WorldWideScience

Sample records for downstream pressure perturbations

  1. Approximation of pressure perturbations by FEM

    CERN Document Server

    Bichir, Cătălin - Liviu

    2011-01-01

    In the mathematical problem of linear hydrodynamic stability for shear flows against Tollmien-Schlichting perturbations, the continuity equation for the perturbation of the velocity is replaced by a Poisson equation for the pressure perturbation. The resulting eigenvalue problem, an alternative form for the two - point eigenvalue problem for the Orr - Sommerfeld equation, is formulated in a variational form and this one is approximated by finite element method (FEM). Possible applications to concrete cases are revealed.

  2. ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF DOWNSTREAM EIGENVALUES FOR STATIONARY PERTURBATION OF COUETTE-POISEUILLE FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jin-bao; Wei En-bo; Tian Ji-wei

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional viscous flow in a straight channel was studied. The steady Navier-Stokes equations were linearized on the assumption of small disurbance from the Couette-Poiseuille flow, leading to an eigenvalue equation resembling the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. The eigenvalues determine the rate of decay for the stationary perturbation. Asymptotic forms of the downstream eigenvalues were derived in the limiting cases of small and large Reynolds number, for the flow with a general mass flux per unit width, and thus the work of Wilson (1969) and Stocker and Duck (1995) was generalized. The asymptotic results are in agreement with numerical ones presented by Song and Chen (1995).

  3. Perturbation biology nominates upstream-downstream drug combinations in RAF inhibitor resistant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Anil; Wang, Weiqing; Demir, Emek; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Jing, Xiaohong; Molinelli, Evan J; Babur, Özgün; Bemis, Debra L; Onur Sumer, Selcuk; Solit, David B; Pratilas, Christine A; Sander, Chris

    2015-08-18

    Resistance to targeted cancer therapies is an important clinical problem. The discovery of anti-resistance drug combinations is challenging as resistance can arise by diverse escape mechanisms. To address this challenge, we improved and applied the experimental-computational perturbation biology method. Using statistical inference, we build network models from high-throughput measurements of molecular and phenotypic responses to combinatorial targeted perturbations. The models are computationally executed to predict the effects of thousands of untested perturbations. In RAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we measured 143 proteomic/phenotypic entities under 89 perturbation conditions and predicted c-Myc as an effective therapeutic co-target with BRAF or MEK. Experiments using the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 affecting the level of c-Myc protein and protein kinase inhibitors targeting the ERK pathway confirmed the prediction. In conclusion, we propose an anti-cancer strategy of co-targeting a specific upstream alteration and a general downstream point of vulnerability to prevent or overcome resistance to targeted drugs.

  4. Turbulent jet flow generated downstream of a low temperature dielectric barrier atmospheric pressure plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Richard D.; Walsh, James L.

    2016-08-01

    Flowing low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices have been used in many technological applications ranging from energy efficient combustion through to wound healing and cancer therapy. The generation of the plasma causes a sudden onset of turbulence in the inhomogeneous axisymmetric jet flow downstream of the plasma plume. The mean turbulent velocity fields are shown to be self-similar and independent of the applied voltage used to generate the plasma. It is proposed that the production of turbulence is related to a combination of the small-amplitude plasma induced body forces and gas heating causing perturbations in the unstable shear layers at the jet exit which grow as they move downstream, creating turbulence.

  5. Turbulent jet flow generated downstream of a low temperature dielectric barrier atmospheric pressure plasma device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Richard D; Walsh, James L

    2016-08-26

    Flowing low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices have been used in many technological applications ranging from energy efficient combustion through to wound healing and cancer therapy. The generation of the plasma causes a sudden onset of turbulence in the inhomogeneous axisymmetric jet flow downstream of the plasma plume. The mean turbulent velocity fields are shown to be self-similar and independent of the applied voltage used to generate the plasma. It is proposed that the production of turbulence is related to a combination of the small-amplitude plasma induced body forces and gas heating causing perturbations in the unstable shear layers at the jet exit which grow as they move downstream, creating turbulence.

  6. Pressure perturbation calorimetry of unfolded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamaloukas, Alekos D; Pyzocha, Neena K; Makhatadze, George I

    2010-12-16

    We report the application of pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) to study unfolded proteins. Using PPC we have measured the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient, α(T), in the unfolded state of apocytochrome C and reduced BPTI. We have shown that α(T) is a nonlinear function and decreases with increasing temperature. The decrease is most significant in the low (2-55 °C) temperature range. We have also tested an empirical additivity approach to predict α(T) of unfolded state from the amino acid sequence using α(T) values for individual amino acids. A comparison of the experimental and calculated functions shows a very good agreement, both in absolute values of α(T) and in its temperature dependence. Such an agreement suggests the applicability of using empirical calculations to predict α(T) of any unfolded protein.

  7. Step Prediction During Perturbed Standing Using Center Of Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos R. Popovic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a sensor that can measure balance during quiet standing and predict stepping response in the event of perturbation has many clinically relevant applica- tions, including closed-loop control of a neuroprothesis for standing. This study investigated the feasibility of an algorithm that can predict in real-time when an able-bodied individual who is quietly standing will have to make a step to compensate for an external perturbation. Anterior and posterior perturbations were performed on 16 able-bodied subjects using a pul- ley system with a dropped weight. A linear relationship was found between the peak center of pressure (COP velocity and the peak COP displacement caused by the perturbation. This result suggests that one can predict when a person will have to make a step based on COP velocity measurements alone. Another important feature of this finding is that the peak COP velocity occurs considerably before the peak COP displacement. As a result, one can predict if a subject will have to make a step in response to a perturbation sufficiently ahead of the time when the subject is actually forced to make the step. The proposed instability detection algorithm will be implemented in a sensor system using insole sheets in shoes with minitur- ized pressure sensors by which the COPv can be continuously measured. The sensor system will be integrated in a closed-loop feedback system with a neuroprosthesis for standing in the near future.

  8. Plasma density perturbation caused by probes at low gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Natalia; Godyak, Valery

    2017-09-01

    An analysis of plasma parameter perturbations caused by a spherical probe immersed into a spherical plasma is presented for arbitrary collisionality and arbitrary ratios of probe to plasma dimensions. The plasma was modeled by the fluid plasma equations with ion inertia and nonlinear ion friction force that dominate plasma transport at low gas pressures. Significant depletion of the plasma density around the probe surface has been found. The area of plasma depletion coincides with the sensing area of different kinds of magnetic and microwave probes and will therefore lead to errors in data inferred from measurements with such probes.

  9. Internal wave pressure, velocity, and energy flux from density perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Allshouse, Michael R; Morrison, Philip J; Swinney, Harry L

    2016-01-01

    Determination of energy transport is crucial for understanding the energy budget and fluid circulation in density varying fluids such as the ocean and the atmosphere. However, it is rarely possible to determine the energy flux field $\\mathbf{J} = p \\mathbf{u}$, which requires simultaneous measurements of the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, $p$ and $\\mathbf{u}$. We present a method for obtaining the instantaneous $\\mathbf{J}(x,z,t)$ from density perturbations alone: a Green's function-based calculation yields $p$, and $\\mathbf{u}$ is obtained by integrating the continuity equation and the incompressibility condition. We validate our method with results from Navier-Stokes simulations: the Green's function method is applied to the density perturbation field from the simulations, and the result for $\\mathbf{J}$ is found to agree typically to within $1\\%$ with $\\mathbf{J}$ computed directly using $p$ and $ \\mathbf{u}$ from the Navier-Stokes simulation. We also apply the Green's function method to densit...

  10. Application of pressure perturbation calorimetry to lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerklotz, Heiko; Seelig, Joachim

    2002-03-01

    Pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) is a new method that measures the heat consumed or released by a sample after a sudden pressure jump. The heat change can be used to derive the thermal volume expansion coefficient, alpha(V), as a function of temperature and, in the case of phase transitions, the volume change, DeltaV, occurring at the phase transition. Here we present the first report on the application of PPC to determine these quantities for lipid bilayers. We measure the volume changes of the pretransition and main transition of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), and the thermal expansivity of the fluid phase of DMPC and of two unsaturated lipids, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The high sensitivity of PPC instrumentation gives accurate data for alpha(V) and DeltaV even upon the application of relatively low pressures of approximately 5 bar.

  11. Effects of Pressure Fluctuation on Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in the Downstream of Orifice Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouchi, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kugimoto, Mitsuo; Tsujimoto, Koichi; Ando, Toshitake

    In the piping system of power plants, pipe wall thinning caused by flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC), liquid droplet impingement (LDI) erosion, and cavitation Erosion (C/E), is a very serious problem because it leads to serious damage and eventual destruction of the piping system [1]-[6]. In this study, pipe wall thinning caused by FAC in the downstream of an orifice nozzle (flow meter) was examined. Experimental Analyses were performed to clarify the characteristics of FAC, its generation mechanism, and the prediction of the thinning and reduction of the pipe wall. The corrosion pattern on the pipe wall was also examined through an experimental simulation. This simulation clarified that the occurrence of thinning mainly depend on the amount of pressure fluctuation p' on the pipe wall. It was also found that the wall thinning rate can be estimated using p' and that the suppression of p' can be realized by replacing the orifice nozzle with a tapered one having an angle to the upstream.

  12. Relationship between stroke volume and pulse pressure during blood volume perturbation: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Arterial pulse pressure has been widely used as surrogate of stroke volume, for example, in the guidance of fluid therapy. However, recent experimental investigations suggest that arterial pulse pressure is not linearly proportional to stroke volume. However, mechanisms underlying the relation between the two have not been clearly understood. The goal of this study was to elucidate how arterial pulse pressure and stroke volume respond to a perturbation in the left ventricular blood volume based on a systematic mathematical analysis. Both our mathematical analysis and experimental data showed that the relative change in arterial pulse pressure due to a left ventricular blood volume perturbation was consistently smaller than the corresponding relative change in stroke volume, due to the nonlinear left ventricular pressure-volume relation during diastole that reduces the sensitivity of arterial pulse pressure to perturbations in the left ventricular blood volume. Therefore, arterial pulse pressure must be used with care when used as surrogate of stroke volume in guiding fluid therapy.

  13. PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENOUS RESERVOIRS WITH IMPERMEABILITY BARRIER USING PERTURBATION BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hong-jun; HE Ying-fu; FU Chun-quan

    2005-01-01

    The transient flow mathematical model of arbitrary shaped heterogeneous reservoirs with impermeability barrier is proposed in this paper. In order to establish this model, the perturbation method is employed and the solution of model is expanded into a series in powers of perturbation parameter. By using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and Duhamel principle, wellbore pressure with effects of skins and wellbore storage is obtained. The type curves are plotted and analyzed considering effects of heterogeneity, arbitrary shape and impermeable barriers. Finally, the results obtained by perturbation boundary element method is compared with the analytical solution and is available for the transient pressure analysis of arbitrary shaped reservoirs.

  14. The Non-Adiabatic Pressure Perturbation and Non-Canonical Kinetic Terms in Multifield Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, C

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation during inflation driven by two scalar fields is studied numerically for three different types of models. In the first model, the fields have standard kinetic terms. The other two models considered feature non-canonical kinetic terms; the first containing two fields which are coupled via their kinetic terms, and the second where one field has the standard kinetic term with the other field being a DBI field. We find that the evolution and the final amplitude of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation depends strongly on the kinetic terms.

  15. A robust extension to the triple plane pressure mode matching method by filtering convective perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Wohlbrandt, Attila; Guérin, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Time-periodic CFD simulations are widely used to investigate turbomachinery components. The triple-plane pressure mode matching method (TPP) developed by Ovenden and Rienstra extracts the acoustic part in such simulations. Experience shows that this method is subject to significant errors when the amplitude of pseudo-sound is high compared to sound. Pseudo-sound are unsteady pressure fluctuations with a convective character. The presented extension to the TPP improves the splitting between acoustics and the rest of the unsteady flow field. The method is simple: i) the acoustic eigenmodes are analytically determined for a uniform mean flow as in the original TPP; ii) the suggested model for convective pressure perturbations uses the convective wavenumber as axial wavenumber and the same orthogonal radial shape functions as for the acoustic modes. The reliability is demonstrated on the simulation data of a low-pressure fan. As acoustic and convective perturbations are separated, the accuracy of the results incr...

  16. Comparison of Radiation Pressure Perturbations on Rocket Bodies and Debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    1 Comparison of Radiation Pressure Perturbations on Rocket Bodies and Debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Charles J. Wetterer and Keric Hill...and Debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK... orbital position arising because of changes in the shape, attitude, angular rates, BRDF parameters, and radiation pressure model are plotted as a

  17. Elastic Constants and Its Pressure Derivative of Boron Phosphide Using Higher-Order Perturbation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Jivani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic constants, pressure derivative of bulk modulus and pressure derivative of elastic constants are investigated using the higher-order perturbation theory based on pseudopotential formalism and the application of our proposed model potential for Boron Phosphide. The parameter of the potential is derived using zero-pressure equilibrium condition. In the present study, Hartree and Sarkar et al screening functions are used to consider exchange and correlation effect. The good agreement of presently investigated numerical data is found with the available experiment data and other such theoretical values.

  18. Atomic oxygen behavior at downstream of AC excited atmospheric pressure He plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2016-09-01

    Applications of atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) have been investigated in the plasma medical fields such as cancer therapy, blood coagulation, etc. Reactive species generated by the plasma jet interacts with the biological surface. Therefore, the issue attracts much attentions to investigate the plasma effects on targets. In our group, a spot-size AC excited He APPJ have been used for the plasma medicine. From diagnostics of the APPJ using optical emission spectroscopy, the gas temperature and the electron density was estimated to be 299 K and 3.4 ×1015 cm-3. The AC excited He APPJ which affords high density plasma at room temperature is considered to be a powerful tool for the medical applications. In this study, by using vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, the density of atomic oxygen on a floating copper as a target irradiated by the He APPJ was measured as a function of the distance between the plasma source and the copper wire. The measured density became a maximum value around 8 ×1013 cm-3 at 12 mm distance, and then decreased over the distance. It is considered that the behavior was due to the changes in the plasma density on the copper wire and influence of ambient air.

  19. Cosmological perturbations in warm-tachyon inflationary universe model with viscous pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Setare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the warm-tachyon inflationary universe model with viscous pressure in high-dissipation regime. General conditions which are required for this model to be realizable are derived in the slow-roll approximation. We present analytic expressions for density perturbation and amplitude of tensor perturbation in longitudinal gauge. Expressions of tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index and its running are obtained. We develop our model by using exponential potential, the characteristics of this model are calculated for two specific cases in great details: 1. Dissipative parameter Γ and bulk viscous parameter ζ are constant parameters. 2. Dissipative parameter is a function of tachyon field ϕ and bulk viscous parameter is a function of matter-radiation mixture energy density ρ. The parameters of the model are restricted by recent observational data from the nine-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP9, Planck and BICEP2 data.

  20. Cosmological perturbations in warm-tachyon inflationary universe model with viscous pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali, V., E-mail: vkamali1362@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, 65178 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-07

    We study the warm-tachyon inflationary universe model with viscous pressure in high-dissipation regime. General conditions which are required for this model to be realizable are derived in the slow-roll approximation. We present analytic expressions for density perturbation and amplitude of tensor perturbation in longitudinal gauge. Expressions of tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index and its running are obtained. We develop our model by using exponential potential, the characteristics of this model are calculated for two specific cases in great details: 1. Dissipative parameter Γ and bulk viscous parameter ζ are constant parameters. 2. Dissipative parameter is a function of tachyon field ϕ and bulk viscous parameter is a function of matter-radiation mixture energy density ρ. The parameters of the model are restricted by recent observational data from the nine-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP9), Planck and BICEP2 data.

  1. Effect of a non null pressure on the evolution of perturbations in the matter dominated epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero, A

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the effect of pressure on the evolution of perturbations of an Einstein-de Sitter Universe in the matter dominated epoch assuming an ideal gas equation of state. For the sake of simplicity the temperature is considered uniform. The goal of the paper is to examine the validity of the linear approximation. With this purpose the evolution equations are developed including quadratic terms in the derivatives of the metric perturbations and using coordinate conditions that, in the linear case, reduce to the longitudinal gauge. We obtain the general solution, in the coordinate space, of the evolution equation for the scalar mode, and, in the case of spherical symmetry, we express this solution in terms of unidimensional integrals of the initial conditions: the initial values of the Newtonian potential and its first time derivative. We find that the contribution of the initial first time derivative, which has been systematically forgotten, allows to form inhomogeneities similar to a cluster of galaxies sta...

  2. Second order perturbations of a zero-pressure cosmological medium: Proofs of the relativistic-Newtonian correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, J.; Noh, H.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic world model and its linear perturbations were first studied in Einstein's gravity. In the system without pressure the relativistic equations coincide exactly with the later known ones in Newton's gravity. Here we prove that, except for the gravitational wave contribution, even to the second-order perturbations, equations for the relativistic irrotational zero-pressure fluid in a flat Friedmann background coincide exactly with the previously known Newtonian equations. Thus, to the ...

  3. Perturbations of the solar wind flow by radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that pick-up ions at their dynamical incorporation into the solar wind modify the original conditions of the asymptotic solar wind plasma flow. In this respect, it has meanwhile been revealed in many papers that these type of solar wind modifications, i.e. deceleration and decrease of effective Mach number, are not only due to the pick-up ion loading effects, but also to the action of pick-up ion pressure gradients. Up to now only the effects of radial pick-up ion pressure gradients were considered, however, analogously but latitudinal pressure gradients also appear to be important. Here we study the effects of radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients, occurring especially during solar minimum conditions at mid-latitude regions where slow solar wind streams change to fast solar wind streams. First, we give estimates of the latitudinal wind components connected with these gradients, and then after revealing its importance, present a more quantitative calculation of solar wind velocity and density perturbations resulting from these pressure forces. It is shown that the relative density perturbations near and in the ecliptic increase with radial distance and thus may well explain the measured non-spherically symmetric density decrease with distance. We also show that the solar wind decelerations actually seen with Voyager-1/2 are in conciliation with interstellar hydrogen densities of nH∞≥0.1cm-3, in contrast to earlier claims for nH∞=0.05cm-3.

  4. Spatial distribution of the electrical potential and ion concentration in the downstream area of atmospheric pressure remote plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mishin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from an experimental study of the ion flux characteristics behind the remote plasma zone in a vertical tube reaction chamber for atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma was generated in pure He and gas mixtures: He–Ar, He–O2, He–TEOS. We previously used the reaction system He–TEOS for the synthesis of self-assembled structures of silicon dioxide nanoparticles. It is likely that the electrical parameters of the area, where nanoparticles have been transported from the synthesis zone to the substrate, play a significant role in the self-organization processes both in the vapor phase and on the substrate surface. The results from the spatial distribution of the electrical potential and ion concentration in the discharge downstream area measured by means of the external probe of original design and the special data processing method are demonstrated in this work. Positive and negatives ions with maximum concentrations of 106–107 cm−3 have been found at 10–80 mm distance behind the plasma zone. On the basis of the revealed distributions for different gas mixtures, the physical model of the observed phenomena is proposed. The model illustrates the capability of the virtual ion emitter formation behind the discharge gap and the presence of an extremum of the electrical potential at the distance of approximately 10−2–10−1 mm from the grounded electrode.

  5. Pressure perturbation calorimetry, heat capacity and the role of water in protein stability and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A; Cameron, D; Jakus, J; Pettigrew, G W

    2007-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged, and usually self-evident, that solvent water plays a crucial role in the overall thermodynamics of protein stabilization and biomolecular interactions. Yet we lack experimental techniques that can probe unambiguously the nature of protein-water or ligand-water interactions and how they might change during protein folding or ligand binding. PPC (pressure perturbation calorimetry) is a relatively new technique based on detection of the heat effects arising from application of relatively small pressure perturbations (+/-5 atm; 1 atm=101.325 kPa) to dilute aqueous solutions of proteins or other biomolecules. We show here how this can be related to changes in solvation/hydration during protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Measurements of 'anomalous' heat capacity effects in a wide variety of biomolecular interactions can also be related to solvation effects as part of a quite fundamental principle that is emerging, showing how the apparently unusual thermodynamics of interactions in water can be rationalized as an inevitable consequence of processes involving the co-operative interaction of multiple weak interactions. This leads to a generic picture of the thermodynamics of protein folding stabilization in which hydrogen-bonding plays a much more prominent role than has been hitherto supposed.

  6. The Hagedorn structure of the non-perturbative gluon pressure within the mass gap approach to

    CERN Document Server

    Gogokhia, V; Vasuth, M

    2016-01-01

    We have shown in detail that the low-temperature expansion for the non-perturbative gluon pressure has the Hagedorn-type structure. Its exponential spectrum of all the effective gluonic excitations are expressed in terms of the mass gap. It is this which is responsible for the large-scale dynamical structure of the QCD ground state. The gluon pressure properly scaled has a maximum at some characteristic temperature $T=T_c = 266.5 \\ \\MeV$, separating the low- and high temperature regions. The gluon pressure is exponentially suppressed in the $T \\rightarrow 0$ limit. In the $T \\rightarrow T_c$ limit it demonstrates an exponential rise in the number of dynamical degrees of freedom. This makes it possible to identify $T_c$ with the Hagedorn transition temperature $T_h$, i.e., to put $T_h=T_c$. The gluon pressure has a complicated dependence on the mass gap and temperature near $T_c$ and up to approximately $(4-5)T_c$. In the limit of very high temperatures $T \\rightarrow \\infty$ its polynomial character is confir...

  7. Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

  8. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lema\\^itre model with non-negligible pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaitre model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=\\rho/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential \\psi and the curvature potential \\phi is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation \\psi+\\phi={\\cal O}(\\phi^2), which holds for the case of a dust fluid, is not valid for a relativistic fluid and effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaitre model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids...

  9. Electric Current Filamentation at a Non-potential Magnetic Null-point Due to Pressure Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.; Murawski, K.

    2015-10-01

    An increase of electric current densities due to filamentation is an important process in any flare. We show that the pressure perturbation, followed by an entropy wave, triggers such a filamentation in the non-potential magnetic null-point. In the two-dimensional (2D), non-potential magnetic null-point, we generate the entropy wave by a negative or positive pressure pulse that is launched initially. Then, we study its evolution under the influence of the gravity field. We solve the full set of 2D time dependent, ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically, making use of the FLASH code. The negative pulse leads to an entropy wave with a plasma density greater than in the ambient atmosphere and thus this wave falls down in the solar atmosphere, attracted by the gravity force. In the case of the positive pressure pulse, the plasma becomes evacuated and the entropy wave propagates upward. However, in both cases, owing to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the electric current in a non-potential magnetic null-point is rapidly filamented and at some locations the electric current density is strongly enhanced in comparison to its initial value. Using numerical simulations, we find that entropy waves initiated either by positive or negative pulses result in an increase of electric current densities close to the magnetic null-point and thus the energy accumulated here can be released as nanoflares or even flares.

  10. ELECTRIC CURRENT FILAMENTATION AT A NON-POTENTIAL MAGNETIC NULL-POINT DUE TO PRESSURE PERTURBATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelínek, P. [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Branišovská 10, CZ-37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Karlický, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Astronomical Institute, Fričova 258, CZ-25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Murawski, K., E-mail: pjelinek@prf.jcu.cz [Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Institute of Physics, Group of Astrophysics, Radziszewskiego 10, PL-20031 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-10-20

    An increase of electric current densities due to filamentation is an important process in any flare. We show that the pressure perturbation, followed by an entropy wave, triggers such a filamentation in the non-potential magnetic null-point. In the two-dimensional (2D), non-potential magnetic null-point, we generate the entropy wave by a negative or positive pressure pulse that is launched initially. Then, we study its evolution under the influence of the gravity field. We solve the full set of 2D time dependent, ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically, making use of the FLASH code. The negative pulse leads to an entropy wave with a plasma density greater than in the ambient atmosphere and thus this wave falls down in the solar atmosphere, attracted by the gravity force. In the case of the positive pressure pulse, the plasma becomes evacuated and the entropy wave propagates upward. However, in both cases, owing to the Rayleigh–Taylor instability, the electric current in a non-potential magnetic null-point is rapidly filamented and at some locations the electric current density is strongly enhanced in comparison to its initial value. Using numerical simulations, we find that entropy waves initiated either by positive or negative pulses result in an increase of electric current densities close to the magnetic null-point and thus the energy accumulated here can be released as nanoflares or even flares.

  11. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lemaître model with non-negligible pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Marra, Valerio; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-03-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaître model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=ρ/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential ψ and the curvature potential phi is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation ψ+phi=Script O(phi2)—which holds for the case of a dust fluid—is not valid for a relativistic fluid, and an effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaître model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids with non-negligible pressure. We show that this happens when the characteristic scale of the inhomogeneity is smaller than the sound horizon and that the deviation is caused by the nonlinear effect of the fluid's fast motion. We also find that ψ+phi= [Script O(phi2),Script O(cs2phi δ)] for an inhomogeneity with density contrast δ whose characteristic scale is smaller than the sound horizon, unless w is close to -1, where w and cs are the equation of state parameter and the sound speed of the fluid, respectively. On the other hand, we expect ψ+phi=Script O(phi2) to hold for an inhomogeneity whose characteristic scale is larger than the sound horizon, unless the amplitude of the inhomogeneity is large and w is close to -1.

  12. Volume and expansivity changes of micelle formation measured by pressure perturbation calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Helen Y; Nazari, Mozhgan; Chowdhury, Saria; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2011-03-01

    We present the application of pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) as a new method for the volumetric characterization of the micelle formation of surfactants. The evaluation is realized by a global fit of PPC curves at different surfactant concentration ranging, if possible, from below to far above the CMC. It is based on the knowledge of the temperature dependence of the CMC, which can for example be characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry. We demonstrate the new approach for decyl-β-maltopyranoside (DM). It shows a strong volume increase upon micelle formation of 16 ± 2.5 mL/mol (+4%) at 25 °C, and changes with temperature by -0.1 mL/(mol K). The apparent molar expansivity (E(S)) decreases upon micelle formation from 0.44 to 0.31 mL/(mol K) at 25 °C. Surprisingly, the temperature dependence of the expansivity of DM in solution (as compared with that of maltose) does not agree with the principal behavior described for polar (E(S)(T) decreasing) and hydrophobic (E(S)(T) increasing) solutes or moieties before. The results are discussed in terms of changes in hydration of the molecules and internal packing of the micelles and compared with the volumetric effects of transitions of proteins, DNA, lipids, and polymers.

  13. Thermal expansivities of peptides, polypeptides and proteins as measured by pressure perturbation calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandharipande, Pranav P; Makhatadze, George I

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of this work was to provide direct experimental evidence that the expansivity of peptides, polypeptides and proteins as measured by pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC), can serve as a proxy to characterize relative compactness of proteins, especially the denatured state ensemble. This is very important as currently only small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), intrinsic viscosity and, to a lesser degree, fluorescence resonance transfer (FRET) experiments are capable of reporting on the compactness of denatured state ensembles. We combined the expansivity measurements with other biophysical methods (far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and small angle X-ray scattering). Three case studies of the effects of conformational changes on the expansivity of polypeptides in solution are presented. We have shown that expansivity appears to be insensitive to the helix-coil transition, and appears to reflect the changes in hydration of the side-chains. We also observed that the expansivity is sensitive to the global conformation of the polypeptide chain and thus can be potentially used to probe hydration of different collapsed states of denatured or even intrinsically disordered proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pressure Perturbation Calorimetry of Apolipoproteins in Solution and in Model Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjwal, Sangeeta; Gursky, Olga

    2009-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are complexes of lipids and proteins (termed apolipoproteins) that remove cell cholesterol and protect from atherosclerosis. Apolipoproteins contain amphipathic α-helices that have high content (≥1/3) and distinct distribution of charged and apolar residues, adopt molten globule-like conformations in solution, and bind to lipid surfaces. We report the first pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) study of apolipoproteins. In solution, the main HDL protein, apoA-I, shows relatively large volume contraction, ΔVunf=-0.33%, and an apparent reduction in thermal expansivity upon unfolding, Δαunf≤0, which has not been observed in other proteins. We propose that these values are dominated by increased charged residue hydration upon α-helical unfolding, which may result from disruption of multiple salt bridges. At 5°C, apoA-I shows large thermal expansion coefficient, α(5°) = 15·10-4 K-1, that rapidly declines upon heating from 5-40°C, α(40°)-α(5°)=-4·10-4 K-1; apolipoprotein C-I shows similar values of α(5°) and α(40°). These values are larger than in globular proteins. They indicate dominant effect of charged residue hydration, which may modulate functional apolipoprotein interactions with a broad range of their protein and lipid ligands. The first PPC analysis of a protein-lipid complex is reported, which focuses on the chain melting transition in model HDL containing apoA-I or apoC-I, dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine, and 0–20% cholesterol. The results may provide new insights into volumetric properties of HDL that modulate metabolic lipoprotein remodeling during cholesterol transport. PMID:19927327

  15. Volumetric characterization of ester- and ether-linked lipid bilayers by pressure perturbation calorimetry and densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Nobutake; Nambu, Yuko; Tanaka, Saeko; Goto, Masaki; Matsuki, Hitoshi; Kaneshina, Shoji

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the thermotropic volume behavior of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) membranes using pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) and densitometry. The ln φ(2) vs temperature curves (φ(2): apparent molar volume of phospholipid) obtained from the PPC data using an analysis method that we developed agreed with the results from the density measurements for these lipids within the relative difference of about 0.62%. From those curves, the volume changes with the main transition were estimated at 18.0±0.49, 23.5±2.33 and 23.0±0.33 cm(3) mol(-1) for DMPC, DPPC and DHPC, respectively. For DPPC and DMPC, the average volume per methylene group of the hydrocarbon chains v(CH2) calculated by referring to the procedure by Nagle and Wilkinson was consistent with the previous result, which indicates that the DPPC bilayer in the gel state has denser hydrophobic bilayer core than the DMPC bilayer. For DHPC, the volume of the headgroup region v(H) was calculated to be 244 Å(3) by assuming that v(CH2) of DHPC equals that of DPPC above 45°C. This value was comparable to that of DPPC when the volume of the carbonyl groups was considered, which may signify that there is no significant conformational difference in the polar headgroups of both phospholipids. However, it was suggested from the consideration on v(H) of DHPC at 20°C that expansion of the headgroup region should occur as the interdigitated structure is formed, which means some conformational change of the headgroup region is induced by the interdigitation.

  16. Holographic fluid with bulk viscosity, perturbation of pressure and energy density at finite cutoff surface in the Einstein gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Wu, Xiao-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Using the gravity/fluid correspondence in our paper, we investigate the holographic fluid at finite cutoff surface in the Einstein gravity. After constructing the first order perturbative solution of the Schwarzschild-AdS black brane solution in the Einstein gravity, we focus on the stress-energy tensor of the dual fluid with transport coefficients at the finite cutoff surface. Besides the pressure and energy density of dual fluid are obtained, the shear viscosity is also obtained. The most important results are that we find that if we adopt different conditions to fix the undetermined parameters contained in the stress-energy tensor of the dual fluid, the pressure and energy density of the dual fluid can be perturbed. Particularly, the bulk viscosity of the dual fluid can also be given in this case.

  17. Subtleties in the calculation of the pressure and pressure tensor of anisotropic particles from volume-perturbation methods and the apparent asymmetry of the compressive and expansive contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Paul E.; Haslam, Andrew J.; de Miguel, Enrique; Jackson, George

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and versatile method to calculate the components of the pressure tensor for hard-body fluids of generic shape from the perspective of molecular simulation is presented. After due consideration of all the possible repulsive contributions exerted by molecules upon their surroundings during an anisotropic system expansion, it is observed that such a volume change can, for non-spherical molecules, give rise to configurations where overlaps occur. This feature of anisotropic molecules has to be taken into account rigorously as it can lead to discrepancies in the calculation of tensorial contributions to the pressure. Using the condition of detailed balance as a basis, a perturbation method developed for spherical molecules has been extended so that it is applicable to non-spherical and non-convex molecules. From a series of 'ghost' anisotropic volume perturbations the residual contribution to the components of the pressure tensor may be accurately calculated. Comparisons are made with prior methods and, where relevant, results are evaluated against existing data. For inhomogeneous systems this method provides a particularly convenient route to the calculation of the interfacial tension (surface free energy) from molecular simulations.

  18. Probing volumetric properties of biomolecular systems by pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC)--the effects of hydration, cosolvents and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suladze, Saba; Kahse, Marie; Erwin, Nelli; Tomazic, Daniel; Winter, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) is an efficient technique to study the volumetric properties of biomolecules in solution. In PPC, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the partial volume of the biomolecule is deduced from the heat consumed or produced after small isothermal pressure-jumps. The expansion coefficient strongly depends on the interaction of the biomolecule with the solvent or cosolvent as well as on its packing and internal dynamic properties. This technique, complemented with molecular acoustics and densimetry, provides valuable insights into the basic thermodynamic properties of solvation and volume effects accompanying interactions, reactions and phase transitions of biomolecular systems. After outlining the principles of the technique, we present representative examples on protein folding, including effects of cosolvents and crowding, together with a discussion of the interpretation, and further applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistical mechanics of light elements at high pressure. VII - A perturbative free energy for arbitrary mixtures of H and He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Dewitt, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    A model free energy is presented which accurately represents results from 45 high-precision Monte Carlo calculations of the thermodynamics of hydrogen-helium mixtures at pressures of astrophysical and planetophysical interest. The free energy is calculated using free-electron perturbation theory (dielectric function theory), and is an extension of the expression given in an earlier paper in this series. However, it fits the Monte Carlo results more accurately, and is valid for the full range of compositions from pure hydrogen to pure helium. Using the new free energy, the phase diagram of mixtures of liquid metallic hydrogen and helium is calculated and compared with earlier results. Sample results for mixing volumes are also presented, and the new free energy expression is used to compute a theoretical Jovian adiabat and compare the adiabat with results from three-dimensional Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory. The present theory gives slightly higher densities at pressures of about 10 megabars.

  20. Current-vortex filament model of nonlinear Alfven perturbations in a finite-pressure plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Schep, T. J.; Westerhof, E.

    1998-01-01

    A low-beta, two-fluid model is shown to possess solutions in the form of current-vortex filaments. The model can be viewed as that of reduced magnetohydrodynamics, extended with electron inertia, the Hall term and parallel electron pressure. These drift-Alfven filaments are the plasma analogs of poi

  1. Physical properties of archaeal tetraether lipid membranes as revealed by differential scanning and pressure perturbation calorimetry, molecular acoustics, and neutron reflectometry: effects of pressure and cell growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yong; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Taylor, Leeandrew Jacques-Asa; Erlkamp, Mirko; Grobelny, Sebastian; Czeslik, Claus; Watkins, Erik; Winter, Roland

    2012-03-20

    The polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) is a major tetraether lipid component in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Using differential scanning and pressure perturbation calorimetry as well as ultrasound velocity and density measurements, we have determined the compressibilities and volume fluctuations of PLFE liposomes derived from different cell growth temperatures (T(g) = 68, 76, and 81 °C). The compressibility and volume fluctuation values of PLFE liposomes, which are substantially less than those detected from diester lipid membranes (e.g., DPPC), exhibit small but significant differences with T(g). Among the three T(g)s employed, 76 °C leads to the least compressible and most tightly packed PLFE membranes. This temperature is within the range for optimal cell growth (75-80 °C). It is known that a decrease in T(g) decreases the number of cyclopentane rings in archael tetraether lipids. Thus, our data enable us to present the new view that membrane packing in PLFE liposomes varies with the number of cyclopentane rings in a nonlinear manner, reaching maximal tightness when the tetraether lipids are derived from cells grown at optimal T(g)s. In addition, we have studied the effects of pressure on total layer thickness, d, and neutron scattering length density, ρ(n), of a silicon-D(2)O interface that is covered with a PLFE membrane using neutron reflectometry (NR). At 55 °C, d and ρ(n) are found to be rather insensitive to pressure up to 1800 bar, suggesting minor changes of the thickness of the membrane's hydrophobic core and headgroup orientation upon compression only.

  2. Boundary Layer Instabilities Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    A controlled, laser-generated, freestream perturbation was created in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT). The freestream perturbation convected downstream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The geometry of the flared cone is a body of revolution bounded by a circular arc with a 3-meter radius. Fourteen PCB 132A31 pressure transducers were used to measure a wave packet generated in the cone boundary layer by the freestream perturbation. This wave packet grew large and became nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. Breakdown of this wave packet occurred when the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations was approximately 10% of the surface pressure for a nominally sharp nosetip. The initial amplitude of the second mode instability on the blunt flared cone is estimated to be on the order of 10 -6 times the freestream static pressure. The freestream laser-generated perturbation was positioned upstream of the model in three different configurations: on the centerline, offset from the centerline by 1.5 mm, and offset from the centerline by 3.0 mm. When the perturbation was offset from the centerline of a blunt flared cone, a larger wave packet was generated on the side toward which the perturbation was offset. The offset perturbation did not show as much of an effect on the wave packet on a sharp flared cone as it did on a blunt flared cone.

  3. Analysis of Mesoscopic Structured 2-Propanol/Water Mixtures Using Pressure Perturbation Calorimetry and Molecular Dynamic Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Jordan W; Freeman, Colin L; Howard, John D; Herz, Gregor; McGregor, James; Falconer, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the application of pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) to the characterization of 2-propanol/water mixtures. PPC of different 2-propanol/water mixtures provides two useful measurements: (i) the change in heat (ΔQ); and (ii) the [Formula: see text] value. The results demonstrate that the ΔQ values of the mixtures deviate from that expected for a random mixture, with a maximum at ~20-25 mol% 2-propanol. This coincides with the concentration at which molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show a maximum deviation from random distribution, and also the point at which alcohol-alcohol hydrogen bonds become dominant over alcohol-water hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, the [Formula: see text] value showed transitions at 2.5 mol% 2-propanol and at approximately 14 mol% 2-propanol. Below 2.5 mol% 2-propanol the values of [Formula: see text] are negative; this is indicative of the presence of isolated 2-propanol molecules surrounded by water molecules. Above 2.5 mol% 2-propanol [Formula: see text] rises, reaching a maximum at ~14 mol% corresponding to a point where mixed alcohol-water networks are thought to dominate. The values and trends identified by PPC show excellent agreement not only with those obtained from MD simulations but also with results in the literature derived using viscometry, THz spectroscopy, NMR and neutron diffraction.

  4. A study of the relationship between water and anions of the Hofmeister series using pressure perturbation calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Jordan W; Falconer, Robert J

    2015-06-07

    Pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) was used to study the relationship between water and sodium salts with a range of different anions. At temperatures around 25 °C the heat on pressurisation (ΔQ) from 1 to 5 bar was negative for all solutions relative to pure water. The raw data showed that as the temperature rose, the gradient was positive relative to pure water and the transition temperature where ΔQ was zero was related to anion surface charge density and was more pronounced for the low-charge density anions. A three component model was developed comprising bulk water, the hydration layer and the solute to calculate the molar expansivity of the hydration layer around the ions in solution. The calculated molar expansivities of water in the hydration layer around the ions were consistently less than pure water. ΔQ at different disodium hydrogen phosphate concentrations showed that the change in molar enthalpy relative to pure water was not linear even as it approached infinite dilution suggesting that while hydration layers can be allocated to the water around ions this does not rule out interactions between water and ions extending beyond the immediate hydration layer.

  5. Local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface obtained by the perturbative method in the Lennard-Jones system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Shibahara, M

    2014-07-21

    A classical molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for a system composed of fluid molecules between two planar solid surfaces, and whose interactions are described by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones form. This paper presents a general description of the pressure components and interfacial tension at a fluid-solid interface obtained by the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics, proposes a method to consider the pressure components tangential to an interface which are affected by interactions with solid atoms, and applies this method to the calculation system. The description of the perturbative method is extended to subsystems, and the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface are obtained and examined in one- and two-dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained by two alternative methods: (a) an evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane, and (b) the conventional method based on the virial expression. The accuracy of the numerical results is examined through the comparison of the results obtained by each method. The calculated local pressure components and interfacial tension of the fluid at a liquid-solid interface agreed well with the results of the two alternative methods at each local position in one dimension. In two dimensions, the results showed a characteristic profile of the tangential pressure component which depended on the direction tangential to the liquid-solid interface, which agreed with that obtained by the evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane in the present study. Such good agreement suggests that the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics used in this study is valid to obtain the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface.

  6. Local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface obtained by the perturbative method in the Lennard-Jones system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K., E-mail: ku.fujiwara@screen.co.jp [R and D Group, R and D Center, Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd., 322 Furukawa-cho, Hazukashi, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 612-8486 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shibahara, M., E-mail: siba@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    A classical molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for a system composed of fluid molecules between two planar solid surfaces, and whose interactions are described by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones form. This paper presents a general description of the pressure components and interfacial tension at a fluid-solid interface obtained by the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics, proposes a method to consider the pressure components tangential to an interface which are affected by interactions with solid atoms, and applies this method to the calculation system. The description of the perturbative method is extended to subsystems, and the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface are obtained and examined in one- and two-dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained by two alternative methods: (a) an evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane, and (b) the conventional method based on the virial expression. The accuracy of the numerical results is examined through the comparison of the results obtained by each method. The calculated local pressure components and interfacial tension of the fluid at a liquid-solid interface agreed well with the results of the two alternative methods at each local position in one dimension. In two dimensions, the results showed a characteristic profile of the tangential pressure component which depended on the direction tangential to the liquid-solid interface, which agreed with that obtained by the evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane in the present study. Such good agreement suggests that the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics used in this study is valid to obtain the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface.

