxicity to MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. What's more, the results of the in vivo pharmacokinetic study was also indicated that the GO-ADH-Hep/DOX nanocomplexes could significantly prolong the retention time of DOX in vivo and this was consistent with the in vitro drug release performance. And finally, according to the biodistribution study, DOX delivered by GO-ADH-Hep could reduce cardiotoxicity deriving from DOX solution and also decrease the pulmonary toxicity deriving from unmodified GO. Based on the in vitro and in vivo investigations, the fabricated GO-ADH-Hep could be a promising candidate as an ideal nano-carrier for drug delivery and anti-cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Firstly, a novel nanocarrier-GO-ADH-Hep was fabricated with improved stability, little cytotoxicity and little hemolysis ratio. • Secondly, GO-ADH-Hep was used to load the anticancer drug (DOX) with high drug loading and pH-sensitive sustained drug release. • Thirdly, the anti-cancer efficacy of GO-ADH-Hep/DOX was dose- and time-dependent in vitro. • Finally, according to the in vivo studies, this synthesized nano

  7. Chemoembolization With Doxorubicin-Eluting Beads for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Five-Year Survival Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagari, Katerina, E-mail: kmalag@otonet.gr [University of Athens, Second Department of Radiology (Greece); Pomoni, Mary [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit (Greece); Moschouris, Hippocrates, E-mail: hipmosch@gmail.com [Tzanion Hospital, Department of Radiology (Greece); Bouma, Evanthia [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit (Greece); Koskinas, John [Ippokration Hospital, University of Athens, Department of Internal Medicine and Hepatology (Greece); Stefaniotou, Aspasia [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit (Greece); Marinis, Athanasios [Tzanion Hospital, Department of Surgery (Greece); Kelekis, Alexios; Alexopoulou, Efthymia [University of Athens, Second Department of Radiology (Greece); Chatziioannou, Achilles [University of Athens, First Department of Radiology (Greece); Chatzimichael, Katerina [University of Athens, Second Department of Radiology (Greece); Dourakis, Spyridon [Ippokration Hospital, University of Athens, Department of Internal Medicine and Hepatology (Greece); Kelekis, Nikolaos [University of Athens, Second Department of Radiology (Greece); Rizos, Spyros [Tzanion Hospital, Department of Surgery (Greece); Kelekis, Dimitrios [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report on the 5-year survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEB-DOX) in a scheduled scheme in up to three treatments and thereafter on demand. Materials and Methods: 173 HCC patients not suitable for curable treatments were prospectively enrolled (mean age 70.4 {+-} 7.4 years). Child-Pugh (Child) class was A/B (102/71 [59/41 %]), Okuda stage was 0/1/2 (91/61/19 [53.2/35.7/11.1 %]), and mean lesion diameter was 7.6 {+-} 2.1 cm. Lesion morphology was one dominant {<=}5 cm (22 %), one dominant >5 cm (41.6 %), multifocal {<=}5 (26 %), and multifocal >5 (10.4 %). Results: Overall survival at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years was 93.6, 83.8, 62, 41.04, and 22.5 %, with higher rates achieved in Child class A compared with Child class B patients (95, 88.2, 61.7, 45, and 29.4 % vs. 91.5, 75, 50.7, 35.2, and 12.8 %). Mean overall survival was 43.8 months (range 1.2-64.8). Cumulative survival was better for Child class A compared with Child class B patients (p = 0.029). For patients with dominant lesions {<=}5 cm 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates were 100, 95.2, 71.4, 66.6, and 47.6 % for Child class A and 94.1, 88.2, 58.8, 41.2, 29.4, and 23.5 % for Child class B patients. Regarding DEB-DOX treatment, multivariate analysis identified number of lesions (p = 0.033), lesion vascularity (p < 0.0001), initially achieved complete response (p < 0.0001), and objective response (p = 0.046) as significant and independent determinants of 5-year survival. Conclusion: DEB-DOX results, with high rates of 5-year survival for patients, not amenable to curative treatments. Number of lesions, lesion vascularity, and local response were significant independent determinants of 5-year survival.

  8. Modulation of synergistic cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin and radiation therapy by propionyl l-carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy have represented a major advance in the therapeutic management of cancer therapy. However, the combination of Doxorubicin (DOX) and irradiation (IRR) may be more cardiotoxic than either agent. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is a naturally occurring derivative of L-carnitine that has been considered in the treatment of many forms of cardiomyopathies. In this study, the possible mechanism (S) whereby PLC couls protect against DOX and/or IRR-induced cardiomyopathy were carried out. Administration of DOX as a single dose (5 mg/Kg) or cumulative dose (15 and 25 mg/kg divided into 3 and 5 equal doses 5 mg/kg each, every other day) resulted in significant and dose dependent increase in serum cardiac enzymes (CPK, GOT and LDH) in rat, MDA level and nitric oxide in heart tissue and dose dependent decrease in the antioxidant enzymes (SOD) and GSHPx). Whole body irradiation (2 Gy) induced similar effect to DOX. Combination of DOX and IRR resulted in marked elevation in cardiac enzymes and MDA level and remarkable decrease in the antioxidant enzymes . PLC (250 mg/kg, for 9 days) before DOX and /or IRR induced significant increase in the activity of SOD and GSHPx and significantly decreased the level of MDA and nitric oxide in rat cardiac tissue and the activity of cardiac enzymes in rat serum. Also, DOX-induced dose dependent increase in AC/FC ratio above the normal value (0.4) in serum and heart tissue. Combination of DOX and IRR increased the ratio. Administration of PLC to DOX and/or IRR resulted in partial reversal of DOX induced increase in the AC/FC ratio except for the highest cumulative dose (25 mg/kg) in serum. Dox induced dose-dependent increase in DOX concentration in serum and heart tissue. Administration of PLC decreased DOX concentration in heart with an increase in DOX concentration in serum. IRR did not alter DOX concentration. Worth mentioning os that PLC had no effect on the antitumor activity of DOX and/ or IRR in solid

  9. Indication of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by impairment of pIPPA I 131 utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzhofer, R.; Dudczak, R.

    1986-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate if doxorubicin (D) can impair myocardial fatty acid utilization. To this end we studied the myocardial utilization of pIPPA I 131 in untreated (Co, n=6) and D (20 mg/kg intraperitoneal) treated rats. D was given 24 h (24 D, n=6) and 48 hours (48 D, n=6) before tracer administration. One min after i.v. pIPPA I 131 (50 μCi) injection, the hearts were rapidly removed, frozen in liquid nitrogen, weighed, and counted. Following lipid extraction of homogenized heart extracts 131 I radioactivity distribution was analyzed by thin-layer chromatographity (TLC). In additional rat experiments, high energy phosphates (12 rats/group) and carnitine (20 rats/group) were determined enzymatically in heart extracts. The mean pIPPA uptake in rat heart (%dose/g) was 2.49 in Co, 1.74 in 24 D, and 2.36 in 48 D rats. Usually five peaks were separated by TLC, that with a mean Rf value of 0.92 corresponding to pIPPA I 131, the remaining four representing catabolites of pIPPA metabolism. The mean relative amount of unmetabolized pIPPA I 131 as compared to the sum of pIPPA I 131 catabolites was less in Co than in 24 D or 48 D rats (P<0.05) (anti x: 46.5% vs 72.4% vs 59.4%, respectively). The mean carnitine content of H extracts was higher in Co (0.55 μM/g) than in D treated rats (24 D, 0.42 μM/g; 48 D, 0.46 μM/g) (P<0.05). The total amount of higher energy phosphates was not different between the groups. However the mean ATP/AMP ratio was higher in Co (35.9) than in 24 D (22.3) or 48 D (27.1) rats (P<0.05). We conclude that D therapy is accompanied by a partial reversible impairment in myocardial pIPPA utilization, possibly mediated by carnitine deficiency. Thus, pIPPA I 131 might be useful in patients on D therapy to evaluate eventual D-induced effects on myocardial fatty acid utilization. (orig.)

  10. Chemoembolization With Doxorubicin-Eluting Beads for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Five-Year Survival Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagari, Katerina; Pomoni, Mary; Moschouris, Hippocrates; Bouma, Evanthia; Koskinas, John; Stefaniotou, Aspasia; Marinis, Athanasios; Kelekis, Alexios; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Chatziioannou, Achilles; Chatzimichael, Katerina; Dourakis, Spyridon; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Rizos, Spyros; Kelekis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report on the 5-year survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEB-DOX) in a scheduled scheme in up to three treatments and thereafter on demand. Materials and Methods: 173 HCC patients not suitable for curable treatments were prospectively enrolled (mean age 70.4 ± 7.4 years). Child-Pugh (Child) class was A/B (102/71 [59/41 %]), Okuda stage was 0/1/2 (91/61/19 [53.2/35.7/11.1 %]), and mean lesion diameter was 7.6 ± 2.1 cm. Lesion morphology was one dominant ≤5 cm (22 %), one dominant >5 cm (41.6 %), multifocal ≤5 (26 %), and multifocal >5 (10.4 %). Results: Overall survival at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years was 93.6, 83.8, 62, 41.04, and 22.5 %, with higher rates achieved in Child class A compared with Child class B patients (95, 88.2, 61.7, 45, and 29.4 % vs. 91.5, 75, 50.7, 35.2, and 12.8 %). Mean overall survival was 43.8 months (range 1.2–64.8). Cumulative survival was better for Child class A compared with Child class B patients (p = 0.029). For patients with dominant lesions ≤5 cm 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates were 100, 95.2, 71.4, 66.6, and 47.6 % for Child class A and 94.1, 88.2, 58.8, 41.2, 29.4, and 23.5 % for Child class B patients. Regarding DEB-DOX treatment, multivariate analysis identified number of lesions (p = 0.033), lesion vascularity (p < 0.0001), initially achieved complete response (p < 0.0001), and objective response (p = 0.046) as significant and independent determinants of 5-year survival. Conclusion: DEB-DOX results, with high rates of 5-year survival for patients, not amenable to curative treatments. Number of lesions, lesion vascularity, and local response were significant independent determinants of 5-year survival.

