WorldWideScience

Sample records for downstream molecular events

  1. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

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    Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.

  2. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

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    Poulomi Ray

    Full Text Available Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  3. Envelope conformational changes induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 attachment inhibitors prevent CD4 binding and downstream entry events.

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    Ho, Hsu-Tso; Fan, Li; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; McAuliffe, Brian; Li, Chang-Ben; Yamanaka, Gregory; Zhou, Nannan; Fang, Hua; Dicker, Ira; Dalterio, Richard; Gong, Yi-Fei; Wang, Tao; Yin, Zhiwei; Ueda, Yasutsugu; Matiskella, John; Kadow, John; Clapham, Paul; Robinson, James; Colonno, Richard; Lin, Pin-Fang

    2006-04-01

    BMS-488043 is a small-molecule human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CD4 attachment inhibitor with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The compound inhibits soluble CD4 (sCD4) binding to the 11 distinct HIV envelope gp120 proteins surveyed. Binding of BMS-488043 and that of sCD4 to gp120 are mutually exclusive, since increased concentrations of one can completely block the binding of the other without affecting the maximal gp120 binding capacity. Similarly, BMS-488043 inhibited virion envelope trimers from binding to sCD4-immunoglobulin G (IgG), with decreasing inhibition as the sCD4-IgG concentration increased, and BMS-488043 blocked the sCD4-induced exposure of the gp41 groove in virions. In both virion binding assays, BMS-488043 was active only when added prior to sCD4. Collectively, these results indicate that obstruction of gp120-sCD4 interactions is the primary inhibition mechanism of this compound and that compound interaction with envelope must precede CD4 binding. By three independent approaches, BMS-488043 was further shown to induce conformational changes within gp120 in both the CD4 and CCR5 binding regions. These changes likely prevent gp120-CD4 interactions and downstream entry events. However, BMS-488043 could only partially inhibit CD4 binding to an HIV variant containing a specific envelope truncation and altered gp120 conformation, despite effectively inhibiting the pseudotyped virus infection. Taken together, BMS-488043 inhibits viral entry primarily through altering the envelope conformation and preventing CD4 binding, and other downstream entry events could also be inhibited as a result of these induced conformational changes.

  4. Molecular C dynamics downstream: the biochemical decomposition sequence and its impact on soil organic matter structure and function.

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    Grandy, A Stuart; Neff, Jason C

    2008-10-15

    Advances in spectroscopic and other chemical methods have greatly enhanced our ability to characterize soil organic matter chemistry. As a result, the molecular characteristics of soil C are now known for a range of ecosystems, soil types, and management intensities. Placing this knowledge into a broader ecological and management context is difficult, however, and remains one of the fundamental challenges of soil organic matter research. Here we present a conceptual model of molecular soil C dynamics to stimulate inter-disciplinary research into the ecological implications of molecular C turnover and its management- and process-level controls. Our model describes three properties of soil C dynamics: 1) soil size fractions have unique molecular patterns that reflect varying degrees of biological and physical control over decomposition; 2) there is a common decomposition sequence independent of plant inputs or other ecosystem properties; and 3) molecular decomposition sequences, although consistent, are not uniform and can be altered by processes that accelerate or slow the microbial transformation of specific molecules. The consequences of this model include several key points. First, lignin presents a constraint to decomposition of plant litter and particulate C (>53 microm) but exerts little influence on more stable mineral-associated soil fractions stabilized onto mineral fractions has a distinct composition related more to microbially processed organic matter than to plant-related compounds. Third, disturbances, such as N fertilization and tillage, which alter decomposition rates, can have "downstream effects"; that is, a disturbance that directly alters the molecular dynamics of particulate C may have a series of indirect effects on C stabilization in silt and clay fractions.

  5. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    The initiation and control of the division process in normal cells is studied to gain insight into changes in these regards caused by x-irradiation and neoplasia. The Primer Hypothesis for eukaryotic gene regulation proposes that small molecular weight RNA acts as primer for new RNA synthesis by hybridizing with DNA and there initiating the transcription of a new RNA chain. The experiments reported here indicate that small molecular weight RNA will induce the production of new proteins. These results are consistent with the Primer Hypothesis, and demonstrate that RNA can be taken up from the media by cells in culture and can induce in vitro the production of differentiated cell products

  6. Early molecular events in the development of the diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monkemann, H.; Vriese, A.S. de; Blom, H.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Schild, H.H.; Golubnitschaja, O.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA has been well documented in cardiac cells isolated from diabetic patients and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). This study evaluates possible molecular mechanisms for early events in the development of DM-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods: To analyze the

  7. Dissection of Signaling Events Downstream of the c-Mpl Receptor in Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells Via Motif-Engineered Chimeric Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Koichiro; Lai, Chen-Yi; Nojima, Masanori; Kawahara, Masahiro; Otsu, Makoto; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2018-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a valuable resource in transplantation medicine. Cytokines are often used to culture HSCs aiming at better clinical outcomes through enhancement of HSC reconstitution capability. Roles for each signal molecule downstream of receptors in HSCs, however, remain puzzling due to complexity of the cytokine-signaling network. Engineered receptors that are non-responsive to endogenous cytokines represent an attractive tool for dissection of signaling events. We here tested a previously developed chimeric receptor (CR) system in primary murine HSCs, target cells that are indispensable for analysis of stem cell activity. Each CR contains tyrosine motifs that enable selective activation of signal molecules located downstream of the c-Mpl receptor upon stimulation by an artificial ligand. Signaling through a control CR with a wild-type c-Mpl cytoplasmic tail sufficed to enhance HSC proliferation and colony formation in cooperation with stem cell factor (SCF). Among a series of CRs, only one compatible with selective Stat5 activation showed similar positive effects. The HSCs maintained ex vivo in these environments retained long-term reconstitution ability following transplantation. This ability was also demonstrated in secondary recipients, indicating effective transmission of stem cell-supportive signals into HSCs via these artificial CRs during culture. Selective activation of Stat5 through CR ex vivo favored preservation of lymphoid potential in long-term reconstituting HSCs, but not of myeloid potential, exemplifying possible dissection of signals downstream of c-Mpl. These CR systems therefore offer a useful tool to scrutinize complex signaling pathways in HSCs.

  8. Molecular events leading to HPV-induced high grade neoplasia

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    Saskia M. Wilting

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is initiated by high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (hrHPV and develops via precursor stages, called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. High-grade CIN lesions are considered true precancerous lesions when the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are aberrantly expressed in the dividing cells. This results in abolishment of normal cell cycle control via p53 and pRb degradation. However, it has become clear that these viral oncogenes possess additional oncogenic properties, including interference with the DNA methylation machinery and mitotic checkpoints. Identification of the resulting molecular events leading to high-grade neoplasia will 1 increase our understanding of cervical carcinogenesis, 2 yield biomarkers for early diagnosis, and 3 identify therapeutic targets for HPV-induced (pre cancerous lesions.This review will briefly summarise current advances in our understanding of the molecular alterations in the host cell genome that occur during HPV-induced carcinogenesis.

  9. Pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema – cellular and molecular events

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    Antonio Di Petta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic obstructive disease, resulting fromimportant alterations in the whole distal structure of terminal bronchioles, either by enlargement of air spaces or by destruction of the alveolar wall, leading to loss of respiratory surface, decreased elastic recoil and lung hyperinflation. For many years, the hypothesis of protease-antiprotease unbalance prevailed as the central theme in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. According to this hypothesis, the release of active proteolytic enzymes, produced mainly by neutrophils and macrophages, degrades the extracellular matrix, affecting the integrity of its components, especially collagen and elastic fibers. However, new concepts involving cellular and molecular events were proposed, including oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, cellular senescence and failed lung tissue repair. The aim of this review paper was to evaluate the cellular and molecular mechanisms seen in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema.

  10. Molecular Events in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma: A Review

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    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a heterogeneous disease, developing through a multipathway sequence of events guided by clonal selections. Pathways included in the development of CRC may be broadly categorized into (a genomic instability, including chromosomal instability (CIN, microsatellite instability (MSI, and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, (b genomic mutations including suppression of tumour suppressor genes and activation of tumour oncogenes, (c microRNA, and (d epigenetic changes. As cancer becomes more advanced, invasion and metastases are facilitated through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, with additional genetic alterations. Despite ongoing identification of genetic and epigenetic markers and the understanding of alternative pathways involved in the development and progression of this disease, CRC remains the second highest cause of malignancy-related mortality in Canada. The molecular events that underlie the tumorigenesis of primary and metastatic colorectal carcinoma are detailed in this manuscript.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikonda, Satish K; Marri, Pradeep; Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish K Guttikonda

    Full Text Available Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions.

  13. Enhancement of Pathologist's Routine Practice: Reuse of DNA Extracted from Immunostained Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Slides in Downstream Molecular Analysis of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Asmaa; Assidi, Mourad; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Dallol, Ashraf; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Adeel; Abuzenadah, Adel; Budowle, Bruce; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    To date, the conventional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) technique is the gold-standard for preserving histomorphology. Once FFPE tissues are stained, slides are routinely archived along with their blocks at biobanks/hospitals. However, the reuse of fixed and stained biospecimens as DNA source is not a common routine practice worldwide and, thus, indicates the need of studies to investigate the feasibility of extracting DNA from already immunohistochemistry (IHC) FFPE-stained slides and its possible reuse in subsequent downstream molecular analyses. FFPE IHC slides from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were prepared and stored in the CEGMR Biobank. The workflow consists of digitalization of IHC stained slide's image, removing the slide cover-slip, crude dissection and DNA extraction. Following DNA quality assessment, mutation analysis of CTNNB1 and methylation profile of CDH1 were performed. High-quality DNA was obtained allowing 60% concordance between CDH1 methylation and membranous E-cadherin expression pattern. Clean CTNNB1 DNA chromatograms with evenly-spaced peaks were observed. This study is a proof of concept to recycle and reuse DNA from IHC stained slides with suitable concentration and integrity for further downstream molecular applications. These findings will enhance the pathologists' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards the use of these biospecimens and support the implementation of this approach in clinical pathology practice. Therefore, the scientific community will benefit from the largest comprehensive database of human fully annotated FFPE biospecimens already available at their disposal in order to demystify the complexity and the heterogeneity of many challenging diseases and foster the transition towards precision medicine. Copyright© 2016, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular events in matrix protein metabolism in the aging kidney

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    Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Feliers, Denis; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Lee, Hak Joo; Lee, Myung Ja; Day, Robert T.; Yalamanchili, Hima Bindu; Choudhury, Goutam G.; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

    2018-01-01

    Summary We explored molecular events associated with aging-induced matrix changes in the kidney. C57BL6 mice were studied in youth, middle age, and old age. Albuminuria and serum cystatin C level (an index of glomerular filtration) increased with aging. Renal hypertrophy was evident in middle-aged and old mice and was associated with glomerulomegaly and increase in mesangial fraction occupied by extracellular matrix. Content of collagen types I and III and fibronectin was increased with aging; increment in their mRNA varied with the phase of aging. The content of ZEB1 and ZEB2, collagen type I transcription inhibitors, and their binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter by ChIP assay also showed age-phase-specific changes. Lack of increase in mRNA and data from polysome assay suggested decreased degradation as a potential mechanism for kidney collagen type I accumulation in the middle-aged mice. These changes occurred with increment in TGFβ mRNA and protein and activation of its SMAD3 pathway; SMAD3 binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter was also increased. TGFβ-regulated microRNAs (miRs) exhibited selective regulation. The renal cortical content of miR-21 and miR-200c, but not miR-192, miR-200a, or miR-200b, was increased with aging. Increased miR-21 and miR-200c contents were associated with reduced expression of their targets, Sprouty-1 and ZEB2, respectively. These data show that aging is associated with complex molecular events in the kidney that are already evident in the middle age and progress to old age. Agephase-specific regulation of matrix protein synthesis occurs and involves matrix protein-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:23020145

  15. The Importance of Splat Events to the Spatiotemporal Structure of Near-Bed Fluid Velocity and Bed Load Motion Over Bed Forms: Laboratory Experiments Downstream of a Backward Facing Step

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    Leary, K. C. P.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    Flow separation/reattachment on the lee side of alluvial bed forms is known to produce a complex turbulence field, but the spatiotemporal details of the associated patterns of bed load sediment transported remain largely unknown. Here we report turbulence-resolving, simultaneous measurements of bed load motion and near-bed fluid velocity downstream of a backward facing step in a laboratory flume. Two synchronized high-speed video cameras simultaneously observed bed load motion and the motion of neutrally buoyant particles in a laser light sheet 6 mm above the bed at 250 frames/s downstream of a 3.8 cm backward facing step. Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) were used to characterize fluid turbulent patterns, while manual particle tracking techniques were used to characterize bed load transport. Octant analysis, conducted using ADV data, coupled with Markovian sequence probability analysis highlights differences in the flow near reattachment versus farther downstream. Near reattachment, three distinct flow patterns are apparent. Farther downstream we see the development of a dominant flow sequence. Localized, intermittent, high-magnitude transport events are more apparent near flow reattachment. These events are composed of streamwise and cross-stream fluxes of comparable magnitudes. Transport pattern and fluid velocity data are consistent with the existence of permeable "splat events," wherein a volume of fluid moves toward and impinges on the bed (sweep) causing a radial movement of fluid in all directions around the point of impingement (outward interaction). This is congruent with flow patterns, identified with octant analysis, proximal to flow reattachment.

  16. Signal transduction by FcεRI: Analysis of the early molecular events

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    Henry Metzger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We are analysing the initial molecular events stimulated by the high-affinity receptor for IgE, FcεRI. Earlier studies have shown that the first response when the receptor-bound IgE interacts with a multivalent antigen is a transphosphorylation of receptor tyrosines, induced by the approximation of two or more receptors by a constitutively associated src-family kinase (Lyn. The amount of weakly associated kinase regulates the intensity of the response. Several aspects are being analyzed: (i the sites on Lyn and the receptor that account for the constitutive interaction; (ii how the intrinsic affinity of a ligand for the receptor-bound IgE influences the responses; and (iii the mechanism(s by which low-affinity ligands can act as antagonists. In the latter studies, mast cell responses were followed by monitoring the phosphorylation of tyrosines on several proteins and secretion. At equivalent levels of receptor phosphorylation, a ligand with high affinity stimulated vigorous phosphorylation of downstream components, whereas a low-affinity ligand was unable to stimulate phosphorylation of the same components effectively. Cells stimulated with a mixture of high- and low-affinity ligands, under a protocol where simple displacement of one by the other was prevented, remarkably showed that excess low-affinity ligand inhibited the phosphorylation as well as degranulation by the high-affinity ligand. This antagonism results from a competition for the limiting amount of the constitutive initiating kinase. Related receptors that depend on recruitment of initiating kinases may be subject to similar regulatory mechanisms.

  17. The study of the mechanism of arsenite toxicity in respiration-deficient cells reveals that NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide promotes the same downstream events mediated by mitochondrial superoxide in respiration-proficient cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidarelli, Andrea; Fiorani, Mara; Carloni, Silvia; Cerioni, Liana; Balduini, Walter; Cantoni, Orazio, E-mail: orazio.cantoni@uniurb.it

    2016-09-15

    We herein report the results from a comparative study of arsenite toxicity in respiration-proficient (RP) and -deficient (RD) U937 cells. An initial characterization of these cells led to the demonstration that the respiration-deficient phenotype is not associated with apparent changes in mitochondrial mass and membrane potential. In addition, similar levels of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup .-}) were generated by RP and RD cells in response to stimuli specifically triggering respiratory chain-independent mitochondrial mechanisms or extramitochondrial, NADPH-oxidase dependent, mechanisms. At the concentration of 2.5 μM, arsenite elicited selective formation of O{sub 2}{sup .-} in the respiratory chain of RP cells, with hardly any contribution of the above mechanisms. Under these conditions, O{sub 2}{sup .-} triggered downstream events leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy and apoptosis. RD cells challenged with similar levels of arsenite failed to generate O{sub 2}{sup .-} because of the lack of a functional respiratory chain and were therefore resistant to the toxic effects mediated by the metalloid. Their resistance, however, was lost after exposure to four fold greater concentrations of arsenite, coincidentally with the release of O{sub 2}{sup .-} mediated by NADPH oxidase. Interestingly, extramitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup .-} triggered the same downstream events and an identical mode of death previously observed in RP cells. Taken together, the results obtained in this study indicate that arsenite toxicity is strictly dependent on O{sub 2}{sup .-} availability that, regardless of whether generated in the mitochondrial or extramitochondrial compartments, triggers similar downstream events leading to ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis. - Highlights: • Mitochondrial superoxide mediates arsenite toxicity in respiration-proficient cells. • NADPH-derived superoxide mediates arsenite toxicity in respiration-deficient cells. • Arsenite causes apoptosis

  18. Metabolic and Molecular Events Occurring during Chromoplast Biogenesis

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    Wanping Bian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromoplasts are nonphotosynthetic plastids that accumulate carotenoids. They derive from other plastid forms, mostly chloroplasts. The biochemical events responsible for the interconversion of one plastid form into another are poorly documented. However, thanks to transcriptomics and proteomics approaches, novel information is now available. Data of proteomic and biochemical analysis revealed the importance of lipid metabolism and carotenoids biosynthetic activities. The loss of photosynthetic activity was associated with the absence of the chlorophyll biosynthesis branch and the presence of proteins involved in chlorophyll degradation. Surprisingly, the entire set of Calvin cycle and of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway persisted after the transition from chloroplast to chromoplast. The role of plastoglobules in the formation and organisation of carotenoid-containing structures and that of the Or gene in the control of chromoplastogenesis are reviewed. Finally, using transcriptomic data, an overview is given the expression pattern of a number of genes encoding plastid-located proteins during tomato fruit ripening.

  19. The C-terminal tail of CRTH2 is a key molecular determinant that constrains GalphaI- and downstream-signaling cascade activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Ralf; Merten, Nicole; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandin D(2) activation of the seven transmembrane receptor CRTH2 regulates numerous cell functions that are important in inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Despite its disease implication, no studies to date aimed at identifying receptor domains governing signaling and surface expression......2 at the plasma membrane, presence of this domain confers a signaling-compromised conformation onto the receptor. Indeed, a mutant receptor lacking the major portion of its C-terminal tail displays paradoxically enhanced Galphai and ERK1/2 activation in spite of enhanced constitutive and agonist......-mediated internalization. Enhanced activation of Galphai proteins and downstream signaling cascades is likely due to the inability of the tail-truncated receptor to recruit beta-arrestin2 and undergo homologous desensitization. Unexpectedly, CRTH2 is not phosphorylated upon agonist-stimulation, a primary mechanism...

  20. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  1. Action-Derived Molecular Dynamics in the Study of Rare Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passerone, Daniele; Parrinello, Michele

    2001-09-03

    We present a practical method to generate classical trajectories with fixed initial and final boundary conditions. Our method is based on the minimization of a suitably defined discretized action. The method finds its most natural application in the study of rare events. Its capabilities are illustrated by nontrivial examples. The algorithm lends itself to straightforward parallelization, and when combined with ab initio molecular dynamics it promises to offer a powerful tool for the study of chemical reactions.

  2. Action-Derived Molecular Dynamics in the Study of Rare Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passerone, Daniele; Parrinello, Michele

    2001-01-01

    We present a practical method to generate classical trajectories with fixed initial and final boundary conditions. Our method is based on the minimization of a suitably defined discretized action. The method finds its most natural application in the study of rare events. Its capabilities are illustrated by nontrivial examples. The algorithm lends itself to straightforward parallelization, and when combined with ab initio molecular dynamics it promises to offer a powerful tool for the study of chemical reactions

  3. Facilitating adverse drug event detection in pharmacovigilance databases using molecular structure similarity: application to rhabdomyolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert S; Costanzi, Stefano; Rabadan, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Background Adverse drug events (ADE) cause considerable harm to patients, and consequently their detection is critical for patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration maintains an adverse event reporting system (AERS) to facilitate the detection of ADE in drugs. Various data mining approaches have been developed that use AERS to detect signals identifying associations between drugs and ADE. The signals must then be monitored further by domain experts, which is a time-consuming task. Objective To develop a new methodology that combines existing data mining algorithms with chemical information by analysis of molecular fingerprints to enhance initial ADE signals generated from AERS, and to provide a decision support mechanism to facilitate the identification of novel adverse events. Results The method achieved a significant improvement in precision in identifying known ADE, and a more than twofold signal enhancement when applied to the ADE rhabdomyolysis. The simplicity of the method assists in highlighting the etiology of the ADE by identifying structurally similar drugs. A set of drugs with strong evidence from both AERS and molecular fingerprint-based modeling is constructed for further analysis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the proposed methodology could be used as a pharmacovigilance decision support tool to facilitate ADE detection. PMID:21946238

  4. Iterative Calibration: A Novel Approach for Calibrating the Molecular Clock Using Complex Geological Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeza-Quintana, Tzitziki; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2018-02-01

    During the past 50 years, the molecular clock has become one of the main tools for providing a time scale for the history of life. In the era of robust molecular evolutionary analysis, clock calibration is still one of the most basic steps needing attention. When fossil records are limited, well-dated geological events are the main resource for calibration. However, biogeographic calibrations have often been used in a simplistic manner, for example assuming simultaneous vicariant divergence of multiple sister lineages. Here, we propose a novel iterative calibration approach to define the most appropriate calibration date by seeking congruence between the dates assigned to multiple allopatric divergences and the geological history. Exploring patterns of molecular divergence in 16 trans-Bering sister clades of echinoderms, we demonstrate that the iterative calibration is predominantly advantageous when using complex geological or climatological events-such as the opening/reclosure of the Bering Strait-providing a powerful tool for clock dating that can be applied to other biogeographic calibration systems and further taxa. Using Bayesian analysis, we observed that evolutionary rate variability in the COI-5P gene is generally distributed in a clock-like fashion for Northern echinoderms. The results reveal a large range of genetic divergences, consistent with multiple pulses of trans-Bering migrations. A resulting rate of 2.8% pairwise Kimura-2-parameter sequence divergence per million years is suggested for the COI-5P gene in Northern echinoderms. Given that molecular rates may vary across latitudes and taxa, this study provides a new context for dating the evolutionary history of Arctic marine life.

  5. Novel molecular events associated with altered steroidogenesis induced by exposure to atrazine in the intact and castrate male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology is increasingly focused on molecular events comprising adverse outcome pathways. Atrazine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but relationships to gonadal alterations are unknown. We characterized hormone profiles and adrenal (intact and castrate) and te...

  6. Energetic atomic and molecular ions of ionospheric origin observed in distant magnetotail flow-reversal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, S. P.; Gloeckler, G.; Williams, D. J.; Mukai, T.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jacquey, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Kokubun, S.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    Energetic atomic (O(+1) and N(+1)) and molecular (O2(+1), NO(+1), and N2(+1)) ions of ionospheric origin were observed in Earth's magnetotail at X approximately -146 R(sub E) during two plasma sheet sunward/tailward flow-reversal events measured by instruments on the GEOTAIL spacecraft. These events were associated with concurrent ground-measured geomagnetic disturbance intensification at auroral-and mid-latitudes (Kp = 7(-)). Energetic ions in the sunward-component and tailward flows were from both the solar wind and ionosphere. Plasma and energetic ions participated in the flows. During tailward flow, ionospheric origin ion abundance ratios at approximately 200-900 km/s in the rest frame were N(+1)/O(+1) = approximately 25-30% and ((O2(+1), NO(+1), and N2(+1))/O(+1) = approximately 1-2%. We argue that tailward flow most likely initiated approximately 80-100 R(sub E) tailward of Earth and molecular ions were in the plasma sheet prior to geomagnetic intensification onset.

  7. Insights into the Molecular Events That Regulate Heat-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Citrus Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, María T; Establés-Ortíz, Beatriz; González-Candelas, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI), which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented. A transcriptomic analysis reveals that heat-conditioning has an important impact favoring the repression of genes in cold-stored fruit, and that long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance is an active process that requires activation of transcription factors involved in transcription initiation and of the WRKY family. The analysis also shows that chilling favors degradation processes, which affect lipids and proteins, and that the protective effect of the heat-conditioning treatment is more likely to be related to the repression of the genes involved in lipid degradation than to the modification of fatty acids unsaturation, which affects membrane permeability. Another major factor associated with the beneficial effect of the heat treatment on reducing CI is the regulation of stress-related proteins. Many of the genes that encoded such proteins are involved in secondary metabolism and in oxidative stress-related processes.

  8. Insights into the Molecular Events That Regulate Heat-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Citrus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Lafuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI, which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented. A transcriptomic analysis reveals that heat-conditioning has an important impact favoring the repression of genes in cold-stored fruit, and that long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance is an active process that requires activation of transcription factors involved in transcription initiation and of the WRKY family. The analysis also shows that chilling favors degradation processes, which affect lipids and proteins, and that the protective effect of the heat-conditioning treatment is more likely to be related to the repression of the genes involved in lipid degradation than to the modification of fatty acids unsaturation, which affects membrane permeability. Another major factor associated with the beneficial effect of the heat treatment on reducing CI is the regulation of stress-related proteins. Many of the genes that encoded such proteins are involved in secondary metabolism and in oxidative stress-related processes.

  9. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, B. A.; Liu, B.; Weber, W. J.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Zhang, Y.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, low-energy recoil events in MgO are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the dynamic displacement processes and final defect configurations. Threshold displacement energies, E_d, are obtained for Mg and O along three low-index crystallographic directions, [100], [110], and [111]. The minimum values for E_d are found along the [110] direction consisting of the same element, either Mg or O atoms. Minimum threshold values of 29.5 eV for Mg and 25.5 eV for O, respectively, are suggested from the calculations. For other directions, the threshold energies are considerably higher, 65.5 and 150.0 eV for O along [111] and [100], and 122.5 eV for Mg along both [111] and [100] directions, respectively. These results show that the recoil events in MgO are partial-charge transfer assisted processes where the charge transfer plays an important role. Finally, there is a similar trend found in other oxide materials, where the threshold displacement energy correlates linearly with the peak partial-charge transfer, suggesting this behavior might be universal in ceramic oxides.

  11. Defining molecular initiating events in the adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy E H; Goodman, Jonathan M; Gutsell, Steve; Russell, Paul J

    2014-12-15

    Consumer and environmental safety decisions are based on exposure and hazard data, interpreted using risk assessment approaches. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) conceptual framework has been presented as a logical sequence of events or processes within biological systems which can be used to understand adverse effects and refine current risk assessment practices in ecotoxicology. This framework can also be applied to human toxicology and is explored on the basis of investigating the molecular initiating events (MIEs) of compounds. The precise definition of the MIE has yet to reach general acceptance. In this work we present a unified MIE definition: an MIE is the initial interaction between a molecule and a biomolecule or biosystem that can be causally linked to an outcome via a pathway. Case studies are presented, and issues with current definitions are addressed. With the development of a unified MIE definition, the field can look toward defining, classifying, and characterizing more MIEs and using knowledge of the chemistry of these processes to aid AOP research and toxicity risk assessment. We also present the role of MIE research in the development of in vitro and in silico toxicology and suggest how, by using a combination of biological and chemical approaches, MIEs can be identified and characterized despite a lack of detailed reports, even for some of the most studied molecules in toxicology.

  12. Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.

    2005-01-01

    The transition from a normal cell to a neoplastic cell is a complex process and involves both genetic and epigenetic changes. The process of carcinogenesis begins when the DNA is damaged, which then leads to a cascade of events leading to the development of a tumor. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes DNA damage, inflammation, erythema, sunburn, immunosuppression, photoaging, gene mutations, and skin cancer. Upon DNA damage, the p53 tumor suppressor protein undergoes phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus and aids in DNA repair or causes apoptosis. Excessive UV exposure overwhelms DNA repair mechanisms leading to induction of p53 mutations and loss of Fas-FasL interaction. Keratinocytes carrying p53 mutations acquire a growth advantage by virtue of their increased resistance to apoptosis. Thus, resistance to cell death is a key event in photocarcinogenesis and conversely, elimination of cells containing excessive UV-induced DNA damage is a key step in protecting against skin cancer development. Apoptosis-resistant keratinocytes undergo clonal expansion that eventually leads to formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas. In this article, we will review some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of UV-induced skin cancer

  13. Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikova, Vladislava O. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 301402, Unit 902, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 301402, Unit 902, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)]. E-mail: hanantha@mdanderson.org

    2005-04-01

    The transition from a normal cell to a neoplastic cell is a complex process and involves both genetic and epigenetic changes. The process of carcinogenesis begins when the DNA is damaged, which then leads to a cascade of events leading to the development of a tumor. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes DNA damage, inflammation, erythema, sunburn, immunosuppression, photoaging, gene mutations, and skin cancer. Upon DNA damage, the p53 tumor suppressor protein undergoes phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus and aids in DNA repair or causes apoptosis. Excessive UV exposure overwhelms DNA repair mechanisms leading to induction of p53 mutations and loss of Fas-FasL interaction. Keratinocytes carrying p53 mutations acquire a growth advantage by virtue of their increased resistance to apoptosis. Thus, resistance to cell death is a key event in photocarcinogenesis and conversely, elimination of cells containing excessive UV-induced DNA damage is a key step in protecting against skin cancer development. Apoptosis-resistant keratinocytes undergo clonal expansion that eventually leads to formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas. In this article, we will review some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of UV-induced skin cancer.

  14. An Event-Driven Hybrid Molecular Dynamics and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, A; Garcia, A L; Alder, B J

    2007-07-30

    A novel algorithm is developed for the simulation of polymer chains suspended in a solvent. The polymers are represented as chains of hard spheres tethered by square wells and interact with the solvent particles with hard core potentials. The algorithm uses event-driven molecular dynamics (MD) for the simulation of the polymer chain and the interactions between the chain beads and the surrounding solvent particles. The interactions between the solvent particles themselves are not treated deterministically as in event-driven algorithms, rather, the momentum and energy exchange in the solvent is determined stochastically using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The coupling between the solvent and the solute is consistently represented at the particle level, however, unlike full MD simulations of both the solvent and the solute, the spatial structure of the solvent is ignored. The algorithm is described in detail and applied to the study of the dynamics of a polymer chain tethered to a hard wall subjected to uniform shear. The algorithm closely reproduces full MD simulations with two orders of magnitude greater efficiency. Results do not confirm the existence of periodic (cycling) motion of the polymer chain.

  15. Diagnostic and molecular evaluation of three iridovirus-associated salamander mortality events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Meteyer, C.U.; Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, J.; Case, S.T.; Chinchar, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 viruses were isolated from tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli and A. tigrinum melanostictum) involved in North Dakota and Utah (USA) mortality events and spotted salamander (A. maculatum) larvae in a third event in Maine (USA). Although sympatric caudates and anurans were present at all three sites only ambystomid larvae appeared to be affected. Mortality at the North Dakota site was in the thousands while at the Utah and Maine sites mortality was in the hundreds. Sick larvae were lethargic and slow moving. They swam in circles with obvious buoyancy problems and were unable to remain upright. On the ventral surface, near the gills and hind limbs, red spots or swollen areas were noted. Necropsy findings included: hemorrhages and ulceration of the skin, subcutaneous and intramuscular edema, swollen and pale livers with multifocal hemorrhage, and distended fluid-filled intestines with areas of hemorrhage. Light microscopy revealed intracytoplasmic inclusions, suggestive of a viral infection, in a variety of organs. Electron microscopy of ultra thin sections of the same tissues revealed iridovirus-like particles within the inclusions. These viruses were isolated from a variety of organs, indicating a systemic infection. Representative viral isolates from the three mortality events were characterized using molecular assays. Characterization confirmed that the viral isolates were iridoviruses and that the two tiger salamander isolates were similar and could be distinguished from the spotted salamander isolate. The spotted salamander isolate was similar to frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, while the tiger salamander isolates were not. These data indicate that different species of salamanders can become infected and die in association with different iridoviruses. Challenge assays are required to determine the fish and amphibian host range of these isolates and to assess the susceptibility of tiger and spotted salamanders to

  16. PASBio: predicate-argument structures for event extraction in molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattarujeekrit, Tuangthong; Shah, Parantu K; Collier, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    Background The exploitation of information extraction (IE), a technology aiming to provide instances of structured representations from free-form text, has been rapidly growing within the molecular biology (MB) research community to keep track of the latest results reported in literature. IE systems have traditionally used shallow syntactic patterns for matching facts in sentences but such approaches appear inadequate to achieve high accuracy in MB event extraction due to complex sentence structure. A consensus in the IE community is emerging on the necessity for exploiting deeper knowledge structures such as through the relations between a verb and its arguments shown by predicate-argument structure (PAS). PAS is of interest as structures typically correspond to events of interest and their participating entities. For this to be realized within IE a key knowledge component is the definition of PAS frames. PAS frames for non-technical domains such as newswire are already being constructed in several projects such as PropBank, VerbNet, and FrameNet. Knowledge from PAS should enable more accurate applications in several areas where sentence understanding is required like machine translation and text summarization. In this article, we explore the need to adapt PAS for the MB domain and specify PAS frames to support IE, as well as outlining the major issues that require consideration in their construction. Results We introduce PASBio by extending a model based on PropBank to the MB domain. The hypothesis we explore is that PAS holds the key for understanding relationships describing the roles of genes and gene products in mediating their biological functions. We chose predicates describing gene expression, molecular interactions and signal transduction events with the aim of covering a number of research areas in MB. Analysis was performed on sentences containing a set of verbal predicates from MEDLINE and full text journals. Results confirm the necessity to analyze

  17. Collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event in Caenorhabditis elegans aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Anat; Miller, Elizabeth A; Morimoto, Richard I

    2009-09-01

    Protein damage contributes prominently to cellular aging. To address whether this occurs at a specific period during aging or accumulates gradually, we monitored the biochemical, cellular, and physiological properties of folding sensors expressed in different tissues of C. elegans. We observed the age-dependent misfolding and loss of function of diverse proteins harboring temperature-sensitive missense mutations in all somatic tissues at the permissive condition. This widespread failure in proteostasis occurs rapidly at an early stage of adulthood, and coincides with a severely reduced activation of the cytoprotective heat shock response and the unfolded protein response. Enhancing stress responsive factors HSF-1 or DAF-16 suppresses misfolding of these metastable folding sensors and restores the ability of the cell to maintain a functional proteome. This suggests that a compromise in the regulation of proteostatic stress responses occurs early in adulthood and tips the balance between the load of damaged proteins and the proteostasis machinery. We propose that the collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event of aging that amplifies protein damage in age-associated diseases of protein conformation.

  18. Molecular confirmation of Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccine related adverse events among Saudi Arabian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahal Al-Hajoj

    Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG is the only available vaccine for tuberculosis (TB. Low grade complications in healthy recipients and disseminated vaccine associated complications among immuno-suppressed individuals were noticed globally after administration. Recently a series of clinically suspected BCG associated suppurative and non-suppurative lymphadenitis cases were reported from different regions of Saudi Arabia. However a molecular confirmative analysis was lacking to prove these claims.During 2009-2010, 42 Mycobacterium bovis BCG suspected clinical isolates from children diagnosed with suppurative lymphadenitis from different provinces of the country were collected and subjected to 24 loci based MIRU-VNTR typing, spoligotyping and first line anti-TB drugs susceptibility testing.Of the total 42 cases, 41 (97.6% were Saudi nationals and particularly male (64.3%. Majority of the cases were aged below 6 months (83.3% with a median of age 4 months. All the enrolled subjects showed left axillary mass which suppurated in a median of 4 months after vaccination. Among the study subjects, 1 (2.4% case was reactive to HIV antigen and 2 (4.8% case had severe combined immunodeficiency. Genotyping results showed that, 41 (97.6% isolates were identical to the vaccine strain Danish 1331 and one to Tokyo 172-1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed all the Danish 1331 isolates in a single cluster.Elevated proportion of suppurative lymphadenitis caused by M. bovis BCG reported in the country recently is majorly related to the vaccine strain Danish 1331. However lack of nationwide data on real magnitude of BCG related adverse events warrants population centric, long term future studies.

  19. Initial Chemical Events in CL-20 Under Extreme Conditions: An Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaev, Olexandr; Kholod, Yana; Gorb, Leonid; Qasim, Mohammad; Fredrickson, Herb; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    .... In the present study molecular structure, electrostatic potential, vibrational spectrum and dynamics of thermal decomposition of CL-20 have been investigated by static and dynamic methods of ab...

  20. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Células madre: generalidades, eventos biológicos y moleculares Stem cells: general aspects, biological and molecular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica María Cortés Márquez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las autorrenovación y la diferenciación son características de las células madre que varían entre los diferentes tipos celulares según el tejido en el que se encuentren y el microambiente que las rodee. En ambos procesos intervienen inhibidores del ciclo celular, genes implicados en rearreglos cromosómicos, proteínas del desarrollo esencial y vías de señalización específicas. La autorrenovación está regulada por diversos mecanismos, entre los cuales se destacan las vías Wnt, Notch y Hedgehog, y los factores BMI-1, p16Ink4a, ARF, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX2, HOXB4 y sus páralogos. Los adelantos en el conocimiento de la biología de las células madre y de los mecanismos moleculares que regulan la autorrenovación y la diferenciación han convertido a estas células en una importante promesa para la investigación básica y aplicada. Self-renewal capacity and differentiation are features of stem cells that vary among the different cellular types according to the tissue in which they reside and the surrounding microenvironment. Cellular cycle inhibitors, genes implied in chromosomal rearrangements, essential development proteins and specific signaling pathways intervene in these processes. Self-renewal is regulated by different mechanisms, the most important of which are the Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog pathways, and the factors BMI-1, p16Ink4a, ARF, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX2, HOXB4 and their paralogs. Advances in the knowledge of stem cells biology and of the molecular mechanisms that influence their selfrenewal and differentiation have made these cells an important promise for both basic and appliedresearch.

  2. The jet membrane-experiment: downstream sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campargue, R.

    1976-01-01

    The invasion separation effect of the free jet structure was found in 1966 at Saclay. In the Downstream Sampling Configuration patended by Campargue (1967), the light fraction is withdrawn from the supersonic central core, by skimming the separating free jet. From experimental and theoretical results obtained for gas and isotopic mixtures, the following points linked to operation and equipment costs, are considered: system description; influence of mass ratio, expansion ratio, nature of separating gas, ratio of upflow to separating jet flow, rarefaction. Fron an uninteresting aspect of Jet Membrane (elimination of background penetration), a new principle has been discovered to produce nozzle beams which may be of great interest for other separation processes involving free jets and/or molecular beams [fr

  3. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  4. Fast transient current response to switching events in short chains of molecular islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav; Velický, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 773-777 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium * molecular islands * initial correlations * transient currents Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  5. Operational optimization in the downstream; Otimizacao operacional no downstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberman, Luis; Cunha, Filipe Silveira Ramos da [Petroleo Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    On the present competitive down stream's market, there is a great necessity of optimization aiming to guarantee the best price and quality of our clients. Our goal is to attend these expectations while we guarantee an efficient operation. The greatest question is how far we are from the ideal model. This way, a lot of projects have been executed during the last years aiming the operational optimization of all our activities. We divide the projects in 4 areas: Logistic (new modals distribution), Transport (transport optimization - quality and more deliveries with less trucks), Client Support (Internet Ipiranga and Support Center), Distribution Terminals Productivity (automation and environment). This work intend to present our ideal, perfect and complete Downstream Operation model. We will talk about how close we are of this ideal model and we will present the projects that we had already developed and implanted on the automation of the terminals and the logistics area. (author)

  6. Genetic plasticity of the Shigella virulence plasmid is mediated by intra- and inter-molecular events between insertion sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Giulia; McVicker, Gareth; Tang, Christoph M

    2017-09-01

    Acquisition of a single copy, large virulence plasmid, pINV, led to the emergence of Shigella spp. from Escherichia coli. The plasmid encodes a Type III secretion system (T3SS) on a 30 kb pathogenicity island (PAI), and is maintained in a bacterial population through a series of toxin:antitoxin (TA) systems which mediate post-segregational killing (PSK). The T3SS imposes a significant cost on the bacterium, and strains which have lost the plasmid and/or genes encoding the T3SS grow faster than wild-type strains in the laboratory, and fail to bind the indicator dye Congo Red (CR). Our aim was to define the molecular events in Shigella flexneri that cause loss of Type III secretion (T3S), and to examine whether TA systems exert positional effects on pINV. During growth at 37°C, we found that deletions of regions of the plasmid including the PAI lead to the emergence of CR-negative colonies; deletions occur through intra-molecular recombination events between insertion sequences (ISs) flanking the PAI. Furthermore, by repositioning MvpAT (which belongs to the VapBC family of TA systems) near the PAI, we demonstrate that the location of this TA system alters the rearrangements that lead to loss of T3S, indicating that MvpAT acts both globally (by reducing loss of pINV through PSK) as well as locally (by preventing loss of adjacent sequences). During growth at environmental temperatures, we show for the first time that pINV spontaneously integrates into different sites in the chromosome, and this is mediated by inter-molecular events involving IS1294. Integration leads to reduced PAI gene expression and impaired secretion through the T3SS, while excision of pINV from the chromosome restores T3SS function. Therefore, pINV integration provides a reversible mechanism for Shigella to circumvent the metabolic burden imposed by pINV. Intra- and inter-molecular events between ISs, which are abundant in Shigella spp., mediate plasticity of S. flexneri pINV.

  7. A Network of AOPs for reduced thyroid hormone synthesis derived from inhibition of Thyroperoxidase - A common Molecular Initiating Event Leading to Species-Specific Indices of Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection of 3 AOPs describe varying outcomes of adversity dependent upon species in response to inhibition of thyroperoxidase (TPO) during development. Chemical inhibition of TPO, the molecular-initiating event (MIE), results in decreased thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, a...

  8. Downstream behavior of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, I.; Farahat, M.K.; Settle, J.L.; Johnson, C.E.; Ritzman, R.

    1986-01-01

    The downstream behavior of fission products has been investigated by injecting mixtures of CsOH, CsI, and Te into a flowing steam/hydrogen stream and determining the physical and chemical changes that took place as the gaseous mixture flowed down a reaction duct on which a temperature gradient (1000 0 to 200 0 C) had been imposed. Deposition on the wall of the duct occurred by vapor condensation in the higher temperature regions and by aerosol deposition in the remainder of the duct. Reactions in the gas stream between CsOH and CsI and between CsOH and Te had an effect on the vapor condensation. The aerosol was characterized by the use of impingement tabs placed in the gas stream

  9. The role of stable α-synuclein oligomers in the molecular events underlying amyloid formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Nikolai; Nielsen, Søren Bang; Buell, Alexander K.

    2014-01-01

    α-synuclein (αSN), whose aggregation is strongly implicated in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The two types of oligomers are both formed under conditions where amyloid fibril formation is observed but differ in molecular weight by an order of magnitude. Both possess a degree of β......, either as precursors of fibrils or as species involved in the fibril elongation process or instead if they are associated with an aggregation process that is distinct from that generating mature fibrils. Here we describe and characterize in detail two well-defined oligomeric species formed by the protein...

  10. Quantification of pancreatic cancer proteome and phosphorylome: indicates molecular events likely contributing to cancer and activity of drug targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Britton

    Full Text Available LC-MS/MS phospho-proteomics is an essential technology to help unravel the complex molecular events that lead to and propagate cancer. We have developed a global phospho-proteomic workflow to determine activity of signaling pathways and drug targets in pancreatic cancer tissue for clinical application.Peptides resulting from tryptic digestion of proteins extracted from frozen tissue of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and background pancreas (n = 12, were labelled with tandem mass tags (TMT 8-plex, separated by strong cation exchange chromatography, then were analysed by LC-MS/MS directly or first enriched for phosphopeptides using IMAC and TiO2, prior to analysis. In-house, commercial and freeware bioinformatic platforms were used to identify relevant biological events from the complex dataset.Of 2,101 proteins identified, 152 demonstrated significant difference in abundance between tumor and non-tumor tissue. They included proteins that are known to be up-regulated in pancreatic cancer (e.g. Mucin-1, but the majority were new candidate markers such as HIPK1 & MLCK. Of the 6,543 unique phosphopeptides identified (6,284 unique phosphorylation sites, 635 showed significant regulation, particularly those from proteins involved in cell migration (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors & MRCKα and formation of focal adhesions. Activator phosphorylation sites on FYN, AKT1, ERK2, HDAC1 and other drug targets were found to be highly modulated (≥2 fold in different cases highlighting their predictive power.Here we provided critical information enabling us to identify the common and unique molecular events likely contributing to cancer in each case. Such information may be used to help predict more bespoke therapy suitable for an individual case.

  11. Quantification of pancreatic cancer proteome and phosphorylome: indicates molecular events likely contributing to cancer and activity of drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, David; Zen, Yoh; Quaglia, Alberto; Selzer, Stefan; Mitra, Vikram; Löβner, Christopher; Jung, Stephan; Böhm, Gitte; Schmid, Peter; Prefot, Petra; Hoehle, Claudia; Koncarevic, Sasa; Gee, Julia; Nicholson, Robert; Ward, Malcolm; Castellano, Leandro; Stebbing, Justin; Zucht, Hans Dieter; Sarker, Debashis; Heaton, Nigel; Pike, Ian

    2014-01-01

    LC-MS/MS phospho-proteomics is an essential technology to help unravel the complex molecular events that lead to and propagate cancer. We have developed a global phospho-proteomic workflow to determine activity of signaling pathways and drug targets in pancreatic cancer tissue for clinical application. Peptides resulting from tryptic digestion of proteins extracted from frozen tissue of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and background pancreas (n = 12), were labelled with tandem mass tags (TMT 8-plex), separated by strong cation exchange chromatography, then were analysed by LC-MS/MS directly or first enriched for phosphopeptides using IMAC and TiO2, prior to analysis. In-house, commercial and freeware bioinformatic platforms were used to identify relevant biological events from the complex dataset. Of 2,101 proteins identified, 152 demonstrated significant difference in abundance between tumor and non-tumor tissue. They included proteins that are known to be up-regulated in pancreatic cancer (e.g. Mucin-1), but the majority were new candidate markers such as HIPK1 & MLCK. Of the 6,543 unique phosphopeptides identified (6,284 unique phosphorylation sites), 635 showed significant regulation, particularly those from proteins involved in cell migration (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors & MRCKα) and formation of focal adhesions. Activator phosphorylation sites on FYN, AKT1, ERK2, HDAC1 and other drug targets were found to be highly modulated (≥2 fold) in different cases highlighting their predictive power. Here we provided critical information enabling us to identify the common and unique molecular events likely contributing to cancer in each case. Such information may be used to help predict more bespoke therapy suitable for an individual case.

  12. Phylogenetic and molecular epidemiological studies reveal evidence of multiple past recombination events between infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    Full Text Available In contrast to the RNA viruses, the genome of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses have been considered to be relatively stable. Intra-specific recombination has been proposed as an important, but underestimated, driving force in herpesvirus evolution. Recently, two distinct field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV have been shown to have arisen from independent recombination events between different commercial ILTV vaccines. In this study we sequenced the genomes of additional ILTV strains and also utilized other recently updated complete genome sequences of ILTV to confirm the existence of a number of ILTV recombinants in nature. Multiple recombination events were detected in the unique long and repeat regions of the genome, but not in the unique short region. Most recombinants contained a pair of crossover points between two distinct lineages of ILTV, corresponding to the European origin and the Australian origin vaccine strains of ILTV. These results suggest that there are two distinct genotypic lineages of ILTV and that these commonly recombine in the field.

  13. Downstream events of neurogenin 3 in pancreatic endocrine differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christ, Louise Christiane Rosenberg

    cells into insulin producing cells in vitro. The hope is that successful production of ß-cells from stem cells combined with a good protocol for the transplantation of these cells into human beings would offer an opportunity for diabetes patients to obtain a normal glucose homeostasis and be relieved......Diabetes affects more than 170 million people world wide and a prognosis suggests that the prevalence will increase over the next 30 year. In Denmark, the prevalence doubled from 1996 to 2007, where 240.000 people were affected. Diabetes is the manifestation of abnormalities regarding glucose...... target of Neurog3. The truncated Neurog3 proteins revealed that an intact bHLH domain and the region of amino acids flanking the bHLH on the N-terminal side may be involved in nuclear localisation as the proteins lacking the N-terminal domain or with a truncated bHLH domain were present to a larger...

  14. Evidence for nucleosynthetic enrichment of the protosolar molecular cloud core by multiple supernova events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Martin; Paton, Chad; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The presence of isotope heterogeneity of nucleosynthetic origin amongst meteorites and their components provides a record of the diverse stars that contributed matter to the protosolar molecular cloud core. Understanding how and when the solar system's nucleosynthetic heterogeneity was established...... and preserved within the solar protoplanetary disk is critical for unraveling the earliest formative stages of the solar system. Here, we report calcium and magnesium isotope measurements of primitive and differentiated meteorites as well as various types of refractory inclusions, including refractory...... and differentiated meteorites along with canonical and FUN-CAIs define correlated, mass-independent variations in 43Ca, 46Ca and 48Ca. Moreover, sequential dissolution experiments of the Ivuna carbonaceous chondrite aimed at identifying the nature and number of presolar carriers of isotope anomalies within primitive...

  15. Molecular events by which dendritic cells promote Th2 immune protection in helmith infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Samperio, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Helminth parasites are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting nearly one quarter of the world's population. The common feature of helminth infections is to skew the immune system towards a T-helper 2 (Th2) response that helps to control disease. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen-presenting cells, play a critical role for Th2 skewing against helminth parasites. However, the molecular mechanisms by which helminth antigens activate DCs for Th2 polarization have not yet been clearly defined. This review provides a focused update on the major role of DCs for inducing and/or enhancing Th2 immune responses in helminthic infection and will discuss the main signalling-dependent and independent mechanisms by which helminth antigens activate DCs for Th2 skewing.

  16. A downstream voyage with mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective essay for the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.As I look back on my paper, “Effects of Low Dietary Levels of Methyl Mercury on Mallard Reproduction,” published in 1974 in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, a thought sticks in my mind. I realize just how much my mercury research was not unlike a leaf in a stream, carried this way and that, sometimes stalled in an eddy, restarted, and carried downstream at a pace and path that was not completely under my control. I was hired in 1969 by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to study the effects of environmental pollutants on the behavior of wildlife. A colleague was conducting a study on the reproductive effects of methylmercury on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and he offered to give me some of the ducklings. I conducted a pilot study, testing how readily ducklings approached a tape-recorded maternal call. Sample sizes were small, but the results suggested that ducklings from mercury-treated parents behaved differently than controls. That’s how I got into mercury research—pretty much by chance.