  7. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future.

  8. Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional near-infrared correlation study of time-dependent water absorption behavior of cellulose affected by pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Awa, Kimie; Noda, Isao; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    Transient water absorption by cellulosic samples manufactured under varying pressure was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy to explore the absorption behavior affected by the pressure. A substantial level of variation of the spectral features was induced by the water absorption and changes in the pressure. The detail of the spectral changes was analyzed with a multiple-perturbation, two-dimensional (2D) correlation method to determine the underlying mechanism. The 2D correlation spectra indicated that the compression of the cellulose increased the packing density of the samples, preventing the penetration of water. In addition, the compression substantially disintegrated its crystalline structure and eventually resulted in the development of inter- and intrachain hydrogen-bonded structures arising from an interaction between the water and cellulose. Consequently, the cellulose samples essentially underwent an evolutionary change in the polymer structure as well as in the packing density during the compression. This structural change, in turn, led to the seemingly complicated absorption trends, depending on the pressure.

  9. Ultra-sensitive pressure dependence of bandgap of rutile-GeO{sub 2} revealed by many body perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Atanu; Singh, Abhishek K. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Jain, Manish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-08-14

    The reported values of bandgap of rutile GeO{sub 2} calculated by the standard density functional theory within local-density approximation (LDA)/generalized gradient approximation (GGA) show a wide variation (∼2 eV), whose origin remains unresolved. Here, we investigate the reasons for this variation by studying the electronic structure of rutile-GeO{sub 2} using many-body perturbation theory within the GW framework. The bandgap as well as valence bandwidth at Γ-point of rutile phase shows a strong dependence on volume change, which is independent of bandgap underestimation problem of LDA/GGA. This strong dependence originates from a change in hybridization among O-p and Ge-(s and p) orbitals. Furthermore, the parabolic nature of first conduction band along X-Γ-M direction changes towards a linear dispersion with volume expansion.

  10. The membrane lateral pressure-perturbing capacity of parabens and their effects on the mechanosensitive channel directly correlate with hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraju, Kishore; Sukharev, Sergei

    2008-10-07

    Lipid bilayers provide a natural anisotropic environment for membrane proteins and can serve as apolar reservoirs for lipid-derived second messengers or lipophilic drugs. Partitioning of lipophilic agents changes the lateral pressure distribution in the bilayer, affecting integral proteins. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are amphipathic compounds widely used as food and cosmetics preservatives, but the mechanisms of their broad antibacterial action are unknown. Here we describe effects of ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens on the gating of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) and compare them with the surface activity and lateral pressure changes measured in lipid monolayers in the presence of these substances. Near the bilayer-monolayer equivalence pressure of 35 mN/m, ethyl, propyl, or butyl paraben present in the subphase at 1 mM increased the surface pressure of the monolayer by 5, 12.5, or 20%, respectively. No spontaneous activation of MscS channels was observed in patch-clamp experiments with parabens added from either the cytoplasmic or periplasmic side. Increasing concentrations of parabens on the cytoplasmic side of excised patches shifted activation curves of MscS toward higher tensions. A good correlation between the pressure increases in monolayers and shifts in activation midpoints in patch-clamp experiments suggested that the more hydrophobic parabens partition more strongly into the lipid and exert larger effects on channel gating through changes in lateral pressure. We show that cytoplasmically presented ethyl or butyl parabens both hasten the process of desensitization of MscS and influence inactivation differently. The higher rate of desensitization is likely due to increased lateral pressure in the cytoplasmic leaflet surrounding the gate. Neither of the parabens strongly affects the rate of recovery and does not seem to penetrate the TM2-TM3 interhelical clefts in MscS. We conclude that the bacterial

  11. Perturbing PLA

    CERN Document Server

    Kozma, Gady

    2012-01-01

    We proved earlier that every measurable function on the circle, after a uniformly small perturbation, can be written as a power series (i.e. a series of exponentials with positive frequencies), which converges almost everywhere. Here we show that this result is basically sharp: the perturbation cannot be made smooth or even H\\"older. We discuss also a similar problem for perturbations with lacunary spectrum.

  12. A Study on the Effects on Low Cycle Fatigue Life of a High Pressure Turbine Nozzle due to the Perturbation of Crystal Orientation of Grain of DS Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Jae Sung; Kang, Young Seok; Rhee, Dong Ho [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    High pressure components of a gas turbine engine are generally made of nickel-base superalloys, using precision casting process due to complicated geometries with intricate channels and cooling holes. Turbine components manufactured from directionally solidified and single crystal materials have columnar grains; however, it is found that the crystals do not grow in its preferred direction, although the orientation can be controlled. This anisotropy can lead to the variations of elastic and Hill's parameters in constitutive equations, and they alter stress distributions and the low cycle fatigue life. We aims to evaluate the effects of perturbed crystal orientations on the structural integrity of a directionally solidified nozzle using low cycle fatigue life. We also attempt to show the necessity for the control of allowed manufacturing errors and stochastic analysis. Our approaches included conjugate heat transfer and structural analysis, along with low cycle fatigue life assessment.

  13. A Semi-Analytical Solution for Large-Scale Injection-Induced PressurePerturbation and Leakage in a Laterally Bounded Aquifer-AquitardSystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-07-15

    A number of (semi-)analytical solutions are available to drawdown analysis and leakage estimation of shallow aquifer-aquitard systems. These solutions assume that the systems are laterally infinite. When a large-scale pumping from (or injection into) an aquifer-aquitard system of lower specific storativity occurs, induced pressure perturbation (or hydraulic head drawdown/rise) may reach the lateral boundary of the aquifer. We developed semi-analytical solutions to address the induced pressure perturbation and vertical leakage in a 'laterally bounded' system consisting of an aquifer and an overlying/underlying aquitard. A one-dimensional radial flow equation for the aquifer was coupled with a one-dimensional vertical flow equation for the aquitard, with a no-flow condition imposed on the outer radial boundary. Analytical solutions were obtained for (1) the Laplace-transform hydraulic head drawdown/rise in the aquifer and in the aquitard, (2) the Laplace-transform rate and volume of leakage through the aquifer-aquitard interface integrated up to an arbitrary radial distance, (3) the transformed total leakage rate and volume for the entire interface, and (4) the transformed horizontal flux at any radius. The total leakage rate and volume depend only on the hydrogeologic properties and thicknesses of the aquifer and aquitard, as well as the duration of pumping or injection. It was proven that the total leakage rate and volume are independent of the aquifer's radial extent and wellbore radius. The derived analytical solutions for bounded systems are the generalized solutions of infinite systems. Laplace-transform solutions were numerically inverted to obtain the hydraulic head drawdown/rise, leakage rate, leakage volume, and horizontal flux for given hydrogeologic and geometric conditions of the aquifer-aquitard system, as well as injection/pumping scenarios. Application to a large-scale injection-and-storage problem in a bounded system was demonstrated.

  14. Physical Properties of Ni2GeO4 Spinel Perturbed by Magnetic Dilution and Applied Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobanik, Jory; Razavi, Fereidoon

    2014-03-01

    Geometrically frustrated magnetic systems have yielded an interesting and rich playground for physicists. Recently, a new disordered low temperature state was discovered in the frustrated pyrochlore type Ho2Ti2O7 which is termed spin ice. This phase is the magnetic analog to water ice with local spin disorder replacing proton disorder. Geometric frustration arises when nearest neighbor exchange interactions cannot be simultaneously satisfied resulting in large macroscopic degeneracy. This has the effect of suppressing Neel ordering temperature. This work seeks to understand the effects of applied pressure and magnetic dilution to the frustrated spinel Ni2GeO4. The parent material undergoes two closely spaced ordering events at T1 = 12.1K and T2 = 11.4K. Upon dilution a downward shift in the ordering temperatures is observed with a destruction of the lower T2 transition. Heat capacity, AC and DC magnetometry are used to probe the changes in physical properties.

  15. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Downstream Flow Field of Low-Pressure Swirl Nozzle Based on Fluent%基于Fluent低压旋流喷嘴下游流场数值模拟及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董星涛; 李超; 朱健; 付方凯; 洪张舟

    2012-01-01

    The paper simulated the downstream flow field atomization situation of low-pressure swirl nozzle by using Fluent software. The Euler-Lagrangian models were applied to simulate gas-liquid two phase coupled flow. And the simulation results show that when atomizing liquid spray with hollow cone shape accords with experimental results. The droplet velocity ranged from 15m/s to 25m/s decreases with the spray particle diameter increases; however, diameter of the spray droplet will be increased with the increasing of axial distance along the axle. [ Ch,7 fig. 9 ref. ]%运用Fluent软件模拟了低压旋流喷嘴下游流场喷雾情况.利用欧拉-拉格朗日模型模拟气液两相耦合流动.模拟显示:喷嘴喷雾形状为空心锥状,与实验得到的喷雾形状相符.喷雾的液滴速度分布于15~ 25 m/s之间,且随轴向距离的增大而减小;喷雾的液滴直径沿轴向距离增大而增大.

  16. Analysis of pressure perturbation sources on a generic space launcher after-body in supersonic flow using zonal turbulence modeling and dynamic mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statnikov, Vladimir; Sayadi, Taraneh; Meinke, Matthias; Schmid, Peter; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A sparsity promoting dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) combined with a classical data-based statistical analysis is applied to the turbulent wake of a generic axisymmetric configuration of an Ariane 5-like launcher at Ma∞ = 6.0 computed via a zonal Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large-eddy simulation (RANS/LES) method. The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the wake flow dynamics of the generic launcher by clarification and visualization of initially unknown pressure perturbation sources on its after-body in coherent flow patterns. The investigated wake topology is characterized by a subsonic cavity region around the cylindrical nozzle extension which is formed due to the displacement effect of the afterexpanding jet plume emanating from the rocket nozzle (Mae = 2.52, pe/p∞ = 100) and the shear layer shedding from the main body. The cavity region contains two toroidal counter-rotating large-scale vortices which extensively interact with the turbulent shear layer, jet plume, and rocket walls, leading to the shear layer instability process to be amplified. The induced velocity fluctuations in the wake and the ultimately resulting pressure perturbations on the after-body feature three global characteristic frequency ranges, depending on the streamwise position inside the cavity. The most dominant peaks are detected at SrD r3 = 0.85 ± 0.075 near the nozzle exit, while the lower frequency peaks, in the range of SrD r2 = 0.55 ± 0.05 and SrD r1 = 0.25 ± 0.05, are found to be dominant closer to the rocket's base. A sparse promoting DMD algorithm is applied to the time-resolved velocity field to clarify the origin of the detected peaks. This analysis extracts three low-frequency spatial modes at SrD = 0.27, 0.56, and 0.85. From the three-dimensional shape of the DMD modes and the reconstructed modulation of the mean flow in time, it is deduced that the detected most dominant peaks of SrD r3 ≈ 0.85 are caused by the radial flapping motion of

  17. Parameter Identification with the Random Perturbation Particle Swarm Optimization Method and Sensitivity Analysis of an Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant Model for Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain appropriate parameters for an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR unit model is of great significance for power system analysis. The attributes of that ability include the following: nonlinear relationships, long transition time, intercoupled parameters and difficult obtainment from practical test, posed complexity and difficult parameter identification. In this paper, a model and a parameter identification method for the PWR primary loop system were investigated. A parameter identification process was proposed, using a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm that is based on random perturbation (RP-PSO. The identification process included model variable initialization based on the differential equations of each sub-module and program setting method, parameter obtainment through sub-module identification in the Matlab/Simulink Software (Math Works Inc., Natick, MA, USA as well as adaptation analysis for an integrated model. A lot of parameter identification work was carried out, the results of which verified the effectiveness of the method. It was found that the change of some parameters, like the fuel temperature and coolant temperature feedback coefficients, changed the model gain, of which the trajectory sensitivities were not zero. Thus, obtaining their appropriate values had significant effects on the simulation results. The trajectory sensitivities of some parameters in the core neutron dynamic module were interrelated, causing the parameters to be difficult to identify. The model parameter sensitivity could be different, which would be influenced by the model input conditions, reflecting the parameter identifiability difficulty degree for various input conditions.

  18. Experimental investigation of unsteady fan flow interaction with downstream struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, W. F.; Obrien, W. F.; Olsen, T. L.

    1986-07-01

    In the present study of the unsteady pressure field produced on fan rotor blades by interaction with downstream struts, a single stage, low speed axial-flow fan was instrumented with blade-mounted high frequency pressure transducers. In addition, stationary pressure problems were used to map out the flowfield. Fluctuating pressure measurements are presented for blade midspan and 85-percent span on both the suction and pressure surfaces of the rotor blades at several positions of the downstream struts, and for two different flow coefficients. The strut is found to produce an effect on the unsteady pressure field on the rotor blades; this effect exceeds that due to the stator at design rotor-stator-strut spacing, but it rapidly declines as the struts are moved downstream.

  19. Cosmological Perturbations: Vorticity, Isocurvature and Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Christopherson, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I review some recent, interlinked, work undertaken using cosmological perturbation theory -- a powerful technique for modelling inhomogeneities in the Universe. The common theme which underpins these pieces of work is the presence of non-adiabatic pressure, or entropy, perturbations. After a brief introduction covering the standard techniques of describing inhomogeneities in both Newtonian and relativistic cosmology, I discuss the generation of vorticity. As in classical fluid mechanics, vorticity is not present in linearized perturbation theory (unless included as an initial condition). Allowing for entropy perturbations, and working to second order in perturbation theory, I show that vorticity is generated, even in the absence of vector perturbations, by purely scalar perturbations, the source term being quadratic in the gradients of first order energy density and isocurvature, or non-adiabatic pressure perturbations. This generalizes Crocco's theorem to a cosmological setting. I then introduc...

  20. Unsteady Interaction Between a Transonic Turbine Stage and Downstream Components

    OpenAIRE

    Davis Roger; Yao Jixian; Clark John; Stetson Gary; Alonso Juan; Jameson Antony; Haldeman Charles; Dunn Michael

    2004-01-01

    Results from a numerical simulation of the unsteady flow through one quarter of the circumference of a transonic high-pressure turbine stage, transition duct, and low-pressure turbine first vane are presented and compared with experimental data. Analysis of the unsteady pressure field resulting from the simulation shows the effects of not only the rotor/stator interaction of the high-pressure turbine stage but also new details of the interaction between the blade and the downstream transition...

  1. Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Minamitsuji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (nonconservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame.

  2. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, N.A., E-mail: koshna71@inbox.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str 42, 432970 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.

  3. Physicochemical Perturbations of Phase Equilibriums

    CERN Document Server

    Dobruskin, Vladimir Kh

    2010-01-01

    The alternative approach to the displacement of gas/liquid equilibrium is developed on the basis of the Clapeyron equation. The phase transition in the system with well-established properties is taken as a reference process to search for the parameters of phase transition in the perturbed equilibrium system. The main equation, derived in the framework of both classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, establishes a correlation between variations of enthalpies of evaporation, \\Delta (\\Delta H), which is induced by perturbations, and the equilibrium vapor pressures. The dissolution of a solute, changing the surface shape, and the effect of the external field of adsorbents are considered as the perturbing actions on the liquid phase. The model provides the unified method for studying (1) solutions, (2) membrane separations (3) surface phenomena, and (4) effect of the adsorption field; it leads to the useful relations between \\Delta (\\Delta H), on the one hand, and the osmotic pressures, the Donnan poten...

  4. Effects of local fatigue on myoelectrical activity of erector spine muscles and the center for pressure displacement of the feet during balance recovery following postural perturbation in kyphotic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholah Rezaee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: kyphosis deformity affects postural control. Muscular fatigue is one of the factors that can impair the mechanism of body balance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of local fatigue on the myoelectrical activity of erector spine muscles and the center for pressure displacement of the feet during balance recovery following postural perturbation in kyphotic subjects. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 12 male students with>40 degrees thoracic kyphosis and 12 controls were selected to participate in the study. A flexible ruler was used to measure thoracic kyphosis. For postural control assessment, each subject underwent unexpected, forward-backward perturbations while standing on a foot scan mounted on a movable plate triggered by a weight equivalent to 10% of the subjects’ body weight. Experimental procedure was measured before (3 trails and after (3 trials the fatigue protocol. The myoelectric activity of the erector spine and multi fidus was compared in the groups using repeated measures of ANOVA and independent t-test (P<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the foot center of pressure displacement in both groups after muscular fatigue. After fatigue, there was an increase in the activity of longissimus thoracis (P=0.001 and iliocostalis thoracis (P= 0.001 in control group, while no significant difference was reported for the muscular activity of multifidus (p=0.084. The activity of langisimus thoracis was significantly increased (P=0.028 in kyphtic group after fatigue. Conclusion: erector spine muscles fatigue could not significantly affect the postural control in both groups, but the electrical activity of erector spine muscles during balance recovery following postural perturbation in kyphotic subjects was different than the controls.

  5. Cosmological density perturbations from perturbed couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujikawa, S

    2003-01-01

    The density perturbations generated when the inflaton decay rate is perturbed by a light scalar field $\\chi$ are studied. By explicitly solving the perturbation equations for the system of two scalar fields and radiation, we show that even in low energy-scale inflation nearly scale-invariant spectra of scalar perturbations with an amplitude set by observations are obtained through the conversion of $\\chi$ fluctuations into adiabatic density perturbations. We demonstrate that the spectra depend on the average decay rate of the inflaton & on the inflaton fluctuations. We then apply this new mechanism to string cosmologies & generalized Einstein theories and discuss the conditions under which scale-invariant spectra are possible.

  6. Downstream Thermal Evolution of Vortex Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barea, A.; Herrada, M. A.; Pérez-Saborid, M.; Barrero, A.

    1999-11-01

    The downstream evolution of the total temperature field in a quasi-incompressible axisymmetric vortex core has been computed. Starting at an initial station (z=0) with velocity profiles of the Burgers type and given temperature distributions, the numerical results of the evolution show that, according to experimental results, the total temperature in the near-axis region decreases substantially due to the work done by pressure and viscous forces together with the effect of both convection and conduction of heat. Depending on the values of the parameters characterizing the initial profiles and on the value of the Prandtl number, the vortex either breaks down or eventually reaches a self-similar regime. The results obtained shed light on the basic physics involved in the thermal separation phenomenon which appears inside Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes.

  7. Operational optimization in the downstream; Otimizacao operacional no downstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberman, Luis; Cunha, Filipe Silveira Ramos da [Petroleo Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    On the present competitive down stream's market, there is a great necessity of optimization aiming to guarantee the best price and quality of our clients. Our goal is to attend these expectations while we guarantee an efficient operation. The greatest question is how far we are from the ideal model. This way, a lot of projects have been executed during the last years aiming the operational optimization of all our activities. We divide the projects in 4 areas: Logistic (new modals distribution), Transport (transport optimization - quality and more deliveries with less trucks), Client Support (Internet Ipiranga and Support Center), Distribution Terminals Productivity (automation and environment). This work intend to present our ideal, perfect and complete Downstream Operation model. We will talk about how close we are of this ideal model and we will present the projects that we had already developed and implanted on the automation of the terminals and the logistics area. (author)

  8. Newtonian Limits of the Relativistic Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    1997-01-01

    Relativistic cosmological perturbation analyses can be made based on several different fundamental gauge conditions. In the pressureless limit the variables in certain gauge conditions show the correct Newtonian behaviors. We consider the general curvature and the cosmological constant in the background medium. The perturbed density in the comoving gauge, and the perturbed velocity and the perturbed potential in the zero-shear gauge show the same behavior as the Newtonian ones in a general scale. Far inside horizon, except for the uniform-density gauge, density perturbations in all the fundamental gauge conditions show the correct Newtonian behavior. In this paper we elaborate these Newtonian correspondences. We also present the relativistic results considering general pressures in the background and perturbation.

  9. Brane World Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Casali, A G; Wang, B; Casali, Adenauer G.; Abdalla, Elcio; Wang, Bin

    2004-01-01

    We consider a brane world and its gravitational linear perturbations. We present a general solution of the perturbations in the bulk and find the complete perturbed junction conditions for generic brane dynamics. We also prove that (spin 2) gravitational waves in the great majority of cases can only arise in connection with a non-vanishing anisotropic stress. This has far reaching consequences for inflation in the brane world. Moreover, contrary to the case of the radion, perturbations are stable.

  10. Modelling and calculation of combined-cycle power plants with pressurized fluidized bed and with upstream or downstream gas turbines at full load and part load; Modellierung und Berechnung von Kombikraftwerken mit Druckwirbelschicht und vor- sowie nachgeschalteten Gasturbinen bei Voll- und Teillast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faatz, R.

    1997-12-31

    Owing to their high efficiency, low pollutant emissions and good performance when fuelled with coal, pressurized fluidized-bed combustors have come to play and important role. The performance of processes with pressurized fluidized beds can be enhanced significantly by combining them with gas turbines fuelled with natural gas or coal gas. The report describes several variants of combined cycle processes with pressurized fluidized beds and with gas turbines connected upstream or downstream. The main components, i.e. gas turbine, pressurized fluidized bed, steam turbine and steam cycle are simulated by computer models. For the power plant variants, full-load calculations were carried out to determine the potential efficiency; for the components like gas turbine and pressurized fluidized bed, also part-load calculations were made. It was found that efficiencies of 45-49 % are possible with the investigated variants. Optimisation of the process parameters, efficiencies up to 51.4 % will be possible especially in the range of transition to supercritical steam parameters. (orig.) 68 figs., 14 tabs. [Deutsch] Die Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung hat wegen ihres hohen Wirkungsgrades, ihrer niedrigen Schadstoffemissionen und ihrer Eignung fuer den Brennstoff Kohle eine grosse Bedeutung erlangt. Durch geschickte Kombination mit erdgas- oder kohlegasgefeuerten Gasturbinen laesst sich der Wirkungsgrad von Prozessen mit Druckwirbelschicht betraechtlich steigern. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt verschiedene Schaltungsvarianten von Kombiprozessen mit Druckwirbelschicht, bei denen die Gasturbinen der Wirbelschicht sowohl vorgeschaltet als auch nachgeschaltet sind. Die Hauptkomponenten der Prozesse wie Gasturbine, Druckwirbelschicht, Dampfturbine und Dampfkreislauf werden durch Rechnermodelle simuliert. Fuer die Kraftwerksvarianten wurden Vollastrechnungen zur Ermittlung des Wirkungsgradpotentials, fuer die einzelnen Komponenten wie Gasturbine und Druckwirbelschicht auch

  11. Downstream boundary effects on the frequency of self-excited oscillations in transonic diffuser flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, T.

    1986-10-01

    Investigation of downstream boundary effects on the frequency of self-excited oscillations in two-dimensional, separated transonic diffuser flows were conducted numerically by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equation with two equation turbulence models. It was found that the flow fields are very sensitive to the location of the downstream boundary. Extension of the diffuser downstream boundary significantly reduces the frequency and amplitude of oscillations for pressure, velocity, and shock. The existence of a suction slot in the experimental setpup obscures the physical downstream boundary and therefore presents a difficulty for quantitative comparisons between computation and experiment.

  12. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  13. Perturbative tests of non-perturbative counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Gomes, João

    2010-03-01

    We observe that a class of quarter-BPS dyons in mathcal{N} = 4 theories with charge vector ( Q, P) and with nontrivial values of the arithmetic duality invariant I := gcd( Q∧ P) are nonperturbative in one frame but perturbative in another frame. This observation suggests a test of the recently computed nonperturbative partition functions for dyons with nontrivial values of the arithmetic invariant. For all values of I, we show that the nonperturbative counting yields vanishing indexed degeneracy for this class of states everywhere in the moduli space in precise agreement with the perturbative result.

  14. Generalized Supersymmetric Perturbation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. G(o)n(ǖ)l

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using the basic ingredient of supersymmetry, a simple alternative approach is developed to perturbation theory in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formulae for the energy shifts and wavefunctions do not involve tedious calculations which appear in the available perturbation theories. The model applicable in the same form to both the ground state and excited bound states, unlike the recently introduced supersymmetric perturbation technique which, together with other approaches based on logarithmic perturbation theory, are involved within the more general framework of the present formalism.

  15. Density matrix perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt

    2004-05-14

    An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.

  16. CNOOC Advancing into Downstream of Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ "China National Offshore Oil Corporation is starting to expand its business into the downstream sector after making achievements continuously in exploration and development," Wang Yan, president of the corporation,told reporter in an interview, adding that the downstream sector is the third development stage for China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC).

  17. Three-dimensional unsteady flow and forces in centrifugal impellers with circumferential distortion of the outlet static pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatsis, A.; Pierret, S.; Braembussche, R. van den [von Karman Inst. for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-St.-Genese (Belgium). Turbomachinery Dept.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the numerical investigation of the centrifugal impeller response to downstream static pressure distortions imposed by volutes at off-design operations. An unsteady three-dimensional Euler solver with nonreflecting upstream and downstream boundary conditions and phase-lagged periodicity conditions is used for this purpose. The mechanisms governing the unsteady flow field are analyzed. A parametric study shows the influence of the acoustic Strouhal number on the amplitude of the flow perturbations. Radial forces calculated on backward leaned and radial ending centrifugal impellers show nonnegligible influence of the impeller geometry.

  18. Perturbative Topological Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert

    We give a review of the application of perturbative techniques to topological quantum field theories, in particular three-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten theory and its various generalizations. To this end we give an introduction to graph homology and homotopy algebras and the work of Vassiliev and Kontsevich on perturbative knot invariants.

  19. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  20. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  1. Time-Frequency Analysis of Boundary-Layer Instabilites Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    A controlled disturbance is generated in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) by focusing a high-powered Nd:YAG laser to create a laser-induced breakdown plasma. The plasma then cools, creating a freestream thermal disturbance that can be used to study receptivity. The freestream disturbance convects down-stream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The adverse pressure gradient created by the flare of the model is capable of generating second-mode instability waves that grow large and become nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. The freestream laser perturbation generates a wave packet in the boundary layer at the same frequency as the natural second mode, complicating time-independent analyses of the effect of the laser perturbation. The data show that the laser perturbation creates an instability wave packet that is larger than the natural waves on the sharp flared cone. The wave packet is still difficult to distinguish from the natural instabilities on the blunt flared cone.

  2. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu

    2012-04-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  3. Perturbations of planar algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of {\\em weight} of a planar algebra $P$ and construct a new planar algebra referred as the {\\em perturbation of $P$} by the weight. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between pivotal structures on 2-categories and perturbations of planar algebras by weights. To each bifinite bimodule over $II_1$-factors, we associate a {\\em bimodule planar algebra} bimodule corresponds naturally with sphericality of the bimodule planar algebra. As a consequence of this, we reproduce an extension of Jones' theorem (of associating 'subfactor planar algebras' to extremal subfactors). Conversely, given a bimodule planar algebra, we construct a bifinite bimodule whose associated bimodule planar algebra is the one which we start with using perturbations and Jones-Walker-Shlyakhtenko-Kodiyalam-Sunder method of reconstructing an extremal subfactor from a subfactor planar algebra. We show that the perturbation class of a bimodule planar algebra contains a unique spherical unimodular bimodule planar algeb...

  4. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  5. Transport Studies in Fusion Plasmas - Perturbative Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.

    1994-01-01

    By subjecting a plasma in steady state to small perturbations and measuring the response, it is possible to determine elements of the matrix of transport coefficients. Experimentally this is difficult, and results are mainly limited to tranpsport driven by the pressure and temperature gradients. Imp

  6. Transport studies in fusion plasmas: Perturbative experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.

    1996-01-01

    By subjecting a plasma in steady state to small perturbations and measuring the response, it is possible to determine elements of the matrix of transport coefficients. Experimentally this is difficult, and results are mainly limited to tranpsport driven by the pressure and temperature gradients. Imp

  7. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  8. Perturbations and quantum relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Kandhadai, Adithya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether small perturbations can cause relaxation to quantum equilibrium over very long timescales. We consider in particular a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can serve as a model of a field mode on expanding space. We assume an initial wave function with small perturbations to the ground state. We present evidence that the trajectories are highly confined so as to preclude relaxation to equilibrium even over very long timescales. Cosmological implications are briefly discussed.

  9. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Shu-Jun; LIU Qiu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations.We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model.In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry,the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero.The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.%The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  10. Clustering under Perturbation Resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Balcan, Maria Florina

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Bilu and Linial \\cite{BL} formalized an implicit assumption often made when choosing a clustering objective: that the optimum clustering to the objective should be preserved under small multiplicative perturbations to distances between points. They showed that for max-cut clustering it is possible to circumvent NP-hardness and obtain polynomial-time algorithms for instances resilient to large (factor $O(\\sqrt{n})$) perturbations, and subsequently Awasthi et al. \\cite{ABS10} considered center-based objectives, giving algorithms for instances resilient to O(1) factor perturbations. In this paper, we greatly advance this line of work. For the $k$-median objective, we present an algorithm that can optimally cluster instances resilient to $(1 + \\sqrt{2})$-factor perturbations, solving an open problem of Awasthi et al.\\cite{ABS10}. We additionally give algorithms for a more relaxed assumption in which we allow the optimal solution to change in a small $\\epsilon$ fraction of the points after perturbation. ...

  11. Results from modeling and simulation of chemical downstream etch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Vosen, S.R.; Shon, J.W.; Larson, R.S.; Fox, C.A.; Buchenauer

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes modeling work performed at Sandia in support of Chemical Downstream Etch (CDE) benchmark and tool development programs under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with SEMATECH. The Chemical Downstream Etch (CDE) Modeling Project supports SEMATECH Joint Development Projects (JDPs) with Matrix Integrated Systems, Applied Materials, and Astex Corporation in the development of new CDE reactors for wafer cleaning and stripping processes. These dry-etch reactors replace wet-etch steps in microelectronics fabrication, enabling compatibility with other process steps and reducing the use of hazardous chemicals. Models were developed at Sandia to simulate the gas flow, chemistry and transport in CDE reactors. These models address the essential components of the CDE system: a microwave source, a transport tube, a showerhead/gas inlet, and a downstream etch chamber. The models have been used in tandem to determine the evolution of reactive species throughout the system, and to make recommendations for process and tool optimization. A significant part of this task has been in the assembly of a reasonable set of chemical rate constants and species data necessary for successful use of the models. Often the kinetic parameters were uncertain or unknown. For this reason, a significant effort was placed on model validation to obtain industry confidence in the model predictions. Data for model validation were obtained from the Sandia Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) experiments, from the literature, from the CDE Benchmark Project (also part of the Sandia/SEMATECH CRADA), and from the JDP partners. The validated models were used to evaluate process behavior as a function of microwave-source operating parameters, transport-tube geometry, system pressure, and downstream chamber geometry. In addition, quantitative correlations were developed between CDE tool performance and operation set points.

  12. Renormalized Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Crocce, M

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new formalism to study nonlinear evolution in the growth of large-scale structure, by following the dynamics of gravitational clustering as it builds up in time. This approach is conveniently represented by Feynman diagrams constructed in terms of three objects: the initial conditions (e.g. perturbation spectrum), the vertex (describing non-linearities) and the propagator (describing linear evolution). We show that loop corrections to the linear power spectrum organize themselves into two classes of diagrams: one corresponding to mode-coupling effects, the other to a renormalization of the propagator. Resummation of the latter gives rise to a quantity that measures the memory of perturbations to initial conditions as a function of scale. As a result of this, we show that a well-defined (renormalized) perturbation theory follows, in the sense that each term in the remaining mode-coupling series dominates at some characteristic scale and is subdominant otherwise. This is unlike standard perturbatio...

  13. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  14. Downstream bioprocess characterisation within microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Marco; Krühne, Ulrich; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturising bioprocess unit operation steps is a well-established approach to find novel routes for process intensification and improved process economics. While a number of microbioreactors have been presented over the last 15 years, miniaturised downstream unit operations (mDUO) are less deve...

  15. Perturbed S3 neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Naeem Shahid, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presenceof an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos at the unper...

  16. Cosmological perturbations in antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.

  17. Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lüscher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.

  18. MITIGATION OF SEDIMENTATION HAZARDS DOWNSTREAM FROM RESERVOIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen WOHL; Sara RATHBURN

    2003-01-01

    Many reservoirs currently in operation trap most or all of the sediment entering the reservoir,creating sediment-depleted conditions downstream. This may cause channel adjustment in the form of bank erosion, bed erosion, substrate coarsening, and channel planform change. Channel adjustment may also result from episodic sediment releases during reservoir operation, or from sediment evacuation following dam removal. Channel adjustment to increased sediment influx depends on the magnitude, frequency, duration and grain-size distribution of the sediment releases, and on the downstream channel characteristics. Channel adjustment may occur as a change in substrate sizedistribution, filling of pools, general bed aggradation, lateral instability, change in channel planform,and/or floodplain aggradation. The increased sediment availability may alter aquatic and riparian habitat, reduce water quality, distribute adsorbed contaminants along the river corridor, and provide germination sites for exotic vegetation. Mitigation of these sedimentation hazards requires: (1)mapping grain-size distribution within the reservoir and estimating the grain-size distributions of sediment that will be mobilized through time; (2) mapping shear stress and sediment transport capacity as a function of discharge on the basis of channel units for the length of the river likely to be affected; (3) mapping potential depositional zones, and aquatic habitat and "acceptable losses," along the downstream channel, and comparing these volumes to the total sediment volume stored in the reservoir as a means of estimating total transport capacity required to mobilize reservoir sediment delivered to the channel; (4) designing discharge and sediment release regime (magnitude, frequency,duration) to minimize adverse downstream impacts; and (5) developing plans to remove, treat, contain,or track contaminants, and to restrict establishment of exotic vegetation. The North Fork Poudre River in Colorado is used to

  19. Quantization of Perturbations in an Inflating Elastic Solid

    CERN Document Server

    Sitwell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A sufficiently rigid relativistic elastic solid can be stable for negative pressure values and thus is capable of driving a stage of accelerated expansion. If a relativistic elastic solid drove an inflationary stage in the early Universe, quantum mechanically excited perturbations would arise in the medium. We quantize the linear scalar and tensor perturbations and investigate the observational consequences of having such an inflationary period. We find that slowly varying sounds speeds of the perturbations and a slowing varying equation of state of the solid can produce a slightly red-tilted scalar power spectrum that agrees with current observational data. Even in the absence of non-adiabatic pressures, perturbations evolve on superhorizon scales, due to the shear stresses within the solid. As such, the spectra of perturbations are in general sensitive to the details of the end of inflation and we characterize this dependence. Interestingly, we uncover here accelerating solutions for elastic solids with (1 ...

  20. High order multiplication perturbation method for singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文志; 黄培彦

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a high order multiplication perturbation method for sin-gularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems with the boundary layer at one end. By the theory of singular perturbations, the singularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems are first transformed into the singularly perturbed initial value problems. With the variable coefficient dimensional expanding, the non-homogeneous ordinary dif-ferential equations (ODEs) are transformed into the homogeneous ODEs, which are then solved by the high order multiplication perturbation method. Some linear and nonlinear numerical examples show that the proposed method has high precision.

  1. Development of a perturbation generator for vortex stability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riester, J. E.; Ash, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Theory predicts vortex instability when subjected to certain types of disturbances. It was desired to build a device which could introduce controlled velocity perturbations into a trailing line vortex in order to study the effects on stability. A perturbation generator was designed and manufactured which can be attached to the centerbody of an airfoil type vortex generator. Details of design tests and manufacturing of the perturbation generator are presented. The device produced controlled perturbation with frequencies in excess of 250 Hz. Preliminary testing and evaluation of the perturbation generator performance was conducted in a 4 inch cylindrical pipe. Observations of vortex shedding frequencies from a centerbody were measured. Further evaluation with the perturbation generator attached to the vortex generator in a 2 x 3 foot wind tunnel were also conducted. Hot-wire anemometry was used to confirm the perturbation generator's ability to introduce controlled frequency fluctuations. Comparison of the energy levels of the disturbances in the vortex core was made between locations 42 chord lengths and 15 chord lengths downstream.

  2. Enhanced mixing downstream of a pile in an estuarine flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, H. U.; Mohrholz, V.; Knoll, M.; Prandke, H.

    2008-11-01

    We studied the impact on stratification and mixing of a bridge pile in a stratified shear flow at the Western Bridge of the Great Belt Fixed Link, Denmark, in January and April 2006. Stratification was measured with high horizontal resolution by towed CTD chains and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy was measured by a free-falling MSS 90 microstructure profiler equipped with shear probes. Background stratification and current were measured by standard CTD and a bottom-mounted ADCP, respectively. The spatial and temporal variability of the flow field close behind a single pile was measured by an ADCP mounted on a small catamaran tethered to this pile. A shear background flow of varying strength was observed with an inflow of up to 80 cm s - 1 in the surface layer and an outflow of 10 cm s - 1 in the bottom layer. The brackish surface layer was separated from the saline Kattegat water in the bottom layer by an intermediate layer resulting in a Brunt-Väisälä frequency of up to 100 cycles per hour (cph). The maximum Reynolds number ( Re) and internal Froude number ( Fr) were 4.6 × 10 6 and 1.3, respectively. Eddies occurred downstream of a pile with a characteristic diameter of the pile and a frequency corresponding to a von Kármán vortex street when near-surface Fr > 0.7. Enhanced mixing was observed in the von Kármán vortex streets, which caused an increase in salinity by a few psu in the surface mixed layer of the eddy up to 400 m downstream of the piles. Differential advection by cross-channel circulation smeared out laterally from the wakes' salinity anomalies and turbulence. The dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy in the intermediate layer increased by an order of magnitude downstream of the piles as a function of Fr when Fr > 0.7. This enhanced mixing reduced the mean potential energy anomaly downstream by some 10 Jm - 3 in the upper 15 m depth and caused an upstream-directed baroclinic pressure gradient of the same order as the barotropic

  3. Downstream Intensification Effects Associated with CO2 Laser Mitigation of Fused Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, M J; Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Widmayer, C C; Ravizza, F L

    2007-10-29

    Mitigation of 351nm laser-induced damage sites on fused silica exit surfaces by selective CO{sub 2} treatment has been shown to effectively arrest the exponential growth responsible for limiting the lifetime of optics in high-fluence laser systems. However, the perturbation to the optical surface profile following the mitigation process introduces phase contrast to the beam, causing some amount of downstream intensification with the potential to damage downstream optics. Control of the laser treatment process and measurement of the associated phase modulation is essential to preventing downstream 'fratricide' in damage-mitigated optical systems. In this work we present measurements of the surface morphology, intensification patterns and damage associated with various CO{sub 2} mitigation treatments on fused silica surfaces. Specifically, two components of intensification pattern, one on-axis and another off-axis can lead to damage of downstream optics and are related to rims around the ablation pit left from the mitigation process. It is shown that control of the rim structure around the edge of typical mitigation sites is crucial in preventing damage to downstream optics.

  4. Perturbations can enhance qauntum search

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, J; Bae, Joonwoo; Kwon, Younghun

    2003-01-01

    In general, a quantum algorithm wants to avoid decoherence or perturbation, since such factors may cause errors in the algorithm. In this letter, we will supply the answer to the interesting question: can the factors seemingly harmful to a quantum algorithm(for example, perturbations) enhance the algorithm? We show that some perturbations to the generalized quantum search Hamiltonian can reduce the running time and enhance the success probability. We also provide the narrow bound to the perturbation which can be beneficial to quantum search. In addition, we show that the error induced by a perturbation on the Farhi and Gutmann Hamiltonian can be corrected by another perturbation.

  5. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  6. Aspects of perturbative unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-07-01

    We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.

  7. Aspects of perturbative unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.

  8. Degenerate Density Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palenik, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Fractional occupation numbers can be used in density functional theory to create a symmetric Kohn-Sham potential, resulting in orbitals with degenerate eigenvalues. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory and apply it to a system of $N_d$ degenerate electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential. The order-by-order expansions of both the fractional occupation numbers and unitary transformations within the degenerate subspace are determined by the requirement that a differentiable map exists connecting the initial and perturbed states. Using the X$\\alpha$ exchange-correlation (XC) functional, we find an analytic solution for the first-order density and first through third-order energies as a function of $\\alpha$, with and without a self-interaction correction. The fact that the XC Hessian is not positive definite plays an important role in the behavior of the occupation numbers.

  9. Large Spin Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alday, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We consider conformal field theories around points of large twist degeneracy. Examples of this are theories with weakly broken higher spin symmetry and perturbations around generalised free fields. At the degenerate point we introduce twist conformal blocks. These are eigenfunctions of certain quartic operators and encode the contribution, to a given four-point correlator, of the whole tower of intermediate operators with a given twist. As we perturb around the degenerate point, the twist degeneracy is lifted. In many situations this breaking is controlled by inverse powers of the spin. In such cases the twist conformal blocks can be decomposed into a sequence of functions which we systematically construct. Decomposing the four-point correlator in this basis turns crossing symmetry into an algebraic problem. Our method can be applied to a wide spectrum of conformal field theories in any number of dimensions and at any order in the breaking parameter. As an example, we compute the spectrum of various theories ...

  10. Cosmological Perturbations in Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Marius

    2014-01-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely-signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the Standard Model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically-complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity", during each successive transition from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, its cosmological solutions are stable at the perturbative level.

  11. Perturbatively charged holographic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D=4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS_4, a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parameterized by a disorder strength and a characteristic scale k_0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically AdS solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged DC conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k_0. We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged DC conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for hologr...