  11. Surrogate MRI markers for hyperthermia-induced release of doxorubicin from thermosensitive liposomes in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Michael; Willerding, Linus; Limmer, Simone; Hossann, Martin; Dietrich, Olaf; Ingrisch, Michael; Sroka, Ronald; Lindner, Lars H

    2016-09-10

    The efficacy of systemically applied, classical anti-cancer drugs is limited by insufficient selectivity to the tumor and the applicable dose is limited by side effects. Efficacy could be further improved by targeting of the drug to the tumor. Using thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) as a drug carrier, targeting is achieved by control of temperature in the target volume. In such an approach, effective local hyperthermia (40-43°C) (HT) of the tumor is considered essential but technically challenging. Thus, visualization of local heating and drug release using TSL is considered an important tool for further improvement. Visualization and feasibility of chemodosimetry by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has previously been demonstrated using TSL encapsulating both, contrast agent (CA) and doxorubicin (DOX) simultaneously in the same TSL. Dosimetry has been facilitated using T1-relaxation time change as a surrogate marker for DOX deposition in the tumor. To allow higher loading of the TSL and to simplify clinical development of new TSL formulations a new approach using a mixture of TSL either loaded with DOX or MRI-CA is suggested. This was successfully tested using phosphatidyldiglycerol-based TSL (DPPG2-TSL) in Brown Norway rats with syngeneic soft tissue sarcomas (BN175) implanted at both hind legs. After intravenous application of DOX-TSL and CA-TSL, heating of one tumor above 40°C for 1h using laser light resulted in highly selective DOX uptake. The DOX-concentration in the heated tumor tissue compared to the non-heated tumor showed an almost 10-fold increase. T1 and additional MRI surrogate parameters such as signal phase change were correlated to intratumoral DOX concentration. Visualization of DOX delivery in the sense of a chemodosimetry was demonstrated. Although phase-based MR-thermometry was affected by CA-TSL, phase information was found suitable for DOX concentration assessment. Local differences of DOX concentration in the tumors indicated the need for

  12. Inhibition of prostate cancer growth using doxorubicin assisted by ultrasound-targeted nanobubble destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan X

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaozhou Fan,1,* Luofu Wang,2,* Yanli Guo,1 Xingyu Xiong,1 Lianhua Zhu,1 Kejing Fang1 1Department of Ultrasound, Southwest Hospital, 2Department of Urology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Ultrasound (US-targeted microbubble destruction has been widely used as an effective drug-delivery system. However, nanobubbles (NBs have better stability and stronger penetration than microbubbles, and drug delivery assisted by US-targeted NB destruction (UTND still needs to be investigated. Our aim was to investigate the effect of doxorubicin (DOX on the inhibition of prostate cancer growth under UTND. Contrast-enhanced US imaging of transplanted PC3 prostate cancer in mice showed that under a combination of 1 W/cm2 US power and a 100 Hz intermittent pulse with a “5 seconds on, 5 seconds off” mode, NBs with an average size of (485.7±33 nm were effectively destroyed within 15 minutes in the tumor location. PC3 cells and 20 tumor-bearing mice were divided into four groups: a DOX group, a DOX + NB group, a DOX + US group, and a DOX + NB + US group. The cell growth-inhibition rate and DOX concentration of xenografts in the DOX + NB + US group were highest. Based on another control group and these four groups, another 25 tumor-bearing mice were used to observe the treatment effect of nine DOX injections under UTND. The xenografts in the DOX + NB + US group decreased more obviously and had more cellular apoptosis than other groups. Finally, electron microscopy was used to estimate the cavitation effect of NBs under US irradiation in the control group, NB group, US group, and NB + US group. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that PC3 cells in the DOX + NB + US group had more holes and significantly increased cell-surface folds. Meanwhile, transmission electric microscopy confirmed that more lanthanum nitrate particles entered

  13. Efficacy of doxorubicin after progression on carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer: a retrospective analysis of patients treated at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Emeline; Paulino, Eduardo; Ingles Garces, Álvaro Henrique; Fontes Dias, Mariane S; Saramago, Marcos; de Moraes Lino da Silva, Flora; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Melo, Andréia Cristina

    2018-01-31

    The treatment of endometrial cancer (EC) is challenging. There is no standard of care for patients who progressed after carboplatin and paclitaxel (CT) and all available drugs show a small response and poor long-term survival in this scenario. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity profile of palliative doxorubicin after progression to CT therapy in advanced or recurrent EC. A retrospective review of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute database between 2009 and 2013 was performed, and all patients with recurrent and advanced EC treated with palliative doxorubicin after progression on CT were included. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rates as well as toxicity were evaluated. A total of 33 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 65.7 years. Objective responses were documented in 12.1% (3.0% of complete responses and 9.1% of partial responses). The median PFS was 4.4 months, and the median OS was 8.1 months for patients exposed to doxorubicin. The most common adverse event was anemia observed in 60.6% of patients. This retrospective study suggests that doxorubicin has a modest activity in patients with advanced or recurrent EC after treatment with CT.

  14. Indomethacin induces apoptosis via a MRPI-dependent mechanism in doxorubicin-resistant small-cell lung cancer cells overexpressing MRPI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, D. J. A.; van der Deen, M.; Le, T. K. P.; Regeling, A.; de Jong, S.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2007-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs) initially respond to chemotherapy, but are often resistant at recurrence. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin is an inhibitor of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRPI) function. The doxorubicin-resistant MRPI-overexpressing human SCLC cell line

  15. Insulin Protects against Brain Oxidative Stress with an Apparent Effect on Episodic Memory in Doxorubicin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Sonawane, Vishwajeet; Cheruku, Sri Pragnya; Kishore, Anoop; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Shenoy, Rekha S; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing the protective effect of insulin against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cognitive function for episodic memory was assessed by a novel object recognition task (NORT) in male Wistar rats. Oxidative stress markers-SOD, catalase, glutathione, and lipid peroxidation-in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were assessed using colorimetric methods. Doxorubicin treatment (2.5 mg/kg, i.p., every 5 days for 50 days) reduced recognition and discriminative indices in NORT with increased oxidative stress in the brain. A nonhypoglycemic dose of insulin (0.5 IU/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced brain oxidative stress (MDA) induced by doxorubicin with an increase in the antioxidant defense systems (SOD, catalase, and GSH). Rats treated with combined insulin and DOX spent comparatively more time with the novel object when compared to the non-novel objects; however, the observed difference was not statistically significant. An apparent improvement (p insulin reduces brain oxidative stress and apparently improves doxorubicin-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats.

  16. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) protein attenuates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial respiration in H9c2 cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent effective in the treatment of many cancers. However, cardiac dysfunction caused by DOX limits its clinical use. DOX is believed to be harmful to cardiomyocytes by interfering with the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin and causing inefficient electro...

  17. Assessment of the tumor load as well as toxic and side effects after herceptin combined with doxorubicin liposome treatment of HER-2 positive breast cance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Quan Wen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of herceptin combined with doxorubicin liposome treatment on tumor load as well as toxic and side effects of HER-2 positive breast cancer. Methods: A total of 138 patients with HER-2 positive breast cancer who received chemotherapy in our hospital between July 2014 and December 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, liposome group received herceptin combined with doxorubicin liposome treatment and control group received herceptin combined with doxorubicin treatment. After 8 weeks of treatment, the content of tumor markers, active molecules and myocardial injury markers in serum as well as the expression levels of immune marker molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected. Results: After 8 weeks of treatment, CEA, CA199, CA153, CA125, VEGF, nectin-4, TK-1, PF-4, TSGF, CK, CK-MB, cTnI and cTnT content in serum of liposome group were significantly lower than those of control group, and the fluorescence intensity of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19 and CD25 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell surface were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Herceptin combined with doxorubicin liposome treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer can more effectively reduce the tumor load and cause less toxic and side effects on the heart and the immune system.