  17. Analogies Between Digital Radio and Chemical Orthogonality as a Method for Enhanced Analysis of Molecular Recognition Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hun Lee

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic wave biosensors are a real-time, label-free biosensor technology, which have been exploited for the detection of proteins and cells. One of the conventional biosensor approaches involves the immobilization of a monolayer of antibodies onto the surface of the acoustic wave device for the detection of a specific analyte. The method described within includes at least two immobilizations of two different antibodies onto the surfaces of two separate acoustic wave devices for the detection of several analogous analytes. The chemical specificity of the molecular recognition event is achieved by virtue of the extremely high (nM to pM binding affinity between the antibody and its antigen. In a standard ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay test, there are multiple steps and the end result is a measure of what is bound so tightly that it does not wash away easily. The fact that this “gold standard” is very much not real time, masks the dance that is the molecular recognition event. X-Ray Crystallographer, Ian Wilson, demonstrated more than a decade ago that antibodies undergo conformational change during a binding event[1, 2]. Further, it is known in the arena of immunochemistry that some antibodies exhibit significant cross-reactivity and this is widely termed antibody promiscuity. A third piece of the puzzle that we will exploit in our system of acoustic wave biosensors is the notion of chemical orthogonality. These three biochemical constructs, the dance, antibody promiscuity and chemical orthogonality will be combined in this paper with the notions of Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9 155 in-phase (I and quadrature (Q signals from digital radio to manifest an approach to molecular recognition that allows a level of discrimination and analysis unobtainable without the aggregate. As an example we present experimental data on the detection of TNT, RDX, C4, ammonium nitrate and musk oil from a system of antibody-coated acoustic

  18. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Research during the past year has been directed at induction of specific protein synthesis in differentiated mammalian cells. The Primer Hypothesis for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression suggests that RNA transcription is primed by small molecular weight RNA. It predicts that albumin mRNA transcription in a 3T3 fibroblast, which ordinarily does not produce albumin, can be initiated by RNA primer present in liver cells. In experiments this past year, mouse fibroblasts were incubated with mouse liver RNA. These cells did indeed produce albumin which was detected by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Confluent 3T3 cell cultures were incubated with mouse liver RNA and polylysine in serum free media. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) of the dialyzed and lyophilized media against mouse albumin antisera gave a single precipitin line indicating albumin snthesis by the fibroblasts. The synthesis of this protein immunologicaly similar to albumin required new albumin mRNA transcription since it was not synthesized in the presence of actinomycin, could be found in media which had been incubated with RNA significantly smaller in size than albumin mRNA, and was synthesized in the absence of added poly A containing RNA. These results represent the first reported demonstration that RNA can be taken up from the media by cells in culture, and can induce in those cells the production of a differentiated cell product not ordinarily synthesized by those cells, i.e, a change in the normal transcription pattern in those cells

  19. ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR EVENTS IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: MOLECULAR GENETIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Karpenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study association between stroke and gene polymorphism of angeotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angeotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR1, apolipoprotein СIII (APO CIII, apoproteine Е (APO E, methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, fibrinogen (Fb, endothelial NO-synthase (NOS3 in arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Molecular genetic analysis by polymerase chain reaction was done in 41 patients with HT, who experienced first episode of acute disturbances of cerebral blood circulation (ADCBC.Results. Stroke rate in patients with HT is associated with A1166C of ATR1 gene polymorphism, G-455A of Fb gene polymorphism and C677T of MTHFR gene polymorphism. The high risk markers are C-allele of ATR1 gene, -455А allele and AA genotype of Fb gene, 677T allele of MTHFR. The A-allele and genotype AA of ATR1 gene, G-445 allele of Fb gene, С677-allele and CC genotype of MTHFR gene play protective role against ADCBC in HT.Conclusion. It is established an association between gene polymorphism of some molecules and ADCBC in HT.

  20. Origin of microbial life: Nano- and molecular events, thermodynamics/entropy, quantum mechanisms and genetic instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2011-03-01

    Currently, there are no agreed upon mechanisms and supporting evidence for the origin of the first microbial cells on the Earth. However, some hypotheses have been proposed with minimal supporting evidence and experimentation/observations. The approach taken in this article is that life originated at the nano- and molecular levels of biological organization, using quantum mechanic principles that became manifested as classical microbial cell(s), allowing the origin of microbial life on the Earth with a core or minimal, organic, genetic code containing the correct instructions for cell(s) for growth and division, in a micron dimension environment, with a local entropy range conducive to life (present about 4 billion years ago), and obeying the laws of thermodynamics. An integrated approach that explores all encompassing factors necessary for the origin of life, may bring forth plausible hypotheses (and mechanisms) with much needed supporting experimentation and observations for an origin of life theory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Visualization of early events in acetic acid denaturation of HIV-1 protease: a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Narendra Borkar

    Full Text Available Protein denaturation plays a crucial role in cellular processes. In this study, denaturation of HIV-1 Protease (PR was investigated by all-atom MD simulations in explicit solvent. The PR dimer and monomer were simulated separately in 9 M acetic acid (9 M AcOH solution and water to study the denaturation process of PR in acetic acid environment. Direct visualization of the denaturation dynamics that is readily available from such simulations has been presented. Our simulations in 9 M AcOH reveal that the PR denaturation begins by separation of dimer into intact monomers and it is only after this separation that the monomer units start denaturing. The denaturation of the monomers is flagged off by the loss of crucial interactions between the α-helix at C-terminal and surrounding β-strands. This causes the structure to transit from the equilibrium dynamics to random non-equilibrating dynamics. Residence time calculations indicate that denaturation occurs via direct interaction of the acetic acid molecules with certain regions of the protein in 9 M AcOH. All these observations have helped to decipher a picture of the early events in acetic acid denaturation of PR and have illustrated that the α-helix and the β-sheet at the C-terminus of a native and functional PR dimer should maintain both the stability and the function of the enzyme and thus present newer targets for blocking PR function.

  2. Rare earth industries: Downstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The value chain of the rare earths business involves mining, extraction, processing, refining and the manufacture of an extensive range of downstream products which find wide applications in such industries including aerospace, consumer electronics, medical, military, automotive, renewable wind and solar energy and telecommunications. In fact the entire gamut of the high-tech industries depends on a sustainable supply of rare earths elements. The explosive demand in mobile phones is an excellent illustration of the massive potential that the rare earths business offers. In a matter of less than 20 years, the number of cell phones worldwide has reached a staggering 5 billion. Soon, going by the report of their growth in sales, the world demand for cell phones may even exceed the global population. Admittedly, the rare earths business does pose certain risks. Top among the risks are the health and safety risks. The mining, extraction and refining of rare earths produce residues and wastes which carry health and safety risks. The residues from the extraction and refining are radioactive, while their effluent waste streams do pose pollution risks to the receiving rivers and waterways. But, as clearly elaborated in a recent report by IAEA experts, there are technologies and systems available to efficiently mitigate such risks. The risks are Rare Earth manageable. However, it is crucial that the risk and waste management procedures are strictly followed and adhered to. This is where effective monitoring and surveillance throughout the life of all such rare earths facilities is crucial. Fortunately, Malaysia's regulatory standards on rare earths follow international standards. In some areas, Malaysia's regulatory regime is even more stringent than the international guidelines. (author)

  3. Assessment of molecular events during in vitro re-epithelialization under honey-alginate matrix ambience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barui, Ananya; Mandal, Naresh; Majumder, Subhadipa; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Banerjee, Provas; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; RoyChaudhuri, Chirosree; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Re-epithelialization is one of the most important stages of cutaneous regeneration and its success requires supportive micro-ambience which may be provided with suitable bio-matrix. Biocompatibility and efficacy of such bio-matrix in re-epithelialization could be explored by multimodal analysis of structural and functional attributes of in vitro wound healing model including evaluation of prime molecular expressions of the epithelial cells during repair. Present study examines the influence of honey-alginate and alginate matrices on re-epithelialization in keratinocyte (HaCaT) population in a 2-D wound model. Cellular viability, proliferation and cell–cell adhesion status were assessed during wound closure using live/dead cell assay and by evaluating expressions of Ki67, p63 and E-cadherin along-with % change in cellular electrical impedance. Efficacy of honey-alginate matrix in comparison to only alginate one was demonstrated by a quicker reduction in wound gap, improved cellular viability, enhanced expressions of Ki67, p63 and its isoforms (TAp63, ΔNp63) as well as E-cadherin. Faster restoration of electrical attribute (% of impedance change) after wounding also indicated better impact of honey-alginate matrix in re-epithelialization. - Highlights: • Role of honey based matrix is evaluated in wound re-epithelialization. • Healing impact of matrix studied in 2D in vitro keratinocyte (HaCaT) wound model. • Faster impedance restoration indicated rapid healing rate of HaCaT under honey. • PCR observations showed faster initiation of cell proliferation under honey. • ICC study indicated better up-regulation of healing markers under honey matrix

  4. Assessment of molecular events during in vitro re-epithelialization under honey-alginate matrix ambience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barui, Ananya [Centre for Healthcare Science and Technology, BESU, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Mandal, Naresh [Dept. of Electronics and Telecommunication Engg., BESU, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Majumder, Subhadipa [Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta Ballygunge, Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, West Bengal (India); Das, Raunak Kumar [School of Medical Science and Technology, IIT, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Sanghamitra [Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta Ballygunge, Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, West Bengal (India); Banerjee, Provas [School of Medical Science and Technology, IIT, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal (India); Ray, Ajoy Kumar; RoyChaudhuri, Chirosree [Dept. of Electronics and Telecommunication Engg., BESU, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy, E-mail: jchatterjee@smst.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Medical Science and Technology, IIT, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal (India)

    2013-08-01

    Re-epithelialization is one of the most important stages of cutaneous regeneration and its success requires supportive micro-ambience which may be provided with suitable bio-matrix. Biocompatibility and efficacy of such bio-matrix in re-epithelialization could be explored by multimodal analysis of structural and functional attributes of in vitro wound healing model including evaluation of prime molecular expressions of the epithelial cells during repair. Present study examines the influence of honey-alginate and alginate matrices on re-epithelialization in keratinocyte (HaCaT) population in a 2-D wound model. Cellular viability, proliferation and cell–cell adhesion status were assessed during wound closure using live/dead cell assay and by evaluating expressions of Ki67, p63 and E-cadherin along-with % change in cellular electrical impedance. Efficacy of honey-alginate matrix in comparison to only alginate one was demonstrated by a quicker reduction in wound gap, improved cellular viability, enhanced expressions of Ki67, p63 and its isoforms (TAp63, ΔNp63) as well as E-cadherin. Faster restoration of electrical attribute (% of impedance change) after wounding also indicated better impact of honey-alginate matrix in re-epithelialization. - Highlights: • Role of honey based matrix is evaluated in wound re-epithelialization. • Healing impact of matrix studied in 2D in vitro keratinocyte (HaCaT) wound model. • Faster impedance restoration indicated rapid healing rate of HaCaT under honey. • PCR observations showed faster initiation of cell proliferation under honey. • ICC study indicated better up-regulation of healing markers under honey matrix.

  5. Molecular events in the induction of murine tumors by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    A new method is presented to identify and clone novel transforming genes from radiation-induced tumors. It involves the creation of a cDNA expression library from radiation-induced tumors. The library is transfected into non-transformed cells, and the nude mouse tumorigenicity assay functionally defines the acquisition of a transformed phenotype. cDNA clones responsible for transformation are rescued by PCR amplification. This method is applicable to a variety of mammalian systems. The only requirement is a functional assay with which to measure the acquisition of an altered phenotype following transfection of a cDNA library. This method has identified a cDNA for the 16 kD subunit of v-H + -ATPase, which has been associated with cellular transformation. Two protocols were used to generate radiation-induced tumors. One experiment utilizing fractionated doses of ionizing radiation had a much greater tumor yield than the second protocol using a single dose of 11.25 Gy. To determine if the mechanism of gene activation is different in radiation- and chemically-induced tumors, the expression pattern of five tumor-associated genes was analyzed. The expression patterns of mals 1-4 were not significantly different. However, transin, a secreted protease, was overexpressed in radiation-induced papillomas and undetectable in chemically-induced papillomas. Transin degrades basement membrane proteins and may be involved in the progression of benign, encapsulated tumors to malignant, invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Isolation and characterization of genes with dominant transforming activity from radiation-induced tumors will provide information to bridge the gap between the initial ionizing radiation event and the subsequent development of malignant tumors. The function of these genes may also provide information about the development of human malignancies. An understanding the natural biology of cells will help elucidate the pathogenesis cancer and other diseases

  6. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Alejandra Castillo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a beta-1,3-beta-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc., and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc. applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high EPS concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined.

  7. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Lateral and vertical distribution of downstream migrating juvenile sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotola, V. Alex; Miehls, Scott M.; Simard, Lee G.; Marsden, J. Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Sea lamprey is considered an invasive and nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Finger Lakes of New York and is a major focus of control efforts. Currently, management practices focus on limiting the area of infestation using barriers to block migratory adults, and lampricides to kill ammocoetes in infested tributaries. No control efforts currently target the downstream-migrating post-metamorphic life stage which could provide another management opportunity. In order to apply control methods to this life stage, a better understanding of their downstream movement patterns is needed. To quantify spatial distribution of downstream migrants, we deployed fyke and drift nets laterally and vertically across the stream channel in two tributaries of Lake Champlain. Sea lamprey was not randomly distributed across the stream width and lateral distribution showed a significant association with discharge. Results indicated that juvenile sea lamprey is most likely to be present in the thalweg and at midwater depths of the stream channel. Further, a majority of the catch occurred during high flow events, suggesting an increase in downstream movement activity when water levels are higher than base flow. Discharge and flow are strong predictors of the distribution of out-migrating sea lamprey, thus managers will need to either target capture efforts in high discharge areas of streams or develop means to guide sea lamprey away from these areas.

  9. Evidence of molecular evolution driven by recombination events influencing tropism in a novel human adenovirus that causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Walsh

    2009-06-01

    the first genomic, bioinformatic, and biological descriptions of the molecular evolution events engendering an emerging pathogenic adenovirus.

  10. Identification of the first de novo PAR1 deletion downstream of SHOX in an individual diagnosed with Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Eva; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Belinchón, Alberta; Yuste-Checa, Patricia; Gracia, Ricardo; Aragones, Angel; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2010-01-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD, MIM 127300), is a dominantly inherited skeletal dysplasia with disproportionate short stature, mesomelic limb shortening, and the characteristic Madelung deformity. Two regions of the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) have been shown to be involved in LWD, SHOX (short-stature homeobox-containing gene) and the downstream enhancer region. We report our genetic findings of a young girl clinically diagnosed with LWD. We analyzed the proband and her family using MLPA and microsatellite analysis. We identified a deletion, 726-866 kb in size, of the downstream SHOX enhancer region in the proband. Neither parent carried the deletion. Microsatellite analysis showed that the deleted allele was of paternal origin. The mutation is more likely to have arisen from a de novo event but paternal gonadal mosaicism cannot be excluded. In conclusion, we report the clinical and molecular details of the first case of a de novo deletion of the downstream PAR1 region in an LWD individual. De novo deletions of SHOX and the downstream enhancer region must be therefore considered in cases of isolated LWD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. RGMs : Structural Insights, Molecular Regulation, and Downstream Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebold, Christian; Yamashita, Toshihide; Monnier, Philippe P.; Mueller, Bernhard K.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

    Although originally discovered as neuronal growth cone-collapsing factors, repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) are now known as key players in many fundamental processes, such as cell migration, differentiation, iron homeostasis, and apoptosis, during the development and homeostasis of many tissues

  12. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector

  13. The past and the future of Alzheimer’s disease CSF biomarkers – a journey towards validated biochemical tests covering the whole spectra of molecular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj eBlennow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a short review on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, from early developments to high-precision validated assays on fully automated lab analyzers. We also discuss developments on novel biomarkers, such as synaptic proteins and Aβ oligomers. Our vision for the future is that assaying a set of biomarkers in a single CSF tube can monitor the whole spectra of AD molecular pathogenic events. CSF biomarkers will have a central position not only for clinical diagnosis, but also for the understanding of the sequence of molecular events in the pathogenic process underlying AD and as tools to monitor the effects of novel drug candidates targeting these different mechanisms.

  14. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  15. The downstream industry compared to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-01-01

    J.L. Schilansky introduces here the difficult question of the downstream industry compared to market in recalling the recent structural changes (behaviour of customers, behaviour of the USA- and China-governments), the increase of the European and French regulations, the climatic change and the conjectural impact of the crisis on the refining industry. (O.M.)

  16. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  17. Molecular Events Accompanying Rous Sarcoma Virus Rescue from Rodent Cells and the Role of Viral Gene Complementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lounková, Anna; Dráberová, Eduarda; Šenigl, Filip; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Geryk, Josef; Hejnar, Jiří; Svoboda, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2014), s. 3505-3515 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2207; GA ČR GAP302/12/1673 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Rous sarcoma virus * heterotransmission * cell non-permissiveness Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.439, year: 2014

  18. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M.

    1984-01-01

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation. (Auth.)

  19. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Neurobiology)

    1984-07-23

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation.

  20. DOWNSTREAM ECOCIDE FROM UPSTREAM WATER PIRACY

    OpenAIRE

    Miah Muhammad Adel

    2012-01-01

    Upstream India and downstream Bangladesh share more than 50 international rivers. India has set up water diversion constructions in more than 50% of these rivers, the largest one being on the Bangladeshâs northwest upon the Ganges River, puts Bangladeshâs Gangetic ecosystem at stake. In some border rivers, India has set up groins on her side of river banks. Also, Indian side pumps Bangladesh river water stealthily from border-rivers. Further, India is constructing another dam and reservoir up...

  1. DARHT-II Downstream Transport Beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G A; Bertolini, L R; Duffy, P T; Paul, A C

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 18.4-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-(micro)sec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is approximately 22-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 12 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented

  2. Early energy metabolism-related molecular events in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats: The effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancic, Ana; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato

    2017-06-25

    Considering the vital role of skeletal muscle in control of whole-body metabolism and the severity of long-term diabetic complications, we aimed to reveal the molecular pattern of early diabetes-related skeletal muscle phenotype in terms of energy metabolism, focusing on regulatory mechanisms, and the possibility to improve it using two redox modulators, l-arginine and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats (120 mg/kg) were treated with l-arginine or the highly specific SOD mimic, M40403, for 7 days. As appropriate controls, non-diabetic rats received the same treatments. We found that l-arginine and M40403 restored diabetes-induced impairment of phospho-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) signaling by upregulating AMPKα protein itself and its downstream effectors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Also, there was a restitution of the protein levels of oxidative phosphorylation components (complex I, complex II and complex IV) and mitofusin 2. Furthermore, l-arginine and M40403 induced translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the membrane and upregulation of protein of phosphofructokinase and acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, diminishing negative diabetic effects on limiting factors of glucose and lipid metabolism. Both treatments abolished diabetes-induced downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase proteins (SERCA 1 and 2). Similar effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic treatments suggest that disturbances in the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio may be responsible for skeletal muscle mitochondrial and metabolic impairment in early diabetes. Our results provide evidence that l-arginine and SOD mimics have potential in preventing and treating metabolic disturbances accompanying this widespread metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on pivot-point vibration of molecular bond-rupture events by quartz crystal microbalance for biomedical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yong J; Jia, Renjie

    2012-01-01

    Bond-rupture scanning for biomedical diagnostics is examined using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) experiments and microparticle mechanics modeling calculations. Specific and nonspecific interactions between a microparticle and its binding QCM surface can be distinguished by gradually increasing the amplitude of driving voltage applied to QCM and monitoring its frequency changes. This research proposes a mechanical model of interactions between biological molecules and a QCM substrate surface. The mechanical force required to break a biotin-streptavidin bond was calculated through a one-pivot-point bottom-up vibration model. The bond-rupture force increases with an increase of the microparticle radius, the QCM resonant frequency, and the amplitude of driving voltage applied to the QCM. The significance of the research on biological molecular bond rupture is extremely important in characterizing microbial (such as cells and virus) specificity, due to the force magnitude needed to break bonds using a transducer.

  4. Molecular detection of a putatively novel cyprinid herpesvirus in sichel (Pelecus cultratus) during a mass mortality event in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszpoly, Andor; Papp, Melitta; Deákné, Petra P; Glávits, Róbert; Ursu, Krisztina; Dán, Ádám

    2015-05-01

    In the early summer of 2014, mass mortality of sichel (Pelecus cultratus) was observed in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Histological examination revealed degenerative changes within the tubular epithelium, mainly in the distal tubules and collecting ducts in the kidneys and multifocal vacuolisation in the brain stem and cerebellum. Routine molecular investigations showed the presence of the DNA of an unknown alloherpesvirus in some specimens. Subsequently, three genes of the putative herpesviral genome (DNA polymerase, terminase, and helicase) were amplified and partially sequenced. A phylogenetic tree reconstruction based on the concatenated sequence of these three conserved genes implied that the virus belongs to the genus Cyprinivirus within the family Alloherpesviridae. The sequences of the sichel herpesvirus differ markedly from those of the cypriniviruses CyHV-1, CyHV-2 and CyHV-3, putatively representing a fifth species in the genus.

  5. Downstream process options for the ABE fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Anton

    2016-05-01

    Butanol is a very interesting substance both for the chemical industry and as a biofuel. The classical distillation process for the removal of butanol is far too energy demanding, at a factor of 220% of the energy content of butanol. Alternative separation processes studied are hybrid processes of gas-stripping, liquid-liquid extraction and pervaporation with distillation and a novel adsorption/drying/desorption hybrid process. Compared with the energy content of butanol, the resulting energy demand for butanol separation and concentration of optimized hybrid processes is 11%-22% for pervaporation/distillation and 11%-17% for liquid-liquid extraction/distillation. For a novel adsorption/drying/desorption process, the energy demand is 9.4%. But all downstream process options need further proof of industrial applicability. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Molecular composition of rainwater and aerosol during rain events in León, Spain, using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Anna Fee (1), Markus Kalberer (1), Roberto Fraile (2), Amaya Castro (2), Ana. I. Calvo (2), Carlos Blanco-Alegre (2), Fernanda Oduber (2) and Mário Cerqueira (3). 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, UK. 2 Department of Applied Chemistry and Physics, IMARENAB, University of León, Spain. 3 Department of Environmental Planning, University of Aveiro, Portugal. A wide range of atmospheric compounds which are present in rainwater are often also present in aerosol. They can be taken up during cloud droplet formation (in-cloud scavenging) or washed out during precipitation (below-cloud scavenging). Such compounds including aromatic hydrocarbons and organic nitrogen containing compounds are hazardous to health. In this study, the organic chemical composition of rainwater and aerosol from rain events in León, Spain, is being analysed using high resolution mass spectrometry. Collected rainwater along with high volume and low volume filters from rain events which occurred during spring, summer and winter of 2016 have been selected for analysis. Rainwater samples were prepared using Polymeric Reversed Phase Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and filters have been extracted in water with and without SPE. Three different SPE polymer based sorbents were tested; one for extracting neutral compounds and two which are more suitable for extracting organic compounds containing sulphate and other polar functional groups. The sorbent for extracting neutral compounds was found to yield a higher number of compounds from the sample extraction than the other two varieties. Kendrick masses, Van Krevelen plots and carbon oxidation states have been investigated to identify compounds and patterns. Preliminary results show a predominance in peaks with O/C ratios between 0.2 and 0.7 and H/C ratios between 1 and 2 in both rain and aerosol samples which indicates substituted aromatic compounds. Cellulose material and fatty acids may also be present. The rain samples also have a

  7. Study on pivot-point vibration of molecular bond-rupture events by quartz crystal microbalance for biomedical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan YJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yong J Yuan, Renjie JiaLaboratory of Biosensing and MicroMechatronics, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Bond-rupture scanning for biomedical diagnostics is examined using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM experiments and microparticle mechanics modeling calculations. Specific and nonspecific interactions between a microparticle and its binding QCM surface can be distinguished by gradually increasing the amplitude of driving voltage applied to QCM and monitoring its frequency changes. This research proposes a mechanical model of interactions between biological molecules and a QCM substrate surface. The mechanical force required to break a biotin–streptavidin bond was calculated through a one-pivot-point bottom-up vibration model. The bond-rupture force increases with an increase of the microparticle radius, the QCM resonant frequency, and the amplitude of driving voltage applied to the QCM. The significance of the research on biological molecular bond rupture is extremely important in characterizing microbial (such as cells and virus specificity, due to the force magnitude needed to break bonds using a transducer.Keywords: bond rupture, mechanical force, biomolecular binding energy spectra, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM

  8. Meta-analysis of cancer transcriptomes: A new approach to uncover molecular pathological events in different cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To explore secrets of metastatic cancers, individual expression of true sets of respective genes must spread across the tissue. In this study, meta-analysis for transcriptional profiles of oncogenes was carried out to hunt critical genes or networks helping in metastasizing cancers. For this, transcriptomic analysis of different cancerous tissues causing leukemia, lung, liver, spleen, colorectal, colon, breast, bladder, and kidney cancers was performed by extracting microarray expression data from online resource; Gene Expression Omnibus. A newly developed bioinformatics technique; Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA was applied for enrichment analysis of transcriptional profiles using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. Furthermore, oPOSSUM (v. 2.0 and Cytoscape (v. 2.8.2 were used for in-depth analysis of transcription factors and regulatory gene networks respectively. DAVID analysis uncovered the most significantly enriched pathways in molecular functions that were 'Ubiquitin thiolesterase activity' up regulated in blood, breast, bladder, colorectal, lung, spleen, prostrate cancer. 'Transforming growth factor beta receptor activity' was inhibited in all cancers except leukemia, colon and liver cancer. oPOSSUM further revealed highly over-represented Transcription Factors (TFs; Broad-complex_3, Broad-complex_4, and Foxd3 except for leukemia and bladder cancer. From these findings, it is possible to target genes and networks, play a crucial role in the development of cancer. In the future, these transcription factors can serve as potential candidates for the therapeutic drug targets which can impede the deadly spread.

  9. Downstream Processing of Synechocystis for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jie

    Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and MTBE, or direct transesterification of biomass (without preextraction step) gave only slightly lower lipid-extraction yields and can be considered for large-scale application. Sustained exposure to high and low temperature extremes severely lowered the biomass and lipid productivity. Temperature stress also triggered changes of lipid quality such as the degree of unsaturation; thus, it affected the productivities and quality of Synechocystis-derived biofuel. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was evaluated for cell disruption prior to lipid extraction. A treatment intensity > 35 kWh/m3 caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Other cell-disruption methods also were tested. Distinct disruption effects to the cell envelope, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes were observed that were related to extraction efficiency. Microwave and ultrasound had significant enhancement of lipid extraction. Autoclaving, ultrasound, and French press caused significant

  10. Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II: Phylogenetic evidence of a non-endosymbiotic gene transfer event early in plant evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartar Aurélien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamine synthetase (GS is essential for ammonium assimilation and the biosynthesis of glutamine. The three GS gene families (GSI, GSII, and GSIII are represented in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we examined the evolutionary relationship of GSII from eubacterial and eukaryotic lineages and present robust phylogenetic evidence that GSII was transferred from γ-Proteobacteria (Eubacteria to the Chloroplastida. Results GSII sequences were isolated from four species of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, and additional green algal (Chlorophyceae and Prasinophytae and streptophyte (Charales, Desmidiales, Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta, Lycopodiophyta and Tracheophyta sequences were obtained from public databases. In Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses, eubacterial (GSIIB and eukaryotic (GSIIE GSII sequences formed distinct clades. Both GSIIB and GSIIE were found in chlorophytes and early-diverging streptophytes. The GSIIB enzymes from these groups formed a well-supported sister clade with the γ-Proteobacteria, providing evidence that GSIIB in the Chloroplastida arose by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses suggest that GSIIB and GSIIE coexisted for an extended period of time but it is unclear whether the proposed HGT happened prior to or after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages (the Archaeplastida. However, GSIIB genes have not been identified in glaucophytes or red algae, favoring the hypothesis that GSIIB was gained after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages. Duplicate copies of the GSIIB gene were present in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, and Physcomitrella patens. Both GSIIB proteins in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri f. nagariensis had N-terminal transit sequences, indicating they are targeted to the chloroplast or mitochondrion. In contrast, GSIIB proteins of P. patens lacked transit sequences, suggesting

  11. Interactions between Channel Morphology and the Propagation of Coarse Sediment Augmentations Downstream from Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeuman, D. A.; Dickenson, S.; Pyles, M.

    2009-12-01

    considerably higher (88%), suggesting that average burial depths decrease as the deposition front moves downstream. In addition, about one quarter of the tracers that were missing in 2008 were recovered in 2009, indicating that some of the particles buried during the first flood season were exhumed the following year. Changes in bed topography downstream from a gravel augmentation in the Trinity River provide additional evidence that the presence of discrete deposition zones in stream channels tends to suppress gravel dispersion. Repeat bathymetric surveys conducted in the Trinity River before and after placement of 1000 tons of gravel during a 2008 high-flow event show that a quantity of gravel equivalent to the augmentation volume was deposited on the first bar downstream from the augmentation point.

  12. Molecular initiating events of the intersex phenotype: Low-dose exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol rapidly regulates molecular networks associated with gonad differentiation in the adult fathead minnow testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feswick, April; Loughery, Jennifer R.; Isaacs, Meghan A.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Male fathead minnow were exposed to 17alpha ethinylestradiol (EE2). • Both 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone production was decreased relative to controls. • A gene network associated with doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 were suppressed. • Genes involved in granulosa cell development were increased and sensitive to EE2 exposure. • Molecular initiating events that may be related to the intersex condition were identified. - Abstract: Intersex, or the presence of oocytes in the testes, has been documented in fish following exposure to wastewater effluent and estrogenic compounds. However, the molecular networks underlying the intersex condition are not completely known. To address this, we exposed male fathead minnows to a low, environmentally-relevant concentration of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (15 ng/L) and measured the transcriptome response in the testis after 96 h to identify early molecular initiating events that may proceed the intersex condition. The short-term exposure to EE2 did not affect gonadosomatic index and proportion of gametes within the testes. However, the production of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone from the testis in vitro was decreased relative to controls. Expression profiling using a 8 × 60 K fathead minnow microarray identified 10 transcripts that were differentially expressed in the testes, the most dramatic change being that of coagulation factor XIII A chain (20-fold increase). Transcripts that included guanine nucleotide binding protein (Beta Polypeptide 2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, and WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1a, were down-regulated by EE2. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed that EE2 suppressed transcriptional networks associated with steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and sperm mobility. Most interesting was that gene networks associated with doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) were suppressed in the adult

  13. Molecular initiating events of the intersex phenotype: Low-dose exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol rapidly regulates molecular networks associated with gonad differentiation in the adult fathead minnow testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feswick, April; Loughery, Jennifer R.; Isaacs, Meghan A.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Martyniuk, Christopher J., E-mail: cmartyni@yahoo.ca

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Male fathead minnow were exposed to 17alpha ethinylestradiol (EE2). • Both 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone production was decreased relative to controls. • A gene network associated with doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 were suppressed. • Genes involved in granulosa cell development were increased and sensitive to EE2 exposure. • Molecular initiating events that may be related to the intersex condition were identified. - Abstract: Intersex, or the presence of oocytes in the testes, has been documented in fish following exposure to wastewater effluent and estrogenic compounds. However, the molecular networks underlying the intersex condition are not completely known. To address this, we exposed male fathead minnows to a low, environmentally-relevant concentration of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (15 ng/L) and measured the transcriptome response in the testis after 96 h to identify early molecular initiating events that may proceed the intersex condition. The short-term exposure to EE2 did not affect gonadosomatic index and proportion of gametes within the testes. However, the production of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone from the testis in vitro was decreased relative to controls. Expression profiling using a 8 × 60 K fathead minnow microarray identified 10 transcripts that were differentially expressed in the testes, the most dramatic change being that of coagulation factor XIII A chain (20-fold increase). Transcripts that included guanine nucleotide binding protein (Beta Polypeptide 2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, and WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1a, were down-regulated by EE2. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed that EE2 suppressed transcriptional networks associated with steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and sperm mobility. Most interesting was that gene networks associated with doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) were suppressed in the adult

  14. Downstream Processing, Formulation Development and Antithrombotic Evaluation of Microbial Nattokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rohit; Harde, Harshad; Jain, Sanyog; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2015-07-01

    The present research work describes the downstreaming of nattokinase (NK) produced by Bacillus subtilis under solid state fermentation; and the role of efficient oral formulation of purified NK in the management of thrombotic disorders. Molecular weight of purified NK was estimated to be 28 kDa with specific activity of 504.4 FU/mg. Acid stable nattokinase loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sNLCN) were fabricated for oral delivery of this enzyme. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to investigate and validate the effect of process (independent) variables on the quality attributes (dependent variables) of nanoparticles. The integrity, conformational stability and preservation of fibrinolytic activity of NK (in both free and sNLCN forms) were established by SDS-PAGE, CD analysis and in vitro clot lytic examination, respectively. A 'tail thrombosis model' demonstrated significant decrease in frequency of thrombosis in Wistar rats upon peroral administration of sNLCN in comparison with negative control and free NK group. Furthermore, coagulation analysis, namely the measurement of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time illustrated that sNLCN showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher anti-thrombotic potential in comparison to the free NK. Further, sNLCN showed anti-thrombotic profile similar to warfarin. This study signifies the potential of sNLCN in oral delivery of NK for the management of thrombotic disorders.

  15. An overview of techniques for linking high-dimensional molecular data to time-to-event endpoints by risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Harald; Porzelius, Christine; Schumacher, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Analysis of molecular data promises identification of biomarkers for improving prognostic models, thus potentially enabling better patient management. For identifying such biomarkers, risk prediction models can be employed that link high-dimensional molecular covariate data to a clinical endpoint. In low-dimensional settings, a multitude of statistical techniques already exists for building such models, e.g. allowing for variable selection or for quantifying the added value of a new biomarker. We provide an overview of techniques for regularized estimation that transfer this toward high-dimensional settings, with a focus on models for time-to-event endpoints. Techniques for incorporating specific covariate structure are discussed, as well as techniques for dealing with more complex endpoints. Employing gene expression data from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, some typical modeling issues from low-dimensional settings are illustrated in a high-dimensional application. First, the performance of classical stepwise regression is compared to stage-wise regression, as implemented by a component-wise likelihood-based boosting approach. A second issues arises, when artificially transforming the response into a binary variable. The effects of the resulting loss of efficiency and potential bias in a high-dimensional setting are illustrated, and a link to competing risks models is provided. Finally, we discuss conditions for adequately quantifying the added value of high-dimensional gene expression measurements, both at the stage of model fitting and when performing evaluation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Comparative mRNA and microRNA expression profiling of three genitourinary cancers reveals common hallmarks and cancer-specific molecular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianxin Li

    Full Text Available Genome-wide gene expression profile using deep sequencing technologies can drive the discovery of cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Such efforts are often limited to profiling the expression signature of either mRNA or microRNA (miRNA in a single type of cancer.Here we provided an integrated analysis of the genome-wide mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of three different genitourinary cancers: carcinomas of the bladder, kidney and testis.Our results highlight the general or cancer-specific roles of several genes and miRNAs that may serve as candidate oncogenes or suppressors of tumor development. Further comparative analyses at the systems level revealed that significant aberrations of the cell adhesion process, p53 signaling, calcium signaling, the ECM-receptor and cell cycle pathways, the DNA repair and replication processes and the immune and inflammatory response processes were the common hallmarks of human cancers. Gene sets showing testicular cancer-specific deregulation patterns were mainly implicated in processes related to male reproductive function, and general disruptions of multiple metabolic pathways and processes related to cell migration were the characteristic molecular events for renal and bladder cancer, respectively. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that tumors with the same histological origins and genes with similar functions tended to group together in a clustering analysis. By assessing the correlation between the expression of each miRNA and its targets, we determined that deregulation of 'key' miRNAs may result in the global aberration of one or more pathways or processes as a whole.This systematic analysis deciphered the molecular phenotypes of three genitourinary cancers and investigated their variations at the miRNA level simultaneously. Our results provided a valuable source for future studies and highlighted some promising genes, miRNAs, pathways and processes that may be useful for diagnostic or

  17. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  18. Madagascar sheds new light on the molecular systematics and biogeography of grammitid ferns: New unexpected lineages and numerous long-distance dispersal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauret, Lucie; Gaudeul, Myriam; Sundue, Michael A; Parris, Barbara S; Ranker, Tom A; Rakotondrainibe, France; Hennequin, Sabine; Ranaivo, Jaona; Selosse, Marc-André; Rouhan, Germinal

    2017-06-01

    Based on a worldwide phylogenetic framework filling the taxonomic gap of Madagascar and surrounding islands of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), we revisited the systematics of grammitid fern species (Polypodiaceae). We also investigated the biogeographic origin of the extant diversity in Madagascar and estimated the relative influence of vicariance, long-distance dispersals (LDD) and in situ diversification. Phylogenetic inferences were based on five plastid DNA regions (atpB, rbcL, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF) and the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling ever assembled (224 species belonging to 31 out of 33 recognized grammitids genera). 31 species from Madagascar were included representing 87% of the described diversity and 77% of the endemics. Our results confirmed a Paleotropical clade nested within an amphi-Atlantic grade. In addition, we identified three new major clades involving species currently belonging to Grammitis s.l., Ctenopterella and Enterosora. We resolved for the first time Grammitis s.s. as monophyletic, and Ctenopterella (newly tested here) and Enterosora as polyphyletic. The Neotropical genus Moranopteris was shown to also occur in Madagascar through a newly discovered species. Most importantly, we suggest a >30% inflation of the species number in the WIO due to the hidden diversity in >10 cryptic lineages, best explained by high morphological homoplasy. Molecular dating and ancestral areas reconstruction allowed identifying the Neotropics as the predominant source of LDD to the African-WIO region, with at least 12 colonization events within the last 20Ma. Repeated eastward migrations may be explained by transoceanic westerly winds transporting the dust-like spores. Tropical Asia s.l. would also have played a (minor) role through one dispersal event to Madagascar at the end of the Oligocene. Last, within the complex Malagasy region made of a mosaic of continental and oceanic islands located close to the African continent, we showed that

  19. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen; Dhaini, Ahmad R.; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem; Shen, Gangxiang; Lin, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green

  20. A floating trap for sampling downstream migrant fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. McLemore; Fred H. Everest; William R. Humphreys; Mario F. Solazzi

    1989-01-01

    Fishery scientists and managers are interested in obtaining information about downstream movements of fish species for biological and economic reasons. Different types of nets and traps have been used for this purpose with only partial success. The floating, self-cleaning downstream migrant trap described here proved successful for sampling several salmoniform and...

  1. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Bollinedi

    Full Text Available Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis.

  2. Regulation of notochord-specific expression of Ci-Bra downstream genes in Ciona intestinalis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Hotta, Kohji; Takagi, Chiyo; Ueno, Naoto; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2010-02-01

    Brachyury, a T-box transcription factor, is expressed in ascidian embryos exclusively in primordial notochord cells and plays a pivotal role in differentiation of notochord cells. Previously, we identified approximately 450 genes downstream of Ciona intestinalis Brachyury (Ci-Bra), and characterized the expression profiles of 45 of these in differentiating notochord cells. In this study, we looked for cisregulatory sequences in minimal enhancers of 20 Ci-Bra downstream genes by electroporating region within approximately 3 kb upstream of each gene fused with lacZ. Eight of the 20 reporters were expressed in notochord cells. The minimal enchancer for each of these eight genes was narrowed to a region approximately 0.5-1.0-kb long. We also explored the genome-wide and coordinate regulation of 43 Ci-Bra-downstream genes. When we determined their chromosomal localization, it became evident that they are not clustered in a given region of the genome, but rather distributed evenly over 13 of the 14 pairs of chromosomes, suggesting that gene clustering does not contribute to coordinate control of the Ci-Bra downstream gene expression. Our results might provide Insights Into the molecular mechanisms underlying notochord formation in chordates.

  3. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in mitotic COS7 cells is due to the inability of EGFR/Raf to transduce EGF signaling to downstream proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Ma, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have shown that Ras-ERK signaling in mitosis is closed due to the inhibition of signal transduction, the events involved in the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in mitotic COS7 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) failed to increase the endocytosis of EGF-EGFR (EGF receptor) complexes in mitotic COS7 cells, although a large amount of endosomes were found in asynchronous COS7 cells. Clathrin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were inhibited whereas caveolin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were almost unaffected. Y1068 and Y1086 residues of EGFR in the mitotic COS7 cells were activated. However, Grb2 and Shc in the mitotic COS7 cells did not bind to activated EGFR. Ras activity was inhibited in the mitotic COS7 cells whereas its downstream protein, Raf, was obviously phosphorylated by EGF in mitosis. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also increased the phosphorylation levels of Raf in the mitotic COS7 cells. Nevertheless, Raf phosphorylation in mitosis was significantly inhibited by AG1478. Lastly, activation of EGF-mediated MEK and ERK in the mitotic COS7 cells was obviously inhibited. In summary, our results suggest that the Ras-ERK pathway is inhibited in mitotic COS7 cells which may be the dual result of the difficulty in the transduction of EGF signaling by EGFR or Raf to downstream proteins.

  4. NK cell cytotoxicity mediated by 2B4 and NTB-A is dependent on SAP acting downstream of receptor phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eMeinke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 2B4 (CD244 and NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A, CD352 are activating receptors on human NK cells and belong to the family of SLAM-related receptors. Engagement of these receptors leads to phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and recruitment of the adapter proteins SAP and EAT-2. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP is a severe immunodeficiency that results from mutations in the SAP gene. 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity are abrogated in XLP NK cells. To elucidate the molecular basis for this defect we analyzed early signaling events in SAP knockdown cells. Similar to XLP NK cells, knockdown of SAP in primary human NK cells leads to a reduction of 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that early signaling events such as raft recruitment and receptor phosphorylation are not affected by the absence of SAP, indicating the defect in the absence of SAP is downstream of these events. In addition, knockdown of EAT-2 does not impair 2B4 or NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. Surprisingly, EAT-2 recruitment to both receptors is abrogated in the absence of SAP, revealing a novel cooperativity between these adapters.

  5. Beam Halo on the LHC TCDQ Diluter System and Thermal Load on the Downstream Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Presland, A; Redaelli, S; Robert-Démolaize, G; Sarchiapone, L; Weiler, T; Weterings, W

    2006-01-01

    The moveable single-jawed graphite TCDQ diluter must be positioned very close to the circulating LHC beam in order to prevent damage to downstream components in the event of an unsynchronised beam abort. A two-jawed graphite TCS.IR6 collimator forms part of the TCDQ system. The requirement to place the jaws close to the beam means that the system can intercept a substantial beam halo load. Initial investigations indicated a worryingly high heat load on the Q4 coils. This paper presents the updated load cases, shielding and simulation geometry, and the results of simulations of the energy deposition in the TCDQ system and in the downstream superconducting Q4 magnet. The implications for the operation of the LHC are discussed.

  6. Wave and particle evolution downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckean, M. E.; Omidi, N.; Krauss-Varban, D.; Karimabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Distributions of ions heated in quasi-perpendicular bow shocks have large perpendicular temperature anisotropies that provide free energy for the growth of Alfven ion cyclotron (AIC) and mirror waves. These modes are often obsreved in the Earth's magnetosheath. Using two-dimensional hybrid simulations, we show that these waves are produced near the shock front and convected downstream rather than being produced locally downstream. The wave activity reduces the proton anisotropy to magnetosheath levels within a few tens of gyroradii of the shock but takes significantly longer to reduce the anisotropy of He(++) ions. The waves are primarily driven by proton anisotropy and the dynamics of the helium ions is controlled by the proton waves. Downstream of high Mach number shocks, mirror waves compete effectively with AIC waves. Downstream of low Mach number shocks, AIC waves dominate.

  7. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen

    2012-05-01

    Maximizing the optical network unit’s (ONU) sleep time is an effective approach for achieving maximum energy conservation in green Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). While overlapping downstream and upstream ONU transmissions can maximize the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green EPONs under the limited service discipline and the upstream-based overlapped time window. Specifically, we first derive the expected mean packet delay, and then present a closed-form expression of the ONU sleep time, setting identical upstream/downstream transmission cycle times based on a maximum downstream traffic delay re-quirement. With the proposed system model, we present a novel downstream bandwidth allocation scheme for energy conservation in green EPONs. Simulation results verify the proposed model and highlight the advantages of our scheme over conventional approaches.

  8. Control of Delta Avulsion by Downstream Sediment Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Gerard; Paola, Chris; Voller, Vaughan R.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how fluxes are partitioned at delta bifurcations is critical for predicting patterns of land loss and gain in deltas worldwide. Although the dynamics of river deltas are influenced from both upstream and downstream, previous studies of bifurcations have focused on upstream controls. Using a quasi-1-D bifurcation model, we show that flow switching in bifurcations is strongly influenced by downstream sediment sinks. We find that coupling between upstream and downstream feedbacks can lead to oscillations in water and sediment flux partitioning. The frequency and initial rate of growth/decay of the oscillations depend on both upstream and downstream conditions, with dimensionless bifurcate length and bypass fraction emerging as key downstream parameters. With a strong offshore sink, causing bypass in the bifurcate branches, we find that bifurcation dynamics become "frozen"; that is, the bifurcation settles on a permanent discharge ratio. In contrast, under depositional conditions, we identify three dynamical regimes: symmetric; soft avulsion, where both branches remain open but the dominant branch switches; and full avulsion. Finally, we show that differential subsidence alters these regimes, with the difference in average sediment supply to each branch exactly compensating for the difference in accommodation generation. Additionally, the model predicts that bifurcations with shorter branches are less asymmetric than bifurcations with longer branches, all else equal, providing a possible explanation for the difference between backwater length distributaries, which tend to be avulsive, and relatively stable mouth-bar-scale networks. We conclude that bifurcations are sensitive both quantitatively and qualitatively to downstream sinks.

  9. Investigation of wall mass transfer characteristics downstream of an orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gammal, M.; Ahmed, W.H.; Ching, C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical simulations were performed for the mass transfer downstream of an orifice. ► The Low Reynolds Number K-ε turbulence model was used. ► The numerical results were in good agreement with existing experimental results. ► The maximum Sherwood number downstream of the orifice was significantly affected by the Reynolds number. ► The Sherwood number profile was well correlated with the turbulence kinetic energy profile close to the wall. - Abstract: Numerical simulations were performed to determine the effect of Reynolds number and orifice to pipe diameter ratio (d o /d) on the wall mass transfer rate downstream of an orifice. The simulations were performed for d o /d of 0.475 for Reynolds number up to 70,000. The effect of d o /d was determined by performing simulations at a Reynolds number of 70,000 for d o /d of 0.375, 0.475 and 0.575. The momentum and mass transport equations were solved using the Low Reynolds Number (LRN) K-ε turbulence model. The Sherwood number (Sh) profile downstream of the orifice was in relatively good agreement with existing experimental results. The Sh increases sharply downstream of the orifice, reaching a maximum within 1–2 diameters downstream of the orifice, before relaxing back to the fully developed pipe flow value. The Sh number well downstream of the orifice was in good agreement with results for fully developed pipe flow estimated from the correlation of . The peak Sh numbers from the simulations were higher than that predicted from and .

  10. Transcriptional regulatory networks downstream of TAL1/SCL in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Palomero, Teresa; Odom, Duncan T.; O'Neil, Jennifer; Ferrando, Adolfo A.; Margolin, Adam; Neuberg, Donna S.; Winter, Stuart S.; Larson, Richard S.; Li, Wei; Liu, X. Shirley; Young, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Aberrant expression of 1 or more transcription factor oncogenes is a critical component of the molecular pathogenesis of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL); however, oncogenic transcriptional programs downstream of T-ALL oncogenes are mostly unknown. TAL1/SCL is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor oncogene aberrantly expressed in 60% of human T-ALLs. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on chip to identify 71 direct transcriptional targets of TAL1/SCL. ...

  11. MicroRNA-145 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting IRS1 and its downstream Akt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yelin [Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Hu, Chen; Cheng, Jun [Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Chen, Binquan [Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Ke, Qinghong; Lv, Zhen; Wu, Jian [Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhou, Yanfeng, E-mail: zyfhdj@yahoo.com [Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • MiR-145 expression is down-regulated in HCC tissues and inversely related with IRS1 levels. • MiR-145 directly targets IRS1 in HCC cells. • Restored expression of miR-145 suppressed HCC cell proliferation and growth. • MiR-145 induced IRS1 under-expression potentially reduced downstream AKT signaling. - Abstract: Accumulating evidences have proved that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we showed that miRNA-145 level was significantly decreased in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) tissues and cell lines, and its low expression was inversely associated with the abundance of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), a key mediator in oncogenic insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. We verified IRS1 as a direct target of miR-145 using Western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. Further, the restoration of miR-145 in HCC cell lines suppressed cancer cell growth, owing to down-regulated IRS1 expression and its downstream Akt/FOXO1 signaling. Our results demonstrated that miR-145 could inhibit HCC through targeting IRS1 and its downstream signaling, implicating the loss of miR-145 regulation may be a potential molecular mechanism causing aberrant oncogenic signaling in HCC.

  12. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  13. Downstream Yangtze River levels impacted by Three Gorges Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jida; Sheng, Yongwei; Gleason, Colin J; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the Yangtze River level induced by large-scale human water regulation have profound implications on the inundation dynamics of surrounding lakes/wetlands and the integrity of related ecosystems. Using in situ measurements and hydrological simulation, this study reveals an altered Yangtze level regime downstream from the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) to the Yangtze estuary in the East China Sea as a combined result of (i) TGD’s flow regulation and (ii) Yangtze channel erosion due to reduced sediment load. During the average annual cycle of TGD’s regular flow control in 2009–2012, downstream Yangtze level variations were estimated to have been reduced by 3.9–13.5% at 15 studied gauging stations, manifested as evident level decrease in fall and increase in winter and spring. The impacts on Yangtze levels generally diminished in a longitudinal direction from the TGD to the estuary, with a total time lag of ∼9–12 days. Chronic Yangtze channel erosion since the TGD closure has lowered water levels in relation to flows at most downstream stations, which in turn counteracts the anticipated level increase by nearly or over 50% in winter and spring while reinforcing the anticipated level decrease by over 20% in fall. Continuous downstream channel erosion in the near future may further counteract the benefit of increased Yangtze levels during TGD’s water supplement in winter and accelerate the receding of inundation areas/levels of downstream lakes in fall. (letter)

  14. Critical effects of downstream boundary conditions on vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used to study the critical effects of the downstream boundary conditions on the supersonic vortex breakdown. The present study is applied to two supersonic vortex breakdown cases. In the first case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct, and in the second case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling jet, that is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic jet of lower Mach number, is considered. For the configured duct flow, four different types of downstream boundary conditions are used, and for the swirling jet flow from the nozzle, two types of downstream boundary conditions are used. The solutions are time accurate which are obtained using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme.

  15. Optogenetic analysis of a nociceptor neuron and network reveals ion channels acting downstream of primary sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Steven J.; Costa, Wagner Steuer; Wabnig, Sebastian; Stirman, Jeffrey N.; Watson, Joseph D.; Spencer, W. Clay; Akerboom, Jasper; Looger, Loren L.; Treinin, Millet; Miller, David M.; Lu, Hang; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Nociception generally evokes rapid withdrawal behavior in order to protect the tissue from harmful insults. Most nociceptive neurons responding to mechanical insults display highly branched dendrites, an anatomy shared by Caenorhabditis elegans FLP and PVD neurons, which mediate harsh touch responses. Although several primary molecular nociceptive sensors have been characterized, less is known about modulation and amplification of noxious signals within nociceptor neurons. First, we analyzed the FLP/PVD network by optogenetics and studied integration of signals from these cells in downstream interneurons. Second, we investigated which genes modulate PVD function, based on prior single neuron mRNA profiling of PVD. Results Selectively photoactivating PVD, FLP and downstream interneurons using Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) enabled functionally dissecting this nociceptive network, without interfering signals by other mechanoreceptors. Forward or reverse escape behaviors were determined by PVD and FLP, via integration by command interneurons. To identify mediators of PVD function, acting downstream of primary nocisensor molecules, we knocked down PVD-specific transcripts by RNAi and quantified light-evoked PVD-dependent behavior. Cell-specific disruption of synaptobrevin or voltage-gated Ca2+-channels (VGCCs) showed that PVD signals chemically to command interneurons. Knocking down the DEG/ENaC channel ASIC-1 and the TRPM channel GTL-1 indicated that ASIC-1 may extend PVD’s dynamic range and that GTL-1 may amplify its signals. These channels act cell-autonomously in PVD, downstream of primary mechanosensory molecules. Conclusions Our work implicates TRPM channels in modifying excitability of, and DEG/ENaCs in potentiating signal output from a mechano-nociceptor neuron. ASIC-1 and GTL-1 homologues, if functionally conserved, may denote valid targets for novel analgesics. PMID:22483941

  16. Ion energy characteristics downstream of a high power helicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Ziemba, Tim; Roberson, B Race; Quetin, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    The High Power Helicon eXperiment operates at higher powers (37 kW) and lower background neutral pressure than other helicon experiments. The ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) has been measured at multiple locations downstream of the helicon source and a mach 3-6 flowing plasma was observed. The helicon antenna has a direct effect in accelerating the plasma downstream of the source. Also, the IVDF is affected by the cloud of neutrals from the initial gas puff, which keeps the plasma speed low at early times near the source.

