Sample records for downs england focusing

  1. Periodontal disease in individuals with Down Syndrome: genetic focus

    Lícia Bezerra Cavalcante


    Full Text Available Fundamental concepts of etiology, inheritance and clinical characteristics of Down syndrome are used in this review as a basis for submission of studies that focus on periodontal disease in individuals with Down syndrome, since almost 100% of them develop the disease in adult life. It is believed that in association with environmental and cultural factors related to hygiene and disabilities of coordination, the immunological characteristics that are found altered in individuals with Down syndrome, such as deficient neutrophil chemotaxis and reduced number of mature T lymphocytes, may contribute to the greater prevalence and severity of periodontal involvement in patients with Down syndrome. Moreover, the pattern of periodontal destruction observed in individuals with Down syndrome is consistent with aggressive periodontitis, with a predominance of periodontopathogens such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythensis during childhood and adolescence of Down’s syndrome patients. It is possible to note a relationship between the development of molecular techniques and the evolution of knowledge about Down syndrome, for example: identification of the trisomy syndrome by observing only part of chromosome 21 (distal long arm; identification of genes in this trisomic region and the pattern of superexpression (or not of these genes. Moreover, in this review future perspectives are presented with regard to better understanding Down syndrome in the genetic context, which will reflect in more individualized and effective clinical treatments that will provide these patients with a better quality of life.

  2. Autism characteristics and behavioural disturbances in ~ 500 children with Down's syndrome in England and Wales.

    Warner, Georgina; Moss, Joanna; Smith, Patrick; Howlin, Patricia


    Recent research shows that a significant minority of children with Down's syndrome (DS) also meet diagnostic criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study investigated what proportion of children aged 6-15 years with a confirmed diagnosis of DS in England and Wales display autistic-type behaviours, and explored the characteristics of this group of children. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was used to screen for autism characteristics and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to explore behavioural difficulties. The proportion of children who met the cut-off score for ASD on the SCQ (total score ≥ 15) was 37.7% (95% CI: 33.4-42.0%); for autism (total score ≥ 22) the proportion was 16.5% (95% CI: 13.2-19.8%). Children who met the cut-off for ASD were significantly more likely to be reported as having emotional symptoms, conduct problems and hyperactivity on the SDQ than children who scored well below cut-off (total score autism characteristics on the SCQ was atypical compared with individuals with idiopathic ASD. The pervasiveness of ASD in children with DS in England and Wales is substantially higher than in the general population. These children also experience significantly greater behavioural problems than children with DS only. Early detection of autism characteristics is important for appropriate intervention. However, the unusual profile of autism characteristics in this group may affect the recognition of the disorder and hinder the implementation of appropriate interventions. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Down-regulating narcissistic tendencies: communal focus reduces state narcissism.

    Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H


    Narcissism has been conceptualized as a set of coherent, mutually reinforcing attributes that orients individuals toward self-enhancement and positive self-feelings. In this view, reducing one element of narcissism--such as a greater concern for agency than communion--may situationally reduce narcissism in a state-like manner. Across five studies, we found that increasing communal focus toward others decreases state narcissism. In Study 1, participants induced to feel empathy reported less state narcissism. In Studies 2 to 4, participants primed with interdependent self-construal reported less state narcissism than control participants and those primed with independent self-construal. Furthermore, in Study 4, changes in state narcissism mediated changes in desire for fame and perceptions that others deserve help. Thus, changes in one element of narcissism may situationally reduce narcissistic tendencies. These findings suggest that narcissism is more state-like and context-dependent than previously assumed.

  4. Apple Down 152: a putative case of syphilis from sixth century AD Anglo-Saxon England.

    Cole, Garrard; Waldron, Tony


    This report describes a putative case of a treponemal infection observed on a skeleton of a young male adult from the Apple Down Anglo-Saxon cemetery dating to the sixth century AD, accompanied by grave goods indicative of a high status burial. The skeleton is well preserved and almost complete. The pathological evidence includes an extensive area of lytic destruction to the frontal bone of the skull, widespread profuse bilateral symmetrical periosteal reaction affecting scapulae, clavicles, arms, legs, hands, feet and ribs. There is also evidence of gummatous destruction on some of the long bones. Application of a differential diagnosis of all probable diseases exhibiting the individual symptoms leads to a clear conclusion that the person was infected with a treponemal pathogen. The skeleton shows none of the stigmata associated with the congenital form of treponemal disease. We propose that the evidence suggests a possible case of venereal syphilis rather than one of the endemic forms of treponemal disease. This diagnosis is based on the geographical pathogen range, the apparent low prevalence of the disease, significant social upheaval at the time, the high social status and early age of death of the individual. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Type I parametric down conversion of highly focused Gaussian beams in finite length crystals

    Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Jáuregui, R


    This paper presents a study of the correlations in wave vector space of photon pairs generated by type I spontaneous parametric down conversion using a Gaussian pump beam. The analysis covers both moderate focused and highly focused regimes, paying special attention to the angular spectrum and the conditional angular spectrum. Simple analytic expressions are derived that allow a detailed study of the dependence of these spectra on the waist of the source and the length of the nonlinear crystal. These expressions are in good agreement with numerical expectations and reported experimental results. They are used to make a systematic search of optimization parameters that improve the feasibility of using highly focused Gaussian beams to generate idler and signal photons with predetermined mean values and spread of their transverse wave vectors. (papers)

  6. Perceptual learning to reduce sensory eye dominance beyond the focus of top-down visual attention.

    Xu, Jingping P; He, Zijiang J; Ooi, Teng Leng


    Perceptual learning is an important means for the brain to maintain its agility in a dynamic environment. Top-down focal attention, which selects task-relevant stimuli against competing ones in the background, is known to control and select what is learned in adults. Still unknown, is whether the adult brain is able to learn highly visible information beyond the focus of top-down attention. If it is, we should be able to reveal a purely stimulus-driven perceptual learning occurring in functions that are largely determined by the early cortical level, where top-down attention modulation is weak. Such an automatic, stimulus-driven learning mechanism is commonly assumed to operate only in the juvenile brain. We performed perceptual training to reduce sensory eye dominance (SED), a function that taps on the eye-of-origin information represented in the early visual cortex. Two retinal locations were simultaneously stimulated with suprathreshold, dichoptic orthogonal gratings. At each location, monocular cueing triggered perception of the grating images of the weak eye and suppression of the strong eye. Observers attended only to one location and performed orientation discrimination of the gratings seen by the weak eye, while ignoring the highly visible gratings at the second, unattended, location. We found SED was not only reduced at the attended location, but also at the unattended location. Furthermore, other untrained visual functions mediated by higher cortical levels improved. An automatic, stimulus-driven learning mechanism causes synaptic alterations in the early cortical level, with a far-reaching impact on the later cortical levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knee Deformities in Children With Down Syndrome: A Focus on Knee Malalignment.

    Duque Orozco, Maria Del Pilar; Abousamra, Oussama; Chen, Brian Po-Jung; Rogers, Kenneth J; Sees, Julieanne P; Miller, Freeman

    Patellofemoral instability (PFI) has been the most reported knee abnormality in people with Down syndrome. Other reported knee abnormalities have been associated with PFI and different management approaches have been described with variable outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomic variations of the knee in children with Down syndrome. A comparison between knees with and without PFI was performed and our experience in treating knee abnormalities in Down syndrome was also reported. Records of all children with Down syndrome were reviewed. Two groups were identified (knees with and without PFI). Radiographic measurements included the mechanical and anatomic lateral distal femoral angles, medial proximal tibial angle, angle of depression of medial tibial plateau, lateral tibial translation, and distal femoral physis-joint angle. On the lateral view, Insall-Salvati and Blackburne-Peel ratios were measured. The sulcus angle was measured on the tangential view. Measurements were compared between the 2 groups (with and without PFI).Knees with PFI were divided into 3 subgroups based on their treatment (group A: surgical valgus correction, group B: surgical soft tissue procedures for PFI, and group C: conservative treatment). Preoperative radiographs were used for the surgical group and last available radiographs were used for the conservative group. Clinical and radiographic data were compared between the groups. For groups A and B, clinical and radiographic data were also compared between preoperative and last visits. Of the 581 children with Down syndrome, 5% (31 children: 22 females, 9 males) had PFI in 56 knees. Mean age at diagnosis was 11.5±3.5 years. Of the remaining 550 children, 75 children had radiographs for 130 knees. Knees with PFI had significantly more valgus and a larger distal femoral physis-joint angle. Depression of the medial tibial plateau and lateral tibial translation were noted in knees with PFI. Insall-Salvati ratio was higher

  8. The effect of problem-focused coping strategy training on psychological symptoms of mothers of children with down syndrome.

    Pourmohamadreza-Tajrishi, Masoume; Azadfallah, Parviz; Hemmati Garakani, Sahel; Bakhshi, Enayatollah


    Anxiety is one of the most common reactions that parents show while understanding their children's intellectual disability due to Down syndrome. Anxiety leads parents not to develop appropriate relations with their children, subsequently their psychological health are at risk. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of problem-focused coping strategy training on psychological symptoms of mothers with Down child. This was an experimental study with pretest and posttest design with case and control group. Sixty-four mothers were selected randomly from Iranian Down Syndrome Charity Society. They completed Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). They were assigned to experimental and control groups in equal. Experimental group participated in 12 training sessions (once a week; 60 minutes for each session) and received problem-focused coping strategy program, but control group did not. After 12(th) session, all subjects completed SCL-90-R again. Analysis of covariance was used for analyzing the data. There was a significant difference (Pstrategy-training program led to improve family's perception towards the child and subsequently promote of mental health of mothers with Down children.

  9. Assessment of the microbiological safety of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England, with a focus on Salmonella.

    Little, C L; Jemmott, W; Surman-Lee, S; Hucklesby, L; de Pinnal, E


    There is little published information on the prevalence of Salmonella in edible nut kernels. A study in early 2008 of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England was undertaken to assess the microbiological safety of this product. A total of 727 nut kernel samples of different varieties were examined. Overall, Salmonella and Escherichia coli were detected from 0.2 and 0.4% of edible roasted nut kernels. Of the nut varieties examined, Salmonella Havana was detected from 1 (4.0%) sample of pistachio nuts, indicating a risk to health. The United Kingdom Food Standards Agency was immediately informed, and full investigations were undertaken. Further examination established the contamination to be associated with the pistachio kernels and not the partly opened shells. Salmonella was not detected in other varieties tested (almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts). E. coli was found at low levels (range of 3.6 to 4/g) in walnuts (1.4%), almonds (1.2%), and Brazils (0.5%). The presence of Salmonella is unacceptable in edible nut kernels. Prevention of microbial contamination in these products lies in the application of good agricultural, manufacturing, and storage practices together with a hazard analysis and critical control points system that encompass all stages of production, processing, and distribution.

  10. Birthplace choices: what are the information needs of women when choosing where to give birth in England? A qualitative study using online and face to face focus groups.

    Hinton, Lisa; Dumelow, Carol; Rowe, Rachel; Hollowell, Jennifer


    Current clinical guidelines and national policy in England support offering 'low risk' women a choice of birth setting. Options include: home, free-standing midwifery unit (FMU), alongside midwifery unit (AMU) or obstetric unit (OU). This study, which is part of a broader project designed to inform policy on 'choice' in relation to childbirth, aimed to provide evidence on UK women's experiences of choice and decision-making in the period since the publication of the Birthplace findings (2011) and new NICE guidelines (2014). This paper reports on findings relating to women's information needs when making decisions about where to give birth. A qualitative focus group study including 69 women in the last trimester of pregnancy in England in 2015-16. Seven focus groups were conducted online via a bespoke web portal, and one was face-to-face. To explore different aspects of women's experience, each group included women with specific characteristics or options; planning a home birth, living in areas with lots of choice, living in areas with limited choice, first time mothers, living close to a FMU, living in opt-out AMU areas, living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas and planning to give birth in an OU. Focus group transcripts were analysed thematically. Women drew on multiple sources when making choices about where to give birth. Sources included; the Internet, friends' recommendations and experiences, antenatal classes and their own personal experiences. Their midwife was not the main source of information. Women wanted the option to discuss and consider their birth preferences throughout their pregnancy, not at a fixed point. Birthplace choice is informed by many factors. Women may encounter fewer overt obstacles to exercising choice than in the past, but women do not consistently receive information about birthplace options from their midwife at a time and in a manner that they find helpful. Introducing options early in pregnancy, but deferring decision

  11. The Neo-Liberalisation Policy Agenda and Its Consequences for Education in England: A Focus on Resistance Now and Possibilities for the Future

    Maisuria, Alpesh


    In this article, the author explores the way that neo-liberalism is becoming more entrenched in the fabric of the education system in England. The article begins by setting out a very brief historical trajectory of neo-liberalism to provide a working definition of a complex and disarticulated socio-political and economic system. In part two, this…

  12. England in Europe

    Tyler, Elizabeth Muir

    In England in Europe, Elizabeth Tyler focuses on two histories: the Encomium Emmae Reginae, written for Emma the wife of the Æthelred II and Cnut, and The Life of King Edward, written for Edith the wife of Edward the Confessor. Tyler offers a bold literary and historical analysis of both texts...

  13. Single grain boundary break junction for suspended nanogap electrodes with gapwidth down to 1-2 nm by focused ion beam milling.

    Cui, Ajuan; Liu, Zhe; Dong, Huanli; Wang, Yujin; Zhen, Yonggang; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Hu, Wenping


    Single grain boundary junctions are used for the fabrication of suspended nanogap electrodes with a gapwidth down to 1-2 nm through the break of such junctions by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. With advantages of stability and no debris, such nanogap electrodes are suitable for single molecular electronic device construction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Measuring a film flowing down a tube inner wall using a laser focus displacement meter and an image-processing method

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kobayashi, Kenji


    To elucidate details of the fascinating nonlinear phenomena of waves on a film, spatial temporal knowledge of the interfacial waves is essential. This paper presents an experimental study on waves on a film flowing down a vertical tube inner wall measured with a laser focus displacement meter (LFD) and an image-processing method. As a result, the film thickness was measured within a 1% margin of error by LFD, and the wave velocity was measured within a 10% margin of error by the image-processing. The experimental results are summarized as follows: At entry length L = 900 mm, the wave becomes a two-wave system. In the entry region, L = 216 mm, and 400 mm, the wave amplitude decreases as the flow rate increases, in the same manner as that in a film flowing down a plate wall. The velocity measured by the image processing agreed well with that calculated using Nusselt's theoretical equation and the Ito-Sasaki empirical equation for Reynolds numbers < 250. (author)

  15. Radon atlas of England and Wales

    Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.; Bradley, E.J.; Rees, D.M.


    This new report brings together and updates the information in three earlier reports on radon levels in English and Welsh homes. In particular, data from measurements in over 400,000 homes in England and Wales are presented in tabular format. The tables give the data by various administrative divisions, down to electoral wards for Cornwall, Devon and Somerset and council areas elsewhere and to sector level of the postcode system. The radon probability maps are based on the national grid system and show significantly more locational detail than the previous publications, an extra division in the probability banding to coincide with current Government initiatives on radon in England and, in southwest England, more detailed probability mapping than before - by 1 km grid squares in place of the 5 km grid squares used in Wales and the rest of England. (author)

  16. Facts about Down Syndrome

    ... monitor children with Down syndrome for these conditions. Treatments Down syndrome is a lifelong condition. Services early in life ... of these services focus on helping children with Down syndrome develop to their ... therapy, and they are typically offered through early intervention ...

  17. Down Syndrome

    ... Down syndrome increases as a woman gets older. Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include ... occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many ... Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of ...

  18. Sliding down the U-shape? A dynamic panel investigation of the age-well-being relationship, focusing on young adults.

    Piper, Alan T


    Much of the work within economics attempting to understand the relationship between age and well-being has focused on the U-shape, whether it exists and, more recently, potential reasons for its existence. This paper focuses on one part of the lifecycle rather than the whole: young people. This focus offers a better understanding of the age-well-being relationship for young people, and helps with increasing general understanding regarding the U-shape itself. The empirical estimations employ both static and dynamic panel estimations, with the latter preferred for several reasons. The empirical results are in line with the U-shape, and the results from the dynamic analysis indicate that this result is a lifecycle effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Home-mortgage lending trends in New England in 2010

    Ana Patricia Muñoz


    This brief analysis of home-mortgage lending trends in New England is based on data collected under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA). HMDA provides information on mortgage lending trends and includes data by loan purpose, type of loan, income, and the race and ethnicity of borrowers. In this report we focus on home-purchase and refinance loans in New England.

  20. Use of focused acoustics for cell disruption to provide ultra scale-down insights of microbial homogenization and its bioprocess impact--recovery of antibody fragments from rec E. coli.

    Li, Qiang; Aucamp, Jean P; Tang, Alison; Chatel, Alex; Hoare, Mike


    An ultra scale-down (USD) device that provides insight of how industrial homogenization impacts bioprocess performance is desirable in the biopharmaceutical industry, especially at the early stage of process development where only a small quantity of material is available. In this work, we assess the effectiveness of focused acoustics as the basis of an USD cell disruption method to mimic and study high-pressure, step-wise homogenization of rec Escherichia coli cells for the recovery of an intracellular protein, antibody fragment (Fab'). The release of both Fab' and of overall protein follows first-order reaction kinetics with respect to time of exposure to focused acoustics. The rate constant is directly proportional to applied electrical power input per unit volume. For nearly total protein or Fab' release (>99%), the key physical properties of the disruptate produced by focused acoustics, such as cell debris particle size distribution and apparent viscosity show good agreement with those for homogenates produced by high-pressure homogenization operated to give the same fractional release. The only key difference is observed for partial disruption of cells where focused acoustics yields a disruptate of lower viscosity than homogenization, evidently due to a greater extent of polynucleic acids degradation. Verification of this USD approach to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization is achieved using USD centrifugation to demonstrate the same sedimentation characteristics of disruptates prepared using both the scaled-down focused acoustic and the pilot-scale homogenization methods for the same fraction of protein release. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Doctor Down

    N.V. Nagornaya


    Full Text Available The article presents the biographical data of John Langdon Down, his invaluable contribution to the development of rehabilitation programs for children with Down syndrome. The basis of these programs was the socialization of people with intellectual disabilities. In doctor Down’s rehabilitation center there were used methods, including health care, education, physical education, the formation of correct behavior.

  2. Involuntary transfer of a top-down attentional set into the focus of attention: evidence from a contingent attentional capture paradigm.

    Moore, Katherine Sledge; Weissman, Daniel H


    In the present study, we investigated whether involuntarily directing attention to a target-colored distractor causes the corresponding attentional set to enter a limited-capacity focus of attention, thereby facilitating the identification of a subsequent target whose color matches the same attentional set. As predicted, in Experiment 1, contingent attentional capture effects from a target-colored distractor were only one half to one third as large when subsequent target identification relied on the same (vs. a different) attentional set. In Experiment 2, this effect was eliminated when all of the target colors matched the same attentional set, arguing against bottom-up perceptual priming of the distractor's color as an alternative account of our findings. In Experiment 3, this effect was reversed when a target-colored distractor appeared after the target, ruling out a feature-based interference account of our findings. We conclude that capacity limitations in working memory strongly influence contingent attentional capture when multiple attentional sets guide selection.

  3. England: a healthier nation.

    McInnes, D; Barnes, R


    HINTS AND TIPS: Several difficult challenges have had to be tackled in developing a health policy for England. Although not all the answers have yet been found and the learning process continues, some lessons can be drawn from experience to date. CONSULTATION: Public consultation and the involvement of a wide range of individuals and groups at all levels and stages is crucial to implementing the policy. Without it, The health of the nation would have remained a paper exercise and the local ownership of the policy that has been achieved in some places could not have come about. This principle has been adopted for Our healthier nation, which will benefit from extensive consultation. Communication of the concepts underlying the policy and of ideas about its strategic implementation is also crucial. A wide variety of mechanisms have been used in England, and this has helped to maintain momentum and to keep health policy high on the agenda. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the Health of the Nation calendar and the Target publication have been especially popular. Target in particular has been and continues to be an effective medium for disseminating ideas and examples of successful implementation strategies. In addition, publication of The health of the nation material on the Internet widened its potential audience considerably. The publication of The health of the nation was especially timely, not only in terms of gaining support and commitment from the leadership of the Department of Health and other government departments, but also across the political spectrum. In addition, the then-recent NHS reforms gave new opportunities for health policy to be incorporated into health service practice. Our healthier nation is also being launched in tandem with a white paper on health services, and the links between them are being stated explicitly. COMMITMENT: As indicated above, commitment from the top is essential to the success of the strategy; this applies not only to the

  4. Down Syndrome = Sindrome de Down.

    Pueschel, S. M.; Glasgow, R. E.

    Presented both in English and Spanish, the brochure is primarily concerned with biological and developmental characteristics of the person with Down's syndrome. An emphasis is on the valuable humanizing influence these individuals have on society. Brief sections in the document discuss the delayed developmental aspects of Down's syndrome; the…

  5. Melmark New England

    Cancro, Lorraine


    This article features Melmark New England, a private, nonprofit, community based organization dedicated to serving children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders, acquired brain injury, neurological diseases and disorders, and severe challenging behaviors. The Melmark parent corporation, a Pennsylvania based provider of services for those…




  7. Geomorphology of New England

    Denny, C.S.


    Widely scattered terrestrial deposits of Cretaceous or Tertiary age and extensive nearshore and fluvial Coastal Plain deposits now largely beneath the sea indicate that the New England region has been above sea level during and since the Late Cretaceous. Estimates of rates of erosion based on sediment load in rivers and on volume of sediments in the Coastal Plain suggest that if the New England highlands had not been uplifted in the Miocene, the area would now be largely a lowland. If the estimated rates of erosion and uplift are of the right order of magnitude, then it is extremely unlikely that any part of the present landscape dates back before Miocene time. The only exception would be lowlands eroded in the early Mesozoic, later buried beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits, and exhumed by stream and glacial erosion during the later Cenozoic. Many of the rocks in the New England highlands are similar to those that underlie the Piedmont province in the central and southern Appalachians, where the relief over large areas is much less than in the highlands of New England. These comparisons suggest that the New England highlands have been upwarped in late Cenozoic time. The uplift took place in the Miocene and may have continued into the Quaternary. The New England landscape is primarily controlled by the underlying bedrock. Erosion and deposition during the Quaternary, related in large part to glaciation, have produced only minor changes in drainage and in topography. Shale and graywacke of Ordovician, Cambrian, and Proterozoic age forming the Taconic highlands, and akalic plutonic rocks of Mesozoic age are all highland makers. Sandstone and shale of Jurassic and Triassic age, similar rocks of Carboniferous age, and dolomite, limestone, and shale of Ordovician and Cambrian age commonly underlie lowlands. High-grade metapelites are more resistant than similar schists of low metamorphic grade and form the highest mountains in New England. Feldspathic rocks tend to

  8. Public Holidays of England



    In England, Christmas Day and Good Friday havebeen holidays (literally ’Holy Days’) for religious reasonssince the establishment of Christianity in this country.Christmas is celebrated on December 25, not ChristmasEve as in several other European countries. The otherpublic holidays (or ’Bank Holidays’) are Easter Monday,May Day (May 1st), the Spring Bank Holiday (the lastMonday in May), the Summer Bank Holiday (the last

  9. Christmas in England



    In England,Christmas is the most important of all the ’Bank Holidays’ in the year.Two important things,apart from itsreligious significance,help to set this holiday apart fromall others:the custom of giving gifts and the habit ofspending it with family. In the present highly commercialised age we arereminded of Christmas many weeks before the event.In

  10. Markets in New England

    Simpson, J.D.


    Bay State Gas Company is a large American natural gas local distribution company which provides unbundled services and unbundled gas transportation service to about 306,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers in Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire. They operate as Northern Utilities Inc. in Maine and New Hampshire. Bay State Gas Company recently announced a strategic merger with NIPSCO Industries. The merger will allow the company to take advantage of opportunities that stem from their location in a high growth potential region, and the growth potential associated with retail unbundling. New England is a small natural gas market with an annual consumption of about 600 BCF, but the market is greatly under saturated. Only 31 per cent of New England homes heat with natural gas compared to 54 per cent of the U.S. as a whole. Three important changes in the New England energy market have been identified that will help the natural gas industry grow in the region: (1) unbundling of retail natural gas markets, (2) deregulation of electric markets, and (3) development of a new pipeline infrastructure. 7 figs

  11. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.


    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  12. Down syndrome: a cardiovascular perspective

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.


    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skilful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart

  13. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Kassell, Lauren


    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  14. Scaling down

    Ronald L Breiger


    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  15. Talking active citizenship: framing welfare state reform in England and the Netherlands

    Verhoeven, I.; Tonkens, E.


    This article reviews how activation policies frame citizens as individual welfare agents. The analysis focuses on the framing of feeling rules employed by governments that encourage active citizenship, in this instance in the Netherlands and England. In England, encouraging voluntarism is central to

  16. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    Mattei, Paola


    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s,…

  17. 75 FR 16096 - New England Power Generators Association Inc., Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent...


    ...-787-000] New England Power Generators Association Inc., Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent; ISO New England Inc. and New England Power Pool; Notice of Complaint March 24, 2010. Take notice... Inc. (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc. (Respondent) alleging that...

  18. Liberal Conservatism, Vocationalism and Further Education in England

    Fisher, Roy; Simmons, Robin


    Focusing on vocational learning in the English further education (FE) sector and situating it within its social, political and historical context, this paper provides an overview of English attitudes towards the vocational and its subordinate status in relation to "academic" education. It outlines the development of FE in England,…

  19. Changing Landscapes in Safeguarding Babies and Young Children in England

    Lumsden, Eunice


    The importance of safeguarding children from violence is internationally recognised. However, detecting, intervening and protecting children from abuse both within the family and in institutions is complex. This paper specifically focuses on safeguarding in England and how workforce reform in the early years offers the opportunity to forge new…

  20. Social Policy and Governance: Conceptual Reflections on Ageing in England

    Jason L. Powell


    Full Text Available This paper looks in more detail at the incidence and consequence of social policies for older people through the conceptual lens of governmentality (Foucault, 1977 in England. This international paper with focus on England will enable us to consider the implications of the re-figuring of the relationship between the state, older people and helping professions. In many ways, policy provides three trajectories for older people: first, as independent self-managing consumers with private means and resources; second, as people in need of some support to enable them to continue to self-manage; and third, as dependent and unable to commit to self-management. Governmentality provides the theoretical framework through which to view policy and practice that is largely governed by discourses of personalisation, safeguarding, capability and risk for older people in England.

  1. Protecting Geoheritage - Geodiversity Charter for England

    Dunlop, Lesley


    The Geodiversity Charter for England, launched in 2014, sets out the clear vision that England's 'geodiversity is recognised as an integral and vital part of our environment, economy and heritage that must be safeguarded and managed for current and future generations'. England is privileged to be among the most geodiverse places in the world with 700 million years of geological history revealed by our rocks. The white cliffs of Dover, honey coloured Cotswold limestone, granite Dartmoor Tors, are examples of this geodiversity. To maintain and enhance our geodiversity it is important to recognise its role in: • the understanding of England's geological history and global geosciences • natural heritage, both terrestrial and marine, and landscapes in all their diversity • supporting habitats and species and the many essential benefits they provide for society • adaptation to changes in climate and sea-level through sustainable management of land and water and working with natural processes • sustainable economic development • the history, character and cultural development of our society through intellectual growth and creative expression alongside industrial and technological development • public health, quality of life and national well-being and connecting people with the natural environment including active promotion of geotourism. Geodiversity, however, is an often overlooked environmental asset. The vision of the Charter and the work of the English Geodiversity Forum is to encourage good practice and to act as a focus in order to: • raise awareness of the importance, value and relevance of geodiversity to our economic prosperity and comfort and its wider links with the natural environment, landscape, cultural and historical heritage and sense of place • encourage a sense of pride through education and learning, promotion and interpretation • promote careful management of geodiversity through conservation and enhancement of its special

  2. Down Syndrome (For Kids)

    ... Changed What's Life Like for Kids With Down Syndrome? Print en español El síndrome de Down You have probably seen people who have Down syndrome. They have certain physical features, such as a ...

  3. Overview of the New England wind integration. Study and selected results

    Norden, John R.; Henson, William L.W. [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)


    ISO New England commissioned a comprehensive wind integration study to be completed in the early fall of 2010: the New England Wind Integration Study (NEWIS). The NEWIS assesses the efects of scenarios that encompass a range of wind-power penetrations in New England using statistical and simulation analysis including the development of a mesoscale wind-to-power model for the New England and Maritime wind resources areas. It also determines the impacts of integrating increasing amounts of wind generation resources for New England, as well as, the measures that may be available to the ISO for responding to any challenges while enabling the integration of wind-power. This paper provides an overview of the study then focuses on selected near final results, particularly with regard to the varying capacity factor, capacity value and siting that were determined as part of the study. The full results of the NEWIS will be released in the fall of 2010. (orig.)

  4. Focus on focusing



    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  5. Focus on focusing



    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  6. Hello, England Calling

    Goddard, A; van der Laaken, M.; Mesker, R.; Childs, M.; Schnieders, H.L.; van Parreeren, P.; Oomen, J.


    This paper focuses on issues of language and culture as mediated by digital video technology. The research arises from a collaborative, internationally taught module where undergraduates from 4 different countries - the UK, the USA, Sweden and the Netherlands - use discussion forums within a VLE to

  7. Improving accountability through alignment: the role of academic health science centres and networks in England.

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Heitmueller, Axel; Allen, Pauline; Davies, Stephen M; Wells, Glenn; Ford, Gary A; Darzi, Ara; Buchan, Alastair M


    As in many countries around the world, there are high expectations on academic health science centres and networks in England to provide high-quality care, innovative research, and world-class education, while also supporting wealth creation and economic growth. Meeting these expectations increasingly depends on partnership working between university medical schools and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers. However, academic-clinical relationships in England are still characterised by the "unlinked partners" model, whereby universities and their partner teaching hospitals are neither fiscally nor structurally linked, creating bifurcating accountabilities to various government and public agencies. This article focuses on accountability relationships in universities and teaching hospitals, as well as other healthcare providers that form core constituent parts of academic health science centres and networks. The authors analyse accountability for the tripartite mission of patient care, research, and education, using a four-fold typology of accountability relationships, which distinguishes between hierarchical (bureaucratic) accountability, legal accountability, professional accountability, and political accountability. Examples from North West London suggest that a number of mechanisms can be used to improve accountability for the tripartite mission through alignment, but that the simple creation of academic health science centres and networks is probably not sufficient. At the heart of the challenge for academic health science centres and networks is the separation of accountabilities for patient care, research, and education in different government departments. Given that a fundamental top-down system redesign is now extremely unlikely, local academic and clinical leaders face the challenge of aligning their institutions as a matter of priority in order to improve accountability for the tripartite mission from the bottom up. It remains to be

  8. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    Areias, Cristina Maria; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, David


    OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of ...