  18. Fine needle aspiration biopsy proves increased T-lymphocyte proliferation in tumor and decreased metastatic infiltration after treatment with doxorubicin bound to PHPMA copolymer carrier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Betka, Jaroslav; Hovorka, Ondřej; Bouček, Jan; Ulbrich, Karel; Etrych, Tomáš; Říhová, Blanka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2013), s. 648-661 ISSN 1061-186X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1254 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Doxorubicin conjugates * Drug targeting * Fine needle aspiration biopsy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.723, year: 2013

  19. A phase IIb multicentre study comparing the efficacy of trabectedin to doxorubicin in patients with advanced or metastatic untreated soft tissue sarcoma: The TRUSTS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui-Nguyen, B.; Butrynski, J.E.; Penel, N.; Blay, J.Y.; Isambert, N.; Milhem, M.; Kerst, J.M.; Reyners, A.K.; Litiere, S.; Marreaud, S.; Collin, F.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether trabectedin as first-line chemotherapy for advanced/metastatic soft tissue sarcoma prolongs progression-free survival (PFS), compared to doxorubicin and, in the phase IIb part here, to select the most appropriate trabectedin treatment schedule (3-hour or 24-hour

  20. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the interaction of ctDNA with 3′-deoxy-3′-azido doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Shaoguang; Cui, Yanrui; Liu, Qingfeng; Cui, Fengling; Zhang, Guisheng; Chi, Yanwei; Peng, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The method of synthesizing 3′-deoxy-3′-azido doxorubicin (ADOX) directly from doxorubicin has been developed. This study presents the interaction between ADOX and calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) by using spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling techniques. Iodide quenching, fluorescence polarization, viscosity and molecular modeling studies of ADOX–ctDNA interactions indicated that ADOX was an intercalator of ctDNA and preferentially bound to C–G rich regions of ctDNA. Simultaneously, spectroscopic results indicated that the quenching mechanism of ADOX–ctDNA was a static quenching. According to thermodynamic parameters, electrostatic force played roles in the interaction of ADOX with ctDNA. -- Highlights: ●An approach to 3′-deoxy-3′-azido doxorubicin (ADOX) from doxorubicin was developed. ●The quenching mechanism of ADOX with ctDNA was a static quenching type. ●The binding mode between ADOX and ctDNA was intercalative binding. ●The results of molecular docking corroborated results of spectra investigations

  1. Protective effects of acute exercise prior to doxorubicin on cardiac function of breast cancer patients: A proof-of-concept RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, A A; Shave, R E; Bland, K A; Bovard, J M; Eves, N D; Gelmon, K A; McKenzie, D C; Virani, S A; Stöhr, E J; Warburton, D E R; Campbell, K L

    2017-10-15

    Preclinical studies have reported that a single treadmill session performed 24h prior to doxorubicin provides cardio-protection. We aimed to characterize the acute change in cardiac function following an initial doxorubicin treatment in humans and determine whether an exercise session performed 24h prior to treatment changes this response. Breast cancer patients were randomized to either 30min of vigorous-intensity exercise 24h prior to the first doxorubicin treatment (n=13), or no vigorous exercise for 72h prior to treatment (control, n=11). Echocardiographically-derived left ventricular volumes, longitudinal strain, twist, E/A ratio, and circulating NT-proBNP, a marker of later cardiotoxicity, were measured before and 24-48h after the treatment. Following treatment in the control group, NT-proBNP, end-diastolic and stroke volumes, cardiac output, E/A ratio, strain, diastolic strain rate, twist, and untwist velocity significantly increased (all p≤0.01). Whereas systemic vascular resistance (pvolume overload, and changes in longitudinal strain and twist opposite in direction to documented longer-term changes. An exercise session performed 24h prior to treatment attenuated NT-proBNP release and increased systolic function. Future investigations should verify these findings in a larger cohort and across multiple courses of doxorubicin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Remodulating effect of doxorubicin on the state of iron-containing proteins, and redox characteristics of tumor with allowance for its sensitivity to cytostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhun, V F; Lozovska, Yu V; Burlaka, A P; Ganusevich, L I; Shvets, Yu V; Lukyanova, N Yu; Todor, I M; Tregubova, N A; Naleskina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at determining the changes of metal-containing proteins in blood serum and tumor tissue of animals with parental and doxorubicin-resistant strains of Walker-256 carcinosarcoma before and after the cytostatic administration. It has been shown that upon doxorubicin action the levels of total iron and transferrin in the tissues from the both groups of animals decreased while that of ferritine simultaneously increased with more pronounced pattern in the group of animals with resistant tumor strain. It has been shown that upon the action of doxorubicin in tumor tissue of animals with different sensitivity to the cytostatic there could be observed oppositely directed changes in the redox state of these cells that in turn determined the content of “ free iron” complexes, RO S generation and concentration of active forms of matrix metaloproteinase- 2 and matrix metaloproteinase-9, namely, the increase of these indexes in animals with parental strain and their decrease in animals with the resistant one. So, our study has demonstrated the remodulating effect of doxorubicin on the state of metal-containing proteins and redox characteristics of tumor dependent on its sensitivity to cytostatic, at the levels of the tumor and an organism. These data may serve as a criterion for the development of programs for the correction of malfunction of iron metabolism aimed at elevating tumor sensitivity to cytostatic agents.

  3. Doxorubicin conjugation and drug linker chemistry alter the intravenous and pulmonary pharmacokinetics of a PEGylated Generation 4 polylysine dendrimer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Nathania J; Mehta, Dharmini; McLeod, Victoria M; Kelly, Brian D; Pathak, Rashmi; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher Jh; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2018-05-28

    PEGylated polylysine dendrimers have demonstrated potential as inhalable drug delivery systems that can improve the treatment of lung cancers. Their treatment potential may be enhanced by developing constructs that display prolonged lung retention, together with good systemic absorption, the capacity to passively target lung tumours from the blood and highly selective, yet rapid liberation in the tumour microenvironment. This study sought to characterise how the nature of cathepsin B cleavable peptide linkers, used to conjugate doxorubicin to a PEGylated (PEG570) G4 polylysine dendrimer, affect drug liberation kinetics and intravenous and pulmonary pharmacokinetics in rats. The construct bearing a self-emolative diglycolic acid-V-Citrulline linker exhibited faster doxorubicin release kinetics compared to constructs bearing self emolative diglycolic acid-GLFG, or non-self emolative glutaric acid-GLFG linkers. The V-Citrulline construct exhibited slower plasma clearance, but faster absorption from the lungs than a GLFG construct, although mucociliary clearance and urinary elimination were unchanged. Doxorubicin-conjugation enhanced localisation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared to lung tissue, suggesting that projection of doxorubicin from the dendrimer surface reduced tissue uptake. These data show that the linker chemistry employed to conjugate drugs to PEGylated carriers can affect drug release profiles and systemic and lung disposition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Is Galium-67 citrate a superior test to predict doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdhar, C.; Gaikwad, R.; Samad, A.; Krishna, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Doxorubicin (DXR) is an anthracycline antibiotic commonly used as an effective anticancer drug against a number of neoplastic diseases. Although incredibly potent, it is not without side effects, common being cardiomyopathy, which has certainly reduced its maximum therapeutic potential. Furthermore, an oncologist administering DXR would always be cautious as the possibility of cardio-toxicity would be overriding more so because on the basis of clinical appearance, it would not be possible to predict the underlying toxicity. It is therefore difficult to predict the post-therapy period when the crisis might be at hand. It is therefore necessary to evolve a diagnostic strategy that can predict sub-clinical cardiotoxicity (myocarditis) much earlier than the overt biochemical changes. Keeping this objective in mind the present study was planned to evaluate early cardio-toxicity caused by DXR in rabbit animal model by employing gallium (67Ga) scintigraphy. Materials and Methods: Initially we studied disposition of 67Ga in six healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits injected at dose rate 100 μCi per kg body weight 67Ga-citrte (M/s Isorad, Israel), intravenously. Static images were acquired by using MEGP collimator (20 % window) fixed to Millennium MPS single-head gamma camera (GE). Whole body static images were acquired under the camera in 256 x 256 matrix for 250 kilo counts at 12, 24 and 48 hrs post-injection. To measure cardiac uptake of 67Ga, anterior chest images were acquired and a circular region of interest (ROI) of 86 pixels (area) was drawn on heart and liver by avoiding sternal region. Various uptake indices, such as, ratio of total counts and average counts of heart to liver ROI were computed. Doxorubicin (DXR) was administered to seven rabbits one mg / 508 cm2 (kg body weight) every 5th day (maximum 21 doses). Cardiac scintigraphy as per the procedure described above was done after each two doses. On the day of scintigraphy blood was also

  5. Elevation of cAMP Levels Inhibits Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis in Pre- B ALL NALM- 6 Cells Through Induction of BAD Phosphorylation and Inhibition of P53 Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Ahmad; Kazemi, Ahmad; Kashiri, Meysam; Safa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of the molecular mechanisms of cAMP action against DNA damage-induced apoptosis can be useful to improve the efficacy of DNA damaging therapeutic agents. Considering the critical role of bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) and p53 proteins in DNA damage -induced apoptosis, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of cAMP-elevating agents on these proteins in doxorubicin-treated pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) NALM-6 cells.The pre-B ALL cell line NALM-6 was cultured and treated with doxorubicin in combination with or without cAMP-elevating agents forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Cell viability was measured by trypan blue staining and MTT assay. For evaluation of apoptosis, annexin-V staining by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay were used. Protein expression of p53, BAD and phoshorylated BAD was detected by western blotting analysis.cAMP-increasing agents diminished the doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity in NALM-6 cells as indicated by the viability assays. Annexin-V apoptosis assay showed that the cAMP-elevating agents decreased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, doxorubicin-induced caspase-3 activity was attenuated in the presence of cAMP-increasing agents. Western blot results revealed the reduced expression of p53 protein in cells treated with combination of cAMP-elevating agents and doxorubicin in contrast to cells treated with doxorubicin alone. Expression of total BAD protein was not affected by doxorubicin and cAMP-elevating agents. However, phosphorylation of BAD protein was induced in the presence of cAMP-elevating agents. Our study suggests that elevated cAMP levels inhibit doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in pre-B ALL cells through induction of BAD phosphorylation and abrogation of p53 accumulation.