  17. Ion energy characteristics downstream of a high power helicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Ziemba, Tim; Roberson, B Race; Quetin, Gregory [University of Washington, Johnson Hall 070, Box 351310, 4000 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)], E-mail: jprager@u.washington.edu

    2008-05-01

    The High Power Helicon eXperiment operates at higher powers (37 kW) and lower background neutral pressure than other helicon experiments. The ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) has been measured at multiple locations downstream of the helicon source and a mach 3-6 flowing plasma was observed. The helicon antenna has a direct effect in accelerating the plasma downstream of the source. Also, the IVDF is affected by the cloud of neutrals from the initial gas puff, which keeps the plasma speed low at early times near the source.

  18. Downstream Processability of Crystal Habit-Modified Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pudasaini, Nawin; Upadhyay, Pratik Pankaj; Parker, Christian Richard

    2017-01-01

    Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability and tablet......Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability...

  19. Imaging for monitoring downstream processing of fermentation broths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Baum, Andreas; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    In relation to downstream processing of a fermentation broth coagulation/flocculation is a typical pretreatment method for separating undesirable particles/impurities from the wanted product. In the coagulation process the negatively charged impurities are destabilized by adding of a clarifying...

  20. DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitňa, A.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.; Němec, F.; Přech, L. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chen, C. H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zastenker, G. N., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya ul. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks as typical large-scale disturbances arising from processes such as stream–stream interactions or Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) launching play a significant role in the energy redistribution, dissipation, particle heating, acceleration, etc. They can change the properties of the turbulent cascade on shorter scales. We focus on changes of the level and spectral properties of ion flux fluctuations upstream and downstream of fast forward oblique shocks. Although the fluctuation level increases by an order of magnitude across the shock, the spectral slope in the magnetohydrodynamic range is conserved. The frequency spectra upstream of IP shocks are the same as those in the solar wind (if not spoiled by foreshock waves). The spectral slopes downstream are roughly proportional to the corresponding slopes upstream, suggesting that the properties of the turbulent cascade are conserved across the shock; thus, the shock does not destroy the shape of the spectrum as turbulence passes through it. Frequency spectra downstream of IP shocks often exhibit “an exponential decay” in the ion kinetic range that was earlier reported at electron scales in the solar wind or at ion scales in the interstellar medium. We suggest that the exponential shape of ion flux spectra in this range is caused by stronger damping of the fluctuations in the downstream region.

  1. Extreme wave phenomena in down-stream running modulated waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andonowati, A.; Karjanto, N.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    Modulational, Benjamin-Feir, instability is studied for the down-stream evolution of surface gravity waves. An explicit solution, the soliton on finite background, of the NLS equation in physical space is used to study various phenomena in detail. It is shown that for sufficiently long modulation

  2. Downstream processing of Isochrysis galbana: a step towards microalgal biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert-López, B.; Mendiola, J.A.; Fontecha, J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Sijtsma, L.; Cifuentes, A.; Herrero, M.; Ibáñez, E.

    2015-01-01

    An algae-based biorefinery relies on the efficient use of algae biomass through its fractionation of several valuable/bioactive compounds that can be used in industry. If this biorefinery includes green platforms as downstream processing technologies able to fulfill the requirements of green

  3. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppression - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    the value of Kitch's prospect theory of patents, a theory that the social value of patents is that they enable the efficient coordination of technological development.    I re-examine history and legal sources bearing on Merges and Nelson's illustrative cases and find no case to illustrate downstream...

  4. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  5. The role of headwater streams in downstream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.B.; Boyer, E.W.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.; Moore, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of headwater influences on the water-quality and flow conditions of downstream waters is essential to water-resource management at all governmental levels; this includes recent court decisions on the jurisdiction of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) over upland areas that contribute to larger downstream water bodies. We review current watershed research and use a water-quality model to investigate headwater influences on downstream receiving waters. Our evaluations demonstrate the intrinsic connections of headwaters to landscape processes and downstream waters through their influence on the supply, transport, and fate of water and solutes in watersheds. Hydrological processes in headwater catchments control the recharge of subsurface water stores, flow paths, and residence times of water throughout landscapes. The dynamic coupling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in upland streams further controls the chemical form, timing, and longitudinal distances of solute transport to downstream waters. We apply the spatially explicit, mass-balance watershed model SPARROW to consider transport and transformations of water and nutrients throughout stream networks in the northeastern United States. We simulate fluxes of nitrogen, a primary nutrient that is a water-quality concern for acidification of streams and lakes and eutrophication of coastal waters, and refine the model structure to include literature observations of nitrogen removal in streams and lakes. We quantify nitrogen transport from headwaters to downstream navigable waters, where headwaters are defined within the model as first-order, perennial streams that include flow and nitrogen contributions from smaller, intermittent and ephemeral streams. We find that first-order headwaters contribute approximately 70% of the mean-annual water volume and 65% of the nitrogen flux in second-order streams. Their contributions to mean water volume and nitrogen flux decline only marginally to about 55% and

  6. Methylation of Hg downstream from the Bonanza Hg mine, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Hines, Mark E.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Thoms, Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Speciation of Hg and conversion to methyl-Hg were evaluated in stream sediment, stream water, and aquatic snails collected downstream from the Bonanza Hg mine, Oregon. Total production from the Bonanza mine was >1360t of Hg, during mining from the late 1800s to 1960, ranking it as an intermediate sized Hg mine on an international scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, transport, and methylation of Hg downstream from a Hg mine in a coastal temperate climatic zone. Data shown here for methyl-Hg, a neurotoxin hazardous to humans, are the first reported for sediment and water from this area. Stream sediment collected from Foster Creek flowing downstream from the Bonanza mine contained elevated Hg concentrations that ranged from 590 to 71,000ng/g, all of which (except the most distal sample) exceeded the probable effect concentration (PEC) of 1060ng/g, the Hg concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in stream sediment collected from Foster Creek varied from 11 to 62ng/g and were highly elevated compared to regional baseline concentrations (0.11-0.82ng/g) established in this study. Methyl-Hg concentrations in stream sediment collected in this study showed a significant correlation with total organic C (TOC, R2=0.62), generally indicating increased methyl-Hg formation with increasing TOC in sediment. Isotopic-tracer methods indicated that several samples of Foster Creek sediment exhibited high rates of Hg-methylation. Concentrations of Hg in water collected downstream from the mine varied from 17 to 270ng/L and were also elevated compared to baselines, but all were below the 770ng/L Hg standard recommended by the USEPA to protect against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the water collected from Foster Creek ranged from 0.17 to 1.8ng/L, which were elevated compared to regional baseline sites upstream and downstream

  7. A novel virtual hub approach for multisource downstream service integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Mattia; Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    A large development of downstream services is expected to be stimulated starting from earth observations (EO) datasets acquired by Copernicus satellites. An important challenge connected with the availability of downstream services is the possibility for their integration in order to create innovative applications with added values for users of different categories level. At the moment, the world of geo-information (GI) is extremely heterogeneous in terms of standards and formats used, thus preventing a facilitated access and integration of downstream services. Indeed, different users and data providers have also different requirements in terms of communication protocols and technology advancement. In recent years, many important programs and initiatives have tried to address this issue even on trans-regional and international level (e.g. INSPIRE Directive, GEOSS, Eye on Earth and SEIS). However, a lack of interoperability between systems and services still exists. In order to facilitate the interaction between different downstream services, a new architectural approach (developed within the European project ENERGIC OD) is proposed in this paper. The brokering-oriented architecture introduces a new mediation layer (the Virtual Hub) which works as an intermediary to bridge the gaps linked to interoperability issues. This intermediation layer de-couples the server and the client allowing a facilitated access to multiple downstream services and also Open Data provided by national and local SDIs. In particular, in this paper an application is presented integrating four services on the topic of agriculture: (i) the service given by Space4Agri (providing services based on MODIS and Landsat data); (ii) Gicarus Lab (providing sample services based on Landsat datasets) and (iii) FRESHMON (providing sample services for water quality) and services from a several regional SDIs.

  8. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: Evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T.; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-09-15

    A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan's industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter.

  9. Transient downregulation of Sema3A mRNA in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy. A novel molecular event potentially contributing to mossy fiber sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtmaat, Anthony J D G; Gorter, Jan A; de Wit, Joris; Tolner, Else A; Spijker, Sabine; Giger, Roman J; Lopes da Silva, Fernando H; Verhaagen, J.

    Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is thought to play a critical role in the hyperexcitability of the hippocampus in temporal lobe epilepsy patients. The composition of molecular signals that is needed to direct this sprouting response has not yet been elucidated to a great

  10. Neuronal Functions Associated with Endo- and Exocytotic Events-cum-Molecular Trafficking May Be Cell Maturation-Dependent: Lessons Learned from Studies on Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum type A progenitor toxins . Infect Immun 64:1589–1594 Li L, Singh BR (1999) Structure -function relationship of clostridial...experimental design and demonstration of the validity of the targeted neurologic therapeutic delivery approach based on recombinant botulinum toxin ...Endocytosis Exocytosis Molecular trafficking Cell maturation Botulism Targeted therapeutic Background Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by

  11. Deciphering the molecular events necessary for synergistic tumor cell apoptosis mediated by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat and the BH3 mimetic ABT-737

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, Adrian P.; Alsop, Amber E.; Bots, Michael; Cluse, Leonie A.; Williams, Steven P.; Banks, Kellie-Marie; Ralli, Rachael; Scott, Clare L.; Frenzel, Anna; Villunger, Andreas; Johnstone, Ricky W.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of personalized anticancer therapy is based on the use of targeted therapeutics through in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of action of these agents when used alone and in combination. We have identified the apoptotic proteins and pathways necessary for synergistic tumor cell

  12. Dead zone area at the downstream flow of barrages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow separation is a natural phenomenon encountered at some cases downstream of barrages. The main flow is divided into current and dead zone flows. The percentage area of dead zone flow must be taken into consideration downstream of barrages, due to its negative effect on flow characteristics. Experimental studies were conducted in the Hydraulic Research Institute (HRI, on a physical regulator model with five vents. Theoretically the separation zone is described as a part of an ellipse which is practically verified by plotting velocity vectors. The results show that the percentage area of dead zone to the area through length of separation depends mainly on the expansion ratio [channel width to width of opened vents], with maximum value of 81% for operated side gates. A statistical analysis was derived, to predict the percentage area of dead zone flow to the area through length of separation.

  13. Upstream-downstream cooperation approach in Guanting Reservoir watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Wen-Guo

    2005-01-01

    A case study is introduced and discussed concerning water dispute of misuse and pollution between up- and down-stream parts. The relations between water usage and local industrial structures are analyzed. Results show it is important to change industrial structures of the target region along with controlling water pollution by technical and engineering methods. Three manners of upstream-downstream cooperation are presented and discussed based on the actual conditions of Guangting Reservoir watershed. Two typical scenarios are supposed and studied along with the local plan on water resources development. The best solution for this cooperation presents a good way to help the upstream developing in a new pattern of eco-economy.

  14. OGJ group weathered tough times upstream and downstream in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.B.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    With an upstream sector hit by low oil and gas prices and downstream operations squeezed by weak petroleum demand, 1991, was a tough year for the group of 22 major integrated U.S. companies Oil and Gas Journal tracks. This paper reports that the brief respite caused by the oil price spike in second half 1990 ended abruptly early in first half 1991, and it turned into a year of buckling down for most companies. They shed non-core assets, implemented strategic restructuring moves, and reduced staff. Although low prices slowed overall drilling activity for the group, oil and gas production increased slightly, and most companies reported reserves gains. Recession in the U.S. and Europe depressed demand for the group's fined products enough to pinch downstream earnings even as buoyant Asia-Pacific demand helped jack up world product sales

  15. Downstream management practices of transnational companies in institutionally vulnerable countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Milanez, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of social and environmental management in transnational product chains focus often upstream on suppliers in socially and institutionally vulnerable countries and these suppliers' hazardous processes. Furthermore focus is on transnational companies' responsibility when they source from...... such suppliers. On the contrary, not much focus has been on transnational companies' downstream export of hazardous products to vulnerable countries and the product use in those countries. The article uses pesticides as case of hazardous products and identifies mechanisms in the downstream social...... and environmental management of a Danish pesticide company in vulnerable countries and especially in Brazil. The identified mechanisms are: the transnational company's on-going interpretation of the regulatory and ethical obligations for development and use of its hazardous products in vulnerable countries, path...

  16. Serial killers: ordering caspase activation events in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, E A; Adrain, C; Martin, S J

    1999-11-01

    Caspases participate in the molecular control of apoptosis in several guises; as triggers of the death machinery, as regulatory elements within it, and ultimately as a subset of the effector elements of the machinery itself. The mammalian caspase family is steadily growing and currently contains 14 members. At present, it is unclear whether all of these proteases participate in apoptosis. Thus, current research in this area is focused upon establishing the repertoire and order of caspase activation events that occur during the signalling and demolition phases of cell death. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that proximal caspase activation events are typically initiated by molecules that promote caspase aggregation. As expected, distal caspase activation events are likely to be controlled by caspases activated earlier in the cascade. However, recent data has cast doubt upon the functional demarcation of caspases into signalling (upstream) and effector (downstream) roles based upon their prodomain lengths. In particular, caspase-3 may perform an important role in propagating the caspase cascade, in addition to its role as an effector caspase within the death programme. Here, we discuss the apoptosis-associated caspase cascade and the hierarchy of caspase activation events within it.

  17. International Retailing Operations: Downstream Entry and Expansion via Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the shift into international franchising from other forms of operation, rather than the typical home market franchising base is explored. The focus is international retail franchising, based on a study of the Danish clothing and footwear industry. In this study it was found that Danish companies were moving into international franchising as an outcome of a more general shift from upstream wholesaling and subcontracting activities to downstream involvement in retailing activit...

  18. Analysis of Petroleum Downstream Industry Potential in Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Erfando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum downstream industry in Riau Province is still not optimal. The data shows that from 98,892,755 barrels lifting oil each year only 62,050,000 barrels could be processed in refinery unit II Dumai operated by PT Pertamina. There is a potential of 35-40% of downstream industry. Indonesian Government through The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources declared the construction of a mini refinery to boost oil processing output in the downstream sector. A feasibility study of development plan mini refinery is needed. The study includes production capacity analysis, product analysis, development & operational refinery  analysis and economic analysis. The results obtained by the mini refinery capacity is planned to process crude oil 6000 BOPD with the products produced are gasoline, kerosene, diesel and oil. Investment cost consist of is capital cost US $ 104419784 and operating cost US $ 13766734 each year with net profit earned US $ 12330063/year and rate of return from investment 11.63%

  19. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthesis controls yeast gluconeogenesis downstream and independent of SNF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroover, Sofie; Ghillebert, Ruben; Broeckx, Tom; Winderickx, Joris; Rolland, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Trehalose-6-P (T6P), an intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, was identified as an important regulator of yeast sugar metabolism and signaling. tps1Δ mutants, deficient in T6P synthesis (TPS), are unable to grow on rapidly fermentable medium with uncontrolled influx in glycolysis, depletion of ATP and accumulation of sugar phosphates. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We show that SNF1 deletion restores the tps1Δ growth defect on glucose, suggesting that lack of TPS hampers inactivation of SNF1 or SNF1-regulated processes. In addition to alternative, non-fermentable carbon metabolism, SNF1 controls two major processes: respiration and gluconeogenesis. The tps1Δ defect appears to be specifically associated with deficient inhibition of gluconeogenesis, indicating more downstream effects. Consistently, Snf1 dephosphorylation and inactivation on glucose medium are not affected, as confirmed with an in vivo Snf1 activity reporter. Detailed analysis shows that gluconeogenic Pck1 and Fbp1 expression, protein levels and activity are not repressed upon glucose addition to tps1Δ cells, suggesting a link between the metabolic defect and persistent gluconeogenesis. While SNF1 is essential for induction of gluconeogenesis, T6P/TPS is required for inactivation of gluconeogenesis in the presence of glucose, downstream and independent of SNF1 activity and the Cat8 and Sip4 transcription factors. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  1. A multiple translocation event in a patient with hexadactyly, facial dysmorphism, mental retardation and behaviour disorder characterised comprehensively by molecular cytogenetics. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Jörg; Heller, Anita; Senger, Gabriele; Starke, Heike; Chudoba, Ilse; Kelbova, Christina; Tönnies, Holger; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Haase, Claudia; Beensen, Volkmar; Zintl, Felix; Claussen, Uwe; Liehr, Thomas

    2003-09-01

    We report a 13-year-old female patient with multiple congenital abnormalities (microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, anteverted dysplastic ears and postaxial hexadactyly), mental retardation, and adipose-gigantism. Ultrasonography revealed no signs of a heart defect or renal abnormalities. She showed no speech development and suffered from a behavioural disorder. CNS abnormalities were excluded by cerebral MRI. Initial cytogenetic studies by Giemsa banding revealed an aberrant karyotype involving three chromosomes, t(2;4;11). By high resolution banding and multicolour fluoresence in-situ hybridisation (M-FISH, MCB), chromosome 1 was also found to be involved in the complex chromosomal aberrations, confirming the karyotype 46,XX,t(2;11;4).ish t(1;4;2;11)(q43;q21.1;p12-p13.1;p14.1). To the best of our knowledge no patient has been previously described with such a complex translocation involving 4 chromosomes. This case demonstrates that conventional chromosome banding techniques such as Giemsa banding are not always sufficient to characterise complex chromosomal abnormalities. Only by the additional utilisation of molecular cytogenetic techniques could the complexity of the present chromosomal rearrangements and the origin of the involved chromosomal material be detected. Further molecular genetic studies will be performed to clarify the chromosomal breakpoints potentially responsible for the observed clinical symptoms. This report demonstrates that multicolour-fluorescence in-situ hybridisation studies should be performed in patients with congenital abnormalities and suspected aberrant karyotypes in addition to conventional Giemsa banding.

  2. A model of mudflow propagation downstream from the Grohovo landslide near the city of Rijeka (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žic, E.; Arbanas, Ž.; Bićanić, N.; Ožanić, N.

    2015-02-01

    Mudflows regularly generate significant human and property losses. Analyzing mudflows is important to assess the risks and to delimit vulnerable areas where mitigation measures are required. The smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model adopted here considers, in two phases, a granular skeleton with voids filled with either water or mud. The SPH depth-integrated numerical model (Pastor et al., 2009a) used for the present simulations is a 2-D model capable of predicting the runout distance, flow velocity, deposition pattern and the final volume of mudflows. It is based on mathematical and rheological models. In this study, the main characteristics of mudflow processes that have emerged in the past (1908) in the area downstream of the Grohovo landslide are examined, and the more relevant parameters and attributes describing the mudflow are presented. Principal equations that form the basis of the SPH depth-integrated model are reviewed and applied to analyze the Grohovo landslide and the propagation of the mudflow wave downstream of the landslide. Based on the SPH method, the runout distance, quantities of the deposited materials and the velocity of mudflow progression which occurred in the past at the observed area are analyzed and qualitatively compared to the recorded consequences of the actual event. Within the SPH simulation, the Newtonian rheological model in the turbulent flow regime and the Bingham rheological model were adopted and a comparison was made of the application of the Egashira and Hungr erosion law.

  3. Multiyear Downstream Response to Dam Removal on the White Salmon River, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The 2011 removal of the 38 m tall Condit Dam on the White Salmon River, Washington was one of the largest dam removals to date, in terms of both dam height and sediment release. We examined the multiyear geomorphic response to this event, through 2015, including in a bedrock-confined canyon and in a less-confined, backwater-influenced pool reach near the river's mouth, to the large, rapid influx of fine reservoir sediment produced by the breach and to subsequent sediment transfer in the free-flowing White Salmon River. In the canyon reach, aggraded sediments were rapidly eroded from riffles, returning them toward pre-breach bed elevations within weeks, but pool aggradation persisted for longer. The downstream, less-confined reach transformed from a deep pool to a narrower pool-riffle channel with alternate bars; multiyear observations showed persistence of bars and of this new and distinct morphology. This downstream reach marks a rare case in post-dam removal channel response; in most dam removals, channels have rapidly reverted toward pre-removal morphology, as in the canyon reach here. Comparison of the multiyear geomorphic evolution of the White Salmon River to other recent large dam removals in the U.S. allows evaluation of the relative influences of antecedent channel morphology, post-breach hydrology, and dam removal style, as well as providing a basis for predicting responses to future dam removals.

  4. Flow behavior of droplets downstream of the spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Eiichiro; Morishita, Kiyohide; Aritomi, Masanori; Yano, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    The fuel spacer, of which role is to maintain an appropriate rod-to-rod clearance, is one of the components of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel rod bundles. The fuel spacer influences flow characteristics of the liquid film in fuel rod bundles, so that its geometry influences greatly thermal hydraulics such as critical power and pressure drop therein. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of the spacer geometry on the core flow split downstream of the spacer. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used for their meausrement under the conditions of a small amount of droplets in mist flows. From the experimental results, the normalized droplet velocity profiles with a spacer were split by the spacer and were different between a wider and a narrower regions in the channel, however, they became uniform at the distance far 100mm from the spacer. In the case without a spacer, the velocity was monotonously increasing nearer the rod surface with going toward the center of the channel. In the case with a spacer, the velocity profile downstream of the spacer changed in the narrower region of the channel. This tendency became more remarkable with thickening the spacer and widening clearance between the spacer and the wall. In this paper, 'drift' velocity effect was applied for the spacer model, due to the gas flows were split by the spacer which is based on the momentum balance between the narrower and wider channels. This model was confirmed from the experimental results that the droplet flowed from a wider region to a narrower one. This drift effect appeared more strongly as the spacer became thicker and the clearance did narrower. The analytical results explained qualitatively the measured ones. It is clarified that the drift effect proposed in this work was a dominant factor on droplet deposition downstream of the spacer

  5. Climate change issue table : petroleum downstream sector industry foundation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.R.; Kelly, S.J.; Kromm, R.B.; Prime, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Canadian downstream petroleum industry is presented. The downstream sector includes petroleum refining, plus all activities regarding distribution, marketing and retailing of petroleum products. In 1990, the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions resulting from the production and consumption of petroleum products were about 207 megatons which is about 45 per cent of total Canadian CO 2 emissions. This report includes the analysis of the Base Case and the Kyoto Case. The Base Case is premised on the implementation of fuel sulphur reductions to meet cleaner fuels requirements and an enhanced program of refinery efficiency initiatives. Under the Base Case assumptions the CO 2 emissions from refinery operations in 2010 would be about 3.4 below 1990 levels. The Kyoto Case was developed on the basis of reductions in Canadian petroleum product demand that would be sufficient to achieve a 6 per cent reduction in GHG emissions from the production and consumption of petroleum products relative to 1990 levels. The model demonstrates the dramatic economic impact of the Kyoto Case reductions on the Canadian downstream petroleum sector. Investment requirements for capital improvements to further distillate production and to further desulphurization are estimated at $ 1.5 billion between 2005 and 2015. The reduced volume of gasoline sales would be expected to result in rationalization of retail outlets, resulting in the closure of some 2,000 retail outlets with a combined loss of about 12,000 jobs. It is suggested that similar impact in other countries that are signatory to the Kyoto Protocol could result in the shift of refining, refining industry jobs and related economic benefits to countries which are not participants in the Kyoto Protocol. 14 tabs., 6 figs., 5 appendices

  6. Alfven waves and associated energetic ions downstream from Uranus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Belcher, J.W.; Richardson, J.D.; Smith, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the observation of low-frequency waves in the solar wind downstream from Uranus. These waves are observed by the Voyager spacecraft for more than 2 weeks after the encounter with Uranus and are present during this period whenever the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented such that the field lines intersect the Uranian bow shock. The magnetic field and velocity components transverse to the background field are strongly correlated, consistent with the interpretation that these waves are Alfvenic and/or fast-mode waves. The waves have a spacecraft frame frequency of about 10 -3 Hz, and when first observed near the bow shock have an amplitude comparable to the background field. As the spacecraft moves farther from Uranus, the amplitude decays. The waves appear to propagate along the magnetic field lines outward from Uranus and are right-hand polarized. Theory suggests that these waves are generated in the upstream region by a resonant instability with a proton beam streaming along the magnetic field lines. The solar wind subsequently carries these waves downstream to the spacecraft location. These waves are associated with the presence of energetic (> 28 keV) ions observed by the low-energy charged particle instrument. These ions appear two days after the start of the wave activity and occur thereafter whenever the Alfven waves occur, increasing in intensity away from Uranus. The ions are argued to originate in the Uranian magnetosphere, but pitch-angle scattering in the upstream region is required to bring them downstream to the spacecraft location

  7. Flow diagnostics downstream of a tribladed rotor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Rahmanov, V. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of vortex wake structures and measurements of instantaneous 3D velocity fields downstream of a triblade turbine model. Two operation modes of flow around the rotor with different tip speed ratios were tested. Initially the wake structures were visualized...... and subsequently quantitative data were recorded through velocity field restoration from particle tracks using a stereo PIV system.The study supplied flow diagnostics and recovered the instantaneous 3D velocity fields in the longitudinal cross section behind a tribladed rotor at different values of tip speed ratio...

  8. 'Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppression - Fact or Fiction?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson have provided an empirically grounded argument that firms use pioneer patents of 'broad' scope to block downstream technological development (Merges and Nelson 1990). If this is a regular occurrence then, as they claim, they have faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents (Kitch...... 1977), a theory that is a version of the classic justification for the award of the exclusive right - that it should protect the incentive to develop property. Merges and Nelson insist that their thesis should be supported by empirical evidence and they turn to historical accounts as an important form...

  9. Has dyke development in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta shifted flood hazard downstream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Khanh Triet, Nguyen; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2017-08-01

    In the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta (VMD) the areas with three rice crops per year have been expanded rapidly during the last 15 years. Paddy-rice cultivation during the flood season has been made possible by implementing high-dyke flood defenses and flood control structures. However, there are widespread claims that the high-dyke system has increased water levels in downstream areas. Our study aims at resolving this issue by attributing observed changes in flood characteristics to high-dyke construction and other possible causes. Maximum water levels and duration above the flood alarm level are analysed for gradual trends and step changes at different discharge gauges. Strong and robust increasing trends of peak water levels and duration downstream of the high-dyke areas are found with a step change in 2000/2001, i.e. immediately after the disastrous flood which initiated the high-dyke development. These changes are in contrast to the negative trends detected at stations upstream of the high-dyke areas. This spatially different behaviour of changes in flood characteristics seems to support the public claims. To separate the impact of the high-dyke development from the impact of the other drivers - i.e. changes in the flood hydrograph entering the Mekong Delta, and changes in the tidal dynamics - hydraulic model simulations of the two recent large flood events in 2000 and 2011 are performed. The hydraulic model is run for a set of scenarios whereas the different drivers are interchanged. The simulations reveal that for the central VMD an increase of 9-13 cm in flood peak and 15 days in duration can be attributed to high-dyke development. However, for this area the tidal dynamics have an even larger effect in the range of 19-32 cm. However, the relative contributions of the three drivers of change vary in space across the delta. In summary, our study confirms the claims that the high-dyke development has raised the flood hazard downstream. However, it is not

  10. Has dyke development in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta shifted flood hazard downstream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. K. Triet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta (VMD the areas with three rice crops per year have been expanded rapidly during the last 15 years. Paddy-rice cultivation during the flood season has been made possible by implementing high-dyke flood defenses and flood control structures. However, there are widespread claims that the high-dyke system has increased water levels in downstream areas. Our study aims at resolving this issue by attributing observed changes in flood characteristics to high-dyke construction and other possible causes. Maximum water levels and duration above the flood alarm level are analysed for gradual trends and step changes at different discharge gauges. Strong and robust increasing trends of peak water levels and duration downstream of the high-dyke areas are found with a step change in 2000/2001, i.e. immediately after the disastrous flood which initiated the high-dyke development. These changes are in contrast to the negative trends detected at stations upstream of the high-dyke areas. This spatially different behaviour of changes in flood characteristics seems to support the public claims. To separate the impact of the high-dyke development from the impact of the other drivers – i.e. changes in the flood hydrograph entering the Mekong Delta, and changes in the tidal dynamics – hydraulic model simulations of the two recent large flood events in 2000 and 2011 are performed. The hydraulic model is run for a set of scenarios whereas the different drivers are interchanged. The simulations reveal that for the central VMD an increase of 9–13 cm in flood peak and 15 days in duration can be attributed to high-dyke development. However, for this area the tidal dynamics have an even larger effect in the range of 19–32 cm. However, the relative contributions of the three drivers of change vary in space across the delta. In summary, our study confirms the claims that the high-dyke development has raised the flood

  11. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  12. Evaluation of Intracellular Signaling Downstream Chimeric Antigen Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Karlsson

    Full Text Available CD19-targeting CAR T cells have shown potency in clinical trials targeting B cell leukemia. Although mainly second generation (2G CARs carrying CD28 or 4-1BB have been investigated in patients, preclinical studies suggest that third generation (3G CARs with both CD28 and 4-1BB have enhanced capacity. However, little is known about the intracellular signaling pathways downstream of CARs. In the present work, we have analyzed the signaling capacity post antigen stimulation in both 2G and 3G CARs. 3G CAR T cells expanded better than 2G CAR T cells upon repeated stimulation with IL-2 and autologous B cells. An antigen-driven accumulation of CAR+ cells was evident post antigen stimulation. The cytotoxicity of both 2G and 3G CAR T cells was maintained by repeated stimulation. The phosphorylation status of intracellular signaling proteins post antigen stimulation showed that 3G CAR T cells had a higher activation status than 2G. Several proteins involved in signaling downstream the TCR were activated, as were proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell adhesion and exocytosis. In conclusion, 3G CAR T cells had a higher degree of intracellular signaling activity than 2G CARs which may explain the increased proliferative capacity seen in 3G CAR T cells. The study also indicates that there may be other signaling pathways to consider when designing or evaluating new generations of CARs.

  13. Tidal Influence on Water Quality of Kapuas Kecil River Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnaini, Rizki; Sudarmadji; Purwono, Suryo

    2018-02-01

    The Kapuas Kecil River is strongly influenced by tidal, in the dry season the intrusion of surface water is often a problem for the WTP because it causes the change of raw water quality to be processed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sea tides on water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River. The study was conducted in Kapuas River downstream along ± 30 km from the upper boundary to the estuary. Water sampling is carried out during the dry and rainy season, when the tidal conditions at 7 (seven) locations of the monitoring station. Descriptive analysis methods and regression-correlation statistics are used to determine the effect of tides on water quality in Kapuas River downstream. In general, the water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River has exceeded the criteria of first class water quality, ie water that can be used for drinking water. The status of water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River based on the pollution index calculation shows the condition of the river is "mild to medium pollutants". The result of multiple linear regression analysis got the value of coefficient of determination (adjusted R square) = 0,760, which in whole show that independent variable (tidal and distance) influence to dependent variable (value of TDS) equal to 76%.

  14. Turbulence downstream of subcoronary stentless and stented aortic valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, Jonas Amstrup; Frost, Markus Winther; Wierup, Per; Klaaborg, Kaj-Erik; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Nygaard, Hans; Hasenkam, J Michael

    2011-08-11

    Regions of turbulence downstream of bioprosthetic heart valves may cause damage to blood components, vessel wall as well as to aortic valve leaflets. Stentless aortic heart valves are known to posses several hemodynamic benefits such as larger effective orifice areas, lower aortic transvalvular pressure difference and faster left ventricular mass regression compared with their stented counterpart. Whether this is reflected by diminished turbulence formation, remains to be shown. We implanted either stented pericardial valve prostheses (Mitroflow), stentless valve prostheses (Solo or Toronto SPV) in pigs or they preserved their native valves. Following surgery, blood velocity was measured in the cross sectional area downstream of the valves using 10MHz ultrasonic probes connected to a dedicated pulsed Doppler equipment. As a measure of turbulence, Reynolds normal stress (RNS) was calculated at two different blood pressures (baseline and 50% increase). We found no difference in maximum RNS measurements between any of the investigated valve groups. The native valve had significantly lower mean RNS values than the Mitroflow (p=0.004), Toronto SPV (p=0.008) and Solo valve (p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences between the artificial valve groups (p=0.3). The mean RNS was significantly larger when increasing blood pressure (p=0.0006). We, thus, found no advantages for the stentless aortic valves compared with stented prosthesis in terms of lower maximum or mean RNS values. Native valves have a significantly lower mean RNS value than all investigated bioprostheses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural Origin Lycopene and Its "Green" Downstream Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Emmanouil H; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria; Karabelas, Anastasios J

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is an abundant natural carotenoid pigment with several biological functions (well-known for its antioxidant properties) which is under intensive investigation in recent years. Lycopene chemistry, its natural distribution, bioavailability, biological significance, and toxicological effects are briefly outlined in the first part of this review. The second, major part, deals with various modern downstream processing techniques, which are assessed in order to identify promising approaches for the recovery of lycopene and of similar lipophilic compounds. Natural lycopene is synthesized in plants and by microorganisms, with main representatives of these two categories (for industrial production) tomato and its by-products and the fungus Blakeslea trispora, respectively. Currently, there is a great deal of effort to develop efficient downstream processing for large scale production of natural-origin lycopene, with trends strongly indicating the necessity for "green" and mild extraction conditions. In this review, emphasis is placed on final product safety and ecofriendly processing, which are expected to totally dominate in the field of natural-origin lycopene extraction and purification.

  16. Kappa-Electrons Downstream of the Solar Wind Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    A theoretical description of the solar wind electron distribution function downstream of the termination shock under the influence of the shock-induced injection of overshooting KeV-energetic electrons will be presented. A kinetic phasespace transport equation in the bulk frame of the heliosheath plasma flow is developed for the solar wind electrons, taking into account shock-induced electron injection, convective changes, magnetic cooling processes and whistler wave-induced energy diffusion. Assuming that the local electron distribution under the prevailing Non-LTE conditions can be represented by a local kappa function with a local kappa parameter that varies with the streamline coordinates, we determine the parameters of the resulting, initial kappa distribution for the downstream electrons. From this initial function spectral electron fluxes can be derived and can be compared with those measured by the VOYAGER-1 spacecraft in the range between 40 to 70 KeV. It can then be shown that with kappa values around kappa = 6 one can in fact fit these data very satisfactorily. In addition it is shown that for isentropic electron flows kappa-distributed electrons have to undergo simultaneous changes of both parameters, i.e. kappa and theta, of the electron kappa function. It is also shown then that under the influence of energy sinks and sources the electron flux becomes non-isentropic with electron entropies changing along the streamline.

  17. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: Evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T.; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Historical reconstruction of human and natural disturbances in SW Taiwan. • Comparative analysis of PAHs and lignin to evaluate sources/processes. • Distinct timing of PAH maxima between western Pacific, Europe and North America. • Consistently low (Ad/Al) v suggests quick transport of TOM by mountainous rivers. • Both PAHs and lignin point to turbidite flows driven by typhoon floods. - Abstract: A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan’s industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter. The predominant pyrogenic sources include vehicular, smelter, and coal combustion but spatial differences are observed among sub-regions of the shelf. Profiles of lignin oxidation products (LOPs) point to a significant increase in terrestrial organic matter inputs driven by land development after the 1970s. Low lignin diagenetic signature ratios [(Ad/Al) v ] in all sediments suggest quick transport of fresh plant material from land to sea via mountainous rivers. Shifts in PAHs, LOPs, and radionuclides in recent sediments reveal the deposition of turbidites resulting from typhoon-induced floods. Multiproxy analysis illustrates the interplay between anthropogenic activities and natural processes

  18. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-09-15

    A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan's industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter. The predominant pyrogenic sources include vehicular, smelter, and coal combustion but spatial differences are observed among sub-regions of the shelf. Profiles of lignin oxidation products (LOPs) point to a significant increase in terrestrial organic matter inputs driven by land development after the 1970s. Low lignin diagenetic signature ratios [(Ad/Al)v] in all sediments suggest quick transport of fresh plant material from land to sea via mountainous rivers. Shifts in PAHs, LOPs, and radionuclides in recent sediments reveal the deposition of turbidites resulting from typhoon-induced floods. Multiproxy analysis illustrates the interplay between anthropogenic activities and natural processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p as a molecular event associated with marrow fibrosis in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bordoni, Roberta; Casetti, Ilaria; Milanesi, Chiara; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Rotunno, Giada; Severgnini, Marco; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Astori, Cesare; Fugazza, Elena; Pascutto, Cristiana; Boveri, Emanuela; Passamonti, Francesco; De Bellis, Gianluca; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario

    2013-05-23

    We studied mutations of MPL exon 10 in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF), first investigating a cohort of 892 consecutive patients. MPL mutation scanning was performed on granulocyte genomic DNA by using a high-resolution melt assay, and the mutant allele burden was evaluated by using deep sequencing. Somatic mutations of MPL, all but one involving codon W515, were detected in 26/661 (4%) patients with ET, 10/187 (5%) with PMF, and 7/44 (16%) patients with post-ET myelofibrosis. Comparison of JAK2 (V617F)-mutated and MPL-mutated patients showed only minor phenotypic differences. In an extended group of 62 MPL-mutated patients, the granulocyte mutant allele burden ranged from 1% to 95% and was significantly higher in patients with PMF or post-ET myelofibrosis compared with those with ET. Patients with higher mutation burdens had evidence of acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of chromosome 1p in granulocytes, consistent with a transition from heterozygosity to homozygosity for the MPL mutation in clonal cells. A significant association was found between MPL-mutant allele burden greater than 50% and marrow fibrosis. These observations suggest that acquired CN-LOH of chromosome 1p involving the MPL location may represent a molecular mechanism of fibrotic transformation in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  20. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  1. Downstream ecological effects of dams: A geomorphic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, F.K.; Dietrich, W.E.; Trush, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The damming of a river changes the flow of water, sediment, nutrients, energy, and biota, interrupting and altering most of a river's ecological processes. This article discusses the importance of geomorphological analysis in river conservation and management. To illustrate how subtle geomorphological adjustments may profoundly influence the ecological relationships downstream from dames, three case studies are presented. Then a geomorphically based approach for assessing and possibly mitigating some of the environmental effects of dams by tailoring dam designed and operation is outlined. The cases are as follows: channel simplification and salmon decline on the McKenzie River in Oregon; Channel incision and reduced floodplain inundation on the Oconee river in Georgia; Increased stability of a braided river in New Zealand's south island. 41 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  2. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Downstream and upstream extension of the House of Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmen, Elsebeth; Kristensen, Preben Sander

    . The transformation processes and characteristics constituting this fan were based on the knowledge possessed by the company before entering into development interaction with suppliers. If it is these characteristics which are used to express the demands of the company in the subsequent interaction process, much......Executive summary 1. During 1993-94 the authors followed a product development process in a Danish butter cookie company. The process was structured according to the Quality Function Deployment technique House of Quality. Originally, the intention was to study the prototyping process that we...... a discussion in a diabetics end-user focus group. During a series of meetings, the production manager and the sales manager transformed attributes int characteristics and constructed Houses of Quality for a sugar-free cookie. 2. Downstream on its way to the end-user, the product passes through a chain of users...

  4. Mergers and acquisitions of downstream facilities by producing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligon, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses a phenomenon that he calls the ''re-integration'' or ''re-coupling'' of the worldwide oil industry, as foreign, particularly OPEC, producers are becoming directly involved with downstream operations in their most important markets. This phenomenon already has produced some far-reaching consequences that will become even more important and pervasive in the near future. First, he describes the factors and logic that led to these arrangements. Next, he outlines some of their practical considerations and implications. While some of the market factors described are applicable to any non-integrated producer, he spends most of his time discussing OPEC and ''neo-OPEC'' producers such as Mexico. These are the people doing the deals and are therefore probably of greatest interest.

  5. The downstream externalities of harvesting rainwater in semi-arid watersheds: an Indian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.A.; Biggs, T.W.; Bouwer, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Water-related investment projects affect downstream water availability, and therefore should account for these externalities. Few projects do, however, owing to lack of awareness, lack of data and difficulty in linking upstream investments to downstream effects. This article assesses the downstream

  6. From gravel to sand. Downstream fining of bed sediments in the lower river Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    A common characteristic of many rivers is the tendency for bed sediments to become finer in downstream direction. This phenomenon, which is generally known as downstream fining, has a strong effect on the morphologic and hydrodynamic behaviour of a river. The fundamental causes of downstream

  7. Doublesex: a conserved downstream gene controlled by diverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... ... for Genetics and Genomics of Silkmoths, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Centre for DNA ..... ilar type of splicing is also found in the Australian sheep blowfly ..... pose a model for the probable action of two female-specific.

  8. Operating multireservoir hydropower systems for downstream water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hydropower reservoir operations often impact tailwater quality and water quality in the stream or river below the impoundment for many miles. Determining optimal operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs involves solving a highly dimensional nonlinear, nonconvex optimization problem. This research adds the additional complexities of downstream water quality considerations within the optimization formulation to determine operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs operating in series (tandem) or parallel. The formulation was used to determine operating strategies for six reservoirs of the upper Cumberland river basin in Tennessee and Kentucky. Significant dissolved oxygen (DO) violations occur just upstream of Nashville, Tennessee below Old Hickory dam during the months of August and September. Daily reservoir releases were determined for the period of June through September which would produce the maximum hydropower revenue while meeting downstream water quality objectives. Optimal releases for three operational strategies were compared to historical operations for the years 1985, 1986, and 1988. These strategies included: spilling as necessary to meet water quality criteria, near normal operation (minimal spills), and drawdown of reservoirs as necessary to meet criteria without spills. Optimization results showed an 8% to 15% hydropower loss may be necessary to meet water quality criteria through spills and a 2% to 9% improvement in DO below Old Hickory may be possible without significant spills. Results also showed that substantial increases in initial headwater elevations would be necessary to meet daily DO criteria and avoid spills. The optimal control theory algorithm used to solve the problem proved to be an efficient and robust solver of this large optimization problem

  9. Downstream cumulative effects of land use on freshwater communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglerová, L.; Kielstra, B. W.; Moore, D.; Richardson, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Many streams and rivers are subject to disturbance from intense land use such as urbanization and agriculture, and this is especially obvious for small headwaters. Streams are spatially organized into networks where headwaters represent the tributaries and provide water, nutrients, and organic material to the main stems. Therefore perturbations within the headwaters might be cumulatively carried on downstream. Although we know that the disturbance of headwaters in urban and agricultural landscapes poses threats to downstream river reaches, the magnitude and severity of these changes for ecological communities is less known. We studied stream networks along a gradient of disturbance connected to land use intensity, from urbanized watersheds to watersheds placed in agricultural settings in the Greater Toronto Area. Further, we compared the patterns and processes found in the modified watershed to a control watershed, situated in a forested, less impacted landscape. Preliminary results suggest that hydrological modifications (flash floods), habitat loss (drainage and sewer systems), and water quality issues of small streams in urbanized and agricultural watersheds represent major disturbances and threats for aquatic and riparian biota on local as well as larger spatial scales. For example, communities of riparian plants are dominated by species typical of the land use on adjacent uplands as well as the dominant land use on the upstream contributing area, instead of riparian obligates commonly found in forested watersheds. Further, riparian communities in disturbed environments are dominated by invasive species. The changes in riparian communities are vital for various functions of riparian vegetation. Bank erosion control is suppressed, leading to severe channel transformations and sediment loadings in urbanized watersheds. Food sources for instream biota and thermal regimes are also changed, which further triggers alterations of in-stream biological communities

  10. Downstream passage and impact of turbine shutdowns on survival of silver American Eels at five hydroelectric dams on the Shenandoah River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Sheila; Welsh, Stuart A.; Smith, David R.; Rockey, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Hydroelectric dams impact the downstream migrations of silver American Eels Anguilla rostrata via migratory delays and turbine mortality. A radiotelemetry study of American Eels was conducted to determine the impacts of five run-of-the-river hydroelectric dams located over a 195-km stretch of the Shenandoah River, Virginia–West Virginia, during fall 2007–summer 2010. Overall, 96 radio-tagged individuals (mean TL = 85.4 cm) migrated downstream past at least one dam during the study. Most American Eels passed dams relatively quickly; over half (57.9%) of the dam passage events occurred within 1 h of reaching a dam, and most (81.3%) occurred within 24 h of reaching the dam. Two-thirds of the dam passage events occurred via spill, and the remaining passage events were through turbines. Migratory delays at dams were shorter and American Eels were more likely to pass via spill over the dam during periods of high river discharge than during low river discharge. The extent of delay in migration did not differ between the passage routes (spill versus turbine). Twenty-eight American Eels suffered turbine-related mortality, which occurred at all five dams. Mortality rates for eels passing through turbines ranged from 15.8% to 40.7% at individual dams. Overall project-specific mortality rates (with all passage routes combined) ranged from 3.0% to 14.3%. To protect downstream-migrating American Eels, nighttime turbine shutdowns (1800–0600 hours) were implemented during September 15–December 15. Fifty percent of all downstream passage events in the study occurred during the turbine shutdown period. Implementation of the seasonal turbine shutdown period reduced cumulative mortality from 63.3% to 37.3% for American Eels passing all five dams. Modifying the turbine shutdown period to encompass more dates in the spring and linking the shutdowns to environmental conditions could provide greater protection to downstream-migrating American Eels.

  11. Corrosion impact of reductant on DWPF and downstream facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Imrich, K. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilderman, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid is not completely consumed and small quantities of the glycolate anion are carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction throughout the waste processing system has not been previously evaluated. A literature review had revealed that corrosion data in glycolate-bearing solution applicable to SRS systems were not available. Therefore, testing was recommended to evaluate the materials of construction of vessels, piping and components within DWPF and downstream facilities. The testing, conducted in non-radioactive simulants, consisted of both accelerated tests (electrochemical and hot-wall) with coupons in laboratory vessels and prototypical tests with coupons immersed in scale-up and mock-up test systems. Eight waste or process streams were identified in which the glycolate anion might impact the performance of the materials of construction. These streams were 70% glycolic acid (DWPF feed vessels and piping), SRAT/SME supernate (Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels and piping), DWPF acidic recycle (DWPF condenser and recycle tanks and piping), basic concentrated recycle (HLW tanks, evaporators, and transfer lines), salt processing (ARP, MCU, and Saltstone tanks and piping), boric acid (MCU separators), and dilute waste (HLW evaporator condensate tanks and transfer line and ETF components). For each stream, high temperature limits and worst-case glycolate concentrations were identified for performing the recommended tests. Test solution chemistries were generally based on analytical results of actual waste samples taken from the various process facilities or of prototypical simulants produced in the laboratory. The materials of construction for most vessels

  12. Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Downstream Transport of Water, Heat, and Solutes in a Hydropeaked River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, S. B.; Cardenas, M. B.; Neilson, B. T.; Watson, J.

    2017-12-01

    large natural storm events. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use multiple downstream field sites to characterize how dam-induced SW-GW interactions and in-stream temperature and solute transport behave under hydropeaking conditions.

  13. Downstream process development in biotechnological itaconic acid manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Antonio Irineudo; de Carvalho, Júlio Cesar; Medina, Jesus David Coral; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Itaconic acid is a promising chemical that has a wide range of applications and can be obtained in large scale using fermentation processes. One of the most important uses of this biomonomer is the environmentally sustainable production of biopolymers. Separation of itaconic acid from the fermented broth has a considerable impact in the total production cost. Therefore, optimization and high efficiency downstream processes are technological challenges to make biorefineries sustainable and economically viable. This review describes the current state of the art in recovery and purification for itaconic acid production via bioprocesses. Previous studies on the separation of itaconic acid relying on operations such as crystallization, precipitation, extraction, electrodialysis, diafiltration, pertraction, and adsorption. Although crystallization is a typical method of itaconic acid separation from fermented broth, other methods such as membrane separation and reactive extraction are promising as a recovery steps coupled to the fermentation, potentially enhancing the overall process yield. Another approach is adsorption in fixed bed columns, which efficiently separates itaconic acid. Despite recent advances in separation and recovery methods, there is still space for improvement in IA recovery and purification.

  14. Simulation of hanging dams downstream of Ossauskoski power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, J.; Huokuna, M. [Finnish Environment Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Severinkangas, K.; Talvensaari, M. [Kemijoki Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    Sixteen power plants have been constructed along Finland's Kemijoki River for hydroelectric power production. The Ossauskoski facility has recently undergone major renovations and upgrade, making it the sixth largest hydroelectric power plant in Finland, with a new capacity of 124 MW and an annual energy output of 501 GWh. The increase in power output and discharge may cause changes in ice conditions downstream of the power plant. The section of the river is already subjected to frazil ice problems and hanging dam formation. Discharges and adverse effects of frazil ice phenomena are likely to increase due to climate change, resulting in harm for hydropower production and the environment, particularly in flow regulated rivers where winter discharges are higher than natural discharges. As such, a study was launched to investigate a dredge plan suggested by by the electric utility Kemijoki Oy. The project involved mapping the river bed topography to identify the location and extent of hanging dams. A sounding device and ground penetrating radar was used to find the thaw regions in the ice cover. The JJT numerical river ice model was effectively used to study the effect of hanging dams on water levels. However, the ice bridging phenomena was not modelled in a reliable way by the JJT model and will be modelled in the future using the CRISSP2D numerical model. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Energy taxes and subsidies downstream: transparency and dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissaour, A.

    2001-01-01

    The reasons why governments levy taxes are discussed with special reference to the energy sector. The article focuses on the quantitative aspect of policies and gives a guide to the relevant statistical sources. It summarises the basis of taxes and subsidies and discusses the incidence of energy taxation together with the structure of taxes and subsidies in energy downstream. It reviews the main sources of data and issues highlighted by published statistics and the impact of taxes levied on the consumption of energy products and other taxes (e.g. VAT) which directly affect end-user prices. Production-based levies such as royalties, petroleum revenue taxes, windfall taxes and import and export taxes on fuels are not discussed. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) theoretical foundations in a nutshell; (ii) the incidence of taxation; (iii) the structure and main features of energy taxation (iv) base rate and level of taxation (v) sources of data and methods and (vi) observability and comparability

  16. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  17. Glomerular prostaglandins modulate vascular reactivity of the downstream efferent arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, S; Ren, Y; Juncos, L A; Carretero, O A; Ito, S

    1994-03-01

    The balance of vascular resistance in afferent (Af-) and efferent arterioles (Ef-Arts) is a crucial factor that determines glomerular hemodynamics. We have recently reported that when Ef-Arts were perfused from the distal end of the Af-Art through the glomerulus (orthograde perfusion; OP), both angiotensin II (Ang II) and norepinephrine (NE) induced much weaker constriction than they did when Ef-Arts were perfused from the distal end (retrograde perfusion; RP). This difference was not affected by inhibiting synthesis of nitric oxide. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that glomerular prostaglandins (PGs) may modulate vascular reactivity of the downstream Ef-Art. In addition, we examined the possible modulatory role of PGs in the Af-Art responses to Ang II or NE. Both Ang II and NE caused dose-dependent constriction of Ef-Arts with either OP or RP; however, the constriction was stronger in RP. At 10(-8) M, Ang II decreased Ef-Art diameter by 35 +/- 3.5% in OP (N = 9) compared to 73 +/- 3.9% in RP (N = 5), while 10(-6) M NE decreased the diameter by 25 +/- 3.6% in OP (N = 9) compared to 62 +/- 7.2% in RP (N = 5). Pretreatment with 5 x 10(-5) M indomethacin (Indo) did not alter basal diameter with either method of perfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Flume experiments on scour downstream of wood stream restoration structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliara, Stefano; Kurdistani, Sahameddin Mahmoudi

    2017-02-01

    River restoration aims to improve physical natural form and processes of a river. Techniques to control the riverbed, stabilize channel alignment, protect stream banks, and rebuild the natural habitat are an important part of river restoration projects. Rivers can be stabilized and habitat restored through techniques such as rebuilding meanders and pool-riffle sequences and managing large wood. Structures that limit channel width to accelerate the normal flows through the constricted section are referred to as stream deflectors. Single-wing, double-wing and triangular deflectors are the most commonly used types of this measure. Log-frame deflectors consist of a triangular log frame filled with rock. Deflector constructions singly or in series in low gradient meandering streams, divert base flows toward the center of the channel and, under certain conditions, increase the depth and velocity of flow thereby creating scour pools and enhancing fish habitat. Scour characteristics and morphologies downstream of log-frame deflectors have been analyzed at the hydraulic laboratory of the University of Pisa. All experiments have been carried out in clear water conditions. The results showed that the tailwater depth plays an important role on scour characteristics. In addition, it was experimentally proven that using log-frame deflectors instead of log-deflectors result in a better river bank protection. In this case, for all the tested hydraulic conditions, the scour hole never occurred close to the channel bank. Useful empirical relationships have been proposed in order to evaluate the main features of the scour geometry.