  9. Bioclim deliverable D8a: development of the rule-based down-scaling methodology for BIOCLIM Work-package 3


    BidiC output. The original rule-based down-scaling methodology has been modified in order to be as objective and quantitative as possible. However, some of the steps still inevitably involve subjective judgement and qualitative analysis. Thus, in order to provide complete traceability and detailed guidance for implementation of the methodology in other regions, the detailed region-specific work involved at Steps 1, 3 and 4 is reported in appendices to this deliverable. The rule-based down-scaling methodology developed here is based on an earlier study for Central England. Thus, development initially focused on Central England, with similar work then undertaken for the other two regions (drawing on the expertise of the French and Spanish country teams and modifying the analyses as appropriate to reflect inter-regional climatic variations). Thus, the Central England work tends to be reported in somewhat greater detail. According to the BIOCLIM proposal, it was intended to apply the rule-based down-scaling methodology to MoBidiC output only. However, after completion of Step 5: Identification of appropriate MoBidiC simulations and variables for the identification of down-scaling rules/thresholds, it became clear that the methodology could also be applied to the BIOCLIM simulations for the next one Million years performed with LLN 2-D NH. The application of the down-scaling methodology to these simulations is outlined in Section 3. Finally, Section 4 provides a summary and conclusions of the rule-based down-scaling methodology

  10. Review: Local Government in England: Centralisation, Autonomy and Control by Colin Corpus, Mark Roberts, Rachel Wall

    Jonathan Carr-West


    Full Text Available Local Government in England: Centralisation, Autonomy and Control is a serious book and an important contribution to the scholarship around local government. It opens however, with a pleasingly comic tableau as academics from England, Portugal and Poland bicker amiably at a conference and on Twitter about whose country is really the most centralised. The rest of the book is devoted to showing why the English academics were right, why it matters and what should be done about it. The main thrust of the text is an analysis of the impact of the dominant policy narratives around centralism and localism. The argument that Copus, Wall and Roberts put forward could be boiled down to the assertion that the problem with local government in England is that it is neither local nor government. But to make this case they first helpfully unpack several sets of concepts that are all too often elided together.

  11. EPA Region 1 - New England Towns, with Population

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New England Town Boundary coverage is a compilation of coverages received from the six New England State GIS Offices. The EPA New England GIS Center appended the...

  12. Ethical analysis of the new proposed mental health legislation in England and Wales

    Lepping Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper ethically analyses arising out the proposed changes to the Mental Health Act for England and Wales. It looks in particular at thea shift in philosophy that the author claims has occurred with the proposals away from rights-focused principles to more utilitarian or outcome-focused principles. It gives examples of these changes and explores itstheir consequences.

  13. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter


    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  14. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    Cristina Maria Areias


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  15. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome.

    Areias, Cristina Maria; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, David


    Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  16. New England Takes Stock of Midterm Elections

    Harney, John O.; Morwick, Carolyn


    The recent midterm elections brought New England two new governors. Rhode Island elected its first woman chief executive in Gina Raimondo (D). Massachusetts elected Charlie Baker (R), a former Harvard Pilgrim CEO and official in the Weld and Cellucci administrations. Otherwise, the New England corner offices cautiously welcomed back incumbents:…

  17. Health economic evaluation in England.

    Raftery, James


    The 2010 National Health Service Constitution for England specified rights and responsibilities, including health economic evaluation for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Joint Committee on Vaccinations and Immunisations. The National Screening Committee and the Health Protection Agency also provide advice to the Government based on health economic evaluation. Each agency largely follows the methods specified by NICE. To distinguish the methods from neoclassical economics they have been termed "extra-welfarist". Key differences include measurement and valuation of both benefits (QALYs) and costs (healthcare related). Policy on discounting has also changed over time and by agency. The debate over having NICE's methods align more closely with neoclassical economics has been prominent in the ongoing development of "value based pricing". The political unacceptability of some decisions has led to special funding for technologies not recommended by NICE. These include the 2002 Multiple Sclerosis Risk Sharing Scheme and the 2010 Cancer Drugs Fund as well as special arrangements for technologies linked to the end of life and for innovation. Since 2009 Patient Access Schemes have made price reductions possible which sometimes enables drugs to meet NICE's cost-effectiveness thresholds. As a result, the National Health Service in England has denied few technologies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Clinical negligence in hospitals in France and England.

    Kelly, Michael J; de Bono Q C, John; Métayer, Patrice


    This article arose from the back-to-back presentations by Michael Kelly and Patrice Métayer to the Anglo-French Medical Society in 2013 on the French and English legal systems handling a case of alleged clinical negligence as it proceeds from complaint to settlement or judgment in the two jurisdictions. Both systems have a hospital-based first stage with various avenues being available for amicable resolution, the French version being more regulated and prescribed than the English one. In both jurisdictions fewer than 5% cases go down the criminal route. Before the court is involved, in England there is an elaborate lawyer-controlled phase involving negotiations between the two sides and their experts which is expensive but often leads to pre-trial settlement for significant sums of money. Medical experts are central to all of this. In England they are largely unregulated and entirely advisory in an open market, in France they are both regulated and supervised by judges, being placed on official lists. These experts take a major inquisitorial role in a Debate between the two sides, combining the functions of Single Joint Expert (SJE), arbiter and mentor. If agreement is not reached, a second Debate before a different Expert is arranged. In both countries fewer than 5% cases reach a court for a hearing before a judge. In England a trial is an elaborate lengthy, expensive adversarial contest where all of the issues are rehearsed in full with factual and expert evidence, whereas in France in a contested case the judge reviews the reports of the two Debates with the lawyers who were involved (and not the experts, factual witnesses or parties). © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Focusing ethnography

    Woermann, Niklas


    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  20. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes


    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  1. What Causes Down Syndrome?

    ... Division Offices, Branches & Programs Research Areas Training and Recruitment Division of Intramural Research (DIR) Office of the ... launched DS-Connect® as a safe and secure online registry for people with Down syndrome, their families, ...

  2. Aging and Down Syndrome

    ... to be aw are of the connec tion bet ween Down syndrome and Alzheimer ’s disea se so ... albeing cared for. Make aneffor tto be proactive, thinking ahead to anticipate needs and concerns. x x ...

  3. The Roxby Downs Indenture

    Warnick, L.A.


    The Roxby Downs Indenture is an agreement between the South Australian Government and the companies proposing development at the Roxby Downs uranium deposit. A detailed analysis of the indenture and its ratifying act is presented. The act is intended to provide authority for aspects of performance by either State or developers and security for developers against inconsistent action by the State and interference by third parties

  4. Focus group discussions

    Hennink, Monique M


    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  5. Focused Ethnography

    Hubert Knoblauch


    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  6. A review of Down's syndrome studies and ionizing radiation

    Rose, K.S.B.


    This review collates results from 3 high dose (> 0.1 Gy) and 23 low dose epidemiological studies of parental radiation exposure and Down's syndrome incidence. A pattern of consistent results appears in 13 studies of irradiation received by women for diagnostic purposes. The pattern is an increase in Down's syndrome, the increase being approximately equivalent to an ovarian doubling dose of 20 mGy. The value is definitely not compatible with results from the high dose studies. Results from the other 10 low dose studies were used to test this value but most proved to be unsuitable for a variety of reasons. However, no associations between levels of high natural background and Down's syndrome have been observed in either New England or Aberdeen, which are areas in developed countries where reliable statistics ar collected. (author)

  7. Writing masters and accountants in England – a study of occupation, status and ambition in the early modern period

    Edwards , John Richard


    The purpose of this paper is to address the lack of knowledge of the accounting occupational group in England prior to the formation of professional accounting bodies. It does so by focusing on attempts made by the occupational group of writing masters and accountants to establish a recognisable persona in the public domain, in England, during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, and to enhance that identity by behaving in a manner designed to convince the public of the professionalism ass...

  8. Bookmakers and a Duty of Care: Customers' Views in England.

    Brooks, Graham; Sparrow, Paul


    This paper focuses on customers' views on the extent that bookmakers and individuals are responsible for a duty of care. 72 participants from seven bookmakers in one city in England were interviewed that illustrates customers expect bookmakers to take 'reasonable steps' to avoid exploiting all customers. However, the customers' views recorded in this paper illustrate a range of views on what a duty of care should actually comprise with differences of opinion on the level of bookmakers and individuals level of responsibility, dealing with intoxicated customers, illegal gambling, prevention of excessive and problem gambling and self-exclusion.

  9. Jeremy Bentham and Church of England Education.

    Taylor, Brian


    The author traces Jeremy Bentham's attacks, in 1815 and 1816, on the Church of England's role in the provision of schooling in Britain, particularly his objections to Church policies excluding non-adherents from instruction. (SJL)

  10. Suicide in murderers in England and Wales.

    Lester, David


    In England and Wales, the suicide rate of murderers was positively associated with the male suicide rate in the general population, and both of these rates were positively associated with the unemployment rate.

  11. The public health system in England

    Hunter, David J; Marks, Linda; Smith, Katherine E


    .... The Public Health System in England offers a wide-ranging, provocative and accessible assessment of challenges confronting a public health system, exploring how its parameters have shifted over time...

  12. Second sector cool down


    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  13. The final cool down

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  14. Fertility, the Reproductive Lifespan and the Formal Curriculum in England: A Case for Reassessment

    Littleton, Fiona Kisby


    Historical studies have shown that, since its beginnings, sex education in England has mostly focused on "damage limitation", emphasising only the dangerous inevitability of pregnancy and childbirth after unprotected sex and the hazards of sexually transmitted diseases. This approach is largely based on restrictive notions of teenage…

  15. Commercial Actors and the Governing of Education: The Case of Academy School Sponsors in England

    Papanastasiou, Natalie


    This article explores the ways in which commercial actors are operating in state education by focusing on the case study of England's academies policy. First of all the discussion outlines the development of academies over time and the way in which the policy has provided opportunities for private actors to become involved in the state schooling…

  16. How Technicians Can Lead Science Improvements in Any School: A Small-Scale Study in England

    Jones, Beth; Quinnell, Simon


    This article describes how seven schools in England improved their science provision by focusing on the professional development of their science technicians. In September 2013, the Gatsby Charitable Foundation funded the National Science Learning Centre to lead a project connecting secondary schools with experienced senior science technicians…

  17. The Rise and Fall of Life-Wide Learning for Adults in England

    Tuckett, Alan


    This article analyses policy and practice in social and cultural education for adults in England in the post Second World War era, beginning with the flowering of municipal adult education and the expansion of university extra-mural provision. It tracks the emerging policy focus on extending participation to under-represented groups, and on…

  18. Disrupting Communities of Practice? How "Reluctant" Practitioners View Early Years Workforce Reform in England

    Payler, Jane K.; Locke, Rachel


    This article reports on the views of early years practitioners in England from settings that were identified as "reluctant to engage" with one of the government's key policies, the introduction of Early Years Professional Status (EYPS), to drive forwards workforce reform. Focus groups, interviews and a survey were undertaken in 2009 with…

  19. How Effective Is the Research and Development Ecosystem for England's Schools?

    Godfrey, David; Brown, Chris


    This article examines the role of research and development within England's school system. From a range of literature past and present we argue that six features (three dimensions) should form the focus for action at the institutional, systemic and policy levels. Applying these stress tests to the current system, we suggest that an effective…

  20. Passages to Literature: Essays on Teaching in Australia, Canada, England, the United States, and Wales.

    Milner, Joseph O'Beirne, Ed.; Milner, Lucy Floyd Morcock, Ed.

    Representing Australia, Canada, England, the United States, and Wales, this collection of essays focuses on ways in which teachers can adapt classroom activities and modify writing assignments to encourage personal response and exploration of texts. Essays, their authors, and nationalities are as follows: (1) "The River and Its Banks:…

  1. Neoliberal Globalisation, Managerialism and Higher Education in England: Challenging the Imposed "Order of Things"

    Beckmann, Andrea; Cooper, Charlie


    This article critically explores the consequences of the imposition of neoliberal ideology on a transnational scale on the higher education system. Its particular focus is England where the context of the "new managerialism" continues to dominate the "lifeworlds" of educators and the educated, despite strong concerns about its…

  2. Developing the Whole-School Workforce in England: Building Cultures of Engagement

    Simkins, Tim; Maxwell, Bronwen; Aspinwall, Kath


    Dramatic changes have occurred in the composition of the schools' workforce in England over recent years to incorporate a much higher proportion of support staff. Consequently, policy-makers and school leaders are now placing increasing emphasis on addressing the training and development needs of the whole workforce, rather than solely focusing on…

  3. Leading Learning: Middle Leadership in Schools in England and New Zealand

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Gunter, Helen


    In this article, the authors focus on what is called "middle leadership" in schools in England and "middle management" in New Zealand. Their concern is that despite almost two decades since the introduction of site based management in both countries that devolved significant responsibility for the leadership of learning to…

  4. Innovation in European Vocational Education and Training: Network Learning in England, Finland and Germany

    Heikkila, Eila


    This article presents a comparative study of innovation in vocational education and training (VET) in three innovative European countries: England, Finland and Germany. The focus is on innovation emerging from VET practitioners' (directors, teachers, project coordinators, etc.) participation in inter-organisational networks with local, regional,…

  5. Modern Languages and Interculturality in the Primary Sector in England, Greece, Italy and Spain.

    Cerezal, Fernando


    Addresses concerns and issues regarding modern language teaching and learning at primary schools in Greece, Italy, Spain, and England. It focuses on the optimal age for learning and acquiring languages and to the educational reforms which have been undertaken in each country relating to early modern language teaching and learning and…

  6. Informal Learning and Meta-Pedagogy in Initial Teacher Education in England

    Finney, John; Philpott, Chris


    How do student teachers learn to use informal learning and pedagogy in their teaching? Through focusing on Initial Teacher Education (ITE) in England, this paper will explore the possibility of developing a meta-pedagogy which embraces informal learning and pedagogy in music. The paper is in two parts, the first of which examines the background to…

  7. Trends in violence in England and Wales 2010-2014.

    Sivarajasingam, Vaseekaran; Page, Nicholas; Wells, John; Morgan, Peter; Matthews, Kent; Moore, Simon; Shepherd, Jonathan


    The National Violence Surveillance Network (NVSN) of emergency departments (ED), minor injuries units and walk-in-centres in England and Wales has brought clarity to contradictory violence trends derived from crime survey and police data. Gender, age-specific and regional trends in violence-related injury in England and Wales since 2010 have not been studied. Data on violence-related injury were collected from a structured sample of 151 EDs in England and Wales. ED attendance date and age and gender of patients who reported injury in violence from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 were identified from attendance codes, specified at the local level. Time series statistical methods were used to detect both regional and national trends. In total, 247 016 (178 709 males: 72.3%) violence-related attendances were identified. Estimated annual injury rate across England and Wales was 4.4/1000 population (95% CI 3.9 to 4.9); males 6.5/1000 (95% CI 5.6 to 7.2) and females 2.4/1000 (95% CI 2.1 to 2.6). On average, overall attendances decreased by 13.8% per year over the 5 years (95% CI -14.8 to -12.1). Attendances decreased significantly for both genders and all age groups (0-10, 11-17, 18-30, 31-50, 51+ years); declines were greatest among children and adolescents. Significant decreases in violence-related injury were found in all but two regions. Violence peaked in May and July. From an ED perspective, violence in England and Wales decreased substantially between 2010 and 2014, especially among children and adolescents. Violence prevention efforts should focus on regions with the highest injury rates and during the period May-July. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  8. 78 FR 32384 - New England Power Generators Association v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint


    ... Power Generators Association v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on May 17... New England Power Generators Association (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New...., Washington, DC 20426. This filing is accessible on-line at , using the ``eLibrary'' link...

  9. Prices down, supplies down, prices back up



    WTI fell below $70/bbl in early June on reports that Iran was considering a proposal from the EU and the UN to resolve the dispute over Tehran's plans to develop nuclear power. Sellers took further encouragement from the news that the Iraqi leader of al-Qaida, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, had been killed. July WTI futures went down as far as $69.10/bbl. The euphoria proved to be short-lived. Within a short time, Iran announced that it was to resume the enrichment of uranium, whilst in Iraq, there was no sign whatever that the killing of one terrorist leader was going to bring about peace there. During the month of June, an estimated 1,500 people were killed in Baghdad alone. Attacks on road tankers caused the suspension of exports of heavy fuel oil, which is produced to excess by Iraq's refining industry. Lacking anywhere to store the surplus fuel oil, the government ordered what were described as 'large quantities' to be incinerated. The one piece of good news from Iraq was the reopening of the export pipeline from Kirkuk to Ceyhan for the first time since January. Throughput was reported in late June at 325,000 bpd. Even here, though, the situation was not entirely without its troubles. The state marketing company, SOMO, received disappointing bids for the oil it was offering for sale at Ceyhan. (author)

  10. Without 'Focus'

    Aldo Sevi


    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76., M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.üring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  11. Turning Teaching Upside Down

    Seeley, Cathy L.


    The traditional method of teaching math--showing students how to do a procedure, then assigning problems that require them to use that exact procedure--leads to adults who don't know how to approach problems that don't look like those in their math book. Seeley describes an alternative teaching method (upside-down teaching) in which teachers give…

  12. Pinning Down versus Density

    Juhász, István; Soukup, Lajos; Szentmiklóssy, Zoltán


    The pinning down number $ {pd}(X)$ of a topological space $X$ is the smallest cardinal $\\kappa$ such that for any neighborhood assignment $U:X\\to \\tau_X$ there is a set $A\\in [X]^\\kappa$ with $A\\cap U(x)\

  13. Policy Variation among Japan, Korea, England and the United States

    Jaekyung Lee


    Full Text Available School reform initiatives during the last two decades in Japan, Korea, England, and the United States can be understood as balancing acts. Because policymakers in England and the United States saw their school systems fragmented and student outcomes mediocre, they focused reform efforts on raising educational standards, tightening curriculum and assessment, and improving academic achievement. In contrast, policymakers in Japan and Korea, who saw their school systems overstandardized and educational processes deficient, focused their reform efforts on deregulating schools, diversifying curriculum and assessment, and enhancing whole-person education. While school reform policies were formulated and adopted in response to each country’s unique problems, they also were driven by globalization forces that fostered an international perspective. If implemented successfully, such cross-cultural policy variations (i.e., standardization vs. differentiation in curriculum, unification vs. diversification in assessment, and privatization vs. democratization in governance would make distinctive educational systems more alike. Cultural and institutional barriers to educational convergence between the Eastern and Western school systems are discussed.

  14. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)


    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  15. Material focus

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.


    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  16. Plasma Focus

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.


    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  17. Focus: Digital

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  18. Anti-White Slavery Legislation and its Legacies in England

    Laura Lammasniemi


    Full Text Available This paper argues that the foundation of modern anti-trafficking laws in England and Wales was created at the turn of the twentieth century, during the peak of white slavery hysteria. It shows that a series of interrelated legal interventions formed that foundation. While white slavery as a myth has been analysed, this paper turns the focus on legal regulation and shows why it is important to analyse its history in order to understand modern responses to trafficking. It focuses, in particular, on the first legal definition of victims of trafficking, involvement of vigilance associations in law reform, and on restrictions put in place on women’s immigration. Finally, it reflects on how laws enacted at the turn of the twentieth century still resonate with those of today.

  19. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin


    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  20. Focusing horn


    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  1. The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns

    Rodney B. Warnick


    The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...

  2. Understanding microelectronics a top-down approach

    Maloberti, Franco


    The microelectronics evolution has given rise to many modern benefits but has also changed design methods and attitudes to learning. Technology advancements shifted focus from simple circuits to complex systems with major attention to high-level descriptions. The design methods moved from a bottom-up to a top-down approach. For today's students, the most beneficial approach to learning is this top-down method that demonstrates a global view of electronics before going into specifics. Franco Maloberti uses this approach to explain the fundamentals of electronics, such as processing functions,

  3. Shutting down two reactors


    Nuclear power will be phased out of the swedish energy system during the first decades of the next century. Commissioned by the swedish government, the National Energy Administration reports a study on the possibilities for, and consequences of, an earlier shut down (1994-1996) of two of the twelve swedish power reactors. Some of the questions studied are: How much will the electricity price raise ?; How will the electricity consumption be affected ?; What are the alternatives to nuclear power ?; What will the cost be ? and What will the environmental effects be ?. (L.E.)

  4. Reforming birth registration law in England and Wales?

    Julie McCandless


    Full Text Available The Law Commission of England and Wales is considering what its 13th Programme of Law Reform should address. During the consultation process, a project on birth registration law has been mooted. This is a very welcome proposal given that civil birth registration in England and Wales is a compulsory procedure that not only finds its roots in the early Victorian era, but also remains very similar, at least in terms of form and the information that is recorded. I first use two recent legal challenges to illustrate why the current system is coming under increasing pressure. I further use these examples to caution against a law reform agenda that is narrowly focused on the precise information recorded, without a preliminary and wider examination of what the role and purpose of birth registration is, and should be, in society. I argue that this needs to be addressed before the state can justify the parameters of the information recorded. I then use an outline of historical reforms relating to the registration of births outside of marriage to highlight the normative two-parent family model that underpins the birth registration system. I argue that legal reform must be cognizant of the tenacity of this normative family model, particularly in relation to reform proposals surrounding donor conception and the annotation of birth certificates. Finally, I draw attention to wider developments in family law that cast birth registration as a social policy tool for the facilitation of parent–child relationships, particularly unmarried fathers.

  5. 78 FR 1851 - New England States Committee on Electricity v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-34-000] New England States Committee on Electricity v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on December... (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc. (Respondent) alleging that the Respondent's...

  6. Dynamics of whlte pine in New England

    William B. Leak; J.B. Cullen; Thomas S. Frieswyk


    Analysis of growth, regeneration, and quality changes for white pine between the 1970's and 1980's in the six-state New England region. Growth rates seemed comparable among ail states except Rhode Island, where the percentage of growth (1.71%) seemed low. Over all states, the proportion of acreage in seedling/sapling white pine stands averaged too low (8%) to...

  7. Gauging the brownfield land supply in England

    Williams, K.; Sinnett, D.; Miner, P.; Carmichael, L.


    This paper reports on the findings of a study that aimed to help fill the information gap left by the loss of the National Land Use Database – and asked ‘Is there enough brownfield land in England to meet housing needs?’

  8. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in England.

    Scrofani, E. Robert, Ed.

    These teacher-developed materials are designed to help educators integrate economic concepts into the teaching of history. The materials include readings on the Industrial Revolution in England and a series of activities that require students to analyze the impact of industrialization first on English peasant farmers, and then on workers in early…

  9. New England wildlife: management forested habitats

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak; John W. Lanier


    Presents silvicultural treatments for six major cover-type groups in New England to produce stand conditions that provide habitat opportunities for a wide range of wildlife species. Includes matrices for species occurrence and utilization by forested and nonforested habitats, habitat breadth and size class, and structural habitat features for the 338 wildlife species...

  10. The Politics of Education Policy in England

    Gunter, Helen M.


    In this appreciative discussion paper I provide an overview of the reforms made to education in England, and engage with the politics of education through examining the simultaneous and inter-related processes of politicisation, depoliticisation and repoliticisation of educational matters. I engage in a discussion of the papers in this special…

  11. Whales of New England. Secondary Curriculum.

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Instructional materials and suggestions for conducting a whale watching field trip are contained in this curriculum packet for secondary science teachers. It is one unit in a series of curricular programs developed by the New England Aquarium Education Department. Activities and information are organized into three sections: (1) pre-trip…

  12. Roxby Downs water leakage


    The Environment, Resource and development Committee has been asked by Parliament to examine 'a massive leakage of water at Roxby Downs' and to make recommendations 'as to further action'. It has also been specifically asked to comment on 'the desirability of the Department of Mines and Energy having prime responsibility for environmental matters in relation to mining operations'. This report begins with a description of the Olympic Dam operations near Roxby Downs and with a brief overview of the regulations controlling those operations. The site of the leakage the Olympic Dam tailings retention system is then described in greater detail. Part 3 describes how the system was originally designed, modified and approved. It ends with a series of findings about the adequacy of the original design (including the monitoring systems built into it) and of the approvals process. Recommendations are then made about how future approvals should be handled. Part 4 of the report outlines how the tailings retention system was built and operated and how the massive leakage from it was detected and reported. Findings about the adequacy of the management of the system and about the initial reactions to the leakage are then made, together with recommendations designed to improve future management of the system. 25 refs., 15 figs

  13. Bacterial tracheitis in Down's syndrome.

    Cant, A J; Gibson, P J; West, R J


    Four children with Down's syndrome and bacterial tracheitis are described. In three the infection was due to Haemophilus influenza. In patients with Down's syndrome presenting with stridor tracheitis should be considered and appropriate treatment started.

  14. Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    ... A A A Share Plus on Google Plus Alzheimer's & Dementia | IHaveAlz Overview What Is Dementia ... chapter Join our online community Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease As they age, those affected by Down ...

  15. Computer networking a top-down approach

    Kurose, James


    Unique among computer networking texts, the Seventh Edition of the popular Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach builds on the author’s long tradition of teaching this complex subject through a layered approach in a “top-down manner.” The text works its way from the application layer down toward the physical layer, motivating readers by exposing them to important concepts early in their study of networking. Focusing on the Internet and the fundamentally important issues of networking, this text provides an excellent foundation for readers interested in computer science and electrical engineering, without requiring extensive knowledge of programming or mathematics. The Seventh Edition has been updated to reflect the most important and exciting recent advances in networking.

  16. Proofs, Upside Down

    Puech, Matthias


    this correspondence by applying a series of off-the-shelf program transformations à la Danvy et al. on a type checker for the bidirectional λ-calculus, and get a type checker for the λ¯ -calculus, the proof term assignment of LJT. This functional correspondence revisits the relationship between natural deduction......It is well known in proof theory that sequent-calculus proofs differ from natural deduction proofs by “reversing” elimination rules upside down into left introduction rules. It is also well known that to each recursive, functional program corresponds an equivalent iterative, accumulator......-passing program, where the accumulator stores the continuation of the iteration, in “reversed” order. Here, we compose these remarks and show that a restriction of the intuitionistic sequent calculus, LJT, is exactly an accumulator-passing version of intuitionistic natural deduction NJ. More precisely, we obtain...

  17. ROSETTA lander Philae: Touch-down reconstruction

    Roll, Reinhard; Witte, Lars


    The landing of the ROSETTA-mission lander Philae on November 12th 2014 on Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was planned as a descent with passive landing and anchoring by harpoons at touch-down. Actually the lander was not fixed at touch-down to the ground due to failing harpoons. The lander internal damper was actuated at touch-down for 42.6 mm with a speed of 0.08 m/s while the lander touch-down speed was 1 m/s. The kinetic energy before touch-down was 50 J, 45 J were dissipated by the lander internal damper and by ground penetration at touch-down, and 5 J kinetic energy are left after touch-down (0.325 m/s speed). Most kinetic energy was dissipated by ground penetration (41 J) while only 4 J are dissipated by the lander internal damper. Based on these data, a value for a constant compressive soil-strength of between 1.55 kPa and 1.8 kPa is calculated. This paper focuses on the reconstruction of the touch-down at Agilkia over a period of around 20 s from first ground contact to lift-off again. After rebound Philae left a strange pattern on ground documented by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The analysis shows, that the touch-down was not just a simple damped reflection on the surface. Instead the lander had repeated contacts with the surface over a period of about 20 s±10 s. This paper discusses scenarios for the reconstruction of the landing sequence based on the data available and on computer simulations. Simulations are performed with a dedicated mechanical multi-body model of the lander, which was validated previously in numerous ground tests. The SIMPACK simulation software was used, including the option to set forces at the feet to the ground. The outgoing velocity vector is mostly influenced by the timing of the ground contact of the different feet. It turns out that ground friction during damping has strong impact on the lander outgoing velocity, on its rotation, and on its nutation. After the end of damping, the attitude of the lander can be

  18. Prenatal treatment of Down syndrome: a reality?

    Guedj, Fayçal; Bianchi, Diana W; Delabar, Jean-Maurice


    Down syndrome affects more than 5 million people globally. During the last 10 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the research efforts focused on therapeutic interventions to improve learning and memory in Down syndrome. This review summarizes the different functional abnormalities targeted by researchers in mouse models of Down syndrome. Three main strategies have been used: neural stem cell implantation; environmental enrichment and physical exercise; and pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological targets include the choline pathway, GABA and NMDA receptors, DYRK1A protein, oxidative stress and pathways involved in development and neurogenesis. Many strategies have improved learning and memory as well as electrophysiological and molecular alterations in affected animals. To date, eight molecules have been tested in human adult clinical trials. No studies have yet been performed on infants. However, compelling studies reveal that permanent brain alterations originate during fetal life in Down syndrome. Early prenatal diagnosis offers a 28 weeks window to positively impact brain development and improve postnatal cognitive outcome in affected individuals. Only a few approaches (Epigallocatechine gallate, NAP/SAL, fluoxetine, and apigenin) have been used to treat mice in utero; these showed therapeutic effects that persisted to adulthood. In this article, we discuss the challenges, recent progress, and lessons learned that pave the way for new therapeutic approaches in Down syndrome.