  6. Modulation of DNA damage response and induction of apoptosis mediates synergism between doxorubicin and a new imidazopyridine derivative in breast and lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Raafat A; Semreen, Mohammad H; Saber-Ayad, Maha M; Cyprian, Farhan; Menon, Varsha; Al-Tel, Taleb H

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage response machinery (DDR) is an attractive target of cancer therapy. Modulation of DDR network may alter the response of cancer cells to DNA damaging anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of a newly developed imidazopyridine (IAZP) derivative on the DDR after induction of DNA damage in cancer cells by doxorubicin. Cytotoxicity sulphrhodamine-B assay showed a weak anti-proliferative effect of IAZP alone on six cancer cell lines (MCF7, A549, A549DOX11, HepG2, HeLa and M8) and a normal fibroblast strain. Combination of IAZP with doxorubicin resulted in synergism in lung (A549) and breast (MCF7) cancer cells but neither in the other cancer cell lines nor in normal fibroblasts. Molecular studies revealed that synergism is mediated by modulation of DNA damage response and induction of apoptosis. Using constant-field gel electrophoresis and immunofluorescence detection of γ-H2AX foci, IAZP was shown to inhibit the repair of doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in A549 and MCF7 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that IAZP suppresses the phosphorylation of the ataxia lelangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) protein, which is an important player in the response of cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage. Moreover, IAZP augmented the doxorubicin-induced degradation of p21, activation of p53, CDK2, caspase 3/7 and phosphorylation of Rb protein. These effects enhanced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Our results indicate that IAZP is a promising agent that may enhance the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin on some cancer cells through targeting the DDR. It is a preliminary step toward the clinical application of IAZP in combination with anticancer drugs and opens the avenue for the development of compounds targeting the DDR pathway that might improve the therapeutic index of anticancer drugs and enhance their cure rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in rats with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy using iodine-131 MIBG autoradiography and PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, T.J.; Lee, J.D.; Ha, J.-W.; Yang, W.I.; Cho, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most useful anticancer agents, but its repeated administration can induce irreversible cardiomyopathy as a major complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac sympathetic neurons using iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry, which is a marker of cardiac innervation. Wistar rats were treated with doxorubicin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) once a week for 4 (n=5), 6 (n=6) or 8 (n=7) weeks consecutively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), calculated by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an indicator of cardiac function. Plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 131 I-MIBG uptake of the left ventricular wall (24 ROIs) was measured by autoradiography. 131 I-MIBG uptake pattern was compared with histopathological results, the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry and the degree of myocyte damage assessed using a visual scoring system on haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. LVEF was significantly decreased in the 8-week group (P 131 I-MIBG uptake ratio of subepicardium to subendocardium were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the 8-week group as compared with the control group. It may be concluded that radioiodinated MIBG is a reliable marker for the detection of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy; it detects such damage earlier than do other clinical parameters and in this study showed a good correlation with the reduction in the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 stain. The subendocardial layer appeared to be more vulnerable to doxorubicin than the subepicardium. (orig.)

  8. Expression Profiling of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Exposed to Doxorubicin-Integration and Visualization of Multi-Omics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Gustav; Sartipy, Peter; Andersson, Christian X; Lindahl, Anders; Synnergren, Jane

    2018-05-01

    Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are highly efficient chemotherapeutic agents against a variety of cancers. However, anthracyclines are also among the most cardiotoxic therapeutic drugs presently on the market. Chemotherapeutic-induced cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of disease and mortality in cancer survivors. The exact mechanisms responsible for doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy are not completely known, but the fact that the cardiotoxicity is dose-dependent and that there is a variation in time-to-onset of toxicity, and gender- and age differences suggests that several mechanisms may be involved. In this study, we investigated doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes using proteomics. In addition, different sources of omics data (protein, mRNA, and microRNA) from the same experimental setup were further combined and analyzed using newly developed methods to identify differential expression in data of various origin and types. Subsequently, the results were integrated in order to generate a combined visualization of the findings. In our experimental model system, we exposed cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells to doxorubicin for up to 2 days, followed by a wash-out period of additionally 12 days. Besides an effect on the cell morphology and cardiomyocyte functionality, the data show a strong effect of doxorubicin on all molecular levels investigated. Differential expression patterns that show a linkage between the proteome, transcriptome, and the regulatory microRNA network, were identified. These findings help to increase the understanding of the mechanisms behind anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and suggest putative biomarkers for this condition.

  9. Prospective Randomized Study of Doxorubicin-Eluting-Bead Embolization in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results of the PRECISION V Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, Johannes; Malagari, Katarina; Vogl, Thomas; Pilleul, Frank; Denys, Alban; Watkinson, Anthony; Pitton, Michael; Sergent, Geraldine; Pfammatter, Thomas; Terraz, Sylvain; Benhamou, Yves; Avajon, Yves; Gruenberger, Thomas; Pomoni, Maria; Langenberger, Herbert; Schuchmann, Marcus; Dumortier, Jerome; Mueller, Christian; Chevallier, Patrick; Lencioni, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) offers a survival benefit to patients with intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A widely accepted TACE regimen includes administration of doxorubicin-oil emulsion followed by gelatine sponge-conventional TACE. Recently, a drug-eluting bead (DC Bead) has been developed to enhance tumor drug delivery and reduce systemic availability. This randomized trial compares conventional TACE (cTACE) with TACE with DC Bead for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with HCC. Two hundred twelve patients with Child-Pugh A/B cirrhosis and large and/or multinodular, unresectable, N0, M0 HCCs were randomized to receive TACE with DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin or cTACE with doxorubicin. Randomization was stratified according to Child-Pugh status (A/B), performance status (ECOG 0/1), bilobar disease (yes/no), and prior curative treatment (yes/no). The primary endpoint was tumor response (EASL) at 6 months following independent, blinded review of MRI studies. The drug-eluting bead group showed higher rates of complete response, objective response, and disease control compared with the cTACE group (27% vs. 22%, 52% vs. 44%, and 63% vs. 52%, respectively). The hypothesis of superiority was not met (one-sided P = 0.11). However, patients with Child-Pugh B, ECOG 1, bilobar disease, and recurrent disease showed a significant increase in objective response (P = 0.038) compared to cTACE. DC Bead was associated with improved tolerability, with a significant reduction in serious liver toxicity (P < 0.001) and a significantly lower rate of doxorubicin-related side effects (P = 0.0001). TACE with DC Bead and doxorubicin is safe and effective in the treatment of HCC and offers a benefit to patients with more advanced disease.

  10. Doxorubicin in vivo rapidly alters expression and translation of myocardial electron transport chain genes, leads to ATP loss and caspase 3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy V Pointon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs but its use is limited by cumulative cardiotoxicity that restricts lifetime dose. Redox damage is one of the most accepted mechanisms of toxicity, but not fully substantiated. Moreover doxorubicin is not an efficient redox cycling compound due to its low redox potential. Here we used genomic and chemical systems approaches in vivo to investigate the mechanisms of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, and specifically test the hypothesis of redox cycling mediated cardiotoxicity.Mice were treated with an acute dose of either doxorubicin (DOX (15 mg/kg or 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ (25 mg/kg. DMNQ is a more efficient redox cycling agent than DOX but unlike DOX has limited ability to inhibit gene transcription and DNA replication. This allowed specific testing of the redox hypothesis for cardiotoxicity. An acute dose was used to avoid pathophysiological effects in the genomic analysis. However similar data were obtained with a chronic model, but are not specifically presented. All data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO. Pathway and biochemical analysis of cardiac global gene transcription and mRNA translation data derived at time points from 5 min after an acute exposure in vivo showed a pronounced effect on electron transport chain activity. This led to loss of ATP, increased AMPK expression, mitochondrial genome amplification and activation of caspase 3. No data gathered with either compound indicated general redox damage, though site specific redox damage in mitochondria cannot be entirely discounted.These data indicate the major mechanism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is via damage or inhibition of the electron transport chain and not general redox stress. There is a rapid response at transcriptional and translational level of many of the genes coding for proteins of the electron transport chain complexes. Still though ATP loss occurs with activation caspase 3 and these