  12. Degenerate density perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2016-09-01

    Fractional occupation numbers can be used in density functional theory to create a symmetric Kohn-Sham potential, resulting in orbitals with degenerate eigenvalues. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory and apply it to a system of Nd degenerate electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential. The order-by-order expansions of both the fractional occupation numbers and unitary transformations within the degenerate subspace are determined by the requirement that a differentiable map exists connecting the initial and perturbed states. Using the X α exchange-correlation (XC) functional, we find an analytic solution for the first-order density and first- through third-order energies as a function of α , with and without a self-interaction correction. The fact that the XC Hessian is not positive definite plays an important role in the behavior of the occupation numbers.

  13. Fish reproductive guilds downstream of dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, L P; Alves, D C; Gomes, L C

    2014-11-01

    Fish reproductive guilds were used to evaluate the responses of species with different reproductive strategies during two different periods of post-dam construction. The data used for the comparisons were collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), downstream of the Porto Primavera dam, 2 and 10 years after impoundment. The abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE), species richness, evenness and structure of communities, all within reproductive guilds, were used to test the hypothesis that these metrics vary spatially and temporally. The influence of damming on species structure and the diversity of fish reproductive guilds varied spatiotemporally, and species with opportunistic reproductive strategies tended to be less affected. Conversely, long-distance migratory species responded more markedly to spatiotemporal variations, indicating that the ecosystem dynamics exert greater effects on populations of these species. Thus, the effects of a dam, even if attenuated, may extend over several years, especially downstream. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining large undammed tributaries downstream of reservoirs.

  14. Perturbative String Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ooguri, H; Ooguri, Hirosi; Yin, Zheng

    1996-01-01

    These lecture notes are based on a course on string theories given by Hirosi Ooguri in the first week of TASI 96 Summer School at Boulder, Colorado. It is an introductory course designed to provide students with minimum knowledge before they attend more advanced courses on non-perturbative aspects of string theories in the School. The course consists of five lectures: 1. Bosonic String, 2. Toroidal Compactifications, 3. Superstrings, 4. Heterotic Strings, and 5. Orbifold Compactifications.

  15. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  16. Ion Effects in the DARHT-II Downstream Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Kwok-Chi D; Ekdahl, Carl; Genoni, Thomas C; Hughes, Thomas P; Schulze, Martin E

    2005-01-01

    The DARHT-II accelerator produces an 18-MeV, 2-kA, 2-μs electron beam pulse. After the accelerator, the pulse is delivered to the final focus on an x-ray producing target via a beam transport section called the Downstream Transport. Ions produced due to beam ionization of residual gases in the Downstream Transport can affect the beam dynamics. Ions generated by the head of the pulse will cause modification of space-charge forces at the tail of the pulse so that the beam head and tail will have different beam envelopes. They may also induce ion-hose instability at the tail of the pulse. If these effects are significant, the focusing requirements of beam head and tail at the final focus will become very different. The focusing of the complete beam pulse will be time dependent and difficult to achieve, leading to less efficient x-ray production. In this paper, we will describe the results of our calculations of these ion effects at different residual-gas pressure levels. Our goal is to determine the ma...

  17. Perturbation semigroup of matrix algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, N.; Suijlekom, W.D. van

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze the structure of the semigroup of inner perturbations in noncommutative geometry. This perturbation semigroup is associated to a unital associative *-algebra and extends the group of unitary elements of this *-algebra. We compute the perturbation semigroup for all matrix algebras.

  18. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has n

  19. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  20. Adiabatic expansion effect of natural gas at the downstream extremity of the pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessal, Mohand; Amara, Khadidja; Belaidi, Idir

    2017-02-01

    Two numerical simulation examples of natural gas transients are studied, based on the conservation equations of fluid mechanics and energy, discribed by the flow parameters, pressure (P) and the speed (V) and temperature (T) in a gas pipeline. The considered exemple is under static pressure, at which two boundary conditions are applied to its downstream end, whith an adiabatic discharge to the atmosphere. Obtained results have shown the parameters variation induced by the conditions of these instantaneous gas output conditions.

  1. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    This book will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in the area of high energy theoretical physics. Being the most complete and updated review volume on Perturbative QCD, it serves as an extremely useful textbook or reference book. Some of the reviews in this volume are the best that have been written on the subject anywhere. Contents: Factorization of Hard Processes in QCD (J C Collins, D E Soper & G Sterman); Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics (S J Brodsky & G P Lepage); Coherence and Physics of QCD Jets (Yu L Dokshitzer, V A Khoze & S I Troyan); Pomeron in Qu

  2. Perturbative nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Silas R; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2009-01-01

    We present a new formulation of effective field theory for nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions which treats pion interactions perturbatively, and we offer evidence that the expansion converges satisfactorily to third order in the expansion, which we have computed analytically for s and d wave NN scattering. Starting with the Kaplan-Savage-Wise (KSW) expansion about the nontrivial fixed point corresponding to infinite NN scattering length, we cure the convergence problems with that theory by summing to all orders the singular short distance part of the pion tensor interaction. This method makes possible a host of high precision analytic few-body calculations in nuclear physics.

  3. Non-Perturbative Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mastropietro, Vieri

    2008-01-01

    The notion of renormalization is at the core of several spectacular achievements of contemporary physics, and in the last years powerful techniques have been developed allowing to put renormalization on a firm mathematical basis. This book provides a self-consistent and accessible introduction to the sophisticated tools used in the modern theory of non-perturbative renormalization, allowing an unified and rigorous treatment of Quantum Field Theory, Statistical Physics and Condensed Matter models. In particular the first part of this book is devoted to Constructive Quantum Field Theory, providi

  4. Innovation in Downstream Fashion Retail Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    , technology and service providers, ownership structures and local level supply chain facilities. This paper analyses theoretical and empirical views of innovation in international retail networks using the fashion industry as a case because this industry better than other industries maintain branded stores......-depth studies of the biggest Danish fashion brand owners and their respective retail networks. The study shows how brand owners can emphasise change by shifting from a passive and narrow observation of its downstream retail network to an active and broad observation, or at least develop a conscious approach...

  5. Gauge Invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R

    1993-01-01

    After an introduction to the problem of cosmological structure formation, we develop gauge invariant cosmological perturbation theory. We derive the first order perturbation equations of Einstein's equations and energy momentum ``conservation''. Furthermore, the perturbations of Liouville's equation for collisionless particles and Boltzmann's equation for Compton scattering are worked out. We fully discuss the propagation of photons in a perturbed Friedmann universe, calculating the Sachs--Wolfe effect and light deflection. The perturbation equations are extended to accommodate also perturbations induced by seeds. With these general results we discuss some of the main aspects of the texture model for the formation of large scale structure in the Universe (galaxies, clusters, sheets, voids). In this model, perturbations in the dark matter are induced by texture seeds. The gravitational effects of a spherically symmetric collapsing texture on dark matter, baryonic matter and photons are calculated in first orde...

  6. Upstream and Downstream Influence in STBLI Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Pino; Priebe, Stephan; Helm, Clara

    2016-11-01

    Priebe and Martín (JFM, 2012) show that the low-frequency unsteadiness in shockwave and turbulent boundary layer interactions (STBLI) is governed by an inviscid instability. Priebe, Tu, Martín and Rowley (JFM, 2016) show that the instability is an inviscid centrifugal one, i.e Görtlerlike vortices. Previous works had given differing conclusions as to whether the low-frequency unsteadiness in STBLI is caused by an upstream or downstream mechanism. In this paper, we reconcile these opposite views and show that upstream and downstream correlations co-exist in the context of the nature of Görtler vortices. We find that the instability is similar to that in separated subsonic and laminar flows. Since the turbulence is modulated but passive to the global mode, the turbulent separated flows are amenable to linear global analysis. As such, the characteristic length and time scales, and the receptivity of the global mode might be determined, and low-order models that represent the low-frequency dynamics in STBLI might be developed. The centrifugal instability persists even under hypersonic conditions. This work is funded by the AFOSR Grant Number AF9550-15-1-0284 with Dr. Ivett Leyva.

  7. Suppressing Super-Horizon Curvature Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloth, M S

    2006-01-01

    We consider the possibility of suppressing superhorizon curvature perturbations after the end of the ordinary slow-roll inflationary stage. This is the opposite of the curvaton limit. We assume that large curvature perturbations are created by the inflaton and investigate to which extent they can be diluted or suppressed by a second very homogeneous field which starts to dominate the energy density of the universe shortly after the end of inflation. The suppression is non-trivial to achieve, but we demonstrate two examples where it works. The mechanism is shown to work if the decay rate of the second field has a certain time-dependence leading to an intrinsic non-adiabatic energy transfer or if the second field is an axion field with a very non-linear periodic potential leading to a non-vanishing intrinsic non-adiabatic pressure perturbation. This opens the possibility of having much larger inflaton perturbations created during inflation than normally allowed by the COBE bound. It relaxes the upper bound on t...

  8. Control of Transport-barrier relaxations by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Leconte, M; Garbet, X; Benkadda, S

    2009-01-01

    Transport-barrier relaxation oscillations in the presence of resonant magnetic perturbations are investigated using three-dimensional global fluid turbulence simulations from first principles at the edge of a tokamak. It is shown that resonant magnetic perturbations have a stabilizing effect on these relaxation oscillations and that this effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of both residual residual magnetic island chains and a stochastic layer.

  9. Massive renormalization scheme and perturbation theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.blaizot@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS/URA2306, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wschebor, Nicolás [Instituto de Fìsica, Faculdad de Ingeniería, Universidade de la República, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-02-04

    We argue that the choice of an appropriate, massive, renormalization scheme can greatly improve the apparent convergence of perturbation theory at finite temperature. This is illustrated by the calculation of the pressure of a scalar field theory with quartic interactions, at 2-loop order. The result, almost identical to that obtained with more sophisticated resummation techniques, shows a remarkable stability as the coupling constant grows, in sharp contrast with standard perturbation theory.

  10. Direct perturbation method for perturbed complex Burgers equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xue-Ping; Lin Ji; Yao Jian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    So far, Lou's direct perturbation method has been applied successfully to solve the nonlinear Schrōdinger equa-tion(NLSE) hierarchy, such as the NLSE, the coupled NLSE, the critical NLSE, and the derivative NLSE. But to our knowledge, this method for other types of perturbed nonlinear evolution equations has still been lacking. In this paper, Lou's direct perturbation method is applied to the study of perturbed complex Burgers equation. By this method, we calculate not only the zero-order adiabatic solution, but also the first order modification.

  11. Network response to internal and external perturbations in large sand-bed braided rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, F.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Middelkoop, H.

    2015-03-01

    The intrinsic instability of bars, bifurcations and branches in large braided rivers is a challenge to understand and predict. Even more, the reach-scale effect of human-induced perturbations on the braided channel network is still unresolved. In this study, we used a physics-based model to simulate the hydromorphodynamics in a large braided river and applied different types of perturbations. We analyzed the propagation of the perturbations through the braided channel network. The results showed that the perturbations initiate an instability that propagates in downstream direction by means of bifurcation instability. It alters and rotates the approaching flow of the bifurcations. The propagation celerity is in the same order of magnitude as the theoretical sand wave propagation rate. The adjustments of the bifurcations also change bar migration and reshape, with a feedback to the upstream bifurcation and alteration of the approaching flow to the downstream bifurcation. This way, the morphological effect of a perturbation amplifies in downstream direction. Thus, the interplay of bifurcation instability and asymmetrical reshaping of bars was found to be essential for propagation of the effects of a perturbation. The study also demonstrated that the large-scale bar statistics are hardly affected.

  12. Introduction to perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, M

    1995-01-01

    This book is an introductory graduate text dealing with many of the perturbation methods currently used by applied mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. The author has based his book on a graduate course he has taught several times over the last ten years to students in applied mathematics, engineering sciences, and physics. The only prerequisite for the course is a background in differential equations. Each chapter begins with an introductory development involving ordinary differential equations. The book covers traditional topics, such as boundary layers and multiple scales. However, it also contains material arising from current research interest. This includes homogenization, slender body theory, symbolic computing, and discrete equations. One of the more important features of this book is contained in the exercises. Many are derived from problems of up- to-date research and are from a wide range of application areas.

  13. AND STEP-SHAPED DOWNSTREAM SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal'zannikov Mihail Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    The article also presents the results of the hydraulic research of the pilot model of the proposed structure. The research has proven that the suppression of any excessive kinetic energy of the discharged water flows falling onto the step-shaped and curving section or the step-shaped section the shape of which is similar to the one made of geosynthetic shells is more efficient that the suppression provided by the smooth section by 50 % to 60 %, and the above suppression is almost equal to the one provided by the well-known step-shaped section. This conclusion can serve as the proof of the high rate of energy suppression demonstrated by the earth-filled dam designed at Samara University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. The dam in question has geosynthetic shells that connect the downstream section to the body of the dam.

  14. Channel changes downstream from a dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, R.F.; Emmett, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    A flood-control dam was completed during 1979 on Bear Creek, a small tributary stream to the South Platte River in the Denver, Colorado, area. Before and after dam closure, repetitive surveys between 1977 and 1992 at five cross sections downstream of the dam documented changes in channel morphology. During this 15-year period, channel width increased slightly, but channel depth increased by more than 40 percent. Within the study reach, stream gradient decreased and median bed material sizes coarsened from sand in the pools and fine gravel on the riffle to a median coarse gravel throughout the reach. The most striking visual change was from a sparse growth of streamside grasses to a dense growth of riparian woody vegetation.

  15. Ammonia downstream from HH 80 North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girart, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Anglada, Guillem; Estalella, Robert; Torrelles, Jose, M.; Marti, Josep; Pena, Miriam; Ayala, Sandra; Curiel, Salvador; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    HH 80-81 are two optically visible Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located about 5 minutes south of their exciting source IRAS 18162-2048. Displaced symmetrically to the north of this luminous IRAS source, a possible HH counterpart was recently detected as a radio continuum source with the very large array (VLA). This radio source, HH 80 North, has been proposed to be a member of the Herbig-Haro class since its centimeter flux density, angular size, spectral index, and morphology are all similar to those of HH 80. However, no object has been detected at optical wavelengths at the position of HH 80 North, possibly because of high extinction, and the confirmation of the radio continuum source as an HH object has not been possible. In the prototypical Herbig-Haro objects HH 1 and 2, ammonia emission has been detected downstream of the flow in both objects. This detection has been intepreted as a result of an enhancement in the ammonia emission produced by the radiation field of the shock associated with the HH object. In this Letter we report the detection of the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of ammonia downstream HH 80 North. This detection gives strong suppport to the interpretation of HH 80 North as a heavily obscured HH object. In addition, we suggest that ammonia emission may be a tracer of embedded Herbig-Haro objects in other regions of star formation. A 60 micrometer IRAS source could be associated with HH 80 North and with the ammonia condensation. A tentative explanation for the far-infrared emission as arising in dust heated by their optical and UV radiation of the HH object is presented.

  16. Applications of Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Christopherson, Adam J

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is crucial for our understanding of the universe. The linear theory has been well understood for some time, however developing and applying the theory beyond linear order is currently at the forefront of research in theoretical cosmology. This thesis studies the applications of perturbation theory to cosmology and, specifically, to the early universe. Starting with some background material introducing the well-tested 'standard model' of cosmology, we move on to develop the formalism for perturbation theory up to second order giving evolution equations for all types of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations, both in gauge dependent and gauge invariant form. We then move on to the main result of the thesis, showing that, at second order in perturbation theory, vorticity is sourced by a coupling term quadratic in energy density and entropy perturbations. This source term implies a qualitative difference to linear order. Thus, while at linear order vorticity decays with the expan...

  17. Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mohta, V

    2005-01-01

    Effective field theory techniques are used to describe the spectrum and interactions of hadrons. The mathematics of classical field theory and perturbative quantum field theory are reviewed. The physics of effective field theory and, in particular, of chiral perturbation theory and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory are also reviewed. The geometry underlying heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is described in detail. Results by Coleman et. al. in the physics literature are stated precisely and proven. A chiral perturbation theory is developed for a multiplet containing the recently- observed exotic baryons. A small coupling expansion is identified that allows the calculation of self-energy corrections to the exotic baryon masses. Opportunities in lattice calculations are discussed. Chiral perturbation theory is used to study the possibility of two multiplets of exotic baryons mixed by quark masses. A new symmetry constraint on reduced partial widths is identified. Predictions in the literature based ...

  18. Cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G., E-mail: m.lagos13@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: p.ferreira1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of classical scalar, vector and tensor cosmological perturbations in ghost-free massive bigravity. In particular, we find the full evolution equations and analytical solutions in a wide range of regimes. We show that there are viable cosmological backgrounds but, as has been found in the literature, these models generally have exponential instabilities in linear perturbation theory. However, it is possible to find stable scalar cosmological perturbations for a very particular choice of parameters. For this stable subclass of models we find that vector and tensor perturbations have growing solutions. We argue that special initial conditions are needed for tensor modes in order to have a viable model.

  19. Inversion of the perturbation series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-01-18

    We investigate the inversion of the perturbation series and its resummation, and prove that it is related to a recently developed parametric perturbation theory. Results for some illustrative examples show that in some cases series reversion may improve the accuracy of the results.

  20. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  1. Path integral for inflationary perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopec, T.; Rigopoulos, G.

    2010-01-01

    The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and

  2. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Alejandra Castillo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a beta-1,3-beta-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc., and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc. applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high EPS concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined.

  3. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Natalia A.; Valdez, Alejandra L.; Fariña, Julia I.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length, and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc.), and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc.) applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high exopolysaccharide concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined. PMID:26528259

  4. Junction conditions of cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, K

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of perturbations is studied in cosmological models which consist of two different homogeneous regions connected in a spherical shell boundary. The junction conditions for the metric perturbations and the displacements of the shell boundary are analyzed and the surface densities of the perturbed energy and momentum in the shell are derived, using Mukohyama's gauge-invariant formalism and the Israel discontinuity condition. In both homogeneous regions the perturbations of scalar, vector and tensor types are expanded using the 3-dimensional harmonic functions, but the model coupling among them is caused in the shell by the inhomogeneity. By treating the perturbations with odd and even parities separately, it is found, however, that we can have consistent displacements and surface densities for given metric parturbations

  5. Perturbations in Massive Gravity Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Crisostomi, Marco; Pilo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations for a ghost free massive gravity theory formulated with a dynamical extra metric that is needed to massive deform GR. In this formulation FRW background solutions fall in two branches. In the dynamics of perturbations around the first branch solutions, no extra degree of freedom with respect to GR ispresent at linearized level, likewise what is found in the Stuckelberg formulation of massive gravity where the extra metric isflat and non dynamical. In the first branch, perturbations are probably strongly coupled. On the contrary, for perturbations around the second branch solutions all expected degrees of freedom propagate. While tensor and vector perturbations of the physical metric that couples with matter follow closely the ones of GR, scalars develop an exponential Jeans-like instability on sub-horizon scales. On the other hand, around a de Sitter background there is no instability. We argue that one could get rid of the instabilities by introducing a mirror dark matter ...

  6. Multiplicative perturbations of local -semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chung-Cheng Kuo

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we establish some left and right multiplicative perturbation theorems concerning local -semigroups when the generator of a perturbed local -semigroup $S(\\cdot)$ may not be densely defined and the perturbation operator is a bounded linear operator from $\\overline{D(A)}$ into () such that = on $\\overline{D(A)}$, which can be applied to obtain some additive perturbation theorems for local -semigroups in which is a bounded linear operator from $[D(A)]$ into () such that = on $\\overline{D(A)}$. We also show that the perturbations of a (local) -semigroup $S(\\cdot)$ are exponentially bounded (resp., norm continuous, locally Lipschitz continuous, or exponentially Lipschitz continuous) if $S(\\cdot)$ is.

  7. Effect of Pulsed Plasma Jets on the Recovering Boundary Layer Downstream of a Reflected Shock Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Benton; Clemens, Noel; Magari, Patrick; Micka, Daniel; Ueckermann, Mattheus

    2015-11-01

    Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic inlets including flow distortion and instability, structural fatigue, poor pressure recovery, and unstart. The current study investigates the effect of pulsed plasma jets on the recovering boundary layer downstream of a reflected shock wave-boundary layer interaction. The effects of pitch and skew angle of the jet as well as the heating parameter and discharge time scale are tested using several pulsing frequencies. In addition, the effect of the plasma jets on the undisturbed boundary layer at 6 mm and 11 mm downstream of the jets is measured. A pitot-static pressure probe is used to measure the velocity profile of the boundary layer 35 mm downstream of the plasma jets, and the degree of boundary layer distortion is compared between the different models and run conditions. Additionally, the effect of each actuator configuration on the shape of the mean separated region is investigated using surface oil flow visualization. Previous studies with lower energy showed a weak effect on the downstream boundary layer. The current investigation will attempt to increase this effect using a higher-energy discharge. Funded by AFRL through and SBIR in collaboration with Creare, LLC.

  8. Perturbation solution of the shape of a nonaxisymmetric sessile drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhala, Bharadwaj; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Subramanian, Venkat R; Vedantam, Srikanth

    2010-07-06

    We develop an approximate analytical solution for the shape of a nonaxisymmetric sessile drop using regular perturbation methods and ignoring gravity. We assume that the pinned, contorted triple-line shape is known and is a small perturbation of the circular footprint of a spherical cap. We obtain an analytical solution using regular perturbation methods that we validate by comparing to the numerical solution of the Young-Laplace equation obtained using publicly available Surface Evolver software. In this process, we also show that the pressure inside the perturbed drop is unchanged and relate this to the curvature of the drop using the Young-Laplace equation. The rms error between the perturbation and Evolver solutions is calculated for a range of contact angles and amplitudes of triple-line perturbations. We show that the perturbation solution matches the numerical results well for a wide range of contact angles. In addition, we calculate the extent to which the drop surface is affected by triple-line contortions. We discuss the applicability of this solution to the possibility of real time hybrid experimental/computational characterization of the 3D sessile drop shapes, including obtaining local contact angle information.

  9. DOWNSTREAM ECOCIDE FROM UPSTREAM WATER PIRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah Muhammad Adel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Upstream India and downstream Bangladesh share more than 50 international rivers. India has set up water diversion constructions in more than 50% of these rivers, the largest one being on the Bangladesh’s northwest upon the Ganges River, puts Bangladesh’s Gangetic ecosystem at stake. In some border rivers, India has set up groins on her side of river banks. Also, Indian side pumps Bangladesh river water stealthily from border-rivers. Further, India is constructing another dam and reservoir upstream on the Barak River on the northeast of Bangladesh. Furthermore, India has chalked out a grand plan for river networking. Exploration has been made to assess the degree of the ecosystem degradation both inland and on the coast due to all water diversion constructions around the border, except for the Tipaimukh Dam in which case estimation of projected ecosystem degradation has been mentioned. Finally, Indian grand plan of river networking plan has been briefly touched upon. Site visitations, observations, surveys, measurements and interviews of professionals were made in the project country. Relevant literatures on this issue were reviewed in electronic and print databases. Related published articles in electronic and print media were systematically searched following the key words for the case. Finally, both electronic and print news media have been closely followed to know the latest developments on this issue. The reduced flow of the Ganges in Bangladesh has caused scarcity of fresh water, species endangerment and extinction, obstruction to livestock raising, loss of livelihoods, people’s displacement, changes in crop production, reduction in navigable routes, extreme weather, increased flood occurrences, scarcity of potable water, groundwater contamination, reduction in coastal sediment deposition, deterioration of the Ganges water quality and inland intrusion of saline water front. Water diversion constructions in other rivers have

  10. PIV Measurements of flow downstream of polyurethane heart valve prosthesis for artificial heart: steady flow experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K.; Sung, J.Y. [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Chang, J.K.; Yoo, J.Y.; Min, B.G. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Hemodynamic performance of a polyurethane heart valve prosthesis was evaluated in comparison with that of Bjork-Shiley Monostrut mechanical valve in steady flow representing the systolic peak flow phase. Pressure losses through the valves were obtained from the streamwise pressure distributions downstream of the valves. Unsteady and turbulent flow field distal to the heart valve prostheses were investigated using PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) which can measure the full-field velocity instantaneously and noninvasively. By examining the velocity and Reynolds shear stress fields downstream of the polyurethane heart valve, it is known that there is a large recirculation region near the valve and high shear stress regions exist at the interface between strong axial jet flows along the wall and vortical flows in the central area. The possibilities of vascular complications, such as the thrombus formation and red blood cell damage, could be predicted from the overall view of the velocity and stress fields. (author). 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  12. The theory of singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, E M

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat

  13. Density perturbations with relativistic thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Maartens, R

    1997-01-01

    We investigate cosmological density perturbations in a covariant and gauge- invariant formalism, incorporating relativistic causal thermodynamics to give a self-consistent description. The gradient of density inhomogeneities splits covariantly into a scalar part, a rotational vector part that is determined by the vorticity, and a tensor part that describes the shape. We give the evolution equations for these parts in the general dissipative case. Causal thermodynamics gives evolution equations for viswcous stress and heat flux, which are coupled to the density perturbation equation and to the entropy and temperature perturbation equations. We give the full coupled system in the general dissipative case, and simplify the system in certain cases.

  14. Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2017-07-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.

  15. Perturbation Theory of Embedded Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Matthias

    We study problems connected to perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues in two different setups. The first part deals with second order perturbation theory of mass shells in massive translation invariant Nelson type models. To this end an expansion of the eigenvalues w.r.t. fiber parameter up...... project gives a general and systematic approach to analytic perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues. The spectral deformation technique originally developed in the theory of dilation analytic potentials in the context of Schrödinger operators is systematized by the use of Mourre theory. The group...

  16. PENGARUH HAMBATAN DOWNSTREAM TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK PEMISAHAN FASE KEROSENE-AIR PADA T-JUNCTION 90O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung Surya Dharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on T-Junction as a separator of liquid-liquid flow is still of interest and developing. Some works evaluated certain geometries to obtain the best separation efficiency. The work to examine the separation behavior/characteristic of kerosene-water flow in a T-Junction at ratio of elbow radius to inlet diameter horizontal pipe (r/Dh = 0.69 carried out is completed. The orientation of side arm is vertically right upward whilst the ratio at diameter of the flex glass tube is set at 0.7 (horizontal tube and vertical tube at 36 mm and 26 mms respectively. To lead kerosene to the side arm, the downstream valve set at 75% and 50% respectively. Downstream pressure, pressures difference at inlet-run arm (∆P1-2 and inlet-side arm (∆P1-3 and debit of kerosene and water in side and run arm are the variable at the research. Based on visualization and measurement at maximum flow separation efficiency at 88%, is gained at downstream pressure 104326 Pa, watercut 46%, Jmix = 0,31 m/s (Jw = 0,14 m/s and Jk = 0,17 m/s. The best separation  result with Fk = 0,96 and Fw = 0,22 is gained at  downstream pressure 104287 Pa, watercut 70%, Jmix = 0,56 m/s (Jw = 0,39 m/s and Jk = 0,17 m/s  and flow pattern at Stratified Bubble Interface (ST-BI

  17. Plasma actuator electron density measurement using microwave perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirhosseini, Farid; Colpitts, Bruce [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2014-07-21

    A cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma under five different pressures is generated in an evacuated glass tube. This plasma volume is located at the center of a rectangular copper waveguide cavity, where the electric field is maximum for the first mode and the magnetic field is very close to zero. The microwave perturbation method is used to measure electron density and plasma frequency for these five pressures. Simulations by a commercial microwave simulator are comparable to the experimental results.

  18. Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, S.; Stebbins, A. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley (USA) Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe. 55 refs.

  19. Dynamical Friction on extended perturbers

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, O

    2008-01-01

    Following a wave-mechanical treatment we calculate the drag force exerted by an infinite homogeneous background of stars on a perturber as this makes its way through the system. We recover Chandrasekhar's classical dynamical friction (DF) law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. We take into account a range of models that encompasses all plausible density distributions for satellite galaxies by considering the DF exerted on a Plummer sphere and a perturber having a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  20. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Ananthanarayan

    2003-11-01

    A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  1. The effects of perturbations on the flammability limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'Ien, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of heat losses, the known effects of external disturbances (pressure waves or turbulences) on the flammability limits are explained. This includes the sensitivity of near-limit flames to perturbations and the flame quenching by disturbances. The significance of the unstable solution as the criterion for dynamic extinction is stressed.

  2. A New Perturbed Hard-Sphere Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new equation of state based on hard-sphere perturbed theory was developed. This equation combined the CS repulsive term and Guo-Du attractive term. Parameters of 38 substances were estimated, the pressure-volume-temperature properties were calculated and compared with two other equations. The results show that this equation is more accurate.

  3. Snakes and perturbed random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study some properties of random walks perturbed at extrema, which are generalizations of the walks considered e.g., in Davis (1999). This process can also be viewed as a version of {\\em excited random walk}, studied recently by many authors. We obtain a few properties related to the range of the process with infinite memory. We also prove the Strong law, Central Limit Theorem, and the criterion for the recurrence of the perturbed walk with finite memory.

  4. Perturbed Einstein field equations using Maple

    CERN Document Server

    De Campos, M

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the perturbed components of affine connection and Ricci tensor using algebraic computation. Naturally, the perturbed Einstein field equations for the vacuum can written. The method can be used to obtain perturbed equations of the superior order.

  5. Cosmological perturbations without inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2017-01-01

    A particularly attractive feature of inflation is that quantum fluctuations in the inflaton field may have seeded inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that a scalar field with zero active mass, i.e. with an equation of state ρ +3p=0 , where ρ and p are its energy density and pressure, respectively, could also have produced an essentially scale-free fluctuation spectrum, though without inflation. This alternative mechanism is based on the Hollands–Wald concept of a minimum wavelength for the emergence of quantum fluctuations into the semi-classical universe. A cosmology with zero active mass does not have a horizon problem, so it does not need inflation to solve this particular (non) issue. In this picture, the {{1}\\circ}{ {--}}{{10}\\circ} fluctuations in the CMB correspond almost exactly to the Planck length at the Planck time, firmly supporting the view that CMB observations may already be probing trans-Planckian physics.

  6. Cosmological Perturbations without Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Melia, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    A particularly attractive feature of inflation is that quantum fluctuations in the inflaton field may have seeded inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that a scalar field with zero active mass, i.e., with an equation of state rho+3p=0, where rho and p are its energy density and pressure, respectively, could also have produced an essentially scale-free fluctuation spectrum, though without inflation. This alternative mechanism is based on the Hollands-Wald concept of a minimum wavelength for the emergence of quantum fluctuations into the semi-classical universe. A cosmology with zero active mass does not have a horizon problem, so it does not need inflation to solve this particular (non) issue. In this picture, the 1-10 degree fluctuations in the CMB correspond almost exactly to the Planck length at the time these modes were produced, firmly supporting the view that CMB observations may already be probing trans-Plancki...

  7. Perturbative Analysis of Two-Temperature Radiative Shocks with Multiple Cooling Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Saxton, C J; Saxton, Curtis J.; Wu, Kinwah

    1999-01-01

    The structure of the hot downstream region below a radiative accretion shock, such as that of an accreting compact object, may oscillate due to a global thermal instability. The oscillatory behaviour depends on the functional forms of the cooling processes, the energy exchanges of electrons and ions in the shock-heated matter, and the boundary conditions. We analyse the stability of a shock with unequal electron and ion temperatures, where the cooling consists of thermal bremsstrahlung radiation which promotes instability, plus a competing process which tends to stabilize the shock. The effect of transverse perturbations is considered also. As an illustration, we study the special case in which the stabilizing cooling process is of order 3/20 in density and 5/2 in temperature, which is an approximation for the effects of cyclotron cooling in magnetic cataclysmic variables. We vary the efficiency of the second cooling process, the strength of the electron-ion exchange and the ratio of electron and ion pressure...

  8. Downstream Evolution of Longitudinal Embedded Vortices with Helical Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2009-01-01

    In the present work the downstream development of device induced vortices with helical symmetry embedded in wall bounded flow on a bump is studied with the aid of Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). The downstream evolution of characteristic parameters of helical vortices is studied...

  9. Influence of nose-perturbation location on behavior of vortical flow around slender body at high incidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN XiaoRong; XU Cheng; WANG YongJuan; WANG YaPing

    2009-01-01

    Response of the vortical flow around a slender body of revolution at high incidence to the shift of a single nose perturbation was investigated systematically using numerical methods. A minute geometric bump was employed to act as the nose perturbation, and all computations were performed for subsonic flows at incidence of 50°. The computational results show that the vortical flow is more sensitive to the perturbation located axially closer to the nose apex of a slender body. With perturbation shifting axially downstream away from nose apex, there is a critical axial location appearing. The vortical flow is less sensitive to the perturbation located axially closer to the critical axial location; when perturbation traverses axially around the critical axial location, the vortical flow switches between opposite asymmetric patterns. The eventual influence of perturbation axial location on the vortical flow lies on both its relative locations to nose apex and the critical axial location. The vortical flow is more sensitive to the perturbation located circumferentially farther away from the fore-and-aft symmetric plane of a slender body, and just the asymmetrically-located perturbation can provoke the vortical flow to asymmetry. With perturbation shifting circumferentially in sequence, the vortical flow varies by degrees in manner of a single periodicity. A convective-type of instability existing in the flow field is responsible for the influence of nose perturbation on the vortical flow.

  10. Organization of Functional Postural Responses Following Perturbations in Multiple Directions in Elderly Fallers Standing Quietly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjacic, Zlatko; Sok, David; Jakovljevic, Miroljub; Cikajlo, Imre

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess functional postural responses by analyzing the center-of-pressure trajectories resulting from perturbations delivered in multiple directions to elderly fallers. Ten elderly individuals were standing quietly on two force platforms while an apparatus delivered controlled perturbations at the level of pelvis…

  11. Axion as a cold dark matter candidate: Analysis to third order perturbation for classical axion

    CERN Document Server

    Noh, Hyerim; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2015-01-01

    We investigate aspects of axion as a coherently oscillating massive classical scalar field by analyzing third order perturbations in Einstein's gravity in the axion-comoving gauge. The axion fluid has its characteristic pressure term leading to an axion Jeans scale which is cosmologically negligible for a canonical axion mass. Our classically derived axion pressure term in Einstein's gravity is identical to the one derived in the non-relativistic quantum mechanical context in the literature. We show that except for the axion pressure term, the axion fluid equations are exactly the same as the general relativistic continuity and Euler equations of a zero-pressure fluid up to third order perturbation. The general relativistic density and velocity perturbations of the CDM in the CDM-comoving gauge are exactly the same as the Newtonian perturbations to the second order (in all scales), and the pure general relativistic corrections appearing from the third order are numerically negligible (in all scales as well) i...

  12. Perturbation of Initial Stability of an FSAPDS Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Acharya

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available For a spinning projectile, the initial stability condition is 2 = 1+ (4 K3 / K22 > 0. In the presentstudy, this condition has been modified for the malalignments arising due to pressure gradientand damping moment for an FSAPDS projectile. The equations of motion are established for thefirst phase of motion. A mathematical model for the first phase of motion has been developed.The effect of perturbation on the trajectory and stability of motion are discussed. It is provedthat if 3 K(a parameter appearing due to perturbation(-K22 2 /4 , the initial stability ofmotion will breakdown.

  13. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Seamus D; Hubber, David A

    2016-01-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long, initially sub-critical but accreting filaments. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length scale which is roughly 4 times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multi-wavelength density power spectrum there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispe...

  14. Gravitational waves from perturbed stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Non radial oscillations of neutron stars are associated with the emission of gravitational waves. The characteristic frequencies of these oscillations can be computed using the theory of stellar perturbations, and they are shown to carry detailed information on the internal structure of the emitting source. Moreover, they appear to be encoded in various radiative processes, as for instance in the tail of the giant flares of Soft Gamma Repeaters. Thus, their determination is central to the theory of stellar perturbation. A viable approach to the problem consists in formulating this theory as a problem of resonant scattering of gravitational waves incident on the potential barrier generated by the spacetime curvature. This approach discloses some unexpected correspondences between the theory of stellar perturbations and the theory of quantum mechanics, and allows us to predict new relativistic effects.

  15. Reheating in tachyonic inflationary models: Effects on the large scale curvature perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar, E-mail: rajeev.jain@unige.ch [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Chingangbam, Pravabati, E-mail: prava@iiap.res.in [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43 Cheongnyangni 2-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Sriramkumar, L., E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)

    2011-11-11

    We investigate the problem of perturbative reheating and its effects on the evolution of the curvature perturbations in tachyonic inflationary models. We derive the equations governing the evolution of the scalar perturbations for a system consisting of a tachyon and a perfect fluid. Assuming the perfect fluid to be radiation, we solve the coupled equations for the system numerically and study the evolution of the perturbations from the sub-Hubble to the super-Hubble scales. In particular, we analyze the effects of the transition from tachyon driven inflation to the radiation dominated epoch on the evolution of the large scale curvature and non-adiabatic pressure perturbations. We consider two different potentials to describe the tachyon and study the effects of two possible types of decay of the tachyon into radiation. We plot the spectrum of curvature perturbations at the end of inflation as well as at the early stages of the radiation dominated epoch. We find that reheating does not affect the amplitude of the curvature perturbations in any of these cases. These results corroborate similar conclusions that have been arrived at earlier based on the study of the evolution of the perturbations in the super-Hubble limit. We illustrate that, before the transition to the radiation dominated epoch, the relative non-adiabatic pressure perturbation between the tachyon and radiation decays in a fashion very similar to that of the intrinsic entropy perturbation associated with the tachyon. Moreover, we show that, after the transition, the relative non-adiabatic pressure perturbation dies down extremely rapidly during the early stages of the radiation dominated epoch. It is these behavior which ensure that the amplitude of the curvature perturbations remain unaffected during reheating. We also discuss the corresponding results for the popular chaotic inflation model in the case of the canonical scalar field.

  16. Multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    We provide a concise review on multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations. We discuss convenient and physically meaningful bases in terms of which perturbations can be systematically studied. We give formal accounts on the gauge fixing conditions and present the perturbation action in two gauges. We also briefly review non-linear perturbations.

  17. A Perturbative Window into Non-Perturbative Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Vafa, Cumrun

    2002-01-01

    We argue that for a large class of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories the effective superpotential as a function of the glueball chiral superfield is exactly given by a summation of planar diagrams of the same gauge theory. This perturbative computation reduces to a matrix model whose action is the tree-level superpotential. For all models that can be embedded in string theory we give a proof of this result, and we sketch an argument how to derive this more generally directly in field theory. These results are obtained without assuming any conjectured dualities and can be used as a systematic method to compute instanton effects: the perturbative corrections up to n-th loop can be used to compute up to n-instanton corrections. These techniques allow us to see many non-perturbative effects, such as the Seiberg-Witten solutions of N=2 theories, the consequences of Montonen-Olive S-duality in N=1* and Seiberg-like dualities for N=1 theories from a completely perturbative planar point of view in the same gauge theo...

  18. Doppler peaks from active perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Coulson, D; Ferreira, P; Magueijo, Joao; Albrecht, Andreas; Coulson, David; Ferreira, Pedro

    1995-01-01

    We examine how the qualitative structure of the Doppler peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave anisotropy depends on the fundamental nature of the perturbations which produced them. The formalism of Hu and Sugiyama is extended to treat models with cosmic defects. We discuss how perturbations can be ``active'' or ``passive'' and ``incoherent'' or ``coherent'', and show how causality and scale invariance play rather different roles in these various cases. We find that the existence of secondary Doppler peaks and the rough placing of the primary peak unambiguously reflect these basic properties.

  19. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, E. L. D.; Tamayo, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ(H2) or Λ(R). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by bar PΛ = - bar rhoΛ, relating its background pressure bar PΛ with its mean energy density bar rhoΛ ≡ Λ/8πG. This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interaction between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely bar rhoΛ = Σibar rhoΛi. Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ(H2) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ(R) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.

  20. Water stress in global transboundary river basins: significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world’s transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. We found that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  1. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  2. COUPLING EFFECT BETWEEN RELIABILITY OF BEDDING LAYER AND STABILITY OF DOWNSTREAM CONCRETE SLAB OF OVERFLOW EARTH-ROCK COFFERDAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The protection of downstream concrete slab is a key issue for the stability of overflow earth-rock cofferdam. The coupling effect between bedding layer and concrete slab was taken into account when the stability of downstream concrete slab was researched. The characteristics of overflow and seepage over the downstream concrete slab were investigated when floodwater passes over the cofferdam. Firstly a limit equation of seepage failure for the bedding layer was derived with the consideration of geometric and mechanical factors, and a reliability model was established and numerically simulated. Then based on the reliability calculation for the bedding layer, the coupling effect between bedding layer and downstream concrete slab was analyzed. Under the most unfavorable pressure condition for the concrete slab, its instability criterion was put forward, which offers a structural design tool of downstream concrete slab for overflow earth-rock cofferdam. Compared with model tests, it shows that the model of reliability calculation of bedding layer and the stability analysis of downstream concrete slab are effective.

  3. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Romeo; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  4. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Romeo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo TN (Italy); Fredenhagen, Klaus [II Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Hack, Thomas-Paul [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig,Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rejzner, Katarzyna [Department of Mathematics, University of York,Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-04

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  5. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF DEGRADATION AND FLUVIAL PROCESS DOWNSTREAM RESERVOIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To research into the problem of degradation and fluvial process downstream reservoirs and its influence on flood control and navigation, a 1-D mathematical model of degradation and fluvial process downstream the reservoir was established in this paper. The non-equilibrium transport of non-uniform suspended load, the non-uniform bedload transport and bed material sorting were considered in the model. Some techniques were suggested for some problems in calculation, such as the effective suspended load carrying capacity of the different reaches of bed materials, the coefficient of suspended load carrying capacity, the recovering coefficient of carrying capacity, the mixed layer thickness, the bedload transport width, bifurcation and confluence of main and branch channel, and the distribution of deposition and erosion along the cross section, etc. The model was tested by the data of degradation downstream the Danjiangkou reservoir on the Hanjiang River and the data of degradation downstream the Gezhouba Project on the Yangtze River.