  19. Incidental potable water reuse in a Catalonian basin: living downstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mujeriego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of incidental potable water reuse (IPR in the Llobregat River basin has been conducted by estimating the dilution factor of treated effluent discharges upstream of six river flow measurement sections. IPR in the Llobregat River basin is an everyday occurrence, because of the systematic discharge of treated effluents upstream of river sections used as drinking water sources. Average river flows at the Sant Joan Despí measurement section increased from 400,000 m3/d (2007 to 864,000 m3/d (2008 and to 931,000 m3/d (2013, while treated effluent discharges upstream of that section ranged from 109,000 m3/d to 114,000 m3/d in those years. The highest degree of IPR occurs downstream of the Abrera and Sant Joan Despí flow measurement sections, from where about half of the drinking water supplied to the Barcelona Metropolitan Area is abstracted. Based on average annual flows, the likelihood that drinking water produced from that river stretch contained treated effluent varied from 25% (2007 to 13% (2008 and to 12% (2013. Water agencies and drinking water production utilities have strived for decades to ensure that drinking water production satisfies applicable quality requirements and provides the required public health protection.

  20. The Optimedin gene is a downstream target of Pax6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grinchuk, O.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Wu, X.; Tomarev, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 42 (2005), s. 35228-35237 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/04/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Pax6 * optimedin * promotor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.854, year: 2005

  1. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  2. Development of a Competent and Trouble Free DNA Isolation Protocol for Downstream Genetic Analyses in Glycine Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA from plants is preliminary step in molecular biology. Fast and cost effective genomic DNA isolation from Glycine species for downstream application is a major bottleneck. Here we report a high throughput and trouble free method for genomic DNA extraction from leaf and seeds of Glycine species with high quality and quantity. Protocol reports the optimization by employing different concentrations of CTAB and PVP in extraction buffer. Efficiency of optimized protocol was compared with frequently used DNA extraction methods. Wide adoptability and utility of this protocol was confirmed by DNA extraction from leaves as well as seeds of G. max, G. soja, G. tomentella and G. latifolia. Extracted DNA was successfully subjected to PCR amplification of five microsatellite markers and four putative glycosyltransferase genes. DNA extraction protocol is reproducible, trouble free, rapid and can be adopted for plant molecular biology applications.

  3. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this

  4. Improved intake design for downstream migrating fish at hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mih, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on hydroelectric power projects on the Columbia River which provided low-cost electricity to the Pacific Northwest. However, they are detrimental to anadromous fisheries resources. Anadromous fish are migratory. They begin their life in shallow mountain streams. After several months, they migrate to the ocean, where the fish grow to maturity before their return migration. Remarkably, most anadromous fish return to spawn in their natal streams. At dams, the upstream migration of grown salmon and steelhead is accomplished through fishways. The downstream migration of juveniles remains a serious problem. Juvenile fish follow the water flow during their sea-ward migration. When passing through a turbine, fish can be severely injured due to the sudden pressure drop, high velocity shear zones, and rotating turbine blades. Stunned fish that survive the gauntlet of the turbine are easy prey for sea gulls and squawfish in the tailrace of the powerhouse. Fish mortality per turbine passage is estimated at 15 percent. With nine hydropower projected on the main steam of the Columbia River, their combined mortality is very serious. The historical Columbia River anadromous run of about 12 million fish has declined to 2.5 million in recent years. Modern high-output hydraulic turbines are designed to be placed at a lower elevation to minimize cavitation damage to turbine blades. The modern design trend of deep intake submergence has caused parallel and unsteady vortex flow patterns in the forebay, resulting in a decrease in the guiding efficiency of the screens, such as at Bonneville Second Powerhouse and at Rocky Reach Project

  5. Downstream impacts of dams: shifts in benthic invertivorous fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzotti, Rafaela Vendrametto; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, Angelo A.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Impoundments alter connectivity, sediment transport and water discharge in rivers and floodplains, affecting recruitment, habitat and resource availability for fish including benthic invertivorous fish, which represent an important link between primary producers and higher trophic levels in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We investigated long-term changes to water regime, water quality, and invertivorous fish assemblages pre and post impoundment in three rivers downstream of Porto Primavera Reservoir in south Brazil: Paraná, Baía and Ivinhema rivers. Impacts were distinct in the Paraná River, which is fully obstructed by the dam, less evident in the Baía River which is partially obstructed by the dam, but absent in the unimpounded Ivinhema River. Changes in water regime were reflected mainly as changes in water-level fluctuation with little effect on timing. Water transparency increased in the Paraná River post impoundment but did not change in the Baía and Ivinhema rivers. Changes in fish assemblages included a decrease in benthic invertivorous fish in the Paraná River and a shift in invertivorous fish assemblage structure in the Baía and Paraná rivers but not in the unimpounded Ivinhema River. Changes in water regime and water transparency, caused by impoundment, directly or indirectly impacted invertivorous fish assemblages. Alterations of fish assemblages following environmental changes have consequences over the entire ecosystem, including a potential decrease in the diversity of mechanisms for energy flow. We suggest that keeping existing unimpounded tributaries free of dams, engineering artificial floods, and intensive management of fish habitat within the floodplain may preserve native fish assemblages and help maintain functionality and ecosystem services in highly impounded rivers.

  6. Low cost energy in Canada: The view from downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, K.

    1993-01-01

    The key cost determinants of energy in Canada are analyzed and recommendations are made to ensure the competitiveness of Canadian energy costs and energy-consuming industries in the North American and world markets. Oil supplies 45% of world energy and has a key role in determining prices of all other energy forms since it serves as an incremental source of energy: its consumption changes according to economic growth, changes in weather patterns, and other factors. North America currently accounts for about a third of world oil consumption. North American oil demand is expected to remain flat over the next few decades. As Canada only produces ca 3% of world oil supply, it cannot determine oil prices. However, with an efficient downstream industry, Canada can influence the end-user price of energy. The cost structure of refined products in Canada is analyzed. The cost of raw materials is the single biggest determinant of the final product cost, followed by taxes, operating costs, and profit margin. For gasoline in Ontario, taxes account for half the retail cost, crude oil prices ca 30%, and refining costs ca 4%. Refining costs comprise about two thirds labor costs and one third energy costs. Refiner margins have not exceeded 2 cents/l since 1981, creating reluctance to invest in the refining sector. By 1994, some 200,000 bbl/d of refining capacity is expected to be shut down in Canada. Compared to refineries in the USA, Canadian refineries are smaller and have a much lower capacity to upgrade residual fuel oil to light products. Future challenges to the industry include a projected need for $5 billion in investment, largely to fund new environmental initiatives. Such an investment cannot be met through current industry profits. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Three duplication events and variable molecular evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Staff Development Institute of CNTC, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, People's Republic of China .... more strict selective constraint than others and none of high ω value ... (2007) description, M1a versus M2a is less power than M7 ... We failed to.

  8. Three duplication events and variable molecular evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some large insertion fragments of NbeGGPS1 and NbeGGPS3 were deleted for more visibility. Three conserved motifs were located in the middle region of proteins and were conservative in all 25 sequences. Four positive selection sites were detected in N-terminal region of proteins that are labelled as red arrows.

  9. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  10. Perturbation biology nominates upstream–downstream drug combinations in RAF inhibitor resistant melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Anil; Wang, Weiqing; Demir, Emek; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Jing, Xiaohong; Molinelli, Evan J; Babur, Özgün; Bemis, Debra L; Onur Sumer, Selcuk; Solit, David B; Pratilas, Christine A; Sander, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to targeted cancer therapies is an important clinical problem. The discovery of anti-resistance drug combinations is challenging as resistance can arise by diverse escape mechanisms. To address this challenge, we improved and applied the experimental-computational perturbation biology method. Using statistical inference, we build network models from high-throughput measurements of molecular and phenotypic responses to combinatorial targeted perturbations. The models are computationally executed to predict the effects of thousands of untested perturbations. In RAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we measured 143 proteomic/phenotypic entities under 89 perturbation conditions and predicted c-Myc as an effective therapeutic co-target with BRAF or MEK. Experiments using the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 affecting the level of c-Myc protein and protein kinase inhibitors targeting the ERK pathway confirmed the prediction. In conclusion, we propose an anti-cancer strategy of co-targeting a specific upstream alteration and a general downstream point of vulnerability to prevent or overcome resistance to targeted drugs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04640.001 PMID:26284497

  11. Perturbation biology nominates upstream-downstream drug combinations in RAF inhibitor resistant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Anil; Wang, Weiqing; Demir, Emek; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Jing, Xiaohong; Molinelli, Evan J; Babur, Özgün; Bemis, Debra L; Onur Sumer, Selcuk; Solit, David B; Pratilas, Christine A; Sander, Chris

    2015-08-18

    Resistance to targeted cancer therapies is an important clinical problem. The discovery of anti-resistance drug combinations is challenging as resistance can arise by diverse escape mechanisms. To address this challenge, we improved and applied the experimental-computational perturbation biology method. Using statistical inference, we build network models from high-throughput measurements of molecular and phenotypic responses to combinatorial targeted perturbations. The models are computationally executed to predict the effects of thousands of untested perturbations. In RAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we measured 143 proteomic/phenotypic entities under 89 perturbation conditions and predicted c-Myc as an effective therapeutic co-target with BRAF or MEK. Experiments using the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 affecting the level of c-Myc protein and protein kinase inhibitors targeting the ERK pathway confirmed the prediction. In conclusion, we propose an anti-cancer strategy of co-targeting a specific upstream alteration and a general downstream point of vulnerability to prevent or overcome resistance to targeted drugs.

  12. PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX are the most frequent defect in a Spanish cohort of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Blanco, Darya Gorbenko; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Magano, Luis F; Lapunzina, Pablo; Argente, Jesús; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2006-10-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature and Madelung deformity. Mutations or deletions of the SHOX gene have been previously identified as the main cause of LWD. We recently identified the existence of a second class of pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) deletions which do not include SHOX, implicated in the etiopathogenesis of LWD. The deletions map at least 30-250 kb downstream of SHOX, are variable in size and clearly cosegregate with the LWD phenotype. In order to determine the frequency of this new type of deletions in the Spanish population we analyzed the distribution of PAR1 defects, including the screening of SHOX deletions, mutations, and PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX, in a total of 26 LWD probands by a combination of MLPA, microsatellite analysis, SNP genotyping, dHPLC, and DNA sequencing. A molecular defect was identified in 16/26 LWD patients (61.5%): 10 PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX, four SHOX encompassing deletions, and two SHOX mutations. No apparent phenotypic differences were observed between patients with SHOX defects and those with PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX. In the examined cohort of Spanish LWD probands, PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX represent the highest proportion of identified mutations (38%) compared to SHOX deletions (15%) and mutations (8%). As a consequence of our findings, the screening of this region should be included in the routine genetic testing of LWD. Also, LWD patients who tested negative for SHOX defects should be re-evaluated for PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX.

  13. Identification of downstream metastasis-associated target genes regulated by LSD1 in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Ding, Jie; Wang, Ziwei; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Xuejian; Du, Jiyi

    2017-03-21

    This study aims to identify downstream target genes regulated by lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) in colon cancer cells and investigate the molecular mechanisms of LSD1 influencing invasion and metastasis of colon cancer. We obtained the expression changes of downstream target genes regulated by small-interfering RNA-LSD1 and LSD1-overexpression via gene expression profiling in two human colon cancer cell lines. An Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We screened out LSD1-target gene associated with proliferation, metastasis, and invasion from DEGs via Gene Ontology and Pathway Studio. Subsequently, four key genes (CABYR, FOXF2, TLE4, and CDH1) were computationally predicted as metastasis-related LSD1-target genes. ChIp-PCR was applied after RT-PCR and Western blot validations to detect the occupancy of LSD1-target gene promoter-bound LSD1. A total of 3633 DEGs were significantly upregulated, and 4642 DEGs were downregulated in LSD1-silenced SW620 cells. A total of 4047 DEGs and 4240 DEGs were upregulated and downregulated in LSD1-overexpressed HT-29 cells, respectively. RT-PCR and Western blot validated the microarray analysis results. ChIP assay results demonstrated that LSD1 might be negative regulators for target genes CABYR and CDH1. The expression level of LSD1 is negatively correlated with mono- and dimethylation of histone H3 lysine4(H3K4) at LSD1- target gene promoter region. No significant mono-methylation and dimethylation of H3 lysine9 methylation was detected at the promoter region of CABYR and CDH1. LSD1- depletion contributed to the upregulation of CABYR and CDH1 through enhancing the dimethylation of H3K4 at the LSD1-target genes promoter. LSD1- overexpression mediated the downregulation of CABYR and CDH1expression through decreasing the mono- and dimethylation of H3K4 at LSD1-target gene promoter in colon cancer cells. CABYR and CDH1 might be potential LSD1-target genes in colon

  14. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combined with non-S-RGAS for the sole purpose of producing midgrade gasoline. (6) Where S-RGAS is being... of the gasoline. (f) Downstream standards applicable to S-RGAS when produced or imported. (1) The downstream standard applicable to any gasoline classified as S-RGAS when produced or imported shall be...

  15. Hydrodynamic properties and distribution of bait downstream of a zooplankton trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Larsson, Ann I.

    2017-01-01

    The flow regime around a chemically baited trap is crucial for the trapping process and distribution of bait downstream of traps. We measured the flow field downstream of a trap prototype in flume experiments and mapped the distribution of bait using laser induced fluorescence. The trap produced ...

  16. 40 CFR 80.220 - What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the downstream standards for GPA gasoline? 80.220 Section 80.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... downstream location other than at a retail outlet or wholesale purchaser-consumer facility, and during the...

  17. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  18. An open-label randomized controlled trial of low molecular weight heparin compared to heparin and coumadin for the treatment of venous thromboembolic events in children: the REVIVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Patricia; Julian, Jim A; Gent, Michael; Shields, Karen; Marzinotto, Velma; Szechtman, Barbara; Andrew, Maureen

    2003-01-25

    Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) are serious complications in children and for which the standard of care, unfractionated heparin followed by oral anticoagulation (UFH/OA), is problematic. The objective of REVIVE was to compare the efficacy and safety of a low molecular weight heparin (reviparin-sodium) to UFH/OA for the treatment of VTE in children. This multicenter, open-label study, with blinded central outcome adjudication, randomized patients with objectively confirmed VTE to receive either reviparin-sodium or UFH/OA. Dose adjustments were made using nomograms. The efficacy outcome was based on recurrent VTE and death due to VTE during the 3-month treatment period. The safety outcomes were major bleeding, minor bleeding and death. Due to slow patient accrual, REVIVE was closed prematurely. At 3 months, with reviparin-sodium, 2/36 patients (5.6%) had recurrent VTE or death compared to 4/40 patients (10.0%) receiving UFH/OA (odds ratio=0.53; 95% CI=(0.05, 4.00); Fisher's exact test: 2P=0.677). There were 7 major bleeds, 2/36 (5.6%) in the reviparin-sodium group and 5/40 (12.5%) in UFH/OA group (odds ratio=0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.04, 2.76); Fisher's exact test: P=0.435). There were 5 deaths during the study period, 1 (2.8%) in the reviparin-sodium group and 4 (10.0%) in the UFH/OA group. All five deaths were unrelated to VTE but one was due to an intracranial hemorrhage in the UFH/OA group. Although limited by small sample size, REVIVE provides valuable information on the incidence of recurrent VTE, major bleeding and problematic issues associated with therapy of VTE in children.

  19. A sustainability model based on cloud infrastructures for core and downstream Copernicus services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manunta, Michele; Calò, Fabiana; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Farres, Jordi; Guzzetti, Fausto; Imperatore, Pasquale; Lanari, Riccardo; Lengert, Wolfgang; Zinno, Ivana; Casu, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The incoming Sentinel missions have been designed to be the first remote sensing satellite system devoted to operational services. In particular, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 sensor, dedicated to globally acquire over land in the interferometric mode, guarantees an unprecedented capability to investigate and monitor the Earth surface deformations related to natural and man-made hazards. Thanks to the global coverage strategy and 12-day revisit time, jointly with the free and open access data policy, such a system will allow an extensive application of Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) techniques. In such a framework, European Commission has been funding several projects through the GMES and Copernicus programs, aimed at preparing the user community to the operational and extensive use of Sentinel-1 products for risk mitigation and management purposes. Among them, the FP7-DORIS, an advanced GMES downstream service coordinated by Italian National Council of Research (CNR), is based on the fully exploitation of advanced DInSAR products in landslides and subsidence contexts. In particular, the DORIS project (www.doris-project.eu) has developed innovative scientific techniques and methodologies to support Civil Protection Authorities (CPA) during the pre-event, event, and post-event phases of the risk management cycle. Nonetheless, the huge data stream expected from the Sentinel-1 satellite may jeopardize the effective use of such data in emergency response and security scenarios. This potential bottleneck can be properly overcome through the development of modern infrastructures, able to efficiently provide computing resources as well as advanced services for big data management, processing and dissemination. In this framework, CNR and ESA have tightened up a cooperation to foster the use of GRID and cloud computing platforms for remote sensing data processing, and to make available to a large audience advanced and innovative tools for DIn

  20. Simulating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C; Bruzzone, L [Techint Italimpianti, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Petacalco Marine terminal on the Pacific coast in the harbour of Lazaro Carclenas (Michoacan) in Mexico, provides coal to the thermoelectric power plant at Pdte Plutarco Elias Calles in the port area. The plant is being converted from oil to burn coal to generate 2100 MW of power. The article describes the layout of the terminal and equipment employed in the unloading, coal stacking, coal handling areas and the receiving area at the power plant. The contractor Techint Italimpianti has developed a software system, MHATIS, for marine terminal management which is nearly complete. The discrete event simulator with its graphic interface provides a real-type decision support system for simulating changes to the terminal operations and evaluating impacts. The article describes how MHATIS is used. 7 figs.

  1. Event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lopez, O.; Vient, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results concerning the heavy ion collision simulations at Fermi energies by means of phenomenological models obtained in the last two years ar presented. The event generators are essentially following the phase of elaboration of analysis methods of data obtained by INDRA or NAUTILUS 4 π multidetectors. To identify and correctly quantify a phenomenon or a physical quantity it is necessary to verify by simulation the feasibility and validity of the analysis and also to estimate the bias introduced by the experimental filter. Many studies have shown this, for instance: the determination of the collision reaction plan for flow studies, determination of kinematical characteristics of the quasi-projectiles, and the excitation energy measurement stored in the hot nuclei. To Eugene, the currently utilised generator, several improvements were added: introduction of space-time correlations between the different products emitted in the decay of excited nuclei by calculating the trajectories of the particles in the final phase of the reaction; taking into account in the decay cascade of the discrete levels of the lighter fragments; the possibility of the schematically description of the explosion of the nucleus by simultaneous emission of multi-fragments. Thus, by comparing the calculations with the data relative to heavy systems studied with the NAUTILUS assembly it was possible to extract the time scales in the nuclear fragmentation. The utilisation of these event generators was extended to the analysis of INDRA data concerning the determination of the vaporization threshold in the collisions Ar + Ni and also the research of the expansion effects in the collisions Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/u

  2. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  3. Transcription Factor NF-IL6 (C/EBPbeta) Activates the Expression of the Mouse MHC Class I H2-Kb Gene in Response to TNF-alpha via the Intragenic Downstream Regulatory Element

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatina, J.; Jansa, Petr; Reischig, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2002), s. 741-749 ISSN 1079-9907 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Mouse MHC Class I Gene, Intragenic Downstream Regulatory Element Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.885, year: 2002

  4. Downstream Antisense Transcription Predicts Genomic Features That Define the Specific Chromatin Environment at Mammalian Promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Lavender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antisense transcription is a prevalent feature at mammalian promoters. Previous studies have primarily focused on antisense transcription initiating upstream of genes. Here, we characterize promoter-proximal antisense transcription downstream of gene transcription starts sites in human breast cancer cells, investigating the genomic context of downstream antisense transcription. We find extensive correlations between antisense transcription and features associated with the chromatin environment at gene promoters. Antisense transcription downstream of promoters is widespread, with antisense transcription initiation observed within 2 kb of 28% of gene transcription start sites. Antisense transcription initiates between nucleosomes regularly positioned downstream of these promoters. The nucleosomes between gene and downstream antisense transcription start sites carry histone modifications associated with active promoters, such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. This region is bound by chromatin remodeling and histone modifying complexes including SWI/SNF subunits and HDACs, suggesting that antisense transcription or resulting RNA transcripts contribute to the creation and maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment. Downstream antisense transcription overlays additional regulatory features, such as transcription factor binding, DNA accessibility, and the downstream edge of promoter-associated CpG islands. These features suggest an important role for antisense transcription in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment.

  5. Mercury exposure in terrestrial birds far downstream of an historical point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Folsom, Sarah B.; Condon, Anne M.; Diener, John; Goodrick, Lizzie F.; McGann, Andrew J.; Schmerfeld, John; Cristol, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Historical Hg contamination in rivers can impact the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem, but there is little known about how far downstream this contamination persists. In 2009, we sampled terrestrial forest songbirds at five floodplain sites up to 137 km downstream of an historical source of Hg along the South and South Fork Shenandoah Rivers (Virginia, USA). We found that blood total Hg concentrations remained elevated over the entire sampling area and there was little evidence of decline with distance. While it is well known that Hg is a pervasive and long-lasting aquatic contaminant, it has only been recently recognized that it also biomagnifies effectively in floodplain forest food webs. This study extends the area of concern for terrestrial habitats near contaminated rivers for more than 100 km downstream from a waterborne Hg point source. - Highlights: → We report blood mercury levels for terrestrial songbirds downstream of contamination. → Blood mercury levels remain elevated above reference for at least 137 km downstream. → Trends vary based on foraging guild and migration strategy. → Mercury affects terrestrial biota farther downstream than previously documented. - Blood mercury levels of forest songbirds remain elevated above reference levels for at least 137 km downstream of historical point source.

  6. Mercury exposure in terrestrial birds far downstream of an historical point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Allyson K., E-mail: allyson.jackson@briloon.org [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, PO Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Evers, David C.; Folsom, Sarah B. [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); Condon, Anne M. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 6669 Short Lane, Gloucester, VA 23061 (United States); Diener, John; Goodrick, Lizzie F. [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); McGann, Andrew J. [Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, PO Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Schmerfeld, John [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 6669 Short Lane, Gloucester, VA 23061 (United States); Cristol, Daniel A. [Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, PO Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Historical Hg contamination in rivers can impact the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem, but there is little known about how far downstream this contamination persists. In 2009, we sampled terrestrial forest songbirds at five floodplain sites up to 137 km downstream of an historical source of Hg along the South and South Fork Shenandoah Rivers (Virginia, USA). We found that blood total Hg concentrations remained elevated over the entire sampling area and there was little evidence of decline with distance. While it is well known that Hg is a pervasive and long-lasting aquatic contaminant, it has only been recently recognized that it also biomagnifies effectively in floodplain forest food webs. This study extends the area of concern for terrestrial habitats near contaminated rivers for more than 100 km downstream from a waterborne Hg point source. - Highlights: > We report blood mercury levels for terrestrial songbirds downstream of contamination. > Blood mercury levels remain elevated above reference for at least 137 km downstream. > Trends vary based on foraging guild and migration strategy. > Mercury affects terrestrial biota farther downstream than previously documented. - Blood mercury levels of forest songbirds remain elevated above reference levels for at least 137 km downstream of historical point source.

  7. Recent Progress on Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1: Expression, Regulation, Downstream Signaling and Cancer Suppressive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK, salt-inducible kinase (SIK, sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK and brain selective kinase (BRSK signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and its significance in cancers.

  8. Geophysical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(3), March 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-002 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid.

  9. Rice PLASTOCHRON genes regulate leaf maturation downstream of the gibberellin signal transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Manaki; Nagato, Yasuo; Itoh, Jun-Ichi

    2012-05-01

    Rice PLASTOCHRON 1 (PLA1) and PLA2 genes regulate leaf maturation and plastochron, and their loss-of-function mutants exhibit small organs and rapid leaf emergence. They encode a cytochrome P450 protein CYP78A11 and an RNA-binding protein, respectively. Their homologs in Arabidopsis and maize are also associated with plant development/organ size. Despite the importance of PLA genes in plant development, their molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we investigated how PLA1 and PLA2 genes are related to phytohormones. We found that gibberellin (GA) is the major phytohormone that promotes PLA1 and PLA2 expression. GA induced PLA1 and PLA2 expression, and conversely the GA-inhibitor uniconazole suppressed PLA1 and PLA2 expression. In pla1-4 and pla2-1 seedlings, expression levels of GA biosynthesis genes and the signal transduction gene were similar to those in wild-type seedlings. GA treatment slightly down-regulated the GA biosynthesis gene GA20ox2 and up-regulated the GA-catabolizing gene GA2ox4, whereas the GA biosynthesis inhibitor uniconazole up-regulated GA20ox2 and down-regulated GA2ox4 both in wild-type and pla mutants, suggesting that the GA feedback mechanism is not impaired in pla1 and pla2. To reveal how GA signal transduction affects the expression of PLA1 and PLA2, PLA expression in GA-signaling mutants was examined. In GA-insensitive mutant, gid1 and less-sensitive mutant, Slr1-d1, PLA1 and PLA2 expression was down-regulated. On the other hand, the expression levels of PLA1 and PLA2 were highly enhanced in a GA-constitutive-active mutant, slr1-1, causing ectopic overexpression. These results indicate that both PLA1 and PLA2 act downstream of the GA signal transduction pathway to regulate leaf development.

  10. Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, Budi [ORNL; Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Hill, Craig [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414; Chamorro, Leonardo [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414

    2012-01-01

    Wake recovery constrains the downstream spacing and density of turbines that can be deployed in turbine farms and limits the amount of energy that can be produced at a hydrokinetic energy site. This study investigates the wake recovery at the downstream of a 1:10 axial flow turbine model using a pulse-to-pulse coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP). In addition, turbine inflow and outflow velocities were measured for calculating the thrust on the turbine. The result shows that the depth-averaged longitudinal velocity recovers to 97% of the inflow velocity at 35 turbine diameter (D) downstream of the turbine.

  11. [Seasonal variation in the absorption and fluorescence characteristics of CDOM in downstream of Liaohe River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tian-Tian; Zhao, Ying; Song, Kai-Shan; Du, Jia; Ding, Zhi

    2014-10-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which is an important part of dissolved organic matter (DOM), is considered as the largest storage of dissolved organic carbon in the aquatic environment. Liaohe River is the seventh largest river in China with annual runoff of 1.48 billion m3. As a result, studying on CDOM of Liaohe River is very important in estimating the organic carbon flux into sea. Seasonal optical characteristics of CDOM in the downstream of Liaohe River were investigated using absorbance spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). CDOM absorption coefficient at 355 nm [aCDOM (355)] in spring was lower than that in autumn and winter while low molecular weight substances were found in autumn and high molecular weight substances in spring based on the absorption coefficient and absorption slope (S) of CDOM. Samples in different seasons all exhibited fairly strong protein-like fluorophore (fluorophore B and fluorophore T) in the EEMs but the values showed apparent temporal variations. Based on the analysis of the relationships between different fluorophores, strong correlations (R2 > 0. 9) were observed between fluorophore A and C in spring, fluorophore B and T in autumn and winter, which illustrated that they had similar CDOM originalsources. However, a weak relationship (R2 = 0.21) was found between fluorophore B and T in spring, demonstrating the complexity and diversity of CDOM sources. Starting from autumn to winter and the subsequent spring, humic-like fluorophores exhibited enhanced fluorescent intensity, which could be ascribed to exogenous input. Furthermore, linear relationship between aCDOM (355) and Fn (355) in different seasons was examined in the study, and the strongest relationship was obtained in winter (R2 = 0.75), followed by autumn (R2 = 0.48) and spring (R2 = 0.01). This study indicated that fluorophore B in autumn and winter (R = 0.66; R = 0.89) as well as humic-like fluorophores (A and C, R = 0.74; R = 0

  12. Reestablishing the Dominance of Biogeochemical Pathways for Reducing Downstream Nutrient Losses from Aged Impounded Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Shukla, A.

    2017-12-01

    Water and phosphorus (P) dynamics and loss pathways at two stormwater impoundments (SIs) were analyzed using measured fluxes between 2008 and 2011. These SIs are a decade old. Analyses of water and P budgets along with the discernment of various P pools and characterization of the intermediary processes revealed that soil adsorption and plant uptake are secondary to volume reduction apropos of P treatment. At one site, extreme wet conditions in a year combined with soil P saturation resulted in it being a P source rather than a sink. The impoundment (SI-1) discharged 12% more P than incoming due to soil P desorption, a consequence of dilution of incoming stormwater with large water input from an extreme tropical rain event. The second impoundment (SI-2) was a consistent sink of P; 55% and 95% of the incoming total P was retained in the two years, mainly as a result of 49% and 84% volume retention, respectively. Analysis of plant available aluminum, iron, and phosphorus showed the surface soil to be P saturated and at risk of releasing P to a limit of environmental concern. These results when seen in light of more frequent extreme precipitation events under the changed climate scenario call for alternatives to revive the role of biogeochemical processes in P treatment because volume reduction may not always be the viable option, especially for wet conditions. Aboveground biomass harvesting and removal was evaluated to transform the SIs from a frequent P source to sink and maintain the long-term sink functions of the SIs. Use of harvested biomass as a source of nutrients (N and P) and carbon to agricultural soil can result in beneficial use of biomass and offset the cost of harvesting. Other avenues such as altering the hydrology of the SIs by compartmentalizing the system and increasing the storage were also explored for short-term benefits. Results provided a combination of hydraulic and biochemical options for achieving long-term water and nutrient retentions in

  13. Physical and Chemical Connectivity of Streams and Riparian Wetlands to Downstream Waters: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streams, riparian areas, floodplains, alluvial aquifers, and downstream waters (e.g., large rivers, lakes, and oceans) are interconnected by longitudinal, lateral, and vertical fluxes of water, other materials, and energy. Collectively, these interconnected waters are called fluv...

  14. The dynamics of entrepreneurship in ICT: case of mobile phones downstream services in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Kanothi (Raphael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe research paper explores the extent to which mobile phones downstream services, defined here as those provided using the existing connectivity, are generating opportunities for entrepreneurship development in Kenya. After identifying the services of mobile payphones, money transfer

  15. Evaluation of a Solid Phase DNA Binding Matrix for Downstream PCR Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bader, Douglas E; Fisher, Glen R; Stratilo, Chad W

    2005-01-01

    A commercially available solid-phase DNA binding matrix (FTA cards) was evaluated for its ability to capture and release DNA for downstream gene amplification and detection assays using polymerase chain reaction (PCR...

  16. Downstream wind flow path diversion and its effects on the performance of vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maganhar, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present experimental study efforts have been made to analysis path diversion effect of downstream wind flow on performance of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). For the blockage of downstream wind flow path at various linear displaced positions, a normal erected flat wall, semi-circular and cylindrical shapes were tested for path diverting geometries. Performance of VAWT in terms of improved rotor speed up to 45% was achieved. (author)

  17. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-09-17

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  18. Influence of Upstream and Downstream Compressor Stators on Rotor Exit Flow Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Key

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements acquired at the rotor exit plane illuminate the interaction of the rotor with the upstream vane row and the downstream vane row. The relative phase of the upstream and downstream vane rows is adjusted using vane clocking so that the effect of the upstream propagating potential field from the downstream stator can be distinguished from the effects associated with the wakes shed from the upstream stator. Unsteady absolute flow angle information shows that the downstream potential field causes the absolute flow angle to increase in the vicinity of the downstream stator leading edge. The presence of Stator 1 wake is also detected at this measurement plane using unsteady total pressure data. The rotor wakes are measured at different circumferential locations across the vane passage, and the influence of Stator 1 wake on the suction side of the rotor wake is evident. Also, the influence of the downstream stator is detected on the pressure side of the rotor wake for a particular clocking configuration. Understanding the role of the surrounding vane rows on rotor wake development will lead to improved comparison between experimental data and results from computational models.

  19. Cladding Heatup Prediction between Spacer Grids for the Downstream Effect Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Kim, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Since a recirculation sump clogging issue by debris generated from high energy pipe line break had been invoked as GSI-191 in the US, many researches on this issue have been undertaken. Previous researches on this topic are well summarized in Bang et al. Due to comprehensive nature of the issue, it includes many area of research and one of them is the area of downstream effect evaluation. The downstream effect is involved with adverse effects of debris passing the sump screen on the downstream systems, components and piping including core and it can be further divided into an ex-vessel downstream effect and an in-vessel downstream effect. In the ex-vessel downstream effect, focus is laid on plugging of spray nozzle, wearing and abrasion of moving parts of pump and valve and etc. Otherwise, a debris effect on reactor core is focused in the in-vessel downstream effect. Since debris can be ingested in the core or the systems of downstream of sump screen during recirculation, basically the downstream effect influences long-term core cooling phase. With respect to the in-vessel downstream effect, an up-to-date evaluation methodology is well summarized in a topical report submitted to the US nuclear regulatory commission by the pressurized water reactor owners group (PWROG). The report evaluates various aspects of debris ingestion in the core such as blockage at the core inlet, collection of debris on fuel grids, plating-out of fuel, chemical precipitants, protective coatings effect and etc. Most of them are evaluated qualitative manner based on previous research results and geometrical consideration on fuel rod bundles but some of them are also backed up by quantitative calculations to corroborate the qualitative decisions. One of them is a cladding heatup calculation between spacer grids. This is done to demonstrate that the cladding temperature of a fuel rod between grids with debris deposited on the clad surface in a post- LOCA recirculation environment is below

  20. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  1. Downstream anastomotic hyperplasia. A mechanism of failure in Dacron arterial grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoGerfo, F W; Quist, W C; Nowak, M D; Crawshaw, H M; Haudenschild, C C

    1983-01-01

    The precise location and progression of anastomotic hyperplasia and its possible relationship to flow disturbances was investigated in femoro-femoral Dacron grafts in 28 dogs. In 13 grafts, the outflow from the end-to-side downstream anastomosis was bidirectional (BDO), and in 15 it was unidirectional (UDO) (distally). Grafts were electively removed at intervals of two to 196 days or at the time of thrombosis. Each anastomosis and adjacent artery was perfusion-fixed and sectioned sagittally. The mean sagittal section was projected onto a digitized pad, and the total area of hyperplasia internal to the arterial internal elastic lamina and within the adjacent graft was integrated by computer. The location of the hyperplasia was compared with previously established sites of flow separation and stagnation. The observation was made that hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream, as compared with the upstream, anastomosis in both groups (BDO = p less than 0.001 and UDO = p less than 0.001) (analysis of variance for independent groups). Furthermore, this downstream hyperplasia was progressive with time (BDO p less than 0.01) (UDO p less than 0.01); Spearman Rank Correlation. There was no significant increase in the extent of downstream hyperplasia where flow separation was known to be greater (BDO). Five grafts failed (three BDO, two UDO), as a result of complete occlusion of the downstream anastomosis by fibrous hyperplasia. Transmission electron microscopy showed the hyperplasia to consist of collagen-producing smooth muscle cells. Anastomotic hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream anastomosis, is progressive with time, and is the primary cause of failure of Dacron arterial grafts in this model. Quantitative analysis of downstream anastomotic hyperplasia may be a valuable measure of the biocompatibility of Dacron grafts. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6219641

  2. RNA sequence determinants of a coupled termination-reinitiation strategy for downstream open reading frame translation in Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S and other victoriviruses (Family Totiviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Havens, Wendy M; Nibert, Max L; Ghabrial, Said A

    2011-07-01

    The genome-length, dicistronic mRNA of the double-stranded RNA fungal virus Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S (genus Victorivirus, family Totiviridae) contains two long open reading frames (ORFs) that overlap in the tetranucleotide AUGA. Translation of the downstream ORF, which encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), has been proposed to depend on ribosomal reinitiation following termination of the upstream ORF, which encodes the capsid protein. In the current study, we examined the RNA sequence determinants for RdRp translation in this virus and demonstrated that a coupled termination-reinitiation (stop-restart) strategy is indeed used. Signals for termination-reinitiation are found within a 32-nucleotide stretch of RNA immediately upstream of the AUGA motif, including a predicted pseudoknot structure. The close proximity in which this predicted structure is followed by the upstream ORF's stop codon appears to be especially important for promoting translation of the downstream ORF. The normal strong preferences for an AUG start codon and the canonical sequence context to favor translation initiation appear somewhat relaxed for the downstream ORF. Similar sequence motifs and predicted RNA structures in other victoriviruses suggest that they all share a related stop-restart strategy for RdRp translation. Members of the genus Victorivirus thus provide new and unique opportunities for exploring the molecular mechanisms of translational coupling, which remain only partly understood in this and other systems.

  3. Analytical prediction of the unsteady lift on a rotor caused by downstream struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. C., III; Ng, W. F.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional, inviscid, incompressible procedure is presented for predicting the unsteady lift on turbomachinery blades caused by the upstream potential disturbance of downstream flow obstructions. Using the Douglas-Neumann singularity superposition potential flow computer program to model the downstream flow obstructions, classical equations of thin airfoil theory are then employed, to compute the unsteady lift on the upstream rotor blades. The method is applied to a particular geometry which consists of a rotor, a downstream stator, and downstream struts which support the engine casing. Very good agreement between the Douglas-Neumann program and experimental measurements was obtained for the downstream stator-strut flow field. The calculations for the unsteady lift due to the struts were in good agreement with the experiments in showing that the unsteady lift due to the struts decays exponentially with increased axial separation of the rotor and the struts. An application of the method showed that for a given axial spacing between the rotor and the strut, strut-induced unsteady lift is a very weak function of the axial or circumferential position of the stator.

  4. Four MicroRNAs Promote Prostate Cell Proliferation with Regulation of PTEN and Its Downstream Signals In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jing-lun; Chen, Jin-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), as a tumor suppressor, plays vital roles in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms of PTEN regulation still need further investigation. We here report that a combination of four microRNAs (miR-19b, miR-23b, miR-26a and miR-92a) promotes prostate cell proliferation by regulating PTEN and its downstream signals in vitro. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that the four microRNAs (miRNAs) could effectively suppress PTEN expression by directly interacting with its 3’ UTR in prostate epithelial and cancer cells. Under-expression of the four miRNAs by antisense neutralization up-regulates PTEN expression, while overexpression of the four miRNAs accelerates epithelial and prostate cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, the expression of the four miRNAs could, singly or jointly, alter the expression of the key components in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, including PIK3CA, PIK3CD, PIK3R1 and Akt, along with their downstream signal, cyclin D1. Conclusions These results suggested that the four miRNAs could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation by co-regulating the expression of PTEN, PI3K/Akt pathway and cyclin D1 in vitro. These findings increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate carcinogenesis and progression, even provide valuable insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and rational design of novel therapeutics for prostate cancer. PMID:24098737

  5. DORIS downstream service: a support to civil defence autorithies in landslides and subsidence risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, A.; Del Ventisette, C.; Moretti, S.; Manunta, M.; Calò, F.; Paglia, L.; Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.; Bellotti, F.; Colombo, D.; Strozzi, T.; Wegmuller, U.; Mora, O.; Sanches, F.

    2012-04-01

    DORIS is an advanced FP7-EU project for the design of a pre-operational advanced downstream service aimed at detecting, mapping, monitoring and forecasting surface deformations, including landslides and ground subsidence, by exploiting multiple Earth Observation (EO) and ground-based (non-EO) data technologies. Ground deformations are the result of a variety of natural and human-induced causes and triggers. These phenomena are frequent and widespread in Europe, causing extensive economic damage to private properties and public assets and their social impact is relevant. In Europe, the large number of areas affected by ground deformations, the frequency and extent of the triggering events, the extent of the impact and the magnitude of the damage, make it mandatory a multiscale, systemic approach. Further, the complexity and extent of the problem is such that it cannot be tackled (and solved) at an individual, site-specific scale, or using a single technique or methodology. The problem can be approached only through the integration of data and information taken at different scales, and with the collaborative efforts of multiple expertise. With this respect, the several satellite sensors now available, including about forty passive - optical - sensors and nine active - synthetic aperture radar (SAR) - sensors, provide valuable technological alternatives to traditional methods and tools to detect, map, monitor and forecast ground deformations over large areas and with the required accuracy. The temporal continuity and the geometric compatibility among time series of ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT data represents an unprecedented opportunity to generate very long time series of ground deformations. This provides exclusive information for an improved understanding of the long term behavior of slow and very-slow ground deformation phenomena. In this context, DORIS intends to exploit the extensive catalogues of multiple C-band SAR sensors to provide, via a joint analysis

  6. River flow availability for environmental flow allocation downstream of hydropower facilities in the Kafue Basin of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalumba, Mulenga; Nyirenda, Edwin

    2017-12-01

    The Government of the Republic Zambia (GRZ) will install a new hydropower station Kafue Gorge Lower downstream of the existing Kafue Gorge Station (KGS) and plans to start operating the Itezhi-Tezhi (ITT) hydropower facility in the Kafue Basin. The Basin has significant biodiversity hot spots such as the Luangwa National park and Kafue Flats. It is described as a Man-Biosphere reserve and the National Park is a designated World Heritage Site hosting a variety of wildlife species. All these natural reserves demand special protection, and environmental flow requirements (e-flows) have been identified as a necessary need to preserve these ecosystems. Implementation of e-flows is therefore a priority as Zambia considers to install more hydropower facilities. However before allocation of e-flows, it is necessary to first assess the river flow available for allocation at existing hydropower stations in the Kafue Basin. The river flow availability in the basin was checked by assessing the variability in low and high flows since the timing, frequency and duration of extreme droughts and floods (caused by low and high flows) are all important hydrological characteristics of a flow regime that affects e-flows. The river flows for a 41 year monthly time series data (1973-2014) were used to extract independent low and high flows using the Water Engineering Time Series Processing Tool (WETSPRO). The low and high flows were used to construct cumulative frequency distribution curves that were compared and analysed to show their variation over a long period. A water balance of each hydropower station was used to check the river flow allocation aspect by comparing the calculated water balance outflow (river flow) with the observed river flow, the hydropower and consumptive water rights downstream of each hydropower station. In drought periods about 50-100 m3/s of riverflow is available or discharged at both ITT and KGS stations while as in extreme flood events about 1300-1500 m3/s

  7. Stromal progesterone receptors mediate induction of Indian Hedgehog (IHH) in uterine epithelium and its downstream targets in uterine stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Liz; Spiewak, Kerry A; Ekman, Gail C; Kim, Jaeyeon; Lydon, John P; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C; DeMayo, Francesco J; Cooke, Paul S

    2009-08-01

    Uterine receptivity to embryo implantation depends on appropriate progesterone (P4) and estrogen stimulation. P4 rapidly stimulates production of the morphogen Indian hedgehog (IHH) in murine uterine epithelium as well as downstream molecules in the hedgehog pathway such as Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) and nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2 (NR2F2) in uterine stroma. Studies using IHH-null mice indicate that IHH is obligatory for the normal P4 response in the uterus. To determine whether IHH induction in uterine epithelium is mediated through P4 receptor (PR) in epithelium (E) and/or stroma (S), we produced tissue recombinants using uteri from neonatal PR knockout (ko) mice and wild-type (wt) mice containing PR in S and/or E or lacking PR altogether using a tissue recombinant methodology and assessed their response to P4. In tissue recombinants containing wt-S (wt-S + wt-E and wt-S + ko-E), P4 induced Ihh mRNA expression at 6 h that was 6-fold greater than in oil-treated controls (P Ihh mRNA expression was unaffected by P4 in ko-S + ko-E and ko-S + wt-E grafts despite epithelial PR expression in the latter. Nr2f2 and Ptch1 mRNA expression was similar in that it was stimulated by P4 only in recombinants containing stromal PR. These results indicate that stromal PR is both necessary and sufficient for P4 stimulation of epithelial IHH as well as downstream events such as PTCH1 and NR2F2 increases in stroma.

  8. Making memories of stressful events: a journey along epigenetic, gene transcription and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes M.H.M. eReul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong psychologically stressful events are known to have a long-lasting impact on behavior. The consolidation of such, largely adaptive, behavioral responses to stressful events involves changes in gene expression in limbic brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The underlying molecular mechanisms however were until recently unresolved. More than a decade ago we started to investigate the role of these hormones in signaling and epigenetic mechanisms participating in the effects of stress on gene transcription in hippocampal neurons. We discovered a novel, rapid non-genomic mechanism in which glucocorticoids via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs facilitate signaling of the ERK MAPK signaling pathway to the downstream nuclear kinases MSK1 and Elk-1 in dentate gyrus (DG granule neurons. Activation of this signaling pathway results in serine10 (S10 phosphorylation and lysine14 (K14 acetylation at histone H3 (H3S10p-K14ac, leading to the induction of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Egr-1. In addition, we found a role of the DNA methylation status of gene promoters. A series of studies showed that these molecular mechanisms play a critical role in the long-lasting consolidation of behavioral responses in the forced swim test and Morris water maze. Furthermore, an important role of GABA was found in controlling the epigenetic and gene transcriptional responses to psychological stress. Thus, psychologically stressful events evoke a long-term impact on behavior through changes in hippocampal function brought about by distinct glutamatergic and glucocorticoid-driven changes in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription which are modulated by (local GABAergic interneurons and limbic afferent inputs. These epigenetic processes may play an important role in the etiology of stress-related mental disorders such as major depressive and anxiety disorders like PTSD.

  9. An experimental study on downstream of the transition of the chemically reacting liquid round free jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.D.; Sugii, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Madarame, H.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on the chemically reacting liquid round free jet, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was adopted to evaluate the diffusion width of the jet into liquid streams. In the fluid engineering, it is very important to evaluate the characteristics of reacting jet for the safety of the nuclear reactor. In this study, the jet profile of downstream region far away from the transition point was evaluated, providing comparisons between reacting and non-reacting jet case. The concentration of the jet solution was varied from 0.01 mol/L to 0.5 mol/L in reacting cases. In the downstream far away from the transition point, the jet profiles between reacting cases and non-reacting cases were visualized quite different. It was concluded that the chemical reaction affects the momentum diffusion of the jet in the downstream region. (author)

  10. Upstream and Downstream Co-inhibition of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathways in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive cross talk exists between PI3K/Akt/mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, and both are upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Our previous study suggested that epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib which acts upstream of these pathways acts synergistically with PI3K inhibitors in PDAC. Horizontal combined blockade upstream and downstream of these two pathways is therefore explored. METHODS: Erlotinib paired with PI3K inhibitor (BYL719 was tested against erlotinib plus dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ-235, and MEK inhibitor (PD98059 plus BEZ235, on five primary PDAC cell lines and on two pairs of parent and erlotinib-resistant (ER cell lines. A range of in vitro assays including cell proliferation, Western blotting, migration, clonogenic, cell cycle, and apopotic assays was used to test for the efficacy of combined blockade. RESULTS: Dual downstream blockade of the MAPK and PAM pathways was more effective in attenuating downstream molecular signals. Synergy was demonstrated for erlotinib and BEZ235 and for PD-98059 and BEZ-235. This resulted in a trend of increased growth cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and colony and migration suppression. This combination showed more efficacy in cell lines with acquired resistance to erlotinib. CONCLUSIONS: The additional mTOR blockade provided by BEZ235 in combined blockade resulted in increased anticancer effect. The hypersensitivity of ER cell lines to additional mTOR blockade suggested PAM pathway oncogenic dependence via mTOR. Dual downstream combined blockade of MAPK and PAM pathways with MEK and PI3K/mTOR inhibitor appeared most effective and represents an attractive therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer and its associated drug resistance.

  11. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  12. Photoperiod control of downstream movements of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Stich, Daniel S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first direct observations that photoperiod controls the initiation of downstream movement in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts. Under simulated natural day length (LDN) conditions and seasonal increases in temperature, smolts increased their downstream movements five-fold for a period of 1 month in late spring. Under the same conditions, parr did not show changes in downstream movement behaviour. When given a shortened day length (10L:14D) beginning in late winter, smolts did not increase the number of downstream movements. An early increase in day length (16L:8D) in late winter resulted in earlier initiation and termination of downstream movements compared to the LDN group. Physiological status and behaviour were related but not completely coincident: gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in all treatments and thyroid hormone was elevated prior to movement in 16L:8D treatment. The most parsimonious model describing downstream movement of smolts included synergistic effects of photoperiod treatment and temperature, indicating that peak movements occurred at colder temperatures in the 16L:8D treatment than in LDN, and temperature did not influence movement of smolts in the 10L:14D treatment. The complicated interactions of photoperiod and temperature are not surprising since many organisms have evolved to rely on correlations among environmental cues and windows of opportunity to time behaviours associated with life-history transitions. These complicated interactions, however, have serious implications for phenological adjustments and persistence ofS. salar populations in response to climate change.

  13. Downstream lightening and upward heavying, sorting of sediments of uniform grain size but differing in density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Solari, L.; Hill, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Downstream fining, i.e. the tendency for a gradual decrease in grain size in the downstream direction, has been observed and studied in alluvial rivers and in laboratory flumes. Laboratory experiments and field observations show that the vertical sorting pattern over a small Gilbert delta front is characterized by an upward fining profile, with preferential deposition of coarse particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The present work is an attempt to answer the following questions. Are there analogous sorting patterns in mixtures of sediment particles having the same grain size but differing density? To investigate this, we performed experiments at the Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. During the experiments a Gilbert delta formed and migrated downstream allowing for the study of transport and sorting processes on the surface and within the deposit. The experimental results show 1) preferential deposition of heavy particles in the upstream part of the deposit associated with a pattern of "downstream lightening"; and 2) a vertical sorting pattern over the delta front characterized by a pattern of "upward heavying" with preferential deposition of light particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The observed downstream lightening is analogous of the downstream fining with preferential deposition of heavy (coarse) particles in the upstream part of the deposit. The observed upward heavying was unexpected because, considering the particle mass alone, the heavy (coarse) particles should have been preferentially deposited in the lowermost part of the deposit. Further, the application of classical fractional bedload transport relations suggests that in the case of mixtures of particles of uniform size and different densities equal mobility is not approached. We hypothesize that granular physics mechanisms traditionally associated with sheared granular flows may be responsible for the observed upward heavying and for the

  14. Characterization of sediment transport upstream and downstream from Lake Emory on the Little Tennessee River near Franklin, North Carolina, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Brad A.; Hazell, William F.; Oblinger, Carolyn J.