  11. GU81, a VEGFR2 antagonist peptoid, enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin in the murine MMTV-PyMT transgenic model of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, Kristi D; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika; Roland, Christina L; Castrillon, Diego H; Kodadek, Thomas J; Brekken, Rolf A

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary stimulant of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. Anti-VEGF therapy is a clinically proven strategy for the treatment of a variety of cancers including colon, breast, lung, and renal cell carcinoma. Since VEGFR2 is the dominant angiogenic signaling receptor, it has become an important target in the development of novel anti-angiogenic therapies. We have reported previously the development of an antagonistic VEGFR2 peptoid (GU40C4) that has promising anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we utilize a derivative of GU40C4, termed GU81 in therapy studies. GU81 was tested alone or in combination with doxorubicin for in vivo efficacy in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic model of breast cancer. The derivative GU81 has increased in vitro efficacy compared to GU40C4. Single agent therapy (doxorubicin or GU81 alone) had no effect on tumor weight, histology, tumor fat content, or tumor growth index. However, GU81 is able to significantly to reduce total vascular area as a single agent. GU81 used in combination with doxorubicin significantly reduced tumor weight and growth index compared to all other treatment groups. Furthermore, treatment with combination therapy significantly arrested tumor progression at the premalignant stage, resulting in increased tumor fat content. Interestingly, treatment with GU81 alone increased tumor-VEGF levels and macrophage infiltration, an effect that was abrogated when used in combination with doxorubicin. This study demonstrates the VEGFR2 antagonist peptoid, GU81, enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin in spontaneous murine MMTV-PyMT breast tumors

  12. Sex-related differential susceptibility to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, G. Ronald [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Mathematics, Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Moland, Carrie L.; Vijay, Vikrant [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, The National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20850-9734 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J.; Muskhelishvili, Levan [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: varsha.desai@fda.hhs.gov [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Sex is a risk factor for development of cardiotoxicity, induced by the anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), in humans. To explore potential mechanisms underlying differential susceptibility to DOX between sexes, 8-week old male and female B6C3F{sub 1} mice were dosed with 3 mg/kg body weight DOX or an equivalent volume of saline via tail vein once a week for 6, 7, 8, and 9 consecutive weeks, resulting in 18, 21, 24, and 27 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively. At necropsy, one week after each consecutive final dose, the extent of myocardial injury was greater in male mice compared to females as indicated by higher plasma concentrations of cardiac troponin T at all cumulative DOX doses with statistically significant differences between sexes at the 21 and 24 mg/kg cumulative doses. A greater susceptibility to DOX in male mice was further confirmed by the presence of cytoplasmic vacuolization in cardiomyocytes, with left atrium being more vulnerable to DOX cardiotoxicity. The number of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes was mostly higher in DOX-treated male mice compared to female counterparts, showing a statistically significant sex-related difference only in left atrium at 21 mg/kg cumulative dose. DOX-treated male mice also had an increased number of γ-H2A.X-positive (measure of DNA double-strand breaks) cardiomyocytes compared to female counterparts with a significant sex effect in the ventricle at 27 mg/kg cumulative dose and right atrium at 21 and 27 mg/kg cumulative doses. This newly established mouse model provides a means to identify biomarkers and access potential mechanisms underlying sex-related differences in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. - Highlights: • Doxorubicin caused greater heart injury in male mice than females. • Doxorubicin caused vacuolization in cardiomyocytes only in male mice. • TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes was higher in DOX-treated male mice. • γ-H2A.X-positive cardiomyocytes was greater in DOX-treated male mice.

  13. Sex-related differential susceptibility to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G. Ronald; Lee, Taewon; Moland, Carrie L.; Vijay, Vikrant; Herman, Eugene H.; Lewis, Sherry M.; Davis, Kelly J.; Muskhelishvili, Levan; Kerr, Susan; Fuscoe, James C.; Desai, Varsha G.

    2016-01-01

    Sex is a risk factor for development of cardiotoxicity, induced by the anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), in humans. To explore potential mechanisms underlying differential susceptibility to DOX between sexes, 8-week old male and female B6C3F 1 mice were dosed with 3 mg/kg body weight DOX or an equivalent volume of saline via tail vein once a week for 6, 7, 8, and 9 consecutive weeks, resulting in 18, 21, 24, and 27 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively. At necropsy, one week after each consecutive final dose, the extent of myocardial injury was greater in male mice compared to females as indicated by higher plasma concentrations of cardiac troponin T at all cumulative DOX doses with statistically significant differences between sexes at the 21 and 24 mg/kg cumulative doses. A greater susceptibility to DOX in male mice was further confirmed by the presence of cytoplasmic vacuolization in cardiomyocytes, with left atrium being more vulnerable to DOX cardiotoxicity. The number of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes was mostly higher in DOX-treated male mice compared to female counterparts, showing a statistically significant sex-related difference only in left atrium at 21 mg/kg cumulative dose. DOX-treated male mice also had an increased number of γ-H2A.X-positive (measure of DNA double-strand breaks) cardiomyocytes compared to female counterparts with a significant sex effect in the ventricle at 27 mg/kg cumulative dose and right atrium at 21 and 27 mg/kg cumulative doses. This newly established mouse model provides a means to identify biomarkers and access potential mechanisms underlying sex-related differences in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. - Highlights: • Doxorubicin caused greater heart injury in male mice than females. • Doxorubicin caused vacuolization in cardiomyocytes only in male mice. • TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes was higher in DOX-treated male mice. • γ-H2A.X-positive cardiomyocytes was greater in DOX-treated male mice.

  14. Development of self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittayacharn, Pinunta; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy and studied the release profiles of doxorubicin (Dox) from different depot formulations. Tri-block copolymers of poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(D,L-lactide) and poly(ethylene glycol) named PLECs were successfully used as a biodegradable material to encapsulate Dox as the injectable local drug delivery system. Depot formation and encapsulation efficiency of these depots were evaluated. Results show that depots could be formed and encapsulate Dox with high drug loading content. For the release study, drug loading content (10, 15 and 20% w/w) and polymer concentration (25, 30, and 35% w/v) were varied. It could be observed that the burst release occurred within 1-2 days and this burst release could be reduced by physical mixing of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) into the depot system. The degradation at the surface and cross-section of the depots were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In addition, cytotoxicity of Dox-loaded depots and blank depots were tested against human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2). Dox released from depots significantly exhibited potent cytotoxic effect against HepG2 cell line compared to that of blank depots. Results from this study reveals an important insight in the development of injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy. Schematic diagram of self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system and in vitro characterizations. (a) Dox-loaded PLEC depots could be formed with more than 90% of sustained-release Dox at 25% polymer concentration and 20% Dox-loading content. The burst release occurred within 1-2 days and could be reduced by physical mixing of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) into the depot system. (b) Dox released from depots significantly exhibited potent cytotoxic effect against human

  15. Magnetic Graphene Oxide for Dual Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin and Photothermal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To develop a pH-sensitive dual targeting magnetic nanocarrier for chemo-phototherapy in cancer treatment, we prepared magnetic graphene oxide (MGO by depositing Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles on graphene oxide (GO through chemical co-precipitation. MGO was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG and cetuximab (CET, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR monoclonal antibody to obtain MGO-PEG-CET. Since EGFR was highly expressed on the tumor cell surface, MGO-PEG-CET was used for dual targeted delivery an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX. The physico-chemical properties of MGO-PEG-CET were fully characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and superconducting quantum interference device. Drug loading experiments revealed that DOX adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm with a maximal drug loading capacity of 6.35 mg/mg, while DOX release was pH-dependent with more DOX released at pH 5.5 than pH 7.4. Using quantum-dots labeled nanocarriers and confocal microscopy, intracellular uptakes of MGO-PEG-CET by high EGFR-expressing CT-26 murine colorectal cells was confirmed to be more efficient than MGO. This cellular uptake could be inhibited by pre-incubation with CET, which confirmed the receptor-mediated endocytosis of MGO-PEG-CET. Magnetic targeted killing of CT-26 was demonstrated in vitro through magnetic guidance of MGO-PEG-CET/DOX, while the photothermal effect could be confirmed in vivo and in vitro after exposure of MGO-PEG-CET to near-infrared (NIR laser light. In addition, the biocompatibility tests indicated MGO-PEG-CET showed no cytotoxicity toward fibroblasts and elicited minimum hemolysis. In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of MGO-PEG-CET/DOX toward CT-26 cells was 1.48 µg/mL, which was lower than that of MGO-PEG/DOX (2.64 µg/mL. The IC50 value could be further