  6. Adaptation Strategies in Perturbed /s/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Jana; Hoole, Phil; Perrier, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the role of three articulatory parameters (tongue position, jaw position and tongue grooving) in the production of /s/. Six normal speakers' speech was perturbed by a palatal prosthesis. The fricative was recorded acoustically and through electromagnetic articulography in four conditions: (1) unperturbed,…

  7. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, D.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  8. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  9. Chiral Perturbation Theory and Unitarization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Arriola, E; Nieves, J; Peláez, J R

    2000-01-01

    We review our recent work on unitarization and chiral perturbation theory both in the $\\pi\\pi$ and the $\\pi N$ sectors. We pay particular attention to the Bethe-Salpeter and Inverse Amplitude unitarization methods and their recent applications to $\\pi\\pi$ and $\\pi N$ scattering.

  10. Transport studies using perturbative experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.

    2000-01-01

    By inducing a small electron temperature perturbation in a plasma in steady state one can in principle determine the conductive and convective components of the electron heat flux, and the associated thermal diffusivity and convection velocity. The same can be done for other plasma parameters, like

  11. Renormalization Group Optimized Perturbation Theory at Finite Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kneur, J -L

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed variant of the so-called optimized perturbation theory (OPT), making it perturbatively consistent with renormalization group (RG) properties, RGOPT, was shown to drastically improve its convergence for zero temperature theories. Here the RGOPT adapted to finite temperature is illustrated with a detailed evaluation of the two-loop pressure for the thermal scalar $ \\lambda\\phi^4$ field theory. We show that already at the simple one-loop level this quantity is exactly scale-invariant by construction and turns out to qualitatively reproduce, with a rather simple procedure, results from more sophisticated resummation methods at two-loop order, such as the two-particle irreducible approach typically. This lowest order also reproduces the exact large-$N$ results of the $O(N)$ model. Although very close in spirit, our RGOPT method and corresponding results differ drastically from similar variational approaches, such as the screened perturbation theory or its QCD-version, the (resummed) hard therm...

  12. A critical evaluation of perturbation theories by Monte Carlo simulation of the first four perturbation terms in a Helmholtz energy expansion for the Lennard-Jones fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, Thijs; Gross, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    The Helmholtz energy of a fluid interacting by a Lennard-Jones pair potential is expanded in a perturbation series. Both the methods of Barker-Henderson (BH) and of Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) are evaluated for the division of the intermolecular potential into reference and perturbation parts. The first four perturbation terms are evaluated for various densities and temperatures (in the ranges ρ*=0 -1.5 and T*=0.5 -12 ) using Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble. The simulation results are used to test several approximate theoretical methods for describing perturbation terms or for developing an approximate infinite order perturbation series. Additionally, the simulations serve as a basis for developing fully analytical third order BH and WCA perturbation theories. The development of analytical theories allows (1) a careful comparison between the BH and WCA formalisms, and (2) a systematic examination of the effect of higher-order perturbation terms on calculated thermodynamic properties of fluids. Properties included in the comparison are supercritical thermodynamic properties (pressure, internal energy, and chemical potential), vapor-liquid phase equilibria, second virial coefficients, and heat capacities. For all properties studied, we find a systematically improved description upon using a higher-order perturbation theory. A result of particular relevance is that a third order perturbation theory is capable of providing a quantitative description of second virial coefficients to temperatures as low as the triple-point of the Lennard-Jones fluid. We find no reason to prefer the WCA formalism over the BH formalism.

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF RIVER BED CHANGE DOWNSTREAM OF XIAOLANGDI RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model of river bed change downstream of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir was developed based on the most recent achievement of sediment theory in the Yellow River. The model was verified by the comparison of computed results and measured data from 1986 to 1996. Numerical prediction of the erosion and deposition downstream of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir in its first operation year was carried out, and a series of suggestions were given for reservoir operation mode in its early operation period.

  14. SAME DISTRIBUTION OF LIMIT CYCLES TO PERTURBED CUBIC HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT PERTURBATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Using qualitative analysis, we study perturbed Hamiltonian systems with different n-th order polynomial as perturbation terms. By numerical simulation, we show that these perturbed systems have the same distribution of limit cycles. Our results imply that these perturbed systems are equivalent in the sense of distribution of limit cycles. This is useful for studying limit cycles of perturbed systems.

  15. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen

    2012-05-01

    Maximizing the optical network unit’s (ONU) sleep time is an effective approach for achieving maximum energy conservation in green Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). While overlapping downstream and upstream ONU transmissions can maximize the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green EPONs under the limited service discipline and the upstream-based overlapped time window. Specifically, we first derive the expected mean packet delay, and then present a closed-form expression of the ONU sleep time, setting identical upstream/downstream transmission cycle times based on a maximum downstream traffic delay re-quirement. With the proposed system model, we present a novel downstream bandwidth allocation scheme for energy conservation in green EPONs. Simulation results verify the proposed model and highlight the advantages of our scheme over conventional approaches.

  16. OH concentration in an atmospheric-pressure methane-air flame from molecular-beam mass spectrometry and laser-absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattolica, R.J.; Yoon, S.; Knuth, E.L.

    1980-12-01

    The concentration of the OH radical in a stoichiometric methane-air flat flame at atmospheric pressure was measured with both laser-absorption spectroscopy and molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The nonequilibrium peak OH concentrations and the OH decay rate measured from the two techniques were in good agreement. The OH profile from the MBMS measurements, however, was shifted downstream from the absorption measurements by approximately 5 times the sampling-orifice diameter. A comparison of temperature profiles from thermocouple measurements and from a molecular-beam time-of-flight technique exhibited a similar downstream shift. The MBMS measurements effectively sampled the gas properties approximately five orifice diameters ahead of the sampling-probe tip. Perturbation of the OH concentration profile using various sampling probes indicate the importance of minimizing the length of the sampling-orifice channel to reduce composition relaxation during sampling.

  17. Notes on Rank One Perturbed Resolvent. Perturbation of Isolated Eigenvalue.

    CERN Document Server

    Chorosavin, S A

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a didactic commentary (a transcription with variations) to the paper of S.R. Foguel {\\it Finite Dimensional Perturbations in Banach Spaces}. Addressed, mainly: postgraduates and related readers. Subject: Suppose we have two linear operators, A, B, so that B - A is rank one. Let \\lambda_o be an {\\it isolated} point of the spectrum of A. In addition, let \\lambda_o be an {\\it eigenvalue} of A: \\lambda_o \\in \\sigma_{pp}(A) . The question is: Is \\lambda_o an eigenvalue of B ? And, if so, is the multiplicity of \\lambda_o in \\sigma_{pp}(B) equal to the multiplicity of \\lambda_o in \\sigma_{pp}(A) ? -- or less? -- or greater? Keywords: M.G.Krein's Formula, Finite Rank Perturbation.

  18. Charge-exchange Induced Modulation of the Heliosheath Ion Distribution Downstream of the Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the evolution of the solar wind ion distribution function alongthe plasma flow downstream from the termination shock induced by chargeexchange processes with cold interstellar H-atoms. We start from a kineticphase space transport equation valid in the bulk frame of the plasma flowthat takes into account convective changes, cooling processes, energydiffusion and ion injection, and describes solar wind and pick-up ionsas a co-moving, isotropic, joint ion population. From this kinetic transportequation one can ascend to an equation for the pressure moment of the iondistribution function, a so-called pressure transport equation, describingthe evolution of the ion pressure in the comoving rest frame. Assuming thatthe local ion distribution can be represented by an adequate kappa functionwith a kappa parameter that varies with the streamline coordinate, weobtain an ordinary differential equation for kappa as function of thestreamline coordinate s. With this result then we gain the heliosheath iondistribution function downstream of the termination shock. The latter thencan be used to predict the Voyager-2 measured moments of the distributionfunction like ion density and ion temperature, and it can also be used topredict spectral fluxes of ENA`s originating from these ions and registeredby IBEX-Hi and IBEX-Lo.We especially analyse the solar wind ion temperature decreasemeasured by Voyager-2 between the years 2008 to 2011 and try to explain itas a charge-exchange induced cooling of the ion distribution function duringthe associated ion convection period.

  19. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  20. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  1. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  2. BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian [Physics Department, St. Lawrence University,Canton, NY 13617 (United States); Şengör, Gizem [Department of Physics, Syracuse University,Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2016-11-08

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  3. Back Reaction of Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenberger, R H

    2000-01-01

    The presence of cosmological perturbations affects the background metric and matter configuration in which the perturbations propagate. This effect, studied a long time ago for gravitational waves, also is operational for scalar gravitational fluctuations, inhomogeneities which are believed to be more important in inflationary cosmology. The back-reaction of fluctuations can be described by an effective energy-momentum tensor. The issue of coordinate invariance makes the analysis more complicated for scalar fluctuations than for gravitational waves. We show that the back-reaction of fluctuations can be described in a diffeomorphism-invariant way. In an inflationary cosmology, the back-reaction is dominated by infrared modes. We show that these modes give a contribution to the effective energy-momentum tensor of the form of a negative cosmological constant whose absolute value grows in time. We speculate that this may lead to a self-regulating dynamical relaxation mechanism for the cosmological constant. This ...

  4. Perturbation analysis of Poisson processes

    CERN Document Server

    Last, Günter

    2012-01-01

    We consider a Poisson process $\\Phi$ on a general phase space. The expectation of a function of $\\Phi$ can be considered as a functional of the intensity measure $\\lambda$ of $\\Phi$. Extending ealier results of Molchanov and Zuyev (2000) on finite Poisson processes, we study the behaviour of this functional under signed (possibly infinite) perturbations of $\\lambda$. In particular we obtain general Margulis--Russo type formulas for the derivative with respect to non-linear transformations of the intensity measure depending on some parameter. As an application we study the behaviour of expectations of functions of multivariate pure jump L\\'evy processes under perturbations of the L\\'evy measure. A key ingredient of our approach is the explicit Fock space representation obtained in Last and Penrose (2011).

  5. BRST Quantization of Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to the perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas quantization in synchronous gauge, which amounts to Dirac quantization, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  6. Perturbations of Dark Matter Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, M D; Müller, D; 10.1142/S0218271809015072

    2009-01-01

    Until recently the study of the gravitational field of dark matter was primarily concerned with its local effects on the motion of stars in galaxies and galaxy clusters. On the other hand, the WMAP experiment has shown that the gravitational field produced by dark matter amplifies the higher acoustic modes of the CMBR power spectrum, more intensely than the gravitational field of baryons. Such a wide range of experimental evidences from cosmology to local gravity suggests the necessity of a comprehensive analysis of the dark matter gravitational field per se, regardless of any other attributes that dark matter may eventually possess. In this paper we introduce and apply Nash's theory of perturbative geometry to the study of the dark matter gravitational field alone, in a higher-dimensional framework. It is shown that the dark matter gravitational perturbations in the early universe can be explained by the extrinsic curvature of the standard cosmology. Together with the estimated presence of massive neutrinos,...

  7. Perturbations in electromagnetic dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Maroto, Antonio L. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Koivisto, Tomi S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mota, David F., E-mail: jobeltra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: T.Koivisto@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2009-10-01

    It has been recently proposed that the presence of a temporal electromagnetic field on cosmological scales could explain the phase of accelerated expansion that the universe is currently undergoing. The field contributes as a cosmological constant and therefore, the homogeneous cosmology produced by such a model is exactly the same as that of ΛCDM. However, unlike a cosmological constant term, electromagnetic fields can acquire perturbations which in principle could affect CMB anisotropies and structure formation. In this work, we study the evolution of inhomogeneous scalar perturbations in this model. We show that provided the initial electromagnetic fluctuations generated during inflation are small, the model is perfectly compatible with both CMB and large scale structure observations at the same level of accuracy as ΛCDM.

  8. Perturbative Computation of Glueball Superpotentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Lam, C S; Vafa, C; Zanon, D

    2003-01-01

    Using N=1 superspace techniques in four dimensions we show how to perturbatively compute the superpotential generated for the glueball superfield upon integrating out massive charged fields. The technique applies to arbitrary gauge groups and representations. Moreover we show that for U(N) gauge theories admitting a large N expansion the computation dramatically simplifies and we prove the validity of the recently proposed recipe for computation of this quantity in terms of planar diagrams of matrix integrals.

  9. Perturbative computation of glueball superpotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Grisaru, M. T.; Lam, C. S.; Vafa, C.; Zanon, D.

    2003-10-01

    Using N=1 superspace techniques in four dimensions we show how to perturbatively compute the superpotential generated for the glueball superfield upon integrating out massive charged fields. The technique applies to arbitrary gauge groups and representations. Moreover, we show that for U(N) gauge theories admitting a large N expansion the computation dramatically simplifies and we prove the validity of the recently proposed recipe for computation of this quantity in terms of planar diagrams of matrix integrals.

  10. Perturbative computation of glueball superpotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Grisaru, M.T.; Lam, C.S.; Vafa, C.; Zanon, D

    2003-10-30

    Using N=1 superspace techniques in four dimensions we show how to perturbatively compute the superpotential generated for the glueball superfield upon integrating out massive charged fields. The technique applies to arbitrary gauge groups and representations. Moreover, we show that for U(N) gauge theories admitting a large N expansion the computation dramatically simplifies and we prove the validity of the recently proposed recipe for computation of this quantity in terms of planar diagrams of matrix integrals.

  11. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  12. Downstream hydraulic geometry relationships: Gathering reference reach-scale width values from LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, G.; Tarolli, P.; Cazorzi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the ability of LiDAR topography to provide reach-scale width values for the analysis of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships along some streams in the Dolomites (northern Italy). Multiple reach-scale dimensions can provide representative geometries and statistics characterising the longitudinal variability in the channel, improving the understanding of geomorphic processes across networks. Starting from the minimum curvature derived from a LiDAR DTM, the proposed algorithm uses a statistical approach for the identification of the scale of analysis, and for the automatic characterisation of reach-scale bankfull widths. The downstream adjustment in channel morphology is then related to flow parameters (drainage area and stream power). With the correct planning of a LiDAR survey, uncertainties in the procedure are principally due to the resolution of the DTM. The outputs are in general comparable in quality to field survey measurements, and the procedure allows the quick comparison among different watersheds. The proposed automatic approach could improve knowledge about river systems with highly variable widths, and about systems in areas covered by vegetation or inaccessible to field surveys. With proven effectiveness, this research could offer an interesting starting point for the analysis of differences between watersheds, and to improve knowledge about downstream channel adjustment in relation, for example, to scale and landscape forcing (e.g. sediment transport, tectonics, lithology, climate, geomorphology, and anthropic pressure).

  13. Perturbation theory and renormalisation group equations

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the perturbative expansion of several one-loop improved renormalisation group equations. It is shown that in general the integrated renormalisation group flows fail to reproduce perturbation theory beyond one loop.

  14. Dark Energy in a perturbed Weyl-Dirac Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Israelit, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of Weyl-Dirac's theory a perturbed universe is considered. It contains luminous matter, dark matter consisting of weylons as well dark energy (DE) presented by Dirac's gauge function,\\beta. A massive body creates a spherically symmetric gravitational field, that is regarded as the perturbation of the homogeneous and isotropic universe [20]. Around the perturbing mass the dark energy forms up a ball-like concentration that reaches the horizon. The energy-mass density of this DE ball, the pressure and mass are searched. It turns out that they all are negative. As negative pressure is necessary to get acceleration at the expanding phase and deceleration during contraction, the Weyl-Dirac DE is an appropriate candidate. The negative mass of the DE ball is universally repulsive, both positive-mass and negative-mass objects will be pushed away by the ball. The negative DE mass and the negative DE pressure can be regarded as causing and supporting the present cosmic acceleration.

  15. Data perturbation analysis of a linear model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The linear model features were carefully studied in the cases of data perturbation and mean shift perturbation.Some important features were also proved mathematically. The results show that the mean shift perturbation is equivalentto the data perturbation, that is, adding a parameter to an observation equation means that this set of data is deleted fromthe data set. The estimate of this parameter is its predicted residual in fact

  16. Study of Scour Downstream Different Shapes of Culverts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahem Adel Al Hafed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research a laboratory study was carried out to investigate the scour phenomenon in sandy soil beds downstream different shapes of culverts, Four   shapes of culverts such as circular, ellipse, rectangular and square were used. So, a best hydraulic section was used in rectangular and ellipse shapes. The study includes the measurement and comparison of maximum scour depth and length of scour hole downstream these different shapes of culverts. Also, the distribution of soil parts was studied. It was used five discharges for each one of culvert.              Laboratory results of this study showed that the minimum depth of scour in the same discharge occurred downstream ellipse culvert and then rectangular culvert and then square culvert and the last circular culvert.  

  17. Perturbative versus non-perturbative decoupling of heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knechtli, Francesco [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Bruno, Mattia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Finkenrath, Jacob [CaSToRC, Cyl Athalassa Campus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Leder, Bjoern [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2015-11-15

    We simulate a theory with N{sub f}=2 heavy quarks of mass M. At energies much smaller than M the heavy quarks decouple and the theory can be described by an effective theory which is a pure gauge theory to leading order in 1/M. We present results for the mass dependence of ratios such as t{sub 0}(M)/t{sub 0}(0). We compute these ratios from simulations and compare them to the perturbative prediction. The latter relies on a factorisation formula for the ratios which is valid to leading order in 1/M.

  18. Mechanical picture of the linear transient growth of vortical perturbations in incompressible smooth shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagelishvili, George; Hau, Jan-Niklas; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The linear dynamics of perturbations in smooth shear flows covers the transient exchange of energies between (1) the perturbations and the basic flow and (2) different perturbations modes. Canonically, the linear exchange of energies between the perturbations and the basic flow can be described in terms of the Orr and the lift-up mechanisms, correspondingly for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) perturbations. In this paper the mechanical basis of the linear transient dynamics is introduced and analyzed for incompressible plane constant shear flows, where we consider the dynamics of virtual fluid particles in the framework of plane perturbations (i.e., perturbations with plane surfaces of constant phase) for the 2D and 3D case. It is shown that (1) the formation of a pressure perturbation field is the result of countermoving neighboring sets of incompressible fluid particles in the flow, (2) the keystone of the energy exchange mechanism between the basic flow and perturbations is the collision of fluid particles with the planes of constant pressure in accordance with the classical theory of elastic collision of particles with a rigid wall, making the pressure field the key player in this process, (3) the interplay of the collision process and the shear flow kinematics describes the transient growth of plane perturbations and captures the physics of the growth, and (4) the proposed mechanical picture allows us to reconstruct the linearized Euler equations in spectral space with a time-dependent shearwise wave number, the linearized Euler equations for Kelvin modes. This confirms the rigor of the presented analysis, which, moreover, yields a natural generalization of the proposed mechanical picture of the transient growth to the well-established linear phenomenon of vortex-wave-mode coupling.

  19. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Space physics and plasma physics experiments that can be performed from the space shuttle were identified. Potential experiment concepts were analyzed to derive requirements for a spaceborne experiment facility. The laboratory, known as the Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory consists of a 33-foot pallet of instruments connected to a 25-foot pressurized control module. Two 50-meter booms, two subsatellites, a high power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator array, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform are the primary systems deployed from the pallet. The pressurized module contains all the control and display equipment required to conduct the experiments, and life support and power subsystems.

  20. Tensorial Perturbations in an Accelerating Universe

    CERN Document Server

    De Campos, M

    2002-01-01

    We study tensorial perturbations (gravitational waves) in a universe with particle production (OSC). The background of gravitational waves produces a perturbation in the redshift observed from distant sources. The modes for the perturbation in the redshift (induced redshift) are calculated in a universe with particle production.

  1. FRW Cosmological Perturbations in Massive Bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Comelli, D; Pilo, L

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of FRW solutions in ghost free massive bigravity, including also a second matter sector, are studied in detail. At early time, we find that sub horizon exponential instabilities are unavoidable and they lead to a premature departure from the perturbative regime of cosmological perturbations.

  2. Matrix perturbations: bounding and computing eigenvalues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis da Silva, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the somewhat negative connotation of the word, not every perturbation is a bad perturbation. In fact, while disturbing the matrix entries, many perturbations still preserve useful properties such as the orthonormality of the basis of eigenvectors or the Hermicity of the original matrix. In t

  3. Geometric Hamiltonian structures and perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omohundro, S.

    1984-08-01

    We have been engaged in a program of investigating the Hamiltonian structure of the various perturbation theories used in practice. We describe the geometry of a Hamiltonian structure for non-singular perturbation theory applied to Hamiltonian systems on symplectic manifolds and the connection with singular perturbation techniques based on the method of averaging.

  4. Perturbative Transport Studies in Fusion Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of transport in fusion plasmas using perturbations of an equilibrium state reviewed. Essential differences between steady-state and perturbative transport studies are pointed out. Important transport issues that can be addressed with perturbative experiments are identified as: (i) Are the tr

  5. Downstream Processability of Crystal Habit-Modified Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pudasaini, Nawin; Upadhyay, Pratik Pankaj; Parker, Christian Richard

    2017-01-01

    Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability and tablet......Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability...

  6. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  7. Threshold Effects And Perturbative Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Bastero-Gil, M; Pérez-Mercader, J

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the effect of the renormalization procedure in the computation of the unification point for running coupling constants. We explore the effects of threshold--crossing on the $\\beta$--functions. We compute the running of the coupling constants of the Standard Model, between $m_Z$ and $M_P$, using a mass dependent subtraction procedure, and then compare the results with $\\bar{MS}$, and with the $\\theta$-- function approximation. We also do this for the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. In the latter, the bounds on susy masses that one obtains by requiring perturbative unification are dependent, to some extent, on the procedure.

  8. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yohei M.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  9. Eikonal perturbation theory in photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajiao Vélez, F.; Krajewska, K.; Kamiński, J. Z.

    2016-02-01

    The eikonal perturbation theory is formulated and applied to photoionization by strong laser pulses. A special emphasis is put on the first order approximation with respect to the binding potential, which is known as the generalized eikonal approximation [2015 Phys. Rev. A 91 053417]. The ordinary eikonal approximation and its domain of applicability is derived from the generalized eikonal approximation. While the former approach is singular for the electron trajectories which return to the potential center, the generalized eikonal avoids this problem. This property makes it a promising tool for further investigations of rescattering and high-order harmonic generation processes.

  10. RIGID GIGAPOROUS CHROMATOGRAPHIC MEDIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL IMPACT ON DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingyue Gu; Weiqing Zhou; Guanghui Ma; Zhiguo Su

    2005-01-01

    More and more biomolecules are being produced by the biotechnology industry for applications ranging from medicine and food to engineering materials. Liquid chromatography plays a center-stage role in a typical downstream process producing biomolecules such as recombinant proteins. Rigid gigaporous media are porous particles possessing large transecting through-pores with a pore-to-particle diameter ratio of dpore/dparticle> 0.01. They allow convective flow in the large through-pores, while the smaller diffusion-pores (typically several hundred angstroms in size) supply the needed surface areas. Because of the transecting gigapores, a portion of the mobile phase flows through the pores in addition to fluid flow in the interstitial spaces between the particles in a packed-bed column. This considerably lowers the operating column pressure drop. This lower pressure drop makes axial-direction scale-up of chromatographic columns possible to avoid pancake columns that invariably degrade separation resolution. The large gigapores also make the binding sites on the diffusion pore surfaces more accessible, thus increasing the loading capacity of large protein molecules that can be hindered sterically if only diffusion pores are present. This work discusses the development of rigid gigaporous media and their potential impact on the design of multi-stage downstream process from the angle of multi-scale analysis.

  11. The ambiguity in ray perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieder, R.; Sambridge, M. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-01

    Ray perturbation theory is concerned with the change in ray paths and travel times due to changes in the slowness model or the end-point conditions of rays. Several different formulations of ray perturbation theory have been developed. Even for the same physical problem different perturbation equations have been derived. The reason for this is that ray perturbation theory contains a fundamental ambiguity. One can move a point along a curve without changing the shape of the curve. This means that the mapping from a reference curve to a perturbed curve is not uniquely defined, because on may associated a point on the reference curve with different points on the perturbed curve. The mapping that is used is usually defined implicitly by the choice of the coordinate system or the independent parameter. In this paper, a fomalism is developed where one can specify explicitly the mapping from the reference curve to the perturbed curve by choosing a stretch factor that relates increments in arc length along the reference curve and the perturbed curve. This is incorporated in a theory that is accurate to first order in the ray position and to second order in the travel time. The second order travel time perturbation describes the effect of changes in the position of the ray on the travel time. In the formulation of this paper, paraxial ray perturbations, slowness perturbations, and pure ray bending are treated in a uniform fashion. This may be very useful in nonlinear tomographic inversions which include earthquake relocation.

  12. Flow diagnostics downstream of a tribladed rotor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Rahmanov, V. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of vortex wake structures and measurements of instantaneous 3D velocity fields downstream of a triblade turbine model. Two operation modes of flow around the rotor with different tip speed ratios were tested. Initially the wake structures were visualized and...

  13. Extreme wave phenomena in down-stream running modulated waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andonowati, A.; Karjanto, N.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    Modulational, Benjamin-Feir, instability is studied for the down-stream evolution of surface gravity waves. An explicit solution, the soliton on finite background, of the NLS equation in physical space is used to study various phenomena in detail. It is shown that for sufficiently long modulation

  14. Modeling downstream fining in sand-bed rivers. II: Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S.; Parker, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the model presented in the companion paper, Wright and Parker (2005) is applied to a generic river reach typical of a large, sand-bed river flowing into the ocean in order to investigate the mechanisms controlling longitudinal profile development and downstream fining. Three mechanisms which drive downstream fining are studied: a delta prograding into standing water, sea-level rise, and tectonic subsidence. Various rates of sea-level rise (typical of the late Holocene) and tectonic subsidence are modeled in order to quantify their effects on the degree of profile concavity and downstream fining. Also, several other physical mechanisms which may affect fining are studied, including the relative importance of the suspended versus bed load, the effect of the loss of sediment overbank, and the influence of the delta bottom slope. Finally, sensitivity analysis is used to show that the grain-size distribution at the interface between the active layer and substrate has a significant effect on downstream fining. ?? 2005 International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research.

  15. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppresion - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson have proposed that pioneer patents of "broad" scope (where the claimed scope is typically broader than that strictly justified by the invention) enable their owners to "block" or "hold-up" downstream innovation.[1] They claim to have illustrated this thesis in such important cas...

  16. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppression - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson have proposed that pioneer patents have enabled their owners to 'block' or 'hold-up' downstream innovation in cases as important as the car, radio, aircraft and electric lighting (Merges and Nelson 1990, ; Merges and Nelson 1994). Merges and Nelson use their work to question the...

  17. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppression - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson have proposed that pioneer patents have enabled their owners to 'block' or 'hold-up' downstream innovation in cases as important as the car, radio, aircraft and electric lighting (Merges and Nelson 1990, ; Merges and Nelson 1994). Merges and Nelson use their work to question...

  18. Downstream processing of Isochrysis galbana: a step towards microalgal biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert-López, B.; Mendiola, J.A.; Fontecha, J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Sijtsma, L.; Cifuentes, A.; Herrero, M.; Ibáñez, E.

    2015-01-01

    An algae-based biorefinery relies on the efficient use of algae biomass through its fractionation of several valuable/bioactive compounds that can be used in industry. If this biorefinery includes green platforms as downstream processing technologies able to fulfill the requirements of green

  19. Downstream processing of Isochrysis galbana: a step towards microalgal biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert-López, B.; Mendiola, J.A.; Fontecha, J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Sijtsma, L.; Cifuentes, A.; Herrero, M.; Ibáñez, E.

    2015-01-01

    An algae-based biorefinery relies on the efficient use of algae biomass through its fractionation of several valuable/bioactive compounds that can be used in industry. If this biorefinery includes green platforms as downstream processing technologies able to fulfill the requirements of green chemist

  20. DNS and RANS Simulation of Dispersion Downstream of an Obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    DNS AND RANS SIMULATION OF DISPERSION DOWNSTREAM OF AN OBSTACLE Riccardo Rossi*, Gianluca Iaccarino** * Laboratorio di Termofluidodinamica...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Laboratorio di Termofluidodinamica Computazionale, Seconda Facolt‘a di Ingegneria di Forl‘ý Universit‘a di Bologna

  1. Downstream processing of monoclonal antibodies--application of platform approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abhinav A; Hubbard, Brian; Tressel, Tim; Guhan, Sam; Low, Duncan

    2007-03-15

    This paper presents an overview of large-scale downstream processing of monoclonal antibodies and Fc fusion proteins (mAbs). This therapeutic modality has become increasingly important with the recent approval of several drugs from this product class for a range of critical illnesses. Taking advantage of the biochemical similarities in this product class, several templated purification schemes have emerged in the literature. In our experience, significant biochemical differences and the variety of challenges to downstream purification make the use of a completely generic downstream process impractical. Here, we describe the key elements of a flexible, generic downstream process platform for mAbs that we have adopted at Amgen. This platform consists of a well-defined sequence of unit operations with most operating parameters being pre-defined and a small subset of parameters requiring development effort. The platform hinges on the successful use of Protein A chromatography as a highly selective capture step for the process. Key elements of each type of unit operation are discussed along with data from 14 mAbs that have undergone process development. Aspects that can be readily templated as well as those that require focused development effort are identified for each unit operation. A brief description of process characterization and validation activities for these molecules is also provided. Finally, future directions in mAb processing are summarized.

  2. Extreme wave phenomena in down-stream running modulated waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andonowati,; Karjanto, N.; Groesen, van E.

    2006-01-01

    Modulational, Benjamin-Feir, instability is studied for the down-stream evolution of surface gravity waves. An explicit solution, the soliton on finite background, of the NLS equation in physical space is used to study various phenomena in detail. It is shown that for sufficiently long modulation le

  3. Interactive Learning-driven Innovation in Upstream-Downstream Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simple framework of the innovations that result from interfirm learning through exchanges of engineers in upstream-downstream relations within a production chain. To examine the framework, we empirically investigate the impact of mutual knowledge exchanges on product and pro...

  4. Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, K.J.; Willenborg, W.; Fricke, C.; Prikhodovsky, A.; Hilpert, K.; Singheiser, L.

    2002-09-20

    This work describes the first approach to use High Pressure Mass Spectrometry (HPMS) for the quantification and analysis of alkali species in a gas stream downstream a sorbent bed of different tested alumosilicates.

  5. Testing gauge-invariant perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Törek, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Gauge-invariant perturbation theory for theories with a Brout-Englert-Higgs effect, as developed by Fr\\"ohlich, Morchio and Strocchi, starts out from physical, exactly gauge-invariant quantities as initial and final states. These are composite operators, and can thus be considered as bound states. In case of the standard model, this reduces almost entirely to conventional perturbation theory. This explains the success of conventional perturbation theory for the standard model. However, this is due to the special structure of the standard model, and it is not guaranteed to be the case for other theories. Here, we review gauge-invariant perturbation theory. Especially, we show how it can be applied and that it is little more complicated than conventional perturbation theory, and that it is often possible to utilize existing results of conventional perturbation theory. Finally, we present tests of the predictions of gauge-invariant perturbation theory, using lattice gauge theory, in three different settings. In ...

  6. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars in the rock record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Ielpi, Alessandro; Aldinucci, Mauro; Fustic, Milovan

    2016-04-01

    Classical models developed for ancient fluvial point bars are based on the assumption that meander bends invariably increase their radius as meander-bend apices migrate in a direction transverse to the channel-belt axis (i.e., meander bend expansion). However, many modern meandering rivers are also characterized by down-valley migration of the bend apex, a mechanism that takes place without a significant change in meander radius and wavelength. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars (DMFPB) are the dominant architectural element of these types of meander belts. Yet they are poorly known from ancient fluvial-channel belts, since their disambiguation from expansional point bars often requires fully-3D perspectives. This study aims to review DMFPB deposits spanning in age from Devonian to Holocene, and to discuss their main architectural and sedimentological features from published outcrop, borehole and 3D-seismic datasets. Fluvial successions hosting DMFPB mainly accumulated in low accommodation conditions, where channel belts were affected by different degrees of morphological (e.g., valleys) or tectonic (e.g., axial drainage of shortening basins) confinement. In confined settings, bends migrate downstream along the erosion-resistant valley flanks and little or no floodplain deposits are preserved. Progressive floor aggradation (e.g., valley filling) allow meander belts with DMFPB to decrease their degree of confinement. In less confined settings, meander bends migrate downstream mainly after impinging against older, erosion-resistant channel fill mud. By contrast, tectonic confinement is commonly associated with uplifted alluvial plains that prevented meander-bend expansion, in turn triggering downstream translation. At the scale of individual point bars, translational morphodynamics promote the preservation of downstream-bar deposits, whereas the coarser-grained upstream and central beds are less frequently preserved. However, enhanced preservation of upstream

  7. Unsteady turbulence interaction in a tip leakage flow downstream of a simulated axial compressor rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruolong

    The unsteady behavior of a tip leakage flow downstream of a simulated axial compressor rotor has been studied. The Virginia Tech low speed linear cascade wind tunnel was adapted to model the unsteady tip leakage flow produced by a rotor operating in the vortical wakes of a set of stator vanes. The cascade, consisting of 8 GE rotor B blades, has adjustable tip gap, inlet angle of 65.1°, turning angle of 11.8° and solidity of 1.076. The cascade Reynolds number, based on blade chord, was 393,000. A moving end wall was used to simulate the relative motion between rotor and casing, and vortex generators attached to the moving end wall were used to produce an idealized periodic unsteady vortical inflow similar to that shed by the junction of a row of inlet guide vanes. Measurements of the vortical inflow to the cascade produced by the generators and of the mean blade loading at the mid span are presented. The periodic and aperiodic behavior of the tip leakage flow downstream of the cascade, produced by this vortical disturbance, is also presented using phase and time averaged 3-component turbulence and pressure fluctuation measurements. These measurements are made for tip gap from 0.83% to 3.3% chord and streamwise locations from 0.772% to 1.117% blade spacing axially downstream of the cascade. The phase averaged inflow measurements reveal that the inflow produced by the vortex generators consists of a pair asymmetric counter-rotating vortices embedded in a thin (4.6% chord) endwall boundary layer. The vortices extend some 7.4% chord from the end wall. Their strength is about two orders smaller than the typical circulation of the tip leakage vortices produced by the cascade. Phase averaged single point three component hot-wire measurements downstream of the cascade reveal that the vortical inflow is, however, capable of producing significant large scale fluctuations in the size, strength, structure and position of the tip leakage vortex. These effects increase in

  8. A novel virtual hub approach for multisource downstream service integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Mattia; Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    A large development of downstream services is expected to be stimulated starting from earth observations (EO) datasets acquired by Copernicus satellites. An important challenge connected with the availability of downstream services is the possibility for their integration in order to create innovative applications with added values for users of different categories level. At the moment, the world of geo-information (GI) is extremely heterogeneous in terms of standards and formats used, thus preventing a facilitated access and integration of downstream services. Indeed, different users and data providers have also different requirements in terms of communication protocols and technology advancement. In recent years, many important programs and initiatives have tried to address this issue even on trans-regional and international level (e.g. INSPIRE Directive, GEOSS, Eye on Earth and SEIS). However, a lack of interoperability between systems and services still exists. In order to facilitate the interaction between different downstream services, a new architectural approach (developed within the European project ENERGIC OD) is proposed in this paper. The brokering-oriented architecture introduces a new mediation layer (the Virtual Hub) which works as an intermediary to bridge the gaps linked to interoperability issues. This intermediation layer de-couples the server and the client allowing a facilitated access to multiple downstream services and also Open Data provided by national and local SDIs. In particular, in this paper an application is presented integrating four services on the topic of agriculture: (i) the service given by Space4Agri (providing services based on MODIS and Landsat data); (ii) Gicarus Lab (providing sample services based on Landsat datasets) and (iii) FRESHMON (providing sample services for water quality) and services from a several regional SDIs.

  9. Downstream migrating antidunes or in-phase waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez González, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Late back in the beginning of the 20th century, Gilbert observed bedforms that migrated in opposite direction to flow. Since this feature was remarkable and inverse to the behavior of dunes (most often observed in rivers and flumes), he called the new species antidunes. Subsequent researchers identified other characteristic attributes of the new species, and it was later commonly accepted that a defining characteristic of antidunes was that undulations of bed and water profiles were roughly in-phase. Due to its generality, such definition has given place to some ambiguities, particularly when dealing with bedforms close to the critical-supercritical transition, as occurs with bedforms with bed and water profiles roughly in-phase but migrating downstream. Such bedforms are described by different researchers, but they are not always classified as antidunes. Some sedimentologists argue that given the depositional pattern of such streamwise migrating forms is different to that of upstream-migrating antidunes, the more generic term "in-phase waves" should be applied to consider them as a different class. The lack of a stability field for 2D downstream-migrating antidunes in the classical theoretical study of Kennedy in the early sixties, has also contributed to some confusion. According to such theoretical diagram, downstream-migrating antidunes could only exist being 3D, but empirical evidences -even from Kennedy- contradict this outcome. In this work, such results and other morphodynamic features of downstream-migrating antidunes will be discussed, in light of experimental data and a simple hydraulic analysis of the direction of movement of antidunes. An open question will be left to debate about the appropriateness of classifying downstream-migrating in-phase waves as antidunes, and it will be emphasized that finding consensus between different disciplines involved with the study of bedforms will be advantageous.

  10. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  11. New Methods in Non-Perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-01-31

    In this work, we investigate the properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), by using newly developing mathematics and physics formalisms. Almost all of the mass in the visible universe emerges from a quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which has a completely negligible microscopic mass content. An intimately related issue in QCD is the quark confinement problem. Answers to non-perturbative questions in QCD remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. It is also believed that the usual perturbation theory is inadequate to address these kinds of problems. Perturbation theory gives a divergent asymptotic series (even when the theory is properly renormalized), and there are non-perturbative phenomena which never appear at any order in perturbation theory. Recently, a fascinating bridge between perturbation theory and non-perturbative effects has been found: a formalism called resurgence theory in mathematics tells us that perturbative data and non-perturbative data are intimately related. Translating this to the language of quantum field theory, it turns out that non-perturbative information is present in a coded form in perturbation theory and it can be decoded. We take advantage of this feature, which is particularly useful to understand some unresolved mysteries of QCD from first principles. In particular, we use: a) Circle compactifications which provide a semi-classical window to study confinement and mass gap problems, and calculable prototypes of the deconfinement phase transition; b) Resurgence theory and transseries which provide a unified framework for perturbative and non-perturbative expansion; c) Analytic continuation of path integrals and Lefschetz thimbles which may be useful to address sign problem in QCD at finite density.

  12. Fully nonlinear and exact perturbations of the Friedmann world model: non-flat background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyerim, E-mail: hr@kasi.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    We extend the fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in a Friedmann background universe to include the background curvature. The perturbation equations are presented in a gauge ready form, so any temporal gauge condition can be adopted freely depending on the problem to be solved. We consider the scalar, and vector perturbations without anisotropic stress. As an application, we analyze the equations in the special case of irrotational zero-pressure fluid in the comoving gauge condition. We also present the fully nonlinear formulation for a minimally coupled scalar field.

  13. Fully nonlinear and exact perturbations of the Friedmann world model: Non-flat background

    CERN Document Server

    Noh, Hyerim

    2014-01-01

    We extend the fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in a Friedmann background universe to include the background curvature. The perturbation equations are presented in a gauge ready form, so any temporal gauge condition can be adopted freely depending on the problem to be solved. %The background curvature term explicitly appears only in the energy and momentum constraint equations. We consider the scalar, and vector perturbations without anisotropic stress. As an application, we analyze the equations in the special case of irrotational zero-pressure fluid in the comoving gauge condition. We also present the fully nonlinear formulation for a minimally coupled scalar field.

  14. Inflationary Perturbations and Precision Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Habib, S; Heitmann, K; Jungman, G; Habib, Salman; Heinen, Andreas; Heitmann, Katrin; Jungman, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Inflationary cosmology provides a natural mechanism for the generation of primordial perturbations which seed the formation of observed cosmic structure and lead to specific signals of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation. In order to test the broad inflationary paradigm as well as particular models against precision observations, it is crucial to be able to make accurate predictions for the power spectrum of both scalar and tensor fluctuations. We present detailed calculations of these quantities utilizing direct numerical approaches as well as error-controlled uniform approximations, comparing with the (uncontrolled) traditional slow-roll approach. A simple extension of the leading-order uniform approximation yields results for the power spectra amplitudes, the spectral indices, and the running of spectral indices, with accuracy of the order of 0.1% - approximately the same level at which the transfer functions are known. Several representative examples are used to demonstrate these resul...

  15. World-line perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a compact body in space and time is commonly described by the world line of a point representing the instantaneous position of the body. In General Relativity such a world-line formalism is not quite straightforward because of the strict impossibility to accommodate point masses and rigid bodies. In many situations of practical interest it can still be made to work using an effective hamiltonian or energy-momentum tensor for a finite number of collective degrees of freedom of the compact object. Even so exact solutions of the equations of motion are often not available. In such cases families of world lines of compact bodies in curved space-times can be constructed by a perturbative procedure based on generalized geodesic deviation equations. Examples for simple test masses and for spinning test bodies are presented.