    2017-09-06

    Federal, State, and local agencies and organizations have expressed concerns regarding the detrimental effects of excessive sediment transport on aquatic resources and endangered species populations in the upper Little Tennessee River and some of its tributaries. In addition, the storage volume of Lake Emory, which is necessary for flood control and power generation, has been depleted by sediment deposition. To help address these concerns, a 2-year study was conducted in the upper Little Tennessee River Basin to characterize the ambient suspended-sediment concentrations and suspended-sediment loads upstream and downstream from Lake Emory in Franklin, North Carolina. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Duke Energy. Suspended-sediment samples were collected periodically, and time series of stage and turbidity data were measured from December 2013 to January 2016 upstream and downstream from Lake Emory. The stage data were used to compute time-series streamflow. Suspended-sediment samples, along with time-series streamflow and turbidity data, were used to develop regression models that were used to estimate time-series suspended-sediment concentrations for the 2014 and 2015 calendar years. These concentrations, along with streamflow data, were used to compute suspended-sediment loads. Selected suspended-sediment samples were collected for analysis of particle-size distribution, with emphasis on high-flow events. Bed-load samples were also collected upstream from Lake Emory.The estimated annual suspended-sediment loads (yields) for the upstream site for the 2014 and 2015 calendar years were 27,000 short tons (92 short tons per square mile) and 63,300 short tons (215 short tons per square mile), respectively. The annual suspended-sediment loads (yields) for the downstream site for 2014 and 2015 were 24,200 short tons (75 short tons per square mile) and 94,300 short tons (292 short tons per square mile), respectively. Overall, the

  15. Downstream-Conditioned Maximum Entropy Method for Exit Boundary Conditions in the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Dottori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for modeling outflow boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM based on the maximization of the local entropy is presented. The maximization procedure is constrained by macroscopic values and downstream components. The method is applied to fully developed boundary conditions of the Navier-Stokes equations in rectangular channels. Comparisons are made with other alternative methods. In addition, the new downstream-conditioned entropy is studied and it was found that there is a correlation with the velocity gradient during the flow development.

  16. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Estimating Subcatchment Runoff Coefficients using Weather Radar and a Downstream Runoff Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage subcatchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and flow measurements from a downstream runoff sensor. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate...... the runoff coefficients of the separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678 ha) located in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven that it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over...... the catchment and downstream runoff measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level....

  18. Cetuximab insufficiently inhibits glioma cell growth due to persistent EGFR downstream signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Lassen, Ulrik; Poulsen, Hans S

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression and/or amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is present in 35-45% of primary glioblastoma multiforme tumors and has been correlated with a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of cetuximab and intracellular signaling pathways downstream...... of EGFR, important for cell survival and proliferation. We show insufficient EGFR downregulation and competition with endogenous EGFR ligands upon cetuximab treatment. Dose-response experiments showed inhibition of EGFR phosphorylation without affecting two of the prominent downstream signaling pathways....... Our results indicate that amplification and/or overexpression of EGFR is an unsatisfactory predictor for response to cetuximab....

  19. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Estimating subcatchment runoff coefficients using weather radar and a downstream runoff sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R; Bassø, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage subcatchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and flow measurements from a downstream runoff sensor. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients of the separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678 ha) located in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven that it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over the catchment and downstream runoff measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level.

  1. Introduction to sump screen downstream effect analysis of AP1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinghua; Liu Yu; Chai Guohan

    2010-01-01

    The design of AP1000 takes into account the potential impact of debris clogging on sump screen. In this article, the technical background of sump screen issue and the design characteristics of AP1000 to address the sump screen blockage issue are introduced. The article focuses on the 'downstream effect' analysis method, acceptance criteria and analysis result of AP1000 sump screen. Although the design of AP1000 is different with traditional PWR, the author expects to bring some reference to advance the downstream effect analysis in China through the introduction. (authors)

  2. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reservoir stratification affects methylmercury levels in river water, plankton, and fish downstream from Balbina hydroelectric dam, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Leitão, Rafael P; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-21

    The river downstream from a dam can be more contaminated by mercury than the reservoir itself. However, it is not clear how far the contamination occurs downstream. We investigated the seasonal variation of methylmercury levels in the Balbina reservoir and how they correlated with the levels encountered downstream from the dam. Water, plankton, and fishes were collected upstream and at sites between 0.5 and 250 km downstream from the dam during four expeditions in 2011 and 2012. Variations in thermal stratification of the reservoir influenced the methylmercury levels in the reservoir and in the river downstream. Uniform depth distributions of methylmercury and oxygen encountered in the poorly stratified reservoir during the rainy season collections coincided with uniformly low methylmercury levels along the river downstream from the dam. During dry season collections, the reservoir was strongly stratified, and anoxic hypolimnion water with high methylmercury levels was exported downstream. Methylmercury levels declined gradually to 200 km downstream. In general, the methylmercury levels in plankton and fishes downstream from the dam were higher than those upstream. Higher methylmercury levels observed 200-250 km downstream from the dam during flooding season campaigns may reflect the greater inflow from tributaries and flooding of natural wetlands that occurred at this time.

  4. Temporal progression in migratory status and sexual maturation in European silver eels during downstream migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Guerrero, M.A.; Klein Breteler, J.G.P.; Thillart, G.E.E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The onset of downstream migration of European eels is accompanied by a cessation of feeding and the start of sexual maturation which stresses the link between metabolism and sexual maturation, also suggesting an important role for exercise. Exercise has been tested with eels in swim tunnels and was

  5. Contrasting morphodynamics in alluvial fans and fan deltas: effect of the downstream boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M. van; Kleinhans, M.G.; Postma, G.; Kraal, E.

    2012-01-01

    Alluvial fans and fan deltas can, in principle, have exactly the same upstream conditions, but fan deltas by definition have ponding water at their downstream boundary. This ponding creates effects on the autogenic behaviour of fan deltas, such as backwater adaptation, mouth bars and backward

  6. 5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F., E-mail: higorfabiano@gmail.com, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10{sup 4} to 5.4 x 10{sup 4}. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)

  7. 5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F.

    2017-01-01

    The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10"4 to 5.4 x 10"4. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)

  8. Influence of peak flow changes on the macroinvertebrate drift downstream of a Brazilian hydroelectric dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, D M P; Hughes, R M; Callisto, M

    2013-11-01

    Successive daily peak flows from hydropower plants can disrupt aquatic ecosystems and alter the composition and structure of macroinvertebrates downstream. We evaluated the influence of peak flow changes on macroinvertebrate drift downstream of a hydroelectric plant as a basis for determining ecological flows that might reduce the disturbance of aquatic biota. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of flow fluctuations on the seasonal and daily drift patterns of macroinvertebrates. We collected macroinvertebrates during fixed flow rates (323 m3.s-1 in the wet season and 111 m3.s-1 in the dry season) and when peak flows fluctuated (378 to 481 m3.s-1 in the wet season, and 109 to 173 m3.s-1 in the dry season) in 2010. We collected 31,924 organisms belonging to 46 taxa in the four sampling periods. Taxonomic composition and densities of drifting invertebrates differed between fixed and fluctuating flows, in both wet and dry seasons, but family richness varied insignificantly. We conclude that macroinvertebrate assemblages downstream of dams are influenced by daily peak flow fluctuations. When making environmental flow decisions for dams, it would be wise to consider drifting macroinvertebrates because they reflect ecological changes in downstream biological assemblages.

  9. Feeding by whiteflies suppresses downstream jasmonic acid signaling by eliciting salicylic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Li, Wei-Di; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Xu, Fang-Cheng; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-05-01

    Phloem-feeding whiteflies in the species complex Bemisia tabaci cause extensive crop damage worldwide. One of the reasons for their "success" is their ability to suppress the effectual jasmonic acid (JA) defenses of the host plant. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying whitefly suppression of JA-regulated defenses. Here, we showed that the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes (EDS1 and PR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana was significantly enhanced during feeding by whitefly nymphs. Whereas upstream JA-responsive genes (LOX2 and OPR3) also were induced, the downstream JA-responsive gene (VSP1) was repressed, i.e., whiteflies only suppressed downstream JA signaling. Gene-expression analyses with various Arabidopsis mutants, including NahG, npr-1, ein2-1, and dde2-2, revealed that SA signaling plays a key role in the suppression of downstream JA defenses by whitefly feeding. Assays confirmed that SA activation enhanced whitefly performance by suppressing downstream JA defenses.

  10. Physicochemical Characteristics of River Water Downstream of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in the downstream river of a hydroelectric dam may be affected by the structural design and operation. To date, little is known about the water quality downstream of the largest dam in Malaysia, the Bakun hydroelectric dam. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the water quality downstream of the dam when the spillway was closed and when it was opened. Results of the study indicate that the dam plays a significant role in regulating the water quality downstream of it. When the spillway was closed, pH and oxygen were lower in the river where DO was below 5 mg/L. When the spillway was opened, the water quality improved in terms of oxygen content (>8.0 mg/L, total sulphide (TS, and chemical oxygen demand (COD but deteriorated in terms of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, and total phosphorus (TP. Additionally, the intensity of the impacts, particularly BOD5, COD, and TAN, shows a declining trend as distance from the dam increases. This study shows that impacts on the water quality extend to a distance of 32 km from the dam particularly turbidity and DO and opening the spillway changes the water quality significantly.

  11. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  12. Using forest carbon credits to offset emissions in the downstream business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    A forthcoming report by Concawe, entitled Using Forest Carbon Credits to Offset Emissions in the Downstream Business, investigated whether, and how, forest carbon credits can be used to offset emissions from the European refining and road transport sectors. Forest carbon plays a major role in the

  13. Investigation on the intense fringe formation phenomenon downstream hot-image plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghua; Li, Guohui; Zhang, Lifu; Huang, Wenti; Chen, Shuming

    2015-11-30

    The propagation of a high-power flat-topped Gaussian beam, which is modulated by three parallel wirelike scatterers, passing through a downstream Kerr medium slab and free spaces is investigated. A new phenomenon is found that a kind of intense fringe with intensity several times that of the incident beam can be formed in a plane downstream the Kerr medium. This kind of intense fringe is another result in the propagation process of nonlinear imaging and it locates scores of centimeters downstream the predicted hot image plane. Moreover, the intensity of this fringe can achieve the magnitude of that of hot image in corresponding single-scatterer case, and this phenomenon can arise only under certain conditions. As for the corresponding hot images, they are also formed but largely suppressed. The cause of the formation of such an intense fringe is analyzed and found related to interference in the free space downstream the Kerr medium. Moreover, the ways it is influenced by some important factors such as the wavelength of incident beam and the properties of scatterers and Kerr medium are discussed, and some important properties and relations are revealed.

  14. Linking Three Gorges Dam and downstream hydrological regimes along the Yangtze River, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, X.; Dai, Z.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Gao, J.

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of anthropogenic influence, especially dam regulation, on hydrological system is of scientific and practical value for large river management. As the largest dam in the world by far, Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is expected to be a strong evidence on dam impacts on downstream hydrological

  15. Modelling the role of transmission companies in the downstream European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boots, M.A.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the empirical model GASTALE and shows several analyses of the European gas market using this model. These analyses are mainly focused on the role of the downstream transmission companies. Producers of natural gas are assumed to form an oligopoly throughout the paper. Considering an oligopolistic transmission structure our model results show that the level of transmitters' profits strongly depends on the possibilities of discrimination on the border prices. If price discrimination by producers is allowed, these producers collect the main part of the margins on end-use prices. Without price discrimination the transmission companies collect most of the margins. Assuming an oligopolistic downstream structure, end-use prices converge to prices corresponding to perfect competition when the number of transmitters increases. Given the oligopolistic structure of the upstream industry, it is of importance to prevent (or abolish) monopolistic structures in the downstream gas market. In the case where oligopolistic competition between downstream gas companies cannot be prevented, vertical integration should be supported (or at least not be discouraged). 14 refs

  16. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sold or dispensed for use in motor vehicles at a retail outlet or wholesale purchaser-consumer facility...

  17. Concentration of radionuclides in fresh water fish downstream of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, X.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fish were collected for radionuclide analysis over a 5-month period in 1984 from creeks downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant, which has been discharging quantities of some fission and activation products to the waterway since 1981. Among the fish, the bluegill was selected for intensive study because it is very territorial and the radionuclide concentrations detected should be representative of the levels in the local environment at the downstream locations sampled. Among the gamma-emitting radionuclides routinely released, only 134 Cs and 137 Cs were detected in the edible flesh of fish. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased with distance from the plant. The relationship between concentration and distance was determined to be exponential. Exponential equations were generated to estimate concentrations in fish at downstream locations where no site-specific information was available. Mean concentrations of 137 Cs in bluegill collected during April, May, July and August from specific downstream stations were not significantly different in spite of the release of 131 mCi to the creeks between April and August. The concentrations in fish are not responding to changes in water concentrations brought about by plant discharges. Diet appears to be a more significant factor than size or weight or water concentration in regulating body burdens of 137 Cs in these fish

  18. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  19. C, N, P export regimes from headwater catchments to downstream reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, R.; Musolff, A.; Jawitz, J. W.; Rao, P. S.; Jaeger, C. G.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Rode, M.; Borchardt, D.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive amounts of nutrients and dissolved organic matter in freshwater bodies affect aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability in nitrate (NO3), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was analyzed in the Selke river continuum from headwaters draining 1 - 3 km² catchments to downstream reaches representing spatially integrated signals from 184 - 456 km² catchments (part of TERENO - Terrestrial Environmental Observatories, in Germany). Three headwater catchments were selected as archetypes of the main landscape units (land use x lithology) present in the Selke catchment. Export regimes in headwater catchments were interpreted in terms of NO3, DOC and SRP land-to-stream transfer processes. Headwater signals were subtracted from downstream signals, with the differences interpreted in terms of in-stream processes and contribution of point-source emissions. The seasonal dynamics for NO3 were opposite those of DOC and SRP in all three headwater catchments, and spatial differences also showed NO3 contrasting with DOC and SRP. These dynamics were interpreted as the result of the interplay of hydrological and biogeochemical processes, for which riparian zones were hypothesized to play a determining role. In the two downstream reaches, NO3 was transported almost conservatively, whereas DOC was consumed and produced in the upper and lower river sections, respectively. The natural export regime of SRP in the three headwater catchments mimicked a point-source signal, which may lead to overestimation of domestic contributions in the downstream reaches. Monitoring the river continuum from headwaters to downstream reaches proved effective to investigate jointly land-to-stream and in-stream transport and transformation processes.

  20. Willingness of upstream and downstream resource managers to engage in compensation schemes for environmental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapika Sangkapitux

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Providing compensation for agricultural conservation practices adopted by upstream farmers is still an alien concept in the Thai political context. The governance of common-pool natural resources, such as forest and water, has traditionally been under the control of powerful government line agencies, while the contribution of local communities to natural resource conservation have been hardly recognized by policy-makers. Drawing on a case study in Mae Sa watershed, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, this paper discusses the potential of developing compensation schemes in a socio-political context where upland farmers – mostly belonging to ethnic minority groups – tend to be considered a threat to the natural resource base rather than providers of environmental services. Based on data obtained from 371 households in the upstream communities and 151 households in the downstream communities of the watershed, upstream resource managers’ willingness to accept compensation for the conservation measures and downstream resource managers’ willingness to pay for water resource improvements were estimated through the use of choice experiments. Results from the study suggest that downstream resource managers would be willing to provide on average nearly 1% of their annual income for a substantial improvement of the quantity and quality of water resources, which could be achieved by compensating upstream farmers’ change of their agricultural systems towards more environment-friendly practices. Both willingness to pay of downstream respondents and willingness of upstream resource managers to accept compensation were positively correlated with age, education, participation in environmental conservation activities and previous experiences with droughts and/or erosion. The paper concludes that there is a clear potential for establishing compensation schemes for provision of environmental services in northern Thai watersheds. The important policy

  1. Energy-saving scheme based on downstream packet scheduling in ethernet passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincong; Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-03-01

    With increasing network sizes, the energy consumption of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) has grown significantly. Therefore, it is important to design effective energy-saving schemes in PONs. Generally, energy-saving schemes have focused on sleeping the low-loaded Optical Network Units (ONUs), which tends to bring large packet delays. Further, the traditional ONU sleep modes are not capable of sleeping the transmitter and receiver independently, though they are not required to transmit or receive packets. Clearly, this approach contributes to wasted energy. Thus, in this paper, we propose an Energy-Saving scheme that is based on downstream Packet Scheduling (ESPS) in Ethernet PON (EPON). First, we design both an algorithm and a rule for downstream packet scheduling at the inter- and intra-ONU levels, respectively, to reduce the downstream packet delay. After that, we propose a hybrid sleep mode that contains not only ONU deep sleep mode but also independent sleep modes for the transmitter and the receiver. This ensures that the energy consumed by the ONUs is minimal. To realize the hybrid sleep mode, a modified GATE control message is designed that involves 10 time points for sleep processes. In ESPS, the 10 time points are calculated according to the allocated bandwidths in both the upstream and the downstream. The simulation results show that ESPS outperforms traditional Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme in terms of energy consumption and the average delay for both real-time and non-real-time packets downstream. The simulation results also show that the average energy consumption of each ONU in larger-sized networks is less than that in smaller-sized networks; hence, our ESPS is better suited for larger-sized networks.

  2. The role of grazers and shredders in the retention and downstream transport of a PCB in lotic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallenave, R.M.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Field studies using flow-through artificial stream channels were conducted between May and October 1992 to study the role of the feeding activity of grazing and shredding invertebrates in promoting downstream transport of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP). Plant material was labeled with [ 14 C]HCBP and fed to selected invertebrate species, and accrual of radioactivity by downstream collector species (Hydropsyche spp.) was measured. Downstream transport of HCBP was significantly increased by the presence of the grazer Elimia livescens in the upstream sections of the channels as demonstrated by significantly higher levels of radioactivity in hydropsychid larvae located downstream. Similarly, movement of HCBP downstream was significantly greater in channels containing the shredder Hydatophylax argus than in channels without shredders. These results suggest that the feeding processes of benthic invertebrates may play an important role in the downstream transport of particle-bound hydrophobic organic compounds

  3. Molecular Hysteresis of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Connecticut River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Hoyle, J. B.; Matt, S.; Raymond, P. A.; Saiers, J. E.; Dittmar, T.; Stubbins, A.

    2017-12-01

    Rainfall-runoff processes have emerged as key controllers of the quantity and quality of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from the landscape to inland waters. Hydrological events result in increased river discharge and a concomitant release of large amounts of DOM into fluvial networks. This study is part of a Macrosystems project which aims to test the Pulse-Shunt Concept: where rivers are converted from active to passive pipes during high discharge events ("pulse"), transporting labile, terrestrial DOM downstream ("shunt"), and relocating biogeochemical hotspots for DOM from the upper to the lower reaches of the watershed. The primary objective of our study was to track hysteretic changes in riverine DOM molecular composition over the course of a storm event. Samples were collected from nested watersheds in the Passumpsic River catchment, a tributary of the Connecticut River (USA). High resolution monitoring (via in-situ sondes) and high frequency collection of discreet samples (for FT-ICR/MS and other analyses) was necessary to capture short-term, hydrologically-driven variations in DOM concentration and composition. At the onset of the discharge event, we observed a unique DOM signature, enriched in aliphatic, and potentially biolabile, DOM. During peak discharge, and along the falling limb of the hydrograph, an aromatic, terrestrial-type DOM signature was more prevalent. These initial findings support the pulse-shunt hypothesis, providing evidence for the release of labile forms of DOM into rivers during the onset of a storm event, which apparently persists across low-to-high stream orders. Insights into the molecular hysteresis of fluvial DOM spotlights the impact of watershed hydrology on biogeochemical cycling in river networks.

  4. Molecular ion photofragment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamente, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    A new molecular ion photofragment spectrometer is described which features a supersonic molecular beam ion source and a radio frequency octapole ion trap interaction region. This unique combination allows several techniques to be applied to the problem of detecting a photon absorption event of a molecular ion. In particular, it may be possible to obtain low resolution survey spectra of exotic molecular ions by using a direct vibrational predissociation process, or by using other more indirect detection methods. The use of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measuring the lifetime of the O 2 + ( 4 π/sub u/) metastable state which is found to consist of two main components: the 4 π/sub 5/2/ and 4 π/sub -1/2/ spin components having a long lifetime (approx. 129 ms) and the 4 π/sub 3/2/ and 4 π/sub 1/2/ spin components having a short lifetime (approx. 6 ms)

  5. Event displays from Beam 2 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  6. Event displays from Beam Halo in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  7. Event displays from Beam 01 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    atlas collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded on, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detector

  8. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  9. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse...

  10. Temporal effects of Notch signaling and potential cooperation with multiple downstream effectors on adenohypophysis cell specification in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yoshinari; Muto, Akihiko; Hirabayashi, Ryo; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kume, Shoen; Kikuchi, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    The adenohypophysis (AH) consists of six distinct types of hormone-secreting cells. In zebrafish, although proper differentiation of all AH cell types has been shown to require Notch signaling within a period of 14-16 h postfertilization (hpf), the mechanisms underlying this process remain to be elucidated. Herein, we observed using the Notch inhibitor dibenzazepine (DBZ) that Notch signaling also contributed to AH cell specification beyond 16 hpf. Specification of distinct cell types was perturbed by DBZ treatment for different time frames, suggesting that AH cells are specified by Notch-dependent and cell-type-specific mechanisms. We also found that two hes-family genes, her4.1 and hey1, were expressed in the developing AH under the influence of Notch signaling. her4.1 knockdown reduced expression of proopiomelanocortin a (pomca), growth hormone (gh), and prolactin, whereas hey1 was responsible only for gh expression. Simultaneous loss of both Her4.1 and Hey1 produced milder phenotypes than that of DBZ-treated embryos. Moreover, DBZ treatment from 18 hpf led to a significant down-regulation of both gh and pomca genes only when combined with injection of a subthreshold level of her4.1-morpholino. These observations suggest that multiple downstream effectors, including Her4.1 and Hey1, mediate Notch signaling during AH cell specification. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  12. Catastrophic shifts in the aquatic primary production revealed by a small low-flow section of tropical downstream after dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, H; Enrich-Prast, A

    2015-11-01

    Dredging is a catastrophic disturbance that directly affects key biological processes in aquatic ecosystems, especially in those small and shallow. In the tropics, metabolic responses could still be enhanced by the high temperatures and solar incidence. Here, we assessed changes in the aquatic primary production along a small section of low-flow tropical downstream (Imboassica Stream, Brazil) after dredging. Our results suggested that these ecosystems may show catastrophic shifts between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in waters based on three short-term stages following the dredging: (I) a strongly heterotrophic net primary production -NPP- coupled to an intense respiration -R- likely supported by high resuspended organic sediments and nutrients from the bottom; (II) a strongly autotrophic NPP coupled to an intense gross primary production -GPP- favored by the high nutrient levels and low solar light attenuation from suspended solids or aquatic macrophytes; and (III) a NPP near to the equilibrium coupled to low GPP and R rates following, respectively, the shading by aquatic macrophytes and high particulate sedimentation. In conclusion, changes in aquatic primary production could be an important threshold for controlling drastic shifts in the organic matter cycling and the subsequent silting up of small tropical streams after dredging events.

  13. Flow and mass transfer downstream of an orifice under flow accelerated corrosion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Wael H.; Bello, Mufatiu M.; El Nakla, Meamer; Al Sarkhi, Abdelsalam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mass transfer downstream of orifices was numerically and experimentally investigated. ► The surface wear pattern is measured and used to validate the present numerical results. ► The maximum mass transfer coefficient found to occur at approximately 2–3 pipe diameters downstream of the orifice. ► The FAC wear rates were correlated with the turbulence kinetic energy and wall mass transfer in terms of Sherwood number. ► The current study offered very useful information for FAC engineers for better preparation of nuclear plant inspection scope. - Abstract: Local flow parameters play an important role in characterizing flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) downstream of sudden area change in power plant piping systems. Accurate prediction of the highest FAC wear rate locations enables the mitigation of sudden and catastrophic failures, and the improvement of the plant capacity factor. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the local flow and mass transfer parameters on flow accelerated corrosion downstream of an orifice. In the present study, orifice to pipe diameter ratios of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.74 were investigated numerically by solving the continuity and momentum equations at Reynolds number of Re = 20,000. Laboratory experiments, using test sections made of hydrocal (CaSO 4 ·½H 2 O) were carried out in order to determine the surface wear pattern and validate the present numerical results. The numerical results were compared to the plants data as well as to the present experiments. The maximum mass transfer coefficient found to occur at approximately 2–3 pipe diameters downstream of the orifice. This location was also found to correspond to the location of elevated turbulent kinetic energy generated within the flow separation vortices downstream of the orifice. The FAC wear rates were correlated with the turbulence kinetic energy and wall mass transfer in terms of Sherwood number. The current study found to offer very

  14. The effect of CD4 receptor downregulation and its downstream signaling molecules on HIV-1 latency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Chang; Kim, Hyeon Guk; Roh, Tae-Young; Park, Jihwan; Jung, Kyung-Min; Lee, Joo-Shil; Choi, Sang-Yun; Kim, Sung Soon; Choi, Byeong-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → CD4 receptors were downregulated on the surface of HIV-1 latently infected cells. → CD4 downstream signaling molecules were suppressed in HIV-1 latently infected cells. → HIV-1 progeny can be reactivated by induction of T-cell activation signal molecules. → H3K4me3 and H3K9ac were highly enriched in CD4 downstream signaling molecules. → HIV-1 latency can be maintained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: HIV-1 can establish a latent infection in memory CD4 + T cells to evade the host immune response. CD4 molecules can act not only as the HIV-1 receptor for entry but also as the trigger in an intracellular signaling cascade for T-cell activation and proliferation via protein tyrosine kinases. Novel chronic HIV-1-infected A3.01-derived (NCHA) cells were used to examine the involvement of CD4 downstream signaling in HIV-1 latency. CD4 receptors in NCHA cells were dramatically downregulated on its surface but were slightly decreased in whole-cell lysates. The expression levels of CD4 downstream signaling molecules, including P56 Lck , ZAP-70, LAT, and c-Jun, were sharply decreased in NCHA cells. The lowered histone modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac correlated with the downregulation of P56 Lck , ZAP-70, and LAT in NCHA cells. AP-1 binding activity was also reduced in NCHA cells. LAT and c-Jun suppressed in NCHA cells were highly induced after PMA treatment. In epigenetic analysis, other signal transduction molecules which are associated with active and/or latent HIV-1 infection showed normal states in HIV-1 latently infected cells compared to A3.01 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the HIV-1 latent state is sustained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules via the downregulation of CD4 and the attenuated activity of transcription factor as AP-1. The HIV-1 latency model via T-cell deactivation may provide some clues for the development of the new antireservoir therapy.

  15. The effect of CD4 receptor downregulation and its downstream signaling molecules on HIV-1 latency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Chang [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Guk [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Tae-Young [Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jihwan [Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung-Min; Lee, Joo-Shil [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang-Yun [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Soon [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byeong-Sun, E-mail: byeongsun@korea.kr [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} CD4 receptors were downregulated on the surface of HIV-1 latently infected cells. {yields} CD4 downstream signaling molecules were suppressed in HIV-1 latently infected cells. {yields} HIV-1 progeny can be reactivated by induction of T-cell activation signal molecules. {yields} H3K4me3 and H3K9ac were highly enriched in CD4 downstream signaling molecules. {yields} HIV-1 latency can be maintained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: HIV-1 can establish a latent infection in memory CD4 + T cells to evade the host immune response. CD4 molecules can act not only as the HIV-1 receptor for entry but also as the trigger in an intracellular signaling cascade for T-cell activation and proliferation via protein tyrosine kinases. Novel chronic HIV-1-infected A3.01-derived (NCHA) cells were used to examine the involvement of CD4 downstream signaling in HIV-1 latency. CD4 receptors in NCHA cells were dramatically downregulated on its surface but were slightly decreased in whole-cell lysates. The expression levels of CD4 downstream signaling molecules, including P56{sup Lck}, ZAP-70, LAT, and c-Jun, were sharply decreased in NCHA cells. The lowered histone modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac correlated with the downregulation of P56{sup Lck}, ZAP-70, and LAT in NCHA cells. AP-1 binding activity was also reduced in NCHA cells. LAT and c-Jun suppressed in NCHA cells were highly induced after PMA treatment. In epigenetic analysis, other signal transduction molecules which are associated with active and/or latent HIV-1 infection showed normal states in HIV-1 latently infected cells compared to A3.01 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the HIV-1 latent state is sustained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules via the downregulation of CD4 and the attenuated activity of transcription factor as AP-1. The HIV-1 latency model via T-cell deactivation may provide some clues for the development of the new

  16. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez, E.

    2010-08-14

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient {cflx q} extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting {cflx q} to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  17. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fries, R.J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.ed [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ramirez, E. [Physics Department, University of Texas El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient q extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting q to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  18. Event-by-event fluctuations at SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshauser, Harald; Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marn, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Slvova, J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Appelshauser, Harald; Sako, Hiro

    2005-01-01

    Results on event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum and net charge in Pb-Au collisions, measured by the CERES Collaboration at CERN-SPS, are presented. We discuss the centrality and beam energy dependence and compare our data to cascade calculations.

  19. Bringing molecules back into molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus O Wilke

    Full Text Available Much molecular-evolution research is concerned with sequence analysis. Yet these sequences represent real, three-dimensional molecules with complex structure and function. Here I highlight a growing trend in the field to incorporate molecular structure and function into computational molecular-evolution work. I consider three focus areas: reconstruction and analysis of past evolutionary events, such as phylogenetic inference or methods to infer selection pressures; development of toy models and simulations to identify fundamental principles of molecular evolution; and atom-level, highly realistic computational modeling of molecular structure and function aimed at making predictions about possible future evolutionary events.

  20. Molecular Pharmacology of VEGF-A Isoforms: Binding and Signalling at VEGFR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chloe J; Mignone, Viviane W; Arruda, Maria Augusta; Alcobia, Diana C; Hill, Stephen J; Kilpatrick, Laura E; Woolard, Jeanette

    2018-04-23

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a key mediator of angiogenesis, signalling via the class IV tyrosine kinase receptor family of VEGF Receptors (VEGFRs). Although VEGF-A ligands bind to both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, they primarily signal via VEGFR2 leading to endothelial cell proliferation, survival, migration and vascular permeability. Distinct VEGF-A isoforms result from alternative splicing of the Vegfa gene at exon 8, resulting in VEGF xxx a or VEGF xxx b isoforms. Alternative splicing events at exons 5⁻7, in addition to recently identified posttranslational read-through events, produce VEGF-A isoforms that differ in their bioavailability and interaction with the co-receptor Neuropilin-1. This review explores the molecular pharmacology of VEGF-A isoforms at VEGFR2 in respect to ligand binding and downstream signalling. To understand how VEGF-A isoforms have distinct signalling despite similar affinities for VEGFR2, this review re-evaluates the typical classification of these isoforms relative to the prototypical, “pro-angiogenic” VEGF 165 a. We also examine the molecular mechanisms underpinning the regulation of VEGF-A isoform signalling and the importance of interactions with other membrane and extracellular matrix proteins. As approved therapeutics targeting the VEGF-A/VEGFR signalling axis largely lack long-term efficacy, understanding these isoform-specific mechanisms could aid future drug discovery efforts targeting VEGF receptor pharmacology.

  1. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  2. Genomic Investigation Reveals Highly Conserved, Mosaic, Recombination Events Associated with Capsular Switching among Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Sequence Type (ST)-11 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-07-03

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningococcal disease globally. Sequence type (ST)-11 clonal complex (cc11) is a hypervirulent meningococcal lineage historically associated with serogroup C capsule and is believed to have acquired the W capsule through a C to W capsular switching event. We studied the sequence of capsule gene cluster (cps) and adjoining genomic regions of 524 invasive W cc11 strains isolated globally. We identified recombination breakpoints corresponding to two distinct recombination events within W cc11: A 8.4-kb recombinant region likely acquired from W cc22 including the sialic acid/glycosyl-transferase gene, csw resulted in a C→W change in capsular phenotype and a 13.7-kb recombinant segment likely acquired from Y cc23 lineage includes 4.5 kb of cps genes and 8.2 kb downstream of the cps cluster resulting in allelic changes in capsule translocation genes. A vast majority of W cc11 strains (497/524, 94.8%) retain both recombination events as evidenced by sharing identical or very closely related capsular allelic profiles. These data suggest that the W cc11 capsular switch involved two separate recombination events and that current global W cc11 meningococcal disease is caused by strains bearing this mosaic capsular switch. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Gene expression programming for prediction of scour depth downstream of sills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azamathulla, H. Md.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryLocal scour is crucial in the degradation of river bed and the stability of grade control structures, stilling basins, aprons, ski-jump bucket spillways, bed sills, weirs, check dams, etc. This short communication presents gene-expression programming (GEP), which is an extension to genetic programming (GP), as an alternative approach to predict scour depth downstream of sills. Published data were compiled from the literature for the scour depth downstream of sills. The proposed GEP approach gives satisfactory results (R2 = 0.967 and RMSE = 0.088) compared to the existing predictors (Chinnarasri and Kositgittiwong, 2008) with R2 = 0.87 and RMSE = 2.452 for relative scour depth.

  4. Re-modulated technology of WDM-PON employing different DQPSK downstream signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Xin, Xiang-jun; Yu, Chong-xiu

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a kind of modulation architecture for wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDMPON) employing optical differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) downstream signals and two different modulation formats of re-modulated upstream signals. At the optical line terminal (OLT), 10 Gbit/s signal is modulated with DQPSK. At the optical network unit (ONU), part of the downstream signal is re-modulated with on-off keying (OOK) or inverse-return-to-zero (IRZ). Simulation results show the impact on the system employing NRZ, RZ and carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ). The analyses also reflect that the architecture can restrain chromatic dispersion and channel crosstalk, which makes it the best architecture of access network in the future.

  5. Circadian rhythms in healthy aging--effects downstream from the pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Kupfer, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using both previously published findings and entirely new data, we present evidence in support of the argument that the circadian dysfunction of advancing age in the healthy human is primarily one of failing to transduce the circadian signal from the circadian timing system (CTS) to rhythms "downstream" from the pacemaker rather than one of failing to generate the circadian signal itself. Two downstream rhythms are considered: subjective alertness and objective performance. For subjective alertness, we show that in both normal nychthemeral (24 h routine, sleeping at night) and unmasking (36 h of constant wakeful bed rest) conditions, advancing age, especially in men, leads to flattening of subjective alertness rhythms, even when circadian temperature rhythms are relatively robust. For objective performance, an unmasking experiment involving manual dexterity, visual search, and visual vigilance tasks was used to demonstrate that the relationship between temperature and performance is strong in the young, but not in older subjects (and especially not in older men).

  6. A novel cell autolysis system for cost-competitive downstream processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnal, Ivan; Chen, Xiangbin; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The industrial production of low value-added biological products poses significant challenges due to cost pressures. In recent years, it has been argued that synthetic biology approaches will lead to breakthroughs that eliminate price bottlenecks for the production of a wide range of biological products including bioplastics and biofuels. One significant bottleneck lies in the necessity to break the tough cell walls of microbes in order to release intracellular products. We here report the implementation of the first synthetic biology standard part based on the lambda phage SRRz genes and a synthetic ribosome binding site (RBS) that works in Escherichia coli and Halomonas campaniensis, which enables the producer strains to induce lysis after the addition of small amounts (1-5 %) of solvents or to spontaneously lyse during the stresses of downstream processing, and thus has the potential to eliminate the mechanical cell disruption step as both an efficiency bottleneck and a significant capex barrier when implementing downstream bioprocesses.

  7. Impact of upstream and downstream constraints on a signaling module’s ultrasensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altszyler, Edgar; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Ventura, Alejandra; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Much work has been done on the study of the biochemical mechanisms that result in ultrasensitive behavior of simple biochemical modules. However, in a living cell, such modules are embedded in a bigger network that constrains the range of inputs that the module will receive as well as the range of the module’s outputs that network will be able to detect. Here, we studied how the effective ultrasensitivity of a modular system is affected by these restrictions. We use a simple setup to explore to what extent the dynamic range spanned by upstream and downstream components of an ultrasensitive module impact on the effective sensitivity of the system. Interestingly, we found for some ultrasensitive motifs that dynamic range limitations imposed by downstream components can produce effective sensitivities much larger than that of the original module when considered in isolation. (paper)

  8. Measurements of energy spectra of fast electrons from PF-1000 in the upstream and downstream directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowski, R.; Czaus, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Zebrowski, J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubes, P. [Czech Technical University (CVUT), 166-27 Prague, (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes measurements of energy spectra of electrons emitted in the upstream direction along the symmetry-axis of the PF-1000 facility, operated with the deuterium filling at 21 kV, 290 kJ. The measurements were performed with a magnetic analyzer. The same analyzer was used to measure also electron beams emitted in along the symmetry-axis in the downstream direction. The recorded spectra showed that the electron-beams emitted in the upstream direction have energies in the range from about 40 keV to about 800 keV, while those in the downstream direction have energies in the range from about 60 keV to about 200 keV. These spectra confirm that in the PF (Plasma Focus) plasma column there appear strong local fields accelerating charged particles in different directions. This document is composed of a paper and a poster. (authors)

  9. Sources for increased DOC-concentrations in the groundwater downstream of the landfill Hohne (DEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlmann, E.; Seifert, R.; Eschenbach, A.; Kleinschmidt, V.

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste together with drilling mud and oil-contaminated soil had been deposited in the landfill Hohne from 1971. Four groundwater monitoring sites had been installed: one monitoring site upstream and three sites downstream of the landfill in three different directions. Downstream of the landfill increased concentrations of chloride, sulphate, sodium and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) had been measured over a period of years. Particularly the source of the DOC has remained unclear. Assumptions were (i) leaking of contaminants from the landfill and degradation under the landfill by microbes or plants or (ii) leaching of DOC from the soil under the landfill caused by a change in the redox potential. The determination of the DOC source was the major subject of this study.

  10. Quantifying the Impact of geographically isolated wetlands on the downstream hydrology of a Canadian Prairie watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A.; Evenson, G. R.; Boluwade, A.; Jha, S. K.; Rasmussen, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrological processes are highly complex and strongly nonlinear and cannot be represented through simple means. Models are built to replicate these processes. However, models due to various sources of uncertainty including their structural capability often lead to inaccurate results. The aim of this study is to setup the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) for a watershed that is dominated by potholes in the Prairie region of Canada. The potholes not connected to the stream, also known as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), are dynamic in nature leading to a fill and spill situation due to varying surface runoff conditions. Significant land use changes have resulted in almost 70% of wetlands being lost and have posed threat of flooding to downstream areas. While some studies were devoted to identify the presence of potholes only few have explored the impacts of wetlands on the downstream hydrology. In this study, we follow Evenson et al., (2016) approach of modifying SWAT model. The modification enhances structural capability of SWAT while depicting the dynamics of wetlands at HRUs level. Redefining the formation of HRUs in such way effectively captures the spatial presence of potholes. We then routed the potholes' fill and spill hydrology to direct the flow to the potholes immediately downstream. The model was calibrated for 2005-2008 and verified over 2009-2011 at a daily time step. We tested our model with three land use change scenarios by varying the presence of potholes and evaluated its impact on the downstream hydrograph. We foresee a significant improvement in replicating stream flow using this novel approach. We believe that it will effectively improve the predictive power of SWAT for this highly complex sub basin (Upper Assiniboine catchment at Kamsack) located in Canadian Prairie.

  11. Wave propagation downstream of a high power helicon in a dipolelike magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Roberson, B. Race; Ziemba, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The wave propagating downstream of a high power helicon source in a diverging magnetic field was investigated experimentally. The magnetic field of the wave has been measured both axially and radially. The three-dimensional structure of the propagating wave is observed and its wavelength and phase velocity are determined. The measurements are compared to predictions from helicon theory and that of a freely propagating whistler wave. The implications of this work on the helicon as a thruster are also discussed.

  12. Sleeving-back of horizontal wells to control downstream oil saturation and improve oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, M.; Saghr, A. M. [Bath Univ (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Air injection has become popular as an enhanced recovery technology, applicable over a wide variety of reservoir conditions including heavy, medium and light oils. One problem observed in light oil reservoirs is the tendency to desaturate the oil layer downstream of the moving front. This is particularly common in the case of thermal recovery processes. In this experiment designed to study ways to restrict the de-saturation of the oil layer, a modified horizontal producer well, incorporating a `sleeve-back` principal was used. The objective was to replicate the `toe-to-heel` displacement process occurring during heavy oil recovery, wherein downstream oil is essentially immobile due to its high viscosity. The `sleeve-back` of the well was achieved using a co-aligned, two-well assembly, so that the upstream section of the horizontal producer well was active, and continuously adjusted during propagation of the combustion front. The use of this continuous `sleeve-back` operation to control the level of de-saturation in the downstream section of a sand pack was successful as confirmed by the very high oil recovery achieved, equivalent to 93.5 per cent of oil in place. The level of CO{sub 2} production was also very high. The `sleeve-back` of the horizontal producer well made the light oil in-situ combustion more efficient compared to what would be expected in a fully-open well. The `sleeve-back` of the well also produced thermal contours in the sand pack that closely resembled those observed with heavy, highly viscous oil. By sealing-off the otherwise open well in the downstream part of the reservoir, the de-saturation of the oil layer was prevented. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Preliminary Experimental Results on the Technique of Artificial River Replenishment to Mitigate Sediment Loss Downstream Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, M. J.; Battisacco, E.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of sediments by water throughout the river basins, from the steep slopes of the upstream regions to the sea level, is recognizable important to keep the natural conditions of rivers with a role on their ecology processes. Over the last decades, a reduction on the supply of sand and gravel has been observed downstream dams existing in several alpine rivers. Many studies highlight that the presence of a dam strongly modifies the river behavior in the downstream reach, in terms of morphology and hydrodynamics, with consequences on local ecology. Sediment deficit, bed armoring, river incision and bank instability are the main effects which affect negatively the aquatic habitats and the water quality. One of the proposed techniques to solve the problem of sediment deficit downstream dams, already adopted in few Japanese and German rivers although on an unsatisfactory fashion, is the artificial replenishment of these. Generally, it was verified that the erosion of the replenishments was not satisfactory and the transport rate was not enough to move the sediments to sufficient downstream distances. In order to improve and to provide an engineering answer to make this technique more applicable, a series of laboratory tests are ran as preparatory study to understand the hydrodynamics of the river flow when the replenishment technique is applied. Erodible volumes, with different lengths and submergence conditions, reproducing sediment replenishments volumes, are positioned along a channel bank. Different geometrical combinations of erodible sediment volumes are tested as well on the experimental flume. The first results of the experimental research, concerning erosion time evolution, the influence of discharge and the distance travelled by the eroded sediments, will be presented and discussed.

  14. Comparison of pitot traverses taken at varying distances downstream of obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, S E; Booth, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study determined the deviations between pitot traverses taken under "ideal" conditions--at least seven duct diameter's lengths (i.e., distance = 7D) from obstructions, elbows, junction fittings, and other disturbances to flows--with those taken downstream from commonplace disturbances. Two perpendicular 10-point, log-linear velocity pressure traverses were taken at various distances downstream of tested upstream conditions. Upstream conditions included a plain duct opening, a junction fitting, a single 90 degrees elbow, and two elbows rotated 90 degrees from each other into two orthogonal planes. Airflows determined from those values were compared with the values measured more than 40D downstream of the same obstructions under ideal conditions. The ideal measurements were taken on three traverse diameters in the same plane separated by 120 degrees in honed drawn-over-mandrel tubing. In all cases the pitot tubes were held in place by devices that effectively eliminated alignment errors and insertion depth errors. Duct velocities ranged from 1500 to 4500 ft/min. Results were surprisingly good if one employed two perpendicular traverses. When the averages of two perpendicular traverses was taken, deviations from ideal value were 6% or less even for traverses taken as close as 2D distance from the upstream disturbances. At 3D distance, deviations seldom exceeded 5%. With single diameter traverses, errors seldom exceeded 5% at 6D or more downstream from the disturbance. Interestingly, percentage deviations were about the same at high and low velocities. This study demonstrated that two perpendicular pitot traverses can be taken as close as 3D from these disturbances with acceptable (< or = 5%) deviations from measurements taken under ideal conditions.

  15. Monitoring Thermal Pollution in Rivers Downstream of Dams with Landsat ETM+ Thermal Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dams play a significant role in altering the spatial pattern of temperature in rivers and contribute to thermal pollution, which greatly affects the river aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the temporal and spatial variation of thermal pollution caused by dams is important to prevent or mitigate its harmful effect. Assessments based on in-situ measurements are often limited in practice because of the inaccessibility of water temperature records and the scarcity of gauges along rivers. By contrast, thermal infrared remote sensing provides an alternative approach to monitor thermal pollution downstream of dams in large rivers, because it can cover a large area and observe the same zone repeatedly. In this study, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ thermal infrared imagery were applied to assess the thermal pollution caused by two dams, the Geheyan Dam and the Gaobazhou Dam, located on the Qingjiang River, a tributary of the Yangtze River downstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir in Central China. The spatial and temporal characteristics of thermal pollution were analyzed with water temperatures estimated from 54 cloud-free Landsat ETM+ scenes acquired in the period from 2000 to 2014. The results show that water temperatures downstream of both dams are much cooler than those upstream of both dams in summer, and the water temperature remains stable along the river in winter, showing evident characteristic of the thermal pollution caused by dams. The area affected by the Geheyan Dam reaches beyond 20 km along the downstream river, and that affected by the Gaobazhou Dam extends beyond the point where the Qingjiang River enters the Yangtze River. Considering the long time series and global coverage of Landsat ETM+ imagery, the proposed technique in the current study provides a promising method for globally monitoring the thermal pollution caused by dams in large rivers.

  16. Estimating flow characteristics of different weir types and optimum dimensions of downstream receiving pool

    OpenAIRE

    Emiroglu, M. Emin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the flow characteristics of sharp-crested weirs, broad-crested weirs, and labyrinth weirs. The variation of the maximum bubble penetration depth for different weir types is investigated depending on overfall jet expansion, discharge, and drop height. Moreover, most efficient depth, length and width of the downstream receiving pool in an open channel system are studied by considering the penetration depth, overfall jet expansion, jet tra...

  17. SWAT Model Prediction of Phosphorus Loading in a South Carolina Karst Watershed with a Downstream Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Manoj K. Jha; Thomas M. Williams; Amy E. Edwards; Daniel R.. Hitchcock

    2013-01-01

    The SWAT model was used to predict total phosphorus (TP) loadings for a 1555-ha karst watershed—Chapel Branch Creek (CBC)—which drains to a lake via a reservoir-like embayment (R-E). The model was first tested for monthly streamflow predictions from tributaries draining three potential source areas as well as the downstream R-E, followed by TP loadings using data...

  18. Downstream approaches to phosphorus management in agricultural landscapes: regional applicability and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, R; Dunne, E J; Novak, J; King, K W; McLellan, E; Smith, D R; Strock, J; Boomer, K; Tomer, M; Noe, G B

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a critical overview of conservation practices that are aimed at improving water quality by retaining phosphorus (P) downstream of runoff genesis. The review is structured around specific downstream practices that are prevalent in various parts of the United States. Specific practices that we discuss include the use of controlled drainage, chemical treatment of waters and soils, receiving ditch management, and wetlands. The review also focuses on the specific hydrology and biogeochemistry associated with each of those practices. The practices are structured sequentially along flowpaths as you move through the landscape, from the edge-of-field, to adjacent aquatic systems, and ultimately to downstream P retention. Often practices are region specific based on geology, cropping practices, and specific P related problems and thus require a right practice, and right place mentality to management. Each practice has fundamental P transport and retention processes by systems that can be optimized by management with the goal of reducing downstream P loading after P has left agricultural fields. The management of P requires a system-wide assessment of the stability of P in different biogeochemical forms (particulate vs. dissolved, organic vs. inorganic), in different storage pools (soil, sediment, streams etc.), and under varying biogeochemical and hydrological conditions that act to convert P from one form to another and promote its retention in or transport out of different landscape components. There is significant potential of hierarchically placing practices in the agricultural landscape and enhancing the associated P mitigation. But an understanding is needed of short- and long-term P retention mechanisms within a certain practice and incorporating maintenance schedules if necessary to improve P retention times and minimize exceeding retention capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  20. Optimizing withdrawal from drinking water reservoirs to reduce downstream temperature pollution and reservoir hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Rinke, K; Hipsey, M R; Boehrer, B

    2017-07-15

    Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires balancing the demands of water supply whilst minimizing environmental impact. This study numerically simulates the effect of an improved withdrawal scheme designed to alleviate the temperature pollution downstream of a reservoir. The aim was to identify an optimal withdrawal strategy such that water of a desirable discharge temperature can be supplied downstream without leading to unacceptably low oxygen concentrations within the reservoir. First, we calibrated a one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamics and oxygen dynamics (GLM-AED2), verifying that the model reproduced water temperatures and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations accurately over a 5 year period. Second, the model was extended to include an adaptive withdrawal functionality, allowing for a prescribed withdrawal temperature to be found, with the potential constraint of hypolimnetic oxygen concentration. Scenario simulations on epi-/metalimnetic withdrawal demonstrate that the model is able to autonomously determine the best withdrawal height depending on the thermal structure and the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration thereby optimizing the ability to supply a desirable discharge temperature to the downstream river during summer. This new withdrawal strategy also increased the hypolimnetic raw water volume to be used for drinking water supply, but reduced the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the deep and cold water layers (hypolimnion). Implications of the results for reservoir management are discussed and the numerical model is provided for operators as a simple and efficient tool for optimizing the withdrawal strategy within different reservoir contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Power Plant Bromide Discharges and Downstream Drinking Water Systems in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-10-17

    Coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been implicated in increasing bromide levels and subsequent increases in disinfection byproducts at downstream drinking water plants. Bromide was not included as a regulated constituent in the recent steam electric effluent limitations guidelines and standards (ELGs) since the U.S. EPA analysis suggested few drinking water facilities would be affected by bromide discharges from power plants. The present analysis uses a watershed approach to identify Pennsylvania drinking water intakes downstream of wet FGD discharges and to assess the potential for bromide discharge effects. Twenty-two (22) public drinking water systems serving 2.5 million people were identified as being downstream of at least one wet FGD discharge. During mean August conditions (generally low-flow, minimal dilution) in receiving rivers, the median predicted bromide concentrations contributed by wet FGD at Pennsylvania intake locations ranged from 5.2 to 62 μg/L for the Base scenario (including only natural bromide in coal) and from 16 to 190 μg/L for the Bromide Addition scenario (natural plus added bromide for mercury control); ranges depend on bromide loads and receiving stream dilution capacity.