  16. The alginate layer for improving doxorubicin release and radiolabeling stability of chitosan hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeong Il; Lee, Chang Moon; Jeong, Hwan Seok; Hwang, Hyo Sook; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Cyclotron Research Center, Institute for Medical Science, Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Moon [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Chitosan hydrogels (CSH) formed through ionic interaction with an anionic molecule are suitable as a drug carrier and a tissue engineering scaffold. However, the initial burst release of drugs from the CSH due to rapid swelling after immersing in a biofluid limits their wide application as a drug delivery carrier. In this study, alginate layering on the surface of the doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded and I-131-labeled CSH (DI-CSH) was performed. The effect of the alginate layering on drug release behavior and radiolabeling stability was investigated. Chitosan was chemically modified using a chelator for I-131 labeling. After labeling of I-131 and mixing of Dox, the chitosan solution was dropped into tripolyphosphate (TPP) solution using an electrospinning system to prepare spherical microhydrogels. The DI-CSH were immersed into alginate solution for 30 min to form the crosslinking layer on their surface. The formation of alginate layer on the DI-CSH was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta potential analysis. In order to investigate the effect of alginate layer, studies of in vitro Dox release from the hydrogels were performed in phosphate buffered in saline (PBS, pH 7.4) at 37 °C for 12 days. The radiolabeling stability of the hydrogels was evaluated using ITLC under different experimental condition (human serum, normal saline, and PBS) at 37 °C for 12 days. Formatting the alginate-crosslinked layer on the CSH surface did not change the spherical morphology and the mean diameter (150 ± 10 μm). FT-IR spectra and zeta potential values indicate that alginate layer was formed successfully on the surface of the DI-CSH. In in vitro Dox release studies, the total percentage of the released Dox from the DI-CSH for 12 days were 60.9 ± 0.8, 67.3 ± 1.4, and 71.8 ± 2.5 % for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mg Dox used to load into the hydrogels, respectively. On the other hand, after formatting alginate layer, the percentage of the

  17. Effects of Polyethylene Glycol Spacer Length and Ligand Density on Folate Receptor Targeting of Liposomal Doxorubicin In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumi Kawano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The folate receptor is an attractive target for selective tumor delivery of liposomal doxorubicin (DXR because it is abundantly expressed in a large percentage of tumors. This study examined the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG spacer length and folate ligand density on the targeting ability of folate-modified liposomes. Liposomes were modified with folate-derivatized PEG-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine with PEG molecular weights of 2000, 3400, or 5000. The association of DXR-loaded liposomes with KB cells, which overexpress the folate receptor, was evaluated by flow cytometry at various ratios of folate modification. A low ratio of folate modification with a sufficiently long PEG chain showed the highest folate receptor-mediated association with the cells, but did not show the highest in vitro cytotoxicity. DXR release from folate-modified liposomes in endosomes might be different. These findings will be useful for designing folate receptor-targeting carriers.

  18. The anti-cancerous drug doxorubicin decreases the c-di-GMP content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but promotes biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groizeleau, Julie; Rybtke, Morten; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Current antibiotic treatments are insufficient in eradicating bacterial biofilms, which represent the primary cause of chronic bacterial infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new strategies to eradicate biofilm infections. The second messenger c-di-GMP is a positive regulator of biofilm...... formation in many clinically relevant bacteria. It is hypothesized that drugs lowering the intracellular level of c-di-GMP will force biofilm bacteria into a more treatable planktonic lifestyle. To identify compounds capable of lowering c-di-GMP levels in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we screened 5000 compounds...... for their potential c-di-GMP-lowering effect using a recently developed c-di-GMP biosensor strain. Our screen identified the anti-cancerous drug doxorubicin as a potent c-di-GMP inhibitor. In addition, the drug decreased the transcription of many biofilm-related genes. However, despite its effect on the c-di-GMP...

  19. Bortezomib prevents acute doxorubicin ovarian insult and follicle demise, improving the fertility window and pup birth weight in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon C Roti Roti

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of female patients survive cancer, but succumb to primary ovarian insufficiency after chemotherapy. We tested the hypothesis that Bortezomib (Bort protects ovaries from doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy by treating female mice with Bort 1 hour prior to DXR. By preventing DXR accumulation in the ovary, Bort attenuated DXR-induced DNA damage in all ovarian cell types, subsequent γH2AFX phosphorylation, and resulting apoptosis in preantral follicles. Bort pretreatment extended the number of litters per mouse, improved litter size and increased pup weight following DXR treatment, thus increasing the duration of post-chemotherapy fertility and improving pup health. As a promising prophylactic ovoprotective agent, Bort does not interfere with cancer treatment, and is currently used as a chemotherapy adjuvant. Bort-based chemoprotection may preserve ovarian function in a non-invasive manner that avoids surgical ovarian preservation, thus diminishing the health complications of premature menopause following cancer treatment.

  20. The C60-Fullerene Porphyrin Adducts for Prevention of the Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Cardiotoxicity in Rat Myocardial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vahid Shetab Boushehri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a fullerene-based low toxic nanocationite designed for targeted delivery of the paramagnetic stable isotope of magnesium to the doxorubicin (DXR-induced damaged heart muscle providing a prominent effect close to about 80% recovery of the tissue hypoxia symptoms in less than 24 hrs after a single injection (0.03 - 0.1 LD50. Magnesium magnetic isotope effect selectively stimulates the ATP formation in the oxygen-depleted cells due to a creatine kinase (CK and mitochondrial respiratory chain-focusing "attack" of 25Mg2+ released by nanoparticles. These "smart nanoparticles" with membranotropic properties release the overactivating cations only in response to the intracellular acidosis. The resulting positive changes in the energy metabolism of heart cell may help to prevent local myocardial hypoxic (ischemic disorders and, hence, to protect the heart muscle from a serious damage in a vast variety of the hypoxia-induced clinical situations including DXR side effects.

  1. The effects of taurolidine alone and in combination with doxorubicin or carboplatin in canine osteosarcoma in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma (OS affects over 8000 dogs/year in the United States. The disease usually arises in the appendicular skeleton and metastasizes to the lung. Dogs with localized appendicular disease benefit from limb amputation and chemotherapy but most die within 6–12 months despite these treatments. Taurolidine, a derivative of taurine, has anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects against a variety of cancers. The following in vitro studies tested taurolidine as a candidate for adjuvant therapy for canine OS. Tests for p53 protein status and caspase activity were used to elucidate mechanisms of taurolidine-induced cell death. Results Taurolidine was cytotoxic to osteosarcoma cells and increased the toxicity of doxorubicin and carboplatin in vitro. Apoptosis was greatly induced in cells exposed to 125 μM taurolidine and less so in cells exposed to 250 μM taurolidine. Taurolidine cytotoxicity appeared caspase-dependent in one cell line; with apparent mutant p53 protein. This cell line was the most sensitive to single agent taurolidine treatment and had a taurolidine-dependent reduction in accumulated p53 protein suggesting taurolidine’s effects may depend on the functional status of p53 in canine OS. Conclusion Taurolidine’s cytotoxic effect appears dependent on cell specific factors which may be explained, in part, by the functional status of p53. Taurolidine initiates apoptosis in canine OS cells and this occurs to a greater extent at lower concentrations. Mechanisms of cell death induced by higher concentrations were not elucidated here. Taurolidine combined with doxorubicin or carboplatin can increase the toxicity of these chemotherapy drugs and warrants further investigation in dogs with osteosarcoma.

  2. Biocompatible nanogel derived from functionalized dextrin for targeted delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride to MG 63 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Rameshbabu, Arun Prabhu; Ghosh, Paulomi; Patra, Priyapratim; Dhara, Santanu; Pal, Sagar

    2017-09-01

    The present article demonstrates the targeted delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride to human osteosarcoma cancer cell lines (MG 63) using functionalized dextrin based crosslinked, pH responsive and biocompatible nanogel. The nanogel has been prepared through Michael-type addition reaction using dextrin (Dxt), N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA, as crosslinker), acrylic acid (AA, as monomer) and potassium persulfate (KPS, as initiator). The structure, composition, morphology of the nanogel have been explored using FTIR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, XRD, TGA, DSC, CHN and AFM analyses. The TEM analysis confirmed that the size of nanogel appeared within 100nm, while DLS study indicates that the diameter of the nanogel remained between 113 and 126nm. The AFM study implied the porous morphology of the synthesized nanogel. The rheological study suggests the gel behaviour of the synthesized nanogel at 37±0.1°C. Difference in% swelling at pH 5.5 and 7.4 indicates pH-responsiveness of the nanogel. The in vitro cytocompatibility results ascertained that the nanogel is non-toxic to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vitro cellular uptake study confirmed that FITC-loaded nanogel can cross the cellular membrane and be well uptake by the cell cytoplasm. The nanogel could efficiently encapsulate doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) with the loading efficiency of 27±0.2% after 72h. The Dox-loaded nanogel demonstrates anti-cancer activity towards MG 63 cancer cells and release the encapsulated drug in a controlled way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crataegus monogyna fruit aqueous extract as a protective agent against doxorubicin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats

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    Ali Shalizar Jalali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX is a broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of several malignancies. The use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy has been restricted due to its diverse toxicities, including reproductive toxicity. Crataegus monogyna (C. monogyna is one of the oldest medicinal plants that have been shown to be cytoprotective because of scavenging free radicals. The present study was undertaken to determine whether C. monogyna fruits aqueous extract could serve as a protective agent against reproductive toxicity during DOX treatment in a rat model through antioxidant-mediated mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups. Two groups of rats were treated with DOX at a dose of 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 (accumulated dose of 20 mg/kg. One of the groups received C. monogyna fruits aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg per day orally for 28 days along with DOX. A vehicle-treated control group and a C. monogyna control group were also included. Results: The DOX-treated group showed significant decreases in the body and organ weights and spermatogenic activities as well as many histological alterations. DOX treatment also caused a significant decrease in sperm count and motility with an increase in dead and abnormal sperms. Moreover, significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone and increased serum concentrations of FSH, LH, LDH, CPK, and SGOT were observed in DOX-treated rats. Notably, Crataegus co-administration caused a partial recovery in above-mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These findings indicated that doxorubicin can adversely damage the testicular tissue, while Crataegus co-administrationcould effectively prevent these adverse effects by effective inhibiting oxidative processes and restoration of antioxidant defense system.