  19. Pain in Down's Syndrome

    Federica Mafrica


    Full Text Available Pain is a homeostatic mechanism that intervenes to protect the organism from harmful stimuli that could damage its integrity. It is made up of two components: the sensory-discriminative component, which identifies the provenance and characteristics of the type of pain; and the affective-motivational component, on which emotional reflexes, following the painful sensation, depend.There is a system for pain control at an encephalic and spinal level, principally made up of the periaqueductal grey matter, the periventricular area, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the pain-inhibition complex situated in the posterior horns of the spinal cord. Through the activation of these pain-control systems, the nervous system suppresses the afference of pain signals. Endogenous opioids represent another analgesic system.In the course of various studies on pain transmission in Down patients, the reduced tolerance of pain and the incapacity to give a qualitative and quantitative description emerged in a powerful way. All of these aspects cause difficulty in evaluating pain. This is linked to several learning difficulties. However, it cannot be excluded that in these anomalies of pain perception, both the anatomical and the neurotransmitter alteration, typical of this syndrome, may hold a certain importance.This fact may have important clinical repercussions that could affect the choice of therapeutic and rehabilitative schemes for treatment of pathologies in which pain is the dominant symptom, such as postoperative pain. It could influence research on analgesics that are more suitable for these patients, the evaluation of the depth of analgesia during surgical operation, and ultimately, absence of obvious pain manifestations. In conclusion, alterations of the central nervous system, neurotransmitters, pain transmission, and all related problems should be considered in the management of pain in patients with Down's syndrome, especially by algologists and

  20. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João


    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  1. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Lopes José


    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  2. The Dilemma of Obedience: Persecution, Dissimulation, and Memory in Early Modern England, 1553-1603

    Harkins, Robert Lee


    This study examines the problem of religious and political obedience in early modern England. Drawing upon extensive manuscript research, it focuses on the reign of Mary I (1553-1558), when the official return to Roman Catholicism was accompanied by the prosecution of Protestants for heresy, and the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603), when the state religion again shifted to Protestantism. I argue that the cognitive dissonance created by these seesaw changes of official doctrine necessitated a ...

  3. Mathematics anxiety in secondary students in England.

    Chinn, Steve


    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools in England completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to investigate maths anxiety levels. The same questionnaire was given to over 440 dyslexic males in specialist schools within the same age range. The results showed that examinations and tests create high levels of anxiety in approximately 4% of students. The results suggest that certain aspects and topics in the maths curriculum, such as long division, cause similar levels of anxiety for students in all year groups in secondary schools.

  4. Pinning down the axion

    Dabholkar, A.; Quashnock, J.M.


    Davis has argued that, without inflation, the decay of axionic strings is the primary source of axions. This implies a cosmological lower bound on the axion mass of 10 -5 to 10 -3 eV. In order to obtain a sharper bound it is essential to know the spectrum of emitted axions and the detailed motion of a global string strongly coupled to the axionic field. To this end, we obtain self-consistent, renormalized equations that describe the dynamics of a radiating global string interacting with its surrounding axionic field. We describe the numerical formalism for evolving string trajectories using these equations. From the numerical and analytical evidence we argue that, with appropriate renormalization, the motion of an interacting cosmic string loop can be well approximated by the motion of a free Nambu-Goto string. This implies a lower bound for the axion mass of 10 -3 eV. Together with the recent upper bound of 4x10 -4 eV from the supernova SN1987a, this marginally rules out the invisible axion, or at least pins down the axion mass to a very narrow window around 10 -3 eV. This still leaves open the window around 2 eV for hardronic axions, but in that case the axion is no longer a serious dark matter candidate. (orig.)

  5. New England States environmental radiation surveillance programs

    Molloy, E.J.


    An overview of the environmental radiation surveillance programs in the New England States from the viewpoint of their organization and administration is provided. Moreover, the specific monitoring and analytical programs conducted at selected sites in each state is detailed with emphasis on sample types, collection frequencies, and analysis. Also, a comparison is made between the programs of all the states in order to determine the reasons for their differences

  6. Predictors of and reasons for attempts to reduce alcohol intake: A population survey of adults in England.

    Emma Beard

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the predictors among high-risk drinkers in England of attempts to reduce alcohol consumption, the reasons given for these attempts and the association between the various reasons and alcohol consumption.Data came from 2,800 high-risk drinkers taking part in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS between March 2014 and November 2016 who were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and were asked questions regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, attempts to cut down and reasons for doing so.Those cutting down were significantly older (OR 1.01, p<0.001, were more likely to be female (OR 1.32, p<0.05, had higher AUDIT-C scores (OR 1.12, p<0. 001, were less likely to be of white ethnicity (OR 0.64, p<0. 001, and were more likely to reside in the South of England (OR 1.34, p<0. 001. They were also more likely to be of higher occupationally-based social-grades (p<0. 001. The main reported reasons for reducing consumption were: fitness (22.5%, weight loss (20.4%, future health (20.4%, advice from a health-care professional (7.9% and cost (7.6%. Those reporting the followings reasons for cutting down had higher AUDIT-C scores than those who did not report these reasons: a concern about further health problems (β 0.20, p<0.05, advice from a doctor/health worker (β 0.38, p<0.05, that drinking was too expensive (β 0.42, p<0.01 and detoxification (β 0.42, p<0.01. Lower AUDIT-C scores were noted among those who reported that they knew someone who was cutting down (β -0.67, p<0.05, that there was no reason (β -0.36, p<0.05, or they didn't know why they were cutting down (β -0.25, p<0.05.Around a fifth of high-risk drinkers in England report trying to reduce their drinking, particularly older, high-socioeconomic female drinkers from the south of England. Attempts to cut down appear to be driven by a desire to improve health, advice from

  7. Foreign and Catholic: A Plea to Protestant Parents on the Dangers of Convent Education in Victorian England.

    Kollar, Rene


    Discusses Catholic convent schools in 19th century England. Focuses on a perceived viewpoint that Protestant females would convert to Catholicism if they were taught by Catholic nuns. Considered nuns as substandard teachers using poor curriculum. Concludes anti-Catholicism waned as a strong force during the early 20th century, minimizing criticism…

  8. Identifying the Research Process to Analyse the Adoption of the International Baccalaureate's Diploma Programme in England

    Outhwaite, Deborah


    This article analyses the flow-line around the methodology used inside an educational research process that was originally established to examine the expansion of the International Baccalaureate's Diploma Programme (IBDP) in England. This article analyses the research question, then assesses the research focus, aims and objectives. The article…

  9. An Analysis of the Stakeholder Model of Public Boards and the Case of School Governing Bodies in England and Wales

    Connolly, Michael; Farrell, Catherine; James, Christopher


    This article analyses the stakeholder model of boards that is widely used in public and third sector institutions in England and Wales. The central tenet of this model is that such institutions should be strategically led by individuals who are representative of and from the groups that have an interest in them. The article focuses in particular…

  10. The Master's in Teaching and Learning: Expanding Utilitarianism in the Continuing Professional Development of Teachers in England

    Frankham, Jo; Hiett, Sandra


    The article focuses on the policy rhetoric of the Masters in Teaching and Learning (MTL). This is a new degree being launched in the summer of 2010 aimed, initially, at teachers who have just joined the profession. The degree presages the aspiration for a Master's level teaching profession in England. Professional development as conceived in the…

  11. Why does education matter to employers in different institutional contexts? A vignette study in England and the Netherlands

    Di Stasio, V.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    We study the process by which employers evaluate and interpret information related to the educational background of job applicants in simulated hiring contexts. We focus on England and the Netherlands, countries with very different education systems and labor-market institutions. Using a vignette

  12. Education in a Multicultural Environment: Equity Issues in Teaching and Learning in the School System in England

    Boyle, Bill; Charles, Marie


    The paper focuses on the auditing and accountancy paradigm that has dominated educational measurement of pupil performance for the last 20 years in England. The advocates of this minimum competency paradigm do not take account of the results of its dominance. These results include ignoring the heterogeneous complexity of groups within societies…

  13. Stigma in Iranian Down Syndrome

    Sahel Hemmati


    Full Text Available Objectives: Stigma is a negative value. Many behaviors are to ward Stigmatized people. Down syndrome is one of conditions with Stigma. The aim of this study is to determine the sources of labeling in iranian Down syndrome. Methods: The View of 105 Down syndrome families concerning stigma were conducted. All of Down syndrome was under 50 years. Results: A fair proportion of Down syndrome families perceived that stigma had a negative effect from social. Causes of stigma are different. Stigma due social interaction, Media and health professionals are significant than others. Discussion: The diagnostic label of Down syndrome may render the person and his family vulnerable to stigmatization. The most causes of stigma were determined therefore, in the destigmatization programs, they must be attended. Stigma must be detected, too.

  14. Pulp fictions of medieval England: Essays in popular romance

    McDonald, Nicola


    Middle English popular romance is the most audacious and compendious testimony to the imaginary world of the English Middle Ages. Yet, with few exceptions, it remains under read and under studied. Pulp fictions of medieval England demonstrates that popular romance merits and rewards serious critical attention and that it is crucial to our understanding of the complex and conflicted world of medieval England. Pulp fictions of medieval England comprises ten essays on individual romances that, w...

  15. Cross-national diagnostic analysis of patient empowerment in England and Greece

    Graham Lister


    Full Text Available Background: Different NHS patient empowerment policies have been adopted in England and Greece; the voluntary sector development and its influence also differ. Although various aspects of patient empowerment have been explored in England, the patient empowerment systems’ application is under-researched. In Greece, the few relevant attempts looking at patients’ experiences focus on patient satisfaction, with only one study exploring the public hospitals managers’ perspectives on user involvement. However, patient empowerment questions may be similar in both countries.Aims and Objectives:The study aimed to explore and compare the general patient empowerment settings in the two countries, with main objectives to:a. identify and explore the relationships of national voluntary and governmental organisations,b. explore the cross-national challenges and facilitators, and make cross-national recommendations.Methodology: This is a cross-national comparative research study. A ‘diagnostic analysis’ approach, an assessment of potential and actual barriers and facilitators, including the context and potential change, was chosen. The methods used were:a. a network analysis of national voluntary and governmental organisations;b. semi-structured interviews with key representatives of these, andc. documentary analysis.Results: The network analysis revealed the potential of English organisations to influence more people, withextensive memberships and stronger interrelationship between them than the Greek organisations. Different levels of awareness, knowledge and perceptions of application of the national patient empowerment policies, systems and mechanisms were identified; being generally good in England, limited in Greece. Variable generalinformation provision, with good verbal information in England, and limited, written and verbal, information in Greece was also identified. Although the commonest cross-national perceived challenges were

  16. Updating dating down under

    Bristow, J.W.


    The article deals with the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP), Australia's only microprobe and its applications for geochronology. SHRIMP has the ability to analyse tiny areas (less than 30μm across) within crystals directly, the only sample preparation required being polishing of the crystal surface. Most analyses so far have been done on separated crystals prepared as grain mounts, although an increasing number of analyses are now being made of crystals in rock thin sections where their textural associations can be established. Important features of SHRIMP are its double-focusing mass spectrometer and great physical size, more than 8 meters long, employing a magnet weighing six tons. This enables the machine to distinguish ions with atomic masses differing by less than one part in ten thousand while at the same time having a very great sensitivity. SHRIMP was used for dating crustal zircons from southern African Kimberlites. Although low U and Pb abundances presents problems in peak selection and focusing on SHRIMP its was found that kimberlitic zircons could be dated successfully

  17. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...


    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  18. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...


    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  19. Commissioning of specialist palliative care services in England.

    Lancaster, Harriet; Finlay, Ilora; Downman, Maxwell; Dumas, James


    Some failures in end-of-life care have been attributed to inconsistent provision of palliative care across England. We aimed to explore the variation in commissioning of services by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) using a data collection exercise. We sent a Freedom of Information request in the form of an open questionnaire to all 209 CCGs in England to assess their commissioning of palliative and end-of-life care services, mainly focused on the provision of specialist palliative care services. 29 CCGs provided information about the number of patients with some form of palliative care needs in their population. For specialist palliative care services, CCGs allocated budgets ranging from £51.83 to £2329.19 per patient per annum. 163 CCGs (77.90%) currently commission 7-day admission to their specialist palliative care beds. 82.84% of CCGs commission 7-day specialist palliative care services in patients' own homes and out-of-hours services rely heavily on hospice provision. 64 CCGs (31.37%) commission pain control teams, the majority of whom only operate in regular working hours. 68.14% of CCGs reported commissioning palliative care education of any sort for healthcare professionals and 44.85% of CCGs had no plans to update or review their palliative care services. The most important finding from this exercise is that the information CCGs hold about their population and services is not standardised. However, information based on data that are more objective, for example, population and total budget for palliative care, demonstrate wide variations in commissioning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Marker, Brian


    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  1. wood burns down

    Vladimir Bukh


    Russian architects appeared. With their own aesthetics.After Pavlov had left Irkutsk, near his house appeared another one, it was not a log house, and its style was glaringly unfriendly. And soon the Fisherman's House burnt down. Not with vexation, but naturally, with smoke and fire. The author of the building next door considers the rebuilding of the lost house unpractical.

  2. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Fraser Graham


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.


    D. Konstantinov


    Full Text Available This paper is designed to discover legal rules addressing insolvency trading in three jurisdictions: England and Wales, Russia and the USA. Originally it was a master’s dissertation written under supervision of Ms. Sarah Paterson, who was extremely helpful and patient. The key jurisdiction for the research is England and Wales, whose wrongful trading provision apparently was the very first insolvency regulation in the field. Here, we will give particular attention to the factual circumstances of insolvency trading and research how the concept of wrongful trading addresses them. The next question will be how the American concept of deepening insolvency and the Russian concept of subsidiary liability are comparable with wrongful trading. Later, we will focus on the functions that should be performed by the regulations. Also, the effectiveness of wrongful trading and similar overseas provisions will be examined. Finally, this paper attempts to find obstacles to the wide application of wrongful trading provision.

  4. Frequency of fog in midlands of England

    Unsworth, M.H.; Shakespeare, N.W.; Milner, A.E.; Ganendra, T.S.


    A survey shows that at a rural site in the Trent Basin in England, there has been a considerable reduction in winter fog frequency in the last 20 years. The evidence suggests that the Clean Air Act, which was primarily designed to improve air quality in towns has also produced measurable decreases in fog frequency in rural parts of this industrial region. The mechanism which is believed to underly the phenomenon is that the number of condensation nuclei have been substantially reduced. 9 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  5. A New High Resolution Climate Dataset for Climate Change Impacts Assessments in New England

    Komurcu, M.; Huber, M.


    Assessing regional impacts of climate change (such as changes in extreme events, land surface hydrology, water resources, energy, ecosystems and economy) requires much higher resolution climate variables than those available from global model projections. While it is possible to run global models in higher resolution, the high computational cost associated with these simulations prevent their use in such manner. To alleviate this problem, dynamical downscaling offers a method to deliver higher resolution climate variables. As part of an NSF EPSCoR funded interdisciplinary effort to assess climate change impacts on New Hampshire ecosystems, hydrology and economy (the New Hampshire Ecosystems and Society project), we create a unique high-resolution climate dataset for New England. We dynamically downscale global model projections under a high impact emissions scenario using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with three nested grids of 27, 9 and 3 km horizontal resolution with the highest resolution innermost grid focusing over New England. We prefer dynamical downscaling over other methods such as statistical downscaling because it employs physical equations to progressively simulate climate variables as atmospheric processes interact with surface processes, emissions, radiation, clouds, precipitation and other model components, hence eliminates fix relationships between variables. In addition to simulating mean changes in regional climate, dynamical downscaling also allows for the simulation of climate extremes that significantly alter climate change impacts. We simulate three time slices: 2006-2015, 2040-2060 and 2080-2100. This new high-resolution climate dataset (with more than 200 variables saved in hourly (six hourly) intervals for the highest resolution domain (outer two domains)) along with model input and restart files used in our WRF simulations will be publicly available for use to the broader scientific community to support in-depth climate

  6. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W J; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro


    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    Kassell, Lauren


    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  8. Ground-level Ozone (Smog) Information | New England | US ...


    Ground-level ozone presents a serious air quality problem in New England. In 2008, EPA revised the ozone standard to a level of 0.075 parts per million, 8-hour average. Over the last 5 years (2006 through 2010), there have been an average of 31 days per summer when New England's air exceeded this standard.

  9. Aspirations for a Master's-Level Teaching Profession in England

    Thomas, Lorraine


    This research investigates aspirations for a master's-level teaching profession in England, providing key stakeholder perceptions in one densely populated region within a multiple case study. Although this intended move to a master's-level profession represented a major shift in teachers' professional development in England, only limited…

  10. Six States, One Destiny: Critical Issues for New England

    Mass, William; Soule, David C.


    Midway through the first decade of the 21st century, New England innovation and creative capacity are being challenged by other regions of the nation and the world. New England needs foresight to understand what its emerging economic sectors need to thrive in a changing demography. The region is losing 20- to 34-year-olds and seeing a growing…

  11. Perspectives on the "Silent Period" for Emergent Bilinguals in England

    Bligh, Caroline; Drury, Rose


    This article draws together the research findings from two ethnographic studies as a means to problematize the "silent period" as experienced by young bilingual learners in two English speaking early-years settings in England. Most teachers and senior early-years practitioners in England are monolingual English speakers. The children…

  12. England Policy in Gifted Education: Current Problems and Promising Directions

    Koshy, Valsa; Smith, Carole Portman; Casey, Ronald


    This article presents and analyzes policies in identification and provisions in England with respect to gifted education. England has developed a national policy to provide services to identified students. Surveys and interviews with teachers illustrate how implementation of both identification and provision policy elements were handled. Although…

  13. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi


    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  14. "Health for All" in England and Brazil?

    Duncan, Peter; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cowley, Sarah; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Chiesa, Anna Maria; de Siqueira França, Francisco Oscar


    This article discusses the achievements and challenges that England and Brazil face in relation to their capacity to address inequalities in health through health promotion and public health policies. Using secondary data (policy texts and related documents), this article contextualizes, explains, and critically appraises health promotion and public health efforts for the reduction of inequalities in health in the 2 countries. A historic documentary analysis was undertaken, with hermeneutics as the methodological framework. The global economic crisis has prompted the so-called developed economies of Europe to reconsider their economic and social priorities. England represents a state facing this kind of challenge. Equally, Brazil is assuming new positions not only on the world stage but also in terms of the relationship it has with its citizens and the priorities it has for state welfare. The United Kingdom continues to finance a health care system allowing universal access in the form of the National Health Service, and state concern about the public health task of reducing inequalities has recently been underlined in policy. For Brazil, although there have been recent achievements related to population access to healthcare, challenges continue, especially with regard to the quality of care. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  15. Determinants of general practitioners' wages in England.

    Morris, Stephen; Goudie, Rosalind; Sutton, Matt; Gravelle, Hugh; Elliott, Robert; Hole, Arne Risa; Ma, Ada; Sibbald, Bonnie; Skåtun, Diane


    We analyse the determinants of annual net income and wages (net income/hours) of general practitioners (GPs) using data for 2271 GPs in England recorded during Autumn 2008. The average GP had an annual net income of £97,500 and worked 43 h per week. The mean wage was £51 per h. Net income and wages depended on gender, experience, list size, partnership size, whether or not the GP worked in a dispensing practice, whether they were salaried of self-employed, whether they worked in a practice with a nationally or locally negotiated contract, and the characteristics of the local population (proportion from ethnic minorities, rurality, and income deprivation). The findings have implications for pay discrimination by GP gender and ethnicity, GP preferences for partnership size, incentives for competition for patients, and compensating differentials for local population characteristics. They also shed light on the attractiveness to GPs in England of locally negotiated (personal medical services) versus nationally negotiated (general medical services) contracts.

  16. Being Mad in Early Modern England

    Aleksandar eDimitrijevic


    Full Text Available It has become almost a rule that the birth of scientific psychiatry and what we today term clinical psychology took place in the short period between the last decade of the XVIII century and the 1820s. Everything that happened before that period – every description, diagnosis, and therapy – has been considered ‘pre-scientific,’ outdated, in a way worthless.In this paper, however, I am providing the argument that, first, the roots of contemporary psychiatry reach at least to England of the early modern period, and that, second, it may still turn out that in the field of mental health care historical continuities are more numerous and persistent than discontinuities. Thus, I briefly review the most important surviving documents about the treatment of mental disorders in England of Elizabethan and Jacobian period, organizing the argument around the well-known markers: diagnostics and aetiology, therapy, organization of the asylum, the public image of the mentally ill…


    Saifullin Rubin Gatufovich


    Full Text Available There is given the forecast of development of one of the leading West European countries – Great Britain on the base of biosocial approach. The main fundamentals of this approach are: 1. Political and ethnogenetic are interrelated, which suggests the existence of a single process of ethnopolygenesis. 2. An ethnos in its development goes through a series of age-phases – stable periods and dividing them phase transitions – unstable crisis periods, characterized by distemper (amplitudinous domestic conflicts. 3. The age range of phases and phase transitions of ethnogenesis and periods of crisis in some phases, similar in character to phase transitions are determined by a universal, invariant eras and types of polities regularity – numerical algorithm of ethnopolygenesis. 4. The distempers and major military defeats mainly are characteristic for unstable periods. It is shown that the British ethnogenesis developed generally in accordance with the numerical algorithm: distemper in the political history of England took place during the periods of unstable states of phase transitions and critical periods in phases. This same regularity is generally true of the major military defeats. It is shown that the British are on the verge of the beginning of one of the most painful unstable states. There is given the forecast of England on the basis of this conclusion. Conclusions of the article may be of interest for scientists involved in political forecasting and for politicians.

  18. Translation and Manipulation in Renaissance England

    John Denton


    Full Text Available This supplementary volume to JEMS is part of an ongoing research project which began with a series of articles published by the author in the 1990s on the translation of Classical historical texts in Renaissance England. The methodology followed is that of Descriptive Translation Studies as developed by scholars such as Lefevere and Hermans with the accent on manipulation of the source text in line with the ideological stance of the translator and the need to ensure that readers of the translation received the ‘correct’ moral lessons.  Particular attention is devoted to a case study of the strategies followed in Thomas North’s domesticating English translation of Jacques Amyot’s French translation of Plutarch’s Lives and the consequences for Shakespeare’s perception of Plutarch.Biography John Denton was associate professor of English Language and Translation at the University of Florence until retirement in 2015. He  has published on contrastive analysis, history of translation (with special reference to the Early Modern England, religious discourse, literary and audiovisual translation. 

  19. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  20. Theory of neutron slowing down in nuclear reactors

    Ferziger, Joel H; Dunworth, J V


    The Theory of Neutron Slowing Down in Nuclear Reactors focuses on one facet of nuclear reactor design: the slowing down (or moderation) of neutrons from the high energies with which they are born in fission to the energies at which they are ultimately absorbed. In conjunction with the study of neutron moderation, calculations of reactor criticality are presented. A mathematical description of the slowing-down process is given, with particular emphasis on the problems encountered in the design of thermal reactors. This volume is comprised of four chapters and begins by considering the problems

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Down syndrome

    ... called autism spectrum disorders, which affect communication and social interaction. People with Down syndrome often experience a gradual ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development GeneEd National Human Genome Research Institute National ...

  2. For Boys: Trouble "Down There"

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... another problem "down there"? Let's start with some definitions. You might have grown up calling it something ...

  3. Breastfeeding children with Down syndrome

    Može, Barbara


    Even if nutrition is a common need of all children, there are some specifics related to this area for children with Down syndrome. Breastfeeding is an ideal natural way of feeding the baby, and it fulfills all of the baby’s requirements needed for growth and development (Vistoropski, 2013). It includes several advantages, both for the baby and for the mother (Skale, 2010). Children with Down syndrome are born with many health specialties, which can present a barrier to breastfeeding. Nonet...

  4. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.


    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  5. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.


    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  6. Endocrine manifestations of Down syndrome.

    Whooten, Rachel; Schmitt, Jessica; Schwartz, Alison


    To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures. Risk of thyroid disease is present throughout the life course in individuals with Down syndrome. New approaches and understanding of the pathophysiology and management of subclinical hypothyroidism continue to be explored. Individuals with Down syndrome are also at risk for other autoimmune conditions, with recent research revealing the role of the increased expression of the Autoimmune Regulatory gene on 21st chromosome. Lastly, Down-syndrome-specific growth charts were recently published and provide a better assessment of growth. Recent research confirms and expands on the previously known endocrinopathies in Down syndrome and provides more insight into potential underlying mechanisms.

  7. 78 FR 67357 - New England Power Generators Association, Inc. v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint


    ... Power Generators Association, Inc. v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on...), 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), the New England Power Generators Association, Inc. (NEPGA or Complainant..., 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. This filing is accessible on-line at

  8. Workshop on crystals and focusing

    Berreman, D. W.


    The purpose of the workshop on crystals and focusing was to exchange and pool the experience and information that the participants could contribute on the design and construction of monochromators for EXAFS with optimum speed, resolution and versatility. The panel was chaired by D.W. Berreman of BTL and included G. G. Cohen of NBS, S. Heald of Brookhaven National Labs and Lu Kun-quan of U. of Washington. Written contributions for the workshop were made by R. J. Emrich and J. R. Katzer of U. of Delaware, R. C. Gamble of Cal. Tech., J. Crane of Cal. Tech., and T. Matsushita of S. S. R. L. G. Bunker of U. of Washington was recording secretary, G. G. Cohen and S. Heald gave invited papers on the main program that were relevant to the workshop. Other contributors were R. Hänsel of U. of Kiel, W. Germany, G. Christoff of Ohio State and D. Hempstead of Rigaku/USA Inc., J. Holben of Marconi Avionics, Hertfordshire, England and J. Hastings of Brookhaven N. L.

  9. Perceptions and experiences of financial incentives: a qualitative study of dialysis care in England.

    Abma, Inger; Jayanti, Anuradha; Bayer, Steffen; Mitra, Sandip; Barlow, James


    The objective of the study was to understand the extent to which financial incentives such as Payment by Results and other payment mechanisms motivate kidney centres in England to change their practices. The study followed a qualitative design. Data collection involved 32 in-depth semistructured interviews with healthcare professionals and managers, focusing on their subjective experience of payment structures. Participants were kidney healthcare professionals, clinical directors, kidney centre managers and finance managers. Healthcare commissioners from different parts of England were also interviewed. Participants worked at five kidney centres from across England. The selection was based on the prevalence of home haemodialysis, ranging from low (8%) prevalence, with at least one centre in each one of these categories at the time of selection. While the tariff for home haemodialysis is not a clear incentive for its adoption due to uncertainty about operational costs, Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) targets and the Best Practice Tariff for vascular access were seen by our case study centres as a motivator to change practices. The impact of financial incentives designed at a policy level is influenced by the understanding of cost and benefits at the local operational level. In a situation where costs are unclear, incentives which are based on the improvement of profit margins have a smaller impact than incentives which provide an additional direct payment, even if this extra financial support is relatively small.

  10. Incorporating Cognitive Behavioural Therapy into a Public Health Care System: Canada and England Compared

    Noushon Farmanara


    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 2000s, Canada and England have instituted differing reforms to address the inadequate provision and quality of mental health services in both nations. With growing evidence demonstrating the success and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy, the English reform sought to expand the delivery of psychological services through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program (IAPT focusing on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT. In contrast, Canadian interventions at the federal level were centred on knowledge exchange and advocacy, primarily through the Mental Health Commission of Canada. While significant improvements were made during this period to increase CBT access in England, there continues to be an insufficient availability of psychological services to meet the growing need in Canada. While a national roll-out akin to the IAPT program in England is unlikely in Canada, similar reforms could be initiated at the provincial level of government. Indeed, several provincial governments have acknowledged the need for an expansion of CBT services and, over the last decade, some have tried to make CBT techniques more widely accessible. We review the case of the Bounce Back program developed in British Columbia (BC to illustrate this potential in the Canadian context. Best practices indicate that care is needed beyond the provision of psychiatric services and pharmacotherapy alone, and the initial results of both the IAPT program and BC’s Bounce Back program strongly suggest that it is possible to provide these cost-effective services in a public system.

  11. Comparative epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection: England and the USA.

    King, Alice; Mullish, Benjamin H; Williams, Horace R T; Aylin, Paul


    To examine whether there is an epidemiological difference between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) inpatient populations in England and the United States. A cross-sectional study. National administrative inpatient discharge data from England (Hospital Episode Statistics) and the USA (National Inpatient Sample) in 2012. De-identifiable non-obstetric inpatient discharges from the national datasets were used to estimate national CDI incidence in the United States and England using ICD9-CM(008.45) and ICD10(A04.7) respectively. The rate of CDI was calculated per 100 000 population using national population estimates. Rate per 100 000 inpatient discharges was also calculated separated by primary and secondary diagnosis of CDI. Age, sex and Elixhauser comorbidities profiles were examined. The USA had a higher rate of CDI compared to England: 115.1/100 000 vs. 19.3/100 000 population (P USA (OR 1.20 95% CI [1.18,1.22] P USA compared to England apart from dementia, which was greater in England (9.63% vs. 1.25%, P USA was much higher than in England. Age and comorbidity profiles also differed between CDI patients in both countries. The reasons for this are likely multi-factorial but may reflect national infection control policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  12. A critical analysis of national policies, systems, and structures of patient empowerment in England and Greece.

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Lister, Graham


    Comparison of patient empowerment (PE) policies in European countries can provide evidence for improvement and reform across different health systems. It may also influence patient and public involvement, patient experience, preference, and adherence. The objective of this study was to compare PE within national policies, systems, and structures in England and Greece for achieving integrated people-centered health services. We performed a critical search and review of policy and legislation papers in English and Greek languages. This included 1) general health policy and systems papers, 2) PE, patient and/or public involvement or patients' rights policy and legislation (1990-2015), and 3) comparative or discussion papers for England and/or Greece. A total of 102 papers on PE policies, systems, and structures were identified initially; 80 papers were included, in which 46 were policy, legislative, and discussion papers about England, 21 were policy, legislation, and discussion papers about Greece, and 13 were comparative or discussion papers including both the countries. In England, National Health Service policies emphasized patient-centered services, involvement, and empowerment, with recent focus on patients' rights; while in Greece, they emphasized patients' rights and quality of services, with recent mentions on empowerment. The health ombudsman is a very important organization across countries; however, it may be more powerful in Greece, because of the nonexistence of local mediating bodies. Micro-structures at trusts/hospitals are comparable, but legislation gives more power to the local structures in Greece. PE policies and systems have been developed and expressed differently in these countries. However, PE similarities, comparable dimensions and mechanisms, were identified. For both the countries, comparative research and these findings could be beneficial in building connections and relationships, contributing to wider European and international

  13. New England Wind Energy Education Project (NEWEEP)

    Grace, Robert C.; Craddock, Kathryn A.; von Allmen, Daniel R.