  16. Sudakov Safety in Perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J; Thaler, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Traditional calculations in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) are based on an order-by-order expansion in the strong coupling $\\alpha_s$. Observables that are calculable in this way are known as "safe". Recently, a class of unsafe observables was discovered that do not have a valid $\\alpha_s$ expansion but are nevertheless calculable in pQCD using all-orders resummation. These observables are called "Sudakov safe" since singularities at each $\\alpha_s$ order are regulated by an all-orders Sudakov form factor. In this letter, we give a concrete definition of Sudakov safety based on conditional probability distributions, and we study a one-parameter family of momentum sharing observables that interpolate between the safe and unsafe regimes. The boundary between these regimes is particularly interesting, as the resulting distribution can be understood as the ultraviolet fixed point of a generalized fragmentation function, yielding a leading behavior that is independent of $\\alpha_s$.

  17. Perturbativity in the seesaw mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Asaka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Standard Model extended by right-handed neutrinos to explain massive neutrinos through the seesaw mechanism. The new fermion can be observed when it has a sufficiently small mass and large mixings to left-handed neutrinos. If such a particle is the lightest right-handed neutrino, its contribution to the mass matrix of active neutrinos needs to be canceled by that of a heavier one. Yukawa couplings of the heavier one are then larger than those of the lightest one. We show that the perturbativity condition gives a severe upper bound on the mixing of the lightest right-handed neutrino, depending on the masses of heavier ones. Models of high energy phenomena, such as leptogenesis, can be constrained by low energy experiments.

  18. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose's hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose's hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime \\emph{as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations}.

  19. Perturbations of vortex ring pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S; Parikh, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    We study pairs of co-axial vortex rings starting from the action for a classical bosonic string in a three-form background. We complete earlier work on the phase diagram of classical orbits by explicitly considering the case where the circulations of the two vortex rings are equal and opposite. We then go on to study perturbations, focusing on cases where the relevant four-dimensional transfer matrix splits into two-dimensional blocks. When the circulations of the rings have the same sign, instabilities are mostly limited to wavelengths smaller than a dynamically generated length scale at which single-ring instabilities occur. When the circulations have the opposite sign, larger wavelength instabilities can occur.

  20. Noncommutative Fluid and Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Praloy

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the NC fluid dynamics and kinematics. In the second part we construct an extension of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing in anisotropy and inhomogeneity in th...

  1. Effect of spanwise pressure gradient on flow and heat transfer characteristics of longitudinal vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Moon, Joo Hyun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Dae Yun; Lee, Seong Hyuk [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study numerically investigated the influence of spanwise pressure gradient on heat transfer of a 3D turbulent boundary layer with longitudinal vortices. A 30° bend in the passage provided the spanwise pressure gradient. The longitudinal pair vortices were generated using a pair of delta winglets. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and energy equations based on the conventional Reynolds stress model were used. The predictions agreed well with the experimental data for the straight plate. The turbulent boundary layer was significantly perturbed with the longitudinal vortices. The spanwise pressure gradient contributed to faster degradation of the longitudinal vortices and widened the perturbed flow region. The local Stanton number distributions were asymmetric because of the difference in the evolution of the longitudinal vortices in the curved region. Moreover, comparison showed that the local Stanton number in the downstream of the straight channel increased near the surface because of the secondary re-circulating vortex. The thickness of the thermal boundary layers increased in the streamwise direction because of the significant flow mixing and heat transfer.

  2. Boosted perturbations at the end of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Zaballa, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect on the primordial cosmological perturbations of a sharp transition from inflationary to a radiation and matter dominated epoch respectively. We assume that the perturbations are generated by the vacuum fluctuations of a scalar field slowly rolling down its potential, and that the transition into the subsequent epoch takes place much faster than a Hubble time. The behaviour of the superhorizon perturbations corresponding to cosmological scales in this case is well known. However, it is not clear how perturbations on scales of and smaller than the Hubble horizon scale at the end of inflation may evolve through such a transition. We derive the evolution equation for the gravitational potential $\\Psi$, which allows us to study the evolution of the perturbations on all scales under these circumstances. We show that for a certain range of scales inside the horizon at the end of inflation, the amplitude of the perturbations are enhanced relative to the superhorizon scales. This enhancement may le...

  3. Transient dynamics of perturbations in astrophysical disks

    CERN Document Server

    Razdoburdin, Dmitry N

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of one of the major unsolved problems in understanding astrophysical (in particular, accretion) disks: whether the disk interiors may be effectively viscous in spite of the absence of marnetorotational instability? In this case a rotational homogeneous inviscid flow with a Keplerian angular velocity profile is spectrally stable, making the transient growth of perturbations a candidate mechanism for energy transfer from the regular motion to perturbations. Transient perturbations differ qualitatively from perturbation modes and can grow substantially in shear flows due to the nonnormality of their dynamical evolution operator. Since the eigenvectors of this operator, alias perturbation modes, are mutually nonorthogonal, they can mutually interfere, resulting in the transient growth of their linear combinations. Physically, a growing transient perturbation is a leading spiral whose branches are shrunk as a result of the differential rotation of the flow. This paper discusses in d...

  4. Dynamics of Cosmological Perturbations in Position Space

    CERN Document Server

    Bashinsky, S V; Bashinsky, Sergei; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    We show that the linear dynamics of cosmological perturbations can be described by coupled wave equations, allowing their efficient numerical and, in certain limits, analytical integration directly in position space. The linear evolution of any perturbation can then be analyzed with the Green's function method. Prior to hydrogen recombination, assuming tight coupling between photons and baryons, neglecting neutrino perturbations, and taking isentropic (adiabatic) initial conditions, the obtained Green's functions for all metric, density, and velocity perturbations vanish beyond the acoustic horizon. At the acoustic wavefronts, a positive gravitational potential perturbation produces narrow photon-baryon density spikes, which provide one of the major contributions to the observed cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropy on all scales. The gravitational interaction between cold dark matter and baryons causes a dip in the observed temperature of the radiation at the center of the initial perturbation. We...

  5. Upstream-downstream cooperation approach in Guanting Reservoir watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-feng; ZHANG Wen-guo

    2005-01-01

    A case study is introduced and discussed concerning water dispute of misuse and pollution between up- and down-stream parts.The relations between water usage and local industrial structures are analyzed. Results show it is important to change industrial structures of the target region along with controlling water pollution by technical and engineering methods. Three manners of upstream-downstream cooperation are presented and discussed based on the actual conditions of Guangting Reservoir watershed, Two typical scenarios are supposed and studied along with the local plan on water resources development. The best solution for this cooperation presents a good way to help the upstream developing in a new pattern of eco-economy.

  6. Dead zone area at the downstream flow of barrages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow separation is a natural phenomenon encountered at some cases downstream of barrages. The main flow is divided into current and dead zone flows. The percentage area of dead zone flow must be taken into consideration downstream of barrages, due to its negative effect on flow characteristics. Experimental studies were conducted in the Hydraulic Research Institute (HRI, on a physical regulator model with five vents. Theoretically the separation zone is described as a part of an ellipse which is practically verified by plotting velocity vectors. The results show that the percentage area of dead zone to the area through length of separation depends mainly on the expansion ratio [channel width to width of opened vents], with maximum value of 81% for operated side gates. A statistical analysis was derived, to predict the percentage area of dead zone flow to the area through length of separation.

  7. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppresion - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson have proposed that pioneer patents of "broad" scope (where the claimed scope is typically broader than that strictly justified by the invention) enable their owners to "block" or "hold-up" downstream innovation.[1] They claim to have illustrated this thesis in such important cases...... of development as aircraft, the car, radio and electric lighting. Merges and Nelson quite logically use their work to question the value of Kitch's prospect theory of patents,[2] a theory that emphasises that the social value of patents is that they enable the coordination of technological development....... This article re-examines Merges and Nelson's illustrative historical-empirical evidence and finds their thesis of downstream innovation suppression to be unwarranted by their empirical evidence.[3] Instead, Merges and Nelson have selected a number of important historical cases in which the administration...

  8. Downstream plasma parameters in laminar shocks from ion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalin, M.

    2016-10-01

    Ion dynamics in oblique shocks is governed by the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of the shock front. In laminar shocks, these fields are time-independent and depend only on the coordinate along the shock normal. The shock ramp is narrow and the ion motion across the shock is manifestly non-adiabatic. The ion distribution just behind the ramp is significantly non-gyrotropic. Gyrotropy is achieved well behind the ramp mainly due to the gyrophase mixing. The asymptotic values of the ion density and temperature are determined by the eventual collisionless relaxation of the gyrating ion distribution. Given a distribution at the downstream edge of the ramp, the moments of the distribution after gyrophase mixing are derived using proper spatial averaging. The obtained expressions can be used for independent determination of the downstream plasma state and implementation in Rankine-Hugoniot relations.

  9. Determining the penetrability factor using a small perturbations method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrullin, M.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    An iterational process is built for finding the penetrability factor which is based on small perturbation formulas with the assumption that the penetrability factor belongs to a class of piecewise constant functions. The iteration process is built in the following manner: finite differential analogies of direct and adjacent problems are solved in each step, then these solutions are used for obtaining a system of linear algebraic equations relative to perturbations in the penetrability factor. The refined values of the penetrability factor serve as the initial data for the next step of the iteration process. When the penetrability factor belongs to another class of functions, then it is possible to build its evaluation in the class of piecewise constant functions using the known values of the bottom hole pressures and flow rates using this iteration process. Examples of calculations of such evaluations are given and they are compared with evaluations obtained through a least squares method in the class of piecewise constant functions.

  10. PIV measurements of the flow field just downstream of an oscillating collapsible tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, C D; Truong, N K; Hall, S D

    2008-12-01

    We probed the time-varying flow field immediately downstream of a flexible tube conveying an aqueous flow, during flow-induced oscillation of small amplitude, at time-averaged Reynolds numbers (Re) in the range 300-550. Velocity vector components in the plane of a laser sheet were measured by high-speed ("time-resolved") particle image velocimetry. The sheet was aligned alternately with both the major axis and the minor axis of the collapsing tube by rotating the pressure chamber in which the tube was mounted. The Womersley number of the oscillations was approximately 10. In the major-axis plane the flow fields were characterized by two jets that varied in lateral spacing. The rapid deceleration of flow at maximal collapse caused the jets momentarily to merge about one diameter into the downstream pipe, and strengthened and enlarged the existing retrograde flow lateral to each jet. Collapse also spread the jets maximally, allowing retrograde flow between them during the ascent from its minimum of the pressure at the end of the flexible tube. The minor-axis flow fields showed that the between-jet retrograde flow at this time extended all the way across the pipe. Whereas the retrograde flow lateral to the jets terminated within three diameters of the tube end at Re=335 at all times, it extended beyond three diameters at Re=525 for some 25% of the cycle including the time of maximal flow deceleration. Off-axis sheet positioning revealed the lateral jets to be crescent shaped. When the pressure outside the tube was increased, flattening the tube more, the jets retained a more consistent lateral position. These results illuminate the flows created by collapsible-tube oscillation in a laminar regime accessible to numerical modeling.

  11. Evaluation of the In-vessel Downstream Effects for the APR1400 Design and License

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jeong-kwan; Kim, Jae-won; Kwon, Sun-guk; Lee, Jae-yong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    These reports include the licensing issues as follows; the effect of a flow channel gap change, the effect of debris settling, the accuracy of the GF630 flow meter, the effect of bubbles impinging on the bottom nozzle, and the bypass fiber amount. In this paper, the valuation results of the in-vessel downstream effects for the APR1400 were described. In addition, the effect of a flow channel gap change and the bypass fiber amount were evaluated. In-vessel downstream effect tests with a mock-up PLUS7 fuel assembly were performed to confirm that the head losses caused by debris meet the available driving head following a LOCA. All the test results showed lower pressure drops than the available head limits. Therefore, a sufficient driving force is available to maintain an adequate flow rate, and the LTCC capability is adequately maintained in the APR1400. A sensitivity test was conducted to assess the effect of a change in the gap size between the mock-up fuel assembly and the test column. The maximum pressure drop recorded for the test was 19.73 kPa under the re-manufactured condition. This value is larger by 1.6% than the previous test result (19.4 kPa) under the same conditions. As such, changing the gap of the flow path between the mock-up fuel assembly and the test column from the previous manufactured conditions to the re-manufactured conditions is expected to result in a slight increase in the differential pressure. However, this is a negligible amount compared to the test uncertainty value of 25%.

  12. Supply Chain Modeling: Downstream Risk Assessment Methodology (DRAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    Supply Chain Modeling: Downstream Risk Assessment Methodology (DRAM) Dr. Sean Barnett December 5, 2013 Institute for Defense Analyses Alexandria, Virginia DMSMS Conference 2013 These Slides are Unclassified and Not Proprietary Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the

  13. Innovation Incentive of Downstream Firms in Stackelberg Duopoly Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hongzhen; Yan Qingyou; Huang Wenjie

    2006-01-01

    The licensing strategies and innovation incentives of downstream firms in a Stackelberg duopoly model were analyzed under three respective assumptions that upstream industry is monopoly, duopoly, or perfect competition. It is found that the Stackelberg firm may license his drastic innovation by a fixed royalty rate which is lower than innovation size. The incentives of drastic innovation of Stackelberg firm facing input suppliers with market power decrease considerably even under royalty licensing,compared with facing perfectly competitive input market.

  14. Cosmological perturbations in a noncommutative braneworld inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kourosh Nozari; Siamak Akhshabi

    2012-01-01

    We use the smeared,coherent state picture of noncommutativity to study evolution of perturbations in a noncommutative braneworld scenario.Within the standard procedure of studying braneworld cosmological perturbations,we study the evolution of the Bardeen metric potential and curvature perturbations in this model.We show that in this setup,the early stage of the universe's evolution has a transient phantom evolution with imaginary effective sound speed.

  15. Non-Perturbative Theory of Dispersion Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boström, M; Persson, C; Parsons, D F; Buhmann, S Y; Brevik, I; Sernelius, Bo E

    2015-01-01

    Some open questions exist with fluctuation-induced forces between extended dipoles. Conventional intuition derives from large-separation perturbative approximations to dispersion force theory. Here we present a full non-perturbative theory. In addition we discuss how one can take into account finite dipole size corrections. It is of fundamental value to investigate the limits of validity of the perturbative dispersion force theory.

  16. Bed profile downstream compound sharp crested V-notch weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahmoud Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Triangular weirs are commonly used to measure discharge in open channel flow. They represent an inexpensive, reliable methodology to monitor water allocation. A compound sharp-crested weir consisting of two triangular parts with different notch angles was used. The lower triangular part of the weir handles the normal range of discharges while the upper part measures the higher peak flows. This paper evaluates experimentally the local scour downstream compound sharp crested V-notch weir. Forty-eight (48 experimental runs were conducted. Three models of weirs with different geometries (combination of notch angles, four upstream water levels, three water levels at the tailgate, and two bed materials were used. Multiple regression equations based on energy principal and dimensional analysis theory were deduced to estimate the local scour downstream of the weir models. The developed equations were compared with the experimental data. The comparison between the local scour downstream classical V-notch weir and a compound sharp-crested weir consisting of two triangular parts with different notch angles was found to be unnoticed. The study recommended using the compound V-notch weir to pass high discharges instead of the classical V-notch weir.

  17. On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Vikman, A.

    2010-02-01

    In a recent paper, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in Khoury are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.

  18. On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Linde, A; Vikman, A

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper arXiv:0910.2230, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in arXiv:0910.2230 are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.

  19. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, A S

    2015-01-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. The corresponding computational algorithm is more efficient for high perturbative orders than the algorithms of Van Vleck and Magnus methods.

  20. Superhorizon Perturbations and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Erickcek, Adrienne L; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Superhorizon perturbations induce large-scale temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) via the Grishchuk-Zel'dovich effect. We analyze the CMB temperature anisotropies generated by a single-mode adiabatic superhorizon perturbation. We show that an adiabatic superhorizon perturbation in a LCDM universe does not generate a CMB temperature dipole, and we derive constraints to the amplitude and wavelength of a superhorizon potential perturbation from measurements of the CMB quadrupole and octupole. We also consider constraints to a superhorizon fluctuation in the curvaton field, which was recently proposed as a source of the hemispherical power asymmetry in the CMB.

  1. Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Andrés; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.

    2017-04-12

    The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.

  2. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Andrey

    2016-06-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson's ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  3. Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Andres; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.

  4. Controlling Disorder in Traffic Flow by Perturbation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIKe-Ping; GAOZi-You; CHENTian-Lun

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new technique for controlling disorder in traffic system. A kind of control signal which can be considered as a perturbation has been designated at a given site (perturbation point) of the single-lane highway. When a vehicle passes the perturbation point at a time, the velocity of the vehicle will be changed at the next time by the perturbation. This technique is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic system can be transited from the disorder states to the order states, such as fixed-point, periodic motion, etc.

  5. Global phosphoproteomic profiling reveals perturbed signaling in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanov, Uros; Guo, Hongbo; Buchsbaum, Diana; Cosme, Jake; Abbasi, Cynthia; Isserlin, Ruth; Sharma, Parveen; Gramolini, Anthony O.; Emili, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Phospholamban (PLN) plays a central role in Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes through regulation of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2A (SERCA2A) Ca2+ pump. An inherited mutation converting arginine residue 9 in PLN to cysteine (R9C) results in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans and transgenic mice, but the downstream signaling defects leading to decompensation and heart failure are poorly understood. Here we used precision mass spectrometry to study the global phosphorylation dynamics of 1,887 cardiac phosphoproteins in early affected heart tissue in a transgenic R9C mouse model of DCM compared with wild-type littermates. Dysregulated phosphorylation sites were quantified after affinity capture and identification of 3,908 phosphopeptides from fractionated whole-heart homogenates. Global statistical enrichment analysis of the differential phosphoprotein patterns revealed selective perturbation of signaling pathways regulating cardiovascular activity in early stages of DCM. Strikingly, dysregulated signaling through the Notch-1 receptor, recently linked to cardiomyogenesis and embryonic cardiac stem cell development and differentiation but never directly implicated in DCM before, was a prominently perturbed pathway. We verified alterations in Notch-1 downstream components in early symptomatic R9C transgenic mouse cardiomyocytes compared with wild type by immunoblot analysis and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. These data reveal unexpected connections between stress-regulated cell signaling networks, specific protein kinases, and downstream effectors essential for proper cardiac function. PMID:27742792

  6. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langnau, A.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  7. Highly resolved numerical simulation of combustion downstream of a rocket engine igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttay, R.; Gomet, L.; Lehnasch, G.; Mura, A.

    2017-02-01

    We study ignition processes in the turbulent reactive flow established downstream of highly under-expanded coflowing jets. The corresponding configuration is typical of a rocket engine igniter, and to the best knowledge of the authors, this study is the first that documents highly resolved numerical simulations of such a reactive flowfield. Considering the discharge of axisymmetric coaxial under-expanded jets, various morphologies are expected, depending on the value of the nozzle pressure ratio, a key parameter used to classify them. The present computations are conducted with a value of this ratio set to fifteen. The simulations are performed with the massively parallel CREAMS solver on a grid featuring approximately 440,000,000 computational nodes. In the main zone of interest, the level of spatial resolution is D/74, with D the central inlet stream diameter. The computational results reveal the complex topology of the compressible flowfield. The obtained results also bring new and useful insights into the development of ignition processes. In particular, ignition is found to take place rather far downstream of the shock barrel, a conclusion that contrasts with early computational studies conducted within the unsteady RANS computational framework. Consideration of detailed chemistry confirms the essential role of hydroperoxyl radicals, while the analysis of the Takeno index reveals the predominance of a non-premixed combustion mode.

  8. Flow structure in the downstream of a square cylinder with different angles of incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Jamshidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparisons between flow fields for turbulent flow over square cylinder with two different angles of incidence in free stream at Reynolds number of Re = 3400. The present numerical results were obtained using a two-dimensional finite-volume code which solves governing equations. The pressure field was obtained with well known SIMPLE algorithm. The central difference scheme was employed for the discretization of convection and diffusion terms. The ν2 f and standard k - ε model were used for simulation of turbulent flow. Time averaged velocity, root mean square velocities and streamlines in the downstream of square cylinders are presented. A number of quantities such as Strouhal number, drag coefficient and the length of the wake are calculated for the case of angle of incidence α = 0°, 45° with two turbulent models. Strouhal number and the length of the wake are larger for the case of α = 45° because of the sharp corners in it which results in more diffusion of turbulence in the downstream of the cylinder. On the other hand, with comparison of results obtained by ν2 f and standard k - ε models with experiment, it is obvious that ν2 f leads to much more accurate results.

  9. Highly resolved numerical simulation of combustion downstream of a rocket engine igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttay, R.; Gomet, L.; Lehnasch, G.; Mura, A.

    2017-07-01

    We study ignition processes in the turbulent reactive flow established downstream of highly under-expanded coflowing jets. The corresponding configuration is typical of a rocket engine igniter, and to the best knowledge of the authors, this study is the first that documents highly resolved numerical simulations of such a reactive flowfield. Considering the discharge of axisymmetric coaxial under-expanded jets, various morphologies are expected, depending on the value of the nozzle pressure ratio, a key parameter used to classify them. The present computations are conducted with a value of this ratio set to fifteen. The simulations are performed with the massively parallel CREAMS solver on a grid featuring approximately 440,000,000 computational nodes. In the main zone of interest, the level of spatial resolution is D/74, with D the central inlet stream diameter. The computational results reveal the complex topology of the compressible flowfield. The obtained results also bring new and useful insights into the development of ignition processes. In particular, ignition is found to take place rather far downstream of the shock barrel, a conclusion that contrasts with early computational studies conducted within the unsteady RANS computational framework. Consideration of detailed chemistry confirms the essential role of hydroperoxyl radicals, while the analysis of the Takeno index reveals the predominance of a non-premixed combustion mode.

  10. Perturbative Chern-Simons theory revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Brendan Donald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider perturbative Chern-Simons theory on a closed and oriented three-manifold with a choice of contact structure following C. Beasley and E. Witten. Closed three manifolds that admit a Sasakian structure are explicitly computed to first order in perturbation in terms of their Seifert dat...

  11. Double soft theorem for perturbative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-09-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan [1], we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  12. Identifying influential multinomial observations by perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyangoma, S.O.; Fung, W.-K.; Jansen, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of the influence of individual observations on the outcome of the analysis by perturbation has received a lot of attention for situations in which the observations are independent and identically distributed. However, no methods based on minor perturbations for carrying out such asses

  13. Tokamak Transport Studies Using Perturbation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.; Dehaas, J. C. M.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Orourke, J.; Sips, A.C.C.; Tubbing, B. J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the transport properties of tokamak plasmas using perturbation analysis are discussed. The focus is on experiments with not too large perturbations, such as sawtooth induced heat and density pulse propagation, power modulation and oscillatory gas-puff experiments. The approximations made

  14. ADDITIVE FUNCTIONALS AND PERTURBATION OF SEMIGROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The perturbation of semigroup by a multiplicative functional with bounded variation is investigated in the frame of weak duality. The strong continuity and Schrodinger type equation of the perturbated semigroup are discussed. A few switching identities and formulae conerning dual additive functionals and Revuz measures are given.

  15. ADDITIVE FUNCTIONALS AND PERTURBATION OF SEMIGROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINMENGWEI; YINGJIANGANG

    2001-01-01

    The perturbation of semigroup by a multiplicative functional with bounded variation is investigated in the frame of weak duality. The strong continuity and SchrSdinger type equation of the perturbated semigroup are discussed. A few switching identities and formulae conerning dual additive functionais and Revuz measures are given.

  16. Perturbation of eigenvalues embedded at a threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Melgaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Results are obtained on perturbation of eigenvalues and half-bound states (zero-resonances) embedded at a threshold. The results are obtained in a two-channel framework for small off-diagonal perturbations. The results are based on given asymptotic expansions of the component Hamiltonians....

  17. Tokamak Transport Studies Using Perturbation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.; Dehaas, J. C. M.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Orourke, J.; Sips, A.C.C.; Tubbing, B. J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the transport properties of tokamak plasmas using perturbation analysis are discussed. The focus is on experiments with not too large perturbations, such as sawtooth induced heat and density pulse propagation, power modulation and oscillatory gas-puff experiments. The approximations made

  18. Perturbative expansion of Chern-Simons theory

    OpenAIRE

    SAWON, Justin

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the perturbative expansion of the Chern--Simons path integral is given. The main goal is to describe how trivalent graphs appear: as they already occur in the perturbative expansion of an analogous finite-dimensional integral, we discuss this case in detail.

  19. Effect of Flow Characteristics in the Downstream of Butterfly Valve on the Flow Rate Measurement using Venturi Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jungho; Yu, Cheong Hwan; Park, San-Jin; Chung, Chang-Hwan

    2010-06-01

    For testing large-capacity pump, the accurate flow rate measurement is needed in the test loop. As a measuring method of flow rate, venturi tube is recommended due to its low pressure loss. However, upstream disturbance of loop component such as valve has an effect upon the accuracy of flow rate measurement. For controlling flow rate in case of high flow rate and large-scale piping system, butterfly-type valve is generally used due to its compactness. However, butterfly valve disturbs downstream flow by generating turbulence, cavities, or abrupt pressure change. In this study, the effect of downstream disturbance of butterfly valve on the flow rate measurement using venturi tube is investigated. Test loop consists of circulation pump, reservoir, butterfly valve, venturi tube, and reference flow meter. The test is conducted with regard to a different valve opening angle of butterfly valve. PIV system is used to visualize and analyze flow in the downstream region of butterfly valve. According to valve opening angle, the flow characteristics and the accuracy of flow rate measurement are investigated.

  20. Relevant Perturbation of Entanglement Entropy and Stationarity

    CERN Document Server

    Nishioka, Tatsuma

    2014-01-01

    A relevant perturbation of the entanglement entropy of a sphere is examined holographically near the UV fixed point. Varying the conformal dimension of the relevant operator, we obtain three different sectors: 1) the entanglement entropy is stationary and the perturbative expansion is well-defined with respect to the relevant coupling, 2) the entropy is stationary, but the perturbation fails, 3) the entropy is neither stationary nor perturbative. We compare our holographic results with the numerical calculation for a free massive scalar field in three-dimensions, and find a qualitative agreement between them. We argue that these statements hold for any relevant perturbation in any quantum field theory invariant under the Poincare symmetry.

  1. Perturbative stability of catenoidal soap films

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    The perturbative stability of catenoidal soap films formed between parallel, equal radii, coaxial rings is studied using analytical and semi-analytical methods. Using a theorem on the nature of eigenvalues for a class of Sturm--Liouville operators, we show that for the given boundary conditions, azimuthally asymmetric perturbations are stable, while symmetric perturbations lead to an instability--a result demonstrated in Ben Amar et. al [7] using numerics and experiment. Further, we show how to obtain the lowest real eigenvalue of perturbations, using the semi-analytical Asymptotic Iteration Method (AIM). Conclusions using AIM support the analytically obtained result as well as the results in [7]. Finally, we compute the eigenfunctions and show, pictorially, how the perturbed soap film evolves in time.

  2. Cosmological perturbations through a simple bounce

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, L E

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a simple scalar field model that yields non-singular cosmological solutions. We study both the qualitative dynamics of the homogeneous and isotropic background and the evolution of inhomogeneous linear perturbations. We calculate the spectrum of perturbations generated on super-Hubble scales during the collapse phase from initial vacuum fluctuations on small scales and then evolve these numerically through the bounce. We show there is a gauge that remains well-defined throughout the bounce, even though other commonly used gauges break down. We show that the comoving curvature perturbation calculated during the collapse phase provides a good estimate of the resulting large scale adiabatic perturbation in the expanding phase while the Bardeen metric potential is dominated by what becomes a decaying mode after the bounce. We show that a power-law collapse phase with scale factor proportional $(-t)^{2/3}$ can yield a scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations in the ...

  3. Metric perturbations in Einstein-Cartan Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia de Andrade, L C

    2002-01-01

    Metric perturbations the stability of solution of Einstein-Cartan cosmology (ECC) are given. The first addresses the stability of solutions of Einstein-Cartan (EC) cosmological model against Einstein static universe background. In this solution we show that the metric is stable against first-order perturbations and correspond to acoustic oscillations. The second example deals with the stability of de Sitter metric also against first-order perturbations. Torsion and shear are also computed in these cases. The resultant perturbed anisotropic spacetime with torsion is only de Sitter along one direction or is unperturbed along one direction and perturbed against the other two. Cartan torsion contributes to the frequency of oscillations in the model. Therefore gravitational waves could be triggered by the spin-torsion scalar density .

  4. Perturbative photon production in a dispersive medium

    CERN Document Server

    Belgiorno, Francesco; Piazza, Francesco Dalla

    2014-01-01

    We investigate photon pair-creation in a dispersive dielectric medium induced by the presence of a spacetime varying dielectric constant. Our aim is to examine the possibility to observe new phenomena of pair creation induced by travelling dielectric perturbations e.g. created by laser pulses by means of the Kerr effect. In this perspective, we adopt a semi-phenomenological version of the Hopfield model in which a space-time dependent dielectric susceptibility appears. We focus our attention on perturbation theory, and provide general formulas for the photon production induced by a local but arbitrarily spacetime dependent refractive index perturbation. As an example, we further explore the case of an uniformly travelling perturbation, and provide examples of purely time-dependent perturbations.

  5. Adiabatic density-functional perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Xavier

    1995-08-01

    The treatment of adiabatic perturbations within density-functional theory is examined, at arbitrary order of the perturbation expansion. Due to the extremal property of the energy functional, standard variation-perturbation theorems can be used. The different methods (Sternheimer equation, extremal principle, Green's function, and sum over state) for obtaining the perturbation expansion of the wave functions are presented. The invariance of the Hilbert space of occupied wave functions with respect to a unitary transformation leads to the definition of a ``parallel-transport-gauge'' and a ``diagonal-gauge'' perturbation expansion. Then, the general expressions are specialized for the second, third, and fourth derivative of the energy, with an example of application of the method up to third order.

  6. Effect of Nozzle Material on Downstream Lateral Injection Cold Spray Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Leblanc-Robert, S.; Fernández, R.; Farjam, A.; Jodoin, B.

    2016-08-01

    In cold gas dynamic spraying, the gas nature, process stagnation pressure and temperature, and the standoff distance are known to be important parameters that affect the deposition efficiency and coating quality. This investigation attempts to elucidate the effect of nozzle material on coatings produced using a downstream lateral injection cold spray system. Through experimentation, it is shown that the nozzle material has a substantial effect on deposition efficiency and particle velocity. It is proposed that the effects are related to complex interaction between the particles and the internal nozzle walls. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that during the particle/nozzle wall contact, a nozzle with higher thermal diffusivity transfers more heat to the particles. This heat transfer results in lower critical velocities and therefore higher deposition efficiencies, despite a noticeable reduction of particle velocities which is also attributed to particle-nozzle interactions.

  7. The transformation of rivers’ temperature regime downstream of reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirvel Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of the transformation of rivers’ temperature conditions influenced by artificial reservoirs. A quantitative estimation of average water temperatures over ten days, and maximum and average annual water temperatures of regulated rivers downstream of reservoirs was made on the basis of the data analysis of a complete period of instrumental observations of the Republican Hydrometeorological Centre of the Republic of Belarus. It is established that the character and the parameters of the transformation of temperature conditions of the regulated rivers along with morphometric features of the reservoirs are determined by the meteorological conditions of the year and the operating conditions of the water-engineering system. The length of the cooling period effect varies from 20 days downstream of small reservoirs to 50-70 days downstream of small and average size reservoirs. The warming effect is less significant by temperature, but lasts longer and is appreciable around 200-240 days in a year. An increase in the average annual water temperature up to 0.5°C and a decrease in maximum temperature down to 1.1°C are observed in the tail-water of average size storage pools. Small size storage pools demonstrate an annual increase in annual water temperature up to 0.3°C and a decrease in maximum temperature down to 0.3°C. Small size water pools show an increase both in annual water temperature up to 0.5°C and maximum water temperature up to 0.3°C. Typical changes in temperature conditions of rivers are observed for a distance of 130 kilometres below the dam of average size water pools, along 70 kilometres in small water pools and along 30 kilometres in tiny ones.

  8. Acoustic resonance excitation of turbulent heat transfer and flow reattachment downstream of a fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcan, Claudio; Cukurel, Beni; Shashank, Judah

    2016-10-01

    The current work investigates the aero-thermal impact of standing sound waves, excited in a straight channel geometry, on turbulent, separating and reattaching flow over a fence. Effects of distinct frequency resonant forcing (ReH = 10,050 and f = 122 Hz) are quantified by wall static pressure measurements and detailed convective heat transfer distributions via liquid crystal thermometry. Acoustic boundary conditions are numerically predicted and the computed longitudinal resonance mode shapes are experimentally verified by surface microphone measurements. Findings indicate the presence of a resonant sound field to exert strong influence on local heat transfer downstream of the fence, whereas the boundary layer upstream of the obstacle remains notable unaffected. Upstream shift of the maximum heat transfer location and an earlier pressure recovery indicate a reduction in time averaged flow reattachment length of up to 37 %. Although the streamwise peak Nusselt increased by only 5 %, the heat transfer level in the vicinity of the unexcited reattachment zone was locally enhanced up to 25 %. Despite prominent impact of resonant forcing on the fence wake flow, the total pressure drop penalty remained invariant. Observations demonstrate the significant aero-thermal implications of shear layer excitation by standing sound waves superimposed on the channel flow field.

  9. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.

  10. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo;

    2015-01-01

    low increase to 16.4. billion. CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both...... a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  11. Building a non-perturbative quark-gluon vertex from a perturbative one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Rocio

    2016-10-01

    The quark-gluon vertex describes the electromagnetic and the strong interaction among these particles. The description of this interaction at high precision in both regimes, perturbative and non-perturbative, continues being a matter of interest in the context of QCD and Hadron Physics. There exist very helpful models in the literature that explain perturbative aspects of the theory but they fail describing non-perturbative phenomena, as confinement and dynamic chiral symmetry breaking. In this work we study the structure of the quark-gluon vertex in a non-perturbative regime examining QCD, checking results with QED, and working in the Schwinger-Dyson formalism.

  12. Effect of a transverse magnetic field on the development of large-scale hydrodynamic perturbations in a duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatin, N.I.; Tananaev, A.V.

    1985-12-01

    A relationship is established between the correlation functions of conduction converter signals and the spatial-temporal correlation functions of fluid velocity and vorticity fluctuations. Results of an experimental study of flow in a circular duct in the wake of a transverse cylinder are presented, indicating a reduction in the attenuation of perturbations oriented along a magnetic field and an increase in their scale with distance downstream.

  13. Aging and balance control in response to external perturbations: role of anticipatory and compensatory postural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. Anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments (APAs and CPAs, respectively), both, are known to be affected in the elderly. We examined the effect of aging on the ability of older adults to utilize APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture (CPAs). Ten elderly individuals were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations applied to the upper body in the sagittal plane. Body kinematics, electromyographic activity of 13 muscles, and ground reaction forces were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The elderly were capable of recognizing an upcoming predictable perturbation and activated muscles prior to it. However, the older adults used different muscle strategies and sequence of muscle recruitment than that reported in young adults. Additionally, when the perturbations were unpredictable, no APAs were seen which resulted in large CPAs and greater peak displacements of the center of pressure (COP) and center of mass (COM) following perturbations. As opposed to this, when the perturbations were predictable, APAs were seen in older adults resulting in significantly smaller CPAs. The presence and utilization of APAs in older adults also improved postural stability following the perturbation as seen by significantly smaller COP and COM peak displacements. Using APAs in older adults significantly reduces the need for large CPAs, resulting in greater postural stability following a perturbation. The results provide a foundation for investigating the role of training in improving the interplay between anticipatory and compensatory postural control in older adults.

  14. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  15. Vortex structures downstream a lobed nozzle/mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Hu; Toshio Kobayashi

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the evolutions of unsteady vortex structures downstream a lobed mixer/nozzle. A novel dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system was used to measure all 3-components of vorticity distributions to revealed both the large-scale streamwise vortices produced by the lobed mixer/nozzle and the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex structures generated due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities simultaneously and quantitatively for the first time. The instantaneous and the ensemble-averaged vorticity distributions displayed quite different aspects about the evolutions of the unsteady vortex structures. While the ensemble-averaged vorticity distributions indicated the overall effect of the special geometry of the lobed nozzle/mixer on the enhanced mixing process, the instantaneous vorticity distributions elucidated many details about how the enhanced mixing process was conducted. In addition to quantitatively confirming conjectures of previous studies, further insight about the formation, evolution and interaction characteristics of the unsteady vortex structures downstream of the lobed mixer/nozzle were also uncovered quantitatively in the present study.

  16. Downstream processing of biopharmaceutical proteins produced in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, Johannes Felix; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    All biological platforms for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins produce an initially turbid extract that must be clarified to avoid fouling sensitive media such as chromatography resins. Clarification is more challenging if the feed stream contains large amounts of dispersed particles, because these rapidly clog the filter media typically used to remove suspended solids. Charged polymers (flocculants) can increase the apparent size of the dispersed particles by aggregation, facilitating the separation of solids and liquids, and thus reducing process costs. However, many different factors can affect the behavior of flocculants, including the pH and conductivity of the medium, the size and charge distribution of the particulates, and the charge density and molecular mass of the polymer. Importantly, these properties can also affect the recovery of the target protein and the overall safety profile of the process. We therefore used a design of experiments approach to establish reliable predictive models that characterize the impact of flocculants during the downstream processing of biopharmaceutical proteins. We highlight strategies for the selection of flocculants during process optimization. These strategies will contribute to the quality by design aspects of process development and facilitate the development of safe and efficient downstream processes for plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins. PMID:24637706

  17. Natural Origin Lycopene and Its "Green" Downstream Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Emmanouil H; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria; Karabelas, Anastasios J

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is an abundant natural carotenoid pigment with several biological functions (well-known for its antioxidant properties) which is under intensive investigation in recent years. Lycopene chemistry, its natural distribution, bioavailability, biological significance, and toxicological effects are briefly outlined in the first part of this review. The second, major part, deals with various modern downstream processing techniques, which are assessed in order to identify promising approaches for the recovery of lycopene and of similar lipophilic compounds. Natural lycopene is synthesized in plants and by microorganisms, with main representatives of these two categories (for industrial production) tomato and its by-products and the fungus Blakeslea trispora, respectively. Currently, there is a great deal of effort to develop efficient downstream processing for large scale production of natural-origin lycopene, with trends strongly indicating the necessity for "green" and mild extraction conditions. In this review, emphasis is placed on final product safety and ecofriendly processing, which are expected to totally dominate in the field of natural-origin lycopene extraction and purification.

  18. PIV measurements and flow characteristics downstream of mangrove root models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Amirkhosro; Curet, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    Mangrove forests attracted attentions as a solution to protect coastal areas exposed to sea-level rising, frequent storms, and tsunamis. Mangrove forests found in tide-dominated flow regions are characterized by their massive and complex root systems, which play a prominent role in the structure of tidal flow currents. To understand the role of mangrove roots in flow structure, we modeled mangrove roots with rigid and flexible arrays of cylinders with different spacing between them as well as different configurations. In this work, we investigate the fluid dynamics downstream of the models using a 2-D time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization. We carried out experiments for four different Reynolds number based on cylinder diameters ranges from 2200 to 12000. We present time-averaged and time-resolved flow parameters including velocity distribution, vorticity, streamline, Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy. The results show that the flow structure has different vortex shedding downstream of the cylinders due to interactions of shear layers separating from cylinders surface. The spectral analysis of the measured velocity data is also performed to obtain Strouhal number of the unsteady flow in the cylinder wake.

  19. Quantitative methods in classical perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgilli, A.

    Poincaré proved that the series commonly used in Celestial mechanics are typically non convergent, although their usefulness is generally evident. Recent work in perturbation theory has enlightened this conjecture of Poincaré, bringing into evidence that the series of perturbation theory, although non convergent in general, furnish nevertheless valuable approximations to the true orbits for a very large time, which in some practical cases could be comparable with the age of the universe. The aim of the author's paper is to introduce the quantitative methods of perturbation theory which allow to obtain such powerful results.

  20. Density perturbation growth in teleparallel cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Wu, Yi-Peng, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: s9822508@m98.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-01

    We study the cosmological perturbations in teleparallel dark energy models in which there is a dynamical scalar field with a non-minimal coupling to gravity. We find that the propagating degrees of freedom are the same as in quintessence cosmology despite that variables of the perturbed vierbein field are greater than those in metric theories. We numerically show some evident discrepancy from general relativity in the evolutions of the perturbations on all scales of the universe. We also demonstrate that the gravitational interactions are enhanced during the unique tracker evolutions in these models.

  1. HIV-associated memory B cell perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiliang; Luo, Zhenwu; Wan, Zhuang; Wu, Hao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Tong; Jiang, Wei

    2015-05-21

    Memory B-cell depletion, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and impaired vaccine responses are the hallmark of B cell perturbations inhuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Although B cells are not the targets for HIV infection, there is evidence for B cell, especially memory B cell dysfunction in HIV disease mediated by other cells or HIV itself. This review will focus on HIV-associated phenotypic and functional alterations in memory B cells. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanism underlying these perturbations and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these perturbations.