  4. Gene trio signatures as molecular markers to predict response to doxorubicin cyclophosphamide neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancerpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Barros Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4 cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, AC, expression of groups of three genes (gene trio signatures could distinguish responsive from non-responsive tumors, as demonstrated by cDNA microarray profiling in a previous study by our group. In the current study, we determined if the expression of the same genes would retain the predictive strength, when analyzed by a more accessible technique (real-time RT-PCR. We evaluated 28 samples already analyzed by cDNA microarray, as a technical validation procedure, and 14 tumors, as an independent biological validation set. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4 AC. Among five trio combinations previously identified, defined by nine genes individually investigated (BZRP, CLPTM1,MTSS1, NOTCH1, NUP210, PRSS11, RPL37A, SMYD2, and XLHSRF-1, the most accurate were established by RPL37A, XLHSRF-1based trios, with NOTCH1 or NUP210. Both trios correctly separated 86% of tumors (87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for predicting response, according to their response to chemotherapy (82% in a leave-one-out cross-validation method. Using the pre-established features obtained by linear discriminant analysis, 71% samples from the biological validation set were also correctly classified by both trios (72% sensitivity; 66% specificity. Furthermore, we explored other gene combinations to achieve a higher accuracy in the technical validation group (as a training set. A new trio, MTSS1, RPL37 and SMYD2, correctly classified 93% of samples from the technical validation group (95% sensitivity and 80% specificity; 86% accuracy by the cross-validation method and 79% from the biological validation group (72% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Therefore, the combined expression of MTSS1, RPL37 and SMYD2, as evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, is a potential candidate to predict response to neoadjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in breast cancer

  5. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel enhance the antitumor efficacy of vaccines directed against HER 2/neu in a murine mammary carcinoma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eralp, Yesim; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jian-Ping; Maughan, Maureen F; Polo, John M; Lachman, Lawrence B

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents administered prior to immunotherapy with gene vaccines could augment the efficacy of the vaccines. Mice were injected in the mammary fat pad with an aggressive breast tumor cell line that expresses HER2/neu. The mice were treated 3 days later with a noncurative dose of either doxorubicin or paclitaxel, and the following day with a gene vaccine to HER2/neu. Two more doses of vaccine were given 14 days apart. Two types of gene vaccines were tested: a plasmid vaccine encoding a self-replicating RNA (replicon) of Sindbis virus (SINCP), in which the viral structural proteins were replaced by the gene for neu; and a viral replicon particle derived from an attenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, containing a replicon RNA in which the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus structural proteins were replaced by the gene for neu. Neither vaccination alone nor chemotherapy alone significantly reduced the growth of the mammary carcinoma. In contrast, chemotherapy followed by vaccination reduced tumor growth by a small, but significant amount. Antigen-specific CD8 + T lymphocytes were induced by the combined treatment, indicating that the control of tumor growth was most probably due to an immunological mechanism. The results demonstrated that doxorubicin and paclitaxel, commonly used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of breast cancer, when used at immunomodulating doses augmented the antitumor efficacy of gene vaccines directed against HER2/neu. The combination of chemotherapeutic agents plus vaccine immunotherapy may induce a tumor-specific immune response that could be beneficial for the adjuvant treatment of patients with minimal residual disease. The regimen warrants further evaluation in a clinical setting

  6. The effects of taurolidine alone and in combination with doxorubicin or carboplatin in canine osteosarcoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Kevin; Helfand, Stuart C; Edris, Wade A; Mata, John E; Gitelman, Alix I; Medlock, Jan; Séguin, Bernard

    2013-01-18

    Osteosarcoma (OS) affects over 8000 dogs/year in the United States. The disease usually arises in the appendicular skeleton and metastasizes to the lung. Dogs with localized appendicular disease benefit from limb amputation and chemotherapy but most die within 6-12 months despite these treatments. Taurolidine, a derivative of taurine, has anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects against a variety of cancers. The following in vitro studies tested taurolidine as a candidate for adjuvant therapy for canine OS. Tests for p53 protein status and caspase activity were used to elucidate mechanisms of taurolidine-induced cell death. Taurolidine was cytotoxic to osteosarcoma cells and increased the toxicity of doxorubicin and carboplatin in vitro. Apoptosis was greatly induced in cells exposed to 125 μM taurolidine and less so in cells exposed to 250 μM taurolidine. Taurolidine cytotoxicity appeared caspase-dependent in one cell line; with apparent mutant p53 protein. This cell line was the most sensitive to single agent taurolidine treatment and had a taurolidine-dependent reduction in accumulated p53 protein suggesting taurolidine's effects may depend on the functional status of p53 in canine OS. Taurolidine's cytotoxic effect appears dependent on cell specific factors which may be explained, in part, by the functional status of p53. Taurolidine initiates apoptosis in canine OS cells and this occurs to a greater extent at lower concentrations. Mechanisms of cell death induced by higher concentrations were not elucidated here. Taurolidine combined with doxorubicin or carboplatin can increase the toxicity of these chemotherapy drugs and warrants further investigation in dogs with osteosarcoma.

  7. Dual actions of albumin packaging and tumor targeting enhance the antitumor efficacy and reduce the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ke Zheng,1 Rui Li,2 Xiaolei Zhou,2 Ping Hu,2 Yaxin Zhang,2 Yunmei Huang,3 Zhuo Chen,2 Mingdong Huang2 1College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Fujian Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is an effective chemotherapy drug used to treat different types of cancers. However, DOX has severe side effects, especially life-threatening cardiotoxicity. We herein report a new approach to reduce the toxicity of DOX by embedding DOX inside human serum albumin (HSA. HSA is further fused by a molecular biology technique with a tumor-targeting agent, amino-terminal fragment of urokinase (ATF. ATF binds with a high affinity to urokinase receptor, which is a cell-surface receptor overexpressed in many types of tumors. The as-prepared macromolecule complex (ATF–HSA:DOX was not as cytotoxic as free DOX to cells in vitro, and was mainly localized in cell cytosol in contrast to DOX that was localized in cell nuclei. However, in tumor-bearing mice, ATF–HSA:DOX was demonstrated to have an enhanced tumor-targeting and antitumor efficacy compared with free DOX. More importantly, histopathological examinations of the hearts from the mice treated with ATF–HSA:DOX showed a significantly reduced cardiotoxicity compared with hearts from mice treated with free DOX. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in reducing the cardiotoxicity of DOX while strengthening its antitumor efficacy. Such a tumor-targeted albumin packaging strategy can also be applied to other antitumor drugs. Keywords: amino-terminal fragment of urokinase, urokinase receptor, drug carrier, human serum albumin, doxorubicin, cytotoxicity

  8. Suppression of human breast tumors in NOD/SCID mice by CD44 shRNA gene therapy combined with doxorubicin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham PV

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phuc Van Pham1, Ngoc Bich Vu1, Thuy Thanh Duong1, Tam Thanh Nguyen1, Nhung Hai Truong1, Nhan Lu Chinh Phan1, Tue Gia Vuong1, Viet Quoc Pham1, Hoang Minh Nguyen1, Kha The Nguyen1, Nhung Thi Nguyen1, Khue Gia Nguyen1, Lam Tan Khat1, Dong Van Le2, Kiet Dinh Truong1, Ngoc Kim Phan11Laboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, HCM City, 2Military Medical University, Ha Noi, VietnamBackground: Breast cancer stem cells with a CD44+CD24- phenotype are the origin of breast tumors. Strong CD44 expression in this population indicates its important role in maintaining the stem cell phenotype. Previous studies show that CD44 down-regulation causes CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells to differentiate into non-stem cells that are sensitive to antitumor drugs and lose many characteristics of the original cells. In this study, we determined tumor suppression in non-obese severe combined immunodeficiency mice using CD44 shRNA therapy combined with doxorubicin treatment.Methods: Tumor-bearing non-obese severe combined immunodeficiency mice were established by injection of CD44+CD24- cells. To track CD44+CD24- cells, green fluorescence protein was stably transduced using a lentiviral vector prior to injection into mice. The amount of CD44 shRNA lentiviral vector used for transduction was based on CD44 down-regulation by in vitro CD44 shRNA transduction. Mice were treated with direct injection of CD44 shRNA lentiviral vector into tumors followed by doxorubicin administration after 48 hours. The effect was evaluated by changes in the size and weight of tumors compared with that of the control.Results: The combination of CD44 down-regulation and doxorubicin strongly suppressed tumor growth with significant differences in tumor sizes and weights compared with that of CD44 down-regulation or doxorubicin treatment alone. In the combination of CD44 down-regulation and doxorubicin group, the tumor weight was