    Project objective is to develop and disseminate accurate, objective information on critical wind energy issues impacting market acceptance of hundreds of land-based projects and vast off-shore wind developments proposed in the 6-state New England region, thereby accelerating the pace of wind installation from today's 140 MW towards the region's 20% by 2030 goals of 12,500 MW. Methodology: This objective will be accomplished by accumulating, developing, assembling timely, accurate, objective and detailed information representing the 'state of the knowledge' on critical wind energy issues impacting market acceptance, and widely disseminating such information. The target audience includes state agencies and local governments; utilities and grid operators; wind developers; agricultural and environmental groups and other NGOs; research organizations; host communities and the general public, particularly those in communities with planned or operating wind projects. Information will be disseminated through: (a) a series of topic-specific web conference briefings; (b) a one-day NEWEEP conference, back-to-back with a Utility Wind Interest Group one-day regional conference organized for this project; (c) posting briefing and conference materials on the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) web site and featuring the content on NEWF electronic newsletters distributed to an opt-in list of currently over 5000 individuals; (d) through interaction with and participation in Wind Powering America (WPA) state Wind Working Group meetings and WPA's annual All-States Summit, and (e) through the networks of project collaborators. Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC (lead) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory will staff the project, directed by an independent Steering Committee composed of a collaborative regional and national network of organizations. Major Participants - the Steering Committee: In addition to the applicants, the initial collaborators committing

  14. Seasonal Changes in Central England Temperatures

    Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric

    The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...... by Thomson (“The Seasons, Global Temperature and Precession”, Science, 7 April 1995, vol 268, p. 59–68), a number of studies have documented a shift in the phase of the annual cycle implying an earlier onset of the spring season at various European locations. A significant reduction in the amplitude...... and stochastic trends, as well as seasonally varying autocorrelation and residual variances. The model can be summarized as containing a permanent and a transitory component, where global warming is captured in the permanent component, on which the seasons load differentially. The phase of the seasonal cycle...

  15. Comparing teacher roles in Denmark and England

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick


    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions...... these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of Bernstein’s pedagogic discourse to construct teacher roles, which provided a view of pedagogy. Through this approach we have begun to identify variations in pedagogy across two countries. All teachers in this study adopted a variety of roles. Of significance...... was the ease with which competent English teachers moved between roles. The English teachers observed adopted roles consistent with a wider techno-rationalist discourse. There was a greater subject emphasis by Danish teachers, whose work was set predominantly within a democratic humanist discourse, whilst...

  16. New England electric utility takes the lead

    New England Electric System has taken several steps to reduce dependence on foreign oil, save its customers money, and encourage the development of energy resources tailored to meet the region's energy needs. The heart of the plan is a stated objective of reducing annual peaking demand for electrical growth from a projected 3.1% to 1.9%. Other activities initiated are: a solar hot water demonstration project; the NEPCO's burning of a mixture of pulverized coal and residual fuel oil in one of its boilers at Salem Harbor Station in Salem, Massachusetts; purchasing and trading electricity with industrial and private small power producers; and participating in an effort to develop a plan to convert the Brayton Point power plant in Somerset, Massachusetts from oil to coal.

  17. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Francome, C


    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted.

  18. Pericentrin expression in Down's syndrome.

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Concetta; Romano, Carmelo; Salluzzo, Roberto; Caraci, Filippo; Cantarella, Rita Anna; Salluzzo, Maria Grazia; Drago, Filippo; Romano, Corrado; Bosco, Paolo


    Down's syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and is a chromosomal abnormality of chromosome 21 trisomy. The pericentrin gene (PCNT) has sequenced in 21q22.3 inside of the minimal critical region for Down's syndrome. Alterations of PCNT gene are associated with dwarfism, cardiomyopathy and other pathologies. In this study, we have evaluated the possible differential expression of PCNT mRNA, by qRT-PCR, in peripheral blood leukocytes of DS subjects compared with the normal population. In the present case-control study, PCNT gene expression was increased by 72.72% in 16 out 22 DS samples compared with normal subjects. Our data suggest that changes in the expression levels of PCNT in DS subjects may be involved into the molecular mechanism of Down's syndrome.

  19. Congenital Leukemia in Down's syndrome

    Iqbal, W.; Khan, F.; Muzaffar, M.; Khan, U. A.; Rehman, M. U.; Khan, M. A.; Bari, A.


    Congenital Leukemia is a condition and often associated with fatal outcome/sup 1/. Most of the neonatal cases reported have acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, in contrast to the predominance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia found in later childhood. congenital leukemia is occasionally associated with number of congenital anomalies and with chromosomal disorders such as Down's syndrome. Subtle cytogenetic abnormalities may occur more commonly in the affected infants and their parents, when studied with newer cytogenetic techniques/sup 2/. Inherent unstable hematopoieses resulting from chromosomal aberration in children with Downs's syndrome can present with transient myeloproliferative disorder, mimicking leukemia which undergoes spontaneous recovery/sup 3/. Only few cases of congenital leukemia with Downs syndrome, presented as congenital leukemia. (author)

  20. Down syndrome: coercion and eugenics.

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B


    Experts agree that coercion by insurance companies or governmental authorities to limit reproductive choice constitutes a eugenic practice. We discuss discrimination against families of children with Down syndrome who chose not to have prenatal testing or chose to continue a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. We argue that this discrimination represents economic and social coercion to limit reproductive choice, and we present examples of governmental rhetoric and policies condoning eugenics and commercial policies meeting criteria established by experts for eugenics. Our purpose is to sensitize the clinical genetics community to these issues as we attempt to provide the most neutral nondirective prenatal genetic counseling we can, and as we provide postnatal care and counseling to children with Down syndrome and their families. We are concerned that if eugenic policies and practices targeting individuals with Down syndrome and their families are tolerated by clinical geneticists and the broader citizenry, then we increase the probability of eugenics directed toward other individuals and communities.

  1. Maternal irradiation and Down Syndrome

    Gibson, D.L.; Uh, S.H.; Miller, J.R.


    The role of preconception irradiation in the etiology of Down Syndrome was examined using the techniques of record linkage. Although 909 cases of Down Syndrome, born in B.C. between 1952-70, were ascertained through a system of linked vital and health registrations, interest was restricted to the 348 case/control pairs born in the greater Vancouver area. The maternal identifying information routinely recorded on birth and ill-health registrations was used to link 155 Down Syndrome mothers and 116 control mothers to patient files at the Vancouver General Hospital. Only 28 of the case and 25 of the control mothers were subjected to diagnostic irradiation at the Vancouver Ganeral Hospital. The difference was not significant at the 5% level

  2. Shifting to triple value healthcare: Reflections from England.

    Jani, Anant; Jungmann, Sven; Gray, Muir


    Increasing need and demand because of growing and aging populations combined with stagnant or decreasing resources being invested into healthcare globally mean that a radical shift is needed to ensure that healthcare systems can meet current and future challenges. Quality-, safety- and efficiency-improvement approaches have been used as means to address many problems in healthcare and while they are essential and necessary, they are not sufficient to meet our current challenges. To build resilient and sustainable healthcare systems, we need a shift to focus on triple value healthcare, which will help healthcare professionals improve outcomes at the process, patient and population levels while also optimising resource utilisation. Here we present a brief history of the Quality and Evidence-based Healthcare model and then describe how value emerged as a predominant theme in England. We then highlight the four solutions that we, as part of the RightCare programme, designed and refined in the English NHS to turn theory into practice: We end with a description of how triple value is being introduced into Germany and steps that can be taken to facilitate its adoption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Good to Think with: Domestic Servants, England 1660-1750

    Jeanne Clegg


    Full Text Available This article surveys scholarship dealing with domestic service in England at the latter end of early modernity. Neglected by British social historians of ‘productive’ working classes, servants began to attract serious interest only after demographers of the 1970s showed that in the north and west of pre-industrial Europe youths of all social ranks passed several years in ‘life-cycle service’. The concept has proved controversial, but fruitful for study of the family and of the many functions performed within the extended household. In the 1980s feminism, and the revival of servant-keeping, stimulated interest in modern domestic workers, to whom those of earlier times were often assimilated. The focus has since shifted to radical changes (feminisation and proletarianisation taking place in the later eighteenth century, and away from the complex hierarchies typical of great houses onto middling-sort servant-keeping. Recently historians have investigated the agency enjoyed by eighteenth-century servants, and affective aspects of household relationships. Archival research, facilitated by digitalisation, studies of material culture and household spaces, willingness to read between the lines and against the grain, now offer greater insight into the experiences of and cultural forms used by this group of labouring-class men and women. 

  4. HPV primary cervical screening in England: Women's awareness and attitudes.

    Patel, Hersha; Moss, Esther L; Sherman, Susan M


    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening is due to be implemented in England within the next 2 years; however, the acceptability of HPV testing as the primary screening test is unclear. This study explores women's awareness and attitudes toward HPV testing/screening. Qualitative interviews (semistructured and focus group) were conducted with 46 women (aged 25-65 years) from community and secondary care settings. Data were analyzed by using the inductive-framework method. Women were unaware that cervical screening currently includes HPV testing and lacked HPV-related knowledge. Emotions of shock, fear, and anxiety were reported upon receiving a positive HPV result. For women in long-term relationships, the realization that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection was seen as a barrier to primary HPV testing. Knowledge that HPV testing is a screening test to prevent cervical cancer did not change their attitudes. Women debated the need for continued screening following a negative result. Women feared judgment by the community if they participated with primary HPV screening because they were being tested for a sexually transmitted infection, with the possible attendant perception that they had adopted a high-risk lifestyle in comparison to nonattenders. The acceptability of HPV testing may be a limiting factor in encouraging participation with screening in the future. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Sexual health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth in England.

    Lefkowitz, Ayla R F; Mannell, Jenevieve


    Transgender youth often face difficulties when accessing sexual health services. However, few studies investigate health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth, and fewer focus on sexual health. To fill this gap, our study draws on social representations theory to examine sexual health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth and how this influences the provision of health services for this marginalised population in England. A thematic analysis of 20 semi-structured interviews with service providers, conducted between March and June 2014, resulted in five main themes centred on: binary representations of transgender; transgender as homosexuality; uncertain bodies; unstable mental states; and too young to know. Of the service providers interviewed, many understood transgender within a male/female binary, and perceived being transgender to be synonymous with being gay. There was confusion among service providers regarding transgender youths' sexual organs, and most of those interviewed saw transgender youth as mentally unstable and confused. Finally, many service providers perceived that transgender youth are too young to know that they are transgender and make decisions about their body. Some of these representations were potentially stigmatising and many conflicted with transgender youths' representations of themselves. Training by transgender people is recommended to help address these misunderstandings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England.

    O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C


    Improved understanding of longevity represents a significant welfare opportunity for the domestic dog, given its unparalleled morphological diversity. Epidemiological research using electronic patient records (EPRs) collected from primary veterinary practices overcomes many inherent limitations of referral clinic, owner questionnaire and pet insurance data. Clinical health data from 102,609 owned dogs attending first opinion veterinary practices (n=86) in central and southeast England were analysed, focusing on 5095 confirmed deaths. Of deceased dogs with information available, 3961 (77.9%) were purebred, 2386 (47.0%) were female, 2528 (49.8%) were neutered and 1105 (21.7%) were insured. The overall median longevity was 12.0 years (IQR 8.9-14.2). The longest-lived breeds were the Miniature poodle, Bearded collie, Border collie and Miniature dachshund, while the shortest-lived were the Dogue de Bordeaux and Great Dane. The most frequently attributed causes of death were neoplastic, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The results of multivariable modelling indicated that longevity in crossbred dogs exceeded purebred dogs by 1.2 years (95% confidence interval 0.9-1.4; P<0.001) and that increasing bodyweight was negatively correlated with longevity. The current findings highlight major breed differences for longevity and support the concept of hybrid vigour in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pulsar slow-down epochs

    Heintzmann, H.; Novello, M.


    The relative importance of magnetospheric currents and low frequency waves for pulsar braking is assessed and a model is developed which tries to account for the available pulsar timing data under the unifying aspect that all pulsars have equal masses and magnetic moments and are born as rapid rotators. Four epochs of slow-down are distinguished which are dominated by different braking mechanisms. According to the model no direct relationship exists between 'slow-down age' and true age of a pulsar and leads to a pulsar birth-rate of one event per hundred years. (Author) [pt

  8. Reflections on the pathogenesis of Down syndrome.

    Opitz, J M; Gilbert-Barness, E F


    Present efforts to identify, isolate, and characterize in molecular terms the "consensus" segment of 21q sufficient to cause most of the major and some of the most characteristic minor manifestations of Down syndrome will soon provide answers to many questions. However, we think that a reductionist approach to explain the Down syndrome phenotype in a "linear" manner from the DNA sequence of the segment will be doomed to failure from the outset because of the open, complex, nonlinear, hierarchical nature of morphogenetic systems. Neo-Darwinism is under strong attack; most genetic changes accumulated over time may very well be of neutral effect, and detailed studies in several related groups of vertebrate species has shown that molecular and organismal evolution are largely independent of one another. It has been pointed out recently that biology lacks a theory of ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, and that a purely "genocentric" view of biology at the expense of the complexly hierarchical intrinsic epigenetic attributes of developmental systems is "out of focus with respect to ... biological organization and morphogenesis," and may be "a residue of nineteenth century romantic idealism." Down syndrome impresses us as a paradigm of increased developmental variability due to a deceleration of the rate of development (neoteny) with many anomalies of incomplete morphogenesis (vestigia), atavisms, increased morphometric variability with many decreased means, increased variances, and increased fluctuating asymmetry. These abnormalities, together with highly increased risk of prenatal death and postnatal morbidity, impaired growth, and abnormal CNS and gonadal structure and function characteristic of most aneuploidy syndromes, suggest to us that the pathogenesis of Down syndrome is best viewed in terms of the mechanisms of speciation. Transgenic experiment involving sequential or overlapping pieces of "the consensus segment" on distal 21q22.1-22.3 may help decide to

  9. Bone health in Down syndrome.

    García-Hoyos, Marta; Riancho, José Antonio; Valero, Carmen


    Patients with Down syndrome have a number of risk factors that theoretically could predispose them to osteoporosis, such as early aging, development disorders, reduced physical activity, limited sun exposure, frequent comorbidities and use of drug therapies which could affect bone metabolism. In addition, the bone mass of these people may be affected by their anthropometric and body composition peculiarities. In general terms, studies in adults with Down syndrome reported that these people have lower areal bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) than the general population. However, most of them have not taken the smaller bone size of people with Down syndrome into account. In fact, when body mineral density is adjusted by bone size and we obtain volumetric body mineral density (g/cm 3 ), the difference between both populations disappears. On the other hand, although people with Down syndrome have risk factor of hypovitaminosis D, the results of studies regarding 25(OH)D in this population are not clear. Likewise, the studies about biochemical bone markers or the prevalence of fractures are not conclusive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Down syndrome and ionizing radiation.

    Verger, P


    This review examines the epidemiologic and experimental studies into the possible role ionizing radiation might play in Down Syndrome (trisomy 21). It is prompted by a report of a temporal cluster of cases of this chromosomal disorder observed in West Berlin exactly 9 mo after the radioactive cloud from Chernobyl passed. In approximately 90% of cases, Down Syndrome is due to the nondisjunction of chromosome 21, most often in the oocyte, which may be exposed to ionizing radiation during two separate periods: before the completion of the first meiosis or around the time of ovulation. Most epidemiologic studies into trisomies and exposure to ionizing radiation examine only the first period; the Chernobyl cluster is related to the second. Analysis of these epidemiologic results indicates that the possibility that ionizing radiation might be a risk factor in Down Syndrome cannot be excluded. The experimental results, although sometimes contradictory, demonstrate that irradiation may induce nondisjunction in oogenesis and spermatogenesis; they cannot, however, be easily extrapolated to humans. The weaknesses of epidemiologic studies into the risk factors for Down Syndrome at birth (especially the failure to take into account the trisomy cases leading to spontaneous abortion) are discussed. We envisage the utility and feasibility of new studies, in particular among women exposed to prolonged or repeated artificially-produced ionizing radiation.

  11. On Dumbing It Down | Poster

    To be gratuitously loquacious will probably obfuscate. Huh? Oh, sorry. Let me try that again. The unnecessary use of flowery language is likely to confuse the listener and interfere with understanding. Was that dumbing the message down? I don’t think so—it took a few more words, but it was probably clearer.

  12. A slowing-down problem

    Carlvik, I; Pershagen, B


    An infinitely long circular cylinder of radius a is surrounded by an infinite moderator. Both media are non-capturing. The cylinder emits neutrons of age zero with a constant source density of S. We assume that the ratios of the slowing-down powers and of the diffusion constants are independent of the neutron energy. The slowing-down density is calculated for two cases, a) when the slowing-down power of the cylinder medium is very small, and b) when the cylinder medium is identical with the moderator. The ratios of the slowing-down density at the age {tau} and the source density in the two cases are called {psi}{sub V}, and {psi}{sub M} respectively. {psi}{sub V} and {psi}{sub M} are functions of y=a{sup 2}/4{tau}. These two functions ({psi}{sub V} and {psi}{sub M}) are calculated and tabulated for y = 0-0.25.

  13. New England Energy Congress: progress report - a descriptive summary

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Spencer, Bailey; Alford, Zeb D.; Keating, Jr., Stephen J.; Aubin, Elmer B.


    New England's dependence on oil (about 80%) is posing a double threat to the region and its economic prosperity, as oil dependency means extreme supply vulnerability and substantially higher prices than the national average. The New England Energy Congress, sponsored by the New England Congressional Caucus and Tufts Univ., represents the concerted effort of a highly diverse group of New Englanders to address these problems. The work of the six committees of the Congress is reviewed in this report. The committees are the Supply Committee, Energy Demand Committee, Energy Conservation Committee, Regulatory and Institutional Processes Committee, Economic Development through Alternative Sources of Energy Committee, and Energy Economics and Financing Committee. (MCW)

  14. 11 New England Organizations Recognized as Energy Star Partners

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s New England office, along with the U.S. Department of Energy are honoring 11 ENERGY STAR partners for their outstanding contributions to public health and the environment.

  15. Postgraduate Clinical Training at the New England School of Optometry.

    Hoffman, Douglas J.


    The New England College of Optometry's two separate but integrated clinical postgraduate programs, one providing Veterans' Administration residencies and the other, college-based fellowships, are described. The shared curriculum components, exchange process, and evaluation system are highlighted. (MSE)

  16. A management guide for northern hardwoods in New England

    Adrian M. Gilbert; Victor S. Jensen


    Northern hardwood forests occupy about 9 million acres of land in New England. In recent years, these hardwood forests have made increasing contributions to the economy of this region. Their future management should be even more rewarding.

  17. 76 FR 17626 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... affecting New England fisheries in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). DATES: The meeting will be held on... disadvantages of allowing trading allocations of stocks managed under the US/Canada Resource Sharing...

  18. 78 FR 20618 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... affecting New England fisheries in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). DATES: The meeting will be held on... to discuss quota trading, assessment timing, alternative management strategies and the U.S./Canada...

  19. Private Well Owners | Drinking Water in New England | US ...


    Recent studies in New England identified contamination of some private wells from methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MtBE), radon and arsenic. But, many homeowners are not aware of this risk to their drinking water.

  20. From "Stranger" to "Arrived": The Citizens' Library in England.

    Meyers, Arthur S.


    Discusses studies of public library multicultural services in England. Describes multicultural programs in Birmingham and Brent that involve the citizens in planning and implementing these services. Access to electronic technology will affect the provision of these services. (MMU)

  1. Mobile phone use by drivers : 2009 - survey results for England


    Premise/hypothesis : The Department for Transport has commissioned surveys to monitor the levels of mobile phone use by drivers across England since 2002. Methods : Two or three-person teams conducted observational surveys of mobile phone use on repr...

  2. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia

    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acid...

  3. 76 FR 39075 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... Committee will discuss measures to minimize the adverse effects of fishing on Essential Fish Habitat (EFH... England Fishery Management Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat/MPA/Ecosystem...

  4. Education governance and standardised tests in Denmark and England

    Kousholt, Kristine; Kelly, Peter; McNess, Elizabeth


    In this study we identify and compare the impact of standardised student assessment in England, an established neoliberal context, and in Denmark where a neoliberal education reform agenda is emerging in response to both national concerns and international governance. National reading tests...... for students aged 11–12 years, long established in England, were introduced in Denmark in 2010. The form they take differs considerably, being primarily formative in Denmark and largely summative in England. Culturally sensitive extended semi-structured interviews are conducted with both teachers and students...... they believe to be their students’ best interests. In England, however, teachers try to accommodate a concern for both their students’ and their own interests, and the pedagogy they enact is more often controlling, instrumental and reductionist; their wish to be proactive is compromised by their need...

  5. Teachers' reported practices for teaching writing in England.

    Dockrell, Julie E; Marshall, Chloë R; Wyse, Dominic

    To date there have been no systematic studies examining the ways in which teachers in England focus and adapt their teaching of writing. The current study addresses this gap by investigating the nature and frequency of teachers' approaches to the teaching of writing in a sample of English primary schools, using the 'simple view of writing' as a framework to examine the extent to which different aspects of the writing process are addressed. One hundred and eighty-eight staff from ten different schools responded to an online questionnaire. Only the data from class teachers (n = 88) who responded to all items on the questionnaire were included in the final analyses. Respondents enjoyed teaching writing and felt prepared to teach it. However, despite feeling that they were effective in identifying approaches to support students' writing, nearly half reported that supporting struggling writers was problematic for them. Overall teachers reported more work at word level, occurring several times a week, than with transcription, sentence or text levels, which were reported to occur weekly. Planning, reviewing and revising occurred least often, only monthly. For these variables no differences were found between teachers of younger (age 4-7) and older students (age 8-11). By contrast, an examination of specific aspects of each component revealed differences between the teachers of the two age groups. Teachers of younger students focused more frequently on phonic activities related to spelling, whereas teachers of older students focussed more on word roots, punctuation, word classes and the grammatical function of words, sentence-level work, and paragraph construction.

  6. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre



    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Snapshots of language and literature teaching in Denmark and England

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans


    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation...... to language and literature teaching focussing on performance in England and a personal formation in Denmark. Descriptions of the episodes are linked to wider debates and potential areas for further consideration are identified....

  8. The disturbing virgin : an analysis of criticism on Mary Wilkins Freeman's short story "A New England Nun"

    Tidemann, Line Næstby


    Abstract Few female literary characters have been treated with more scorn and ridicule than the ‘spinster’. In this essay, I examine how modern critics of Mary Wilkins Freeman’s “A New England Nun” (1891) have interpreted the unmarried female protagonist of this short story, Louisa Ellis. Representative critical strategies are analysed with focus on how they interpret the protagonist, and what the political and methodological implications of choosing a particular strategy are. The two com...

  9. COPD exacerbations by disease severity in England

    Merinopoulou E


    Full Text Available Evie Merinopoulou,1 Mireia Raluy-Callado,1 Sreeram Ramagopalan,1 Sharon MacLachlan,1 Javaria Mona Khalid2 1Real-World Evidence, Evidera, 2Takeda Development Centre Europe Ltd, London, UK Objectives: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are associated with accelerated disease progression and are important drivers of health care resource utilization. The study aimed to quantify the rates of COPD exacerbations in England and assess health care resource utilization by severity categories according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2013.Methods: Data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics were used to identify patients with a COPD diagnosis aged ≥40 years. Those with complete spirometric, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale information, and exacerbation history 12 months prior to January 1, 2011 (index date were classified into GOLD severity groups. Study outcomes over follow-up (up to December 31, 2013 were exacerbation rates and resource utilization (general practitioner visits, hospital admissions.Results: From the 44,201 patients in the study cohort, 83.5% were classified into severity levels GOLD A: 33.8%, GOLD B: 21.0%, GOLD C: 18.1%, and GOLD D: 27.0%. Mean age at diagnosis was 66 years and 52.0% were male. Annual exacerbation rates per person-year increased with severity, from 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81–0.85 for GOLD A to 2.51 (95% CI: 2.47–2.55 for GOLD D. General practitioner visit rates per person-year also increased with severity, from 4.82 (95% CI: 4.74–4.93 for GOLD A to 7.44 (95% CI: 7.31–7.61 for GOLD D. COPD-related hospitalization rates per person-year increased from less symptoms (GOLD A: 0.28, GOLD C: 0.39 to more symptoms (GOLD B: 0.52, GOLD D: 0.84.Conclusion: Patients in the most severe category (GOLD D experienced nearly three times the number of exacerbations and COPD

  10. Depression in Down Syndrome: A Review of the Literature

    Walker, J. C.; Dosen, A.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Janzing, J. G. E.


    Background: Depression has been frequently reported in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the clinically relevant literature concerning depression in DS, with a focus on epidemiology, potential risk factors, diagnosis, course characteristics and treatment. Methods: We…

  11. The Dental Needs and Treatment of Patients with Down Syndrome.

    Mubayrik, Azizah Bin


    Down syndrome is a common disorder with many oral conditions and systemic manifestations. Dentists need to take a holistic approach including behavioral, oral, and systemic issues. This review of the literature focuses on oral anomalies, systemic interaction, management, and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma N-Glycome Signature of Down Syndrome

    Borelli, V.; Vanhooren, V.; Lonardi, E.; Reiding, K.R.; Capri, M.; Libert, C.; Garagnani, P.; Salvioli, S.; Franceschi, C.; Wuhrer, M.


    In recent years, plasma N-glycans have emerged as biomarkers for health and disease. Here, we studied N-glycomic changes in Down Syndrome (DS). Because of the progeroid phenotype of DS, we focused on the dissection of syndrome- and aging-associated glycomic changes, as well as the interaction

  13. Education Policy and Governance in England under the Coalition Government (2010-15): Academies, the Pupil Premium, and Free Early Education

    West, Anne


    This paper explores the governance of school-based and early education in England under the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government (2010-15). It draws on three prominent Coalition policy areas--the academies programme, the pupil premium, and free part-time early education--and focuses on changes to the role played by central government…

  14. Does Europe Matter? A Comparative Study of Young People's Identifications with Europe at a State School and a European School in England

    Savvides, Nicola; Faas, Daniel


    This article explores the extent to which young people in predominantly middle-class environments identify with Europe and considers the influence of European education policy, school ethos and curricula. We compare data drawn from individual and focus group interviews with students aged 15-17 at a state school and a European School in England.…

  15. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet among employees in South West England: Formative research to inform a web-based, work-place nutrition intervention

    Angeliki Papadaki


    Conclusion: Improvement in the consumption of several Mediterranean diet components is needed to increase adherence in this sample of adults. The findings have the potential to inform the development of a web-based intervention that will focus on these foods to promote the Mediterranean diet in work-place settings in South West England.

  16. Unusual ruby-sapphire transition in alluvial megacrysts, Cenozoic basaltic gem field, New England, New South Wales, Australia

    Sutherland, Frederick L.; Graham, Ian T.; Harris, Stephen J.; Coldham, Terry; Powell, William; Belousova, Elena A.; Martin, Laure


    Rare ruby crystals appear among prevailing sapphire crystals mined from placers within basaltic areas in the New England gem-field, New South Wales, Australia. New England ruby (NER) has distinctive trace element features compared to those from ruby elsewhere in Australia and indeed most ruby from across the world. The NER suite includes ruby (up to 3370 ppm Cr), pink sapphire (up to 1520 ppm Cr), white sapphire (up to 910 ppm) and violet, mauve, purple, or bluish sapphire (up to 1410 ppm Cr). Some crystals show outward growth banding in this respective colour sequence. All four colour zones are notably high in Ga (up to 310 ppm) and Si (up to 1820 ppm). High Ga and Ga/Mg values are unusual in ruby and its trace element plots (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and suggests that magmatic-metasomatic inputs were involved in the NER suite genesis. In situ oxygen isotope analyses (secondary ion mass spectrometry) across the NER suite colour range showed little variation (n = 22; δ18O = 4.4 ± 0.4, 2σ error), and are values typical for corundum associated with ultramafic/mafic rocks. The isolated NER xenocryst suite, corroded by basalt transport and with few internal inclusions, presents a challenge in deciphering its exact origin. Detailed consideration of its high Ga chemistry in relation to the known geology of the surrounding region was used to narrow down potential sources. These include Late Palaeozoic-Triassic fractionated I-type granitoid magmas or Mesozoic-Cenozoic felsic fractionates from basaltic magmas that interacted with early Palaeozoic Cr-bearing ophiolite bodies in the New England Orogen. Other potential sources may lie deeper within lower crust-mantle metamorphic assemblages, but need to match the anomalous high-Ga geochemistry of the New England ruby suite.

  17. Down syndrome preleukemia and leukemia.

    Maloney, Kelly W; Taub, Jeffrey W; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Roberts, Irene; Vyas, Paresh


    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute leukemias acute have unique biological, cytogenetic, and intrinsic factors that affect their treatment and outcome. Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) is associated with high event-free survival (EFS) rates and frequently preceded by a preleukemia condition, the transient abnormal hematopoiesis (TAM) present at birth. For acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), their EFS and overall survival are poorer than non-DS ALL, it is important to enroll them on therapeutic trials, including relapse trials; investigate new agents that could potentially improve their leukemia-free survival; and strive to maximize the supportive care these patients need. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex differentials in frailty in medieval England.

    DeWitte, Sharon N


    In most modern populations, there are sex differentials in morbidity and mortality that favor women. This study addresses whether such female advantages existed to any appreciable degree in medieval Europe. The analyses presented here examine whether men and women with osteological stress markers faced the same risks of death in medieval London. The sample used for this study comes from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery in London. The benefit of using this cemetery is that most, if not all, individuals interred in East Smithfield died from the same cause within a very short period of time. This allows for the analysis of the differences between men and women in the risks of mortality associated with osteological stress markers without the potential confounding effects of different causes of death. A sample of 299 adults (173 males, 126 females) from the East Smithfield cemetery was analyzed. The results indicate that the excess mortality associated with several osteological stress markers was higher for men than for women. This suggests that in this medieval population, previous physiological stress increased the risk of death for men during the Black Death to a greater extent than was true for women. Alternatively, the results might indicate that the Black Death discriminated less strongly between women with and without pre-existing health conditions than was true for men. These results are examined in light of previous analyses of East Smithfield and what is known about diet and sexually mediated access to resources in medieval England. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Online chilling effects in England and Wales

    Judith Townend


    Full Text Available Open and free internet-based platforms are seen as an enabler of global free expression, releasing writers from commercial and space constraints. However, many are working without the assistance of an in-house lawyer, or other legal resources. This may lead to undue suppression of public interest material, with important implications for freedom of expression and the democratic function of media. Two online surveys among digital and online journalists in England and Wales in 2013 indicated that the majority of encounters with defamation and privacy law take place outside the courts, with few formally recorded legal actions. This was particularly evident in a sample of ‘hyperlocal’ and local community publishers. In light of the results, this paper calls for a reappraisal of overly simplistic judicial and media applications of the ‘chilling effect’ doctrine, in order to expose its subjectivities and complexities. Additionally, attention needs to be paid to global and cross-jurisdictional media-legal environments, in order to help develop better internet policy and legal frameworks for protecting legitimate expression.