  2. Subsequent to suppression: Downstream comprehension consequences of noun/verb ambiguity in natural reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2015-01-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate the downstream processing consequences of encountering noun/verb (NV) homographs (i.e., park) in semantically neutral but syntactically constraining contexts. Target words were followed by a prepositional phrase containing a noun that was plausible for only one meaning of the homograph. Replicating previous work, we found increased first fixation durations on NV homographs compared to unambiguous words, which persisted into the next sentence region. At the downstream noun, we found plausibility effects following ambiguous words that were correlated with the size of a reader's first fixation effect, suggesting that this effect reflects the recruitment of processing resources necessary to suppress the homograph's context-inappropriate meaning. Using these same stimuli, Lee and Federmeier (2012) found a sustained frontal negativity to the NV homographs, and, on the downstream noun, found a plausibility effect that was also positively correlated with the size of a reader's ambiguity effect. Together, these findings suggest that when only syntactic constraints are available, meaning selection recruits inhibitory mechanisms that can be measured in both first fixation slowdown and ERP ambiguity effects. PMID:25961358

  3. Multispacecraft observations of energetic ions upstream and downstream of the bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholer, M.; Mobius, E.; Kistler, L.M.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F.M.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park)

    1989-01-01

    We present simultaneous measurements of energetic protons and alpha particles inside and outside of the magnetopause, immediately upstream, and downstream as well as further upstream of the bow shock. A comparison between the intensity at the bow shock and further upstream results in an e-folding distance at 30 keV of similar to 6.2 R/sub E/. After transformation of the angular distribution into the solar wind frame a diffusion coefficeint of κ/sub parallel/similar to 3 R/sub E/ is obtained from the anisotropy and the intensity gradient. Immediately downstream of the bow shock the anisotropy in the shock frame is directed toward the magnetopause. After transformation into the plasma rest frame the distribution is isotropic. The intensity in the magnetosheath just outside the magnetopause is smaller than the intensity behind the bow shock. Thus, in the magnetosheath there is no gradient or streaming in the upstream direction. The spectra, intensities, and relative abundances in the magnetosheath and inside the magnetosphere are totally different. These observations are consistent with first order Fermi acceleration at the bow shock and subsequent downstream convection, and exclude a magnetospheric source for these particles. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  4. Hydrological Effects of Chashm Dam on the Downstream of Talar River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khaleghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last century, dams have constructed with the objective of water supplies for agriculture, drinking water and industry. However, the results from the performance review of dams show adverse effects on the downstream environment and the availability of water resources. The purpose of the Chashm dam construction on the TalarRiver's tributaries is the water supply for Semnan city. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in TalarRiver watershed. TalarRiveroriginatesfrom AlborzMountains in Mazandaran province, in the southern Caspian Sea basin, in north of Iran and flows parallel with the Firouzkooh-Ghaemshahr road and it arrives to the Caspian beach area in the Malek Kala village. In order to supply the water requirements of Semnan city, the construction of Chashm dam on the TalarRiver's tributaries placed on the agenda of the Ministry of Energy. However, because of the uncontrolled exploitation of agricultural streams and invasion of privacy riverbed, the TalarRiver has acute and critical conditions from the point of hydrologic and environmental. To study the hydrological impacts of Chashm dam, Talar watershed was considered with an area of approximately 1057 square kilometers of the Pole Sefid gauging station using a rainfall-runoff model. Results and Discussion: Simulation of the study area hydrological behavior shows that the Chashm Dam average water discharge is near to 8.6 million m3. This figure will be significant changes during wet and droughtperiods. The minimum and maximum monthly discharge of the Chashm Dam watershed in August and February is equal to 0.31 and 0.55 m3/s respectively. The minimum and maximum monthly water demand in turn in October and August is equal to 0.015 and 0.4 m3/s respectively and this shows that the river discharge in June is lower than the downstream water demand. Based on confirmed studies of the Kamandab Consulting Engineers, drinking water requirement of Semnan province, water

  5. Approach to downstream planning for nearshore response and sensitive areas protection outside Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCola, E.G.; Robertson, T.L.; Robertson, R.; Banta, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the need for an oil spill response plan for downstream coastal communities that could be affected by oil spilled from tankers travelling in Prince William Sound, Alaska. For the purpose of oil spill contingency planning, the State of Alaska has been divided into the Kodiak and Cook Inlet sub-areas that are at risk for downstream impacts from a Prince William Sound oil spill. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill provided an example of a worst-case scenario oil spill from a tanker in Prince William Sound, but the oil spill planning system that has evolved in Alaska does not adequately plan for on oil spill that originates in one sub-area of the state, but impacts other sub-areas in the downstream spill path. This study analyzed the gaps that exist in the current response planning system in the Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet and Kodiak sub-areas. A method was proposed to improve the existing response plans so that emergency response teams are better prepared to manage cross-boundary oil spills originating in Prince William Sound. The proposed method focuses on nearshore response and sensitive areas protection for coastlines and communities that are at risk for oil spills from a tanker travelling the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). 11 refs., 3 figs

  6. Environmental radiological studies downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Information compiled in 1985 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides previously discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant is presented. In October 1984, the quantities of gamma-emitting radionuclides in water discharged to Clay Creek from the plant were reduced below operationally defined detection limits for liquid effluents. However, radionuclides previously discharged persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components. 134 Cs and 137 Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of different fish, crayfish, and frogs. Coefficients for exponential equations are generated, from a least square analysis, that relate the change in concentration of 137 Cs in fish to distance downstream and time between March and October 1985. Concentrations of 137 Cs in surface creek sediments also decreased in the downstream direction much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. However, there was no significant difference in the radiocesium concentrations in surface sediements collected from comparable locations during both 1984 and 1985

  7. DNA Source Selection for Downstream Applications Based on DNA Quality Indicators Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Aguilar, Gema; Sánchez-López, Ana María; Barberán-Aceituno, Cristina; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; López-Guerrero, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    High-quality human DNA samples and associated information of individuals are necessary for biomedical research. Biobanks act as a support infrastructure for the scientific community by providing a large number of high-quality biological samples for specific downstream applications. For this purpose, biobank methods for sample preparation must ensure the usefulness and long-term functionality of the products obtained. Quality indicators are the tool to measure these parameters, the purity and integrity determination being those specifically used for DNA. This study analyzes the quality indicators in DNA samples derived from 118 frozen human tissues in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) reactive, 68 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 119 frozen blood samples, and 26 saliva samples. The results obtained for DNA quality are discussed in association with the usefulness for downstream applications and availability of the DNA source in the target study. In brief, if any material is valid, blood is the most approachable option of prospective collection of samples providing high-quality DNA. However, if diseased tissue is a requisite or samples are available, the recommended source of DNA would be frozen tissue. These conclusions will determine the best source of DNA, according to the planned downstream application. Furthermore our results support the conclusion that a complete procedure of DNA quantification and qualification is necessary to guarantee the appropriate management of the samples, avoiding low confidence results, high costs, and a waste of samples. PMID:27158753

  8. Transport of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from an arctic glacier to downstream locations: implications for sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Karen Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Murphy, Margaret B; Horii, Yuichi; Petrick, Gert; Kallerborn, Roland; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Murano, Kentaro; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been globally detected in various environmental matrices, yet their fate and transport to the Arctic is still unclear, especially for the European Arctic. In this study, concentrations of 17 PFAS were quantified in two ice cores (n=26), surface snow (n=9) and surface water samples (n=14) collected along a spatial gradient in Svalbard, Norway. Concentrations of selected ions (Na(+), SO4(2-), etc.) were also determined for tracing the origins and sources of PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were the dominant compounds found in ice core samples. Taking PFOA, PFNA and perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) as examples, higher concentrations were detected in the middle layers of the ice cores representing the period of 1997-2000. Lower concentrations of C8-C12 perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were detected in comparison with concentrations measured previously in an ice core from the Canadian Arctic, indicating that contamination levels in the European Arctic are lower. Average PFAS concentrations were found to be lower in surface snow and melted glacier water samples, while increased concentrations were observed in river water downstream near the coastal area. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) was detected in the downstream locations, but not in the glacier, suggesting existence of local sources of this compound. Long-range atmospheric transport of PFAS was the major deposition pathway for the glaciers, while local sources (e.g., skiing activities) were identified in the downstream locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental hedging: A theory and method for reconciling reservoir operations for downstream ecology and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L. E.; Lund, J. R.; Moyle, P. B.; Quiñones, R. M.; Herman, J. D.; O'Rear, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Building reservoir release schedules to manage engineered river systems can involve costly trade-offs between storing and releasing water. As a result, the design of release schedules requires metrics that quantify the benefit and damages created by releases to the downstream ecosystem. Such metrics should support making operational decisions under uncertain hydrologic conditions, including drought and flood seasons. This study addresses this need and develops a reservoir operation rule structure and method to maximize downstream environmental benefit while meeting human water demands. The result is a general approach for hedging downstream environmental objectives. A multistage stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear program with Markov Chains, identifies optimal "environmental hedging," releases to maximize environmental benefits subject to probabilistic seasonal hydrologic conditions, current, past, and future environmental demand, human water supply needs, infrastructure limitations, population dynamics, drought storage protection, and the river's carrying capacity. Environmental hedging "hedges bets" for drought by reducing releases for fish, sometimes intentionally killing some fish early to reduce the likelihood of large fish kills and storage crises later. This approach is applied to Folsom reservoir in California to support survival of fall-run Chinook salmon in the lower American River for a range of carryover and initial storage cases. Benefit is measured in terms of fish survival; maintaining self-sustaining native fish populations is a significant indicator of ecosystem function. Environmental hedging meets human demand and outperforms other operating rules, including the current Folsom operating strategy, based on metrics of fish extirpation and water supply reliability.

  10. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  11. Dynamics of Charged Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In three spacetime dimensions the world volume of a magnetic source is a single point, an event. We make the event dynamical by regarding it as the imprint of a flux-carrying particle impinging from an extra dimension. This can be generalized to higher spacetime dimensions and to extended events. We exhibit universal observable consequences of the existence of events and argue that events are as important as particles or branes. We explain how events arise on the world volume of membranes in M theory, and in a Josephson junction in superconductivity.

  12. The global event system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different

  13. Coarse and fine sediment transportation patterns and causes downstream of the Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songzhe; Yang, Yunping; Zhang, Mingjin; Sun, Zhaohua; Zhu, Lingling; You, Xingying; Li, Kanyu

    2017-11-01

    Reservoir construction within a basin affects the process of water and sediment transport downstream of the dam. The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) affects the sediment transport downstream of the dam. The impoundment of the TGR reduced total downstream sediment. The sediment group d≤0.125 mm (fine particle) increased along the path, but the average was still below what existed before the reservoir impoundment. The sediments group d>0.125 mm (coarse particle) was recharged in the Yichang to Jianli reach, but showed a deposition trend downstream of Jianli. The coarse sediment in the Yichang to Jianli section in 2003 to 2007 was above the value before the TGR impoundment. However, the increase of both coarse and fine sediments in 2008 to 2014 was less than that in 2003 to 2007. The sediment retained in the dam is the major reason for the sediment reduction downstream. However, the retention in different river reaches is affected by riverbed coarsening, discharge, flow process, and conditions of lake functioning and recharging from the tributaries. The main conclusions derived from our study are as follows: 1) The riverbed in the Yichang to Shashi section was relatively coarse, thereby limiting the supply of fine and coarse sediments. The fine sediment supply was mainly controlled by TGR discharge, whereas the coarse sediment supply was controlled by the duration of high flow and its magnitude. 2) The supply of both coarse and fine sediments in the Shashi to Jianli section was controlled by the amount of total discharge. The sediment supply from the riverbed was higher in flood years than that in the dry years. The coarse sediment tended to deposit, and the deposition in the dry years was larger than that in the flood years. 3) The feeding of the fine sediment in the Luoshan to Hankou section was mainly from the riverbed. The supply in 2008 to 2014 was more than that in 2003 to 2007. Around 2010, the coarse sediments transited from depositing to scouring that was

  14. Event by event physics in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christakoglou, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are fundamental for the study of the QGP phase transition. The ALICE experiment is well suited for precise event-by-event measurements of various quantities. In this article, we review the capabilities of ALICE to study the fluctuations of several key observables such as the net charge, the temperature, and the particle ratios. Among the observables related to correlations, we review the balance functions and the long range correlations.

  15. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  16. Computational challenges in modeling gene regulatory events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataskar, Abhijeet; Tiwari, Vijay K

    2016-10-19

    Cellular transcriptional programs driven by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms could be better understood by integrating "omics" data and subsequently modeling the gene-regulatory events. Toward this end, computational biology should keep pace with evolving experimental procedures and data availability. This article gives an exemplified account of the current computational challenges in molecular biology.

  17. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... Approved by the Management Executive Committee. - 1 - ... Event ‒ represents activities related to IDRC operations and may include both ... Events include business meetings; corporate, branch or divisional management.

  18. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  19. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  20. A Mosque event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2017-01-01

    and public imaginations attached to it. And they are connected to a specific event – the opening of the mosque. In the first part, a conceptual framework is presented bringing together literature on three notions: encounters, visibility and the event. Following this, the paper explores the opening event...

  1. On semirecurrent events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurechenskij, A.

    1984-01-01

    In some problems of the mathematical theory of particle counters, film or filmless measurements of track ionization in high energy physics,queueing theory, random walks, etc., the classes of emirecurrent and m-semirecurrent events, which generalize the recurrent events and the recurrent events with delay, appeared. In the paper their basic properties, and some relationships between them are shown

  2. Specific Reaction Patterns to Distinct Positive Emotional Cues Related to Incentive Motivation in Dependence of the Taq1A-Polymorphism: Molecular Genetic Associations of Early and Late Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Aisha J L; Wielpuetz, Catrin; Osinsky, Roman; Müller, Erik M; Grant, Phillip; Hennig, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Early and late event-related potential (ERP) responses, representing early subconscious and late motivational processes, were recorded for positive emotional words related to 'wanting' and 'liking', in dependence of the dopamine-related Taq1A genotype (ANKK1/DRD2). Research suggests that 'wanting' as opposed to 'liking' is related to dopaminergic processes. Therefore, it was hypothesized that risk allele carriers of the Taq1A polymorphism exhibit late ERP changes in reaction to words representing incentive motivation, i.e. 'wanting' (word categories 'lust' and 'anticipation'), but not to words representing 'liking' ('closeness'). Seventy-two male participants performed an emotional-word Stroop task during EEG recording and were genotyped according to the Taq1A polymorphism of ANKK1/DRD2. Positive emotional words related to anticipation and lust revealed blunted responses in the late positive potential (LPP) in carriers of the A1 allele, an effect absent in response to 'liking'-related words. These differences were not evident in the earlier posterior negativity (EPN). As no differences in dependence of the Taq1A genotype were observed in reaction to 'wanting'- and 'liking'-related words in the EPN, but merely in the LPP, it can be assumed that incentive-motivational stimuli only modify motivation-related ERP responses in carriers of the A1 allele of the Taq1A polymorphism, indicating the role of dopamine in late ERP components. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Propagation of temperature disturbances in bounded flows downstream of a nozzle block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, L.

    1979-12-01

    The early detection of cooling disturbances in a fuel element of a sodium cooled reactor is a must for safety reasons. One possibility of achieving this goal is by measuring and analyzing the coolant temperature at the fuel element outlet. Assessment of the potential of this method requires knowledge of the flow phenomena downstream of the fuel element. As a fluid dynamics model of a fuel element a nozzle block is used, the bores of which correspond to the subchannels between the fuel rods. The studies are conducted in water which has kinematic properties comparable to those of sodium. The velocity and temperature fields downstream of the nozzle block are examined for two REYNOLDS numbers. To simulate a disturbed cooling condition, water with a temperature higher by ΔT anti T = 10 K is injected through one subchannel of the nozzle block. At the same time, the volume injected is varied. The central channel and one side channel close to the wall are selected as injection sites. Statisticl analysis of the measured velocity and temperature signals covers the following parameters: Linear averages, intensities, probability densities, spectral power densities, autocorrelation functions, integral turbulence lengths, dissipation lengths, dissipation, skewness and flatness values. On the basis of FOURIER's differential equation of heat conduction a theoretical model is developed to describe both the average temperature field and the intensity field in the flow downstream of the nozzle block. Comparison of measurements and calculations furnishes good agreement and indicates that extrapolation of the model to sodium as a fluid is possible. Supplementary to the measurements and calculations details of the water test rig and the anemometer measuring system used for velocity and temperature measurements are shown in the Appendix. (orig.) 891 GL/orig. 892 KN [de

  4. Downstream Fining of Polydispersed Gravity Currents Along a V-Shaped Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, C. K.; Meriaux, C. A. M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Turbidity currents belong to the class of currents transporting sediments, whose deposits exhibit downstream grain size fining. In this study, the objective was to better understand the relationship between downstream fining and grain sizes at the source. To this end, we performed four lock-exchange experiments of polydispersed and turbulent gravity currents flowing along a 5-m long V-shaped valley. The particle volumetric concentrations were typically 3%. The four currents were made of 1) Silicon Carbide (SiC), 2) Glass Beads (GBs), 3) a combined poorly sorted SiC/GBs, and 4) a moderately sorted combined SiC/GBs. We used the Morphologi G3 tool developed by Malvern Instruments Corporate (Malvern Instruments Ltd, UK) for the grain size analyses. We first established a criterion for identifying the appropriate number of grain size classes nbclassfor characterizing the grain size distributions. We considered the four statistical indicators that are the arithmetic mean size dmean, the standard deviation σd, the skewness Skd, and the kurtosis Kd, and show that the four indicators for the initial grain size distributions reach plateaux when nb_class≥ 20. Hence we chose nbclass=20 as being our appropriate bin width. These four indicators were then calculated for samples taken along the deposits to establish the grain size distributions along the deposits. The subsequent profiles of dmean, σd, Skd, and Kd with distance from the lock show highly variable behaviours between the different initial distributions. In particular, the distance over which the loss of the largest grains of the initial distribution occurs [dmean> dmean(initial)], can cover up to half the runout length. Curiously, the different rates of fining estimated from the curves (dmean/ dmean(initial)) as a function of downstream distance (x/x_runout) do not appear to be well correlated with the sedimentation velocities based on dmean(initial). This is currently being investigated.

  5. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the downstream impact on schistosomiasis transmission following closure of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Gray

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC, with about 800,000 people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that, long-term, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes.We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages of the three transmission modes below the TGD across four provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei and Anhui to determine whether there was any immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission. Eight sentinel villages were selected to represent both province and transmission mode. The primary end point measured was human incidence. Here we present the results of this five-year longitudinal cohort study. Results showed that the incidence of human S. japonicum infection declined considerably within individual villages and overall mode over the course of the study. This is also reflected in the yearly odds ratios (adjusted for infection risk that showed significant (P<0.01 downward trends in all modes over the follow-up period.The decrease in human S. japonicum incidence observed across all transmission modes in this study can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ chemotherapy. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that there has been virtually no immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission downstream of the dam.

  6. Corrosion mechanisms downstream the nuclear cycle: from processing-recycling to transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbaud-Celerier, F.

    2010-01-01

    The author gives a detailed overview of his scientific and research activities in the field of material behaviour in environments met during the downstream part of the nuclear cycle. In the first part, he presents his works on material corrosion in concentrated and high temperature nitric acid, and more particularly on the phenomenon which governs this corrosion: the nitric acid reduction mechanism. In the second part, he reports researches performed within the frame of hybrid reactor development for the processing of future fuels. In both parts, he also discusses the perspectives for new researches and developments

  7. Advances in downstream processing of biologics - Spectroscopy: An emerging process analytical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdt, Matthias; Briskot, Till; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2017-03-24

    Process analytical technologies (PAT) for the manufacturing of biologics have drawn increased interest in the last decade. Besides being encouraged by the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) PAT initiative, PAT promises to improve process understanding, reduce overall production costs and help to implement continuous manufacturing. This article focuses on spectroscopic tools for PAT in downstream processing (DSP). Recent advances and future perspectives will be reviewed. In order to exploit the full potential of gathered data, chemometric tools are widely used for the evaluation of complex spectroscopic information. Thus, an introduction into the field will be given. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, A.; Den Haan, K.H.

    2010-10-01

    The sixteenth such report by CONCAWE, this issue includes statistics on workrelated personal injuries for the European downstream oil industry's own employees as well as contractors for the year 2009. Data were received from 33 companies representing more than 97% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last sixteen years are highlighted and the data are also compared to similar statistics from related industries. In addition, this report presents the results of the first Process Safety Performance Indicator data gathering exercise amongst the CONCAWE membership.

  9. Downstream process for production of a viable and stable Bacillus cereus aquaculture biological agent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lalloo, R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available , 604 Robertson JL (1998) The use of probiotics in the diet of dogs. 605 J Nutri 128:2730S–2732S 606 Brar SK, Verma M, Tyagi RD, Valéro JR (2006) Recent advances in 607 downstream processing and formulations of Bacillus thuringien- 608 sis based..., Menasveta P (2000) Some recent issues and innovations in 630 marine shrimp pond culture. Rev Fish Sci 8:151–233 631 Gatesoupe FJ (1999) The use of probiotics in aquaculture. Aquacul- 632 ture 180:147–165 633 Guetsky R, Shtienberg Y, Elad Y, Fischer E...

  10. Particle collection by a pilot plant venturi scrubber downstream from a pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L. E.; Ramsey, G. H.; Daniel, B. E.

    The results of pilot plant experiments of particulate collection by a venturi scrubber downstream from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are presented. The data, which cover a range of scrubber operating conditions and ESP efficiencies, show that particle collection by the venturi scrubber is not affected by the upstream ESP; i.e., for a given scrubber pressure drop, particle collection efficiency as a function of particle diameter is the same for both ESP on and ESP off. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Order of magnitude cost estimates indicate that particle collection by ESP scrubber systems may be economically attractive when scrubbers must be used for SO x control.

  11. Downstream natural gas in Europe - high hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, P.O.

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors. [Author

  12. Price rigidity in the downstream petroleum industry in New Zealand. Where does it happen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpachitra, Sarath B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the downstream petroleum product market in New Zealand using multivariate error correction models. The unique feature of these models is the use of actual weekly wholesale and retail prices of diesel and unleaded petrol to measure the relative rigidity of domestic prices. The results suggest that price adjustments in domestic markets in response to price changes in world crude oil markets and refined product markets are very weak. Domestic wholesale prices appear to be the key variable in determining retail prices. Lack of competition in the wholesale sector is found to be the main reason for weak price adjustments

  13. Price rigidity in the downstream petroleum industry in New Zealand: where does it happen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpachitra, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the downstream petroleum product market in New Zealand using multivariate error correction models. The unique feature of these models is the use of actual weekly wholesale and retail prices of diesel and unleaded petrol to measure the relative rigidity of domestic prices. The results suggest that price adjustments in domestic markets in response to price changes in world crude oil markets and refined product markets are very weak. Domestic wholesale prices appear to be the key variable in determining retail prices. Lack of competition in the wholesale sector is found to be the main reason for weak price adjustments. (author)

  14. Downstream natural gas in Europe-High hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors

  15. Production of structured lipids: acyl migration during enzymatic interesterification and downstream processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    1997-01-01

    Production of structured lipids by lipase-catalyzed interesterification attracts great interests recently. Structured lipids are defined, in this article, as triacylglycerols which contain both medium or short chain fatty acids and long chain fatty acids, each groups locating specifically in the sn......-2 position or sn-1,3 positions of glycerol backbone. These kinds of lipids are reported to be promising for both enteral and parenteral nutrition. However, acyl migration occurs in the reaction stage and downstream purification process. This side-reaction causes by-products which are harmful...

  16. Molecular Mechanisms and New Treatment Paradigm for Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirish, Padmini; Li, Ning; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Lianguo; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Ma, Sin Mei; Lee, Jeong Han; Su, Demetria; Lau, Victor C; Myers, Richard E; Lieu, Deborah K; López, Javier E; Young, J Nilas; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Haj, Fawaz; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Hammock, Bruce D; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2016-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation represents the most common arrhythmia leading to increased morbidity and mortality, yet, current treatment strategies have proven inadequate. Conventional treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs carries a high risk for proarrhythmias. The soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of anti-inflammatory epoxy fatty acids, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids from arachidonic acid to the corresponding proinflammatory diols. Therefore, the goal of the study is to directly test the hypotheses that inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme can result in an increase in the levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, leading to the attenuation of atrial structural and electric remodeling and the prevention of atrial fibrillation. For the first time, we report findings that inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase reduces inflammation, oxidative stress, atrial structural, and electric remodeling. Treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor significantly reduces the activation of key inflammatory signaling molecules, including the transcription factor nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and transforming growth factor-β. This study provides insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to atrial fibrillation by inflammation and represents a paradigm shift from conventional antiarrhythmic drugs, which block downstream events to a novel upstream therapeutic target by counteracting the inflammatory processes in atrial fibrillation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Event-by-Event Observables and Fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    In this talk the status and open questions of the phenomenological description of all the stages of a heavy ion reaction are highlighted. Special emphasis is put on event-by-event fluctuations and associated observables. The first part is concentrated on high RHIC and LHC energies and the second part reviews the challenges for modeling heavy ion reactions at lower beam energies in a more realistic fashion. Overall, the main conclusion is that sophisticated theoretical dynamical approaches that describe many observables in the same framework are essential for the quantitative understanding of the properties of hot and dense nuclear matter

  18. The Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor GPR17 Negatively Regulates Oligodendrocyte Differentiation via Gαi/o and Its Downstream Effector Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Katharina; Hennen, Stephanie; Merten, Nicole; Blättermann, Stefanie; Gillard, Michel; Kostenis, Evi; Gomeza, Jesus

    2016-01-08

    Recent studies have recognized G protein-coupled receptors as important regulators of oligodendrocyte development. GPR17, in particular, is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that has been identified as oligodendroglial maturation inhibitor because its stimulation arrests primary mouse oligodendrocytes at a less differentiated stage. However, the intracellular signaling effectors transducing its activation remain poorly understood. Here, we use Oli-neu cells, an immortalized cell line derived from primary murine oligodendrocytes, and primary rat oligodendrocyte cultures as model systems to identify molecular targets that link cell surface GPR17 to oligodendrocyte maturation blockade. We demonstrate that stimulation of GPR17 by the small molecule agonist MDL29,951 (2-carboxy-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-3-propionic acid) decreases myelin basic protein expression levels mainly by triggering the Gαi/o signaling pathway, which in turn leads to reduced activity of the downstream cascade adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). In addition, we show that GPR17 activation also diminishes myelin basic protein abundance by lessening stimulation of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), thus uncovering a previously unrecognized role for EPAC to regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation. Together, our data establish PKA and EPAC as key downstream effectors of GPR17 that inhibit oligodendrocyte maturation. We envisage that treatments augmenting PKA and/or EPAC activity represent a beneficial approach for therapeutic enhancement of remyelination in those demyelinating diseases where GPR17 is highly expressed, such as multiple sclerosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Bioassays with caged hyalella azteca to determine in situ toxicity downstream of two Saskatchewan, Canada, uranium operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Erin L; Liber, Karsten

    2007-11-01

    The main objectives of this in situ study were to evaluate the usefulness of an in situ bioassay to determine if downstream water bodies at the Key Lake and Rabbit Lake uranium operations (Saskatchewan, Canada) were toxic to Hyalella azteca and, if toxicity was observed, to differentiate between the contribution of surface water and sediment contamination to in situ toxicity. These objectives were achieved by performing 4-d in situ bioassays with laboratory-reared H. azteca confined in specially designed, paired, surface water and sediment exposure chambers. Results from the in situ bioassays revealed significant mortality, relative to the respective reference site, at the exposure sites at both Key Lake (p event that was caused by a problem with the mill's solvent extraction process. The suspected cause of in situ toxicity to H. azteca at Rabbit Lake was high levels of uranium in surface water, sediment, and pore water.

  20. Fate of high loads of ammonia in a pond and wetland downstream from a hazardous waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrofello, Michele; Durant, John L

    2007-07-01

    Halls Brook (eastern Massachusetts, USA) is a significant source of total dissolved ammonia (sum of NH(3) and NH(4)(+); (NH(3))(T)) to the Aberjona River, a water body listed for NH(3) impairment on the Clean Water Act section 303(d) list. We hypothesized (1) that (NH(3))(T) in Halls Brook derived from a hazardous waste site via groundwater discharging to a two-basin pond that feeds the brook; and (2) that transport of (NH(3))(T) to the Aberjona River was controlled by lacustrine and wetland processes. To test these hypotheses we measured (NH(3))(T) levels in the brook, the pond, and a wetlands directly downstream of the pond during both dry and wet weather over a ten month period. In addition, we analyzed sediment cores and nitrogen isotopes, and performed mass balance calculations. Groundwater discharge from beneath the hazardous waste site was the major source of (NH(3))(T) (20-67 kg d(-1)) and salinity to the north basin of the pond. The salty bottom waters of the north basin were anoxic on all sampling dates, and exhibited relatively stable (NH(3))(T) concentrations between 200 and 600 mg Nl(-1). These levels were >100-times higher than typical background levels, and 8-24-times above the acute effects level for (NH(3))(T) toxicity. Bottom waters from the north basin continuously spill over into the south basin contributing approximately 50% of the (NH(3))(T) load entering this basin. The remainder comes from Halls Brook, which receives (NH(3))(T) loadings from as yet unknown sources upstream. During storm events up to 50% of the mass of (NH(3))(T) was flushed from the south basin and into the wetlands. The wetlands acted as a (NH(3))(T) sink in dry weather in the growing season and a discharge-dependent (NH(3))(T) source to the Aberjona River during rainstorms.

  1. Diet, lifestyle, and molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors have been repeatedly implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer, and much is known about the molecular events involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The relationships between environmental risk factors and the molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis are

  2. Distribution of Artificial Radioisotopes in Granulometric and Organic Fractions of Alluvial Soils Downstream the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobova, Elena M.; Linnik, Vitaly G. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, 117991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brown, Justin E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    A study of some artificial radionuclides discharged by the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) in different granulometric and organic fractions of alluvial soils was performed in the near and remote impact zones of the enterprise. Radionuclides were shown to concentrate in fine fractions enriched in hydro-mica and smectites. However in natural conditions the dominating size fraction associated with radionuclide accumulation at the study sites appeared to be made up of silt (0.010 mm) to clay (0.001 mm) sizes. Therefore due to radionuclide sorption and natural aggregation the peaks of a relatively high radionuclide mass accumulation were associated with three granulometric fractions: <0.001 mm, 0.063-0.010 mm and 0.25-0.125 mm. Soil granulometry was shown to reflect specificity of sedimentation at different landscape positions downstream from the KMCC. At the Balchug site a coarser fraction was accumulated close to the channel while finer fractions are deposited at a higher level. The portion of the clay fraction corresponded to the elevation level increasing from the river bank to the terrace. At the Mikhin Island the tendency was different. A coarser fraction was deposited on higher levels while the portion of clay fraction was at a minimum compared to the lower levels. To study the relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations and organic matter content, selected soil samples were subjected to extraction of the humic and fulvic acid fractions with a subsequent determination of radionuclides in the separated phases and the residue component. The air-dry sample was saturated with 0.1 M NaOH, humic acid was precipitated by 1 M HCl at pH=1. The separation resulted in three fractions of the fulvic acids, humic acids, and the residue containing the denuded mineral phase and the refractory organic residue. Radionuclides measured in the first fraction were believed to be the most mobile, those in the second fraction - subjected to the complexation

  3. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  4. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  5. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Identifying jet quantum numbers event by event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    A method is proposed to identify the parton that gives rise to any particular jet. The method improves with the number of particles in the jet, and should indicate which of the jets in a three jet event at PETRA is the gluon jet. (author)

  7. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panizzo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe, are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy, generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.  

  8. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  9. Learning and Memory, Part II: Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombroso, Paul; Ogren, Marilee

    2009-01-01

    The molecular events that are responsible for strengthening synaptic connections and how these are linked to memory and learning are discussed. The laboratory preparations that allow the investigation of these events are also described.

  10. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Glucotoxicity and Tumorigenesis Downstream the Renal Proximal Tubule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinat, Romina; Nualart, Francisco; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    At present, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Effective glycaemic management is the most powerful tool to delay the establishment of diabetic complications, such as diabetic kidney disease. Together with reducing blood glucose levels, new anti-diabetic agents are expected not only to control the progression but also to restore known defects of the diabetic kidney. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are promising anti-diabetic agents that reduce hyperglycaemia by impairing glucose reabsorption in proximal tubule of the kidney and increasing glucosuria. SGLT2 inhibitors have shown to reduce glucotoxicity in isolated proximal tubule cells and also to attenuate expression of markers of overall kidney damage in experimental animal models of diabetes, but the actual renoprotective effect for downstream nephron segments is still unknown and deserves further attention. Here, we briefly discuss possible undesired effects of enhanced glucosuria and albuminuria in nephron segments beyond the proximal tubule after SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, offering new lines of research to further understand the renoprotective action of these anti-diabetic agents. Strategies blocking glucose reabsorption by renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) may be protective for RPTEC, but downstream nephron segments will still be exposed to high glucose and albumin levels through the luminal face. The actual effect of constant enhanced glucosuria over distal nephron segments remains to be established. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1635-1637, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 pleckstrin homology domain functions in downstream signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, I; Kovacina, K S; Roth, R A

    2001-03-16

    The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) plays a role in directing this molecule to the insulin receptor, thereby regulating its tyrosine phosphorylation. In this work, the role of the PH domain in subsequent signaling was studied by constructing constitutively active forms of IRS-1 in which the inter-SH2 domain of the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was fused to portions of the IRS-1 molecule. Chimeric molecules containing the PH domain were found to activate the downstream response of stimulating the Ser/Thr kinase Akt. A chimera containing point mutations in the PH domain that abolished the ability of this domain to bind phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate prevented these molecules from activating Akt. These mutations also decreased by about 70% the amount of the constructs present in a particulate fraction of the cells. These results indicate that the PH domain of IRS-1, in addition to directing this protein to the receptor for tyrosine phosphorylation, functions in the ability of this molecule to stimulate subsequent responses. Thus, compromising the function of the PH domain, e.g. in insulin-resistant states, could decrease both the ability of IRS-1 to be tyrosine phosphorylated by the insulin receptor and to link to subsequent downstream targets.

  12. Longitudinal distribution of Chironomidae (Diptera) downstream from a dam in a neotropical river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinha, G D; Aviz, D; Lopes Filho, D R; Petsch, D K; Marchese, M R; Takeda, A M

    2013-08-01

    The damming of a river causes dangerous consequences on structure of the environment downstream of the dam, modifying the sediment composition, which impose major adjustments in longitudinal distribution of benthic community. The construction of Engenheiro Sérgio Motta Dam in the Upper Paraná River has caused impacts on the aquatic communities, which are not yet fully known. This work aimed to provide more information about the effects of this impoundment on the structure of Chironomidae larvae assemblage. The analysis of data of physical and chemical variables in relation to biological data of 8 longitudinal sections in the Upper Paraná River showed that composition of Chironomidae larvae of stations near Engenheiro Sérgio Motta Dam differed of the other stations (farther of the Dam). The predominance of coarse sediments at stations upstream and finer sediments further downstream affected the choice of habitat by different morphotypes of Chironomidae and it caused a change in the structure of this assemblage in the longitudinal stretch.

  13. Discovery and characterization of novel vascular and hematopoietic genes downstream of etsrp in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Gomez

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Etsrp is required for vasculogenesis and primitive myelopoiesis in zebrafish. When ectopically expressed, etsrp is sufficient to induce the expression of many vascular and myeloid genes in zebrafish. The mammalian homolog of etsrp, ER71/Etv2, is also essential for vascular and hematopoietic development. To identify genes downstream of etsrp, gain-of-function experiments were performed for etsrp in zebrafish embryos followed by transcription profile analysis by microarray. Subsequent in vivo expression studies resulted in the identification of fourteen genes with blood and/or vascular expression, six of these being completely novel. Regulation of these genes by etsrp was confirmed by ectopic induction in etsrp overexpressing embryos and decreased expression in etsrp deficient embryos. Additional functional analysis of two newly discovered genes, hapln1b and sh3gl3, demonstrates their importance in embryonic vascular development. The results described here identify a group of genes downstream of etsrp likely to be critical for vascular and/or myeloid development.

  14. Pharmacological therapeutics targeting the secondary defects and downstream pathology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinazzola, Janelle M.; Kunkel, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since the identification of the dystrophin gene in 1986, a cure for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has yet to be discovered. Presently, there are a number of genetic-based therapies in development aimed at restoration and/or repair of the primary defect. However, growing understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of dystrophin absence has revealed several promising downstream targets for the development of therapeutics. Areas covered In this review, we discuss various strategies for DMD therapy targeting downstream consequences of dystrophin absence including loss of muscle mass, inflammation, fibrosis, calcium overload, oxidative stress, and ischemia. The rationale of each approach and the efficacy of drugs in preclinical and clinical studies are discussed. Expert opinion For the last 30 years, effective DMD drug therapy has been limited to corticosteroids, which are associated with a number of negative side effects. Our knowledge of the consequences of dystrophin absence that contribute to DMD pathology has revealed several potential therapeutic targets. Some of these approaches may have potential to improve or slow disease progression independently or in combination with genetic-based approaches. The applicability of these pharmacological therapies to DMD patients irrespective of their genetic mutation, as well as the potential benefits even for advanced stage patients warrants their continued investigation. PMID:28670506

  15. Evaluating Lignocellulosic Biomass, Its Derivatives, and Downstream Products with Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Gjersing, Erica; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The creation of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plants can aid in replacing products fabricated from non-renewable energy sources. Before using biomass in downstream applications, it must be characterized to assess chemical traits, such as cellulose, lignin, or lignin monomer content, or the sugars released following an acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The measurement of these traits allows researchers to gage the recalcitrance of the plants and develop efficient deconstruction strategies to maximize yields. Standard methods for assessing biomass phenotypes often have experimental protocols that limit their use for screening sizeable numbers of plant species. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive, non-invasive vibrational spectroscopy technique, is capable of providing qualitative, structural information and quantitative measurements. Applications of Raman spectroscopy have aided in alleviating the constraints of standard methods by coupling spectral data with multivariate analysis to construct models capable of predicting analytes. Hydrolysis and fermentation products, such as glucose and ethanol, can be quantified off-, at-, or on-line. Raman imaging has enabled researchers to develop a visual understanding of reactions, such as different pretreatment strategies, in real-time, while also providing integral chemical information. This review provides an overview of what Raman spectroscopy is, and how it has been applied to the analysis of whole lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream process monitoring. PMID:25941674

  16. Flow structure in the downstream of a square cylinder with different angles of incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Jamshidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparisons between flow fields for turbulent flow over square cylinder with two different angles of incidence in free stream at Reynolds number of Re = 3400. The present numerical results were obtained using a two-dimensional finite-volume code which solves governing equations. The pressure field was obtained with well known SIMPLE algorithm. The central difference scheme was employed for the discretization of convection and diffusion terms. The ν2 f and standard k - ε model were used for simulation of turbulent flow. Time averaged velocity, root mean square velocities and streamlines in the downstream of square cylinders are presented. A number of quantities such as Strouhal number, drag coefficient and the length of the wake are calculated for the case of angle of incidence α = 0°, 45° with two turbulent models. Strouhal number and the length of the wake are larger for the case of α = 45° because of the sharp corners in it which results in more diffusion of turbulence in the downstream of the cylinder. On the other hand, with comparison of results obtained by ν2 f and standard k - ε models with experiment, it is obvious that ν2 f leads to much more accurate results.

  17. Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90 0 sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions

  18. Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90/sup 0/ sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions.

  19. Rational design and optimization of downstream processes of virus particles for biopharmaceutical applications: current advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Tiago; Mota, José P B; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2011-01-01

    The advent of advanced therapies in the pharmaceutical industry has moved the spotlight into virus-like particles and viral vectors produced in cell culture holding great promise in a myriad of clinical targets, including cancer prophylaxis and treatment. Even though a couple of cases have reached the clinic, these products have yet to overcome a number of biological and technological challenges before broad utilization. Concerning the manufacturing processes, there is significant research focusing on the optimization of current cell culture systems and, more recently, on developing scalable downstream processes to generate material for pre-clinical and clinical trials. We review the current options for downstream processing of these complex biopharmaceuticals and underline current advances on knowledge-based toolboxes proposed for rational optimization of their processing. Rational tools developed to increase the yet scarce knowledge on the purification processes of complex biologicals are discussed as alternative to empirical, "black-boxed" based strategies classically used for process development. Innovative methodologies based on surface plasmon resonance, dynamic light scattering, scale-down high-throughput screening and mathematical modeling for supporting ion-exchange chromatography show great potential for a more efficient and cost-effective process design, optimization and equipment prototyping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the wake deflection downstream of a wind turbine in different atmospheric stabilities: an LES study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vollmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An intentional yaw misalignment of wind turbines is currently discussed as one possibility to increase the overall energy yield of wind farms. The idea behind this control is to decrease wake losses of downstream turbines by altering the wake trajectory of the controlled upwind turbines. For an application of such an operational control, precise knowledge about the inflow wind conditions, the magnitude of wake deflection by a yawed turbine and the propagation of the wake is crucial. The dependency of the wake deflection on the ambient wind conditions as well as the uncertainty of its trajectory are not sufficiently covered in current wind farm control models. In this study we analyze multiple sources that contribute to the uncertainty of the estimation of the wake deflection downstream of yawed wind turbines in different ambient wind conditions. We find that the wake shapes and the magnitude of deflection differ in the three evaluated atmospheric boundary layers of neutral, stable and unstable thermal stability. Uncertainty in the wake deflection estimation increases for smaller temporal averaging intervals. We also consider the choice of the method to define the wake center as a source of uncertainty as it modifies the result. The variance of the wake deflection estimation increases with decreasing atmospheric stability. Control of the wake position in a highly convective environment is therefore not recommended.

  1. Velocity and shear stress distribution downstream of mechanical heart valves in pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersiepen, M; Krause, U; Knott, E; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1989-04-01

    Ten mechanical valves (TAD 27 mm): Starr-Edwards Silastic Ball, Björk-Shiley Standard, Björk-Shiley Concave-Convex, Björk-Shiley Monostrut, Hall-Kaster (Medtronic-Hall), OmniCarbon, Bicer Val, Sorin, Saint-Jude Medical and Hemex (Duromedics) are investigated in a comparative in vitro study. The velocity and turbulent shear stress profiles of the valves were determined by Laser Doppler anemometry in two different downstream axes within a model aortic root. Depending on the individual valve design, velocity peaks up to 1.5 m/s and turbulent shear stress peaks up to 150 N/m2 were measured during the systolic phase. These shear stress peaks mainly occurred in areas of flow separation and intense momentum exchange. Directly downstream of the valves (measuring axis 0.55.dAorta) turbulent shear stress peaks occurred at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, while in the second measuring axis (1.5.dAorta) turbulence levels were lower. Shear stress levels were high at the borders of the fluid jets. The results are discussed from a fluid-dynamic point of view.

  2. Channel erosion in a rapidly urbanizing region of Tijuana, Mexico: Enlargement downstream of channel hardpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kristine; Biggs, Trent; Langendoen, Eddy; Castillo, Carlos; Gudiño, Napoleon; Yuan, Yongping; Liden, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Urban-induced erosion in Tijuana, Mexico, has led to excessive sediment deposition in the Tijuana Estuary in the United States. Urban areas in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, are characterized by much lower proportions of vegetation and impervious surfaces due to limited access to urban services such as road paving and landscaping, and larger proportions of exposed soils. In developing countries, traditional watershed scale variables such as impervious surfaces may not be good predictors of channel enlargement. In this research, we surveyed the stream channel network of an erodible tributary of the Tijuana River Watershed, Los Laureles Canyon, at 125 locations, including repeat surveys from 2008. Structure from Motion (SfM) and 3D photo-reconstruction techniques were used to create digital terrain models of stream reaches upstream and downstream of channel hardpoints. Channels are unstable downstream of hardpoints, with incision up to 2 meters and widening up to 12 meters. Coordinated channelization is essential to avoid piece-meal approaches that lead to channel degradation. Watershed impervious area is not a good predictor of channel erosion due to the overriding importance of hardpoints and likely to the high sediment supply from the unpaved roads which prevents channel erosion throughout the stream network.

  3. Downstream element determines RNase Y cleavage of the saePQRS operon in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincola, Gabriella; Wolz, Christiane

    2017-06-02

    In gram-positive bacteria, RNase J1, RNase J2 and RNase Y are thought to be major contributors to mRNA degradation and maturation. In Staphylococcus aureus, RNase Y activity is restricted to regulating the mRNA decay of only certain transcripts. Here the saePQRS operon was used as a model to analyze RNase Y specificity in living cells. A RNase Y cleavage site is located in an intergenic region between saeP and saeQ. This cleavage resulted in rapid degradation of the upstream fragment and stabilization of the downstream fragment. Thereby, the expression ratio of the different components of the operon was shifted towards saeRS, emphasizing the regulatory role of RNase Y activity. To assess cleavage specificity different regions surrounding the sae CS were cloned upstream of truncated gfp, and processing was analyzed in vivo using probes up- and downstream of CS. RNase Y cleavage was not determined by the cleavage site sequence. Instead a 24-bp double-stranded recognition structure was identified that was required to initiate cleavage 6 nt upstream. The results indicate that RNase Y activity is determined by secondary structure recognition determinants, which guide cleavage from a distance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Mixed reverse micelles facilitated downstream processing of lipase involving water-oil-water liquid emulsion membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowal, Saibal; Priyanka, B S; Rastogi, Navin K

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier work for the first time demonstrated that liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) containing reverse micelles could be successfully used for the downstream processing of lipase from Aspergillus niger. In the present work, we have attempted to increase the extraction and purification fold of lipase by using mixed reverse micelles (MRM) consisting of cationic and nonionic surfactants in LEM. It was basically prepared by addition of the internal aqueous phase solution to the organic phase followed by the redispersion of the emulsion in the feed phase containing enzyme, which resulted in globules of water-oil-water (WOW) emulsion for the extraction of lipase. The optimum conditions for maximum lipase recovery (100%) and purification fold (17.0-fold) were CTAB concentration 0.075 M, Tween 80 concentration 0.012 M, at stirring speed of 500 rpm, contact time 15 min, internal aqueous phase pH 7, feed pH 9, KCl concentration 1 M, NaCl concentration 0.1 M, and ratio of membrane emulsion to feed volume 1:1. Incorporation of the nonionic surfactant (e.g., Tween 80) resulted in remarkable improvement in the purification fold (3.1-17.0) of the lipase. LEM containing a mixture of nonionic and cationic surfactants can be successfully used for the enhancement in the activity recovery and purification fold during downstream processing of enzymes/proteins. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Isotope method to study the replenishment the lakes and downstream groundwater in Badain Jaran desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiansheng; Fan Zhechao; Gu Weizu; Zhao Xia; Wang Jiyang

    2003-01-01

    In the paper, the sources of spring water and well water of Qilian Mountain's north side, Longshou Mountain, Badain Jaran Desert, Gurinai, Guaizi Lake, and Ejina Basin are studied by the methods of environmental isotopes and water chemistry. The groundwater of downstream areas (such as Badain Jaran Desert) is found that it is recharged by the precipitation of Qilian Mountain, and the average recharge elevation is 3300 m. Lots of naked limestones layers exist at the mountaintop of Qilian Mountain. The snow water of Qilian Mountain melts and directly infiltrates into deep layer passing through karst stratum or Big Fault in Front of the Mountain, and directly recharges into Badain Jaran Desert and its downstream areas passing through Longshou Mountain. The calcareous cementation and travertine, found in the lakes of the desert, approve that the groundwater passed the limestone layer. Confined water recharges shallow aquifer by means of leakage. The groundwater recharge volume is six hundreds millions cubic meters per year by calculating the evaporation amount, and the age of confined groundwater is 20-30 years. (authors)

  6. Downstream plasma transport and metal ionization in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Liang; Szott, Matthew M.; McLain, Jake T.; Ruzic, David N.; Yu, He

    2014-01-01

    Downstream plasma transport and ionization processes in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron were studied. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of electron density (n e ) and temperature (T e ) were characterized with a 3D scanning triple Langmuir probe. Plasma expanded from the racetrack region into the downstream region, where a high n e peak was formed some time into the pulse-off period. The expansion speed and directionality towards the substrate increased with a stronger magnetic field (B), largely as a consequence of a larger potential drop in the bulk plasma region during a relatively slower sheath formation. The fraction of Cu ions in the deposition flux was measured on the substrate using a gridded energy analyzer. It increased with higher pulse voltage. With increased B field from 200 to 800 Gauss above racetrack, n e increased but the Cu ion fraction decreased from 42% to 16%. A comprehensive model was built, including the diffusion of as-sputtered Cu flux, the Cu ionization in the entire plasma region using the mapped n e and T e data, and ion extraction efficiency based on the measured plasma potential (V p ) distribution. The calculations matched the measurements and indicated the main causes of lower Cu ion fractions in stronger B fields to be the lower T e and inefficient ion extraction in a larger pre-sheath potential.

  7. Influence of Copper Ore Comminution in HPGR on Downstream Minerallurgical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saramak D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crushing processes taking place in high-pressure grinding rolls devices (HPGR are currently one of the most efficient methods of hard ore size reduction in terms of the energy consumption. The HPGR products are characterized by a fine particle size and the micro-cracks formation in individual particles, which appears in downstream grinding processes, decreasing their energy consumption. The purpose of the paper was to analyze the effectiveness of a ball mill grinding process and flotation operations depending on the changeable conditions of run of the HPGR crushing process. The research programme carried out included crushing tests in the laboratory scale HPGR device at various settings of the operating pressure volume and selected qualitative properties of the feed material (i.e. particle size distribution. On the basis of obtained results the models, defining the grinding process effectiveness as a function of changeable conditions of HPGR process run, were determined. Based on these models the optimal grinding time in a ball mill was specified which is, in turn, the basis for optimization of operation the technological comminution circuits for a given material type. The obtained results proved that the application of HPGR devices in given copper ore comminution circuit may improve the effectiveness of downstream grinding process what leads to improvement of the entire circuit work efficiency through decreasing the process energy consumption and enhancing the product size reduction.

  8. A reverse signaling pathway downstream of Sema4A controls cell migration via Scrib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianliang; Yang, Lida; Kaur, Harmandeep; Pestel, Jenny; Looso, Mario; Nolte, Hendrik; Krasel, Cornelius; Heil, Daniel; Krishnan, Ramesh K; Santoni, Marie-Josée; Borg, Jean-Paul; Bünemann, Moritz; Offermanns, Stefan; Swiercz, Jakub M; Worzfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-02

    Semaphorins comprise a large family of ligands that regulate key cellular functions through their receptors, plexins. In this study, we show that the transmembrane semaphorin 4A (Sema4A) can also function as a receptor, rather than a ligand, and transduce signals triggered by the binding of Plexin-B1 through reverse signaling. Functionally, reverse Sema4A signaling regulates the migration of various cancer cells as well as dendritic cells. By combining mass spectrometry analysis with small interfering RNA screening, we identify the polarity protein Scrib as a downstream effector of Sema4A. We further show that binding of Plexin-B1 to Sema4A promotes the interaction of Sema4A with Scrib, thereby removing Scrib from its complex with the Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor βPIX and decreasing the activity of the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1 and Cdc42. Our data unravel a role for Plexin-B1 as a ligand and Sema4A as a receptor and characterize a reverse signaling pathway downstream of Sema4A, which controls cell migration. © 2017 Sun et al.

  9. Isotopic study of the effect of Tarbela reservoir on the groundwater system in the downstream areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Tasneem, M.A.; Hussain, S.D.; Khan, I.H.; Ali, M.; Latif, Z.

    1994-04-01

    Isotopic studies were carried out on the right side of river Indus, downstream of Tarbela dam to study the effect of Tarbela Reservoir on the groundwater system. The main objectives of the study were to determine the hydraulic connection, if any, between the Tarbela Lake and the groundwater appearing in the ponds near Gadon Amazai, see the effect of Tarbela dam on the groundwater system in the downstream areas, compute the relative contribution of different recharge sources towards groundwater system and to estimate residence time of groundwater in the area. Isotopic data reveals that the ponds near Gadoon Amazai area are being recharged by local rains and there is no contribution of Tarbela lake. The area around Gadoon Amazai, Topi and Kalabat is solely recharged by local rains while the area around Swabi, Zaida and Lahor has mixed recharge with major contribution from local canal system. Tritium data suggests that the residence time of groundwater in the study area varies from a few years to 30 years. Te groundwater in the area has low dissolved salt contents and is, generally, of good quality. (author) 19 figs

  10. Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis V. Rodríguez-Durán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme.

  11. Novel strategies for upstream and downstream processing of tannin acyl hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme.

  12. Human muscle fibre type-specific regulation of AMPK and downstream targets by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dorte Enggaard; Albers, Peter Hjorth; Prats, Clara

    2015-01-01

    are expressed in a fibre type-dependent manner and that fibre type-specific activation of AMPK and downstream targets is dependent on exercise intensity. Pools of type I and II fibres were prepared from biopsies of m. vastus lateralis from healthy men before and after two exercise trials; A) continuous cycling......AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a regulator of energy homeostasis during exercise. Studies suggest muscle fibre type-specific AMPK expression. However, fibre type-specific regulation of AMPK and downstream targets during exercise has not been proven. We hypothesized that AMPK subunits...... (CON) 30 min at 69 ± 1% VO2peak or B) interval cycling (INT) 30 min with 6 × 1.5 min high-intense bouts peaking at 95 ± 2% VO2peak . In type I vs. II fibres a higher β1 AMPK (+215%) and lower γ3 AMPK expression (-71%) was found. α1 , α2 , β2 and γ1 AMPK expression was similar between fibre types...