  9. Inhibition of X-ray and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis by butyrolactone I, a CDK-specific inhibitor, in human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanjun; Takebe, Hiraku; Yagi, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    Cell-cycle progression is coordinately regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The inhibition of CDKs by p21 wafl/Cipl/Sdil prevents the apoptosis of cells treated with DNA-damaging agents. In this study, we found that butyrolactone I, a specific inhibitor of CDC2 family kinases, blocks the X-ray- or doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of DLD1 (p21 +/+) human colorectal carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that butyrolactone I inhibits the CDK2 activity and enhances cell survival after an X-ray irradiation or doxorubicin treatment in both DLD1 (p21 -/-) and DLD1 (p21 +/+) cells. These findings suggest that butyrolactone I prevents apoptosis by the direct inhibition of CDK and also, possibly, by CDK-inhibition through p53-independent p21-induction. Our findings indicate that CDK activity is required for DNA-damaging agent-induced apoptosis. (author)

  10. The potential role of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in the treatment of experimentally-induced mammary tumour: does celecoxib enhance the anti-tumour activity of doxorubicin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, Wageh M; El-Sisi, Alaa E; El-Sayad, Magda E; Goda, Ahmed E

    2004-11-01

    The potential anti-tumour activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) has been previously discussed. This study was undertaken to assess the possible anti-tumour activity of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor; celecoxib in an animal model of mammary carcinoma; the solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC). The possibility that celecoxib may modulate the anti-tumour activity of doxorubicin on the SEC was also studied. Some of the possible mechanisms underlying such modulation were investigated. The anti-tumour activity of celecoxib (25 mg kg(-1)), diclofenac (12.5 mg kg(-1)) and doxorubicin (2 mg kg(-1)) either alone or in combination were investigated on SEC in vivo through the assessment of tumour growth delay (TGD) and tumour volume (TV), changes in tumour DNA content and nitric oxide (NO) levels, immunohistochemical staining of the tumour suppressor gene product; p53 histopathological examination and determination of apoptotic index of SEC. In addition, the influence of these drugs on the DNA fragmentation pattern of Ehrlich carcinoma cells (ECC) was studied. It was found that both celecoxib and diclofenac lack the anti-tumour activity on SEC. In addition there was a significant increase in doxorubicin anti-tumour activity when administered in combination with celecoxib. Moreover, it was found that both celecoxib and diclofenac have the potential to inhibit the function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in ECC using rhodamine uptake and efflux assays. Therefore, the current study suggested the chemosensitizing potential of celecoxib in the SEC animal model of mammary tumour, which could be explained in part on the basis of inhibition of P-gp function, with possible enhancement of doxorubicin anti-tumour activity.

  11. Systemic co-delivery of doxorubicin and siRNA using nanoparticles conjugated with EGFR-specific targeting peptide to enhance chemotherapy in ovarian tumor bearing mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. W.; Lin, W. J., E-mail: wjlin@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2013-10-15

    This aim of this study was to develop peptide-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) for systemic co-delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin to enhance chemotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) high-expressed ovarian tumor bearing mice. The active targeting NPs were prepared using heptapeptide-conjugated poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol). The particle sizes of peptide-free and peptide-conjugated NPs were 159.3 {+-} 32.5 and 184.0 {+-} 52.9 nm, respectively, with zeta potential -21.3 {+-} 3.8 and -15.3 {+-} 2.8 mV. The peptide-conjugated NPs uptake were more efficient in EGFR high-expressed SKOV3 cells than in EGFR low-expressed HepG2 cells due to heptapeptide specificity. The NPs were used to deliver small molecule anticancer drug (e.g., doxorubicin) and large molecule genetic agent (e.g., siRNA). The IC{sub 50} of doxorubicin-loaded peptide-conjugated NPs (0.09 {+-} 0.06 {mu}M) was significantly lower than peptide-free NPs (5.72 {+-} 2.64 {mu}M). The similar result was observed in siRNA-loaded NPs. The peptide-conjugated NPs not only served as a nanocarrier to efficiently deliver doxorubicin and siRNA to EGFR high-expressed ovarian cancer cells but also increased the intracellular accumulation of the therapeutic agents to induce assured anti-tumor growth effect in vivo.

  12. Control of doxorubicin release from magnetic Poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles by application of a non-permanent magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peça, Inês N. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (Portugal); Bicho, A.; Gardner, Rui [Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (Portugal); Cardoso, M. Margarida, E-mail: margarida.cardoso@fct.unl.pt [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (Portugal)

    2015-11-15

    This work studied the effect of the application time of a non-permanent magnetic field on the rate of drug release from iron oxide polymeric nanoparticles. Magnetically responsive doxorubicin loaded poly(d-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were synthetized by the o/w solvent extraction/evaporation method and characterized. The produced particles show spherical shapes exhibiting a size between 200 and 400 nm, a drug loading of 3.6 % (w/w) and an iron concentration of 20.7 % (w/w). Cell cytotoxicity tests showed that unloaded magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were nontoxic. Concerning the therapeutic activity, doxorubicin-loaded magnetic particles cause a remarkable enhancement of the cell inhibition rates compared to their non-magnetic counterparts (40 against 7 % of dead cells). In vitro drug release studies performed under a non-permanent magnetic field show that the application time and the on/off cycle duration have a great influence with respect to the final amount and to the rate of drug release. The final amount and the rate of doxorubicin released increase with the time of field application reaching higher values for a higher number of pulses with a lower duration. Doxorubicin release mechanism has shown to be governed by Fickian diffusion in the absence of a magnetic field while in the presence of a magnetic field some controlled relaxation polymer chains might also be present. The results show that the drug release rate from magnetic PLGA nanoparticles can be modulated through the application time and the on/off cycles duration of a non-permanent magnetic field.

  13. Comparing Apoptosis and Necrosis Effects of Arctium Lappa Root Extract and Doxorubicin on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafari, Fereshteh; Rajabi, Mohammad Reza; Mazoochi, Tahereh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Nikzad, Hossein; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Taherian, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and very common malignancy in women worldwide. The efficacy of chemotherapy as an important part of breast cancer treatment is limited due to its side effects. While pharmaceutical companies are looking for better chemicals, research on traditional medicines that generally have fewer side effects is quite interesting. In this study, apoptosis and necrosis effect of Arctium lappa and doxorubicin was compared in MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines...

  14. Alterações ecocardiográficas em cães sob tratamento prolongado com doxorrubicina Echocardiografhic changes in dogs long term treated with doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.V. Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a cardiotoxicidade da doxorrubicina utilizando-se sete cães adultos, clinicamente normais, que receberam 30mg/m² de cloridrato de doxorrubicina (Adriblastina® por via intravenosa, a cada 21 dias, durante 168 dias (grupo A, perfazendo dose cumulativa total de 240mg/m². Em outros sete cães (grupo B administraram-se 5ml de solução salina 0,9% estéril por via intravenosa, seguindo-se o esquema de aplicação proposto anteriormente. Os animais foram avaliados, periodicamente, por meio de exames ecocardiográficos em modo-M e bidimensional. Verificou-se aumento (PThe doxorubicin's cardiotoxity was evaluated in seven clinically healthy adult dogs by means of intravenously injections of 30mg/m² of doxorubicin chloridate (Adriblastina®, every 21 days, for 168 days (group A, performing a total cumulative dose of 240mg/m². Other seven dogs received 5ml of 0.9% saline sterile solution intravenously way (group B, following the protocol described above. All animals were evaluated periodically by means of M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiographic exams. There was an increase (P<0.01 in the internal diameter and volume of the left ventricle, first in systole and later in diastole, hypokinesis of interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall, a decrease of 65% in the ejection and shortening fractions and an increase in mitral valve E point to septal separation as well in group A animals. The cardiac abnormalities associated with chronic doxorubicin therapy were similar to those described in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. The echocardiographic indices, obtained by M-mode, could be used for monitoring and prevention of doxorubicin's cardiotoxicity.

  15. Comparison of quick recovery outcome of inhalable doxorubicin and cisplatin in lung cancer patients: a randomized, double-blind, single-center trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Song, Min; He, Zhun; Zong, Ling; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Zhiliang

    2018-05-01

    Systematic chemotherapy has required high time span for recovery in cancer patients, serious toxic effects, and increased the time of cancer-free survival of patient but decreased the overall survival time of patients irrespective of diseased condition(s). To compare the quick recovery of inhalable doxorubicin and cisplatin in the lung cancer patients. A total of 240 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were randomly divided into two groups of 120 each. Patients had inhaled 25 mg/m 2 doxorubicin (DON group) or 10 mg/m 2 cisplatin (CPN group) once in a day for 21 days. Volume, diameter, type, and a number of lung nodes, pulmonary function, and 21-day lung cancer risk assessment were evaluated. One-way ANOVA following Bonferroni multiple comparison tests was performed at 95% of confidence level. DON and CPN both groups had shrunken the lung cancer nodule, decreased solid nodules and non-solid nodules, and increased partially solid nodules. The DON group (5.88 ± 3.98%) had strongly decreased nodule size than the CPN grou