  20. School food cost-benefits: England.

    Nelson, Michael


    To estimate the costs per relevant unit (pupils and meals) associated with improvements to school food and the potential economic and health gains that may result. Calculation of costs per relevant unit (pupils and meals) based on (i) Department for Education expenditure to support improvements in school food, 2005–2011 and (ii) measures of the changes in the number of pupils taking school lunch and the number of meals served over the same time period; plus examples of the use of linked data to predict longer-term economic and health outcomes of healthier eating at school. England. Local authorities, government departments and non-departmental public bodies. Analysis of investment over a 6-year period indicates that costs of setting up and maintaining a change organization such as the School Food Trust were low in relation to short-term benefits in nutrition and behaviour. Models that predict long-terms gains to the exchequer and to quality-adjusted life years need further elaboration. Modest levels of government investment in the delivery and promotion of healthier school food is likely to yield both short-term and long-term benefits in relation to nutrition, learning, economics and health.

  1. Postglacial climate reconstruction based on compound-specific D/H ratios of fatty acids from Blood Pond, New England

    Hou, Juzhi; Huang, Yongsong; Wang, Yi; Shuman, Bryan; Oswald, W. Wyatt; Faison, Edward; Foster, David R.


    We determined hydrogen isotope ratios of individual fatty acids in a sediment core from Blood Pond, Massachusetts, USA, in order to reconstruct climate changes during the past 15 kyr. In addition to palmitic acid (C16n-acid), which has been shown to record lake water D/H ratios, our surface sediments and down core data indicate that behenic acid (C22n-acid), produced mainly by aquatic macrophytes, is also effective for capturing past environmental change. Calibration using surface sediments from two transects across eastern North America indicates that behenic acid records δD variation of lake water. Down core variations in δD values of behenic acid and pollen taxa are consistent with the known climate change history of New England. By evaluating the hypothesis that D/H fractionations of long chain even numbered fatty acids (C24-C32n-acids) relative to lake water provide independent estimates of relative humidity during the growing season, we find that differences between lake-level records and isotopically inferred humidity estimates may provide useful insight into seasonal aspects of the hydrologic cycle. Combined analyses of D/H of short and long chain fatty acids from lake sediment cores thus allow reconstructions of both past temperature and growing season relative humidity. Comparison of δD records from two lakes in New England provides critical information on regional climate variation and abrupt climate change, such as the 8.2 ka event.

  2. Strategic Style in Pared-Down Poker

    Burns, Kevin

    This chapter deals with the manner of making diagnoses and decisions, called strategic style, in a gambling game called Pared-down Poker. The approach treats style as a mental mode in which choices are constrained by expected utilities. The focus is on two classes of utility, i.e., money and effort, and how cognitive styles compare to normative strategies in optimizing these utilities. The insights are applied to real-world concerns like managing the war against terror networks and assessing the risks of system failures. After "Introducing the Interactions" involved in playing poker, the contents are arranged in four sections, as follows. "Underpinnings of Utility" outlines four classes of utility and highlights the differences between them: economic utility (money), ergonomic utility (effort), informatic utility (knowledge), and aesthetic utility (pleasure). "Inference and Investment" dissects the cognitive challenges of playing poker and relates them to real-world situations of business and war, where the key tasks are inference (of cards in poker, or strength in war) and investment (of chips in poker, or force in war) to maximize expected utility. "Strategies and Styles" presents normative (optimal) approaches to inference and investment, and compares them to cognitive heuristics by which people play poker--focusing on Bayesian methods and how they differ from human styles. The normative strategy is then pitted against cognitive styles in head-to-head tournaments, and tournaments are also held between different styles. The results show that style is ergonomically efficient and economically effective, i.e., style is smart. "Applying the Analysis" explores how style spaces, of the sort used to model individual behavior in Pared-down Poker, might also be applied to real-world problems where organizations evolve in terror networks and accidents arise from system failures.

  3. Genomics England's implementation of its public engagement strategy: Blurred boundaries between engagement for the United Kingdom's 100,000 Genomes project and the need for public support.

    Samuel, Gabrielle Natalie; Farsides, Bobbie


    The United Kingdom's 100,000 Genomes Project has the aim of sequencing 100,000 genomes from National Health Service patients such that whole genome sequencing becomes routine clinical practice. It also has a research-focused goal to provide data for scientific discovery. Genomics England is the limited company established by the Department of Health to deliver the project. As an innovative scientific/clinical venture, it is interesting to consider how Genomics England positions itself in relation to public engagement activities. We set out to explore how individuals working at, or associated with, Genomics England enacted public engagement in practice. Our findings show that individuals offered a narrative in which public engagement performed more than one function. On one side, public engagement was seen as 'good practice'. On the other, public engagement was presented as core to the project's success - needed to encourage involvement and ultimately recruitment. We discuss the implications of this in this article.

  4. Groundwater vulnerability to onshore unconventional and conventional hydrocarbon activities in England

    Loveless, Sian; Bloomfield, John; Ward, Rob; Davey, Ian; Hart, Alwyn


    In the last five years there has been a renewed interest in onshore oil and gas in England as new extraction technologies and continued energy demand have allowed for the development of less accessible resources. Until now, shale gas has received most attention in England although exploration licences have also been granted for coal bed methane and mine gas in addition to more conventional hydrocarbon resources. While there is some interest in underground coal gasification there are currently no licences granted. Potential impacts on groundwater from shale gas operations have been well publicised. Hazards include contamination from spills or leaks of frack-fluids and returned water, at the surface, through leaky wells or via subsurface pathways from the source rock, and the availability of water resources. Groundwater is an important resource in England, providing an average of 31% of water resources in England and Wales, and up to 100% in some areas of south-east England. In its role as the environmental regulator the Environment Agency must manage the risks associated with these hazards, and those associated with other onshore oil and gas activities, so that they are minimised. Here we focus on the groundwater contamination risk from source rocks though subsurface pathways. Despite the abundant literature emerging from the North American continent there remain great uncertainties as to the risk. These uncertainties are amplified when translated to Europe due to significant policy and geological differences. Research from North America indicates that risk is influenced by the exploitation and well completion methods and the geological setting, including: pre-existing fracture and fault networks; stress regime; petrological and rheological properties of the rock between the source and groundwater receptor and the distance between the source and receptors. A joint British Geological Survey/ EA project - iHydrogeology (http://www.bgs

  5. Disability: Down Syndrome and Sexuality



    Full Text Available Thirty?four?year?old Daniel is the first European with Down syndrome to have graduated from university. He starts a social services job in Seville, where he meets free?spirited co?worker Laura. They become fast friends, drawing the attention of both their coworkers and families. Their unique relationship becomes problematic when Daniel falls in love with her. But these rebellious souls refuse to bend to the rules and they findfriendship and love as they have never known.

  6. Top-down cellular pyramids

    Wu, A Y; Rosenfeld, A


    A cellular pyramid is an exponentially tapering stack of arrays of processors (cells), where each cell is connected to its neighbors (siblings) on its own level, to a parent on the level above, and to its children on the level below. It is shown that in some situations, if information flows top-down only, from fathers to sons, then a cellular pyramid may be no faster than a one-level cellular array; but it may be possible to use simpler cells in the pyramid case. 23 references.

  7. Slowing down bubbles with sound

    Poulain, Cedric; Dangla, Remie; Guinard, Marion


    We present experimental evidence that a bubble moving in a fluid in which a well-chosen acoustic noise is superimposed can be significantly slowed down even for moderate acoustic pressure. Through mean velocity measurements, we show that a condition for this effect to occur is for the acoustic noise spectrum to match or overlap the bubble's fundamental resonant mode. We render the bubble's oscillations and translational movements using high speed video. We show that radial oscillations (Rayleigh-Plesset type) have no effect on the mean velocity, while above a critical pressure, a parametric type instability (Faraday waves) is triggered and gives rise to nonlinear surface oscillations. We evidence that these surface waves are subharmonic and responsible for the bubble's drag increase. When the acoustic intensity is increased, Faraday modes interact and the strongly nonlinear oscillations behave randomly, leading to a random behavior of the bubble's trajectory and consequently to a higher slow down. Our observations may suggest new strategies for bubbly flow control, or two-phase microfluidic devices. It might also be applicable to other elastic objects, such as globules, cells or vesicles, for medical applications such as elasticity-based sorting.

  8. Keeping Noise Down on the Farm

    ... Do > Keeping Noise Down on the Farm Keeping Noise Down on the Farm SHARE Some people may ... risks permanent hearing damage. Take steps to reduce noise from machinery. Keep machinery running smoothly by replacing ...

  9. What Are Common Symptoms of Down Syndrome?

    ... Research Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Pelvic Floor Disorders Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a ... for children with Down syndrome: A randomized trial. Physical Therapy , 91, 1463–1477. CDC. (2012). World Down syndrome ...

  10. Elevated bladder cancer in northern New England: The role of drinking water and arsenic

    Baris, Dalsu; Wadell, Richard; Freeman, Laura; Schwenn, Molly; Colt, Joanne; Ayotte, Joseph; Ward, Mary; Nuckols, John; Schned, Alan; Jackson, Brian; Clerkin, Castine; Rothman, Nathanial; Moore, Lee; Taylor, Anne; Robinson, Gilpin; Hosain, Monawar G.; Armenti, Carla; McCoy, Richard; Samanic, Claudine; Hoover, Robert; Fraumeni, Joseph; Johnson, Alison; Karagas, Margaret; Silverman, Debra


    Background: Bladder cancer mortality rates have been elevated in northern New England for at least five decades. Incidence rates in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont are about 20% higher than the United States overall. We explored reasons for this excess, focusing on arsenic in drinking water from private wells, which are particularly prevalent in the region.Methods: In a population-based case-control study in these three states, 1213 bladder cancer case patients and 1418 control subjects provided information on suspected risk factors. Log transformed arsenic concentrations were estimated by linear regression based on measurements in water samples from current and past homes. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results: Bladder cancer risk increased with increasing water intake ( Ptrend = .003). This trend was statistically significant among participants with a history of private well use ( Ptrend = .01). Among private well users, this trend was apparent if well water was derived exclusively from shallow dug wells (which are vulnerable to contamination from manmade sources, Ptrend = .002) but not if well water was supplied only by deeper drilled wells ( Ptrend = .48). If dug wells were used pre-1960, when arsenical pesticides were widely used in the region, heavier water consumers (>2.2 L/day) had double the risk of light users (bladder cancer risk in New England. In addition, historical consumption of water from private wells, particularly dug wells in an era when arsenical pesticides were widely used, was associated with increased bladder cancer risk and may have contributed to the New England excess.

  11. New England Energy Congress: preliminary report for public review

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Spencer, Bailey


    The New England Energy Congress represents the concerted effort of a group of New Englanders to address the energy problem of the area. New England is dependent on oil, with fully 80% of its energy requirements derived from this single source. Detailed reports are presented by the Supply Committee (fossil fuels, nuclear, and alternative sources); the Committee on Economic Development Through Alternative Sources of Energy (defining the state of the art and future directions of the technologies applicable to renewable energy resources, specifically, biomass, direct solar, and wind/hydroelectric/tidal/wave energy; identifying, and formulating policies to reduce the institutional impediments and adverse environmental impacts of developing these resources; and evaluationg the relationship between renewable energy systems and regional economic development); Energy Demand Committee; Energy Conservation Committee; Regulatory and Institutional Processes Committee; and Energy Economics and Financing Committee.

  12. The nature, development and contribution of social marketing to public health practice since 2004 in England.

    French, Jeff


    Social marketing is a highly systematic approach to health improvement that sets out unambiguous success criteria focused on behaviour change. This paper reviews the key concepts and principles of social marketing and its recent rapid development across government in England in the public health field. This paper outlines the role of the National Social Marketing Centre and concludes with a discussion of the probable future impact of social marketing on public health practice. The paper argues that there is a close ideological match between social marketing and liberal democratic imperatives. Social marketing's focus on outcome, return on investment and its emphasis on developing interventions that can respond to diverse needs, means it is probable that social marketing will increasingly be required by governments as a standard part of public health programmes.

  13. Genetic epidemiology of Down syndrome in Iran

    Manoochehr Shariati


    Down syndrome is the most common autosomal abnormality and occurs in approximately 1 per 700 live births. Down syndrome accounts for about one third of all moderate and sever mental handicaps in school-aged children. To reveal genetic epidemiology of Down syndrome, 545 karyotypes of referred cases to the author were evaluated. The frequencies of three cytogenetic variants of Down syndrome were trisomy 21 (77.5%), mosaicism (18%) and chromosomal translocation (4.5%). Male to female ratio was 1...

  14. Study of Different Social Rewards Used in Down's Syndrome Children's Early Stimulation

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa


    This article describes the results obtained with two types of social rewards used in early stimulation of Down's syndrome children. In the study we focus on the efficiency of the employment of the social rewards or reinforcements used in the early stimulation, bearing in mind that the children with Down's syndrome possess a social development…

  15. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne


    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  16. Handbook for inventorying downed woody material

    James K. Brown


    To facilitate debris management, procedures for inventorying downed woody material are presented. Instructions show how to estimate weights and volumes of downed woody material, fuel depth, and duff depth. Using the planar intersect technique, downed material is inventoried by 0- to 0.25-inch, 0.25- to 1-inch, and 1- to 3-inch diameter classes; and by 1-inch classes...

  17. Plasma focus breeder

    Ikuta, Kazunari.


    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  18. Standardised testing in compulsory schooling in England and Denmark

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Kelly, Peter; Kousholt, Kristine


    Within education, national testing is flourishing and, considering the important role which assessment plays in the production and reproduction of culture, it is important to examine further the possible impact of such practice. While England has a long tradition of national educational testing...... have on pupils´ perceptions of their potential academic skills. This article draws on research into the national testing of reading conducted in England and Denmark in Spring 2013 and draws on the work of Basil Bernstein to compare and contrast both sets of national assessment practices....

  19. Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Forensically Important Diptera in Central England.

    Barnes, Kate M; Grace, Karon A; Bulling, Mark T


    Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. New England Energy Congress: A Blueprint for Energy Action. Final Report

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Connolly, Patrick F.; Spencer, Bailey


    The New England Energy Congress consists of six committees, with members from each of the six New England states. Since May 1978, the Congress has been working to frame and substantiate energy action recommendations. Committee jurisdictions include New England Energy Supply, Economic Development through Alternative Sources of Energy, New England Energy Demand, Energy Conservation, Regulatory and Institutional Processes, and Energy Economics and Financing. The findings and recommendations that have resulted from their work are summarized. (MCW)

  1. Development and evaluation of training resources to prepare health professionals for counselling pregnant women about non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: a mixed methods study.

    Oxenford, Kerry; Daley, Rebecca; Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S


    The availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidies is expanding rapidly throughout the world. Training health professionals to offer NIPT in a way that supports informed choice is essential for implementation. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a training package for health professionals to support the introduction of NIPT into clinical practice. Training on NIPT was offered to health professionals, primarily midwives, involved in Down syndrome screening and testing in eight hospitals located in England and Scotland as part of a research study evaluating the implementation of NIPT in the UK National Health Service. Training was evaluated using a mixed methods approach that included quantitative questionnaires at three time points and post-training qualitative interviews. The questionnaires measured confidence, self-perceived knowledge and actual knowledge about NIPT for Down syndrome. Interviews explored opinions about the training and experiences of offering NIPT. The training provided to the health professionals was found to positively impact on their confidence in discussing NIPT with women in their clinic, and both their perceived and actual knowledge and understanding of NIPT was improved. Knowledge remained weak in four areas; cell-free fetal DNA levels increase with gestation; turnaround time for NIPT results; cell-free fetal DNA is placental in origin; and NIPT false positive rate. Training materials, including a lesson plan, PowerPoint presentation and written factsheet on NIPT, have been developed and evaluated for use in educating midwives and supporting the introduction of NIPT. Implementation of training should include a greater focus on the areas where knowledge remained low. Some groups of midwives will need additional training or support to optimise their confidence in discussing NIPT with women.

  2. Attempts to reduce alcohol intake and treatment needs among people with probable alcohol dependence in England: a general population survey.

    Dunne, Jacklyn; Kimergård, Andreas; Brown, Jamie; Beard, Emma; Buykx, Penny; Michie, Susan; Drummond, Colin


    To compare the proportion of people in England with probable alcohol dependence [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score ≥ 20] with those with other drinking patterns (categorized by AUDIT scores) in terms of motivation to reduce drinking and use of alcohol support resources. A combination of random probability and simple quota sampling to conduct monthly cross-sectional household computer-assisted interviews between March 2014 and August 2017. The general population in all nine regions of England. Participants in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS), a monthly household survey of alcohol consumption among people aged 16 years and over in England (n = 69 826). The mean age was 47 years [standard deviation (SD) = 18.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 46.8-47] and 51% (n = 35 560) were female. χ 2 tests were used to investigate associations with demographic variables, motivation to quit drinking, attempts to quit drinking, general practitioner (GP) engagement and types of support accessed in the last 12 months across AUDIT risk zones. A total of 0.6% were classified as people with probable alcohol dependence (95% CI = 0.5-0.7). Motivation to quit (χ 2  = 1692.27, P AUDIT risk zone. People with probable dependence were more likely than other ATS participants to have a past-year attempt to cut down or quit (51.8%) and have received a specialist referral from their GP about drinking (13.7%), and less likely to report no motivation to reduce their drinking (26.2%). Those with probable dependence had higher use of self-help books and mobile applications (apps) than other ATS participants; however, 27.7% did not access any resources during their most recent attempt to cut down. Adults in England with probable alcohol dependence, measured through the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, demonstrate higher motivation to quit drinking and greater use of both specialist treatment and self-driven support compared with those in other

  3. Working memory and Down syndrome.

    Baddeley, A; Jarrold, C


    A brief account is given of the evolution of the concept of working memory from a unitary store into a multicomponent system. Four components are distinguished, the phonological loop which is responsible for maintaining speech-based information, the visuospatial sketchpad performing a similar function for visual information, the central executive which acts as an attentional control system, and finally a new component, the episodic buffer. The buffer comprises a temporary multidimensional store which is assumed to form an interface between the various subsystems of working memory, long-term memory, and perception. The operation of the model is then illustrated through an account of a research programme concerned with the analysis of working memory in Down syndrome.

  4. Teatro Down y el performance

    Ryan Hafyd Carvalho


    Full Text Available Este artículo es una prueba de escritura, una reflexión de la acción performativa realizada por el Teatro de Down, un proyecto relacionado con el Centro de Arte, Lengua y Subjetividad (NALS de la Universidad Federal de Pelotas- UFPel. Organizado por los miembros de la PET-Fronteras: Saberes y Practicas Populares. El proyecto inició en 2013 con el fin de reflejar el arte teatral, que se encuentra en la acción performativa su manifiesto artístico y cultural, que nos permite acceder a la diversidad en la fabricación. Las reuniones aquí abordadas tratan de registrar la experiencia, una nueva acción adicional para concretizar y contextualizar de manera académica un torbellino de sensaciones y subjetividades.

  5. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 4 -- May 2008 (Newsletter)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.


    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 4 features an interview with Brian Fairbank, president and CEO of Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort.

  6. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 3 -- October 2007 (Newsletter)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.


    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 3 features an interview with Andrew Dzykewicz, Commissioner of the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources.

  7. 78 FR 38027 - ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-72-000] ISO New England... III.A.15 of Appendix A of ISO New England Inc.'s existing tariff. Dominion Energy Marketing, Inc. and ISO New England Inc., 143 FERC ] 61,233 (2013). The refund effective date in Docket No. EL13-72-000...

  8. Our eclectic adventures in the slower eras of photosynthesis: from New England Down Under to biosphere 2 and beyond.

    Osmond, Barry


    This is a tale of a career in plant physiological ecology that enjoyed the freedom to address photosynthetic physiology and biochemistry in leaves of plants from diverse environments. It was supported by block funding (now sadly a thing of the past) for research at the Australian National University, by grants during appointments in the United States and in Germany, and by Columbia University. It became a "career experiment" in which long-term, high-trust support for curiosity-driven plant biology in Australia, and at times in the United States, led to surprisingly innovative results. Although the rich diversity of short-term competitive grant opportunities in the United States sustained ongoing research, it proved difficult to mobilize support for more risky long-term projects. A decade after the closure of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory, this article highlights the achievements of colleagues in experimental climate change research from 1998 to 2003.

  9. The Social Distribution of Health: Estimating Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy in England.

    Love-Koh, James; Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Griffin, Susan


    To model the social distribution of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) in England by combining survey data on health-related quality of life with administrative data on mortality. Health Survey for England data sets for 2010, 2011, and 2012 were pooled (n = 35,062) and used to model health-related quality of life as a function of sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES). Office for National Statistics mortality rates were used to construct life tables for age-sex-SES groups. These quality-of-life and length-of-life estimates were then combined to predict QALE as a function of these characteristics. Missing data were imputed, and Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate standard errors. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore alternative regression models and measures of SES. Socioeconomic inequality in QALE at birth was estimated at 11.87 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with a sex difference of 1 QALY. When the socioeconomic-sex subgroups are ranked by QALE, a differential of 10.97 QALYs is found between the most and least healthy quintile groups. This differential can be broken down into a life expectancy difference of 7.28 years and a quality-of-life adjustment of 3.69 years. The methods proposed in this article refine simple binary quality-adjustment measures such as the widely used disability-free life expectancy, providing a more accurate picture of overall health inequality in society than has hitherto been available. The predictions also lend themselves well to the task of evaluating the health inequality impact of interventions in the context of cost-effectiveness analysis. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Choosing Wisely Imaging Recommendations: Initial Implementation in New England Emergency Departments

    Ali S. Raja


    Full Text Available Introduction: In June 2016, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP Emergency Quality Network began its Reduce Avoidable Imaging Initiative, designed to “reduce testing and imaging with low risk patients through the implementation of Choosing Wisely recommendations.” However, it is unknown whether New England emergency departments (ED have already implemented evidence-based interventions to improve adherence to ACEP Choosing Wisely recommendations related to imaging after their initial release in 2013. Our objective was to determine this, as well as whether provider-specific audit and feedback for imaging had been implemented in these EDs. Methods: This survey study was exempt from institutional review board review. In 2015, we mailed surveys to 195 hospital-affiliated EDs in all six New England states to determine whether they had implemented Choosing Wisely-focused interventions in 2014. Initial mailings included cover letters denoting the endorsement of each state’s ACEP chapter, and we followed up twice with repeat mailings to nonresponders. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and a comparison of state differences using Fisher’s exact test. Results: A total of 169/195 (87% of New England EDs responded, with all individual state response rates >80%. Overall, 101 (60% of responding EDs had implemented an intervention for at least one Choosing Wisely imaging scenario; 57% reported implementing a specific guideline/policy/clinical pathway and 28% reported implementing a computerized decision support system. The most common interventions were for chest computed tomography (CT in patients at low risk of pulmonary embolism (47% of EDs and head CT in patients with minor trauma (45% of EDs. In addition, 40% of EDs had implemented provider-specific audit and feedback, without significant interstate variation (range: 29-55%. Conclusion: One year after release of the ACEP Choosing Wisely recommendations, most New England EDs

  11. Use of aids for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction: A population survey of adults in England

    Emma Beard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important for policy planning to chart the methods smokers and high-risk drinkers use to help them change their behaviour. This study assessed prevalence of use, and characteristics of users, of support for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction in England. Methods Data were used from the Smoking and Alcohol Toolkit Studies, which involve monthly face-to-face computer-assisted interviews of adults aged 16+ in England. We included data collected between June 2014 and July 2015 on 1600 smokers who had made at least one quit attempt and 911 high-risk drinkers (defined as scores >8+ on the full AUDIT or 5+ on questions 1–3 of the AUDIT-C who had made an attempt to cut down in the past 12 months. Participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics and use of aids during their most recent quit attempt including pharmacotherapy, face-to-face counselling, telephone support, self-help materials (digital and printed, and complementary medicine. Results A total of 60.3% of smokers used aids in the past year, compared with just 14.9% of high-risk drinkers. Use of pharmacotherapy was high among smokers and very low among drinkers (56.0%versus1.2%. Use of other aids was low for both behaviours: face-to-face counselling (2.6%versus4.8%, self-help materials (1.4%versus4.1% and complementary medicine (1.0%versus0.5%. Use of aids was more common among smokers aged 25–54 compared with 16–24 year olds (25–34,ORadj1.49,p = 0.012; 35–44,ORadj1.93,p 10 relative to 20,ORadj4.23,p = 0.001, and less common among ethnic minorities (ORadj0.69,p = 0.026. For alcohol reduction, use of aids was higher among ethnic minority groups (ORadj2.41;p = 0.015, and those of social-grade D/E relative to AB (ORadj2.29,p = 0.012&ORadj3.13,p < 0.001. Conclusion In England, the use of pharmacotherapy is prevalent for smoking cessation but not alcohol reduction. Other aids are used at a low rate, with

  12. Floodplain Condition and Water Framework Directive River Classification in England: Evidence of a Disconnect.

    Bentley, S.


    The European Union Water Framework Directive came into force in October 2000 committing European Union member states to achieve Good Ecological Status for all water bodies. By 2015 29% of rivers across England had achieved this level suggesting that these watercourse units are now functioning well. This study utilises recently published land cover data for England clipped to the floodplain boundary as defined by the 100 year return period discharge to examine the state of valley bottom vegetation and function for these Good Status rivers. Agricultural use of floodplain areas is high with cereal and horticulture covering an average of 24% and pasture accounting for some 37% of the area. Maximum values increase to 77% and 92% respectively. In all cases wetland accounts for less than 2% of the floodplain and rough grassland averages 7%. Such significant and widespread alteration to floodplain vegetation character suggests that the ecological functioning of this component of the fluvial system has been severely negatively impacted calling into question the Water Framework Directive status level. This is a fault of the Water Framework Directive process which only explicitly evaluates the hydromorphological component of the fluvial system for high status rivers preferring to infer functioning from biological indicators that are focused on in-channel assessments. The fundamental omission of floodplain condition in the Water Framework Directive process will result in only partial achievement of the original goals of the Directive with the majority of Europe's floodplains remaining in a highly degraded, non-functional state.

  13. Elevated bladder cancer in northern New England: The role of drinking water and arsenic

    Baris, Dalsu; Wadell, Richard; Freeman, Laura; Schwenn, Molly; Colt, Joanne; Ayotte, Joseph; Ward, Mary; Nuckols, John; Schned, Alan; Jackson, Brian; Clerkin, Castine; Rothman, Nathanial; Moore, Lee; Taylor, Anne; Robinson, Gilpin; Hosain, Monawar G.; Armenti, Carla; McCoy, Richard; Samanic, Claudine; Hoover, Robert; Fraumeni, Joseph; Johnson, Alison; Karagas, Margaret; Silverman, Debra


    Background: Bladder cancer mortality rates have been elevated in northern New England for at least five decades. Incidence rates in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont are about 20% higher than the United States overall. We explored reasons for this excess, focusing on arsenic in drinking water from private wells, which are particularly prevalent in the region.Methods: In a population-based case-control study in these three states, 1213 bladder cancer case patients and 1418 control subjects provided information on suspected risk factors. Log transformed arsenic concentrations were estimated by linear regression based on measurements in water samples from current and past homes. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results: Bladder cancer risk increased with increasing water intake ( Ptrend = .003). This trend was statistically significant among participants with a history of private well use ( Ptrend = .01). Among private well users, this trend was apparent if well water was derived exclusively from shallow dug wells (which are vulnerable to contamination from manmade sources, Ptrend = .002) but not if well water was supplied only by deeper drilled wells ( Ptrend = .48). If dug wells were used pre-1960, when arsenical pesticides were widely used in the region, heavier water consumers (>2.2 L/day) had double the risk of light users (dug wells in an era when arsenical pesticides were widely used, was associated with increased bladder cancer risk and may have contributed to the New England excess.

  14. Technology of focus detection for 193nm projection lithographic tool

    Di, Chengliang; Yan, Wei; Hu, Song; Xu, Feng; Li, Jinglong


    With the shortening printing wavelength and increasing numerical aperture of lithographic tool, the depth of focus(DOF) sees a rapidly drop down trend, reach a scale of several hundred nanometers while the repeatable accuracy of focusing and leveling must be one-tenth of DOF, approximately several dozen nanometers. For this feature, this article first introduces several focusing technology, Obtained the advantages and disadvantages of various methods by comparing. Then get the accuracy of dual-grating focusing method through theoretical calculation. And the dual-grating focusing method based on photoelastic modulation is divided into coarse focusing and precise focusing method to analyze, establishing image processing model of coarse focusing and photoelastic modulation model of accurate focusing. Finally, focusing algorithm is simulated with MATLAB. In conclusion dual-grating focusing method shows high precision, high efficiency and non-contact measurement of the focal plane, meeting the demands of focusing in 193nm projection lithography.

  15. United Kingdom (England): Health system review.

    Boyle, Seán


    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Various indicators show that the health of the population has improved over the last few decades. However, inequalities in health across socioeconomic groups have been increasing since the 1970s. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, cancer, diseases of the respiratory system and diseases of the digestive system. Risk factors such as the steadily rising levels of alcohol consumption, the sharp increases in adult and child obesity and prevailing smoking levels are among the most pressing public health concerns, particularly as they reflect the growing health inequalities among different socioeconomic groups. Health services in England are largely free at the point of use. The NHS provides preventive medicine, primary care and hospital services to all those ordinarily resident. Over 12% of the population is covered by voluntary health insurance schemes, known in the United Kingdom as private medical insurance (PMI), which mainly provides access to acute elective care in the private sector. Responsibility for publicly funded health care rests with the Secretary of State for Health, supported by the Department of Health. The Department operates at a regional level through 10 strategic health authorities (SHAs), which are responsible for ensuring the quality and performance of local health services within their geographic area. Responsibility for commissioning health services at the local level lies with 151 primary care

  16. The current situation with Phytophthora ramorum in England and Wales

    David Slawson; Lynne Bennett; Nicola Parry; Charles Lane


    Since the first finding of Phytophthora ramorum in England in April 2002, an intensive campaign, supported by the European Community (EC) and national legislation, has been conducted to locate and eradicate all interceptions and outbreaks of P. ramorum. A summary of the findings made during these surveys is presented, along with an...