  2. Perturbative Semiclassical Trace Formulae for Harmonic Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob; Ögren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In this article we extend previous semiclassical studies by including more general perturbative potentials of the harmonic oscillator in arbitrary spatial dimensions. Our starting point is a radial harmonic potential with an arbitrary even monomial perturbation, which we use to study the resulting...... U(D) to O(D) symmetry breaking. We derive the gross structure of the semiclassical spectrum from periodic orbit theory, in the form of a perturbative (ħ → 0) trace formula. We then show how to apply the results to even-order polynomial potentials, possibly including mean-field terms. We have drawn...

  3. Perturbative loop corrections and nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity has been shown to provide a phenomenologically viable infrared modification of GR. A natural question is whether the required nonlocality can emerge from perturbative quantum loop corrections due to light particles. We show that this is not the case. For the value of the mass scale of the non-local models required by cosmology, the perturbative form factors obtained from the loop corrections, in the present cosmological epoch, are in the regime where they are local. The mechanism behind the generation of the required nonlocality must be more complex, possibly related to strong infrared effects and non-perturbative mass generation for the conformal mode.

  4. Asymptotic stability of singularly perturbed differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artstein, Zvi

    2017-02-01

    Asymptotic stability is examined for singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations that may not possess a natural split into fast and slow motions. Rather, the right hand side of the equation is comprised of a singularly perturbed component and a regular one. The limit dynamics consists then of Young measures, with values being invariant measures of the fast contribution, drifted by the slow one. Relations between the asymptotic stability of the perturbed system and the limit dynamics are examined, and a Lyapunov functions criterion, based on averaging, is established.

  5. Fully non-linear cosmological perturbations of multicomponent fluid and field systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2016-09-01

    We present fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in the presence of multiple components of fluids and minimally coupled scalar fields. We ignore the tensor-type perturbation. The equations are presented without taking the temporal gauge condition in the Friedmann background with general curvature and the cosmological constant. We include the anisotropic stress. Even in the absence of anisotropic stress of individual component, the multiple component nature introduces the anisotropic stress in the collective fluid quantities. We prove the Newtonian limit of multiple fluids in the zero-shear gauge and the uniform-expansion gauge conditions, present the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations in the presence of general relativistic pressure in the zero-shear gauge, and present the fully non-linear equations and the third-order perturbation equations of the non-relativistic pressure fluids in the CDM-comoving gauge.

  6. A new code to study structures in collisionally active, perturbed debris discs. Application to binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Thebault, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Debris discs are traditionally studied using two distinct types of numerical models: statistical particle-in-a-box codes to study their collisional and size distribution evolution, and dynamical N-body models to study their spatial structure. The absence of collisions from N-body codes is in particular a major shortcoming, as collisional processes are expected to significantly alter the results obtained from pure N-body runs. We present a new numerical model, to study the spatial structure of perturbed debris discs at dynamical and collisional steady-state. We focus on the competing effects between gravitational perturbations by a massive body (planet or star), collisional production of small grains, and radiation pressure placing these grains in possibly dynamically unstable regions. We consider a disc of parent bodies at dynamical steady-state, from which small radiation-pressure-affected grains are released in a series of runs, each corresponding to a different orbital position of the perturber, where part...

  7. How phosphoinositide 3-phosphate controls growth downstream of amino acids and autophagy downstream of amino acid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktistakis, Nicholas T; Manifava, Maria; Schoenfelder, Priya; Rotondo, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    The simple phosphoinositide PtdIns3P has been shown to control cell growth downstream of amino acid signalling and autophagy downstream of amino acid withdrawal. These opposing effects depend in part on the existence of distinct complexes of Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34), the kinase responsible for the majority of PtdIns3P synthesis in cells: one complex is activated after amino acid withdrawal to induce autophagy and another regulates mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) activation when amino acids are present. However, lipid-dependent signalling almost always exhibits a spatial dimension, related to the site of formation of the lipid signal. In the case of PtdIns3P-regulated autophagy induction, recent data suggest that PtdIns3P accumulates in a membrane compartment dynamically connected to the endoplasmic reticulum that constitutes a platform for the formation of some autophagosomes. For PtdIns3P-regulated mTORC1 activity, a spatial context is not yet known: several possibilities can be envisaged based on the known effects of PtdIns3P on the endocytic system and on recent data suggesting that activation of mTORC1 depends on its localization on lysosomes.

  8. Large Wood Storage Does Not Decrease Downstream Through a Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, M.; Pasternack, G. B.; Senter, A. E.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    The storage of large wood in streams at the watershed scale has long been characterized as decreasing downstream due to a transport limitation in headwater streams, and a supply limitation in larger rivers. The objective of this study was to test this hypothesis through a field study in the Upper Yuba River watershed in Northern California, USA. While most studies surveyed within the wetted channel at selected reaches of different sizes, this study measured overbank deposits of large wood in addition to those in-channel to reflect the total storage within the active river corridor, and used a stratified random sampling scheme to see if relations held at the watershed scale. The watershed is large (2,874 km2), mountainous, mostly forested, and has been dramatically altered by human activities primarily related to gold mining. One hundred fourteen field sites of varied drainage area sizes were visited, inventoried for large wood (length > 1 m, diameter > 10 cm) storage within the active river corridor, and the volume storage per river length was calculated. Inclusion of floodplains in field surveys illuminates the fact that the distribution of large wood changes within the active river corridor, while the total storage does not decrease downstream. Among many watershed-scale control variables, such as drainage area, stream order, and upslope distance, the local amount of shrub cover and bankfull channel width were the only significant predictors of large wood storage in a multiple linear regression model, both with positive coefficients. A critical literature review was also conducted to investigate the evidence for the common conceptual model. Findings were that (1) the observed downstream trend of large wood storage is largely a function of the methods employed by each study, (2) the use of storage per channel area has confounded the commonly held conceptual model, due to its correlation with channel width, and (3) there is little evidence to support the hypothesis

  9. Elastic Constants of Na and K from Non-parameter Perturbation Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 经福谦; 陈栋泉; 张景琳; 段素清

    2001-01-01

    Combining a linear muffin-tin orbital method, which can be used to calculate the total energy and pressure of solids in a self-consistent manner, with a generalized elastic energy equation, a non-parameter perturbation method has been proposed to compute the elastic constant for cubic metals. The pressure dependence of the shear modulus and bulk modulus forNa and K was calculated. It was found that the computed results agree well with experiments.

  10. Picturing perturbative parton cascades in QCD matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi Kurkela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on parametric reasoning, we provide a simple dynamical picture of how a perturbative parton cascade, in interaction with a QCD medium, fills phase space as a function of time.

  11. Perturbative Analysis of Gauged Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Kazakov, V A; Vafa, C; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gukov, Sergei; Kazakov, Vladimir A.; Vafa, Cumrun

    2003-01-01

    We analyze perturbative aspects of gauged matrix models, including those where classically the gauge symmetry is partially broken. Ghost fields play a crucial role in the Feynman rules for these vacua. We use this formalism to elucidate the fact that non-perturbative aspects of N=1 gauge theories can be computed systematically using perturbative techniques of matrix models, even if we do not possess an exact solution for the matrix model. As examples we show how the Seiberg-Witten solution for N=2 gauge theory, the Montonen-Olive modular invariance for N=1*, and the superpotential for the Leigh-Strassler deformation of N=4 can be systematically computed in perturbation theory of the matrix model/gauge theory (even though in some of these cases the exact answer can also be obtained by summing up planar diagrams of matrix models).

  12. Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)

  13. Creating Statistically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Armendariz-Picon, C

    2007-01-01

    In almost all structure formation models, primordial perturbations are created within a homogeneous and isotropic universe, like the one we observe. Because their ensemble averages inherit the symmetries of the spacetime in which they are seeded, cosmological perturbations then happen to be statistically isotropic and homogeneous. Certain anomalies in the cosmic microwave background on the other hand suggest that perturbations do not satisfy these statistical properties, thereby challenging perhaps our understanding of structure formation. In this article we relax this tension. We show that if the universe contains an appropriate triad of scalar fields with spatially constant but non-zero gradients, it is possible to generate statistically anisotropic and inhomogeneous primordial perturbations, even though the energy momentum tensor of the triad itself is invariant under translations and rotations.

  14. Gauge and motion in perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pound, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Through second order in perturbative general relativity, a small compact object in an external vacuum spacetime obeys a generalized equivalence principle: although it is accelerated with respect to the external background geometry, it is in free fall with respect to a certain \\emph{effective} vacuum geometry. However, this single principle takes very different mathematical forms, with very different behaviors, depending on how one treats perturbed motion. Furthermore, any description of perturbed motion can be altered by a gauge transformation. In this paper, I clarify the relationship between two treatments of perturbed motion and the gauge freedom in each. I first show explicitly how one common treatment, called the Gralla-Wald approximation, can be derived from a second, called the self-consistent approximation. I next present a general treatment of smooth gauge transformations in both approximations, in which I emphasise that the approximations' governing equations can be formulated in an invariant manner...

  15. Perturbations of spiky strings in flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Soumya; Panigrahi, Kamal L

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations of a class of semiclassical strings known today as spiky strings, are studied using the well-known Jacobi equations for small normal deformations of an embedded timelike surface. It is shown that there exists finite normal perturbations of the spiky string worldsheets embedded in a $2+1$ dimensional flat spacetime. Such perturbations lead to a rounding off the spikes, which, in a way, demonstrates the stable nature of the unperturbed worldsheet. The same features appear for the dual spiky string solution and in the spiky as well as their dual solutions in $3+1$ dimensional flat spacetime. Our results are based on exact solutions of the corresponding Jacobi equations which we obtain and use while constructing the profiles of the perturbed configurations.

  16. THE EIGENVALUE PERTURBATION BOUND FOR ARBITRARY MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Li; Jian-xin Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some new absolute and relative perturbation bounds for the eigenvalue for arbitrary matrices, which improves some recent results. The eigenvalue inclusion region is also discussed.

  17. Cosmological perturbations in mimetic Horndeski gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Arroja, Frederico; Karmakar, Purnendu; Matarrese, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    We study linear scalar perturbations around a flat FLRW background in mimetic Horndeski gravity. In the absence of matter, we show that the Newtonian potential satisfies a second-order differential equation with no spatial derivatives. This implies that the sound speed for scalar perturbations is exactly zero on this background. We also show that in mimetic $G^3$ theories the sound speed is equally zero. We obtain the equation of motion for the comoving curvature perturbation (first order differential equation) and solve it to find that the comoving curvature perturbation is constant on all scales in mimetic Horndeski gravity. We find solutions for the Newtonian potential evolution equation in two simple models. Finally we show that the sound speed is zero on all backgrounds and therefore the system does not have any wave-like scalar degrees of freedom.

  18. Rolling axions during inflation: perturbativity and signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Peloso, Marco; Unal, Caner

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a pseudo-scalar field $X$ during inflation naturally induces a significant amplification of the gauge fields to which it is coupled. The amplified gauge fields can source characteristic scalar and tensor primordial perturbations. Several phenomenological implications have been discussed in the cases in which (i) $X$ is the inflation, and (ii) $X$ is a field different from the inflation, that experiences a temporary speed up during inflation. In this second case, visible sourced gravitational waves (GW) can be produced at the CMB scales without affecting the scalar perturbations, even if the scale of inflation is several orders of magnitude below what is required to produce a visible vacuum GW signal. Perturbativity considerations can be used to limit the regime in which these results are under perturbative control. We revised limits recently claimed for the case (i), and we extend these considerations to the case (ii). We show that, in both cases, these limits are satisfied by the applications t...

  19. Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The effective field theory of cosmological perturbations stems from considering a cosmological background solution as a state displaying spontaneous breaking of time translations and (adiabatic) perturbations as the related Nambu-Goldstone modes. With this insight, one can systematically develop a theory for the cosmological perturbations during inflation and, with minor modifications, also describe in full generality the gravitational interactions of dark energy, which are relevant for late-time cosmology. The formalism displays a unique set of Lagrangian operators containing an increasing number of cosmological perturbations and derivatives. We give an introductory description of the unitary gauge formalism for theories with broken gauge symmetry---that allows to write down the most general Lagrangian---and of the Stueckelberg "trick"---that allows to recover gauge invariance and to make the scalar field explicit. We show how to apply this formalism to gravity and cosmology and we reproduce the detailed ana...

  20. General degeneracy in density functional perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2017-07-01

    Degenerate perturbation theory from quantum mechanics is inadequate in density functional theory (DFT) because of nonlinearity in the Kohn-Sham potential. Herein, we develop the fully general perturbation theory for open-shell, degenerate systems in Kohn-Sham DFT, without assuming the presence of symmetry or equal occupation of degenerate orbitals. To demonstrate the resulting methodology, we apply it to the iron atom in the central field approximation, perturbed by an electric quadrupole. This system was chosen because it displays both symmetry required degeneracy, between the five 3 d orbitals, as well as accidental degeneracy, between the 3 d and 4 s orbitals. The quadrupole potential couples the degenerate 3 d and 4 s states, serving as an example of the most general perturbation.

  1. Collision orbits in the presence of perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cano, A. [Departamento de Algebra, Facultad de CC. Matematicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio_diazcano@mat.ucm.es; Gonzalez-Gascon, F. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-16

    It is shown that for particles moving in a plane under the action of attracting central potentials and a perturbing force (potential but not central), orbits representing the falling down of the particle to the center of force exist.

  2. Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Haro, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) could be studied from two totally different ways. The first one, called holonomy corrected LQC, is performed in the Hamiltonian framework, where the Asthekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function (holonomy correction), in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue. The alternative approach is based in the fact that isotropic LQC could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel $F(T)$ gravity (teleparallel LQC). Then, working in the Lagrangian framework and using the well-know perturbation equations in $F(T)$ gravity, we have obtained, in teleparallel LQC, the equations for scalar and tensor perturbations, and the corresponding Mukhanov-Sasaki equations. For scalar perturbations, our equation only differs from the one obtained by holonomy corrections in the velocity of sound, leading both formulations, essentially to the same scale invariant power spectrum when a matter-dominated universe is considered. However for tensor pe...

  3. Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R; Durrer, Ruth; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    1997-01-01

    We study microwave background anisotropies induced by scaling seed perturbations in a universe dominated by cold dark matter. Using a gauge invariant linear perturbation analysis, we solve the perturbation equations on super-horizon scales, for CMB anisotropies triggered by generic gravitational seeds. We find that perturbations induced by seeds -- under very mild restrictions -- are nearly isocurvature. Thus, compensation, which is mainly the consequence of physically sensible initial conditions, is very generic. We then restrict our study to the case of scaling sources, motivated by global scalar fields. We parameterize the energy momentum tensor of the source by ``seed functions'' and calculate the Sachs-Wolfe and acoustic contributions to the CMB anisotropies. We discuss the dependence of the anisotropy spectrum on the parameters of the model considered. Even within the restricted class of models investigated in this work, we find a surprising variety of results for the position and height of the first ac...

  4. Adiabatic perturbations in coupled scalar field cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Joschka

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive and gauge invariant treatment of perturbations around cosmological scaling solutions for two canonical scalar fields coupled through a common potential in the early universe, in the presence of neutrinos, photons and baryons, but excluding cold dark matter. This setup is relevant for analyzing cosmic perturbations in scalar field models of dark matter with a coupling to a quintessence field. We put strong restrictions on the shape of the common potential and adopt a matrix-eigensystem approach to determine the dominant perturbations modes in such models. Similar to recent results in scenarios where standard cold dark matter couples to quintessence, we show that the stability of the adiabatic perturbation mode can be an issue for this class of scalar field dark matter models, but only for specific choices of the common potential. For an exponential coupling potential, a rather common shape arising naturally in many instances, this problem can be avoided. We explicitly calculate the d...

  5. An Exponential Decay Estimate for the Stationary Perturbation of Poiseuille Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    The pressure p’ is such that its gradient is given by Vp cc = (0, 0. -) , with P a positive constant. We define a perturbation of the Poiseuille flow...by Consejo de Desarrollo Cientifico y Humanistico. UCV. Caracas. 󈧚 Ap APPENDIX A In this appendix we will derive bounds for 11, 12 which are define

  6. Trends in Upstream and Downstream Process Development for Antibody Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gronemeyer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A steady increase of product titers and the corresponding change in impurity composition represent a challenge for development and optimization of antibody production processes. Additionally, increasing demands on product quality result in higher complexity of processes and analytics, thereby increasing the costs for product work-up. Concentration and composition of impurities are critical for efficient process development. These impurities can show significant variations, which primarily depend on culture conditions. They have a major impact on the work-up strategy and costs. The resulting “bottleneck” in downstream processing requires new optimization, technology and development approaches. These include the optimization and adaptation of existing unit operations respective to the new separation task, the assessment of alternative separation technologies and the search for new methods in process development. This review presents an overview of existing methods for process optimization and integration and indicates new approaches for future developments.

  7. 'Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppression - Fact or Fiction?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    1977), a theory that is a version of the classic justification for the award of the exclusive right - that it should protect the incentive to develop property. Merges and Nelson insist that their thesis should be supported by empirical evidence and they turn to historical accounts as an important form...... of that empirical evidence. They present alleged historical examples of downstream innovation suppression in such important technologies as: Edison's carbon filament light bulb; the automobile; radio; aircraft; the transistor; the computer. This paper presents a contrary interpretation of the role of patents......), when adequate historical context is included in the analysis, the more common problem is revealed to be that the patents at issue were not administered, for example by courts or the US Patent Office, to maintain their prospect function i.e, their ability to enable the coordination of development...

  8. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations.

  9. Efficient industry configurations in downstream gas markets. An empirical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel A. [IAE Escuela de Direccion y Negocios, Universidad Austral, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-03-15

    This paper examines the production technology of the downstream gas industry in order to provide some useful insights into its efficient structure by looking at the optimal size of firms and the productive efficiency reasons for and against their vertical integration. The analysis is based on a restricted cost function model estimated using firm level data for Argentina and Great Britain. The findings provide evidence for the presence of vertical diseconomies between stages. Results indicate that a single transmitter is able to produce the industry's output at lower costs for large market sizes and that several regional firms are able to operate without sacrificing scale economies if gas distribution is integrated with supply. The findings also indicate that a gas retailer experiences constant returns to scale when it supplies a large customer base. Liberalisation could thus result in oligopolistic industry configurations. (Author)

  10. Allogeneic cell therapy bioprocess economics and optimization: downstream processing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sally; Simaria, Ana S; Varadaraju, Hemanthram; Gupta, Siddharth; Warren, Kim; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    To develop a decisional tool to identify the most cost effective process flowsheets for allogeneic cell therapies across a range of production scales. A bioprocess economics and optimization tool was built to assess competing cell expansion and downstream processing (DSP) technologies. Tangential flow filtration was generally more cost-effective for the lower cells/lot achieved in planar technologies and fluidized bed centrifugation became the only feasible option for handling large bioreactor outputs. DSP bottlenecks were observed at large commercial lot sizes requiring multiple large bioreactors. The DSP contribution to the cost of goods/dose ranged between 20-55%, and 50-80% for planar and bioreactor flowsheets, respectively. This analysis can facilitate early decision-making during process development.

  11. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  12. Regulatory network of inflammation downstream of proteinase-activated receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurst Robert E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protease-activated receptors (PAR are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered in response to inflammation. PARs are a unique class of G protein-coupled that carry their own ligands, which remain cryptic until unmasked by proteolytic cleavage. Although the canonical signal transduction pathway downstream of PAR activation and coupling with various G proteins is known and leads to the rapid transcription of genes involved in inflammation, the effect of PAR activation on the downstream transcriptome is unknown. We have shown that intravesical administration of PAR-activating peptides leads to an inflammatory reaction characterized by edema and granulocyte infiltration. Moreover, the inflammatory response to intravesical instillation of known pro-inflammatory stimuli such as E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, substance P (SP, and antigen was strongly attenuated by PAR1- and to a lesser extent by PAR2-deficiency. Results Here, cDNA array experiments determined inflammatory genes whose expression is dependent on PAR1 activation. For this purpose, we compared the alteration in gene expression in wild type and PAR1-/- mice induced by classical pro-inflammatory stimuli (LPS, SP, and antigen. 75 transcripts were considered to be dependent on PAR-1 activation and further annotated in silico by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and gene ontology (GO. Selected transcripts were target validated by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR. Among PAR1-dependent transcripts, the following have been implicated in the inflammatory process: b2m, ccl7, cd200, cd63, cdbpd, cfl1, dusp1, fkbp1a, fth1, hspb1, marcksl1, mmp2, myo5a, nfkbia, pax1, plaur, ppia, ptpn1, ptprcap, s100a10, sim2, and tnfaip2. However, a balanced response to signals of injury requires a transient cellular activation of a panel of genes together with inhibitory systems that temper the overwhelming inflammation. In this context, the activation of genes such as dusp1 and

  13. Scale-Up of Protein Purification: Downstream Processing Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, John Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Separation science continues to occupy the central position in the overall strategy for the downstream processing and purification of therapeutic protein products for human use. Increasing product titers from mammalian cell culture and new emerging classes of biopharmaceuticals has presented a challenge to the industry to identify ways of improving the robustness and economics of chromatography processes. In commercial manufacturing, there is always a need to increase the scale of the chromatography operations which are typically developed and optimized in small-scale laboratory experiments. This review discusses the key factors in the chromatography process that need to be considered as the scale of the purification step is increased in order to maintain the purity and integrity of the product purified at smaller scale.

  14. Observing Quantum Tunneling in Perturbation Series

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, H; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yasuta, Hirofumi

    1997-01-01

    It is well-known that the quantum tunneling makes conventional perturbation series non-Borel summable. We use this fact reversely and attempt to extract the decay width of the false-vacuum from the actual perturbation series of the vacuum energy density (vacuum bubble diagrams). It is confirmed that, at least in quantum mechanical examples, our proposal provides a complimentary approach to the the conventional instanton calculus in the strong coupling region.

  15. Tuning Leaky Nanocavity Resonances - Perturbation Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Shlafman, Michael; Salzman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic frequency tuning of finite-lifetime-nanocavity electromagnetic modes affects also their quality-factor (Q). Perturbative Q change resulting from (real) frequency tuning, is a controllable parameter. Here, the influence of dielectric constant modulation (DCM) on cavity resonances is presented, by first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. Semi-analytical expressions for DCM induced cavity mode frequency and Q changes are derived. The obtained results are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

  16. Alternative perturbation approaches in classical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Raya, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Blvd. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-11-01

    We discuss two alternative methods, based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique, for the removal of secular terms from the equations of perturbation theory. We calculate the period of an anharmonic oscillator by means of both approaches and show that one of them is more accurate for all values of the coupling constant. We believe that present discussion and comparison may be a suitable exercise for teaching perturbation theory in advanced undergraduate courses on classical mechanics.

  17. Double Soft Theorem for Perturbative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan \\cite{arXiv:1503.04816 [hep-th]}, we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  18. Reflection and transmission of conformal perturbation defects

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    We consider reflection and transmission of interfaces which implement renormalisation group flows between conformal fixed points in two dimensions. Such an RG interface is constructed from the identity defect in the ultraviolet CFT by perturbing the theory on one side of the defect line. We compute reflection and transmission coefficients in perturbation theory to third order in the coupling constant and check our calculations against exact constructions of RG interfaces between coset models.

  19. Density Perturbation Growth in Teleparallel Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We study the cosmological perturbations in teleparallel dark energy models in which there is a dynamical scalar field with a non-minimal coupling to gravity. We find that the propagating degrees of freedom are the same as in quintessence cosmology despite that variables of the perturbed vierbein field are greater than those in metric theories. The resulting growth evolution shows that gravitational interactions are enhanced during the unique tracker evolution of teleparallel dark energy models.

  20. Non-perturbative renormalization in kaon decays

    CERN Document Server

    Donini, Andrea; Martinelli, G; Rossi, G C; Talevi, M; Testa, M; Vladikas, A

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the application of the MPSTV non-perturbative method \\cite{NPM} to the operators relevant to kaon decays. This enables us to reappraise the long-standing question of the $\\Delta I=1/2$ rule, which involves power-divergent subtractions that cannot be evaluated in perturbation theory. We also study the mixing with dimension-six operators and discuss its implications to the chiral behaviour of the $B_K$ parameter.

  1. Cosmological scalar field perturbations can grow

    CERN Document Server

    Alcubierre, Miguel; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Torres, José M

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that the small perturbations in the energy density to the homogeneous and isotropic configurations of a canonical scalar field in an expanding universe do not grow. We show that this is not true in general, and clarify the root of the misunderstanding. We revisit a simple model in which the linear perturbations grow like those in the standard cold dark matter scenario, but with the Jeans length at the scale of the Compton wavelength of the scalar particle.

  2. Perturbative partition function for squashed S^5

    CERN Document Server

    Imamura, Yosuke

    2012-01-01

    We compute the index of 6d N=(1,0) theories on S^5xR containing vector and hypermultiplets. We only consider the perturbative sector without instantons. By compactifying R to S^1 with a twisted boundary condition and taking the small radius limit, we derive the perturbative partition function on a squashed S^5. The 1-loop partition function is represented in a simple form with the triple sine function.

  3. General degeneracy in density functional perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palenik, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Degenerate perturbation theory from quantum mechanics is inadequate in density functional theory (DFT) because of nonlinearity in the Kohn-Sham potential. We develop the fully general degenerate perturbation theory for DFT without assuming that the degeneracy is required by symmetry. The resulting methodology is applied to the iron atom ground state in order to demonstrate the effects of degeneracy that appears both due to symmetry requirements and accidentally, between different representations of the symmetry group.

  4. PRIMAL PERTURBATION SIMPLEX ALGORITHMS FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-qi Pan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two new perturbation simplex variants. Solving linear programming problems without introducing artificial variables, each of the two uses the dual pivot rule to achieve primal feasibility, and then the primal pivot rule to achieve optimality. The second algorithm, a modification of the first, is designed to handle highly degenerate problems more etficiently. Some interesting results concerning merit of the perturbation are established. Numerical results from preliminary tests are also reported.

  5. A Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi Kalia, Andre; Frei, Michaela; Lege, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    SAR Interferometry is a powerful technique able to detect and monitor various surface displacements caused by e.g. gravitative mass movement, subrosion, groundwater extraction, fluid injection, natural gas extraction. These processes can e.g. cause damage to buildings, infrastructure, affect ecosystems, agriculture and the economic use of the geological underground by influencing the hydro(geo)logical setting. Advanced techniques of interferometric processing (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry, PSI) allow highly precise displacement measurements (mm precision) by analyzing stacks of SAR imagery. The PSI mapping coverage can be increased to entire nations by using several adjacent satellite tracks. In order to assist the operational use of this technique a German-wide, officially approved, PSI dataset is under development. The intention of this presentation is to show i) the concept of the Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany and ii) a pilot study to exemplarily demonstrate the workflow and potential products from the Copernicus downstream service. The pilot study is focusing on the built up of an officially approved wide-area PSI dataset. The study area covers an area of more than 30.000 km² and is located in the Northwest German Basin. Several natural processes (e.g. compaction of marine sediments, peat loss) and anthropogenic activities (e.g. natural gas extraction, rock salt mining) are causing surface displacements in the study area. The PSI analysis is based on six ERS-1/-2 data stacks covering the timespan from 1992 until 2001. Each data stack consists of 49 to 73 ERS-1/-2 SAR images. A comparison of the PSI results with thematic data (e.g. volume and location of extracted natural gas) strongly indicates that a part of the detected land subsidence is caused by natural gas extraction. Furthermore, land subsidence caused by e.g. fluid injection and rock salt mining were successfully detected by the PSI analysis.

  6. Downstream evolution of unconfined vortices: mechanical and thermal aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Saborid, M.; Herrada, M. A.; Gómez-Barea, A.; Barrero, A.

    2002-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the downstream evolution (mechanical and thermal) of vortex-jet cores whose velocity and temperature fields far from the axis match a family of inviscid and non-conducting vortices. The far-velocity field is rotational, except for a particular case which corresponds to the well-known Long's vortex. The evolution of the vortex core depends on both the conditions at a certain upstream station, characterized by the dimensionless value of the velocity at the axis, and a dimensionless swirling parameter L defined as the ratio of the values of the azimuthal and axial velocities outside the vortex core. This numerical study, based on the quasi-cylindrical approximation (QC) of the Navier Stokes equations, determines the conditions under which the vortex evolution proceeds smoothly, eventually reaching an asymptotic self-similar behaviour as described in the literature (Fernández-Feria, Fernández de la Mora & Barrero 1995; Herrada, Pérez-Saborid & Barrero 1999), or breaks in a non-slender solution (vortex breakdown). In particular, the critical value L = Lb(a) beyond which vortex breakdown occurs downstream is a function of a dimensionless parameter a characterizing the axial momentum of the vortex jet at an initial upstream station. It is found numerically that for very large values of a this vortex breakdown criterion tends to an asymptote which is precisely the value L = L* predicted by the self-similar analysis, and beyond which a self-similar structure of the vortex core does not exist. In addition, the computation of the total temperature field provides useful information on the physical mechanisms responsible for the thermal separation phenomenon observed in Ranque Hilsch tubes and other swirling jet devices. In particular, the mechanical work of viscous forces which gives rise to an intense loss of kinetic energy during the initial stages of the evolution has been identified as the physical mechanism responsible for thermal

  7. Calpains are downstream effectors of bax-dependent excitotoxic apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsi, Beatrice; Bonner, Helena; Tuffy, Liam P; Düssmann, Heiko; Woods, Ina; Courtney, Michael J; Ward, Manus W; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2012-02-01

    Excitotoxicity resulting from excessive Ca(2+) influx through glutamate receptors contributes to neuronal injury after stroke, trauma, and seizures. Increased cytosolic Ca(2+) levels activate a family of calcium-dependent proteases with papain-like activity, the calpains. Here we investigated the role of calpain activation during NMDA-induced excitotoxic injury in embryonic (E16-E18) murine cortical neurons that (1) underwent excitotoxic necrosis, characterized by immediate deregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, a persistent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)), and insensitivity to bax-gene deletion, (2) underwent excitotoxic apoptosis, characterized by recovery of NMDA-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) increases, sensitivity to bax gene deletion, and delayed Δψ(m) depolarization and Ca(2+) deregulation, or (3) that were tolerant to excitotoxic injury. Interestingly, treatment with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin, overexpression of the endogenous calpain inhibitor calpastatin, or gene silencing of calpain protected neurons against excitotoxic apoptosis but did not influence excitotoxic necrosis. Calpeptin failed to exert a protective effect in bax-deficient neurons but protected bid-deficient neurons similarly to wild-type cells. To identify when calpains became activated during excitotoxic apoptosis, we monitored calpain activation dynamics by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy using a calpain-sensitive Förster resonance energy transfer probe. We observed a delayed calpain activation that occurred downstream of mitochondrial engagement and directly preceded neuronal death. In contrast, we could not detect significant calpain activity during excitotoxic necrosis or in neurons that were tolerant to excitotoxic injury. Oxygen/glucose deprivation-induced injury in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures confirmed that calpains were specifically activated during bax-dependent apoptosis and in this setting function as downstream cell-death executioners.

  8. Gauge and motion in perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Through second order in perturbative general relativity, a small compact object in an external vacuum spacetime obeys a generalized equivalence principle: although it is accelerated with respect to the external background geometry, it is in free fall with respect to a certain effective vacuum geometry. However, this single principle takes very different mathematical forms, with very different behaviors, depending on how one treats perturbed motion. Furthermore, any description of perturbed motion can be altered by a gauge transformation. In this paper, I clarify the relationship between two treatments of perturbed motion and the gauge freedom in each. I first show explicitly how one common treatment, called the Gralla-Wald approximation, can be derived from a second, called the self-consistent approximation. I next present a general treatment of smooth gauge transformations in both approximations, in which I emphasize that the approximations' governing equations can be formulated in an invariant manner. All of these analyses are carried through second perturbative order, but the methods are general enough to go to any order. Furthermore, the tools I develop, and many of the results, should have broad applicability to any description of perturbed motion, including osculating-geodesic and two-timescale descriptions.

  9. Near Horizon Extremal Geometry Perturbations: Dynamical Field Perturbations vs. Parametric Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Hajian, K; Sheikh-Jabbari, M M

    2014-01-01

    In arXiv:1310.3727 we formulated and derived the three universal laws governing Near Horizon Extremal Geometries (NHEG). In this work we focus on the Entropy Perturbation Law (EPL) which, similarly to the first law of black hole thermodynamics, relates perturbations of the charges labeling perturbations around a given NHEG to the corresponding entropy perturbation. We show that field perturbations governed by the linearized equations of motion and symmetry conditions which we carefully specify, satisfy the EPL. We also show that these perturbations are limited to those coming from difference of two NHEG solutions (i.e. variations on the NHEG solution parameter space). Our analysis and discussions shed light on the "no-dynamics" statements of arXiv:0906.2380 and arXiv:0906.2376.

  10. SOLVABILITY FOR NONLINEAR ELLIPTIC EQUATION WITH BOUNDARY PERTURBATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The solvability of nonlinear elliptic equation with boundary perturbation is considered. The perturbed solution of original problem is obtained and the uniformly valid expansion of solution is proved.

  11. Simple preparation of plant epidermal tissue for laser microdissection and downstream quantitative proteome and carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christian; Ellinger, Dorothea; von Hülsen, Behrend; Heim, René; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    The outwardly directed cell wall and associated plasma membrane of epidermal cells represent the first layers of plant defense against intruding pathogens. Cell wall modifications and the formation of defense structures at sites of attempted pathogen penetration are decisive for plant defense. A precise isolation of these stress-induced structures would allow a specific analysis of regulatory mechanism and cell wall adaption. However, methods for large-scale epidermal tissue preparation from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which would allow proteome and cell wall analysis of complete, laser-microdissected epidermal defense structures, have not been provided. We developed the adhesive tape - liquid cover glass technique (ACT) for simple leaf epidermis preparation from A. thaliana, which is also applicable on grass leaves. This method is compatible with subsequent staining techniques to visualize stress-related cell wall structures, which were precisely isolated from the epidermal tissue layer by laser microdissection (LM) coupled to laser pressure catapulting. We successfully demonstrated that these specific epidermal tissue samples could be used for quantitative downstream proteome and cell wall analysis. The development of the ACT for simple leaf epidermis preparation and the compatibility to LM and downstream quantitative analysis opens new possibilities in the precise examination of stress- and pathogen-related cell wall structures in epidermal cells. Because the developed tissue processing is also applicable on A. thaliana, well-established, model pathosystems that include the interaction with powdery mildews can be studied to determine principal regulatory mechanisms in plant-microbe interaction with their potential outreach into crop breeding.

  12. Simple preparation of plant epidermal tissue for laser microdissection and downstream quantitative proteome and carbohydrate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eFalter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The outwardly directed cell wall and associated plasma membrane of epidermal cells represent the first layers of plant defense against intruding pathogens. Cell wall modifications and the formation of defense structures at sites of attempted pathogen penetration are decisive for plant defense. A precise isolation of these stress-induced structures would allow a specific analysis of regulatory mechanism and cell wall adaption. However, methods for large-scale epidermal tissue preparation from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which would allow proteome and cell wall analysis of complete, laser-microdissected epidermal defense structures, have not been provided. We developed the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation from A. thaliana, which is also applicable on grass leaves. This method is compatible with subsequent staining techniques to visualize stress-related cell wall structures, which were precisely isolated from the epidermal tissue layer by laser microdissection coupled to laser pressure catapulting. We successfully demonstrated that these specific epidermal tissue samples could be used for quantitative downstream proteome and cell wall analysis. The development of the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation and the compatibility to laser microdissection and downstream quantitative analysis opens new possibilities in the precise examination of stress- and pathogen-related cell wall structures in epidermal cells. Because the developed tissue processing is also applicable on A. thaliana, well-established, model pathosystems that include the interaction with powdery mildews can be studied to determine principal regulatory mechanisms in plant-microbe interaction with their potential outreach into crop breeding.

  13. Discovering networks of perturbed biological processes in hepatocyte cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Lasher

    Full Text Available The liver plays a vital role in glucose homeostasis, the synthesis of bile acids and the detoxification of foreign substances. Liver culture systems are widely used to test adverse effects of drugs and environmental toxicants. The two most prevalent liver culture systems are hepatocyte monolayers (HMs and collagen sandwiches (CS. Despite their wide use, comprehensive transcriptional programs and interaction networks in these culture systems have not been systematically investigated. We integrated an existing temporal transcriptional dataset for HM and CS cultures of rat hepatocytes with a functional interaction network of rat genes. We aimed to exploit the functional interactions to identify statistically significant linkages between perturbed biological processes. To this end, we developed a novel approach to compute Contextual Biological Process Linkage Networks (CBPLNs. CBPLNs revealed numerous meaningful connections between different biological processes and gene sets, which we were successful in interpreting within the context of liver metabolism. Multiple phenomena captured by CBPLNs at the process level such as regulation, downstream effects, and feedback loops have well described counterparts at the gene and protein level. CBPLNs reveal high-level linkages between pathways and processes, making the identification of important biological trends more tractable than through interactions between individual genes and molecules alone. Our approach may provide a new route to explore, analyze, and understand cellular responses to internal and external cues within the context of the intricate networks of molecular interactions that control cellular behavior.

  14. The impact of Indonesian peatland degradation on downstream marine ecosystems and the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jesse F; Hohn, Sönke; Rixen, Tim; Baum, Antje; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    Tropical peatlands are among the most space-efficient stores of carbon on Earth containing approximately 89 Gt C. Of this, 57 Gt (65%) are stored in Indonesian peatlands. Large-scale exploitation of land, including deforestation and drainage for the establishment of oil palm plantations, is changing the carbon balance of Indonesian peatlands, turning them from a natural sink to a source via outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere and leakage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the coastal ocean. The impacts of this perturbation to the coastal environment and at the global scale are largely unknown. Here, we evaluate the downstream effects of released Indonesian peat carbon on coastal ecosystems and on the global carbon cycle. We use a biogeochemical box model in combination with novel and literature observations to investigate the impact of different carbon emission scenarios on the combined ocean-atmosphere system. The release of all carbon stored in the Indonesian peat pool, considered as a worst-case scenario, will increase atmospheric pCO2 by 8 ppm to 15 ppm within the next 200 years. The expected impact on the Java Sea ecosystems is most significant on the short term (over a few hundred years) and is characterized by an increase of 3.3% in phytoplankton, 32% in seagrass biomass, and 5% decrease in coral biomass. On the long term, however, the coastal ecosystems will recover to reach near pre-excursion conditions. Our results suggest that the ultimate fate of the peat carbon is in the deep ocean with 69% of it landing in the deep DIC pool after 1000 years, but the effects on the global ocean carbonate chemistry will be marginal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Perturbations of ultralight vector field dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Maroto, A. L.; Núñez Jareño, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    We study the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in models of dark matter based on ultralight coherent vector fields. Very much as for scalar field dark matter, we find two different regimes in the evolution: for modes with {k}^2≪ Hma, we have a particle-like behaviour indistinguishable from cold dark matter, whereas for modes with {k}^2≫ Hma, we get a wave-like behaviour in which the sound speed is non-vanishing and of order c s 2 ≃ k 2/ m 2 a 2. This implies that, also in these models, structure formation could be suppressed on small scales. However, unlike the scalar case, the fact that the background evolution contains a non-vanishing homogeneous vector field implies that, in general, the evolution of the three kinds of perturbations (scalar, vector and tensor) can no longer be decoupled at the linear level. More specifically, in the particle regime, the three types of perturbations are actually decoupled, whereas in the wave regime, the three vector field perturbations generate one scalar-tensor and two vector-tensor perturbations in the metric. Also in the wave regime, we find that a non-vanishing anisotropic stress is present in the perturbed energy-momentum tensor giving rise to a gravitational slip of order ( Φ - Ψ)/ Φ ˜ c s 2 . Moreover in this regime the amplitude of the tensor to scalar ratio of the scalar-tensor modes is also h/ Φ ˜ c s 2 . This implies that small-scale density perturbations are necessarily associated to the presence of gravity waves in this model. We compare their spectrum with the sensitivity of present and future gravity waves detectors.

  16. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-09-01

    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  17. Tracing the pressure of the gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, G

    2016-01-01

    Being interested in how a strongly coupled system approaches asymptotic freedom, we re-examine existing precision lattice QCD results for thermodynamic properties of the gluon plasma in a large temperature range. We discuss and thoroughly test the applicability of perturbative results, on which grounds we then infer that the pressure and other bulk properties approach the free limit somewhat slower than previously thought. We also revise the value of the first non-perturbative coefficient in the weak-coupling expansion.

  18. INFLUENCE OF NOSE PERTURBATIONS ON BEHAVIORS OF ASYMMETRIC VORTICES OVER SLENDER BODY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学锐; 邓学蓥; 王延奎; 刘沛清; 顾志福

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nose perturbations on the behaviors of asymmetricvortices over a slender body with a three-caliber ogive nose is studied in this paper.The tests of a nose-disturbed slender body with surface pressure measurement wereconducted at a low speed wind tunnel with subcritical Reynolds number of 1×105 atangle of attack α= 50°. The experiment results show that the behaviors and struc-ture of asymmetric vortices over the slender body are mainly controlled by manualperturbation on the nose of body as compared with geometrical minute irregularitieson the test model from the machining tolerances. The effect of the perturbation ax-ial location on asymmetric vortices is the strongest if its location is near the modelapex. There are four sensitive circumferential locations of manual perturbation atwhich bistable vortices over the slender body are switched by the perturbation. Theflowfleld near the reattachment line of lee side is more sensitive to the perturbation,because the saddle point to saddle point topological structure in this reattachmentflowfield is unstable. Various types of perturbation do not change the perturbationeffect on the behaviors of bistable asymmetric vortices.