  13. Featured collection introduction: Connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Laurie C.; Fritz, Ken M.; Schofield, Kate; Autrey, Bradley; DeMeester, Julie; Golden, Heather E.; Goodrich, David C.; Kepner, William G.; Kiperwas, Hadas R.; Lane, Charles R.; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Leibowitz, Scott; McManus, Michael G.; Pollard, Amina I.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Wigington, Parker J.

    2018-01-01

    Connectivity is a fundamental but highly dynamic property of watersheds. Variability in the types and degrees of aquatic ecosystem connectivity presents challenges for researchers and managers seeking to accurately quantify its effects on critical hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological processes. However, protecting natural gradients of connectivity is key to protecting the range of ecosystem services that aquatic ecosystems provide. In this featured collection, we review the available evidence on connections and functions by which streams and wetlands affect the integrity of downstream waters such as large rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries. The reviews in this collection focus on the types of waters whose protections under the U.S. Clean Water Act have been called into question by U.S. Supreme Court cases. We synthesize 40+ years of research on longitudinal, lateral, and vertical fluxes of energy, material, and biota between aquatic ecosystems included within the Act's frame of reference. Many questions about the roles of streams and wetlands in sustaining downstream water integrity can be answered from currently available literature, and emerging research is rapidly closing data gaps with exciting new insights into aquatic connectivity and function at local, watershed, and regional scales. Synthesis of foundational and emerging research is needed to support science‐based efforts to provide safe, reliable sources of fresh water for present and future generations.

  14. Environmental considerations in energy planning for the Amazon region: Downstream effects of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manyari, Waleska Valenca; de Carvalho, Osmar Abilio

    2007-01-01

    The most salient current feature of the electric energy sector in Brazil is the pressing need for expansion. In this context, the hydroelectric resources of the Amazon region are considered a competitive alternative despite the structural problems they entail. These include reliance of new investments and environmental restrictions. Concerning the latter, plans to build large-scale dams in the region have drawn criticism mainly on account of the loss of forest cover in areas flooded by dam reservoirs and the conflicts concerning the relocation of indigenous and riverside communities in the region. This article seeks to contribute to better understanding of the environmental issue in the Amazon by focusing attention on the downstream effects of dams, which have large-scale, hitherto neglected ecological repercussions. The impact of dams extends well beyond the area surrounding the artificial lakes they create, harming rich Amazon wetland ecosystems. The morphology of dammed rivers changes in response to new inputs of energy and matter, which may in turn destroy certain biotopes. This is a remote-sensing-based case study of the Tucurui hydroelectric scheme in the Amazon state of Para. Attention is drawn to the need to take into account effects on alluvial rivers downstream from hydroelectric power plants when it comes to making planning decisions, as part of a sustainable energy policy

  15. Comparison of Flow Structures in the Downstream Region of a Cylinder with Flexible Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekşin Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the details of flow structure to downstream of a circular cylinder mounted on a flat surface, in successive plan-view plane both in the boundary layer and up level region. The behavior of the flow in the wake of the bare cylinder and attached a flexible strip which has a 1400 N/mm2 modulus of elasticity vinyl PVC transperent film. The length of strip 240 mm (L/D=4 is investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter of 2500. The flow data downstream of the cylinder are presented using time-averaged velocity vector map, Vavg, streamline patterns, ψavg, vorticity contours, ωavg, and Reynolds stress correlations, u’u’ avg, v’v’ avg, u’v’ avg and rms velocity values. The locations of the peak values of Reynolds stress correlations and other data are also presented in both bare cylinder and attached body in order to determine the regions under high fluctuations. Another L/D ratios will be investigated in other experiments.

  16. Effect of boundary conditions on downstream vorticity from counter-rotating swirlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiye Huo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Particle image velocimetry (PIV is utilized to measure the non-reacting flow field in a reflow combustor with multiple and single swirlers. The velocity field, vortex structure and total vorticity levels are experimentally obtained using two different boundary conditions, representing a single confined swirler and multiple swirlers in an annular combustor. The influence of the boundary conditions on the flow field at several locations downstream of the swirlers is experimentally investigated, showing that the central vortex in the multi-swirler case is more concentrated than in the single-swirler case. The vorticity of the central vortex and average cross-sectional vorticity are relatively low at the swirler outlet in both cases. Both of these statistics gradually increase to the maximum values near 20 mm downstream of the swirler outlet, and subsequently decrease. It is also found that the central vortex in the multi-swirler case is consistently greater than the single-swirler case. These results demonstrate the critical influence of boundary conditions on flow characteristic of swirling flow, providing insight into the difference of the experiments on test-bed combustor and the full-scale annular combustors.

  17. General perspectives for molecular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging provides a visualization of normal as well as abnormal cellular processes at a molecular or genetic level rather than at an anatomical level. Conventional medical imaging methods utilize the imaging signals produced by nonspecific physico-chemical interaction. However, molecular imaging methods utilize the imaging signals derived from specific cellular or molecular events. Because molecular and genetic changes precede anatomical change in the course of disease development, molecular imaging can detect early events in disease progression. In the near future, through molecular imaging we can understand basic mechanisms of disease, and diagnose earlier and, subsequently, treat earlier intractable disease such as cancer, neuro-degenerative diseases, and immunologic disorders. In beginning period, nuclear medicine started as a molecular imaging, and has had a leading role in the field of molecular imaging. But recently molecular imaging has been rapidly developed. Besides nuclear imaging, molecular imaging methods such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging are emerging. Each imaging modalities have their advantages and weaknesses. The opportunities from molecular imaging look bright. We should try nuclear medicine continues to have a leading role in molecular imaging

  18. Mechanisms of stabilization and blowoff of a premixed flame downstream of a heat-conducting perforated plate

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the flame stabilization mechanism and the conditions leading to the blowoff of a laminar premixed flame anchored downstream of a heat-conducting perforated-plate/multi-hole burner, with overall nearly

  19. A coupled modelling effort to study the fate of contaminated sediments downstream of the Coles Hill deposit, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Castro-Bolinaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results of a coupled modelling effort to study the fate of tailings (radioactive waste-by product downstream of the Coles Hill uranium deposit located in Virginia, USA. The implementation of the overall modelling process includes a one-dimensional hydraulic model to qualitatively characterize the sediment transport process under severe flooding conditions downstream of the potential mining site, a two-dimensional ANSYS Fluent model to simulate the release of tailings from a containment cell located partially above the local ground surface into the nearby streams, and a one-dimensional finite-volume sediment transport model to examine the propagation of a tailings sediment pulse in the river network located downstream. The findings of this investigation aim to assist in estimating the potential impacts that tailings would have if they were transported into rivers and reservoirs located downstream of the Coles Hill deposit that serve as municipal drinking water supplies.

  20. The Impact of Impoundment on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fish Downstream from a Newly Constructed Reservoir, Wujiang River, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixin; Zhou, Lianfeng; Chang, Jianbo; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Juxiang; Hongjun, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Mercury concentrations in fish were investigated downstream from a newly impounded subtropical reservoir in August 2008. After 6-7 months of reservoir impoundment, mean mercury concentration in fish from downstream is significantly increased by 1.9 times. Not only carnivorous fish but also benthic fish had significantly higher total mercury concentrations than others. No significant correlation was found between total mercury concentrations and body length or weight of 13 fish species. Compared with the pre-impoundment, total mercury in fish from downstream is significantly increased by reservoir impoundment, but the increased rate is lower than those in subarctic and temperate areas. Fish samples surpassed the Chinese hygienic standard for tolerances of mercury in foods increased by 4.3%. More attention should be given to fish mercury levels from downstream sites to prevent possible adverse effects on the health of local people.

  1. WHAT GOES UP MUST COME DOWN: A LAGRANGIAN STUDY OF POTENTIAL CHEMICAL IDICATORS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION DOWNSTREAM FROM WASTEWATER PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In earlier studies, we have determined that pharmaceuticals and other compounds found in household wastewater (such as surfactants, disinfectants, and scenting agents) are present in the effluent from wastewater treatment plants, and persist downstream from the facilities. To ob...

  2. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  3. Long-Term Downstream Effects of a Dam on a Lowland River Flow Regime: Case Study of the Upper Narew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Marcinkowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most European riverine ecosystems suffer from the negative influence of impoundments on flow regime. Downstream effects of dams lead to a number of environmental and socioeconomic risks and, therefore, should be thoroughly examined in specific contexts. Our study aims to quantify the downstream effects of the Siemianówka Reservoir (Upper Narew, Poland, using statistical analysis of key elements of the river’s flow regime, such as the flow duration and recurrence of floods and droughts. In a comparative study on control catchments not influenced by impoundments (the Supraśl and Narewka Rivers, we revealed the following downstream effects of the analyzed dam: significant shortening of spring floods, reduction of the duration and depth of summer droughts, decrease of the maximum discharge, and homogenization of the discharge hydrographs. Although we determined a significant decrease in the duration of summer floods in the “before” and “after” dam function periods, we showed that this issue is regional, climate-related, and replicated in control catchments, rather than an evident downstream effect of the dam. We conclude that significant hydrological downstream effects of the Siemianówka dam–reservoir system could have been the main driver inducing the deterioration of the anastomosing stretch of the Narew River downstream of the dam.

  4. Downstream reduction of rural channel size with contrasting urban effects in small coastal streams of southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, G. C.; Young, R. W.

    1981-07-01

    Although most streams show a downstream increase in channel size corresponding to a downstream increase in flood discharges, those flowing off the Illawarra escarpment of New South Wales show a marked reduction of channel size, accompanied by a down-stream increase in flood frequency in their lower reaches. Within the confined and steeply sloping valleys of the escarpment foothills, bed and bank sediments are relatively coarse and uncohesive, and channels increase in size, corresponding to increasing discharge downstream. However, once these streams emerge into more open rural valleys at lower slopes and are accompanied by extensive floodplains formed of fine cohesive sediment, there is a dramatic reduction in channel size. This decrease in channel size apparently results from a sudden decline in channel slope and associated stream power, the cohesive nature of downstream alluvium, its retention on the channel banks by a dense cover of pasture grasses, and the availability of an extensive floodplain to carry displaced floodwater. Under these conditions floodwaters very frequently spill out over the floodplain and the downstream channel-flow becomes a relatively unimportant component of the total peak discharge. This emphasizes the importance of these floodplains as a part of the total channel system. In situations where urban development has increased peak runoff and reduced the available area of effective floodplain, stream channels formed in this fine alluvium rapidly entrench and increase in cross-sectional area by 2-3 times. Minor man-induced channel alteration and maintenance appears to trigger this enlargement.

  5. The Effects of Dams on Downstream Channel Characteristics in Pennsylvania and Maryland: Assessing the Potential Consequences of Dam Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K. J.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Jenkins, P.

    2003-12-01

    The potential downstream effects of dam removal were assessed on fifteen sites of varying dam size and characteristics in Pennsylvania and Maryland. The dams ranged in size from a 30 cm high fish weir to a water supply dam 57 m high. Stream order ranged from 1 to 4. The dams are located in watersheds with varying degrees of human disturbance and urbanization. The dams are also operated differently, with significant consequences for hydraulic residence time and downstream flow variability. Most streams were alluvial, but 6 of the reaches were clearly bedrock channels. We hypothesize that the channel upstream, which is unaffected by the dam, will provide an accurate model for the channel downstream of the dam long after dam removal. Therefore, reaches upstream and downstream of the dam were compared to determine the effects of the dam as well as the condition of the stream that will ultimately develop decades after dam removal. Surprisingly, the dams had no consistent influence on channel morphology. However, the percentage of sand is significantly lower downstream than upstream: the mean % sand downstream is 11.47%, while the mean % sand upstream is 21.39%. The coarser fractions of the bed, as represented by the 84th percentile grain diameter, are unaffected by the presence of the dam. These results imply that decades after dam removal, the percentage of sand on the bed will increase, but the coarse fraction of the bed will remain relatively unchanged.

  6. Seasonal Changes and Spatial Variation in Water Quality of a Large Young Tropical Reservoir and Its Downstream River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the water quality of the large young tropical Bakun hydroelectric reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia, and the influence of the outflow on the downstream river during wet and dry seasons. Water quality was determined at five stations in the reservoir at three different depths and one downstream station. The results show that seasons impacted the water quality of the Bakun Reservoir, particularly in the deeper water column. Significantly lower turbidity, SRP, and TP were found during the wet season. At 3–6 m, the oxygen content fell below 5 mg/L and hypoxia was also recorded. Low NO2--N, NO3--N, and SRP and high BOD5, OKN, and TP were observed in the reservoir indicating organic pollution. Active logging activities and the dam construction upstream resulted in water quality deterioration. The outflow decreased the temperature, DO, and pH and increased the turbidity and TSS downstream. Elevated organic matter and nutrients downstream are attributable to domestic discharge along the river. This study shows that the downstream river was affected by the discharge through the turbines, the spillway operations, and domestic waste. Therefore, all these factors should be taken into consideration in the downstream river management for the health of the aquatic organisms.

  7. Phosphorus Dynamics along River Continuum during Typhoon Storm Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Fai Chow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on riverine phosphorus (P dynamics during typhoon storm events remains scarce in subtropical regions. Thus, this study investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of riverine phosphorus in a headwater catchment during three typhoon events. Continuous sampling (3 h intervals of stormwater samples and discharge data were conducted at five locations, which represent the upstream, transitional zone, and downstream areas of the main inflow river. The results revealed that the average event mean concentrations (EMCs for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP and particulate phosphorus (PP in the upstream catchment of Fei-Tsui reservoir were 15.66 μg/L and 11.94 μg/L, respectively. There was at least a 1.3-fold increase in flow-weighted concentrations of TDP and PP from the upper to lower reaches of the main stream. PP and TDP were transported either in clockwise or anticlockwise directions, depending on storm intensity and source. The transport of TDP was primarily regulated by the subsurface flow during the storm event. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP contributes more than 50% of the TDP load in moderate storms, while extreme storms supply a greater dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP load into the stream. TDP accounted for approximately 50% of TP load during typhoon storms. Mobilization of all P forms was observed from upstream to downstream of the river, except for DOP. A decrease of DOP load on passing downstream may reflect the change in phosphorus form along the river continuum. Peak discharge and antecedent dry days are correlated positively with P fluxes, indicating that river bank erosion and re-suspension of within-channel sediment are the dominant pathways of P during typhoon storm periods.

  8. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  9. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. King

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report

  10. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  11. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.J.; MacMurdy, P.H.

    1980-12-01

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  12. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  13. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA)

  14. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  15. Economic valuation of the downstream hydrological effects of land use change: Large hydroelectric reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Bruce Allan

    1998-12-01

    Land use change that accompanies economic development and population growth is intended to raise the economic productivity of land. An inevitable by product of this process is the alteration of natural vegetation and downstream hydrological function. This dissertation explores hydrological externalities of land use change in detail, particularly with regard to their economic impact on large hydroelectric reservoirs (LHRs). A review of the linkages between land use, hydrological function and downstream economic activity suggests that on theoretical grounds the net welfare effect of land use change on hydrological function will be indeterminate. Review of the literature suggests that, though the effects of downstream sedimentation will typically be negative, they may often be of little practical significance. The literature on water quantity impacts is sparse at best. This is most surprising in the case of the literature on LHRs where the potentially important and positive effects of increased water yield are typically ignored in favor of simplistic efforts to document the negative effects of reservoir sedimentation. In order to improve the methodological basis for the economic valuation of hydrological externalities, the dissertation considers existing techniques for the evaluation of non-marketed goods and services, clarifying the manner in which they have been and, in the future, may be applied to the topic at hand. A deterministic simulation model is then constructed for the case of LHRs. The model incorporates the effect of changes in water yield, the seasonal pattern of water yield and sedimentation of live and dead storage volumes as they affect reservoir operation and the production of hydroelectricity. The welfare effects of changes in the productivity of the LHR in the short run and changes to the power system expansion plan in the long run are evaluated using the marginal opportunity costs of alternative power sources and power plants, respectively. A case

  16. Headwater Stream Management Dichotomies: Local Amphibian Habitat vs. Downstream Fish Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. R.

    2002-12-01

    Small headwater streams in mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest often do not harbor fish populations because of low water depth and high gradients. Rather, these streams provide habitat for dense assemblages of stream-dwelling amphibians. A variety of management goals have been suggested for such streams such as encouraging large woody debris recruitment to assist in sediment trapping and valley floor formation, encouraging large woody debris recruitment to provide downstream wood when debris flows occur, providing continuous linear stream buffers within forest harvest areas to provide shade and bank stability, etc. A basic problem with analying the geomorphic or biotic benefits of any of these strategies is the lack of explicit management goals for such streams. Should managers strive to optimize downstream fish habitat, local amphibian habitat, or both? Through observational data and theoretical considerations, it will be shown that these biotic goals will lead to very different geomorphic management recommendations. For instance, woody debris greater than 60 cm diameter may assist in valley floor development, but it is likely to create subsurface channel flow of unknown value to amphibians. Trapping and retention of fine sediments within headwater streams may improve downstream spawning gravels, but degrades stream-dwelling amphibian habitat. In response to the need for descriptive information on habitat and channel morphology specific to small, non-fish-bearing streams in the Pacific Northwest, morphologies and wood frequencies in forty-two first- and second-order forested streams less than four meters wide were surveyed. Frequencies and size distributions of woody debris were compared between small streams and larger fish-bearing streams as well as between second-growth and virgin timber streams. Statistical models were developed to explore dominant factors affecting channel morphology and habitat. Findings suggest geomorphological relationships

  17. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  18. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  19. Intermediate mass dimuon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.-G.

    1985-01-01

    We report the observation of 67 dimuon events at the CERN p anti p collider with the UA1 detector. The events will be interpreted in terms of the Drell-Yan mechanism, J/PSI and UPSILON decays and heavy flavour production. (author)

  20. The Blayais event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the main events occurred to the Blayais installation during the year 2000. For each events, the detailed chronology, the situation analysis, the crisis management and the public information are provided. Some recommendations are also provided by the nuclear safety authorities. (A.L.B.)

  1. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  2. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  3. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) plays an important role in food security and socio-economic development of the country. Being a low-lying coastal region, the VMD is particularly susceptible to both riverine and tidal floods, which provide, on (the) one hand, the basis for the rich agricultural production and the livelihood of the people, but on the other hand pose a considerable hazard depending on the severity of the floods. But despite of potentially hazardous flood, the area remain active as a rice granary due to its nutrient-rich soils and sediment input, and dense waterways, canals and the long standing experience of the population living with floods. In response to both farmers' requests and governmental plans, the construction of flood protection infrastructure in the delta progressed rapidly in the last twenty years, notably at areas prone to deep flooding, i.e. the Plain of Reeds (PoR) and Long Xuyen Quadrangle (LXQ). Triple rice cropping becomes possible in farmlands enclosed by "full-dykes", i.e. dykes strong and high enough to prevent flooding of the flood plains for most of the floods. In these protected flood plains rice can be grown even during the peak flood period (September to November). However, little is known about the possibly (and already alleged) negative impacts of this fully flood protection measure to downstream areas. This study aims at quantifying how the flood regime in the lower part of the VMD (e.g. Can Tho, My Thuan, …) has been changed in the last 2 recent "big flood" events of 2000 and 2011 due to the construction of the full-dyke system in the upper part. First, an evaluation of 35 years of daily water level data was performed in order to detect trends at key gauging stations: Kratie: upper boundary of the Delta, Tan Chau and Chau Doc: areas with full-dyke construction, Can Tho and My Thuan: downstream. Results from the Mann-Kendall (MK) test show a decreasing trend of the annual maximum water level at 3 stations Kratie, Tan

  4. Assessing geomorphic change along the Trinity River downstream from Lewiston Dam, California, 1980-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Wright, Scott A.; Minear, Justin T.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Trinity River Restoration Program, one of the nation’s largest adaptively managed river restoration programs, requires periodic assessment to determine the effectiveness of management actions in restoring channel dynamics and habitat features. This study documents riparian and channel changes along an intensively managed 65-kilometer reach of the Trinity River in California, downstream from Lewiston Dam. The two primary periods of interest, from 1980 to 2001 and from 2001 to 2011, are separated by a shift in restoration activities mandated by the U.S. Department of the Interior December 2000 Record of Decision. The post-2001 restoration strategy increased managed-flow releases, gravel augmentation, watershed restoration, and mechanical channel rehabilitation.

  5. Temperature field downstream of an heated bundle mock-up results for different power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J.P.; Buravand, Y.

    1982-10-01

    The aim of these peculiar experiments performed on the ML4 loop in ISPRA is to evaluate the characteristics of the temperature field over a length of 20 to 30 dias downstream of a rod bundle for different temperatures profiles at the bundle outlet. The final purpose of this work will be to establish either directly or through models whether it is possible or not to detect subassembly failures using suitable of the subassembly outlet temperature signal. 15 hours of digital and analog recording were taped for five different power distributions in the bundle. The total power dissipation remained constant during the whole run. Two flow rates and seven axial location were investigated. It is shown that the different temperature profiles produce slight differences in the variance and skewness of the temperature signal measured along the axis of the pipe over 20 dias

  6. The distribution of wall shear stress downstream of a change in roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J.B.R.; Sousa, F.B.C.C.; Zotin, J.L.Z.; Silva Freire, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, six different experimental techniques are used to characterize the non-equilibrium flow downstream of a rough-to-smooth step change in surface roughness. Over the rough surface, wall shear stress results obtained through the form drag and the Reynolds stress methods are shown to be mutually consistent. Over the smooth surface, reference wall shear stress data is obtained through two optical methods: linear velocity profiles obtained through laser-Doppler anemometry and a sensor surface, the diverging fringe Doppler sensor. The work shows that the two most commonly used methods to determine the wall shear stress, the log-law gradient method and the Reynolds shear stress method, are completely inappropriate in the developing flow region. Preston tubes, on the other hand, are shown to perform well in the region of a non-equilibrium flow.

  7. Systems-wide analysis of BCR signalosomes and downstream phosphorylation and ubiquitylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satpathy, Shankha; Wagner, Sebastian A; Beli, Petra

    2015-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for the development and function of B cells; however, the spectrum of proteins involved in BCR signaling is not fully known. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to monitor the dynamics of BCR signaling complexes (signalosomes......) and to investigate the dynamics of downstream phosphorylation and ubiquitylation signaling. We identify most of the previously known components of BCR signaling, as well as many proteins that have not yet been implicated in this system. BCR activation leads to rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitylation...... of the receptor-proximal signaling components, many of which are co-regulated by both the modifications. We illustrate the power of multilayered proteomic analyses for discovering novel BCR signaling components by demonstrating that BCR-induced phosphorylation of RAB7A at S72 prevents its association...

  8. Estimating the waiting time of multi-priority emergency patients with downstream blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Di; Patrick, Jonathan; Labeau, Fabrice

    2014-03-01

    To characterize the coupling effect between patient flow to access the emergency department (ED) and that to access the inpatient unit (IU), we develop a model with two connected queues: one upstream queue for the patient flow to access the ED and one downstream queue for the patient flow to access the IU. Building on this patient flow model, we employ queueing theory to estimate the average waiting time across patients. Using priority specific wait time targets, we further estimate the necessary number of ED and IU resources. Finally, we investigate how an alternative way of accessing ED (Fast Track) impacts the average waiting time of patients as well as the necessary number of ED/IU resources. This model as well as the analysis on patient flow can help the designer or manager of a hospital make decisions on the allocation of ED/IU resources in a hospital.

  9. Lateral Flow Field Behavior Downstream of Mixing Vanes In a Simulated Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, Michael E.; Smith, L. David III; Holloway, Mary V.; Beasley, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the fuel assembly performance of PWR nuclear fuel assemblies, average subchannel flow values are used in design analyses. However, for this highly complex flow, it is known that local conditions around fuel rods vary dependent upon the location of the fuel rod in the fuel assembly and upon the support grid design that maintains the fuel rod pitch. To investigate the local flow in a simulated nuclear fuel rod bundle, a testing technique has been employed to measure the lateral flow field in a 5 x 5 rod bundle. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to measure the lateral flow field downstream of a support grid with mixing vanes for four unique subchannels in the 5 x 5 bundle. The dominant lateral flow structures for each subchannel are compared in this paper including the decay of these flow structures. (authors)

  10. Wash functions downstream of Rho1 GTPase in a subset of Drosophila immune cell developmental migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboon, Jeffrey M.; Rahe, Travis K.; Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila immune cells, the hemocytes, undergo four stereotypical developmental migrations to populate the embryo, where they provide immune reconnoitering, as well as a number of non–immune-related functions necessary for proper embryogenesis. Here, we describe a role for Rho1 in one of these developmental migrations in which posteriorly located hemocytes migrate toward the head. This migration requires the interaction of Rho1 with its downstream effector Wash, a Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome family protein. Both Wash knockdown and a Rho1 transgene harboring a mutation that prevents Wash binding exhibit the same developmental migratory defect as Rho1 knockdown. Wash activates the Arp2/3 complex, whose activity is needed for this migration, whereas members of the WASH regulatory complex (SWIP, Strumpellin, and CCDC53) are not. Our results suggest a WASH complex–independent signaling pathway to regulate the cytoskeleton during a subset of hemocyte developmental migrations. PMID:25739458

  11. Prospects seen in problems of C.I.S. downstream sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.; Morgan, T.

    1992-01-01

    For good reasons the attention of Russian authorities and western investors has until now focused on problems of the upstream oil sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Sharp fall in output since the late 1980s. This article attempts to give a more balanced view of the industry by drawing attention to the problems and opportunities in the refining and distribution sector, where western companies are now beginning to invest, and comparing the investment opportunities with those in the upstream. It concludes that given recent experience of the high cost and practical difficulties of increasing crude output, it would make more commercial and economic sense to direct a higher proportion of the industry's investment into improving the effectiveness of the downstream sector

  12. LHC Asynchronous Beam Dump: Study of new TCDQ model and effects on downstream magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V

    2012-01-01

    An asynchronous beam dump is one of the most critical accidents the LHC could face. In the effort to have a better protection of the machine, and to increase the robustness of the protection device itself, new models for the TCDQ (Target Collimator Dump Quadrupole) have been proposed and are under evaluation. Within this frame we have performed FLUKA evaluation of the energy deposition on one of the proposed models and on the downstream quadrupoles, MQY.4R6 and MQY.5R6, in order to evaluate the protection provided by the proposed model. The results of our study are compared to a similar one for a different proposed model and are input for the evaluation of the heat load on the proposed collimator.

  13. Angiotensin II regulation of neuromodulation: downstream signaling mechanism from activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1996-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter genes in brain neurons; however, the signal-transduction mechanism is not clearly defined. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in Ang II stimulation of these genes. MAP kinase was localized in the perinuclear region of the neuronal soma. Ang II caused activation of MAP kinase and its subsequent translocation from the cytoplasmic to nuclear compartment, both effects being mediated by AT1 receptor subtype. Ang II also stimulated SRE- and AP1-binding activities and fos gene expression and its translocation in a MAP kinase-dependent process. These observations are the first demonstration of a downstream signaling pathway involving MAP kinase in Ang II-mediated neuromodulation in noradrenergic neurons.

  14. Independents in European Gas Markets after liberalisation - downstream integration of upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2005-01-01

    A central objective of gas market liberalisation in Europe in the 1990s was to increase competition by opening end-use markets for independent suppliers. Upstream oil and gas companies in Europe reacted to this opportunity by announcing strategies to integrate forward in European gas markets. By late 2004, however, upstream companies still recorded generally weak downstream strategy implementation in Europe. The article concludes that this general implementation gap should be explained by political failure in EU member states to abolish gas market barriers to entry for independents. Variation between companies in degree of implementation should be explained by variation in conditions in the companies' home markets / wider business spheres and internal company factors. (Author)

  15. Corporate Governance and Human Resource Management in Nigeria’s Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewunmi Olabode A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a ‘new world economy’ makes it imperative for corporate entities to adjust their corporate values, practices and internal processes. This paper explored the interrelatedness of selected corporate governance practices and human resource management outcomes. The paper relied on established corporate management theories as a platform for empirical consideration of selected issues relative to four established players in Nigeria’s downstream petroleum sector. A descriptive method was adopted and data was collected via a survey of 112 respondents. Contextual arguments were captured to achieve a robust appreciation of issues affecting individual participation and operations of corporate entities. The study found that there is a significant relationship between corporate governance practices and human resource management outcomes. Requisite conclusions and recommendations were provided in the light of empirical and theoretical findings.

  16. A theoretical study of mixing downstream of transverse injection into a supersonic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. J.; Zelazny, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical and analytical study was made of mixing downstream of transverse hydrogen injection, from single and multiple orifices, into a Mach 4 air boundary layer over a flat plate. Numerical solutions to the governing three-dimensional, elliptic boundary layer equations were obtained using a general purpose computer program. Founded upon a finite element solution algorithm. A prototype three-dimensional turbulent transport model was developed using mixing length theory in the wall region and the mass defect concept in the outer region. Excellent agreement between the computed flow field and experimental data for a jet/freestream dynamic pressure ratio of unity was obtained in the centerplane region of the single-jet configuration. Poorer agreement off centerplane suggests an inadequacy of the extrapolated two-dimensional turbulence model. Considerable improvement in off-centerplane computational agreement occured for a multi-jet configuration, using the same turbulent transport model.

  17. Plant GSK3 proteins regulate xylem cell differentiation downstream of TDIF-TDR signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuki; Ito, Tasuku; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Hirakawa, Yuki; Saito, Masato; Tamaki, Takayuki; Shirasu, Ken; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-03-01

    During plant radial growth typically seen in trees, procambial and cambial cells act as meristematic cells in the vascular system to self-proliferate and differentiate into xylem cells. These two processes are regulated by a signalling pathway composed of a peptide ligand and its receptor; tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor (TDIF) and TDIF RECEPTOR (TDR). Here we show that glycogen synthase kinase 3 proteins (GSK3s) are crucial downstream components of the TDIF signalling pathway suppressing xylem differentiation from procambial cells. TDR interacts with GSK3s at the plasma membrane and activates GSK3s in a TDIF-dependent fashion. Consistently, a specific inhibitor of plant GSK3s strongly induces xylem cell differentiation through BRI1-EMS SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1), a well-known target transcription factor of GSK3s. Our findings provide insight into the regulation of cell fate determination in meristem maintenance.

  18. A metabolic switch controls intestinal differentiation downstream of Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Imelda T; Delacruz, Richard Glenn C; Miller, Braden N; Hill, Shauna; Olson, Kristofor A; Gabriel, Ana E; Boyd, Kevin; Satterfield, Christeena; Remmen, Holly Van; Rutter, Jared; Jones, David A

    2017-04-11

    Elucidating signaling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism is essential for a better understanding of normal development and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) , a crucial player in pyruvate metabolism, is downregulated in colon adenocarcinomas. Utilizing zebrafish to examine the genetic relationship between MPC1 and Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a key tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, we found that apc controls the levels of mpc1 and that knock down of mpc1 recapitulates phenotypes of impaired apc function including failed intestinal differentiation. Exogenous human MPC1 RNA rescued failed intestinal differentiation in zebrafish models of apc deficiency. Our data demonstrate a novel role for apc in pyruvate metabolism and that pyruvate metabolism dictates intestinal cell fate and differentiation decisions downstream of apc .

  19. A mathematical model for erosion-corrosion downstream of an orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.M.

    1989-08-01

    In certain types of nuclear plant, the internal surfaces of the steel high-pressure boiler tubes become covered with magnetite. This normal growth of protective magnetite may, in unfavourable circumstances, be replaced by rapid attack on the tube wall. Particularly at risk are the regions downstream of the orifice plates commonly fitted near the boiler inlet. An attempt is made to construct a mathematical model for this erosion-corrosion which is considerably more complete than those available hitherto. A systematic synthesis is developed of the various aspects of the phenomenon, namely the mechanism of the topotactic oxidation at the interface between magnetite and metal, the kinetics of the electrode reactions at the magnetite/solution interface, the thermodynamics of magnetite solubility and the calculation of mass transfer in solution. With one choice of parameters and some simplification, the treatment reduces to the original theory of Bignold. (author)

  20. A Cdc42/RhoA regulatory circuit downstream of glycoprotein Ib guides transendothelial platelet biogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dütting, Sebastian; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frederique; Stegner, David

    2017-01-01

    Blood platelets are produced by large bone marrow (BM) precursor cells, megakaryocytes (MKs), which extend cytoplasmic protrusions (proplatelets) into BM sinusoids. The molecular cues that control MK polarization towards sinusoids and limit transendothelial crossing to proplatelets remain unknown...

  1. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. 134 Cs and 137 Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the 137 Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total 137 Cs and 134 Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984

  2. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, S; Chambers, D B; Lowe, L M; Bontoux, J G

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media (water, sediments, and aquatic organisms) of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed (whole body) dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h(-1). These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations (about 400 microGy h(-1)), and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations (about 100 microGy h(-1)). As a result, chronic levels of radioactivity, artificial and natural, measured in aquatic media downstream of Marcoule are unlikely to result in adverse health impacts on the categories and species of aquatic organisms studied. Thus, based on the screening level analysis discussed in this paper, a more detailed evaluation of the dose rates does not appear to be warranted.

  3. Pollutant Transport and Fate: Relations Between Flow-paths and Downstream Impacts of Human Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorslund, J.; Jarsjo, J.; Destouni, G.

    2017-12-01

    The quality of freshwater resources is increasingly impacted by human activities. Humans also extensively change the structure of landscapes, which may alter natural hydrological processes. To manage and maintain freshwater of good water quality, it is critical to understand how pollutants are released into, transported and transformed within the hydrological system. Some key scientific questions include: What are net downstream impacts of pollutants across different hydroclimatic and human disturbance conditions, and on different scales? What are the functions within and between components of the landscape, such as wetlands, on mitigating pollutant load delivery to downstream recipients? We explore these questions by synthesizing results from several relevant case study examples of intensely human-impacted hydrological systems. These case study sites have been specifically evaluated in terms of net impact of human activities on pollutant input to the aquatic system, as well as flow-path distributions trough wetlands as a potential ecosystem service of pollutant mitigation. Results shows that although individual wetlands have high retention capacity, efficient net retention effects were not always achieved at a larger landscape scale. Evidence suggests that the function of wetlands as mitigation solutions to pollutant loads is largely controlled by large-scale parallel and circular flow-paths, through which multiple wetlands are interconnected in the landscape. To achieve net mitigation effects at large scale, a large fraction of the polluted large-scale flows must be transported through multiple connected wetlands. Although such large-scale flow interactions are critical for assessing water pollution spreading and fate through the landscape, our synthesis shows a frequent lack of knowledge at such scales. We suggest ways forward for addressing the mismatch between the large scales at which key pollutant pressures and water quality changes take place and the

  4. Assessing the Downstream Impact of the Integrated Use of Socioeconomic and Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.; Schumacher, J.

    2014-12-01

    The interdisciplinary use of data from multiple disciplines to address both research and applied problems has received increasing attention in the sciences, but understanding remains limited on the specific modalities of data use and their impact not only in enabling new research insights but also in facilitating the application of research to societal problems. In our previous work, we used citation analysis to investigate the use of data from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) and identify the extent of interdisciplinary use, based on the subject classifications of citing journals. We also proposed and tested a taxonomy of data integration and use on a selection of peer-reviewed scientific articles that cited both remote sensing data and socioeconomic data from SEDAC. We extend both of these analyses here. We analyze the interdisciplinary use of SEDAC data over a seven-year period including the types and topical areas of application observed. We also explore the degree to which different types of data integration and use are leading to further "downstream" research and applications, and if objective measures can be developed using bibliometric methods to quantify downstream use and impact in meaningful ways. These methods include both traditional citation analysis and searches of the informal literature and online resources. Better understanding of how disparate data and information has been utilized to address new interdisciplinary problems will help the data user and provider communities improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their efforts. It should also provide justification for further investments in linking different data resources and networks across scientific fields, in methods of interdisciplinary data integration, and in application of integrated data to societal problems.

  5. Differences in sedge fen vegetation upstream and downstream from a managed impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed the restoration of wetlands impacted by a series of drainage ditches and pools located in an extensive undeveloped peatland in the Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan. This study examined the nature and extent of degradation to the Marsh Creek wetlands caused by alteration of natural hydrology by a water-storage pool (C-3 Pool) that intersects the Marsh Creek channel. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction in moderate-intensity disturbance associated with natural water-level fluctuations below the C-3 dike contributed to lower species richness, reduced floristic quality and a larger tree and shrub component than vegetation upstream from the pool. Wetland plant communities were sampled quantitatively and analyzed for species richness, floristic quality and physiognomy. Aerial photographs, GIS databases and GPS data contributed to the characterization and analysis of the Marsh Creek wetlands. Results showed that there was lower species richness in vegetated areas downstream from the pool, but not the anticipated growth in shrubs. Wetland vegetation upstream and downstream from the pool had similar floristic quality, except for a greater number of weedy taxa above the pool. Seepage through the pool dike and localized ground-water discharge created conditions very similar to those observed around beaver dams in Marsh Creek. In essence, the dike containing the C-3 Pool affected hydrology and wetland plant communities in a manner similar to an enormous beaver dam, except that it did not allow seasonal flooding episodes to occur. Management actions to release water from the pool into the original Marsh Creek channel at certain times and in certain amounts that mimic the natural flow regime would be expected to promote greater plant species richness and minimize the negative impacts of the dike.

  6. Use of Bone Scan During Initial Prostate Cancer Workup, Downstream Procedures, and Associated Medicare Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchook, Aaron D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Salloum, Ramzi G. [Department of Health Services Policy and Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with a high likelihood of having metastatic disease (high-risk prostate cancer), bone scan is the standard, guideline-recommended test to look for bony metastasis. We quantified the use of bone scans and downstream procedures, along with associated costs, in patients with high-risk prostate cancer, and their use in low- and intermediate-risk patients for whom these tests are not recommended. Methods and Materials: Patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2007 were included. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, and clinical T stage were used to define D'Amico risk categories. We report use of bone scans from the date of diagnosis to the earlier of treatment or 6 months. In patients who underwent bone scans, we report use of bone-specific x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and bone biopsy within 3 months after bone scan. Costs were estimated using 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates. Results: In all, 31% and 48% of patients with apparent low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer underwent a bone scan; of these patients, 21% underwent subsequent x-rays, 7% CT, and 3% MRI scans. Bone biopsies were uncommon. Overall, <1% of low- and intermediate-risk patients were found to have metastatic disease. The annual estimated Medicare cost for bone scans and downstream procedures was $11,300,000 for low- and intermediate-risk patients. For patients with apparent high-risk disease, only 62% received a bone scan, of whom 14% were found to have metastasis. Conclusions: There is overuse of bone scans in patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers, which is unlikely to yield clinically actionable information and results in a potential Medicare waste. However, there is underuse of bone scans in high-risk patients for whom metastasis is likely.

  7. Modelling of the impact of biofouling on hydrodynamics downstream of a tidal turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A. C.; Rivier, A.; Dauvin, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Biological organisms, like barnacles, mussels or bryozoans, colonize rapidly an immersed surface and could form a thickness until several centimeters on it. This biofouling could modify hydrodynamics around tidal turbine by increasing drag and hence resistance and could be detrimental to the performance of turbine (e.g. Orme et al., 2001; Khor and Xiao, 2011). Our work focuses on modifications of vortices downstream of a tidal turbine due to biofouling using CFD. Fixed biological organisms are solved explicitly by the model and are considered by modifying the blade profile. Firstly an airfoil colonized by barnacles is modelled for various fouling height and spacing and results are compared to experimental and simulated data (Orme et al., 2001; Khor and Xiao, 2011) in order to assess the capacity of the model to reproduce the flow around a blade with biofouling. Then a Darrieus vertical axis tidal turbine is modelled using a dynamic mesh. Configuration with smooth clean blades is assessed by comparison with experiments and simulations made by Roa (2011) and Bossard (2012). Biological organisms with various heights, spacing and shapes are fixed on blades and wakes downstream of clean and colonized tidal turbine are compared. Vorticity fields around the tidal turbine are clearly modified when blades are colonized. Samples will be taken from location where farms are planned to be built (Alderney Race/Raz Blanchard) to characterize more precisely the characteristics of species which are liable to fix on tidal turbine.Reference:Bossard (2012). Doctoral dissertation, Université de Grenoble.Khor & Xiao. (2011). Ocean Eng, 38(10), 1065-1079. Orme et al. (2001). Marine Renewable Energy Conference, Newcastle.Roa (2011).Doctoral dissertation, Université de Grenoble.

  8. Simple preparation of plant epidermal tissue for laser microdissection and downstream quantitative proteome and carbohydrate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eFalter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The outwardly directed cell wall and associated plasma membrane of epidermal cells represent the first layers of plant defense against intruding pathogens. Cell wall modifications and the formation of defense structures at sites of attempted pathogen penetration are decisive for plant defense. A precise isolation of these stress-induced structures would allow a specific analysis of regulatory mechanism and cell wall adaption. However, methods for large-scale epidermal tissue preparation from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which would allow proteome and cell wall analysis of complete, laser-microdissected epidermal defense structures, have not been provided. We developed the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation from A. thaliana, which is also applicable on grass leaves. This method is compatible with subsequent staining techniques to visualize stress-related cell wall structures, which were precisely isolated from the epidermal tissue layer by laser microdissection coupled to laser pressure catapulting. We successfully demonstrated that these specific epidermal tissue samples could be used for quantitative downstream proteome and cell wall analysis. The development of the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation and the compatibility to laser microdissection and downstream quantitative analysis opens new possibilities in the precise examination of stress- and pathogen-related cell wall structures in epidermal cells. Because the developed tissue processing is also applicable on A. thaliana, well-established, model pathosystems that include the interaction with powdery mildews can be studied to determine principal regulatory mechanisms in plant-microbe interaction with their potential outreach into crop breeding.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Missouri River Bed Evolution Downstream of Gavins Point Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Z. A.; Blum, M. D.; Lephart, G.; Viparelli, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Missouri River originates in the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and joins the Mississippi River near Saint Louis, Missouri. In the 1900s dam construction and river engineering works, such as river alignment, narrowing and bank protections were performed in the Missouri River basin to control the flood flows, ensure navigation and use the water for agricultural, industrial and municipal needs, for the production of hydroelectric power generation and for recreation. These projects altered the flow and the sediment transport regimes in the river and the exchange of sediment between the river and the adjoining floodplain. Here we focus on the long term effect of dam construction and channel narrowing on the 1200 km long reach of the Missouri River between Gavins Point Dam, Nebraska and South Dakota, and the confluence with the Mississippi River. Field observations show that two downstream migrating waves of channel bed degradation formed in this reach in response to the changes in flow regime, sediment load and channel geometry. We implemented a one dimensional morphodynamic model for large, low slope sand bed rivers, we validated the model at field scale by comparing the numerical results with the available field data and we use the model to 1) predict the magnitude and the migration rate of the waves of degradation at engineering time scales ( 150 years into the future), 2) quantify the changes in the sand load delivered to the Mississippi River, where field observations at Thebes, i.e. downstream of Saint Louis, suggest a decline in the mean annual sand load in the past 50 years, and 3) identify the role of the main tributaries - Little Sioux River, Platte River and Kansas River - on the wave migration speed and the annual sand load in the Missouri River main channel.

  10. A computational fluid dynamics modeling study of guide walls for downstream fish passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin; Towler, Brett; Haro, Alexander J.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2017-01-01

    A partial-depth, impermeable guidance structure (or guide wall) for downstream fish passage is typically constructed as a series of panels attached to a floating boom and anchored across a water body (e.g. river channel, reservoir, or power canal). The downstream terminus of the wall is generally located nearby to a fish bypass structure. If guidance is successful, the fish will avoid entrainment in a dangerous intake structure (i.e. turbine intakes) while passing from the headpond to the tailwater of a hydroelectric facility through a safer passage route (i.e. the bypass). The goal of this study is to determine the combination of guide wall design parameters that will most likely increase the chance of surface-oriented fish being successfully guided to the bypass. To evaluate the flow field immediately upstream of a guide wall, a parameterized computational fluid dynamics model of an idealized power canal was constructed in © ANSYS Fluent v 14.5 (ANSYS Inc., 2012). The design parameters investigated were the angle and depth of the guide wall and the average approach velocity in the power canal. Results call attention to the importance of the downward to sweeping flow ratio and demonstrate how a change in guide wall depth and angle can affect this important hydraulic cue to out-migrating fish. The key findings indicate that a guide wall set at a small angle (15° is the minimum in this study) and deep enough such that sweeping flow dominant conditions prevail within the expected vertical distribution of fish approaching the structure will produce hydraulic conditions that are more likely to result in effective passage.

  11. Molecular fountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-09-01

    A molecular fountain directs slowly moving molecules against gravity to further slow them to translational energies that they can be trapped and studied. If the molecules are initially slow enough they will return some time later to the position from which they were launched. Because this round trip time can be on the order of a second a single molecule can be observed for times sufficient to perform Hz level spectroscopy. The goal of this LDRD proposal was to construct a novel Molecular Fountain apparatus capable of producing dilute samples of molecules at near zero temperatures in well-defined user-selectable, quantum states. The slowly moving molecules used in this research are produced by the previously developed Kinematic Cooling technique, which uses a crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus to generate single rotational level molecular samples moving slowly in the laboratory reference frame. The Kinematic Cooling technique produces cold molecules from a supersonic molecular beam via single collisions with a supersonic atomic beam. A single collision of an atom with a molecule occurring at the correct energy and relative velocity can cause a small fraction of the molecules to move very slowly vertically against gravity in the laboratory. These slowly moving molecules are captured by an electrostatic hexapole guiding field that both orients and focuses the molecules. The molecules are focused into the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and are ionized by laser radiation. The new molecular fountain apparatus was built utilizing a new design for molecular beam apparatus that has allowed us to miniaturize the apparatus. This new design minimizes the volumes and surface area of the machine allowing smaller pumps to maintain the necessary background pressures needed for these experiments.

  12. Molecular collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Child, M S

    2010-01-01

    This high-level monograph offers an excellent introduction to the theory required for interpretation of an increasingly sophisticated range of molecular scattering experiments. There are five helpful appendixes dealing with continuum wavefunctions, Green's functions, semi-classical connection formulae, curve-crossing in the momentum representation, and elements of classical mechanics.The contents of this volume have been chosen to emphasize the quantum mechanical and semi-classical nature of collision events, with little attention given to purely classical behavior. The treatment is essentiall

  13. Event shape sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecna, Renata; Tomasik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable (e.g., v 2 , v 3 , q 2 ). It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution. (orig.)

  14. "Universe" event at AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  15. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  16. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  17. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  18. Model Insensitive and Calibration Independent Method for Determination of the Downstream Neutral Hydrogen Density Through Ly-alpha Glow Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, P.; Judge, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Our knowledge of the various heliospheric phenomena (location of the solar wind termination shock, heliopause configuration and very local interstellar medium parameters) is limited by uncertainties in the available heliospheric plasma models and by calibration uncertainties in the observing instruments. There is, thus, a strong motivation to develop model insensitive and calibration independent methods to reduce the uncertainties in the relevant heliospheric parameters. We have developed such a method to constrain the downstream neutral hydrogen density inside the heliospheric tail. In our approach we have taken advantage of the relative insensitivity of the downstream neutral hydrogen density profile to the specific plasma model adopted. We have also used the fact that the presence of an asymmetric neutral hydrogen cavity surrounding the sun, characteristic of all neutral densities models, results in a higher multiple scattering contribution to the observed glow in the downstream region than in the upstream region. This allows us to approximate the actual density profile with one which is spatially uniform for the purpose of calculating the downstream backscattered glow. Using different spatially constant density profiles, radiative transfer calculations are performed, and the radial dependence of the predicted glow is compared with the observed I/R dependence of Pioneer 10 UV data. Such a comparison bounds the large distance heliospheric neutral hydrogen density in the downstream direction to a value between 0.05 and 0.1/cc.

  19. Analysis of the policy effects of downstream Feed-In Tariff on China’s solar photovoltaic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongwei; Zheng, Shilin; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese government initiated the Feed-In Tariff (“FIT”) policy for downstream power generation in August 2013. The effectiveness of the downstream FIT policy has attracted the attention of academia and government. Using the quarterly data of listed solar PV companies between 2009 and 2015, this paper provides an empirical analysis regarding the effects of the downstream FIT policy. We find that (1) the FIT policy has significantly enhanced the inventory turnover of listed PV firms and improved their profitability; (2) the FIT policy has significant effects on the inventory turnover of midstream companies and mixed industry-chain companies mainly engaged in downstream operations; (3) FIT policy is more favorable towards increasing the inventory turnover of private enterprises. Our results indicate that the FIT policy can have substantial effects on the sustainable development of China's solar photovoltaic industry. - Highlights: •The article focuses on the analysis of the effect of downstream FIT policy. •We test how FIT policy affects overcapacity and profitability of solar PV companies. •We find FIT policy significantly solved the overcapacity of China’s solar PV industry. •We find FIT policy improved profitability of listed solar PV companies. •FIT policy can’t be played alone and should be combined with taxation and R&D policy.

  20. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  1. Salicylic acid suppresses jasmonic acid signaling downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by targeting GCC promoter motifs via transcription factor ORA59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2013-02-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCF(COI1), which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCF(COI1)-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59.

  2. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  3. Small Business Procurement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  4. The ALEPH event builder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benetta, R.; Marchioro, A.; McPherson, G.; Rueden, W. von

    1986-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the ALEPH experiment at CERN is organised in a hierarchical fashion within FASTBUS. The detector consists of a number of sub-detectors whose data must be individually assembled and formatted in real time. This task of 'event building' will be performed by a FASTBUS module in which a powerful microprocessor running high level software is embedded. Such a module, called an Event Builder, has been constructed by the ALEPH Online Group at CERN. (Auth.)

  5. Molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Garrett M; Lim-Wilby, Marguerita

    2008-01-01

    Molecular docking is a key tool in structural molecular biology and computer-assisted drug design. The goal of ligand-protein docking is to predict the predominant binding mode(s) of a ligand with a protein of known three-dimensional structure. Successful docking methods search high-dimensional spaces effectively and use a scoring function that correctly ranks candidate dockings. Docking can be used to perform virtual screening on large libraries of compounds, rank the results, and propose structural hypotheses of how the ligands inhibit the target, which is invaluable in lead optimization. The setting up of the input structures for the docking is just as important as the docking itself, and analyzing the results of stochastic search methods can sometimes be unclear. This chapter discusses the background and theory of molecular docking software, and covers the usage of some of the most-cited docking software.

  6. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on regulation of gene expression included research projects on turnover of ribosomal RNA, ribonuclease-resistant oligonucleotides, and reutilization of oligonucleotides. Studies on radiation effects on RNA included research projects on radioinduced strand breaks in RNA and radioinduced alterations in RNA nucleotides. Effects of vasopression on radiosensitivity were studied. Studies on amino acid-nucleic acid interactions included research projects on synthesis and spectroscopic analysis of nucleotide-amino acid covalently bonded model compound and intermolecular interactions between tryptophan and dinucleoside phosphates

  7. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1974-01-01

    Work during the past year has been focused on three areas related to the cellular effects of radiation. Radiation effects on RNA and the regulation of gene expression and amino acid-nucleic acid interactions were studied. Studies on the radiation response of RNA in growing and confluent cells were continued. We have derived radiation survival curves and demonstrated repair of potentially lethal damage in 3T3 cells. Studies of giant cell formation and turnover of ribosomal RNA in irradiated cells has demonstrated differences in growing and confluent cells. We have sought evidence consistent with our hypothesis for regulation of eukaryotic gene expression with segments of RNA reutilized to prime new RNA synthesis. Data derived from the turnover of ribosomal RNA and the methylation pattern of ribosomal RNA during turnover are consistent with the possibility that a segment of 18s ribosomal RNA is being conserved during new RNA synthesis. We were unable to show reutilization of the 5' trinucleotide of 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA but did find a ribonuclease resistant oligonucleotide in 18s RNA which appeared to be reutilized. In studies of amino acid nucleic-acid interactions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we have been able to successfully synthesize an amidate and begin an examination of the intramolecular interactions. We have also studied intermolecular interactions betweentryptophan and nucleoside monophosphates and found upfield shifts which provide evidence for preferential stacking of the 6-membered ring of tryptophan with adenine and evidence for specific geometry of interactions of tryptophan with cytosine. (U.S.)