  17. Chapter 3: Crossing Boundaries--Foundation Degrees in England

    Longhurst, Derek


    This chapter traces the history, purposes, and distinctive features of the foundation degree, a short-cycle higher education qualification introduced in England in 2000-2001 and offered by both universities and further education colleges. The key characteristics of the foundation degree are discussed: employer involvement in curriculum development…

  18. Innovative Case Studies of Good Practice in England.

    Gifted Education International, 2003


    Four case studies of gifted education programs in England are described, including the development of a teacher handbook based on the principles behind accelerated learning, the identification of students with musical ability and the provision of musical instrument lessons, and the development of a portable information communication technology…

  19. Educational Expansion, Economic Growth and Antisocial Behaviour: Evidence from England

    Sabates, Ricardo


    This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post-compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this…

  20. Forest health monitoring in New England: 1990 annual report

    Robert T. Brooks; David R. Dickson; William B. Burkman; Imants Millers; Margaret Miller-Weeks; Ellen Cooter; Luther Smith; Luther Smith


    The USDA Forest Service, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New England State Forestry Agencies initiated field sampling for the Forest Health Monitoring program in 1990. Two hundred and sixty-three permanent sample plots were established. Measurements were taken to characterize the physical conditions of the plots. This publication...

  1. Guide to wildlife tree management in New England northern hardwoods

    Carl H. Tubbs; Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William M. Healy


    Presents information on the culture and management of trees that have value as components of wildlife habitat in the northern hardwood and associated types in New England. Background information is provided for choosing the most suitable trees for wildlife habitats and for estimat ing the impact of timber production. Suggestions are made for choosing the numbers of...

  2. 77 FR 47373 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ..., Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic yellowtail flounder, Georges Bank yellowtail flounder, witch flounder, plaice and Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine white hake. The committee may not develop all the recommendations... accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids...

  3. 77 FR 14351 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... assessments and develop ABC recommendations for the Council for redfish, Georges Bank haddock, Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank windowpane flounder, Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic windowpane flounder, ocean pout... address the emergency. Special Accommodations This meeting is physically accessible to people with...

  4. 77 FR 50472 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... Region Logbook Family of Forms Federal Register (77 FR 153, 8/8/12). Other business may be discussed. The... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... England Fishery Management Council's (Council) VMS/ Enforcement Committee and Advisory Panel will meet to...

  5. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.


    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  6. Policy Perspective: School Turnaround in England. Utilizing the Private Sector

    Corbett, Julie


    This paper, written by strategic partner of the Center on School Turnaround (CST), Julie Corbett, provides research and examples on England's approach to turning around its lowest performing schools. The English education system utilizes private vendors to support chronically low-performing schools and districts. The introduction is followed by…

  7. 78 FR 33068 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... affecting New England fisheries in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). DATES: The meeting will be held on... Guidance Committee will discuss options for trading quota under the provisions of the U.S./Canada Resource Sharing Understanding and may ask the Council to develop U.S./Canada trading mechanisms. The Enforcement...

  8. No Lack of Principles: Leadership Development in England and Scotland

    MacBeath, John


    While there are significant differences between England and Scotland in the politics, the policy environment and the management of schools, leadership development both north and south of the border is charged with addressing what has been termed a recruitment and retention "crisis". An emerging phenomenon in both jurisdictions is that of…

  9. 76 FR 30306 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... Statistical Committee on June 14-15, 2011 to consider actions affecting New England fisheries in the exclusive... stock size. In addition, the PDT will describe other analyses that are planned to examine the reliability of stock projections. The SSC may provide guidance about any further work on these issues...

  10. Snapshots of Language and Literature Teaching in Denmark and England

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans


    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to language and literature teaching focussing on…

  11. How Do Teachers in Ireland and England Conceptualise Dyslexia?

    Bell, Sheena; McPhillips, Therese; Doveston, Mary


    This paper presents the findings of a comparative study using data from questionnaire surveys carried out in England (n = 57) and Ireland (n = 72). The researchers examine how teachers and teaching assistants who are currently teaching pupils with dyslexia in primary schools describe dyslexia and what may have influenced their conceptualisation.…

  12. Awkward Questions: Language Issues in the 2011 Census in England

    Sebba, Mark


    The 2011 Census in England broke new ground, as a question about language had never previously been asked. After stakeholder consultations and a series of trials, the census authority decided on two questions based on earlier censuses in the USA: one about the respondent's "main language" and another about proficiency in English. This…

  13. Classification of paraglacial barrier systems: coastal New England, USA.

    FitzGerald, D.M.; van Heteren, S.


    The New England coast harbours a wide variety of barrier forms, which we organize into six barrier-coastline types. The barriers develop in response to the relative importance of several spatially and temporally variable parameters, particularly antecedent topography and geology, sediment abundance

  14. New Ichnospecies of Scratching Traces from Phosphatic nodules (Cenomanian, England)

    Chumakov, N. M.; Dronov, A. V.; Mikuláš, Radek


    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2013), s. 50-59 ISSN 0869-5938 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : trace fossils * Cenomanian * southern England * systems of scratches * biting traces * bioerosion * homodont * heterodont Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.714, year: 2013

  15. Pupils' Fear in the Classroom: Portraits from Palestine and England

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Affouneh, Saida


    This article explores the concept of fear related to the authoritarian classroom and how children express its influence on their learning. Its investigations draw on the comments of four classes of primary-age pupils, two from a school near London, England, and two from boys' and girls' schools in the West Bank, Palestine. It is written by one…

  16. 76 FR 71939 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA837 New England... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The New... Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will discuss the 2012 SSC calendar and tasks, social science...

  17. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    Wiborg, Susanne


    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  18. Educational Inclusion in England: Origins, Perspectives and Current Directions

    Lauchlan, Fraser; Greig, Susan


    In this paper we examine different aspects of the inclusion debate, including how it has been shaped by the political context in England over the past 30 years. We then give consideration to the key argument that has dominated the inclusion agenda over the last decade: should effective inclusion be considered only as placement in mainstream school…

  19. 75 FR 62507 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... jointly with the Habitat Plan Development Team to discuss management alternatives related to minimizing the adverse effects of fishing on Essential Fish Habitat (EFH), which are being developed for the... England Fishery Management Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat/MPA/Ecosystem...

  20. 78 FR 25256 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ...: (978) 465-0492. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Groundfish and Habitat Committees will convene jointly to continue development of alternatives for inclusion in Omnibus Essential Fish Habitat Amendment 2... Committee and Habitat Committee on May 17, 2013 to consider actions affecting New England fisheries in the...

  1. 75 FR 43928 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... effects of fishing on Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) across all Council FMPs. These management options are being developed as part of Phase 2 of Essential Fish Habitat Omnibus Amendment 2. Broadly speaking, the... England Fishery Management Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat/MPA/Ecosystem...

  2. 77 FR 16540 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... development and analysis in Omnibus Essential Fish Habitat Amendment 2. Two types of measures will be considered at the meeting: (1) Options to minimize the adverse effects of fishing on Essential Fish Habitat... England Fishery Management Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat Oversight...

  3. 76 FR 50183 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... minimize the adverse effects of fishing on essential fish habitat and will also continue development of... September meeting. The Committee will also review remaining essential fish habitat designation issues held... England Fishery Management Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat/MPA/Ecosystem...

  4. 77 FR 68735 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... Committee will continue to develop options and alternatives for Omnibus Essential Fish Habitat Amendment 2 (OA2). Specifically, the Committee will review Habitat Advisory Panel and Plan Development Team... England Fishery Management Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat Oversight...

  5. 78 FR 51711 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ...: (978) 465-0492. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Council's Habitat and Groundfish Oversight Committees will meet jointly to discuss alternatives under development in Omnibus Essential Fish Habitat Amendment... Groundfish/Habitat Committees on September 5, 2013 to consider actions affecting New England fisheries in the...

  6. 77 FR 5774 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting


    ... management measures for further development and analysis in Omnibus Essential Fish Habitat Amendment 2. Two... fishing on Essential Fish Habitat and (2) alternatives to protect deep-sea corals from the impacts of... England Fishery Management Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat/MPA/Ecosystem...

  7. Fatal Child Maltreatment in England, 2005-2009

    Sidebotham, Peter; Bailey, Sue; Belderson, Pippa; Brandon, Marian


    Objective: This paper presents comprehensive and up-to-date data covering 4 years of Serious Case Reviews into fatal child maltreatment in England. Methods: Information on all notified cases of fatal maltreatment between April 2005 and March 2009 was examined to obtain case characteristics related to a systemic classification of 5 broad groups of…

  8. Salt Marsh Sustainability in New England: Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Natural resource managers, conservationists, and scientists described marsh loss and degradation in many New England coastal systems at the 2014 “Effects of Sea Level Rise on Rhode Island’s Salt Marshes” workshop, organized by the Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Rese...

  9. Honour and Shame in a Church of England Primary School

    Wilson, Tom


    While students of Islamic societies and cultures are aware of the influence of dynamics of honour and shame on behaviour, these factors are not always recognized by those who engage with Muslims in the UK. This paper will discuss the impact of concerns related to honour and shame on the behaviour of Muslim pupils in a Church of England primary…

  10. The sweating sickness in England | Sloan | South African Medical ...

    An acute infect;ous fever, called the sweating sickness, broke out in England in five major epidemics in the years 1485, 1508, 1517, 1528 and 1551. Only one epidemic, that of 1528, spread also on the continent of Europe. The disease I-vas characterized by headache, pain in the chest, and profuse sweating, and frequently ...

  11. Primary Teacher Education in England: 40 Years On

    Murray, Jean; Passy, Rowena


    This article examines the relationship between pre-service teacher education (ITE) for primary schooling and primary teaching in England between 1974 and 2014, and explores the "fitness of purpose" of the current system of preparing teachers for the classrooms of the twenty-first century. Our historical analysis suggests that, despite 40…

  12. Neurodynamics of up and down Transitions in Network Model

    Xuying Xu


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the neurodynamical research of a small neural network that consists of 25 neurons. We study the periodic spontaneous activity and transitions between up and down states without synaptic input. The results demonstrate that these transitions are bidirectional or unidirectional with the parameters changing, which not only reveals the function of the cortex, but also cohere with the experiment results.

  13. When up Brings you Down

    Ostinelli, Massimiliano; Luna, David; Ringberg, Torsten


    Previous embodied cognition research suggests that “up” is associated with positivity (e.g., good, divine), whereas “down” is associated with negativity (e.g., bad, evil). We focus on the effect of vertical movements on consumer behavior and go beyond investigating mere affective associations...

  14. Youth, alcohol and place-based leisure behaviours: a study of two locations in England.

    Townshend, Tim G


    Excessive alcohol consumption among young people in England regularly features in national media and has been a focus of recent academic research and government policy. Though the majority of young people do not regularly drink excessively, heavy sessional drinking - 'binge' drinking - is associated with negative health and social consequences for those who do. Alcohol-related health problems in young people are not spread consistently across England, however, and while there are significant intra-regional differences, northern regions fare worse overall than those in the south. This paper draws on an 18-month project which explored differences in the physical, social and regulatory environments (highlighted by previous research as influential) in two locations with contrasting alcohol harm profiles. The paper focuses on the lives of 15-16 year olds and examines potential differences that influence behaviour at this crucial age; and in particular issues that might presage risky and/or harmful drinking in young adulthood. The study examines evidence from young people themselves (activity diaries and interviews); stakeholder interviews; and observation analysis. The study finds social practices in the two areas to be largely similar; moreover, the collectivised and social nature of alcohol consumption suggests sources of influence from a wider context, beyond immediate family and friendship groups. However these social practices were acted out in locations with very different physical characteristics, in particular these related to the availability of non-alcohol focused leisure activities and the spatial arrangement/visibility of adult drinking culture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Engaging black sub-Saharan African communities and their gatekeepers in HIV prevention programs: Challenges and strategies from England

    Mathew Nyashanu


    Full Text Available Objective: HIV infection is a sensitive issue in black communities [Serrant-Green L. Black Caribbean men, sexual health decisions and silences. Doctoral thesis. Nottingham School of Nursing, University of Nottingham; 2004]. Statistics show black sub-Saharan African (BSSA communities disproportionately constitute two-thirds of people with HIV [Heath Protection Agency. Health protection report: latest infection reports-GOV.UK; 2013]. African communities constitute 30% of people accessing HIV treatment in the United Kingdom yet represent less than 1% of the population [Health Protection Agency. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 report; 2012], [Department of Health. DVD about FGM. 2012. Available from]. This article explores the sociocultural challenges in engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs in England and possible strategies to improve their involvement. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted in a 2-year period with participants from the BSSA communities and sexual health services in the West Midlands, England. The research was supported by the Ubuntu scheme, a sexual health initiative working with African communities in Birmingham, England. Results: Ineffective engagement with African communities can hinder the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs. Skills and strategies sensitive to BSSA culture are important for successful implementation of prevention programs. HIV prevention programs face challenges including stigma, denial, and marginalized views within BSSA communities. Conclusion: Networking, coordination, and cultural sensitivity training for health professionals are key strategies for engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs.

  16. Down to the nearest centimetre…

    CERN Bulletin


    Do you know who was responsible for determining the exact position of the lines reproducing those of the accelerators that were traced on the floor of the Main Building for the fiftieth anniversary celebrations of the PS? Do you know who is checking that Building 40 doesn’t budge an inch during the construction of Building 42? And who would you ask if you wanted to know the exact position of the water pipes in Building x or y? Youri Robert and the team from the Patrimony and Site Information Service (GES-SEM-DOP), of course!   Youri Robert at work The CERN site and its buildings are permanently evolving, just like the people who work there. When you've got a total of 15,000 different premises (see box), you're bound to have a wall being knocked down here and another going up somewhere else most days. Everything has to be measured, inventoried, put on computer, archived and made available on the Web. And the Laboratory's buildings on the surface are only half...

  17. Down's syndrome and thyroid disorder.

    Dinani, S; Carpenter, S


    The thyroid status of 106 adults with Down's syndrome was assessed. Six were previously diagnosed as hypothyroid and were already receiving thyroxine. A further 37 patients showed abnormal thyroid function. Biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism (T4 less than 50 nmol/l and T.S.H. greater than 4 mu/less than) was found in one person. Six patients were found to have an unequivocally elevated T.S.H. but normal T4 (T4 greater than 50 nmol/l and T.S.H. greater than 20 mu/l) and 29 were found to have a modest elevation of T.S.H. but normal T4 concentration (T4 greater than 50 nmol/l and T.S.H. between 4 and 20 mu/l). There was one patient with mild thyrotoxicosis (T4 = 180 nmol/l and T.S.H. less than 0.1 mu/l). Clinical findings were of little use in making a diagnosis of hypothyroidism in this group of patients. A raised level of thyroid microsomal auto-antibodies was found in about a third of the patients, this occurred more commonly in females and slightly more often in those with a raised thyroid stimulating hormone. The importance of this is discussed. Recommendations for regular biochemical screening are made.

  18. Family perspectives about Down syndrome.

    Skotko, Brian G; Levine, Susan P; Macklin, Eric A; Goldstein, Richard D


    National medical organizations recommend that during prenatal counseling sessions, healthcare providers discuss how having a child with Down syndrome (DS) might impact the family unit. Few studies, to date, have surveyed families about their life experiences. For this investigation, we examined 41 family attitudes, which were obtained from mailed questionnaires completed by 1,961 parents/guardians, 761 brothers/sisters, and 283 people with DS who were members of six DS non-profit organizations, chosen for their size, ethnic/racial diversities, and geographic distribution throughout the United States. About 83% of families reported to all being proud of the family member with DS, and 87% reported to all feeling love for the member with DS. Younger siblings (ages 9-11) were more likely to feel embarrassed by their sibling with DS if their parents/guardians also did. If one or more parents/guardians felt that their children without DS did have a good relationship with their child with DS, siblings were more likely to report that they loved and liked their brother/sister with DS. Overall, our data demonstrate that positive themes tend to dominate within modern-day families who have members with DS, although challenges were not insignificant for some. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Reactor shut-down device

    Otsuka, Fumio; Horikawa, Yuji.


    The present invention concerns an externally disposed reactor shut-down device for an FBR type reactor using liquid sodium as coolants. An introducing pipe having an outlet port disposed at an upper portion thereof is disposed at a lower end of an upper guide tube. An extension tube, an L-shaped measuring wire support and a measuring wire are disposed at the inside of the guide tube. With such a constitution, low temperature coolants flown out from the lower guide tube of a control rod and a great amount of high temperature coolants flown out from the lower guide tube of a fuel assembly are introduced smoothly to the introducing tube having the measuring wire support disposed therein. Accordingly, the high temperature coolants can be prevented from flowing out to the outside of the introducing tube and coolants after mixing can be flown and hit against a curie point electromagnet efficiently. This can make the response to abnormal temperature rise of coolants satisfactory and can provide reliable reactor scram. (I.N.)

  20. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Silverman RH


    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  1. Space Focus Lead Report

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  2. BrightFocus Foundation

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  3. Down force calibration stand test report

    BOGER, R.M.


    The Down Force Calibration Stand was developed to provide an improved means of calibrating equipment used to apply, display and record Core Sample Truck (CST) down force. Originally, four springs were used in parallel to provide a system of resistance that allowed increasing force over increasing displacement. This spring system, though originally deemed adequate, was eventually found to be unstable laterally. For this reason, it was determined that a new method for resisting down force was needed

  4. Sawmill burns down, projects continue

    Haluza, I.


    Eight years ago when the Rettenmeier family from Germany bought Liptovska drevarska fabrika they bought a small sawmill in Liptovsky Hradok that used outdated technologies and processed only a few thousand cubic meters of wood a year. Gradually they invested over 1 bil. Sk (29.4 mil. EUR) in renovation and expansion and soon their company, Rettenmeier Tatra Timber, became the only high capacity sawmill in the country. Last year, it processed around half a million cubic meters of wood which represents around 10% of Slovakia's annual timber production. Rettenmeier, with annual revenues of around 2 bil. Sk (58.82 mil. EUR), became one of the key wood processing companies in Slovakia. But the week before last the company was hit by an accident which not even the best economic performance or market position could have prevented. The sawmill burnt down. The fire broke out only two days after the explosion at the military facility in Novaky. No-one was seriously hurt but the firemen had no chance to fight the fire at the sawmill. Most of the halls and machinery were completely destroyed. The cause of the fire is still under investigation and the total damage has not yet been assessed. But the damage will reach hundreds of millions. And the damage to the owners is even bigger as the fire destroyed the main production part of the company - the sawmill and so all the other timber processing facilities had to be closed. Luckily, the company was insured not only against direct damage, but also against loss of profit related to the halting of production. (authors)

  5. Developing the mental health awareness of prison staff in England and Wales.

    Walsh, Elizabeth; Freshwater, Dawn


    In 2010, the prison population in England and Wales could reach a high of 91,500, according to a recent population projection. HM Prison Service (U.K.) reports that in 2004 to 2005, there were 33,144 prison officers employed to care for the prisoners in the prison system. This article focuses on the mental health of this prisoner population and the training needs of staff caring for them. It reports the experience of a national project, funded by the Department of Health, in which the project team developed and piloted mental health awareness training for prison officers on the residential units and for staff who work with prisoners and lack a mental health background. Key findings from the posttraining evaluation are highlighted. Participant feedback demonstrates the value placed on this type of training by those working in the prison setting.

  6. Final focus nomenclature

    Erickson, R.


    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  7. Final focus test beam


    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  8. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    College Planning & Management, 2002


    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  9. Final focus nomenclature

    Erickson, R.


    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  10. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  11. The Individually Focused Interview

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard


    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  12. Plutonium focus area


    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  13. Plasma focus matching conditions

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.


    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  14. The climatic context of major plague outbreaks in late medieval England

    Pribyl, Kathleen


    The climatological triggers of major plague outbreaks in late medieval and early modern Europe remain unclear; recent studies have been inconclusive. Plague is primarily a rodent disease and due to the involvement of rodent hosts and insect vectors, the epidemiology of plague is complicated, but research on outbreaks in the Third Pandemic, which began in the late nineteenth century, has shown that in central and eastern Asia plague is linked to specific meteorological conditions. The disease adapts to a varied spectrum of ecological and climatological settings, which influence the development of plague waves, and due to Europe's geographical diversity, this paper focuses on one region, England, in its search for meteorological parameters contributing to plague outbreaks. The study period of this paper is defined by the arrival of Yersinia pestis in the British Isles in 1348 and the end of the fifteenth century. During this time, England's population dynamics were mortality-driven due to recurrent epidemic disease; and public health measures, such as quarantining, had not yet been introduced, hence the influence of social factors on the formation of major plague waves was very limited. The geographical and temporal focus of this study allows for the combination of the series of English major plague outbreaks, verified in the original texts, with the high-quality climate reconstructions based on both documentary sources and proxy data available for this region. The detailed analysis of the mechanisms contributing to English plague waves presented in this paper, reveals a complex interplay of time-lag responses and concurrent conditions involving temperature and precipitation parameters.

  15. Interpretation of Written Contracts in England

    Neil Andrews


    Full Text Available This article examines the leading principles governing interpretation of written contracts under English law. This is a comprehensive and incisive analysis of the current law and of the relevant doctrines, including the equitable principles of rectification, as well as the powers of appeal courts or of the High Court when hearing an appeal from an arbitral award. The topic of interpretation of written contracts is fast-moving. It is of fundamental importance because this is the most significant commercial focus for dispute and because of the number of cross-border transactions to which English law is expressly applied by businesses.

  16. Fracture mapping in clays, using gas geochemistry: background, design of a mobile laboratory, and surveys in England and Italy

    Gregory, R.G.; Duddridge, G.A.


    Integrated soil gas analyses for helium, radon, carbon dioxide and oxygen allow the accurate interpretation of soil gas signatures as indicators of underlying structure, due to large variations over faults and fractures. Structures such as these provide channelways for fluid movement in the upper crust. A mobile gas geochemistry laboratory for the analysis of soil gases was constructed and surveys were carried out at sites in England and Italy. At the Down Ampney site, Gloucestershire, gas was injected into a fault plane, and recorded some hours later at the surface. Refinement of this experiment would allow a full characterization of permeable pathways at a site to be made. The soil gas technique has been shown to be viable as an independent site investigation method for the study of fracturing and groundwater movement around potential waste repository sites

  17. Fracture mapping in clays: using gas geochemistry. Background, design of a mobile laboratory and surveys in England and Italy

    Duddridge, G.A.


    Integrated soil gas analyses for helium, radon, carbon dioxide and oxygen allow the accurate interpretation of soil gas signatures as indicators of underlying structure, due to large variations over faults and fractures. Structures such as these provide channelways for fluid movement in the upper crust. A mobile gas geochemistry laboratory for the analysis of soil gases was constructed and surveys were carried out at sites in England and Italy. At the Down Ampney site, Gloucestershire, gas was injected into a fault plane, and recorded some hours later at the surface. Refinement of this experiment would allow a full characterisation of permeable pathways at a site to be made. The soil gas technique has been shown to be viable as an independent site investigation method for the study of fracturing and groundwater movement around potential waste repository sites. (author)

  18. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities

    Syed Yousuf Ali


    Full Text Available We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity.

  19. Memory and Neuropsychology in Down Syndrome

    Jarrold, Christopher; Nadel, Lynn; Vicari, Stefano


    This paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses in both short-term and long-term memory in Down syndrome, and the implications of these patterns for both other aspects of cognitive development and underlying neural pathology. There is clear evidence that Down syndrome is associated with particularly poor verbal short-term memory performance, and…

  20. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    Vis, J.C.; Engelen, K. van; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mulder, B.J.


    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome.

  1. Posterior urethral valves and Down syndrome

    J. Lazarus

    2015 Pan African Urological Surgeons' Association. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Introduction. The first description of Down syndrome (DS) was in 1866 by the. British physician Dr. John Langdon Down [1]. Despite this long his- tory, the association of DS with congenital anomalies of the kidney.

  2. Tandem queue with server slow-down

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.


    We study how rare events happen in the standard two-node tandem Jackson queue and in a generalization, the socalled slow-down network, see [2]. In the latter model the service rate of the first server depends on the number of jobs in the second queue: the first server slows down if the amount of

  3. Educational Justice, Epistemic Justice, and Leveling Down

    Kotzee, Ben


    Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that education is a positional good; this, they hold, implies that there is a qualified case for leveling down educational provision. In this essay, Ben Kotzee discusses Brighouse and Swift's argument for leveling down. He holds that the argument fails in its own terms and that, in presenting the problem…

  4. Learning from contract change in primary care dentistry: A qualitative study of stakeholders in the north of England.

    Holmes, Richard D; Steele, Jimmy G; Donaldson, Cam; Exley, Catherine


    The aim of this research was to explore and synthesise learning from stakeholders (NHS dentists, commissioners and patients) approximately five years on from the introduction of a new NHS dental contract in England. The case study involved a purposive sample of stakeholders associated with a former NHS Primary Care Trust (PCT) in the north of England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 commissioners of NHS dental services and 5 NHS general dental practitioners. Three focus group meetings were held with 14 NHS dental patients. All focus groups and interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using a framework approach. Four themes were identified: 'commissioners' views of managing local NHS dental services'; 'the risks of commissioning for patient access'; 'costs, contract currency and commissioning constraints'; and 'local decision-making and future priorities'. Commissioners reported that much of their time was spent managing existing contracts rather than commissioning services. Patients were unclear about the NHS dental charge bands and dentists strongly criticised the contract's target-driven approach which was centred upon them generating 'units of dental activity'. NHS commissioners remained relatively constrained in their abilities to reallocate dental resources amongst contracts. The national focus upon practitioners achieving their units of dental activity appeared to outweigh interest in the quality of dental care provided. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Breaking down the communication barrier.

    Hawkins, R A


    Dr. Hawkins addresses the problem of how QA managers can best persuade physicians of the importance of QA programs. Since communication is the basis of educating clinicians, the author analyzes the diametrically opposite perspectives of QA managers and physicians even as they pursue the common goal of quality healthcare. While doctors are primarily loyal to patients and peers with an immediate care focus, process-oriented QA managers emphasize the institution and its longer-term goals. To overcome physician resistance to change, Dr. Hawkins offers an adult learner model that stresses understanding the medical staff's viewpoint, negotiation and respect. Physicians are enthusiastic about QA when it helps solve "the endemic daily system problems." The author concludes by recommending that QA managers join physicians on their clinical rounds to bridge the gap between their different approaches.

  6. Radon in private water supplies in SW England

    Bowring, C.S.; Banks, D.


    It has been known since at least the early 1960s that high levels of radon gas can be found dissolved in some water supplies in South West England and, as a result of this, degassing plant was installed in some mains water supplies at this time in order to remove the radon from the water. More recently the result of a survey of just over 500 drinking water supplies throughout the UK has been published. This concluded that the radon level in UK water supplies in general do not constitute a health hazard. In this note we present results from 22 private water supplies in South West England and conclude that for certain individuals levels of radon in water may well present a radiological hazard which is not negligible and that this problem needs to be investigated more fully. (author)

  7. The engineering assessment for New England's power asset divestiture

    Rogers, T.; Sullivan, W.; Feldman, B.


    The structuring of the electric industry is progressing. On October 1, 1996, New England Electric System (NEES) announced that it would divest its generating assets. Since then other utilities in California and New England have also decided to divest all or some of their generating facilities. NEES owns 3,962 MWs of generating assets consisting of two coal/oil fired stations, one combined cycle gas station, fourteen hydro stations and one pumped storage station. Also included in the asset sale is 1,155 MWs of purchased capacity under power purchasing agreements. This paper will describe the activities undertaken by NEES and Stone and Weber in preparing for the asset sale. It will provide insight for others on how these activities help to maximize the value obtained for the generating assets

  8. Variations in prison mental health services in England and Wales.

    Forrester, Andrew; Exworthy, Tim; Olumoroti, Olumuyiwa; Sessay, Mohammed; Parrott, Janet; Spencer, Sarah-Jane; Whyte, Sean


    In responding to high levels of psychiatric morbidity amongst prisoners and recognising earlier poor quality prison mental health care, prison mental health in-reach teams have been established in England and Wales over the last decade. They are mostly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), which provides the majority of UK healthcare services. Over the same period, the prison population has grown to record levels, such that prisons in England and Wales now contain almost 90,000 of the world's overall prison population of over 10 million people (roughly the size of Paris or Istanbul). This study provides an overview of mental health in-reach services in prisons in England and Wales, including variations between them, through a telephone survey of senior staff in all prisons and young offender institutions in England and Wales. 73% of prisons took part; of them 13% had no in-reach team at all (usually low security establishments) and the majority of services were run by NHS teams, usually according to a generic community mental health team (CMHT) model rather than other specialist models. Team size was unrelated to prison size. Each nurse covered around 500 prisoners, each doctor over 3700. Many provided few or no healthcare cells and 24-h psychiatric cover (including on-call cover) was uncommon. Despite developments in recent years, mental health in-reach services still fall short of community equivalence and there is wide variation in service arrangements that cannot be explained by prison size or function. The aim of community equivalence has not yet been reached in prison healthcare and a more sophisticated measure of service improvement and standardisation would now be useful to drive and monitor future development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Euthanasia: a summary of the law in England and Wales.

    Simillis, Constantinos


    When medical treatment becomes futile, or the patient's suffering is intractable, doctors face the agonising dilemma of whether to proceed with euthanasia. It is important for a doctor to be familiar with the law surrounding euthanasia, in order to avoid prosecution. This paper explores the law in England and Wales regarding the different categories of euthanasia: voluntary euthanasia, nonvoluntary euthanasia, passive euthanasia, and active euthanasia.

  10. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.


    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  11. Multiculturalism and England’s Muslim Minority: Solution or Problem?


    Theories of Hannah Arendt and John Rex.” in Rethinking Nationalism and Ethnicity. ed. Hans-Rudolf Wicker. (Oxford, England: Berg Publishing, 1997). 26...Hans-Rudolph Wicker. “Multiculturalism and the Sphere Theories of Hannah Arendt and John Rex.” in Rethinking Nationalism and Ethnicity. ed. Hans...multiculturalism can be applied was first articulated by the social philosopher Hannah Arendt who developed a model that divided society into three spheres

  12. Characterizing New England Emergency Departments by Telemedicine Use.

    Zachrison, Kori S; Hayden, Emily M; Schwamm, Lee H; Espinola, Janice A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Boggs, Krislyn M; Raja, Ali S; Camargo, Carlos A


    Telemedicine connects emergency departments (ED) with resources necessary for patient care; its use has not been characterized nationally, or even regionally. Our primary objective was to describe the prevalence of telemedicine use in New England EDs and the clinical applications of use. Secondarily, we aimed to determine if telemedicine use was associated with consultant availability and to identify ED characteristics associated with telemedicine use. We analyzed data from the National Emergency Department Inventory-New England survey, which assessed basic ED characteristics in 2014. The survey queried directors of every ED (n=195) in the six New England states (excluding federal hospitals and college infirmaries). Descriptive statistics characterized ED telemedicine use; multivariable logistic regression identified independent predictors of use. Of the 169 responding EDs (87% response rate), 82 (49%) reported using telemedicine. Telemedicine EDs were more likely to be rural (18% of users vs. 7% of non-users, p=0.03); less likely to be academic (1% of users vs. 11% of non-users, p=0.01); and less likely to have 24/7 access to neurology (ptelemedicine was more likely in rural EDs (odds ratio [OR] 4.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-14.86), and less likely in EDs with 24/7 neurologist availability (OR 0.21, 95% CI [0.09-0.49]), and annual volume Telemedicine is commonly used in New England EDs. In 2014, use was more common among rural EDs and EDs with limited neurology consultant availability. In contrast, telemedicine use was less common among very low-volume EDs.