  19. Perturbation Effects on a Supercritical C7H16/N2 Mixing Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okongo'o, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2008-01-01

    A computational-simulation study has been presented of effects of perturbation wavelengths and initial Reynolds numbers on the transition to turbulence of a heptane/nitrogen mixing layer at supercritical pressure. The governing equations for the simulations were the same as those of related prior studies reported in NASA Tech Briefs. Two-dimensional (2D) simulations were performed with initially im posed span wise perturbations whereas three-dimensional (3D) simulations had both streamwise and spanwise initial perturbations. The 2D simulations were undertaken to ascertain whether perturbations having the shortest unstable wavelength obtained from a linear stability analysis for inviscid flow are unstable in viscous nonlinear flows. The goal of the 3D simulations was to ascertain whether perturbing the mixing layer at different wavelengths affects the transition to turbulence. It was found that transitions to turbulence can be obtained at different perturbation wavelengths, provided that they are longer than the shortest unstable wavelength as determined by 2D linear stability analysis for the inviscid case and that the initial Reynolds number is proportionally increased as the wavelength is decreased. The transitional states thus obtained display different dynamic and mixture characteristics, departing strongly from the behaviors of perfect gases and ideal mixtures.

  20. Corrosion impact of reductant on DWPF and downstream facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Imrich, K. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilderman, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid is not completely consumed and small quantities of the glycolate anion are carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction throughout the waste processing system has not been previously evaluated. A literature review had revealed that corrosion data in glycolate-bearing solution applicable to SRS systems were not available. Therefore, testing was recommended to evaluate the materials of construction of vessels, piping and components within DWPF and downstream facilities. The testing, conducted in non-radioactive simulants, consisted of both accelerated tests (electrochemical and hot-wall) with coupons in laboratory vessels and prototypical tests with coupons immersed in scale-up and mock-up test systems. Eight waste or process streams were identified in which the glycolate anion might impact the performance of the materials of construction. These streams were 70% glycolic acid (DWPF feed vessels and piping), SRAT/SME supernate (Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels and piping), DWPF acidic recycle (DWPF condenser and recycle tanks and piping), basic concentrated recycle (HLW tanks, evaporators, and transfer lines), salt processing (ARP, MCU, and Saltstone tanks and piping), boric acid (MCU separators), and dilute waste (HLW evaporator condensate tanks and transfer line and ETF components). For each stream, high temperature limits and worst-case glycolate concentrations were identified for performing the recommended tests. Test solution chemistries were generally based on analytical results of actual waste samples taken from the various process facilities or of prototypical simulants produced in the laboratory. The materials of construction for most vessels

  1. Preconditioning the pressure operator for the time dependent Stokes problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    In implicit time stepping procedures for the linearized Navier Stokes equations, a linear perturbed Stokes problem must be solved at each time step. Many methods for doing this require a good preconditioner for the resulting pressure operator (Schur complement). In contrast to the time independent Stokes equations where the pressure operator is well conditioned, the pressure operator for the perturbed system becomes more illconditioned as the time step is reduced (and/or the Reynolds number is increased). The authors describe the method for solving the coupled velocity/pressure systems and, in particular, show how to construct good preconditioners for the poorly conditioned pressure operator.

  2. Rolling axions during inflation: perturbativity and signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloso, Marco; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Unal, Caner

    2016-09-01

    The motion of a pseudo-scalar field X during inflation naturally induces a significant amplification of the gauge fields to which it is coupled. The amplified gauge fields can source characteristic scalar and tensor primordial perturbations. Several phenomenological implications have been discussed in the cases in which (i) X is the inflaton, and (ii) X is a field different from the inflaton, that experiences a temporary speed up during inflation. In this second case, visible sourced gravitational waves (GW) can be produced at the CMB scales without affecting the scalar perturbations, even if the scale of inflation is several orders of magnitude below what is required to produce a visible vacuum GW signal. Perturbativity considerations can be used to limit the regime in which these results are under perturbative control. We revised limits recently claimed for the case (i), and we extend these considerations to the case (ii). We show that, in both cases, these limits are satisfied by the applications that generate signals at CMB scales. Applications that generate gravitational waves and primordial black holes at much smaller scales are at the limit of the validity of this perturbativity analysis, so we expect those results to be valid up to possibly order one corrections.

  3. Cosmological perturbations on the Phantom brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Satadru; Shtanov, Yuri; Sahni, Varun

    2016-01-01

    We obtain a closed system of equations for scalar perturbations in a multi-component braneworld. Our braneworld possesses a phantom-like equation of state at late times, $w_{\\rm eff} < -1$, but no big-rip future singularity. In addition to matter and radiation, the braneworld possesses a new effective degree of freedom - the 'Weyl fluid' or 'dark radiation'. Setting initial conditions on super-Hubble spatial scales at the epoch of radiation domination, we evolve perturbations of radiation, pressureless matter and the Weyl fluid until the present epoch. We observe a gradual decrease in the amplitude of the Weyl-fluid perturbations after Hubble-radius crossing, which results in a negligible effect of the Weyl fluid on the evolution of matter perturbations on spatial scales relevant for structure formation. Consequently, the quasi-static approximation of Koyama and Maartens provides a good fit to the exact results during the matter-dominated epoch. We find that the late-time growth of density perturbations on...

  4. Four-Dimensional Spin Foam Perturbation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Faria Martins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We define a four-dimensional spin-foam perturbation theory for the BF-theory with a B∧B potential term defined for a compact semi-simple Lie group G on a compact orientable 4-manifold M. This is done by using the formal spin foam perturbative series coming from the spin-foam generating functional. We then regularize the terms in the perturbative series by passing to the category of representations of the quantum group U_q(g where g is the Lie algebra of G and q is a root of unity. The Chain-Mail formalism can be used to calculate the perturbative terms when the vector space of intertwiners Λ⊗Λ→A, where A is the adjoint representation of g, is 1-dimensional for each irrep Λ. We calculate the partition function Z in the dilute-gas limit for a special class of triangulations of restricted local complexity, which we conjecture to exist on any 4-manifold M. We prove that the first-order perturbative contribution vanishes for finite triangulations, so that we define a dilute-gas limit by using the second-order contribution. We show that Z is an analytic continuation of the Crane-Yetter partition function. Furthermore, we relate Z to the partition function for the F∧F theory.

  5. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially–locally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Roeck, W., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be; Schütz, M., E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-06-15

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, “local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate].” This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835–871 (2012)], relying on the “spectral flow technique” or “quasi-adiabatic continuation” [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique “bulk ground state” or “topological quantum order.” We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  6. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  7. Synthetic Routes to Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway Intermediates and Downstream Isoprenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow-Choy, Sarah K; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T

    2014-01-01

    Isoprenoids constitute the largest class of natural products with greater than 55,000 identified members. They play essential roles in maintaining proper cellular function leading to maintenance of human health, plant defense mechanisms against predators, and are often exploited for their beneficial properties in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Most impressively, all known isoprenoids are derived from one of two C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In order to study the enzyme transformations leading to the extensive structural diversity found within this class of compounds there must be access to the substrates. Sometimes, intermediates within a biological pathway can be isolated and used directly to study enzyme/pathway function. However, the primary route to most of the isoprenoid intermediates is through chemical catalysis. As such, this review provides the first exhaustive examination of synthetic routes to isoprenoid and isoprenoid precursors with particular emphasis on the syntheses of intermediates found as part of the 2C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In addition, representative syntheses are presented for the monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), triterpenes (C30) and tetraterpenes (C40). Finally, in some instances, the synthetic routes to substrate analogs found both within the MEP pathway and downstream isoprenoids are examined. PMID:25009443

  8. Downstream effects of a hydroelectric reservoir on aquatic plant assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernez, Ivan; Haury, Jacques; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2002-03-16

    Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d'Armor Department, western France) to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants" adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  9. Downstream Effects of a Hydroelectric Reservoir on Aquatic Plant Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bernez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d’Armor Department, western France to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants’ adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  10. Downstream process development in biotechnological itaconic acid manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Antonio Irineudo; de Carvalho, Júlio Cesar; Medina, Jesus David Coral; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Itaconic acid is a promising chemical that has a wide range of applications and can be obtained in large scale using fermentation processes. One of the most important uses of this biomonomer is the environmentally sustainable production of biopolymers. Separation of itaconic acid from the fermented broth has a considerable impact in the total production cost. Therefore, optimization and high efficiency downstream processes are technological challenges to make biorefineries sustainable and economically viable. This review describes the current state of the art in recovery and purification for itaconic acid production via bioprocesses. Previous studies on the separation of itaconic acid relying on operations such as crystallization, precipitation, extraction, electrodialysis, diafiltration, pertraction, and adsorption. Although crystallization is a typical method of itaconic acid separation from fermented broth, other methods such as membrane separation and reactive extraction are promising as a recovery steps coupled to the fermentation, potentially enhancing the overall process yield. Another approach is adsorption in fixed bed columns, which efficiently separates itaconic acid. Despite recent advances in separation and recovery methods, there is still space for improvement in IA recovery and purification.

  11. Flume experiments on scour downstream of wood stream restoration structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliara, Stefano; Kurdistani, Sahameddin Mahmoudi

    2017-02-01

    River restoration aims to improve physical natural form and processes of a river. Techniques to control the riverbed, stabilize channel alignment, protect stream banks, and rebuild the natural habitat are an important part of river restoration projects. Rivers can be stabilized and habitat restored through techniques such as rebuilding meanders and pool-riffle sequences and managing large wood. Structures that limit channel width to accelerate the normal flows through the constricted section are referred to as stream deflectors. Single-wing, double-wing and triangular deflectors are the most commonly used types of this measure. Log-frame deflectors consist of a triangular log frame filled with rock. Deflector constructions singly or in series in low gradient meandering streams, divert base flows toward the center of the channel and, under certain conditions, increase the depth and velocity of flow thereby creating scour pools and enhancing fish habitat. Scour characteristics and morphologies downstream of log-frame deflectors have been analyzed at the hydraulic laboratory of the University of Pisa. All experiments have been carried out in clear water conditions. The results showed that the tailwater depth plays an important role on scour characteristics. In addition, it was experimentally proven that using log-frame deflectors instead of log-deflectors result in a better river bank protection. In this case, for all the tested hydraulic conditions, the scour hole never occurred close to the channel bank. Useful empirical relationships have been proposed in order to evaluate the main features of the scour geometry.

  12. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  13. Perturbative analysis of gauged matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gukov, Sergei; Kazakov, Vladimir A.; Vafa, Cumrun

    2003-08-01

    We analyze perturbative aspects of gauged matrix models, including those where classically the gauge symmetry is partially broken. Ghost fields play a crucial role in the Feynman rules for these vacua. We use this formalism to elucidate the fact that nonperturbative aspects of N=1 gauge theories can be computed systematically using perturbative techniques of matrix models, even if we do not possess an exact solution for the matrix model. As examples we show how the Seiberg-Witten solution for N=2 gauge theory, the Montonen-Olive modular invariance for N=1*, and the superpotential for the Leigh-Strassler deformation of N=4 can be systematically computed in perturbation theory of the matrix model or gauge theory (even though in some of these cases an exact answer can also be obtained by summing up planar diagrams of matrix models).

  14. Perturbation calculation of thermodynamic density of states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Schulthess, T C; Nicholson, D M; Eisenbach, M; Stocks, G M

    2011-12-01

    The density of states g (ε) is frequently used to calculate the temperature-dependent properties of a thermodynamic system. Here a derivation is given for calculating the warped density of states g*(ε) resulting from the addition of a perturbation. The method is validated for a classical Heisenberg model of bcc Fe and the errors in the free energy are shown to be second order in the perturbation. Taking the perturbation to be the difference between a first-principles quantum-mechanical energy and a corresponding classical energy, this method can significantly reduce the computational effort required to calculate g(ε) for quantum systems using the Wang-Landau approach.

  15. Non-perturbative quantum geometry III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krefl, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds and the resulting quantum geometry is studied from a non-perturbative perspective. The quantum differential and thus the quantum periods exhibit Stokes phenomena over the combined string coupling and quantized Kähler moduli space. We outline that the underlying formalism of exact quantization is generally applicable to points in moduli space featuring massless hypermultiplets, leading to non-perturbative band splitting. Our prime example is local ℙ1 + ℙ1 near a conifold point in moduli space. In particular, we will present numerical evidence that in a Stokes chamber of interest the string based quantum geometry reproduces the non-perturbative corrections for the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of 4d supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory at strong coupling found in the previous part of this series. A preliminary discussion of local ℙ2 near the conifold point in moduli space is also provided.

  16. Cosmic Perturbations Through the Cyclic Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, J K; Steinhardt, P J; Turok, N G; Erickson, Joel K.; Gratton, Steven; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of cosmological perturbations in the cyclic model, paying particular attention to their behavior and interplay over multiple cycles. Our key results are: (1) galaxies and large scale structure present in one cycle are generated by the quantum fluctuations in the preceding cycle without interference from perturbations or structure generated in earlier cycles and without interfering with structure generated in later cycles; (2) the ekpyrotic phase, an epoch of gentle contraction with equation of state $w\\gg 1$ preceding the hot big bang, makes the universe homogeneous, isotropic and flat within any given observer's horizon; and, (3) although the universe is uniform within each observer's horizon, the global structure of the cyclic universe is more complex, owing to the effects of superhorizon length perturbations, and cannot be described in a uniform Friedmann-Robertson-Walker picture. In particular, we show that the ekpyrotic phase is so effective in smoothing, flattening and isotropiz...

  17. Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2015-01-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the work of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  18. Chiral Perturbation Theory With Lattice Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ouimet, P P A

    2005-01-01

    In this work, alternative methods to regularize chiral perturbation theory are discussed. First, Long Distance Regularization will be considered in the presence of the decuplet of the lightest spin 32 baryons for several different observables. This serves motivation and introduction to the use of the lattice regulator for chiral perturbation theory. The mesonic, baryonic and anomalous sectors of chiral perturbation theory will be formulated on a lattice of space time points. The consistency of the lattice as a regulator will be discussed in the context of the meson and baryon masses. Order a effects will also be discussed for the baryon masses, sigma terms and magnetic moments. The work will close with an attempt to derive an effective Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangian for Wilson fermions at non-zero a. Following this discussion, there will be a proposal for a phenomenologically useful WZW Lagrangian at non-zero a.

  19. Non-Perturbative Quantum Geometry III

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds and the resulting quantum geometry is studied from a non-perturbative perspective. The quantum differential and thus the quantum periods exhibit Stockes phenomena over the combined string coupling and quantized Kaehler moduli space. We outline that the underlying formalism of exact quantization is generally applicable to points in moduli space featuring massless hypermultiplets, leading to non-perturbative band splitting. Our prime example is local P1xP1 near a conifold point in moduli space. In particular, we will present numerical evidence that in a Stockes chamber of interest the string based quantum geometry reproduces the non-perturbative corrections for the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of 4d supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory at strong coupling found in the previous part of this series. A preliminary discussion of local P2 near the conifold point in moduli space is also provided.

  20. Gaugeon Formalism for Perturbative Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Yokoyama gaugeon formalism for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime. Within the gaugeon formalism, we extend the configuration space by introducing vector gaugeon fields describing quantum gauge freedom. Such extended theory of perturbative gravity admits quantum gauge transformations leading to an natural shift in the gauge parameter. Further we impose the Gupta-Bleuler type subsidiary condition to remove the unphysical gaugeon modes. To replace the Gupta-Bleuler type condition by more acceptable Kugo-Ojima type subsidiary condition we analyse the BRST symmetric gaugeon formalism. Further, the physical Hilbert space is constructed for the perturbative quantum gravity which remains invariant under both the BRST symmetry and quantum gauge transformations.

  1. Cosmological Perturbations in Extended Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gumrukcuoglu, A Emir; Lin, Chunshan; Mukohyama, Shinji; Trodden, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations around self-accelerating solutions to two extensions of nonlinear massive gravity: the quasi-dilaton theory and the mass-varying theory. We examine stability of the cosmological solutions, and the extent to which the vanishing of the kinetic terms for scalar and vector perturbations of self-accelerating solutions in massive gravity is generic when the theory is extended. We find that these kinetic terms are in general non-vanishing in both extensions, though there are constraints on the parameters and background evolution from demanding that they have the correct sign. In particular, the self-accelerating solutions of the quasi-dilaton theory are always unstable to scalar perturbations with wavelength shorter than the Hubble length.

  2. Note on the semiclassicality of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Pietro; Marcianò, Antonino

    2016-12-01

    Moving from the consideration that matter fields must be treated in terms of their fundamental quantum counterparts, we show straightforward arguments, within the framework of ordinary quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, in order to convince readers that cosmological perturbations must be addressed in term of the semiclassical limit of the expectation value of quantum fields. We first take into account cosmological perturbations originated by a quantum scalar field, and then extend our treatment in order to account for the expectation values of bilinears of Dirac fermion fields. The latter can indeed transform as scalar quantities under diffeomorphisms, as well as all the other bilinear of the Dirac fields that belong to the Clifford algebra. This is the first of a series of works that is intended to prove that cosmological quantum perturbations can actually be accounted for in terms of Dirac fermion fields, which must be treated as fundamental quantum objects, and their dynamics.

  3. Cosmological Perturbations with Multiple Fluids and Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    2002-01-01

    We consider the evolution of perturbed cosmological spacetime with multiple fluid and field system in Einstein gravity. Equations are presented in gauge-ready forms, and are presented using the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation variables. We present equations in the general background with $K$ and $\\Lambda$. We also clarify the conditions for conserved adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations in the large-scale limit. One interesting conclusion is that, for ideal fluid system, although the isocurvature modes can seed the adiabatic mode in the large-scale limit, the isocurvature modes decouple from the adiabatic one which is not the case for the field system. Useful sets of equations readily applicable to the quintessence models and the warm inflation scenario can be found in this work. An application to the scaling regime with an exponential field potential is made in the Appendix.

  4. Downstream Processing Technologies/Capturing and Final Purification : Opportunities for Innovation, Change, and Improvement. A Review of Downstream Processing Developments in Protein Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nripen; Herzer, Sibylle

    2017-08-10

    Increased pressure on upstream processes to maximize productivity has been crowned with great success, although at the cost of shifting the bottleneck to purification. As drivers were economical, focus is on now on debottlenecking downstream processes as the main drivers of high manufacturing cost. Devising a holistically efficient and economical process remains a key challenge. Traditional and emerging protein purification strategies with particular emphasis on methodologies implemented for the production of recombinant proteins of biopharmaceutical importance are reviewed. The breadth of innovation is addressed, as well as the challenges the industry faces today, with an eye to remaining impartial, fair, and balanced. In addition, the scope encompasses both chromatographic and non-chromatographic separations directed at the purification of proteins, with a strong emphasis on antibodies. Complete solutions such as integrated USP/DSP strategies (i.e., continuous processing) are discussed as well as gains in data quantity and quality arising from automation and high-throughput screening (HTS). Best practices and advantages through design of experiments (DOE) to access a complex design space such as multi-modal chromatography are reviewed with an outlook on potential future trends. A discussion of single-use technology, its impact and opportunities for further growth, and the exciting developments in modeling and simulation of DSP rounds out the overview. Lastly, emerging trends such as 3D printing and nanotechnology are covered. Graphical Abstract Workflow of high-throughput screening, design of experiments, and high-throughput analytics to understand design space and design space boundaries quickly. (Reproduced with permission from Gregory Barker, Process Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb).

  5. Operator Decomposition Framework for Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Wang, Congjian; Bang, Young Suk [North Carolina State University, Raleigh (United States)

    2012-05-15

    This summary describes a new framework for perturbation theory intended to improve its performance, in terms of the associated computational cost and the complexity of implementation, for routine reactor calculations in support of design, analysis, and regulation. Since its first introduction in reactor analysis by Winger, perturbation theory has assumed an aura of sophistication with regard to its implementation and its capabilities. Only few reactor physicists, typically mathematically proficient, have contributed to its development, with the general body of the nuclear engineering community remaining unaware of its current status, capabilities, and challenges. Given its perceived sophistication and the small body of community users, the application of perturbation theory has been limited to investigatory analyses only. It is safe to say that the nuclear community is split into two groups, a small one which understands the theory and, and a much bigger group with the perceived notion that perturbation theory is nothing but a fancy mathematical approach that has very little use in practice. Over the past three years, research has demonstrated two goals. First, reduce the computational cost of perturbation theory in order to enable its use for routine reactor calculations. Second, expose some of the myth about perturbation theory and present it in a form that is simple and relatable in order to stimulate the interest of nuclear practitioners, especially those who are currently working on the development of next generation reactor design and analysis tools. The operator decomposition approach has its roots in linear algebra and can be easily understood by code developers, especially those involved in the design of iterative numerical solution strategies

  6. Evolution of perturbed accelerating relativistic shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Palma, G; Vietri, M; Del Zanna, L

    2008-01-01

    We study the evolution of an accelerating hyperrelativistic shock under the presence of upstream inhomogeneities wrinkling the discontinuity surface. The investigation is conducted by means of numerical simulations using the PLUTO code for astrophysical fluid dynamics. The reliability and robustness of the code are demonstrated against well known results coming from the linear perturbation theory. We then follow the nonlinear evolution of two classes of perturbing upstream atmospheres and conclude that no lasting wrinkle can be preserved indefinitely by the flow. Finally we derive analytically a description of the geometrical effects of a turbulent upstream ambient on the discontinuity surface.

  7. Scalar and tensor perturbation in vacuum inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    It was recently proposed that a small true vacuum universe can inflate spontaneously, in principle. In this paper, this model is completed with experimental results. There should be matter creation in vacuum inflation due to quantum fluctuations, and the matter created will influence the inflation simultaneously. We derive cosmological perturbations in this vacuum inflation model and express them with Hubble flow-functions. By comparing the perturbations with the experimental results, we can determine all the parameters in this model. Finally, we calculate the evolution of the matter density with the determined parameters and show that the matter produced in inflation roughly fits the observations at present.

  8. Matter Density Perturbations in Modified Teleparallel Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yi-Peng

    2012-01-01

    We study the matter density perturbations in modified teleparallel gravity theories, where extra degrees of freedom arise from the local Lorentz violation in the tangent space. We formulate a vierbein perturbation with variables addressing all the 16 components of the vierbein field. By assuming the perfect fluid matter source, we examine the cosmological implication of the 6 unfamiliar new degrees of freedom in modified $f(T)$ gravity theories. We find that despite the new modes in the vierbein scenario provide no explicit significant effect in the small-scale regime, they exhibit some deviation from the standard general relativity results in super-horizon scales.

  9. Robustness of braneworld scenarios against tensorial perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Menezes, R; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, D

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the peculiarities of the effective geometry of crystalline structures, we reconsider thick brane scenarios from a metric-affine perspective. We show that for a rather general family of theories of gravity, whose Lagrangian is an arbitrary function of the metric and the Ricci tensor, the background and scalar field equations can be written in first-order form, and tensorial perturbations have a non negative definite spectrum, which makes them stable under linear perturbations regardless of the form of the gravity Lagrangian. We find, in particular, that the tensorial zero modes are exactly the same as predicted by Einstein's theory regardless of the scalar field and gravitational Lagrangians.

  10. Cosmological perturbations from an inhomogeneous phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2009-07-21

    A mechanism for generating metric perturbations in inflationary models is considered. Long-wavelength inhomogeneities of light scalar fields in a decoupled sector may give rise to superhorizon fluctuations of couplings and masses in the low-energy effective action. Cosmological phase transitions may then occur that are not simultaneous in space, but occur with time lags in different Hubble patches that arise from the long-wavelength inhomogeneities. Here an interesting model in which cosmological perturbations may be created at the electroweak phase transition is considered. The results show that phase transitions may be a generic source of non-Gaussianity.

  11. Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Martínez, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented.

  12. Vector Meson Masses in Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J; Talavera, P

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the vector meson masses within the context of Chiral Perturbation Theory performing an expansion in terms of the momenta, quark masses and 1/Nc. We extend the previous analysis to include isospin breaking effects and also include up to order p^4. We discuss vector meson chiral perturbation theory in some detail and present a derivation from a relativistic lagrangian. The unknown coefficients are estimated in various ways. We also discuss the relevance of electromagnetic corrections and the implications of the present calculation for the determination of quark masses.

  13. Perturbations of C*-algebraic Invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.;

    2010-01-01

    The setting of the article is the so-called theory of perturbations of algebras of operators. It is shown that several of the properties a C*-algebra may have are preseved under pertubations. The main result states that Pisier's concept finite length is a stasble property.......The setting of the article is the so-called theory of perturbations of algebras of operators. It is shown that several of the properties a C*-algebra may have are preseved under pertubations. The main result states that Pisier's concept finite length is a stasble property....

  14. A generalized perturbation program for CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Sik [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A generalized perturbation program has been developed for the purpose of estimating zonal power variation of a CANDU reactor upon refueling operation. The forward and adjoint calculation modules of RFSP code were used to construct the generalized perturbation program. The numerical algorithm for the generalized adjoint flux calculation was verified by comparing the zone power estimates upon refueling with those of forward calculation. It was, however, noticed that the truncation error from the iteration process of the generalized adjoint flux is not negligible. 2 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  15. Taming perturbative divergences in asymptotically safe gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, Dario, E-mail: dbenedetti@perimeterinstitute.c [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, N2L 2Y5, Waterloo ON (Canada); Machado, Pedro F., E-mail: p.f.machado@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Saueressig, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Saueressig@cea.f [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); CNRS URA 2306, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-01-01

    We use functional renormalization group methods to study gravity minimally coupled to a free scalar field. This setup provides the prototype of a gravitational theory which is perturbatively non-renormalizable at one-loop level, but may possess a non-trivial renormalization group fixed point controlling its UV behavior. We show that such a fixed point indeed exists within the truncations considered, lending strong support to the conjectured asymptotic safety of the theory. In particular, we demonstrate that the counterterms responsible for its perturbative non-renormalizability have no qualitative effect on this feature.

  16. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  17. Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andy C Y; Petruccione, F; Koch, Jens

    2014-05-08

    The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical.

  18. Perturbative QCD at finite temperature and density

    CERN Document Server

    Niégawa, A

    1997-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review on the perturbative hot QCD including the recent developments. The main body of the review is concentrated upon dealing with physical quantities like reaction rates. Contents: \\S1. Introduction, \\S2. Perturbative thermal field theory: Feynman rules, \\S3. Reaction-rate formula, \\S4. Hard-thermal-loop resummation scheme in hot QCD, \\S5. Effective action, \\S6. Hard modes with $|P^2| \\leq O (g^2 T^2)$, hard-thermal-loop resummation scheme, \\S9. Conclusions.

  19. Perturbative renormalization of the electric field correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, C

    2016-01-01

    The momentum diffusion coefficient of a heavy quark in a hot QCD plasma can be extracted as a transport coefficient related to the correlator of two colour-electric fields dressing a Polyakov loop. We determine the perturbative renormalization factor for a particular lattice discretization of this correlator within Wilson's SU(3) gauge theory, finding a ~12% NLO correction for values of the bare coupling used in the current generation of simulations. The impact of this result on existing lattice determinations is commented upon, and a possibility for non-perturbative renormalization through the gradient flow is pointed out.

  20. Perturbative renormalization of the electric field correlator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christensen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The momentum diffusion coefficient of a heavy quark in a hot QCD plasma can be extracted as a transport coefficient related to the correlator of two colour-electric fields dressing a Polyakov loop. We determine the perturbative renormalization factor for a particular lattice discretization of this correlator within Wilson's SU(3 gauge theory, finding a ∼12% NLO correction for values of the bare coupling used in the current generation of simulations. The impact of this result on existing lattice determinations is commented upon, and a possibility for non-perturbative renormalization through the gradient flow is pointed out.

  1. Perturbative renormalization of the electric field correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C.; Laine, M.

    2016-04-01

    The momentum diffusion coefficient of a heavy quark in a hot QCD plasma can be extracted as a transport coefficient related to the correlator of two colour-electric fields dressing a Polyakov loop. We determine the perturbative renormalization factor for a particular lattice discretization of this correlator within Wilson's SU(3) gauge theory, finding a ∼ 12% NLO correction for values of the bare coupling used in the current generation of simulations. The impact of this result on existing lattice determinations is commented upon, and a possibility for non-perturbative renormalization through the gradient flow is pointed out.

  2. Perturbation of Wavelet and Gabor Frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivana Carrizo; Sergio Favier

    2003-01-01

    In this work two aspects of theory of frames are presented: a side necessary condition on irregular wavelet frames is obtained, another perturbation of wavelet and Gabor frames is considered. Specifically,we present the results obtained on frame stability when one disturbs the mother of wavelet frame, or the parameter of dilatation, and in Gabor frames when the generating function or the parameter of translation are perturbed. In all cases we work without demanding compactness of the support, neither on the generating function, nor on its Fourier transform.

  3. Perturbative and nonperturbative renormalization in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Perlt, H. [Leipzig Univ. (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the perturbative and nonperturbative renormalization of composite operators in lattice QCD restricting ourselves to operators that are bilinear in the quark fields (quark-antiquark operators). These include operators which are relevant to the calculation of moments of hadronic structure functions. The nonperturbative computations are based on Monte Carlo simulations with two flavors of clover fermions and utilize the Rome-Southampton method also known as the RI-MOM scheme. We compare the results of this approach with various estimates from lattice perturbation theory, in particular with recent two-loop calculations. (orig.)

  4. Manifestly Covariant Gauge-invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Miedema, P G

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that a first-order cosmological perturbation theory for the open, flat and closed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universes admits one, and only one, gauge-invariant variable which describes the perturbation to the energy density and which becomes equal to the usual Newtonian energy density in the non-relativistic limit. The same holds true for the perturbation to the particle number density. Using these two new variables, a new manifestly gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory has been developed. Density perturbations evolve diabatically. Perturbations in the total energy density are gravitationally coupled to perturbations in the particle number density, irrespective of the nature of the particles. There is, in first-order, no back-reaction of perturbations to the global expansion of the universe. Small-scale perturbations in the radiation-dominated era oscillate with an increasing amplitude, whereas in older, less precise treatments, oscillating perturbations are found with a decr...

  5. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this

  6. Enhanced Anharmonicity Under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errea, Ion; Rousseau, Bruno; Bergara, Aitor

    2012-07-01

    Contradicting common sense, pressure does not monotonically harden the phonons in many systems but makes some specific modes soften at given points of the first Brilloiun zone, even inducing dynamical instabilities that drive structural phase transitions. As the harmonic part of the ionic potential becomes smaller, higher order terms turn out to be more and more important. In AlH3, for instance, anharmonicity suppresses the predicted high superconducting transition temperature at 110 GPa in agreement with experiments. Furthermore, anharmonicity stabilizes the high-pressure simple cubic phase of calcium even at zero temperature, explaining its mechanical stability. We will review the calculations performed in these two systems and show that anharmonicity can be tackled making use of perturbation theory or the so called self-consistent harmonic approximation.

  7. Extraction and downstream processing of plant-derived recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, J F; Twyman, R M; Fischer, R

    2015-11-01

    Plants offer the tantalizing prospect of low-cost automated manufacturing processes for biopharmaceutical proteins, but several challenges must be addressed before such goals are realized and the most significant hurdles are found during downstream processing (DSP). In contrast to the standardized microbial and mammalian cell platforms embraced by the biopharmaceutical industry, there are many different plant-based expression systems vying for attention, and those with the greatest potential to provide inexpensive biopharmaceuticals are also the ones with the most significant drawbacks in terms of DSP. This is because the most scalable plant systems are based on the expression of intracellular proteins in whole plants. The plant tissue must therefore be disrupted to extract the product, challenging the initial DSP steps with an unusually high load of both particulate and soluble contaminants. DSP platform technologies can accelerate and simplify process development, including centrifugation, filtration, flocculation, and integrated methods that combine solid-liquid separation, purification and concentration, such as aqueous two-phase separation systems. Protein tags can also facilitate these DSP steps, but they are difficult to transfer to a commercial environment and more generic, flexible and scalable strategies to separate target and host cell proteins are preferable, such as membrane technologies and heat/pH precipitation. In this context, clarified plant extracts behave similarly to the feed stream from microbes or mammalian cells and the corresponding purification methods can be applied, as long as they are adapted for plant-specific soluble contaminants such as the superabundant protein RuBisCO. Plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins cannot yet compete directly with established platforms but they are beginning to penetrate niche markets that allow the beneficial properties of plants to be exploited, such as the ability to produce 'biobetters' with tailored

  8. Upstream plasticity and downstream robustness in evolution of molecular networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Kasper

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication followed by the functional divergence of the resulting pair of paralogous proteins is a major force shaping molecular networks in living organisms. Recent species-wide data for protein-protein interactions and transcriptional regulations allow us to assess the effect of gene duplication on robustness and plasticity of these molecular networks. Results We demonstrate that the transcriptional regulation of duplicated genes in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae diverges fast so that on average they lose 3% of common transcription factors for every 1% divergence of their amino acid sequences. The set of protein-protein interaction partners of their protein products changes at a slower rate exhibiting a broad plateau for amino acid sequence similarity above 70%. The stability of functional roles of duplicated genes at such relatively low sequence similarity is further corroborated by their ability to substitute for each other in single gene knockout experiments in yeast and RNAi experiments in a nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. We also quantified the divergence rate of physical interaction neighborhoods of paralogous proteins in a bacterium Helicobacter pylori and a fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, in the absence of system-wide data on transcription factors' binding in these organisms we could not compare this rate to that of transcriptional regulation of duplicated genes. Conclusions For all molecular networks studied in this work we found that even the most distantly related paralogous proteins with amino acid sequence identities around 20% on average have more similar positions within a network than a randomly selected pair of proteins. For yeast we also found that the upstream regulation of genes evolves more rapidly than downstream functions of their protein products. This is in accordance with a view which puts regulatory changes as one of the main driving forces of the evolution. In this

  9. On the Milankovitch orbital elements for perturbed Keplerian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-03-01

    We consider sets of natural vectorial orbital elements of the Milankovitch type for perturbed Keplerian motion. These elements are closely related to the two vectorial first integrals of the unperturbed two-body problem; namely, the angular momentum vector and the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector. After a detailed historical discussion of the origin and development of such elements, nonsingular equations for the time variations of these sets of elements under perturbations are established, both in Lagrangian and Gaussian form. After averaging, a compact, elegant, and symmetrical form of secular Milankovitch-like equations is obtained, which reminds of the structure of canonical systems of equations in Hamiltonian mechanics. As an application of this vectorial formulation, we analyze the motion of an object orbiting about a planet (idealized as a point mass moving in a heliocentric elliptical orbit) and subject to solar radiation pressure acceleration (obeying an inverse-square law). We show that the corresponding secular problem is integrable and we give an explicit closed-form solution.

  10. Anisotropic dark energy: dynamics of the background and perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, Tomi; Mota, David F, E-mail: T.Koivisto@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: D.Mota@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    We investigate cosmologies where the accelerated expansion of the universe is driven by a field with an anisotropic equation of state. We model such scenarios within the Bianchi I framework, introducing two skewness parameters to quantify the deviation of pressure from isotropy. We study the dynamics of the background expansion in these models. A special case of an anisotropic cosmological constant is analyzed in detail. The anisotropic expansion is then confronted with the redshift and angular distribution of the type Ia supernovae. In addition, we investigate the effects on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies for which the main signature appears to be a quadrupole contribution. We find that the two skewness parameters can be very well constrained. Tightest bounds are imposed by the CMB quadrupole, but there are anisotropic models which avoid these bounds completely. Within these bounds, the anisotropy can be beneficial as a potential explanation for various anomalous cosmological observations, especially in the CMB at the largest angles. We also consider the dynamics of linear perturbations in these models. The covariant approach is used to derive the general evolution equations for cosmological perturbations, taking into account imperfect sources in an anisotropic background. The implications for galaxy formation are then studied. These results might help to make contact between the observed anomalies in CMB and large-scale structure and fundamental theories exhibiting Lorentz violation.

  11. On Self-adjustment of Social Conventions to Small Perturbations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi-Chuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ We present a model for self-adjustment of social conventions to small perturbations, and investigate how pertur-bations can influence the convergence of social convention in different situations.The experimental results show that the sensitivity of social conventions is determined by not only the perturbations themselves but also the agent adjustment functions for the perturbations; and social conventions are more sensitive to the outlier agent number than to the strategy fluctuation magnitudes and localities of perturbations.

  12. Bursting process of large- and small-scale structures in turbulent boundary layer perturbed by a cylinder roughness element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhanqi; Jiang, Nan; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wu, Yanhua

    2016-05-01

    Hot-wire measurements on a turbulent boundary layer flow perturbed by a wall-mounted cylinder roughness element (CRE) are carried out in this study. The cylindrical element protrudes into the logarithmic layer, which is similar to those employed in turbulent boundary layers by Ryan et al. (AIAA J 49:2210-2220, 2011. doi: 10.2514/1.j051012) and Zheng and Longmire (J Fluid Mech 748:368-398, 2014. doi: 10.1017/jfm.2014.185) and in turbulent channel flow by Pathikonda and Christensen (AIAA J 53:1-10, 2014. doi: 10.2514/1.j053407). The similar effects on both the mean velocity and Reynolds stress are observed downstream of the CRE perturbation. The series of hot-wire data are decomposed into large- and small-scale fluctuations, and the characteristics of large- and small-scale bursting process are observed, by comparing the bursting duration, period and frequency between CRE-perturbed case and unperturbed case. It is indicated that the CRE perturbation performs the significant impact on the large- and small-scale structures, but within the different impact scenario. Moreover, the large-scale bursting process imposes a modulation on the bursting events of small-scale fluctuations and the overall trend of modulation is not essentially sensitive to the present CRE perturbation, even the modulation extent is modified. The conditionally averaging fluctuations are also plotted, which further confirms the robustness of the bursting modulation in the present experiments.

  13. Reduction of some perturbed Keplerian problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Lanchares, Victor [Universidad de La Rioja, Departamento de Matematicas y Computacion, 26004 Logrono (Spain)] e-mail: vlancha@dmc.unirioja.es; Palacian, Jesus F. [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Universidad de La Rioja, Departamento de Matematicas y Computacion, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Perturbed Hamiltonian Keplerian systems enjoying some discrete and continuous symmetries can be brought to a one degree of freedom system containing the main qualitative features of the original one. This reduced system is defined in a compact set of the plane where the qualitative dynamics can be studied in a systematic way.

  14. Homological Perturbation Theory and Mirror Symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHOU

    2003-01-01

    We explain how deformation theories of geometric objects such as complex structures,Poisson structures and holomorphic bundle structures lead to differential Gerstenhaber or Poisson al-gebras. We use homological perturbation theory to construct A∞ algebra structures on the cohomology,and their canonically defined deformations. Such constructions are used to formulate a version of A∞algebraic mirror symmetry.

  15. Baryon form factors in chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, B; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic form factors of the ground state baryon octet to fourth order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. Predictions for the \\Sigma^- charge radius and the \\Lambda-\\Sigma^0 transition moment are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental information. Furthermore, the convergence behavior of the hyperon charge radii is shown to be more than satisfactory.

  16. Characterizing heterogeneous cellular responses to perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Michael D; Martinez, Elisabeth D; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2008-12-01

    Cellular populations have been widely observed to respond heterogeneously to perturbation. However, interpreting the observed heterogeneity is an extremely challenging problem because of the complexity of possible cellular phenotypes, the large dimension of potential perturbations, and the lack of methods for separating meaningful biological information from noise. Here, we develop an image-based approach to characterize cellular phenotypes based on patterns of signaling marker colocalization. Heterogeneous cellular populations are characterized as mixtures of phenotypically distinct subpopulations, and responses to perturbations are summarized succinctly as probabilistic redistributions of these mixtures. We apply our method to characterize the heterogeneous responses of cancer cells to a panel of drugs. We find that cells treated with drugs of (dis-)similar mechanism exhibit (dis-)similar patterns of heterogeneity. Despite the observed phenotypic diversity of cells observed within our data, low-complexity models of heterogeneity were sufficient to distinguish most classes of drug mechanism. Our approach offers a computational framework for assessing the complexity of cellular heterogeneity, investigating the degree to which perturbations induce redistributions of a limited, but nontrivial, repertoire of underlying states and revealing functional significance contained within distinct patterns of heterogeneous responses.

  17. Electromagnetic Nondestructive Testing by Perturbation Homotopy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Now electromagnetic nondestructive testing methods have been applied to many fields of engineering. But traditional electromagnetic methods (usually based on least square and local iteration just roughly give the information of location, scale, and quality. In this paper we consider inverse electromagnetic problem which is concerned with the estimation of electric conductivity of Maxwell's equations (2D and 3D. A perturbation homotopy method combined with damping Gauss-Newton methods is applied to the inverse electromagnetic problem. This method differs from traditional homotopy method. The structure of homotopy function is similar to Tikhonov functional. Sets of solutions are produced by perturbation for every homotopy parameter λ=λi, i=0,…,L. At each iterative step of the algorithm, we add stochastic perturbation to numerical solutions. The previous solution and perturbation solution are regarded as the initial value in the next iteration. Although the number of solution in set increased, it increased the likelihood of obtaining correct solution. Results exhibits clear advantages over damping Gauss-Newton method and testify that it is an available method, especially on aspects of wide convergence and precision.

  18. Non-perturbative Heavy Quark Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Simma, Hubert;

    2015-01-01

    We review a lattice strategy how to non-perturbatively determine the coefficients in the HQET expansion of all components of the heavy-light axial and vector currents, including 1/m_h-corrections. We also discuss recent preliminary results on the form factors parameterizing semi-leptonic B-decays...