  8. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake caused a massive landslide (Madison Slide) that dammed the Madison River and formed Earthquake Lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers excavated a spillway through the Madison Slide to permit outflow from Earthquake Lake. In June 1970, high streamflows on the Madison River severely eroded the spillway channel and damaged the roadway embankment along U.S. Highway 287 downstream from the Madison Slide. Investigations undertaken following the 1970 flood events concluded that substantial erosion through and downstream from the spillway could be expected for streamflows greater than 3,500 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Accordingly, the owners of Hebgen Dam, upstream from Earthquake Lake, have tried to manage releases from Hebgen Lake to prevent streamflows from exceeding 3,500 ft3/s measured at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station 0638800 Madison River at Kirby Ranch, near Cameron, Montana. Management of flow releases from Hebgen Lake to avoid exceeding the threshold streamflow at USGS gaging station 06038800 is difficult, and has been questioned for two reasons. First, no road damage was reported downstream from the Earthquake Lake outlet in 1993, 1996, and 1997 when streamflows exceeded the 3,500-ft3/s threshold. Second, the 3,500-ft3/s threshold generally precludes releases of higher flows that could be beneficial to the blue-ribbon trout fishery downstream in the Madison River. In response to concerns about minimizing streamflow downstream from Earthquake Lake and the possible armoring of the spillway, the USGS, in cooperation with the Madison River Fisheries Technical Advisory Committee (MADTAC; Bureau of Land Management; Montana Department of Environmental Quality; Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks; PPL-Montana; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service - Gallatin National Forest; and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), conducted a study to determine movement of the Madison River channel downstream from Earthquake Lake

  9. Data on mass spectrometry-based proteomics for studying the involvement of CYLD in the ubiquitination events downstream of EGFR activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Sanchez-Quiles

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present data article corresponds to the proteomic data of the involvement of Cylindromatosis protein (CYLD in the ubiquitination signaling initiated by EGF stimulation. CYLD tumor suppressor protein has Lys63-chain deubiquitinase activity that has been proved essential for the negative regulation of crucial signaling mechanisms, namely the NFkB pathway. Previous results have suggested the involvement of CYLD in the EGF-dependent signal transduction as well, showing its engagement within the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes formed following the addition of the growth factor. EGFR signaling participates in central cellular processes and its tight regulation, partly through ubiquitination cascades, is decisive for a balanced cellular homeostasis. We carried out the substitution of the endogenous pool of ubiquitin for a His-FLAG-tagged ubiquitin (Stable Ubiquitin Exchange, StUbEx, in combination with the shRNA silencing of CYLD and SILAC-labeling on HeLa cells. The subsequent tandem affinity purification of ubiquitinated proteins in control and CYLD-depleted cells was followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Therefore, we present an unbiased study investigating the impact of CYLD in the EGF-dependent ubiquitination. The data supplied herein is related to the research article entitled “Cylindromatosis tumor suppressor protein (CYLD deubiquitinase is necessary for proper ubiquitination and degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor” (Sanchez-Quiles et al., 2017 [1]. We provide the associated mass spectrometry raw files, excel tables and gene ontology enrichments. The data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD003423.

  10. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  11. RasGRP1, but not RasGRP3, is required for efficient thymic β-selection and ERK activation downstream of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic P Golec

    Full Text Available T cell development is a highly dynamic process that is driven by interactions between developing thymocytes and the thymic microenvironment. Upon entering the thymus, the earliest thymic progenitors, called CD4(-CD8(- 'double negative' (DN thymocytes, pass through a checkpoint termed "β-selection" before maturing into CD4(+CD8(+ 'double positive' (DP thymocytes. β-selection is an important developmental checkpoint during thymopoiesis where developing DN thymocytes that successfully express the pre-T cell receptor (TCR undergo extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the DP stage. Signals transduced through the pre-TCR, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and Notch are thought to drive β-selection. Additionally, it has long been known that ERK is activated during β-selection; however the pathways regulating ERK activation remain unknown. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the β-selection events in mice lacking RasGRP1, RasGRP3 and RasGRP1 and 3. We report that RasGRP1 KO and RasGRP1/3 DKO deficient thymi show a partial developmental block at the early DN3 stage of development. Furthermore, DN3 thymocytes from RasGRP1 and RasGRP1/3 double knock-out thymi show significantly reduced proliferation, despite expression of the TCRβ chain. As a result of impaired β-selection, the pool of TCRβ(+ DN4 is significantly diminished, resulting in inefficient DN to DP development. Also, we report that RasGRP1 is required for ERK activation downstream of CXCR4 signaling, which we hypothesize represents a potential mechanism of RasGRP1 regulation of β-selection. Our results demonstrate that RasGRP1 is an important regulator of proliferation and differentiation at the β-selection checkpoint and functions downstream of CXCR4 to activate the Ras/MAPK pathway.

  12. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS - ANOTHER PIECE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL PUZZLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular biology offers sensitive and expedient tools for the detection of exposure to environmental stressors. Molecular approaches provide the means for detection of the "first cellular event(s)" in response to environmental changes-specifically, immediate changes in gene expr...

  13. Passage of downstream migrant American eels through an airlift-assisted deep bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Noreika, John

    2016-01-01

    Traditional downstream guidance and bypass facilities for anadromous fishes (i.e., surface bypasses, surface guidance structures, and behavioral barriers) have frequently been ineffective for anguillid eels. Because eels typically spend the majority of their time near the bottom in the vicinity of intake structures, deep bypass structures with entrances near the bottom hold promise for increased effectiveness, thereby aiding in the recovery of this important species. A new design of a deep bypass system that uses airlift technology (the Conte Airlift Bypass) to induce flow in a bypass pipe was tested in a simulated intake entrance environment under controlled laboratory conditions. Water velocities of 0.9–1.5 m s−1 could be generated at the bypass entrance (opening with 0.073 m2 area), with corresponding flows through the bypass pipe of 0.07–0.11 m3 s−1. Gas saturation and hydrostatic pressure within the bypass pipe did not vary appreciably from a control (no air) condition under tested airflows. Migratory silver-phase American eels (Anguilla rostrata) tested during dark conditions readily located, entered, and passed through the bypass; initial avoidance rates (eels approaching but not entering the bypass entrance) were lower at higher entrance velocities. Eels that investigated the bypass pipe entrance tended to enter headfirst, but those that then exited the pipe upstream did so more frequently at lower entrance velocities. Eels appeared to swim against the flow while being transported downstream through the pipe; median transit times through the bypass for each test velocity ranged from 5.8 to 12.2 s, with transit time decreasing with increasing entrance velocity. Eels did not show strong avoidance of the vertical section of the pipe which contained injected air. No mortality or injury of bypassed eels was observed, and individual eels repeatedly passed through the bypass at rates of up to 40 passes per hour, suggesting that individuals do not

  14. Downstream impacts of a Central Amazonian hydroelectric dam on tree growth and mortality in floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, A. F. D.; Silva, T. S. F.; Silva, J. D. S.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Streher, A. S.; Ferreira-Ferreira, J.; Schongart, J.

    2017-12-01

    The flood pulse of large Amazonian Rivers is characterized by predictable high- and low-water periods during the annual cycle, and is the main driving force in the floodplains regulating decomposition, nutrient cycles, productivity, life cycles and growth rhythms of floodplains' biota. Over at least 20 millions of years, tree species in these ecosystems developed complex adaptative mechanisms to tolerate flooding, such as the tree species Macrolobium acaciifolium (Fabaceae) and Eschweilera tenuifolia (Lecythidaceae) occupying the lower topographic positions in the floodplain forests along the oligothrophic black-water rivers. Tree growth occurs mainly during terrestrial phase, while during the aquatic phase the anoxic conditions result into a cambial dormancy and formation of annual tree rings. The hydroelectric dam Balbina which was installed in the Uatumã River (central Amazonia) during the 1980s altered significantly the flood pulse regime resulting into higher minimum and lower maximum annual water levels. The suppression of the terrestrial phase caused large-scale mortality of flood-adapted trees growing on the lower topographic positions, as evidenced by radiocarbon dating and cross-dating techniques (dendrochronology). In this study we estimated the extension of dead forests using high resolution ALOS/PALSAR radar images, for their detection along a fluvial distance of more than 280 km downstream of the power plant. Further we analyzed tree growth of 60 living individuals of E. tenuifolia by tree-ring analyses comparing the post- and pre-dam periods. We evaluated the impacts of the altered hydrological regime on tree growth considering ontogenetic effects and the fluvial distance of the trees to the dam. Since the Balbina power plant started operating the associated igapó forests lost about 11% of its cover. We found a significant reduction of tree growth of E. tenuifolia during the post-dam period as a consequence of the increasing aquatic phase duration

  15. Downstream Toll-like receptor signaling mediates adaptor-specific cytokine expression following focal cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle Famakin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion of some Toll-like receptors (TLRs affords protection against cerebral ischemia, but disruption of their known major downstream adaptors does not. To determine whether compensation in the production of downstream effectors by one pathway when the other is disrupted can explain these findings, we examined cytokine/chemokine expression and inflammatory infiltrates in wild-type (WT, MyD88−/− and TRIF-mutant mice following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO. Methods Cytokine/chemokine expression was measured with a 25-plex bead array in the serum and brains of all three groups of mice at baseline (no surgery/naïve and at 3 hours and 24 hours following pMCAO. Brain inflammatory and neutrophil infiltrates were examined 24 hours following pMCAO. Results IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF and IL-10 were significantly decreased in MyD88−/− mice compared to WT mice following pMCAO. Significantly, decreased levels of the neutrophil chemoattractants KC and G-CSF corresponded with a trend toward fewer neutrophils in the brains of MyD88−/− mice. IP-10 was significantly decreased when either pathway was disrupted. MIP-1α was significantly decreased in TRIF-mutant mice, consistent with TRIF-dependent production. MyD88−/− mice showed elevations of a number of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-13, at baseline, which became significantly decreased following pMCAO. Conclusions Both MyD88 and TRIF mediate pathway-specific cytokine production following focal cerebral ischemia. Our results also suggest a compensatory Th2-type skew at baseline in MyD88−/− mice and a paradoxical switch to a Th1 phenotype following focal cerebral ischemia. The MyD88 pathway directs the expression of neutrophil chemoattractants following cerebral ischemia.

  16. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Ganti S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for

  17. Persistence of Metal-rich Particles Downstream Zones of Acid Drainage Mixing in Andean Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, P.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Dabrin, A.; Coquery, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Andes mountain range provides the setting for watersheds with high natural background of metals and for mining operations that enhance contaminant mobilization, notably in Northern and Central Chile. Dissolved and solid metal species are actively transported by streams to the Pacific Ocean from area and point sources, like acid drainage. We examine the response of metal rich particle suspensions downstream zones of mixing where shifts in the chemical environment occur. We propose a conceptual model which is used to analyze the fate of copper in the upper Mapocho watershed. The main source of copper is the Yerba Loca river, a naturally impacted stream with pH ranging from 3 to 7 and high concentrations of Cu (0.8 - 6.3 mg/L), Al (1.3 - 7.6 mg/L) and Fe (0.4 - 4.2 mg/L). Steep chemical shifts occur after the confluences with the San Francisco and the Molina rivers. We characterized stream chemistry, hydrological variables and suspended particles, including particle size distribution (PSD), turbidity, and total suspended solids. A marked seasonal behavior was observed, with a higher total Cu flux during smelting periods and a shift towards the dissolved phase during summer. When acid drainage is discharged into a receiving stream, incomplete mixing occurs thereby promoting the formation of a range of metal-rich solids with a characteristic PSD. Similarly, areas of chemical heterogeneity control the partition of metals associated to suspended geomaterials coming from bank and slope erosion. A highly dynamic process ensues where metastable phases shift to new equilibria as fully mixed conditions are reached. Depending on the reaction kinetics, some particles persist despite being exposed to thermodynamically unfavorable chemical environments. The persistence of metal-rich particles downstream zones of acid drainage mixing is important because it ultimately controls the flux of metals being delivered to the ocean by watersheds impacted by acid drainage. Funding from

  18. Aberrations and Emittance Growth in the DARHT 2nd Axis Downstream Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Martin E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-24

    The emittance of the DARHT 2nd Axis has been inferred from solenoid scans performed in the downstream transport (DST) region using a short kicked pulse. The beam spot size is measured by viewing optical transition radiation (OTR) in the near field as a function of the field (current) of a solenoid magnet (S4). The imaging station containing the OTR target is located about 100 cm downstream of the solenoid magnet. The emittance is then inferred using a beam optics code such as LAMDA or XTR by fitting the data to initial conditions upstream of the S4 solenoid magnet. The initial conditions are the beam size, beam convergence and emittance. The beam energy and current are measured. In preparation for a solenoid scan, the magnets upstream of the solenoid are adjusted to produce a round beam with no beam losses due to scraping in the beam tube. This is different from the standard tune in which the beam tune is adjusted to suppress the effects of ions and rf in the septum dump. In this standard tune, approximately 10% of the beam is lost due to scraping as the beam enters the small 3.75” ID beam tube after the septum. The normalized emittance inferred from recent solenoid scans typically ranges from 600 to 800 π(mm-mrad). This larger beam size increases the sensitivity to any non-linear fields in the Collins quadrupoles that are mounted along the small diameter beam tube. The primary magnet used to adjust the beam size in this region is the S3 solenoid magnet. Measurements made of the beam shape as the beam size was decreased showed significant structure consistent with non-linear fields. Using the measured magnetic fields in the Collins quadrupoles including higher order multipoles, the beam transport through the Collins quadrupoles is simulated and compared to the observed OTR images. The simulations are performed using the beam optics codes TRANSPORT [1] and TURTLE [2]. Estimates of the emittance growth and beam losses are made as a function of the S3

  19. Downstream and soaring interfaces and vortices in 2-D stratified wakes and their impact on transport of contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Chashechkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of continuously stratified fluids past obstacles was studied analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The obstacles discussed here include a flat strip, aligned with the flow, inclined or transverse to the flow and a horizontal cylinder. In the flow pattern, transient and attached (lee internal waves, downstream wakes with submerged interfaces and vortices, soaring singular interfaces, soaring vortices and vortex systems are distinguished. New components of laminar flow past a horizontally towed strip are presented. Fine transverse streaky structures on the strip in the downstream wake were visualized. Soaring isolated interfaces, which are internal boundary layers forming inside the downstream attached wave field past bluff bodies were observed. With increasing of the body velocity a vortex pair was formed directly at the leading edge of this interface.

  20. Use of aquatic mosses for monitoring artificial radionuclides downstream of the nuclear power plant of Bugey (River Rhone, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Brottet, D.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of radionuclides in water, downstream of nuclear installations located on river banks, is often very difficult notably because of their low concentrations. Thus the use of biological indicators is an interesting process to detect radioactive contamination of an aquatic ecosystem. From 1986 to 1990, artificial radionuclides were measured in freshwater mosses sampled downstream of the nuclear power station of Bugey. These field data on the whole, have shown a comparatively good qualitative and quantitative relationship between radioactive composition of liquid waste and radionuclides detected in mosses. In other respects, the results showed up a relatively clear hierarchical structure in the affinity of the different radionuclides for the mosses. To specify these relations, mesh bags containing allochtonous mosses were immersed at four stations downstream of the power plant and regularly sampled during a 10-h waste discharge period. (author)

  1. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, A.A.

    1991-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1990 through March 1991 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from NcNary Dam; to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam; to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams; and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights of results of this work in the Dalles, Bonneville and John Day reservoirs are included in the four pages included in this report

  2. Molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokh, Eh.; Zonntag, B.

    1981-01-01

    The latest investigation results on molecular spectroscopy with application of synchrotron radiation in the region of vacuum ultraviolet are generalized. Some results on investigation of excited, superexcited and ionized molecule states with the use of adsorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, by fluorescent and mass-spectrometric methods are considered [ru

  3. Molecular Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    . New Study Indicates Greater Capacity for Carbon Storage in the Earth's Subsurface A team of Foundry minerals which make up the dominant clays in the Earth's deep subsurface. Doubling Down on Energy Storage identify molecular components within small volumes of biological samples, such as blood or urine. Industry

  4. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the

  5. Molecular gastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, cooks have been applying recipes without looking for the mechanisms of the culinary transformations. A scientific discipline that explores these changes from raw ingredients to eating the final dish, is developing into its own field, termed molecular gastronomy. Here, one of the founders of the discipline discusses its aims and importance.

  6. Molecular Star

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In molecular self-assembly, molecules put themselves together in a predefined way ... work has been already published in Chemistry- A European Jour- nal in the September ... prevalent in matter ranging from atoms to molecules to biomolecules; it is also ... erate chemical forces are reversible and dynamic in nature mean-.

  7. Molecular ferromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    This past year has been one of substantial advancement in both the physics and chemistry of molecular and polymeric ferromagnets. The specific heat studies of (DMeFc)(TCNE) have revealed a cusp at the three-dimensional ferromagnetic transition temperature with a crossover to primarily 1-D behavior at higher temperatures. This paper discusses these studies

  8. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period

  9. Revisiting event horizon finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael I; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Event horizons are the defining physical features of black hole spacetimes, and are of considerable interest in studying black hole dynamics. Here, we reconsider three techniques to find event horizons in numerical spacetimes: integrating geodesics, integrating a surface, and integrating a level-set of surfaces over a volume. We implement the first two techniques and find that straightforward integration of geodesics backward in time is most robust. We find that the exponential rate of approach of a null surface towards the event horizon of a spinning black hole equals the surface gravity of the black hole. In head-on mergers we are able to track quasi-normal ringing of the merged black hole through seven oscillations, covering a dynamic range of about 10 5 . Both at late times (when the final black hole has settled down) and at early times (before the merger), the apparent horizon is found to be an excellent approximation of the event horizon. In the head-on binary black hole merger, only some of the future null generators of the horizon are found to start from past null infinity; the others approach the event horizons of the individual black holes at times far before merger.

  10. PTHrP promotes malignancy of human oral cancer cell downstream of the EGFR signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tamaki; Tsuda, Masumi; Ohba, Yusuke; Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2008-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is detected in many aggressive tumors and involved in malignant conversion; however, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here, we identified PTHrP as a mediator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to promote the malignancies of oral cancers. PTHrP mRNA was abundantly expressed in most of the quiescent oral cancer cells, and was significantly upregulated by EGF stimulation via ERK and p38 MAPK. PTHrP silencing by RNA interference, as well as EGFR inhibitor AG1478 treatment, significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, combined treatment of AG1478 and PTHrP knockdown achieved synergistic inhibition of malignant phenotypes. Recombinant PTHrP substantially promoted cell motility, and rescued the inhibition by PTHrP knockdown, suggesting the paracrine/autocrine function of PTHrP. These data indicate that PTHrP contributes to the malignancy of oral cancers downstream of EGFR signaling, and may thus provide a therapeutic target for oral cancer

  11. The Colorado River and its deposits downstream from Grand Canyon in Arizona, California, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan S.; Block, Debra L.; Felger, Tracey J.; House, P. Kyle; Pearthree, Philip A.; Gootee, Brian F.; Youberg, Ann M.; Howard, Keith A.; Beard, L. Sue

    2018-02-05

    Understanding the evolution of the Colorado River system has direct implications for (1) the processes and timing of continental-scale river system integration, (2) the formation of iconic landscapes like those in and around Grand Canyon, and (3) the availability of groundwater resources. Spatial patterns in the position and type of Colorado River deposits, only discernible through geologic mapping, can be used to test models related to Colorado River evolution. This is particularly true downstream from Grand Canyon where ancestral Colorado River deposits are well-exposed. We are principally interested in (1) regional patterns in the minimum and maximum elevation of each depositional unit, which are affected by depositional mechanism and postdepositional deformation; and (2) the volume of each unit, which reflects regional changes in erosion, transport efficiency, and accommodation space. The volume of Colorado River deposits below Grand Canyon has implications for groundwater resources, as the primary regional aquifer there is composed of those deposits. To this end, we are presently mapping Colorado River deposits and compiling and updating older mapping. This preliminary data release shows the current status of our mapping and compilation efforts. We plan to update it at regular intervals in conjunction with ongoing mapping.

  12. Production of proteases from organic wastes by solid-state fermentation: downstream and zero waste strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Maria; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-04-01

    Production of enzymes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) of agro-industrial wastes reports high productivity with low investment. The extraction of the final product from the solid waste and solid disposal represent the main cost of the process. In this work, the complete downstream processes of SSF of two industrial residues for the production of proteases, soy fibre (SF) and a mixture of hair and sludge (HS), were studied in terms of activity recovery, using different extraction parameters (extracting solvent, ratio solid: solvent and extraction mode). Activity after lyophilisation was tested. Solid waste valorisation after extraction was studied using respiration techniques and biogas production tests, as part of a zero waste strategy. Results showed a maximum extraction yield of 91% for SF and 121% for HS, both in agitated mode and distilled water as extraction agent. An average activity recovery of 95 ± 6 and 94 ± 6% for SF and HS, respectively, was obtained after lyophilisation and redissolution. To reduce the cost of extraction, a ratio 1:3 w : v solid-solvent in static mode is advised for SF, and 1:2 w : v extraction ratio in agitated mode for HS, both with distilled water as extracting agent. Both composting and anaerobic digestion are suitable techniques for valorisation of the waste material.

  13. Effects of dams on downstream molluscan predator-prey interactions in the Colorado River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jansen A; Handley, John C; Dietl, Gregory P

    2018-05-30

    River systems worldwide have been modified for human use and the downstream ecological consequences are often poorly understood. In the Colorado River estuary, where upstream water diversions have limited freshwater input during the last century, mollusc remains from the last several hundred years suggest widespread ecological change. The once abundant clam Mulinia modesta has undergone population declines of approximately 94% and populations of predators relying on this species as a food source have probably declined, switched to alternative prey species or both. We distinguish between the first two hypotheses using a null model of predation preference to test whether M. modesta was preyed upon selectively by the naticid snail, Neverita reclusiana , along the estuary's past salinity gradient. To evaluate the third hypothesis, we estimate available prey biomass today and in the past, assuming prey were a limiting resource. Data on the frequency of drill holes-identifiable traces of naticid predation on prey shells-showed several species, including M. modesta , were preferred prey. Neverita reclusiana was probably able to switch prey. Available prey biomass also declined, suggesting the N. reclusiana population probably also declined. These results indicate a substantial change to the structure of the benthic food web. Given the global scale of water management, such changes have probably also occurred in many of the world's estuaries. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Investigation of changes to the operation of Keenleyside Dam to reduce supersaturation of dissolved gases downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, J.O.H.; Fidler, L.E.; Northcott, P.

    1993-01-01

    Keenlyside Dam is located on the Columbia River in southeast British Columbia. It impounds Arrow Lakes Reservoir, which has a live storage of 8.8 billion m 3 . The dam is used for flood control and to increase power generation in the USA. Recent field measurements have shown that the current operation of the dam often creates high levels of total gas pressure (TGP) downstream of the dam, with supersaturation levels occasionally reaching as high as 140%. It appeared that these increased levels were associated with the use of the spillway. High levels of dissolved gases may have adverse effects on aquatic life. Therefore, a comprehensive study was initiated to investigate ways of reducing TGP levels. The discharge facilities at the dam are described, along with the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on fish. Current studies include measurement of field TGP levels, development of a model to predict TGP levels for different modes of operation of the discharge facilities, assessing the effects of TGP on different fish species at different life stages, field testing of the discharge facilities, and assessment of long-term impacts of various operating alternatives on the dam structures and equipment. Preliminary results indicate that the north low-level ports of the spillway increase the TGP level significantly less than the other two components of the discharge facilities. Current operating practice therefore maximizes use of the north ports within current operating limits. 9 refs., 4 figs

  15. State-and-transition prototype model of riparian vegetation downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Starfield, Anthony M.; Black, Ronald S.; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Facing an altered riparian plant community dominated by nonnative species, resource managers are increasingly interested in understanding how to manage and promote healthy riparian habitats in which native species dominate. For regulated rivers, managing flows is one tool resource managers consider to achieve these goals. Among many factors that can influence riparian community composition, hydrology is a primary forcing variable. Frame-based models, used successfully in grassland systems, provide an opportunity for stakeholders concerned with riparian systems to evaluate potential riparian vegetation responses to alternative flows. Frame-based, state-and-transition models of riparian vegetation for reattachment bars, separation bars, and the channel margin found on the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam were constructed using information from the literature. Frame-based models can be simple spreadsheet models (created in Microsoft® Excel) or developed further with programming languages (for example, C-sharp). The models described here include seven community states and five dam operations that cause transitions between states. Each model divides operations into growing (April–September) and non-growing seasons (October–March) and incorporates upper and lower bar models, using stage elevation as a division. The inputs (operations) can be used by stakeholders to evaluate flows that may promote dynamic riparian vegetation states, or identify those flow options that may promote less desirable states (for example, Tamarisk [Tamarix sp.] temporarily flooded shrubland). This prototype model, although simple, can still elicit discussion about operational options and vegetation response.

  16. Microalgae Oil Production: A Downstream Approach to Energy Requirements for the Minamisoma Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhani S. Wibawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of microalgae oil production as an alternative renewable energy source, in a pilot project located at Minamisoma City in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan. The algal communities used in this research were the locally mixed species, which were mainly composed of Desmodesmus collected from the Minamisoma pilot project. The microalgae oil-production processes in Minamisoma consisted of three stages: cultivation, dewatering, and extraction. The estimated theoretical input-energy requirement for extracting oil was 137.25 MJ to process 50 m3 of microalgae, which was divided into cultivation 15.40 MJ, centrifuge 13.39 MJ, drum filter 14.17 MJ, and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL 94.29 MJ. The energy profit ratio (EPR was 1.41. The total energy requirement was highest in the HTL process (68% followed by cultivation (11% and the drum filter (10%. The EPR value increased along with the yield in the cultivation process. Using HTL, the microalgae biomass could be converted to bio-crude oil to increase the oil yield in the extraction process. Therefore, in the long run, the HTL process could help lower production costs, due to the lack of chemical additions, for extracting oil in the downstream estimation of the energy requirements for microalgae oil production.

  17. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  18. Hydraulic Simulation of In-vessel Downstream Effect Test Using MARS-KS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Young Seok; Lee, Joon Soo; Ryu, Seung Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In-vessel downstream effect test (IDET) has been required to evaluate the effect of debris on long term core cooling following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in support of resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 191. Head loss induced by debris (fiber and particle) accumulated on prototypical fuel assembly (FA) should be compared with the available driving head to the core for the various combinations of LOCA and Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) injection. The actual simulation was conducted using MARS-KS code. Also the influence of small difference in gap size which was found in the actual experiment is evaluated using the present model. A simple model to determine the form loss factors of FA and gap in clean state and the debris laden state is discussed based on basic fluid mechanics. Those form loss factors were applied to the hydraulic simulation of a selected IDET using MARS-KS code. The result indicated that the present model can be applied to IDET simulation. The pressure drop influenced by small difference in gap size can be evaluated by the present model with practical assumption.

  19. Upstream vs. downstream CO2 trading: A comparison for the electricity context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Bushnell, James; Wolak, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    In electricity, 'downstream' CO 2 regulation requires retail suppliers to buy energy from a mix of sources so that their weighted emissions satisfy a standard. It has been argued that such 'load-based' regulation would solve emissions leakage, cost consumers less, and provide more incentive for energy efficiency than traditional source-based cap-and-trade programs. Because pure load-based trading complicates spot power markets, variants (GEAC and CO 2 RC) that separate emissions attributes from energy have been proposed. When all generators and consumers come under such a system, these load-based programs are equivalent to source-based trading in which emissions allowances are allocated by various rules, and have no necessary cost advantage. The GEAC and CO 2 RC systems are equivalent to giving allowances free to generators, and requiring consumers either to subsidize generation or buy back excess allowances, respectively. As avoided energy costs under source-based and pure load-based trading are equal, the latter provides no additional incentive for energy efficiency. The speculative benefits of load-based systems are unjustified in light of their additional administrative complexity and cost, the threat that they pose to the competitiveness and efficiency of electricity spot markets, and the complications that would arise when transition to a federal cap-and-trade system occurs.

  20. Accumulation of selenium in aquatic systems downstream of a uranium mining operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, J.R.; Belknap, A.M.; Janz, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in lakes downstream of a uranium mine operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in sediment and biota were elevated in exposure areas even though water concentrations were low (<5 μg/L). The pattern (from smallest to largest) of selenium accumulation was: periphyton < plankton and filterer invertebrates < detritivore and predator invertebrates < small bodied (forage) fish and predatory fish. Biomagnification of selenium resulted in an approximately 1.5-6 fold increase in the selenium content between plankton, invertebrates and forage fish. However, no biomagnification was observed between forage fish and predatory fish. Selenium content in organisms from exposure areas exceeded the proposed 3-11 μg/g (dry weight) dietary toxicity threshold for fish, suggesting that the selenium released into these aquatic systems has the potential to bioaccumulate and reach levels that could impair fish reproduction. - Selenium bioaccumulation patterns in a north temperate, cold water aquatic ecosystem were similar to those reported from warm water systems

  1. Connections between Transcription Downstream of Genes and cis-SAGe Chimeric RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalenia, Katarzyna; Qin, Fujun; Singh, Sandeep; Tangtrongstittikul, Panjapon; Li, Hui

    2017-11-22

    cis-Splicing between adjacent genes (cis-SAGe) is being recognized as one way to produce chimeric fusion RNAs. However, its detail mechanism is not clear. Recent study revealed induction of transcriptions downstream of genes (DoGs) under osmotic stress. Here, we investigated the influence of osmotic stress on cis-SAGe chimeric RNAs and their connection to DoGs. We found,the absence of induction of at least some cis-SAGe fusions and/or their corresponding DoGs at early time point(s). In fact, these DoGs and their cis-SAGe fusions are inversely correlated. This negative correlation was changed to positive at a later time point. These results suggest a direct competition between the two categories of transcripts when total pool of readthrough transcripts is limited at an early time point. At a later time point, DoGs and corresponding cis-SAGe fusions are both induced, indicating that total readthrough transcripts become more abundant. Finally, we observed overall enhancement of cis-SAGe chimeric RNAs in KCl-treated samples by RNA-Seq analysis.

  2. Rethinking downstream regulation: California's opportunity to engage households in reducing greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeier, D.; Gould, Gregory; Karner, Alex; Hixson, Mark; Bachmann, Brooke; Okma, Carrie; Lang, Ziv; Heres Del Valle, David

    2008-01-01

    With the passage of the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32), California has begun an ambitious journey to reduce in-state GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Under the direction of executive order S-20-06, a mandated Market Advisory Committee (MAC) charged with studying market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions, including cap and trade systems, has recommended taking an 'upstream' approach to GHG emissions regulation, arguing that upstream regulation will reduce administrative costs because there are fewer agents. In this paper, we argue that, the total costs to society of a GHG cap and trade scheme can be minimized though downstream regulation, rather than the widely proposed upstream approach. We propose a household carbon trading system with four major components: a state allocation to households, household-to-household trading, households to utility company credit transfers, and utility companies to government credit transfers. The proposed system can also be considered more equitable than carbon taxes and upstream cap and trade systems to control GHG emissions from residential energy use and is consistent with AB32

  3. Model-Based Comparison of Antibody Dimerization in Continuous and Batch-Wise Downstream Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sellberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies are generally produced using a generic platform approach in which several chromatographic separations assure high purity of the product. Dimerization can occur during the fermentation stage and may occur also during the downstream processing. We present here simulations in which a traditional platform approach that consist of protein A capture, followed by cation-exchange and anion-exchange chromatography for polishing is compared to a continuous platform in which dimer removal and virus inactivation are carried out on a size-exclusion column. A dimerization model that takes pH, salt concentration and the concentration of antibodies into account is combined with chromatographic models, to be able to predicted both the separation and the degree to which dimers are formed. Purification of a feed composition that contained 1% by weight of dimer and a total antibody concentration of 1 g/L was modeled using both approaches, and the amount of antibodies in the continuous platform was at least 4 times lower than in the traditional platform. The total processing time was also lower, as the cation-exchange polish could be omitted.

  4. Rapid phospho-turnover by receptor tyrosine kinases impacts downstream signaling and drug binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Laura B; Maiwald, Thomas; Conzelmann, Holger; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Sorger, Peter K

    2011-09-02

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB1-4) are oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that regulate diverse cellular processes. In this study, we combine measurement and mathematical modeling to quantify phospho-turnover at ErbB receptors in human cells and to determine the consequences for signaling and drug binding. We find that phosphotyrosine residues on ErbB1 have half-lives of a few seconds and therefore turn over 100-1000 times in the course of a typical immediate-early response to ligand. Rapid phospho-turnover is also observed for EGF-activated ErbB2 and ErbB3, unrelated RTKs, and multiple intracellular adaptor proteins and signaling kinases. Thus, the complexes formed on the cytoplasmic tail of active receptors and the downstream signaling kinases they control are highly dynamic and antagonized by potent phosphatases. We develop a kinetic scheme for binding of anti-ErbB1 drugs to receptors and show that rapid phospho-turnover significantly impacts their mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion improves the downstream methane production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, P; Dooms, M; Hattou, S; Benbelkacem, H

    2018-07-01

    The role of the hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion was investigated with a mixture of cattle slurry and maize silage with variable ratios (100, 70 and 30% volatile solids coming from cattle slurry). It was incubated for 48 h at 37, 55, 65 and 72 °C. Soluble chemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential were measured at 0, 24 and 48 h. Higher temperatures improved the amount of solubilized COD, which confirmed previously reported results. Nevertheless, solubilization mostly took place during the first 24 h. The rate of methane production in post-hydrolysis BMPs increased after 48 h hydrolysis time, but not after 24 h. The first order kinetic constant rose by 40% on average. No correlation was observed between soluble COD and downstream methane production rate, indicating a possible modification of the physical structure of the particulate solids during the hydrolytic stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unravelling pathways downstream Sox6 induction in K562 erythroid cells by proteomic analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barbarani, Gloria

    2017-10-20

    The Sox6 transcription factor is crucial for terminal maturation of definitive red blood cells. Sox6-null mouse fetuses present misshapen and nucleated erythrocytes, due to impaired actin assembly and cytoskeleton stability. These defects are accompanied with a reduced survival of Sox6-/- red blood cells, resulting in a compensated anemia. Sox6-overexpression in K562 cells and in human primary ex vivo erythroid cultures enhances erythroid differentiation and leads to hemoglobinization, the hallmark of erythroid maturation. To obtain an overview on processes downstream to Sox6 expression, we performed a differential proteomic analysis on human erythroid K562 cells overexpressing Sox6. Sox6-overexpression induces dysregulation of 64 proteins, involved in cytoskeleton remodeling and in protein synthesis, folding and trafficking, key processes for erythroid maturation. Moreover, 43 out of 64 genes encoding for differentially expressed proteins contain within their proximal regulatory regions sites that are bound by SOX6 according to ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets and are possible direct SOX6 targets. SAR1B, one of the most induced proteins upon Sox6 overexpression, shares a conserved regulatory module, composed by a double SOX6 binding site and a GATA1 consensus, with the adjacent SEC24 A gene. Since both genes encode for COPII components, this element could concur to the coordinated expression of these proteins during erythropoiesis.

  7. Wake Measurement Downstream of a Hybrid Wing Body Model with Blown Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Jones, Gregory S.; Allan, Brian G.; Westra, Bryan W.; Collins, Scott W.; Zeune, Cale H.

    2010-01-01

    Flow-field measurements were obtained in the wake of a full-span Hybrid Wing Body model with internally blown flaps. The test was performed at the NASA Langley 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel at low speeds. Off-body measurements were obtained with a 7-hole probe rake survey system. Three model configurations were investigated. At 0deg angle of attack the surveys were completed with 0deg and 60deg flap deflections. At 10deg angle of attack the wake surveys were completed with a slat and a 60deg flap deflection. The 7-hole probe results further quantified two known swirling regions (downstream of the outboard flap edge and the inboard/outboard flap juncture) for the 60deg flap cases with blowing. Flowfield results and the general trends are very similar for the two blowing cases at nozzle pressure ratios of 1.37 and 1.56. High downwash velocities correlated with the enhanced lift for the 60deg flap cases with blowing. Jet-induced effects are the largest at the most inboard station for all (three) velocity components due in part to the larger inboard slot height. The experimental data are being used to improve computational tools for high-lift wings with integrated powered-lift technologies.

  8. Lamellipodia nucleation by filopodia depends on integrin occupancy and downstream Rac1 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, Herve; Depraz-Depland, Adeline; Planus, Emmanuelle; Vianay, Benoit; Chaussy, Jacques; Grichine, Alexei; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Block, Marc R.

    2008-01-01

    Time-lapse video-microscopy unambiguously shows that fibroblast filopodia are the scaffold of lamellipodia nucleation that allows anisotropic cell spreading. This process was dissected into elementary stages by monitoring cell adhesion on micropatterned extracellular matrix arrays of various pitches. Adhesion structures are stabilized by contact with the adhesive plots and subsequently converted into lamellipodia-like extensions starting at the filopodia tips. This mechanism progressively leads to full cell spreading. Stable expression of the dominant-negative Rac1 N17 impairs this change in membrane extension mode and stops cell spreading on matrix arrays. Similar expression of the dominant-negative Cdc42 N17 impairs cell spreading on homogenous and structured substrate, suggesting that filopodia extension is a prerequisite for cell spreading in this model. The differential polarity of the nucleation of lamellipodial structures by filopodia on homogenous and structured surfaces starting from the cell body and of filopodia tip, respectively, suggested that this process is triggered by areas that are in contact with extracellular matrix proteins for longer times. Consistent with this view, wild-type cells cannot spread on microarrays made of function blocking or neutral anti-β 1 integrin antibodies. However, stable expression of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant rescues the cell ability to spread on these integrin microarrays. Thereby, lamellipodia nucleation by filopodia requires integrin occupancy by matrix substrate and downstream Rac1 signaling

  9. The human cytochrome P450 3A locus. Gene evolution by capture of downstream exons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finta, C; Zaphiropoulos, P G

    2000-12-30

    Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone, we have mapped the human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) locus containing the genes encoding for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7. The genes lie in a head-to-tail orientation in the order of 3A4, 3A7 and 3A5. In both intergenic regions (3A4-3A7 and 3A7-3A5), we have detected several additional cytochrome P450 3A exons, forming two CYP3A pseudogenes. These pseudogenes have the same orientation as the CYP3A genes. To our surprise, a 3A7 mRNA species has been detected in which the exons 2 and 13 of one of the pseudogenes (the one that is downstream of 3A7) are spliced after the 3A7 terminal exon. This results in an mRNA molecule that consists of the 13 3A7 exons and two additional exons at the 3' end. The additional two exons originating from the pseudogene are in an altered reading frame and consequently have the capability to code a completely different amino acid sequence than the canonical CYP3A exons 2 and 13. These findings may represent a generalized evolutionary process with genes having the potential to capture neighboring sequences and use them as functional exons.

  10. The downstream side of the nuclear fuel cycle. Tome II: Electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Galley, R.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Office's continuing work in the nuclear field, Mr. Christian Bataille and Mr. Robert Galley, Members of Parliament for the Nord and Aube departements respectively, published in June 1998 the first part of their investigation into the downstream side of the nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the work done in application of the law of 30 December 1991 concerning research into radioactive waste management. This document supplements that initial technical approach with a technical and economic study of the costs of generating electricity. To begin with, the performance of existing nuclear generating plant is examined, in particular the past, present and future contributions of this plant to the growth and competitiveness of the French economy. Secondly, the competitiveness of the different generating systems is analysed with a view to the construction of new facilities, using the method of discounted average costs which is at present the standard approach governing investment decisions, and identifying the different ways in which the said systems are dealt with as regards the cost categories considered. The potential contributions of external factor analysis and the calculation of external costs are then reviewed in order to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the different electricity generating systems on a more global basis. The report includes more than a hundred tables of data and cost curves upon which the Rapporteurs base their comments, conclusions and recommendations

  11. Critical interactionism: an upstream-downstream approach to health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Diane Cocozza; Burbank, Patricia M

    2011-01-01

    Currently, per capita health care expenditures in the United States are more than 20% higher than any other country in the world and more than twice the average expenditure for European countries, yet the United States ranks 37th in life expectancy. Clearly, the health care system is not succeeding in improving the health of the US population with its focus on illness care for individuals. A new theoretical approach, critical interactionism, combines symbolic interactionism and critical social theory to provide a guide for addressing health care problems from both an upstream and downstream approach. Concepts of meaning from symbolic interactionism and emancipation from critical perspective move across system levels to inform and reform health care for individuals, organizations, and societies. This provides a powerful approach for health care reform, moving back and forth between the micro and macro levels. Areas of application to nursing practice with several examples (patients with obesity; patients who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender; workplace bullying and errors), nursing education, and research are also discussed.

  12. AS101 prevents diabetic nephropathy progression and mesangial cell dysfunction: regulation of the AKT downstream pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Israel Shemesh

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells, mesangial expansion, hypertrophy and extracellular matrix accumulation. Previous data have cross-linked PKB (AKT to TGFβ induced matrix modulation. The non-toxic compound AS101 has been previously shown to favorably affect renal pathology in various animal models and inhibits AKT activity in leukemic cells. Here, we studied the pharmacological properties of AS101 against the progression of rat DN and high glucose-induced mesangial dysfunction. In-vivo administration of AS101 to Streptozotocin injected rats didn't decreased blood glucose levels but ameliorated kidney hypotrophy, proteinuria and albuminuria and downregulated cortical kidney phosphorylation of AKT, GSK3β and SMAD3. AS101 treatment of primary rat glomerular mesangial cells treated with high glucose significantly reduced their elevated proliferative ability, as assessed by XTT assay and cell cycle analysis. This reduction was associated with decreased levels of p-AKT, increased levels of PTEN and decreased p-GSK3β and p-FoxO3a expression. Pharmacological inhibition of PI3K, mTORC1 and SMAD3 decreased HG-induced collagen accumulation, while inhibition of GSK3β did not affect its elevated levels. AS101 also prevented HG-induced cell growth correlated to mTOR and (rpS6 de-phosphorylation. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of the AKT downstream pathway by AS101 has clinical potential in alleviating the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  13. CypA, a gene downstream of HIF-1α, promotes the development of PDAC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α is a highly important transcription factor involved in cell metabolism. HIF-1α promotes glycolysis and inhibits of mitochondrial respiration in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. In response to tumor hypoxia, cyclophilin A (CypA is over-expressed in various cancer types, and is associated with cell apoptosis, tumor invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance in PDAC. In this study, we showed that both HIF-1α and CypA expression were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tumor stage. The expression of CypA was correlated with HIF-1α. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression of CypA markedly decreased or increased following the suppression or over-expression of HIF-1α in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that HIF-1α could directly bind to the hypoxia response element (HRE in the CypA promoter regions and regulated CypA expression. Consistent with other studies, HIF-1α and CypA promoted PDAC cell proliferation and invasion, and suppressed apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, we proved the combination effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and cyclosporin A both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggested that,CypA, a gene downstream of HIF-1α, could promote the development of PDAC. Thus, CypA might serve as a potential therapeutic target for PDAC.

  14. Alliances and joint ventures - M and A fever in the U.S. downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B.

    1998-01-01

    The trend toward restructuring and consolidation in the petroleum refining industry has accelerated during 1998. The primary focus of this paper was on the trend toward consolidation in the refining industry in the United States. A similar trend is occurring in the petrochemical industry and in associated downstream industries. Industry perspectives, providing a basic framework of expectations for the U.S. refining industry, driving forces behind the merger and acquisition fever, potential benefits of consolidation, and future perspectives on the industry were addressed. Poor profitability and crude oil price volatility were identified as the principal underlying causes of consolidation. No recovery in crude oil prices was expected to occur in the foreseeable future, although an eventual recovery to a price level in the $16-$18/barrel range was considered a reasonable expectation. Further challenges, by way of trends in crude oil quality, developments in product markets, environmental issues, technological change and the potential threat from alternative fuels will continue to plague the industry for some time to come. It is safe to predict that because of poor profitability (average of 2.4 per cent over the past 10 years), the refining industry will continue to focus on improving its profit margin, and to reduce the cost of its operations within existing facilities. Diversification, optimization of links to retail/marketing, integration of petrochemicals, restructuring, consolidation and ownership changes, joint ventures were predicted as the features that will best characterize the industry in the foreseeable future. 24 figs

  15. DREAM (Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator contributes to synaptic depression and contextual fear memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Long-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM, a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, binds specifically to DNA and several nucleoproteins regulating gene expression and with proteins outside the nucleus to regulate membrane excitability or calcium homeostasis. DREAM is highly expressed in the central nervous system including the hippocampus and cortex; however, the roles of DREAM in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity have not been investigated. Taking advantage of transgenic mice overexpressing a Ca2+-insensitive DREAM mutant (TgDREAM, we used integrative methods including electrophysiology, biochemistry, immunostaining, and behavior tests to study the function of DREAM in synaptic transmission, long-term plasticity and fear memory in hippocampal CA1 region. We found that NMDA receptor but not AMPA receptor-mediated current was decreased in TgDREAM mice. Moreover, synaptic plasticity, such as long-term depression (LTD but not long-term potentiation (LTP, was impaired in TgDREAM mice. Biochemical experiments found that DREAM interacts with PSD-95 and may inhibit NMDA receptor function through this interaction. Contextual fear memory was significantly impaired in TgDREAM mice. By contrast, sensory responses to noxious stimuli were not affected. Our results demonstrate that DREAM plays a novel role in postsynaptic modulation of the NMDA receptor, and contributes to synaptic plasticity and behavioral memory.

  16. Exploring continuous and integrated strategies for the up- and downstream processing of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Bárbara; Aguiar, Tiago; Silva, Marta M; Silva, Ricardo J S; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Pineda, Earl; Peixoto, Cristina; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula M

    2015-11-10

    The integration of up- and downstream unit operations can result in the elimination of hold steps, thus decreasing the footprint, and ultimately can create robust closed system operations. This type of design is desirable for the bioprocess of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), where high numbers of pure cells, at low volumes, need to be delivered for therapy applications. This study reports a proof of concept of the integration of a continuous perfusion culture in bioreactors with a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system for the concentration and washing of hMSC. Moreover, we have also explored a continuous alternative for concentrating hMSC. Results show that expanding cells in a continuous perfusion operation mode provided a higher expansion ratio, and led to a shift in cells' metabolism. TFF operated either in continuous or discontinuous allowed to concentrate cells, with high cell recovery (>80%) and viability (>95%); furthermore, continuous TFF permitted to operate longer with higher cell concentrations. Continuous diafiltration led to higher protein clearance (98%) with lower cell death, when comparing to discontinuous diafiltration. Overall, an integrated process allowed for a shorter process time, recovering 70% of viable hMSC (>95%), with no changes in terms of morphology, immunophenotype, proliferation capacity and multipotent differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contaminant monitoring of biota downstream of a radioactive liquid waste treatment facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.D.; Biggs, J.R.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Small mammals, plants, and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfall number-sign 051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation/ingestion or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. The pelt was separated from the carcass of each animal and both were analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for americium ( 241 Am), strontium ( 90 Sr), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu), and total uranium (U). With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring

  18. Geomorphic analysis of the river response to sedimentation downstream of Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Curran, Christopher A.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Kimball, Halley K.; Gish, Casey C.

    2012-01-01

    A study of the geomorphology of rivers draining Mount Rainier, Washington, was completed to identify sources of sediment to the river network; to identify important processes in the sediment delivery system; to assess current sediment loads in rivers draining Mount Rainier; to evaluate if there were trends in streamflow or sediment load since the early 20th century; and to assess how rates of sedimentation might continue into the future using published climate-change scenarios. Rivers draining Mount Rainier carry heavy sediment loads sourced primarily from the volcano that cause acute aggradation in deposition reaches as far away as the Puget Lowland. Calculated yields ranged from 2,000 tonnes per square kilometer per year [(tonnes/km2)/yr] on the upper Nisqually River to 350 (tonnes/km2)/yr on the lower Puyallup River, notably larger than sediment yields of 50–200 (tonnes/km2)/yr typical for other Cascade Range rivers. These rivers can be assumed to be in a general state of sediment surplus. As a result, future aggradation rates will be largely influenced by the underlying hydrology carrying sediment downstream. The active-channel width of rivers directly draining Mount Rainier in 2009, used as a proxy for sediment released from Mount Rainier, changed little between 1965 and 1994 reflecting a climatic period that was relatively quiet hydrogeomorphically. From 1994 to 2009, a marked increase in geomorphic disturbance caused the active channels in many river reaches to widen. Comparing active-channel widths of glacier-draining rivers in 2009 to the distance of glacier retreat between 1913 and 1994 showed no correlation, suggesting that geomorphic disturbance in river reaches directly downstream of glaciers is not strongly governed by the degree of glacial retreat. In contrast, there was a correlation between active-channel width and the percentage of superglacier debris mantling the glacier, as measured in 1971. A conceptual model of sediment delivery processes

  19. Simulation-Optimization Framework for Synthesis and Design of Natural Gas Downstream Utilization Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad A. Al-Sobhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many potential diversification and conversion options are available for utilization of natural gas resources, and several design configurations and technology choices exist for conversion of natural gas to value-added products. Therefore, a detailed mathematical model is desirable for selection of optimal configuration and operating mode among the various options available. In this study, we present a simulation-optimization framework for the optimal selection of economic and environmentally sustainable pathways for natural gas downstream utilization networks by optimizing process design and operational decisions. The main processes (e.g., LNG, GTL, and methanol production, along with different design alternatives in terms of flow-sheeting for each main processing unit (namely syngas preparation, liquefaction, N2 rejection, hydrogen, FT synthesis, methanol synthesis, FT upgrade, and methanol upgrade units, are used for superstructure development. These processes are simulated using ASPEN Plus V7.3 to determine the yields of different processing units under various operating modes. The model has been applied to maximize total profit of the natural gas utilization system with penalties for environmental impact, represented by CO2eq emission obtained using ASPEN Plus for each flowsheet configuration and operating mode options. The performance of the proposed modeling framework is demonstrated using a case study.

  20. MIXING LOSSES INVESTIGATION DOWNSTREAM OF TURBINE BLADE CASCADE WITH COOLANT FLOW BLOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASSIM HAMEED YOUSIF

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of noise and vibration characteristics of turbomachinery has caused by wakes. The characteristics of the wake, the wake decay, the path that it follows, and the mechanisms of mixing losses generated due to the mixing of blade trailing edge cold jet issued into the hot cross flow are important to find adequate solution to the problem. At the present work the wake characteristic was observed by introducing experimental work inside a cascade test rig to investigate the wake domain downstream of blade cascade with the aid of five-hole probe. The case studies were done with cold jets blowing ratios 1.58, 1.667 and 1.935 with jet stream wise angle and jet lateral injection angle 37.5° and 35 º respectively. The measurement showed that there is a certain harmonization in the region of high reverse pressure loss coefficient which reflects the concentration of wake region. Also it was observed three distinct wake regions located in the centre of the passage vortex region. The wake characteristics measurements of the movement path, the growth of wake width, and the physical awareness of the wake propagating may help to explain the mechanisms of mixing losses.