  13. Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales

    Laura Jaitman; Stephen Machin


    We study a high profile public policy question on immigration, namely the link between crime and immigration, presenting new evidence from England and Wales in the 2000s. For studying immigration impacts, this period is of considerable interest as the composition of migration to the UK altered dramatically with the accession of Eastern European countries (the A8) to the European Union in 2004. As we show, this has important implications for ensuring a causal impact of immigration can be ident...

  14. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    Buess, Heinrich


    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  15. The focus factor

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber


    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  16. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area



    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  17. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)


    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  18. Briefing book on the energy situation in New England

    Brainard, J P; Munson, J S; Palmedo, P F


    This briefing book is designed to give a concise overview of the facts of the energy situation in New England and of attitudes within the region towards current energy issues. Many of the central problems of U.S. energy policy are manifested in the region in a magnified form. The region entered the period of energy shortages and increasing prices in an economically declining condition. Energy prices were already high in 1970, 30% higher than the rest of the country; the difference increased to 38% by 1974. With essentially no indigenous energy resources, New England is an energy-importing region. For various reasons it is also more dependent on petroleum than other regions of the country and, at the same time, distant from domestic petroleum-producing regions. The result is that over 60% of the fuels it consumes is imported from abroad. Although the future supply of energy to the region is critically dependent on energy-resource policies, policies related for example to coal and oil shale development, the region's concerns cluster around policies and technologies that are perceived to have a more direct impact on its energy welfare. Thus, energy conservation, solar energy, nuclear power, offshore oil development and, in general, the price of energy to the region are paramount issues of concern and debate. Following the Introductory chapter, these issues are discussed in four additional chapters: The Energy Situation in New England; Regional Energy Issues; Energy-Related Institutions; and State Legislation.

  19. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew


    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest ( -1 ) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L -1 were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (∼1400 ng L -1 ) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: → Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. → Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. → Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  20. More Fragmented, and yet More Networked: Analysing the Responses of Two Local Authorities in England to the Coalition's "Self-Improving School-Led System" Reforms

    Greany, Toby


    This paper explores school reform in England under the Conservative-led Coalition government, elected in 2010, through a focus on the changing roles and status of Local Authorities (LAs). The Coalition's stated aim was the development of a "self-improving, school-led" system in which LAs should become "champions for children."…

  1. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.


    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  2. Change of government: one more big bang health care reform in England's National Health Service.

    Hunter, David J


    Once again the National Health Service (NHS) in England is undergoing major reform, following the election of a new coalition government keen to reduce the role of the state and cut back on big government. The NHS has been undergoing continuous reform since the 1980s. Yet, despite the significant transaction costs incurred, there is no evidence that the claimed benefits have been achieved. Many of the same problems endure. The reforms follow the direction of change laid down by the last Conservative government in the early 1990s, which the recent Labour government did not overturn despite a commitment to do so. Indeed, under Labour, the NHS was subjected to further market-style changes that have paved the way for the latest round of reform. The article considers the appeal of big bang reform, questions its purpose and value, and critically appraises the nature and extent of the proposed changes in this latest round of reform. It warns that the NHS in its current form may not survive the changes, as they open the way to privatization and a weakening of its public service ethos.

  3. Assessment of objectively measured physical activity levels in individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.

    Alexander C Phillips

    Full Text Available To investigate, using accelerometers, the levels of physical activity being undertaken by individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.One hundred and fifty two individuals with intellectual disabilities aged 12-70 years from East and South-East England. Physical activity levels in counts per minute (counts/min, steps per day (steps/day, and minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA measured with a uni-axial accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M for seven days.No individuals with intellectual disabilities met current physical activity recommendations. Males were more active than females. There was a trend for physical activity to decline and sedentary behaviour to increase with age, and for those with more severe levels of intellectual disability to be more sedentary and less physically active, however any relationship was not significant when adjusted for confounding variables. Participants with Down's syndrome engaged in significantly less physical activity than those with intellectual disabilities without Down's syndrome and levels of activity declined significantly with age.Individuals with intellectual disabilities, especially those with Down's syndrome may be at risk of developing diseases associated with physical inactivity. There is a need for well-designed, accessible, preventive health promotion strategies and interventions designed to raise the levels of physical activity for individuals with intellectual disabilities. We propose that there are physiological reasons why individuals with Down's syndrome have particularly low levels of physical activity that also decline markedly with age.

  4. Preanesthetic Evaluation and Assessment of Children with Down's Syndrome

    Letterio B. Santamaria


    Full Text Available During preoperative evaluation for anesthesia in the Down patient, it is important to focus attention on the functional conditions of the patient and systems that frequently show anomalies. One of the challenges of evaluating pre-operative conditions and potential risks in the Down patient is the lack of a gold-standard evaluation score; cervical spine abnormalities, reduced dimensions and malformations of the airways, neurological changes, respiratory and cardiac disease, as well as endocrinological and metabolic alterations. We suggest, as a possible method of evaluation for patients with mental retardation and possible malformations, a new scale which takes the functional and mental conditions into account: the Sensorial, Psychological, Anatomical, Biological, Operational and Surgical (SPABOS Compliance Score.

  5. Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials in Down Syndrome.

    Esbensen, Anna J; Hooper, Stephen R; Fidler, Deborah; Hartley, Sigan L; Edgin, Jamie; d'Ardhuy, Xavier Liogier; Capone, George; Conners, Frances A; Mervis, Carolyn B; Abbeduto, Leonard; Rafii, Michael; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Urv, Tiina


    Increasingly individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including Down syndrome, are being targeted for clinical trials. However, a challenge exists in effectively evaluating the outcomes of these new pharmacological interventions. Few empirically evaluated, psychometrically sound outcome measures appropriate for use in clinical trials with individuals with Down syndrome have been identified. To address this challenge, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) assembled leading clinicians and scientists to review existing measures and identify those that currently are appropriate for trials; those that may be appropriate after expansion of age range addition of easier items, and/or downward extension of psychometric norms; and areas where new measures need to be developed. This article focuses on measures in the areas of cognition and behavior.

  6. Organized All the Way Down

    Sylvan, David

    At least since Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, it has been understood that social systems can be considered as having emergent properties not reducible to the actions of individuals. The appeal of this idea is obvious, no different now than in Smith's time: that aggregates of persons can be ordered without such order being intended or enforced by any particular person or persons. A search for such an "invisible hand" is what brings many of us to the study of complexity and the construction of various types of computational models aimed at capturing it. However, in proceeding along these lines, we have tended to focus on particular types of social systems — what I will in this paper call "thin" systems, such as markets and populations — and ignored other types, such as groups, whose base interactions are "thick," i.e., constructed as one of many possibilities, by the participants, at the moment in which they take place. These latter systems are not only ubiquitous but pose particular modeling problems for students of complexity: the local interactions are themselves complex and the systems display no strongly emergent features.

  7. Risk factors for hospital admission with RSV bronchiolitis in England: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Joanna Murray

    Full Text Available To examine the timing and duration of RSV bronchiolitis hospital admission among term and preterm infants in England and to identify risk factors for bronchiolitis admission.A population-based birth cohort with follow-up to age 1 year, using the Hospital Episode Statistics database.71 hospitals across England.We identified 296618 individual birth records from 2007/08 and linked to subsequent hospital admission records during the first year of life.In our cohort there were 7189 hospital admissions with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis, 24.2 admissions per 1000 infants under 1 year (95%CI 23.7-24.8, of which 15% (1050/7189 were born preterm (47.3 bronchiolitis admissions per 1000 preterm infants (95% CI 44.4-50.2. The peak age group for bronchiolitis admissions was infants aged 1 month and the median was age 120 days (IQR = 61-209 days. The median length of stay was 1 day (IQR = 0-3. The relative risk (RR of a bronchiolitis admission was higher among infants with known risk factors for severe RSV infection, including those born preterm (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.8-2.0 compared with infants born at term. Other conditions also significantly increased risk of bronchiolitis admission, including Down's syndrome (RR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.7 and cerebral palsy (RR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-4.0.Most (85% of the infants who are admitted to hospital with bronchiolitis in England are born at term, with no known predisposing risk factors for severe RSV infection, although risk of admission is higher in known risk groups. The early age of bronchiolitis admissions has important implications for the potential impact and timing of future active and passive immunisations. More research is needed to explain why babies born with Down's syndrome and cerebral palsy are also at higher risk of hospital admission with RSV bronchiolitis.

  8. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    Goldin, F.J.


    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  9. Plasma focus project

    Sahlin, H.L.


    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  10. Optical analysis of down-conversion OLEDs

    Krummacher, Benjamin; Klein, Markus; von Malm, Norwin; Winnacker, Albrecht


    Phosphor down-conversion of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one approach to generate white light, which offers the possibility of easy color tuning, a simple device architecture and color stability over lifetime. In this article previous work on down-conversion devices in the field of organic solid state lighting is briefly reviewed. Further, bottom emitting down-conversion OLEDs are studied from an optical point of view. Therefore the physical processes occurring in the down-conversion layer are translated into a model which is implemented in a ray tracing simulation. By comparing its predictions to experimental results the model is confirmed. For the experiments a blue-emitting polymer OLED (PLED) panel optically coupled to a series of down-conversion layers is used. Based on results obtained from ray tracing simulation some of the implications of the model for the performance of down-conversion OLEDs are discussed. In particular it is analysed how the effective reflectance of the underlying blue OLED and the particle size distribution of the phosphor powder embedded in the matrix of the down-conversion layer influence extraction efficiency.

  11. Orthodontic treatment considerations in Down syndrome patients

    Sianiwati Goenharto


    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome is an easily recognized congenital disease anomaly, a common autosomal chromosomal anomaly with high prevalence of malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment demand should be high but it seems difficult to be done because of specific condition of disability. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review was to discribe the orthodontic problems found in Down syndrome patients and several consideration that shoud be done to treat them. Reviews: Many studies report the high prevalence of malocclusion among people with Down syndrome. There is a greater frequency of clas III relationship, crossbite, crowding and also open bite. Several problems might appear in the treatment because of dental, medical, mental, and behavioural factor. Conclusion: It is concluded that orthodonic treatment can be performed in Down syndrome patient, although several difficulties may appear. Good consideration in mental, behavior, medical and also dental condition will influence whether the treatment will success or not. Special care and facilities will support the orthodontic treatment.Latar belakang: Sindroma Down adalah suatu kelainan congenital yang mudah dikenali, merupakan kelaian kromosom autosomal yang cukup banyak terjadi, dengan prevalensi maloklusi cukup tinggi. Seharusnya permintaan akan perawatan ortodonti juga tinggi meskipun tampaknya sulit dilakukan karena adanya kondisi ketidakmampuan/cacat yang spesifik. Tujuan: Tujuan studi pustaka ini adalah untuk menggambarkan problem perawatan ortodonti pada penderita sindroma Down dan pertimbangan apa yang sebaiknya diambil untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Tinjauan pustaka: Banyak penelitian melaporkan tentang prevalensi maloklusi yang tinggi pada penderita sindroma Down. Maloklusi yang sering dijumpai adalah relasi klas III, gigitan silang, berdesakan dan juga gigitan terbuka. Problem dapat terjadi saat perawatan ortodonti karena adanya faktor dental, medis, mental dan tingkah laku penderita

  12. Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013

    Farmer, T.D.; Shaw, P.J.; Williams, I.D.


    Highlights: • Critical analysis of municipal waste management practices and performance in England. • Trends visualised via innovative ternary plots and changes and reasons explored. • Performance 1996–2013 moved slowly away from landfill dominance. • Large variations in %s of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled/composted. • Progress to resource efficiency slow; affected by poor planning and hostile disputes. - Abstract: European nations are compelled to reduce reliance on landfill as a destination for household waste, and should, in principle, achieve this goal with due recognition of the aims and principles of the waste hierarchy. Past research has predominantly focused on recycling, whilst interactions between changing waste destinies, causes and drivers of household waste management change, and potential consequences for the goal of the waste hierarchy are less well understood. This study analysed Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) for England, at national, regional and sub-regional level, in terms of the destination of household waste to landfill, incineration and recycling. Information about waste partnerships, waste management infrastructure and collection systems was collected to help identify and explain changes in waste destinies. Since 1996, the proportion of waste landfilled in England has decreased, in tandem with increases in recycling and incineration. At the regional and sub-regional (Local Authority; LA) level, there have been large variations in the relative proportions of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled or composted. Annual increases in the proportion of household waste incinerated were typically larger than increases in the proportion recycled. The observed changes took place in the context of legal and financial drivers, and the circumstances of individual LAs (e.g. landfill capacity) also explained the changes seen. Where observed, shifts from landfill towards incineration constitute an approach whereby waste

  13. Elevated Bladder Cancer in Northern New England: The Role of Drinking Water and Arsenic.

    Baris, Dalsu; Waddell, Richard; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Schwenn, Molly; Colt, Joanne S; Ayotte, Joseph D; Ward, Mary H; Nuckols, John; Schned, Alan; Jackson, Brian; Clerkin, Castine; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E; Taylor, Anne; Robinson, Gilpin; Hosain, Gm Monawar; Armenti, Karla R; McCoy, Richard; Samanic, Claudine; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Johnson, Alison; Karagas, Margaret R; Silverman, Debra T


    Bladder cancer mortality rates have been elevated in northern New England for at least five decades. Incidence rates in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont are about 20% higher than the United States overall. We explored reasons for this excess, focusing on arsenic in drinking water from private wells, which are particularly prevalent in the region. In a population-based case-control study in these three states, 1213 bladder cancer case patients and 1418 control subjects provided information on suspected risk factors. Log transformed arsenic concentrations were estimated by linear regression based on measurements in water samples from current and past homes. All statistical tests were two-sided. Bladder cancer risk increased with increasing water intake (Ptrend = .003). This trend was statistically significant among participants with a history of private well use (Ptrend = .01). Among private well users, this trend was apparent if well water was derived exclusively from shallow dug wells (which are vulnerable to contamination from manmade sources, Ptrend = .002) but not if well water was supplied only by deeper drilled wells (Ptrend = .48). If dug wells were used pre-1960, when arsenical pesticides were widely used in the region, heavier water consumers (>2.2 L/day) had double the risk of light users (<1.1 L/day, Ptrend = .01). Among all participants, cumulative arsenic exposure from all water sources, lagged 40 years, yielded a positive risk gradient (Ptrend = .004); among the highest-exposed participants (97.5th percentile), risk was twice that of the lowest-exposure quartile (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.29 to 3.89). Our findings support an association between low-to-moderate levels of arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer risk in New England. In addition, historical consumption of water from private wells, particularly dug wells in an era when arsenical pesticides were widely used, was associated with increased bladder cancer risk and

  14. Leadership of healthcare commissioning networks in England: a mixed-methods study on clinical commissioning groups

    Zachariadis, Markos; Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Zollinger-Read, Paul


    patient needs and brought the leaders closer to frontline stakeholders. Conclusions With the new commissioning arrangements, the leaders should seek to move away from dyadic and transactional relationships to a network structure, thereby emphasising on the emerging relational focus of their roles. Managing knowledge mobility, healthcare network coherence and network stability are the three clinical leadership processes that CCG leaders need to consider in coordinating their network and facilitating the development of good clinical commissioning decisions, best practices and innovative services. To successfully manage these processes, CCG leaders need to leverage the relational capabilities of their network as well as their clinical expertise to establish appropriate collaborations that may improve the healthcare services in England. Lack of local GP engagement adds uncertainty to the system and increases the risk of commissioning decisions being irrelevant and inefficient from patient and provider perspectives. PMID:23430596

  15. Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013

    Farmer, T.D.; Shaw, P.J.; Williams, I.D., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Critical analysis of municipal waste management practices and performance in England. • Trends visualised via innovative ternary plots and changes and reasons explored. • Performance 1996–2013 moved slowly away from landfill dominance. • Large variations in %s of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled/composted. • Progress to resource efficiency slow; affected by poor planning and hostile disputes. - Abstract: European nations are compelled to reduce reliance on landfill as a destination for household waste, and should, in principle, achieve this goal with due recognition of the aims and principles of the waste hierarchy. Past research has predominantly focused on recycling, whilst interactions between changing waste destinies, causes and drivers of household waste management change, and potential consequences for the goal of the waste hierarchy are less well understood. This study analysed Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) for England, at national, regional and sub-regional level, in terms of the destination of household waste to landfill, incineration and recycling. Information about waste partnerships, waste management infrastructure and collection systems was collected to help identify and explain changes in waste destinies. Since 1996, the proportion of waste landfilled in England has decreased, in tandem with increases in recycling and incineration. At the regional and sub-regional (Local Authority; LA) level, there have been large variations in the relative proportions of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled or composted. Annual increases in the proportion of household waste incinerated were typically larger than increases in the proportion recycled. The observed changes took place in the context of legal and financial drivers, and the circumstances of individual LAs (e.g. landfill capacity) also explained the changes seen. Where observed, shifts from landfill towards incineration constitute an approach whereby waste

  16. The focus on radiodiagnosis

    Gama T, G.


    So much the national normative all the international recommendations on the subject point to the need for qualified personnel with an appropriate degree of competition. In the 1997 year specialized adviser figure was settled down for the radiodiagnosis in complete congruence with the recommendations of the safety basic standards. However, this practice can be found even personnel occupationally exposed to learning on an approximately 22%. Mexican Official Standard NOM-229-SSA1-2002, T echnical requirements for the facilities, sanitary responsibilities, technical specifications for the equipment and radiation protection in medical diagnosis X-ray facilities , and replacing the old set of standards NOM-146 (156, 157 and 158)- SSA1-1996, contains two fundamental branches: one guided towards the radiation protection and the other one guided towards the quality assurance which comes the need for courses in that discipline too. In fact, in our country there is an infrastructure of radiation safety training that can address the needs of staff who is entering and remaining in the ranks of the involved areas. The Mexican Society of Radiological Safety can participate supporting the authorities to unify and to regulate monitoring criterions of such activities with a particular emphasis on evaluation as well as with the provision and the proposed new and varied agendas diversify courses, all to become true qualified experts as establishing the safety basic standards. (Author)

  17. Some optical diagnostics for the plasma focus

    Korzhavin, V.M.


    Some aspects of studying plasma focus dynamics are reported. Particular efforts were made to develop an infrared (IR) diagnostics. The plasma focus is formed in a discharge chamber, when shock waves and plasma sheath cumulate on the axis as a result of the break-down of filling gas by the application of high voltage. The current J was measured with a Rogovsky coil, and the voltage U was measured with a capacitor divider. The current derivative was measured with magnetic probes, and X-ray and neutron emission intensities were measured with a plastic scintillator. The total neutron yield were measured by the activation method. The time-integrated soft X-ray pictures of plasma focus were taken with a pin-hole camera. The formation and disruption of plasma focus were studied by multi-picture speed photography. Laser interferometry was used to study the time-space distribution of plasma density. For the study of turbulence phenomena in plasma focus, a new type IR detector was employed. The results of measurements suggest that there exists some superthermal radiation during the second compression of plasma focus, but it is not so strong. (Kato, T.)

  18. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    Dhayalan, V.


    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  19. Magnetic Focusing Horn


    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  20. An adiabatic focuser

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.


    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  1. Line broadening by focusing

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.


    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  2. Focus on Delivery

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...

  3. Characterisation of influenza A viruses isolated from turkeys in England during March-May 1979.

    Alexander, D J; Spackman, D


    During the early spring of 1979 turkeys on at least twelve sites in England became infected with influenza A viruses. On five of these sites no virus was isolated but birds were shown to have antibodies to Havl (four sites) and Hav2 antigenic subtypes of influenza A viruses. The eight viruses isolated were typed: A/turkey/England/192-328/79 (Havl Nav2/3), A/turkey/England/192-329/79 (Hav1 N2), A/turkey/England/199/79 (Hav1 Neq1), A/turkey/ England/214/79 (Hav1 Neq1), A/turkey/England/250/79 (Hsw1 N1), A/turkey/England/262/79 (Hav1 Nav2/3), A/turkey/England/272/79 (Havl Neq1), A/turkey/England/384/79 (Hav2 Nav4). Pathogenicity index tests in 6-week-old chickens agreed with the clinical signs seen in turkeys in the field. Three of the isolates: 199, 214 and 272 were of extremely high virulence, 384 showed intermediate virulence, while the other isolates were of low virulence.

  4. Summary Characteristics from Ethnographic Interviews of New England Groundfish Fishermen on Adaptation and Transition

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of fisherman and vessel characteristics selected from ethnographic interviews of New England groundfish fishermen on adaptation and transition.

  5. Focus Group Guide


    home for the arrival of school- aged children. TIP: Do not conduct focus groups in a command conference room in the command group area. Doing so...organizational effectiveness and equal opportunity/equal employment opportunity/fair treatment and sexual assault and response factors (which are listed on the... Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  6. Dialogicality in Focus

    The phenomenon which dialogism addresses is human interaction. It enables us to conceptualise human interaction as intersubjective, symbolic, cultural, transformative and conflictual, in short, as complex. The complexity of human interaction is evident in all domains of human life, for example, i......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  7. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  8. Subsurface contaminants focus area


    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  9. Subsurface contaminants focus area



    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  10. GP leadership in clinical commissioning groups: a qualitative multi-case study approach across England.

    Marshall, Martin; Holti, Richard; Hartley, Jean; Matharu, Tatum; Storey, John


    Clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) were established in England in 2013 to encourage GPs to exert greater influence over the processes of service improvement and redesign in the NHS. Little is known about the extent and the ways in which GPs have assumed these leadership roles. To explore the nature of clinical leadership of GPs in CCGs, and to examine the enablers and barriers to implementing a policy of clinical leadership in the NHS. A qualitative multi-case study approach in six localities across England. The case studies were purposefully sampled to represent different geographical localities and population demographics, and for their commitment to redesigning specified clinical or service areas. Data were collected from the case study CCGs and their partner organisations using a review of relevant documents, semi-structured individual or group interviews, and observations of key meetings. The data were analysed thematically and informed by relevant theories. GPs prefer a collaborative style of leadership that may be unlikely to produce rapid or radical change. Leadership activities are required at all levels in the system from strategy to frontline delivery, and the leadership behaviours of GPs who are not titular leaders are as important as formal leadership roles. A new alliance is emerging between clinicians and managers that draws on their different skillsets and creates new common interests. The uncertain policy environment in the English NHS is impacting on the willingness and the focus of GP leaders. GPs are making an important contribution as leaders of health service improvement and redesign but there are significant professional and political barriers to them optimising a leadership role. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.

  11. Market competition in health care markets in the Netherlands: some lessons for England?

    den Exter, André P; Guy, Mary J


    This article seeks to establish what lessons might be available to the English health care sector following enactment of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 from the Dutch experience of introducing market competition into health care via a mandatory health insurance scheme implemented by for-profit insurance companies. The existence of the Beveridge NHS model in England, and a Bismarckian insurance system in The Netherlands perhaps suggest that a comparison of the two countries is at best limited, and reinforced by the different Enthoven-inspired competitive models each has adopted. However, we contend that there are positive and negative issues arising from introducing competition into health care-, e.g. concerns about equity and benefits of efficiencies-which go beyond national boundaries and different systems and reflect the global paradigm shift towards the use of market forces in previously non-market areas such as health. The article examines the situation in England following the HSCA 2012 and The Netherlands following the 2006 reforms before analysing two areas of common ground: the focus in both countries on competition on quality (as opposed to price) and integrated care, which is assuming ever greater significance. We suggest that our combined insights (as a health lawyer and competition lawyer respectively) coupled with a comparative approach create a novel contribution to current calls for a wider public debate about the real role of markets in health care over and above simple characterisation as a force for good or bad. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Analysis of Microcystins in Cyanobacterial Blooms from Freshwater Bodies in England

    Andrew D. Turner


    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater bodies in England are currently monitored reactively, with samples containing more than 20,000 cells/mL of potentially toxin-producing species by light microscopy resulting in action by the water body owner. Whilst significantly reducing the risk of microcystin exposure, there is little data describing the levels of these toxins present in cyanobacterial blooms. This study focused on the quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples, collected across England during 2016 and found to contain potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria. More than 50% of samples contained quantifiable concentrations of microcystins, with approximately 13% exceeding the WHO medium health threshold of 20 μg/L. Toxic samples were confirmed over a nine-month period, with a clear increase in toxins during late summer, but with no apparent geographical patterns. No statistical relationships were found between total toxin concentrations and environmental parameters. Complex toxin profiles were determined and profile clusters were unrelated to cyanobacterial species, although a dominance of MC-RR was determined in water samples from sites associated with lower rainfall. 100% of samples with toxins above the 20 μg/L limit contained cell densities above 20,000 cells/mL or cyanobacterial scum, showing the current regime is suitable for public health. Conversely, with only 18% of cell density threshold samples having total microcystins above 20 μg/L, there is the potential for reactive water closures to unnecessarily impact upon the socio-economics of the local population. In the future, routine analysis of bloom samples by LC-MS/MS would provide a beneficial confirmatory approach to the current microscopic assessment, aiding both public health and the needs of water users and industry.

  13. Implementing graduate entry registration for nursing in England: a scope review.

    DeBell, Diane; Branson, Kathy


    A graduate entry workforce for nurse registration has been approved for England by 2010/11. The aim of this research was to discover the immediate tasks facing nurse managers in implementing that change. Previous research has focused on making the case for change rather than on implementation. Similar to the implementation of Project 2000, this change in nurse education and employment will raise questions for employers and for higher education institutions. It will also raise questions about nurse recruitment numbers, workforce development, and the profiles of entrants to a changing workforce. In preparation for these changes, we conducted a scope review of published and grey literature in the English language. We also reviewed the earlier experiences of transfer to graduate status amongst other workforces such as teaching and social work and we investigated reported practice in other industrialised countries. The education provider changes necessary for such a large professional workforce will need considerable leadership skills from within nursing and nurse management. At present, there are too many employers and education providers in England who appear to be relatively unaware of the changes facing nurse education and professional practice and the urgency needed to lead that change. Education, training and development as well as employer/commissioner practice will rely on leadership from within the nurse profession itself. For nurse managers, this requires a rapid planning process in order to ensure smooth implementation. The danger is that either education providers or commissioners of nursing services will react rather than proactively plan for the changes that are already in progress.

  14. Ambiguity in practice? Carers' roles in personalised social care in England.

    Glendinning, Caroline; Mitchell, Wendy; Brooks, Jenni


    Carers play an ambiguous role within the personalisation paradigm currently shaping adult social care practice in England. Although carers have rights to assessments and support in their own right, these rights sit uneasily alongside the practices of assessment, support planning and personal budget (PB) allocation for older and disabled people. This paper reports how 14 dyads of older and learning disabled people with cognitive and/or communication impairments and their carers viewed the roles - desired and actual - played by carers in PBs. Interviews with carers and with older and disabled people were conducted during 2012 as part of a wider study into carers' roles in assessment, support planning and managing PBs. The interviews complemented a survey of reported practice in two English regions - interviews with adult social care services senior managers and focus groups with front-line care managers. Talking Mats(©) were used to support interviews with some service users. Interviews were transcribed and data analysed using the Framework approach. The interviews indicated that carers played important roles in service users' assessments and support planning, but were less likely to report receiving assessments or support of their own. While carers had the potential to benefit from PBs and support arrangements for service users, this did not reflect practice that aimed to enhance choice and control for carers. The paper draws on Twigg's typology of service conceptualisations of family carers and concludes that, despite the important social rights won by carers in England, current practice continues to regard carers primarily as a resource or a co-worker, rather than a co-client. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin


    To examine changes in children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in England since 1998. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. The Health Survey for England. A total of 37 038 children participating in surveys from 1998 to 2012, 13 327 of whom were aged 4-15 years, had available cotinine and were confirmed non-smokers. The proportion of children with smoking parents; the proportion of children living in homes reported to be smoke-free; the proportion of children with undetectable concentrations of cotinine; linear and quadratic trend estimates of geometric mean cotinine across years. By 2012, 87.3% of children lived in a home that was smoke-free {97.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 95.9-98.1] when parents were non-smokers, 61.3% (95% CI = 55.5-66.8) when one or both parents smoked}. A total of 68.6% (95% CI = 64.3-72.6%) of children had undetectable cotinine in 2012, up from 14.3% (95% CI = 12.7-16.0%) in 1998. There was a highly significant linear trend across years (with a small but significant quadratic term) to declining geometric mean cotinine in all children from 0.52 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.48-0.57) in 1998 to 0.11 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.10-0.12) in 2012. Children from routine/manual backgrounds were more exposed, but experienced similar gains across years to those from non-manual backgrounds. In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by 79% since 1998, with continuing progress since smoke-free legislation in 2007. An emerging social norm in England has led to the adoption of smoke-free homes not only when parents are non-smokers, but also when they smoke. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Ophthalmic Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Sharon J. Krinsky-McHale


    Full Text Available A myriad of ophthalmic disorders is associated with the phenotype of Down syndrome including strabismus, cataracts, and refractive errors potentially resulting in significant visual impairment. Ophthalmic sequelae have been extensively studied in children and adolescents with Down syndrome but less often in older adults. In-depth review of medical records of older adults with Down syndrome indicated that ophthalmic disorders were common. Cataracts were the most frequent ophthalmic disorder reported, followed by refractive errors, strabismus, and presbyopia. Severity of intellectual disability was unrelated to the presence of ophthalmic disorders. Also, ophthalmic disorders were associated with lower vision-dependent functional and cognitive abilities, although not to the extent that was expected. The high prevalence of ophthalmic disorders highlights the need for periodic evaluations and individualized treatment plans for adults with Down syndrome, in general, but especially when concerns are identified.

  17. Un giornalino scolastico realizzato da ragazzi Down

    Lucia Ferlino


    Full Text Available Questa rubrica riporta un'esperienza nell'uso dell'informatica per favorire l'inclusione di studenti disabili attraverso la realizzazione di un giornalino scolastico da parte di ragazzi Down.