  19. Non-perturbative Heavy Quark Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Simma, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    We review a lattice strategy how to non-perturbatively determine the coefficients in the HQET expansion of all components of the heavy-light axial and vector currents, including 1/m_h-corrections. We also discuss recent preliminary results on the form factors parameterizing semi-leptonic B-decays...

  20. The Kepler Problem with Anisotropic Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Diacu, Florin; Santoprete, Manuele

    2009-01-01

    We study a 2-body problem given by the sum of the Newtonian potential and an anisotropic perturbation that is a homogeneous function of degree $-\\beta$, $\\beta\\ge 2$. For $\\beta>2$, the sets of initial conditions leading to collisions/ejections and the one leading to escapes/captures have positive measure. For $\\beta>2$ and $\\beta\

  1. Perturbations of ultralight vector field dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, J A R; Jareño, S J Núñez

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in models of dark matter based on ultralight coherent vector fields. Very much as for scalar field dark matter, we find two different regimes in the evolution: for modes with $k^2\\ll {\\cal H}ma$, we have a particle-like behaviour indistinguishable from cold dark matter, whereas for modes with $k^2\\gg {\\cal H}ma$, we get a wave-like behaviour in which the sound speed is non-vanishing and of order $c_s^2\\simeq k^2/m^2a^2$. This implies that, also in these models, structure formation could be suppressed on small scales. However, unlike the scalar case, the fact that the background evolution contains a non-vanishing homogeneous vector field implies that, in general, the evolution of the three kinds of perturbations (scalar, vector and tensor) can no longer be decoupled at the linear level. More specifically, in the particle regime, the three types of perturbations are actually decoupled, whereas in the wave regime, the three vector field perturbations generate o...

  2. Geometric singular perturbation theory in biological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, G.

    2010-01-01

    Geometric singular perturbation theory is a useful tool in the analysis of problems with a clear separation in time scales. It uses invariant manifolds in phase space in order to understand the global structure of the phase space or to construct orbits with desired properties. This paper explains an

  3. Cosmological perturbations from the Standard Model Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Andrea De [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Riotto, Antonio, E-mail: andrea.desimone@sissa.it, E-mail: antonio.riotto@unige.ch [Department of Theoretical Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP), 24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2013-02-01

    We propose that the Standard Model (SM) Higgs is responsible for generating the cosmological perturbations of the universe by acting as an isocurvature mode during a de Sitter inflationary stage. In view of the recent ATLAS and CMS results for the Higgs mass, this can happen if the Hubble rate during inflation is in the range (10{sup 10}−10{sup 14}) GeV (depending on the SM parameters). Implications for the detection of primordial tensor perturbations through the B-mode of CMB polarization via the PLANCK satellite are discussed. For example, if the Higgs mass value is confirmed to be m{sub h} = 125.5 GeV and m{sub t},α{sub s} are at their central values, our mechanism predicts tensor perturbations too small to be detected in the near future. On the other hand, if tensor perturbations will be detected by PLANCK through the B-mode of CMB, then there is a definite relation between the Higgs and top masses, making the mechanism predictive and falsifiable.

  4. Quenched chiral perturbation theory to one loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Pallante, Elisabetta

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the divergences of the generating functional of quenched chiral perturbation theory at one loop, and renormalize the theory by an appropriate definition of the counterterms. We show that the quenched chiral logarithms can be accounted for by defining a renormalized B0 parameter which, a

  5. Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory to one loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, G.; Pallante, E.

    1998-01-01

    The divergences of the generating functional of quenched Chiral Perturbation theory (qCHPT) to one loop are computed in closed form. We show how the quenched chiral logarithms can be reabsorbed in the renormalization of the B0 parameter of the leading order Lagrangian. Finally, we do the chiral powe

  6. Volume reduction through perturbative Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Margarita Garcia; Okawa, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    We derive the perturbative expansion of Wilson loops to order g^4 in a SU(N) lattice gauge theory with twisted boundary conditions. Our expressions show that the thermodynamic limit is attained at infinite N for any number of lattice sites and allow to quantify the deviations from volume independence at finite large N as a function of the twist.

  7. Un convoi exceptionnel perturbe la circulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Duraffourd, C

    2004-01-01

    "Le passage d'un convoi exceptionnel hier après-midi dans le secteur de Bellegarde en direction de Cessy aura causé d'importantes perturbations. Entre la deux fois deux voies obturée et les routes secondaires bouclées, les automobilistes ont dû prendre leur mal en patience" (1 page)

  8. Perturbation theory for intermolecular forces including exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Laidlaw, W.G.

    1970-01-01

    Generalized solutions to the Kisenschitz and London perturbation equations are derived. It is pointed out that the results obtained in the formalisms proposed by Hirschfelder (HAV), by Hirschfelder and Silbey, by Murrell and Shaw, and by Musher and Amos are special cases of the generalized treatment

  9. Perturbed bifurcations in the BCS gap equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spathis, P. N.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Lazarides, Nickos

    1992-01-01

    . The transitions from d- or s- to mixed s- and d-wave solutions result from pitchfork bifurcations. In the case of slightly different pairing strength in the x and y directions, perturbed pitchfork bifurcations emerge, leading to a dramatic change in the physical properties of the superconducting state....

  10. Scalar perturbations from brane-world inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Maartens, R; Wands, D

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the scalar metric perturbations about a de Sitter brane universe in a 5-dimensional anti de Sitter bulk. We compare the master-variable formalism, describing metric perturbations in a 5-dimensional longitudinal gauge, with results in a Gaussian normal gauge. For a vacuum brane (with constant brane tension) there is a continuum of normalizable Kaluza-Klein modes, with m>3H/2, which remain in the vacuum state. A light radion mode, with m=\\sqrt{2}H, satisfies the boundary conditions for two branes but is not normalizable in the single-brane case. When matter is introduced (as a test field) on the brane, this mode, together with the zero-mode and an infinite ladder of discrete tachyonic modes, become normalizable. However, the boundary condition requires the self-consistent 4-dimensional evolution of scalar field perturbations on the brane and the dangerous growing modes are not excited. These normalizable discrete modes introduce corrections at first-order to the scalar field perturbations compute...

  11. Toward controlling perturbations in robotic sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ashis G.; Majumder, Saikat R.

    2014-06-01

    Robotic sensor networks (RSNs), which consist of networks of sensors placed on mobile robots, are being increasingly used for environment monitoring applications. In particular, a lot of work has been done on simultaneous localization and mapping of the robots, and optimal sensor placement for environment state estimation1. The deployment of RSNs, however, remains challenging in harsh environments where the RSNs have to deal with significant perturbations in the forms of wind gusts, turbulent water flows, sand storms, or blizzards that disrupt inter-robot communication and individual robot stability. Hence, there is a need to be able to control such perturbations and bring the networks to desirable states with stable nodes (robots) and minimal operational performance (environment sensing). Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling the non-linear dynamics in other communication networks like emergency management systems and power grids by introducing compensatory perturbations to restore network stability and operation2. In this paper, we develop a computational framework to investigate the usefulness of this approach for RSNs in marine environments. Preliminary analysis shows promising performance and identifies bounds on the original perturbations within which it is possible to control the networks.

  12. Second order perturbation theory for embedded eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faupin, Jeremy; Møller, Jacob Schach; Skibsted, Erik

    2011-01-01

    We study second order perturbation theory for embedded eigenvalues of an abstract class of self-adjoint operators. Using an extension of the Mourre theory, under assumptions on the regularity of bound states with respect to a conjugate operator, we prove upper semicontinuity of the point spectrum...

  13. Homotopy Perturbation Method for a Modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hesameddini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM is employed to approximate solutions of a modified Lotka - Volterra equation. HPM has been introduced by He to solve approximately linear or nonlinear differential equations. Approximate polynomials have also been constructed to find approximate solutions of a modified Lotka - Volterra system. Numerical comparisons are made between HPM and maple numerical results

  14. Privacy Is Become with, Data Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Er. Niranjan; Singhai, Niky

    2011-06-01

    Privacy is becoming an increasingly important issue in many data mining applications that deal with health care, security, finance, behavior and other types of sensitive data. Is particularly becoming important in counterterrorism and homeland security-related applications. We touch upon several techniques of masking the data, namely random distortion, including the uniform and Gaussian noise, applied to the data in order to protect it. These perturbation schemes are equivalent to additive perturbation after the logarithmic Transformation. Due to the large volume of research in deriving private information from the additive noise perturbed data, the security of these perturbation schemes is questionable Many artificial intelligence and statistical methods exist for data analysis interpretation, Identifying and measuring the interestingness of patterns and rules discovered, or to be discovered is essential for the evaluation of the mined knowledge and the KDD process as a whole. While some concrete measurements exist, assessing the interestingness of discovered knowledge is still an important research issue. As the tool for the algorithm implementations we chose the language of choice in industrial world MATLAB.

  15. Gravitational Perturbation in Topological Phonon Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳昱; 罗俊; 唐孟希

    1994-01-01

    The effect of gravitational wave (GW) on phonon in crystal lattice space with spiral dislocation is expressed as a gravitational perturbation in topological phonon space with background of the spiral dislocation.This is a new-type effect form of the GW field to the phonon.The corresponding phonon solutions are given.

  16. Transport studies in fusion plasmas: Perturbative experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. L.

    1998-01-01

    By inducing in a small temperature perturbation in a plasma in a steady state one can determine the conductive and convective components of the heat flux, and the associated thermal diffusivity and convection velocity. The same can be done for the density, and in principle also other plasma paramete

  17. Perturbative Odderon in the Dipole Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yu V; Wallon, S; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Szymanowski, Lech; Wallon, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    We show that, in the framework of Mueller's dipole model, the perturbative QCD odderon is described by the dipole model equivalent of the BFKL equation with a $C$-odd initial condition. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the odderon solution are the same as for the dipole BFKL equation and are given by the functions $E^{n,\

  18. Perturbations of normally solvable nonlinear operators, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Ray

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X and Y be Banach spaces and let ℱ and be Gateaux differentiable mappings from X to Y In this note we study when the operator ℱ+ is surjective for sufficiently small perturbations of a surjective operator ℱ The methods extend previous results in the area of normal solvability for nonlinear operators.

  19. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  20. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production.

  1. Scalar perturbations in a Friedmann-like metric with non-null Weyl tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Grasiele B; Salim, José M

    2013-01-01

    In a previous work some of the authors have solved the Einstein equations of General Relativity for a class of metrics with constant spatial curvature, where it was found a non vanishing Weyl tensor in the presence of an energy-momentum tensor with an anisotropic pressure component. Here, we perform the perturbative analysis of this model in order to study the gravitational stability under linear scalar perturbations. For this purpose, we take the Quasi-Maxwellian formalism of General Relativity as our framework, which offers a naturally covariant and gauge-invariant approach to deal with perturbations that are directly linked to observational quantities. We also consider a generalization of the causal thermodynamics to include the effect of the non-null Weyl tensor, which introduces a "viscosity" due solely to the gravitational tidal forces.

  2. MIXING LOSSES INVESTIGATION DOWNSTREAM OF TURBINE BLADE CASCADE WITH COOLANT FLOW BLOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASSIM HAMEED YOUSIF

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of noise and vibration characteristics of turbomachinery has caused by wakes. The characteristics of the wake, the wake decay, the path that it follows, and the mechanisms of mixing losses generated due to the mixing of blade trailing edge cold jet issued into the hot cross flow are important to find adequate solution to the problem. At the present work the wake characteristic was observed by introducing experimental work inside a cascade test rig to investigate the wake domain downstream of blade cascade with the aid of five-hole probe. The case studies were done with cold jets blowing ratios 1.58, 1.667 and 1.935 with jet stream wise angle and jet lateral injection angle 37.5° and 35 º respectively. The measurement showed that there is a certain harmonization in the region of high reverse pressure loss coefficient which reflects the concentration of wake region. Also it was observed three distinct wake regions located in the centre of the passage vortex region. The wake characteristics measurements of the movement path, the growth of wake width, and the physical awareness of the wake propagating may help to explain the mechanisms of mixing losses.

  3. Formation of annular plasma downstream by magnetic aperture in the helicon experimental device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Yadav, S.; Barada, K. K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Pal, R.; Bora, D.

    2017-02-01

    In the Helicon eXperimental (HeX) device, the geometric aperture is fixed, but the position of the magnetic aperture can be varied. Working with Argon gas in the pressure range of 1 - 10 × 10 - 4 mbar, an annular plasma (density ˜ 10 16 m - 3 ) is formed downstream, always in front of the magnetic aperture. This occurs irrespective of the relative position of the geometric aperture or the presence of a radial electric field. This is in contrary to the earlier proposition made by others that a radial electric field is necessary to produce a hollow plasma profile. Instead, the ionization of neutrals in the radially outer region by the tail electrons, rotating fast due to gradient-B drift in the azimuthal direction, seems to account for the observed off-axis density peaking in the present experiment. This also explains the variation of the plasma annulus diameter seen here by changing the input radio frequency power ( 100 - 800 W ) .

  4. Resummation of QED perturbation series by sequence transformations and the prediction of perturbative coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentschura; Becher; Weniger; Soff

    2000-09-18

    We propose a method for the resummation of divergent perturbative expansions in quantum electrodynamics and related field theories. The method is based on a nonlinear sequence transformation and uses as input data only the numerical values of a finite number of perturbative coefficients. The results obtained in this way are for alternating series superior to those obtained using Pade approximants. The nonlinear sequence transformation fulfills an accuracy-through-order relation and can be used to predict perturbative coefficients. In many cases, these predictions are closer to available analytic results than predictions obtained using the Pade method.

  5. Optimal random perturbations for stochastic approximation using a simultaneous perturbation gradient approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Spall, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm has attracted considerable attention for challenging optimization problems where it is difficult or impossible to obtain a direct gradient of the objective (say, loss) function. The approach is based on a highly efficient...... simultaneous perturbation approximation to the gradient based on loss function measurements. SPSA is based on picking a simultaneous perturbation (random) vector in a Monte Carlo fashion as part of generating the approximation to the gradient. This paper derives the optimal distribution for the Monte Carlo...

  6. Optimal random perturbations for stochastic approximation using a simultaneous perturbation gradient approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Spall, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm has recently attracted considerable attention for optimization problems where it is difficult or impossible to obtain a direct gradient of the objective (say, loss) function. The approach is based on a highly efficient...... simultaneous perturbation approximation to the gradient based on loss function measurements. SPSA is based on picking a simultaneous perturbation (random) vector in a Monte Carlo fashion as part of generating the approximation to the gradient. This paper derives the optimal distribution for the Monte Carlo...

  7. Range shift and dose perturbation with high-density materials in proton beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporov, D., E-mail: nichipor@indiana.edu [Indiana University Integrated Science and Technology Hall, 2401 Milo B. Sampson La, Bloomington, IN 47408-1398 (United States); Moskvin, V. [Indiana University School of Medicine, 535 Barnhill Dr., RT 041, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, 2425 Milo B. Sampson La, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Fanelli, L. [Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, 2425 Milo B. Sampson La, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Das, I.J. [Indiana University School of Medicine, 535 Barnhill Dr., RT 041, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, 2425 Milo B. Sampson La, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Radiotherapy with proton beams requires accurate knowledge of the proton range. When materials with high atomic numbers (Z) and densities (e.g. prostheses or implants) are present in the patient, they give rise to pronounced uncertainties in computed tomography data and to large errors in proton range and dose calculations. A modified analytical expression is proposed for the observed range shift in water in the presence of a high-density material of known thickness and density. The expression was verified experimentally in a clinical beam with various thicknesses and materials in a water phantom, at several beam ranges and at different depths. Measurements were also made behind the medium-to-water interface to evaluate dose perturbation using a thin window parallel plate ion chamber. Primary particle fluence variations due to the range shift were studied in a separate experiment. The measured range shift was in good agreement ({+-}0.3 mm) with the analytical expression for most of the materials studied. A small, but consistent dependence of range shift on the energy of impinging protons was found. Dose perturbation factor in water downstream of the material is less than +5% for thicknesses up to 8 g/cm{sup 2}. The proposed analytical expression can be used in clinical situations to determine the range shift in patient caused by an implanted material. Dose perturbation in the presence of an implant is due to the changes in primary particle fluence resulting from several physical processes.

  8. Oxidative stress and its downstream signaling in aging eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinazo-Durán MD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available María Dolores Pinazo-Durán,1,* Roberto Gallego-Pinazo,2,* Jose Javier García-Medina,1,3,* Vicente Zanón-Moreno,1,4 Carlo Nucci,5 Rosa Dolz-Marco,2 Sebastián Martínez-Castillo,2 Carmen Galbis-Estrada,1 Carla Marco-Ramírez,1 Maria Isabel López-Gálvez,6,* David J Galarreta,6,* Manuel Díaz-Llópis4,*1Ophthalmic Research Unit "Santiago Grisolía", Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Macula Section, The University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Reina Sofia, Murcia, Spain; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain; 5University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 6Instituto de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA, Valladolid, Spain *Members of the Spanish Net of Ocular Pathology of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Madrid, OFTAREDBackground: Oxidative stress (OS and its biomarkers are the biochemical end point of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS production and the ability of the antioxidant (AOX biological systems to fight against oxidative injury.Objective: We reviewed the role of OS and its downstream signaling in aging eyes.Methods: A search of the literature and current knowledge on the physiological and pathological mechanisms of OS were revisited in relation to the eyes and the aging process. Most prevalent ocular diseases have been analyzed herein in relation to OS and nutraceutic supplements, such as dry-eye disorders, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.Results: Clinical, biochemical, and molecular data from anterior and posterior eye segment diseases point to OS as the common pathogenic mechanism in the majority of these ocular disorders, many of which are pathologies causing visual impairment, blindness, and subsequent loss of life quality. Studies with nutraceutic supplements in aging eye-related pathologies have also been reviewed.Conclusion: OS, nutritional status, and nutraceutic supplements have

  9. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  10. Non-perturbative effects of primordial curvature perturbations on the apparent value of a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea Romano, Antonio; Sanes Negrete, Sergio; Sasaki, Misao; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2014-06-01

    We study effects on the luminosity distance of a local inhomogeneity seeded by primordial curvature perturbations of the type predicted by the inflationary scenario and constrained by the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find that a local underdensity originated from a one, two or three standard deviations peaks of the primordial curvature perturbations field can induce corrections to the value of a cosmological constant of the order of 0.6{%},1{%},1.5{%} , respectively. These effects cannot be neglected in the precision cosmology era in which we are entering. Our results can be considered an upper bound for the effect of the monopole component of the local non-linear structure which can arise from primordial curvature perturbations and requires a fully non-perturbative relativistic treatment.

  11. Postural control strategies related to anticipatory perturbation and quick perturbation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Fang-Chuan; Hong, Chang-Zern; Lai, Chung-Liang; Tan, Shih-Hsin

    2011-05-01

    Cross-sectional study. To investigate the automatic balance correction related to anticipatory perturbation (AP) and quick backward perturbation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Most previous studies on AIS patients focused on posture sway and lacked analysis of muscle activated patterns in dynamic standing control. Thirty-two AIS patients and 23 age-matched normal subjects received perturbation balance tests on an unstable platform. The tilting angle of the platform and the muscle activity of the bilateral lumbar multifidi, gluteus medii, and gastrocnemii muscles were recorded. Electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, onset latencies, and duration were calculated with software accompanied with machine. The AIS group had less posture tilting but higher muscle activities than normal subjects under both perturbation conditions (P posture control patterns between AIS and normal subjects. AIS subjects have asymmetric habitual muscle activities for AP, whereas when coping with sudden balance threats, they react with synchronized recruitment of bilateral postural muscles.

  12. Short-Term Perturbations Within the D-Region Detected Above the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin; Silber, Israel

    2016-07-01

    The ionospheric D-region lies in the altitude range of ~60-95 km. This part of the atmosphere is highly sensitive to waves propagating upwards from the troposphere, either as pressure perturbations (gravity and acoustic waves) or electromagnetic (EM) perturbations from lightning discharges (resulting in EMPs, sprites, elves, etc.). These perturbations can affect the temperature, wind, species concentration, conductivity, and ionization in the upper atmosphere. Very low frequencies (VLF) radio signals, generated by man-made communication transmitters, have been recorded using ground-based VLF receivers in Israel. These radio waves propagate over long distances within the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, reflected off the Earth's surface and the D-region. The characteristics of the received signals depend on several parameters along the path, but are fairly constant over short periods of time. In this study we present analysis of VLF narrowband data transmitted from Sicily, Italy, spanning one year, and detected in Tel Aviv, Israel. We show observations of the interaction between both pressure and EM perturbations from thunderstorms with the narrowband VLF signals aloft. We clearly observe short period (~2-4 minutes) acoustic waves, longer period gravity waves (~5-7 minutes periods), while also many transient events related to heating and ionization of the D-region. Comparisons with WWLLN lightning data show the potential link between tropospheric thunderstorms and D-region variability.

  13. Perturbation determinants in Banach spaces - with an application to eigenvalue estimates for perturbed operators

    OpenAIRE

    Hansmann, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we provide a self-contained introduction to (regularized) perturbation determinants for operators in Banach spaces. In the second part, we use these determinants to derive new bounds on the discrete eigenvalues of compactly perturbed operators, broadly extending some recent results by Demuth et al. In addition, we also establish new bounds on the discrete eigenvalues of generators of $C_0$-semigroups.

  14. Passage of downstream migrant American eels through an airlift-assisted deep bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Noreika, John

    2016-01-01

    Traditional downstream guidance and bypass facilities for anadromous fishes (i.e., surface bypasses, surface guidance structures, and behavioral barriers) have frequently been ineffective for anguillid eels. Because eels typically spend the majority of their time near the bottom in the vicinity of intake structures, deep bypass structures with entrances near the bottom hold promise for increased effectiveness, thereby aiding in the recovery of this important species. A new design of a deep bypass system that uses airlift technology (the Conte Airlift Bypass) to induce flow in a bypass pipe was tested in a simulated intake entrance environment under controlled laboratory conditions. Water velocities of 0.9–1.5 m s−1 could be generated at the bypass entrance (opening with 0.073 m2 area), with corresponding flows through the bypass pipe of 0.07–0.11 m3 s−1. Gas saturation and hydrostatic pressure within the bypass pipe did not vary appreciably from a control (no air) condition under tested airflows. Migratory silver-phase American eels (Anguilla rostrata) tested during dark conditions readily located, entered, and passed through the bypass; initial avoidance rates (eels approaching but not entering the bypass entrance) were lower at higher entrance velocities. Eels that investigated the bypass pipe entrance tended to enter headfirst, but those that then exited the pipe upstream did so more frequently at lower entrance velocities. Eels appeared to swim against the flow while being transported downstream through the pipe; median transit times through the bypass for each test velocity ranged from 5.8 to 12.2 s, with transit time decreasing with increasing entrance velocity. Eels did not show strong avoidance of the vertical section of the pipe which contained injected air. No mortality or injury of bypassed eels was observed, and individual eels repeatedly passed through the bypass at rates of up to 40 passes per hour, suggesting that individuals do not

  15. Evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    This paper considers warm inflation as an interesting application of multi-field inflation. Delta-N formalism is used for the calculation of the evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation. Although the perturbations considered in this paper are decaying after the horizon exit, the corrections to the curvature perturbations sourced by these perturbations can remain and dominate the curvature perturbations at large scales. In addition to the typical evolution of the curvature perturbations, inhomogeneous diffusion rate is considered for warm inflation, which may lead to significant non-Gaussianity of the spectrum.

  16. Evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2009-06-01

    This paper considers warm inflation as an interesting application of multi-field inflation. Delta-N formalism is used for the calculation of the evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation. Although the perturbations considered in this paper are decaying after the horizon exit, the corrections to the curvature perturbations sourced by these perturbations can remain and dominate the curvature perturbations at large scales. In addition to the typical evolution of the curvature perturbations, inhomogeneous diffusion rate is considered for warm inflation, which may lead to significant non-Gaussianity of the spectrum.

  17. Episodic Sediment Supply from Mountains and Downstream Emplacement within Large Tropical Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Rolf; Aufdenkampe, Anthony; Maurice, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    Application of a new geochronological method for high-resolution 210-Pb dating over the past century has facilitated the identification of individual floodplain sedimentation events across disparate large river basins. Two examples include the pristine 72,000 km2 Beni River basin in northern Bolivia and the similarly natural 36,000 km2 Strickland River basin in Papua New Guinea - that are located on either side of the Equatorial Pacific warm pool that drives the ENSO phenomenon. Published research suggests that large, rapid-rise, cold-phase ENSO floods account for the preponderance of sediment accumulation within these two tropical systems. The vast scale of these temporally discrete deposits (typically 10s to 100s of millions of tonnes throughout these large river systems) begs the question: where did all this sedimentary material originate? Huge deposits require a similarly massive supply from hillslopes and transport of that material to depocentres 100s of km away, often episodically within the very short timescale of a single large flood event. We have identified the principal source of this sedimentary material to be extensive landslides throughout the high-relief headwaters - failures that deliver huge charges of pulverized rock and soil directly into canyons (in both the Bolivian Andes and the PNG Highlands), where raging floodwaters provide efficient transport to lowland depocentres. We explore this theme by presenting results from our ongoing research in these basins, including new data and techniques that we are currently using to track processes and provide better insight into the details of such enormous mass budgets. Daily discharge data from Bolivia are coupled with radionuclide concentrations, particle size distribution, and biochemistry of carbon and major elements in sediment to elucidate the considerable inter-annual variation of sediment supply from the Andes. Perturbations in the rate and quality of supply directly result from the interaction of

  18. Computational analysis of the flow field downstream of flow conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdal, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    Technological innovations are essential for maintaining the competitiveness for the gas companies and here metering technology is one important area. This thesis shows that computational fluid dynamic techniques can be a valuable tool for examination of several parameters that may affect the performance of a flow conditioner (FC). Previous design methods, such as screen theory, could not provide fundamental understanding of how a FC works. The thesis shows, among other things, that the flow pattern through a complex geometry, like a 19-hole plate FC, can be simulated with good accuracy by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The calculations illuminate how variations in pressure drop, overall porosity, grading of porosity across the cross-section and the number of holes affects the performance of FCs. These questions have been studied experimentally by researchers for a long time. Now an understanding of the important mechanisms behind efficient FCs emerges from the predictions. 179 ref., 110 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Landslides Along the Florida River Downstream from Lemon Reservoir, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Ellis, William L.; Kibler, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly two-dozen shallow landslides were active during spring 2005 on a hillside located along the east side of the Florida River about one kilometer downstream from Lemon Reservoir in La Plata County, southwestern Colorado. Landslides on the hillside directly threaten human safety, residential structures, a county roadway, utilities, and the Florida River, and indirectly threaten downstream areas and Lemon Dam. Most of the area where the landslides occurred was burned during the 2002 Missionary Ridge wildfire. We performed geologic mapping, subsurface exploration and sampling, radiocarbon dating, and shallow ground-water and ground-displacement monitoring to assess landslide activity. Active landslides during spring 2005 were as large as 35,000 m3 and confined to colluvium. Debris flows were mobilized from most of the landslides, were as large as 1,500 m3, and traveled as far as 250 m. Landslide activity was triggered by elevated ground-water pressures within the colluvium caused by infiltration of snowmelt. Landslide activity ceased as ground-water pressures dropped during the summer. Shallow landslides on the hillside appear to be much more likely following the Missionary Ridge fire because of the loss of tree root strength and evapotranspiration. We used monitoring data and observations to develop preliminary, approximate rainfall/snowmelt thresholds above which shallow landslide activity can be expected. Landslides triggered during spring 2005 occurred within a 1.97 x 107 m3 older landslide that extends, on average, about 40 m into bedrock. The south end of this older landslide appears to have experienced deep secondary landsliding. Radiocarbon dating of sediments at the head of the older landslide suggests that the landslide was active about 1,424-1,696 years ago. A relatively widespread wildfire may have preceded the older landslide, and the landslide may have occurred during a wetter time. The wetter climate and effects of the wildfire would likely have

  20. Pressure ulcers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddy, Madhuri

    2011-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents...

  1. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...

  2. Gauge theories in local causal perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, F M

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis quantum gauge theories are considered in the framework of local, causal perturbation theory. Gauge invariance is described in terms of the BRS formalism. Local interacting field operators are constructed perturbatively and field equations are established. A nilpotent BRS transformation is defined on the local algebra of fields. It allows the definition of the algebra of local observables as an operator cohomology. This algebra of local observables can be represented in a Hilbert space. The interacting field operators are defined in terms of time ordered products of free field operators. For the results above to hold the time ordered products must satisfy certain normalization conditions. To formulate these conditions also for field operators that contain a spacetime derivative a suitable mathematical description of time ordered products is developed. Among the normalization conditions are Ward identities for the ghost current and the BRS current. The latter are generalizations of a normalizatio...

  3. Stochastic multireference Epstein-Nesbet perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sandeep; Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Alavi, Ali; Umrigar, C J

    2016-01-01

    We extend the recently proposed heat-bath configuration interaction (HCI) method [Holmes, Tubman, Umrigar, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 12, 3674 (2016)], by introducing a stochastic algorithm for performing multireference Epstein-Nesbet perturbation theory, in order to completely eliminate the severe memory bottleneck of the original method. The proposed stochastic algorithm has several attractive features. First, there is no sign problem that plagues several quantum Monte Carlo methods. Second, instead of using Metropolis-Hastings sampling, we use the Alias method to directly sample determinants from the reference wavefunction, thus avoiding correlations between consecutive samples. Third, in addition to removing the memory bottleneck, stochastic-HCI (s-HCI) is faster than the deterministic variant for most systems if a stochastic error of 0.1 mHa is acceptable. Fourth, within the s-HCI algorithm one can trade memory for a modest increase in computer time. Fifth, the perturbative calculation is embarrassingly par...

  4. A primer for Chiral Perturbative Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Stefan [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Schindler, Matthias R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques. (orig.)

  5. A Perturbation Result for Dynamical Contact Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Corinna Klapproth; Peter Deuflhard; Anton Schiela

    2009-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a first step towards the continuous dependence of dynamical contact problems on the initial data as well as the uniqueness of a solution. Moreover, it provides the basis for a proof of the convergence of popular time integration schemes as the Newmark method. We study a frictionless dynamical contact problem between both linearly elastic and viscoelastic bodies which is formulated via the Signorini contact conditions. For viscoelastic materials fulfilling the Kelvin-Voigt constitutive law, we find a characterization of the class of problems which satisfy a perturbation result in a non-trivial mix of norms in function space. This characterization is given in the form of a stability condition on the contact stresses at the contact boundaries. Furthermore, we present perturbation results for two well-established approximations of the classical Signorini condition: The Signorini condition formulated in velocities and the model of normal compliance, both satisfying even a sharper version of our stability condition.

  6. Nonlinear Acoustics -- Perturbation Theory and Webster's Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Rogério

    2013-01-01

    Webster's horn equation (1919) offers a one-dimensional approximation for low-frequency sound waves along a rigid tube with a variable cross-sectional area. It can be thought as a wave equation with a source term that takes into account the nonlinear geometry of the tube. In this document we derive this equation using a simplified fluid model of an ideal gas. By a simple change of variables, we convert it to a Schr\\"odinger equation and use the well-known variational and perturbative methods to seek perturbative solutions. As an example, we apply these methods to the Gabriel's Horn geometry, deriving the first order corrections to the linear frequency. An algorithm to the harmonic modes in any order for a general horn geometry is derived.

  7. Revisiting perturbations in extended quasidilaton massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the theory of extended quasidilaton massive gravity together with the presence of matter fields. After discussing the homogeneous and isotropic fully dynamical background equations, which governs the exact expansion history of the universe, we consider small cosmological perturbations around these general FLRW solutions. The stability of tensor, vector and scalar perturbations on top of these general background solutions give rise to slightly different constraints on the parameters of the theory than those obtained in the approximative assumption of the late-time asymptotic form of the expansion history, which does not correspond to our current epoch. This opens up the possibility of stable FLRW solutions to be compared with current data on cosmic expansion with the restricted parameter space based on theoretical ground.

  8. Quasi-periodic oscillations of perturbed tori

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, Varadarajan; Kluzniak, Wlodek

    2015-01-01

    We performed axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of perturbed tori orbiting a black hole. The tori in equilibrium were constructed with a constant distribution of angular momentum in a pseudo-Newtonian potential (Klu{\\'z}niak-Lee). Epicyclic motions were triggered by adding sub-sonic velocity fields: radial, vertical and diagonal to the tori in equilibrium. As the perturbed tori evolved in time, we measured $L_{2}$ norm of density and obtained the power spectrum of $L_{2}$ norm which manifested eigenfrequencies of tori modes. We observe a pair of modes which occur in an approximate 3:2 ratio. Results from our simulations are relevant in the context of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) observed in stellar-mass black hole binaries.

  9. Gluonic Lorentz violation and chiral perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordmans, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    By applying chiral-perturbation-theory methods to the QCD sector of the Lorentz-violating Standard-Model Extension, we investigate Lorentz violation in the strong interactions. In particular, we consider the C P T -even pure-gluon operator of the minimal Standard-Model Extension. We construct the lowest-order chiral effective Lagrangian for three as well as two light quark flavors. We develop the power-counting rules and construct the heavy-baryon chiral-perturbation-theory Lagrangian, which we use to calculate Lorentz-violating contributions to the nucleon self-energy. Using the constructed effective operators, we derive the first stringent limits on many of the components of the relevant Lorentz-violating parameter. We also obtain the Lorentz-violating nucleon-nucleon potential. We suggest that this potential may be used to obtain new limits from atomic-clock or deuteron storage-ring experiments.

  10. A primer for chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques.

  11. On counterterms in cosmological perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the theory of fluctuations (scalar as well as tensor) around the inflationary cosmological background solution. It is important to understand the details of the process of renormalization in this theory. In more familiar applications of quantum field theory, the dependence on the external momenta of the dimensionally regulated expression of the one-loop contribution to a correlator determines the number of counter terms (and their forms) required to renormalize it. In this work, it is pointed out that in cosmological perturbation theory, though this still happens, it happens in a completely different way such that in the late time limit, the information about the number and forms of counter terms required gets erased. This is to be compared with what happens in spontaneous symmetry breaking where the use of fluctuation fields around a chosen vacuum seems to suggest that more counter terms shall be needed to renormalize the theory than are actually required. We also comment ...

  12. Coupled Oscillator Model for Nonlinear Gravitational Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the gravity/fluid correspondence, we introduce a new method for characterizing nonlinear gravitational interactions. Namely we map the nonlinear perturbative form of the Einstein equation to the equations of motion of a collection of nonlinearly-coupled harmonic oscillators. These oscillators correspond to the quasinormal or normal modes of the background spacetime. We demonstrate the mechanics and the utility of this formalism within the context of perturbed asymptotically anti-de Sitter black brane spacetimes. We confirm in this case that the boundary fluid dynamics are equivalent to those of the hydrodynamic quasinormal modes of the bulk spacetime. We expect this formalism to remain valid in more general spacetimes, including those without a fluid dual. In other words, although borne out of the gravity/fluid correspondence, the formalism is fully independent and it has a much wider range of applicability. In particular, as this formalism inspires an especially transparent physical intuition, w...

  13. Non-Perturbative Flat Direction Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Basboll, A; Riva, F; West, S M; Basboll, Anders; Maybury, David; Riva, Francesco; West, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    We argue that supersymmetric flat direction vevs can decay non-perturbatively via preheating. Considering the case of a single flat direction, we explicitly calculate the scalar potential in the unitary gauge for a U(1) theory and show that the mass matrix for excitations around the flat direction has non-diagonal entries which vary with the phase of the flat direction vev. Furthermore, this mass matrix has 2 zero eigenvalues (associated with the excitations along the flat direction) whose eigenstates change with time. We show that these 2 light degrees of freedom are produced copiously in the non-perturbative decay of the flat direction vev. We also comment on the application of these results to the MSSM flat direction H_uL.

  14. Linear Density Perturbations in Multifield Coupled Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Leithes, Alexander; Mulryne, David J; Nunes, Nelson J

    2016-01-01

    We study the behaviour of linear perturbations in multifield coupled quintessence models. Using gauge invariant linear cosmological perturbation theory we provide the full set of governing equations for this class of models, and solve the system numerically. We apply the numerical code to generate growth functions for various examples, and compare these both to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model and to current and future observational bounds. Finally, we examine the applicability of the "small scale approximation", often used to calculate growth functions in quintessence models, in light of upcoming experiments such as SKA and Euclid. We find the deviation of the full equation results for large k modes from the approximation exceeds the experimental uncertainty for these future surveys. The numerical code, PYESSENCE, written in Python will be publicly available.

  15. Revisiting perturbations in extended quasidilaton massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the theory of extended quasidilaton massive gravity together with the presence of matter fields. After discussing the homogeneous and isotropic fully dynamical background equations, which governs the exact expansion history of the universe, we consider small cosmological perturbations around these general FLRW solutions. The stability of tensor, vector and scalar perturbations on top of these general background solutions give rise to slightly different constraints on the parameters of the theory than those obtained in the approximative assumption of the late-time asymptotic form of the expansion history, which does not correspond to our current epoch. This opens up the possibility of stable FLRW solutions to be compared with current data on cosmic expansion with the restricted parameter space based on theoretical ground.

  16. Cosmological perturbations on the phantom brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Satadru; Viznyuk, Alexander; Shtanov, Yuri; Sahni, Varun

    2016-07-01

    We obtain a closed system of equations for scalar perturbations in a multi-component braneworld. Our braneworld possesses a phantom-like equation of state at late times, weff Consequently, the quasi-static approximation of Koyama and Maartens provides a good fit to the exact results during the matter-dominated epoch. We find that the late-time growth of density perturbations on the brane proceeds at a faster rate than in ΛCDM. Additionally, the gravitational potentials Φ and Ψ evolve differently on the brane than in ΛCDM, for which Φ = Ψ. On the brane, by contrast, the ratio Φ/Ψ exceeds unity during the late matter-dominated epoch (z lesssim 50). These features emerge as smoking gun tests of phantom brane cosmology and allow predictions of this scenario to be tested against observations of galaxy clustering and large-scale structure.

  17. Nucleophilicity index from perturbed electrostatic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo, A; Contreras, R; Galván, M; Aizman, A; Andrés, J; Safont, V S

    2007-03-29

    We introduce and test a nucleophilicity index as a new descriptor of chemical reactivity. The index is derived from a perturbation model for the interaction between the nucleophile and a positive test charge. The computational implementation of the model uses an isoelectronic process involving the minimum values of the electronic part of the perturbed molecular electrostatic potential. The working expression defining the nucleophilicity index encompasses both the electrostatic contributions and the second-order polarization effects in a form which is consistent with the empirical scales previously proposed. The index is validated for a series of neutral nucleophiles in the gas phase for which the nucleophilicity pattern has been experimentally established within a spectroscopic scale.

  18. Massive perturbers in the galactic center

    CERN Document Server

    Perets, H B; Alexander, T; Perets, Hagai B.; Hopman, Clovis; Alexander, Tal

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the role of massive perturbers, such as giant molecular clouds or stellar clusters, in supplying low-angular momentum stars that pass very close to the central massive black hole (MBH) or fall into it. We show that massive pe rturbers can play an important role in supplying both binaries and single stars to the vicinity of the MBH. We discuss possible implications for the ejection of high velocity stars; for the capture of stars on tight orbits around the MBH; for the emission of gravitational waves from low-eccentricity inspiraling stars; and for the origin of the young main sequence B stars observed very near the Gal actic MBH. Massive perturbers may also enhance the the growth rate of MBHs, and may accelerate the dynamical orbital decay of coalescing binary MBHs.

  19. SPT 2004: Symmetry and Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Prinari, Barbara; Rauch-Wojciechowski, Stefan; Terracini, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    This proceedings volume is a collection of papers presented at the International Conference on SPT2004 focusing on symmetry, perturbation theory, and integrability. The book provides an updated overview of the recent developments in the various different fields of nonlinear dynamics, covering both theory and applications. Special emphasis is given to algebraic and geometric integrability, solutions to the N-body problem of the “choreography” type, geometry and symmetry of dynamical systems, integrable evolution equations, various different perturbation theories, and bifurcation analysis. The contributors to this volume include some of the leading scientists in the field, among them: I Anderson, D Bambusi, S Benenti, S Bolotin, M Fels, W Y Hsiang, V Matveev, A V Mikhailov, P J Olver, G Pucacco, G Sartori, M A Teixeira, S Terracini, F Verhulst and I Yehorchenko.

  20. Molecular Cluster Perturbation Theory. I. Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, Jason N; Molt,, Robert W; Bartlett, Rodney J; Sanders, Beverly A; Lotrich, Victor F

    2014-01-01

    We present second-order molecular cluster perturbation theory (MCPT(2)), a methodology to calculate arbitrarily large systems with explicit calculation of individual wavefunctions in a coupled cluster framework. This new MCPT(2) framework uses coupled cluster perturbation theory and an expansion in terms of molecular dimer interactions to obtain molecular wavefunctions that are infinite order in both the electronic fluctuation operator and all possible dimer (and products of dimers) interactions. The MCPT(2) framework has been implemented in the new SIA/ACES parallel architecture, making use of the advanced dynamic memory control and fine grained parallelism to perform very large explicit molecular cluster calculations. To illustrate the power of this method, we have computed energy shifts and lattice site dipole moments for the polar and non-polar configurations of solid hydrogen fluoride by scaling an explicit lattice to the bulk limit. The explicit lattice size without periodic boundary conditions was scal...