  18. Commentary on the Roxby Downs Indenture

    Witham, G.R.


    Comments are presented on the agreement between the South Australian Government and Western Mining - B.P, concerning the development of the Roxby Downs uranium deposit. Western Mining Corporation, BP Australia, and BP Petroleum Development are the project's joint venturers


    Vis, Jeroen C.; van Engelen, Klaartje; Bouma, Berto J.; Bilardo, Catia M.; Blom, Nico A.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.


    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality among liveborn infants and is the most frequent chromosomal cause of intellectual disability (Frid, Drott, Lundell, Rasmussen, & Anneren, 1999). It is a multisystem disorder, characterized by various congenital defects, organic disorders,

  20. Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy

    ... benefit from a local Down syndrome group or mentor. It helps to see what life is like ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ...

  1. Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

    Hoskins, Bryan L


    The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.

  2. Warming up and cooling down (image)

    ... for 5 to 10 minutes, one may avoid injury and build endurance over time. Cooling down after exercise by walking slowly, then stretching muscles, may also prevent strains and blood pressure fluctuation.

  3. 'So Unit One has been shut down!'

    Tomek, J.


    The Slovak Government decided to shut down both units of V-1 NPP by its resolution No. 801 as early as in September 1999, when SE was 100% owned by the State, or the National Property Fund. Even though SE has recently tried to postpone the decommissioning date, it did not find understanding from the European Union, because this obligation of the Government is part of the Accession Treaty. Unit shut down started at noon in the last day of 2006. (author)

  4. Informed Choice for Participation in Down Syndrome Screening

    Skjøth, Mette Maria; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Draborg, Eva


    Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration guide to develop a patient decision aid, and the roadmap for developing eHealth technologies from the Center for eHealth Research and Disease Management (CeHRes). The methods employed were a systematic literature search, focus group interviews with 3 care...... providers, and technology experts as stakeholders. To our knowledge, there has been no research on the combination of IPDAS standards and the CeHRes roadmap to develop an eHealth tool to target information about screening for Down syndrome....

  5. Bottom-up vs. top-down effects on terrestrial insect herbivores: a meta-analysis.

    Vidal, Mayra C; Murphy, Shannon M


    Primary consumers are under strong selection from resource ('bottom-up') and consumer ('top-down') controls, but the relative importance of these selective forces is unknown. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the strength of top-down and bottom-up forces on consumer fitness, considering multiple predictors that can modulate these effects: diet breadth, feeding guild, habitat/environment, type of bottom-up effects, type of top-down effects and how consumer fitness effects are measured. We focused our analyses on the most diverse group of primary consumers, herbivorous insects, and found that in general top-down forces were stronger than bottom-up forces. Notably, chewing, sucking and gall-making herbivores were more affected by top-down than bottom-up forces, top-down forces were stronger than bottom-up in both natural and controlled (cultivated) environments, and parasitoids and predators had equally strong top-down effects on insect herbivores. Future studies should broaden the scope of focal consumers, particularly in understudied terrestrial systems, guilds, taxonomic groups and top-down controls (e.g. pathogens), and test for more complex indirect community interactions. Our results demonstrate the surprising strength of forces exerted by natural enemies on herbivorous insects, and thus the necessity of using a tri-trophic approach when studying insect-plant interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Focus on Russia

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.


    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  7. Rheological phenomena in focus

    Boger, DV


    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  8. Identification of ultramodified proteins using top-down spectra

    Liu, Xiaowen; Hengel, Shawna M.; Wu, Si; Tolic, Nikola; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pevzner, Pavel A.


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in various biological processes through changing protein structure and function. Some ultramodified proteins (like histones) have multiple PTMs forming PTM patterns that define the functionality of a protein. While bottom-up mass spectrometry (MS) has been successful in identifying individual PTMs within short peptides, it is unable to identify PTM patterns spread along entire proteins in a coordinated fashion. In contrast, top-down MS analyzes intact proteins and reveals PTM patterns along the entire proteins. However, while recent advances in instrumentation have made top-down MS accessible to many laboratories, most computational tools for top-down MS focus on proteins with few PTMs and are unable to identify complex PTM patterns. We propose a new algorithm, MS-Align-E, that identifies both expected and unexpected PTMs in ultramodified proteins. We demonstrate that MS-Align-E identifies many protein forms of histone H4 and benchmark it against the currently accepted software tools.

  9. Identification of Ultramodified Proteins Using Top-Down Mass Spectra

    Liu, Xiaowen; Hengel, Shawna M.; Wu, Si; Tolic, Nikola; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pevzner, Pavel A.


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in various biological processes through changing protein structure and function. Some ultramodified proteins (like histones) have multiple PTMs forming PTM patterns that define the functionality of a protein. While bottom-up mass spectrometry (MS) has been successful in identifying individual PTMs within short peptides, it is unable to identify PTM patterns spread along entire proteins in a coordinated fashion. In contrast, top-down MS analyzes intact proteins and reveals PTM patterns along the entire proteins. However, while recent advances in instrumentation have made top-down MS accessible to many laboratories, most computational tools for top-down MS focus on proteins with few PTMs and are unable to identify complex PTM patterns. We propose a new algorithm, MS-Align-E, that identifies both expected and unexpected PTMs in ultramodified proteins. We demonstrate that MS-Align-E identifies many protein forms of histone H4 and benchmark it against the currently accepted software tools.

  10. Focused detection logging technique

    Turcotte, R.E.


    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining a characteristic of the media surrounding a borehole by emitting gamma radiation in at least one tightly collimated beam toward an earth formation adjacent a borehole, by detecting from a plurality of tightly collimated paths that are focused at a zone of intersection with and aligned to intersect with each emitted beam the gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media at the zones of intersection, by misaligning the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths to prevent their intersection, by detecting gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media with the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths misaligned and by determining from the detected gamma radiation a media characteristic. In one embodiment, the detection collimater used is formed of a material that is essentially opaque to gamma radiation at the energies of interest and includes a plurality of passageways that are spherically focused at a zone of intersection with one of the emitted beams of gamma radiation and that are arranged in a number of surfaces that are curved to be azimuthally symmetrical about the axis of the intersected beam. 14 figures

  11. Turning Planetary Theory Upside Down


    . ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  12. Characterizing tobacco control mass media campaigns in England.

    Langley, Tessa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna; Szatkowski, Lisa; West, Robert; Sims, Michelle


    To characterize publically funded tobacco control campaigns in England between 2004 and 2010 and to explore if they were in line with recommendations from the literature in terms of their content and intensity. International evidence suggests that campaigns which warn of the negative consequences of smoking and feature testimonials from real-life smokers are most effective, and that four exposures per head per month are required to reduce smoking prevalence. Characterization of tobacco control advertisements using a theoretically based framework designed to describe advertisement themes, informational and emotional content and style. Study of the intensity of advertising and exposure to different types of advertisement using data on population-level exposure to advertisements shown during the study period. England. Television Ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, were used to calculate exposure to each different campaign type. A total of 89% of advertising was for smoking cessation; half of this advertising warned of the negative consequences of smoking, while half contained how-to-quit messages. Acted scenes featured in 72% of advertising, while only 17% featured real-life testimonials. Only 39% of months had at least four exposures to tobacco control campaigns per head. A theory-driven approach enabled a systematic characterization of tobacco control advertisements in England. Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements utilized the most effective strategies-negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers. The intensity of campaigns was lower than international recommendations. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. The fertility of recent migrants to England and Wales

    James Robards


    Full Text Available Background: Estimates of fertility for the overseas-born based on the period Total Fertility Rate (TFR suggest that levels of childbearing are significantly higher among foreign-born women than women born in the UK. However, migration and timing of subsequent family formation mean that aggregate measures of fertility based on period TFRs may not be a useful indicator of the likely completed family size that migrant women will have at the end of their reproductive lives. Objective: The paper quantifies childbearing according to duration since migration among female migrants to England and Wales arriving between 2001 and 2011, and examines how these patterns differ according to age at arrival and country of birth. Methods: Data from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study, a 1Š sample of the population of England and Wales, are used to identify the reported date of arrival in the UK and to estimate childbearing prior to and subsequent to arrival. Results: Fertility rates peak in the first one to four years subsequent to arrival among migrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh. Migrants from India and Poland show a delay in childbearing after migration to England and Wales, and lower fertility rates compared to migrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh, who show high fertility after migration at least for the first five years. Conclusions: There are large differences in the timing of fertility among migrants according to age at arrival and migrant country of origin, which are likely to be related to the reason for migration. Tempo distortions among some migrant groups mean that the period TFR is not necessarily a useful summary measure of the likely lifetime fertility of migrant groups.

  14. Pharmacological interventions for cognitive decline in people with Down syndrome.

    Livingstone, Nuala; Hanratty, Jennifer; McShane, Rupert; Macdonald, Geraldine


    People with Down syndrome are vulnerable to developing dementia at an earlier age than the general population. Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline in people with Down syndrome can place a significant burden on both the person with Down syndrome and their family and carers. Various pharmacological interventions, including donepezil, galantamine, memantine and rivastigmine, appear to have some effect in treating cognitive decline in people without Down syndrome, but their effectiveness for those with Down syndrome remains unclear. To assess the effectiveness of anti-dementia pharmacological interventions and nutritional supplements for treating cognitive decline in people with Down syndrome. In January 2015, we searched CENTRAL, ALOIS (the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, seven other databases, and two trials registers. In addition, we checked the references of relevant reviews and studies and contacted study authors, other researchers and relevant drug manufacturers to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of anti-dementia pharmacological interventions or nutritional supplements for adults (aged 18 years and older) with Down syndrome, in which treatment was administered and compared with either placebo or no treatment. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included trials and extracted the relevant data. Review authors contacted study authors to obtain missing information where necessary. Only nine studies (427 participants) met the inclusion criteria for this review. Four of these (192 participants) assessed the effectiveness of donepezil, two (139 participants) assessed memantine, one (21 participants) assessed simvastatin, one study (35 participants) assessed antioxidants, and one study (40 participants) assessed acetyl-L-carnitine.Five studies focused on adults aged 45 to 55 years, while the remaining four studies focused on

  15. Tree rings and time: recent historical studies in England

    Martin Bridge


    Full Text Available By studying the annual growth rings of long-lived trees, and those preserved in ancient timbers that have survived in waterlogged or very dry conditions, it is possible to date past events in calendar years and to investigate climatic and other environmental changes. Dendrochronology has many applications, including the dating of buildings and ships and the calibration of the radiocarbon timescale that is so widely used in archaeology. Here the technique is outlined and some recent applications of it in England are described.

  16. Alfred Russel Wallace and the antivaccination movement in Victorian England.

    Weber, Thomas P


    Alfred Russel Wallace, eminent naturalist and codiscoverer of the principle of natural selection, was a major participant in the antivaccination campaigns in late 19th-century England. Wallace combined social reformism and quantitative arguments to undermine the claims of provaccinationists and had a major impact on the debate. A brief account of Wallace's background, his role in the campaign, and a summary of his quantitative arguments leads to the conclusion that it is unwarranted to portray Victorian antivaccination campaigners in general as irrational and antiscience. Public health policy can benefit from history, but the proper context of the evidence used should always be kept in mind.

  17. Changing market for renewable energy in New England

    Jacobs, M. [Second Wind Inc., Austin, TX (United States)


    The author discusses the rapidly changing power market in New England in the face of deregulation of the electric power industry. Utilities are moving to sell their generation assets, and the new players in the market are striving to present themselves as active in a green market. But there is little knowledge about renewable energy sources on the part of the new marketers, and little capacity available, while there does appear to be customer demand. Legislative action seems to be putting in place policies making renewable energy a more attractive option. The author looks at the disparity between demand and availability at this time.

  18. Comparing pedagogy in mathematics in Denmark and England

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike


    This paper reports the findings of a comparative study of pedagogy in lower-secondary school mathematics in Denmark and England. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using...... the lens of Bernstein’s pedagogic discourse (1990; 1996) to construct mathematics teacher roles which provided a view of pedagogy. Comparison allowed variations in pedagogy across the two countries to be identified and implications drawn. Of particular interest were the differences in experience of lower...... attaining pupils, and some of the advantages and disadvantages of mathematics pedagogy in each country for this group are indicated....

  19. Apparent clusters of childhood lymphoid malignancy in Northern England

    Craft, A.W.; Openshaw, S.; Birch, J.


    The authors have reanalysed their previous data on the incidence of childhood malignancy in the North of England by very small geographical areas. Seascale, which ranks first by Poisson probability for all lymphoid malignancies is the village closest to the Sellafield plant. However, it is not unique in the region; nor are wards of apparent excess confined to coastal areas of Cumbria. The highest rate of lymphoid malignancies is in Whittingham, a village in north Northumberland. For other varieties of childhood cancer, there is a similar spread of 'Highly ranked', but different, wards throughout the region. (U.K.)

  20. Polluton control in England and Wales: a review

    Bennett, G.


    England's efforts to control pollution are traced from the 13th Century regulation of coal burning through the evolution of common law, statute law, and environmental planning. Development was independent in these three areas, although there was some overlapping. Common law control of pollution is prescribed primarily through the law of torts - negligence (the major tort), trespass, nuisance, and liability. Statute laws were passed to provide for the deficiencies of common law. These laws deal with specific hazards associated with air, fresh water, marine, solid waste, and noise pollution. The review will continue in the next issue of Environmental Policy and Law.

  1. Prices, Wages and Fertility in Pre-Industrial England

    Klemp, Marc

    A two-sector Malthusian model is formulated in terms of a cointegrated vector autoregressive (CVAR) model on error correction form. The model allows for both agricultural product wages and relative prices to affect fertility. The model is estimated using new data for the pre-industrial period...... in England, and the analysis reveals a strong, positive effect of agricultural wages as well as a small and, surprisingly, positive effect of real agricultural prices on fertility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that there is constant returns to scale with respect to labour in the manufacturing sector...

  2. Prices, wages and fertility in pre-industrial England

    Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag


    and relative prices to affect fertility. The model is estimated using new data for the pre-industrial period in England, and the analysis reveals a strong, positive effect of agricultural wages as well as a nonnegative effect of real agricultural prices on fertility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated......To shed light on the economic-demographic mechanisms operating in the epoch of pre-industrial economic stagnation, a two-sector Malthusian model is formulated in terms of a cointegrated vector autoregressive model on error correction form. The model allows for both agricultural product wages...

  3. Characterizing New England Emergency Departments by Telemedicine Use

    Kori S. Zachrison


    Full Text Available Introduction: Telemedicine connects emergency departments (ED with resources necessary for patient care; its use has not been characterized nationally, or even regionally. Our primary objective was to describe the prevalence of telemedicine use in New England EDs and the clinical applications of use. Secondarily, we aimed to determine if telemedicine use was associated with consultant availability and to identify ED characteristics associated with telemedicine use. Methods: We analyzed data from the National Emergency Department Inventory-New England survey, which assessed basic ED characteristics in 2014. The survey queried directors of every ED (n=195 in the six New England states (excluding federal hospitals and college infirmaries. Descriptive statistics characterized ED telemedicine use; multivariable logistic regression identified independent predictors of use. Results: Of the 169 responding EDs (87% response rate, 82 (49% reported using telemedicine. Telemedicine EDs were more likely to be rural (18% of users vs. 7% of non-users, p=0.03; less likely to be academic (1% of users vs. 11% of non-users, p=0.01; and less likely to have 24/7 access to neurology (p<0.001, neurosurgery (p<0.001, orthopedics (p=0.01, plastic surgery (p=0.01, psychiatry (p<0.001, and hand surgery (p<0.001 consultants. Neuro/stroke (68%, pediatrics (11%, psychiatry (11%, and trauma (10% were the most commonly reported applications. On multivariable analysis, telemedicine was more likely in rural EDs (odds ratio [OR] 4.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30–14.86, and less likely in EDs with 24/7 neurologist availability (OR 0.21, 95% CI [0.09–0.49], and annual volume <20,000 (OR 0.24, 95% CI [0.08–0.68]. Conclusion: Telemedicine is commonly used in New England EDs. In 2014, use was more common among rural EDs and EDs with limited neurology consultant availability. In contrast, telemedicine use was less common among very low-volume EDs.

  4. A final focus system for the Next Linear Collider

    Zimmermann, F.; Brown, K.; Emma, P.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Tenenbaum, P.; Wilson, P.


    The final focus of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) demagnifies electron and positron beams of 250--750 GeV energy down to a transverse size of about 2.5 x 350 nm 2 at the interaction point (IP). The basic layout, momentum bandwidth, vibration tolerances, wakefield effects, and the tunability of the proposed final focus design are discussed. Also a perspective is given on the crab cavity and on effects of the solenoid field in the interaction region

  5. Implicit theories concerning the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome.

    Claire Enea-Drapeau

    Full Text Available Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory, as opposed to malleable (incremental theory, is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention. We propose the first study on conceptions of intelligence of persons with intellectual disabilities, here people with Down syndrome. Participants were 55 professionally qualified people working with individuals with intellectual disabilities and 81 adults from the community. We compared what both groups of participants believe about intelligence of typical people and what they believe about the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome. We also investigated implicit theories of intelligence as predictors of explicit judgments about intelligence and implicit attitudes toward people with Down syndrome. Whatever the work experience in the field of intellectual disability, implicit theories of intelligence were found to be less incremental when considering people with Down syndrome than when considering typical people; and the stronger the belief in entity theory, the more negative (and less positive the judgments expressed explicitly. Implicit theories of intelligence were also found to be predictors of negative implicit attitude but only in adults from the community. These findings offer prospects for improving practices by people working in the field of intellectual disability. They might interest a wide range of people caring for people with intellectual disabilities, such as teachers, but also other professional caregivers

  6. Implicit theories concerning the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome.

    Enea-Drapeau, Claire; Carlier, Michèle; Huguet, Pascal


    Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence) are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory), as opposed to malleable (incremental theory), is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention. We propose the first study on conceptions of intelligence of persons with intellectual disabilities, here people with Down syndrome. Participants were 55 professionally qualified people working with individuals with intellectual disabilities and 81 adults from the community. We compared what both groups of participants believe about intelligence of typical people and what they believe about the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome. We also investigated implicit theories of intelligence as predictors of explicit judgments about intelligence and implicit attitudes toward people with Down syndrome. Whatever the work experience in the field of intellectual disability, implicit theories of intelligence were found to be less incremental when considering people with Down syndrome than when considering typical people; and the stronger the belief in entity theory, the more negative (and less positive) the judgments expressed explicitly. Implicit theories of intelligence were also found to be predictors of negative implicit attitude but only in adults from the community. These findings offer prospects for improving practices by people working in the field of intellectual disability. They might interest a wide range of people caring for people with intellectual disabilities, such as teachers, but also other professional caregivers, and other

  7. A human rights approach to advocacy for people with dementia: A review of current provision in England and Wales.

    Dixon, Jeremy; Laing, Judy; Valentine, Christine


    In this article, we review current advocacy services for people with dementia in England and Wales (provided, respectively, under the Mental Capacity Act 2005 , the Mental Health Act 1983 /2007 and the Care Act 2014) through the lens of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). We examine what a human rights' approach to advocacy support would entail, and whether current frameworks in England and Wales are adequate for this approach and provide a sufficient safeguard. First, we consider how the human rights of persons with dementia have become increasingly important and the extent to which the CRPD provides an opportunity to bolster safeguards and protection. Second, we discuss cause and case advocacy, and how these advocacy models could be shaped by the CRPD to promote the rights of persons with dementia at each stage of the disease. Third, we highlight current dilemmas and challenges in the provision of advocacy support in England and Wales by focusing on case law, commissioning of services and current practice. In particular, we analyse how the different legislative schemes have given rise to some confusion about the various advocacy provisions, as well as potential for overlap and discrepancies between different regimes. We also highlight the need for further research to address important gaps in knowledge, including the scale of need, patterns of referral and attitudes to advocacy services. The article concludes by highlighting how advocacy support could be recalibrated as a universal right to promote the aims and aspirations of the CRPD, and how education is needed to address the stigma of dementia and promote the benefits of advocacy in protecting the rights of those with dementia.

  8. Is cancer survival associated with cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in England? An ecological study.

    Niksic, Maja; Rachet, Bernard; Duffy, Stephen W; Quaresma, Manuela; Møller, Henrik; Forbes, Lindsay Jl


    Campaigns aimed at raising cancer awareness and encouraging early presentation have been implemented in England. However, little is known about whether people with low cancer awareness and increased barriers to seeking medical help have worse cancer survival, and whether there is a geographical variation in cancer awareness and barriers in England. From population-based surveys (n=35 308), using the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Measure, we calculated the age- and sex-standardised symptom awareness and barriers scores for 52 primary care trusts (PCTs). These measures were evaluated in relation to the sex-, age-, and type of cancer-standardised cancer survival index of the corresponding PCT, from the National Cancer Registry, using linear regression. Breast, lung, and bowel cancer survival were analysed separately. Cancer symptom awareness and barriers scores varied greatly between geographical regions in England, with the worst scores observed in socioeconomically deprived parts of East London. Low cancer awareness score was associated with poor cancer survival at PCT level (estimated slope=1.56, 95% CI: 0.56; 2.57). The barriers score was not associated with overall cancer survival, but it was associated with breast cancer survival (estimated slope=-0.66, 95% CI: -1.20; -0.11). Specific barriers, such as embarrassment and difficulties in arranging transport to the doctor's surgery, were associated with worse breast cancer survival. Cancer symptom awareness and cancer survival are associated. Campaigns should focus on improving awareness about cancer symptoms, especially in socioeconomically deprived areas. Efforts should be made to alleviate barriers to seeking medical help in women with symptoms of breast cancer.

  9. A comparison of the causes, effects and aftermaths of the coastal flooding of England in 1953 and France in 2010

    D. M. Lumbroso


    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison of the causes, effects and aftermaths of the coastal flooding that occurred on the east coast of England in 1953 and the west coast of France in 2010 that resulted in 307 and 47 deaths respectively. The causes of both events are strikingly similar. Both were caused by a combination of high tides, low atmospheric pressure, high winds and the failure of poorly maintained flood defences. In both cases the number of deaths was related to the vulnerability of the buildings and people. Buildings in the flood zones were often single storey bungalows and the people who died were mostly over 60 yr of age. Both tragedies were national disasters. The 1953 flood in England acted as a catalyst for an acceleration in flood risk management policy and practice. It resulted in: the development of a Storm Tide Warning System for the east coast of England; the setting of new design standards for coastal flood defences; increased investment in improving coastal defences; and a substantial new research effort into coastal processes, protection and forecasting. In France there has also been an episodic shift in flood risk management policy with the focus falling on: control of urban developments in areas at risk of flooding; improved coastal forecasting and warning; strengthening of flood defences; and developing a "culture of risk awareness". This paper outlines the lessons that can be learnt from the two events and provides recommendations concerning how future loss of life as a result of coastal flooding can be reduced.

  10. Associations between air pollution and socioeconomic characteristics, ethnicity and age profile of neighbourhoods in England and the Netherlands

    Fecht, Daniela; Fischer, Paul; Fortunato, Léa; Hoek, Gerard; Hoogh, Kees de; Marra, Marten; Kruize, Hanneke; Vienneau, Danielle; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna


    Air pollution levels are generally believed to be higher in deprived areas but associations are complex especially between sensitive population subgroups. We explore air pollution inequalities at national, regional and city level in England and the Netherlands comparing particulate matter (PM 10 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations and publicly available population characteristics (deprivation, ethnicity, proportion of children and elderly). We saw higher concentrations in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods in England (1.5 μg/m 3 higher PM 10 and 4.4 μg/m 3 NO 2 ). Concentrations in both countries were higher in neighbourhoods with >20% non-White (England: 3.0 μg/m 3 higher PM 10 and 10.1 μg/m 3 NO 2 ; the Netherlands: 1.1 μg/m 3 higher PM 10 and 4.5 μg/m 3 NO 2 ) after adjustment for urbanisation and other variables. Associations for some areas differed from the national results. Air pollution inequalities were mainly an urban problem suggesting measures to reduce environmental air pollution inequality should include a focus on city transport. - Highlights: • Air pollution inequalities are believed to vary between subpopulations. • We explore this across two European countries at different geographical levels. • We found that air pollution inequalities are largely an urban problem. • Ethnically diverse neighbourhoods have the highest air pollution levels. • Associations vary across two countries that might be thought to be quite similar. - Air pollution inequalities are largely an urban problem and associations with deprivation and ethnicity vary even across two European countries that might be thought to be quite similar

  11. Doing focus group research

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang


    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  12. Focus on Succes

    Ivan Slimák


    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  13. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    Irwin, J


    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  14. The FOCUS trial

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse


    BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a distinct feature among people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and pose a barrier to functional recovery. Insufficient evidence exists on how to ameliorate these cognitive deficits in patients at UHR for psychosis and hence improve daily living and quality...... of life. The aim of the trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation can improve cognitive and psychosocial function in patients at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: The FOCUS trial (Function and Overall Cognition in Ultra-high risk States) is a randomised, parallel group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...

  15. Focusing on customer service.


    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  16. Association of Down's syndrome and testicular cancer.

    Dieckmann, K P; Rübe, C; Henke, R P


    We present additional clinical evidence for the suspected association of Down's syndrome and testicular germ cell tumors. Four cases of Down's syndrome and testicular cancer are reported. The literature was reviewed for previous cases and analysis regarding common features. The 4 patients were 29 to 35 years old and had clinical stage I seminoma of the testis. Two patients received prophylactic abdominal radiotherapy, 1 is being followed and 1 received adjuvant carboplatin treatment. There was no relapse at followup of 1 to 8 years. One patient also had contralateral cryptorchidism. A total of 16 cases with the association of Down's syndrome and testicular germ cell cancer was documented previously. Evidence for the suspected association of Down's syndrome and testicular cancer is now accumulating. Etiologically it is suspected that, along with genetically determined malformations in many other organs in trisomy 21, the gonads also undergo maldevelopment, thus creating the conditions for step 1 of germ cell tumor oncogenesis in utero. Physicians caring for patients with Down's syndrome should be aware of the possible association with testicular neoplasms.

  17. Community empowerment and community cohesion: parallel agendas for community building in England?

    Marjorie Mayo


    Full Text Available Community empowerment and community capacity building have been central to government agendas in Britain over the past decade. Agendas for tackling the so-called ‘War on Terrorism’ and promoting community cohesion have become increasingly significant in addition, especially since the bombings in London in 2005. This article focuses upon the current gap between these differing agendas. This is particularly relevant in an era of increasing globalisation, with considerable debate on the impact of migration, and anxieties about previous approaches to multiculturalism that have been the subject of growing criticism. Having set out these gaps in public policy and research in this field, the article examines the evidence from research, including 100 interviews together with focus groups conducted in three localities in England, identifying the problems, in terms of the lack of engagement of ‘new communities’ and in terms of the potential tensions within and between communities. There was, however, encouraging evidence that strategies were being developed to develop more inclusive, more democratically accountable and more effective forms of community engagement. The article concludes by summarising potential implications for building community cohesion and social solidarity.

  18. Enhancing nurse satisfaction: an exploration of specialty nurse shortage in a region of NHS England.

    Gray, Keith; Wilde, Rebecca; Shutes, Karl


    This article offers nurse managers guidance on analysing, managing and addressing a potentially dissatisfied nursing workforce, focusing on three priority shortage specialties: emergency care, paediatrics and cardiology. The aim of the study was to explore to what extent registered nurses and healthcare assistants, referred to collectively here as 'nursing staff', are satisfied with teamworking opportunities, continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities and workplace autonomy. A survey questionnaire was developed to evaluate three derived determinants of nurse satisfaction: team working, CPD and autonomy. The NHS West Midlands region was the focus given that it is among the poorest performing regions outside London in filling nursing posts. Overall, nursing staff respondents were satisfied with teamworking, CPD and autonomy, which challenges the perception that nurses in NHS England are dissatisfied with these satisfaction determinants. The findings give a complex picture of nurse satisfaction; for example a large minority of respondents were dissatisfied with their ability to carry out duties as they see fit. When developing management systems to investigate, manage and enhance nurse satisfaction, nurse managers must recognise the complexity and subtleties of determining factors. This will increase as nursing becomes more specialised. Subsequently, nurse managers need to work closely with staff at higher education institutions and other professional agencies to commission appropriate professional development. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  19. Qualitative scale for estimating sulphur dioxide air pollution in England and Wales using epiphytic lichens

    Hawksworth, D L; Rose, F


    The sulphur dioxide in the air can be estimated qualitatively by studying the lichens growing on trees. A ten-point scale has been constructed and used in pilot surveys in England and Wales, Southeast England and the city of Leicester.

  20. New England's travel & tourism markets: trends in the geographic target markets in the 90's

    Rodney B. Warnick


    The purpose of this paper was to examine the travel and lifestyle activity market trends to New England in the 90s. The central theme was to fully examine in detail the primary, secondary and tertiary geographic markets targeted by New England destinations.

  1. New England's travel and recreation markets: trends in the geographic target markets beyond 2000

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic


    The purpose of this paper was to re-examine and update geographic travel and lifestyle activity market trends for those areas targeted by New England destinations beyond the year 2000. The central theme was to examine in detail the primary, secondary and tertiary geographic markets targeted by New England destinations through both travel behavior and lifestyle behavior...

  2. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko


    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  3. Schooling Reforms in England: From Quasi-Markets to Co-Opetition?

    Adnett, Nick; Davies, Peter


    Economic analysis of the impact of recent schooling reforms in England designed to promote competition or cooperation between schools. Outlines the theoretical relationships between school competition and cooperation and school effectiveness. Briefly describes the development of policy in England and analyzes the interaction between the incentives…

  4. The Politics of PISA: The Media, Policy and Public Responses in Norway and England

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Görgen, Kristine


    Using the PISA 2015 releases in Norway and England, this article explores how PISA has been presented in the media and how the policy level has responded to the results. England will be used as an example for comparison. The article presents early media responses from the 20 most circulated daily newspapers in the two countries and discusses them…

  5. 77 FR 71585 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint


    ... Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on November 21, 2012...), Brookfield Energy Marketing LP (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc... notification when a document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any FERC Online service...

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Primary Teacher Professionalism in England and Finland

    Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham; Hamalainen, Seppo; Sarja, Anneli; Kimonen, Eija; Nevalainen, Raimo


    Policy-makers' conceptions of teacher professionalism currently differ markedly in England and Finland. In England they are shaped by agendas associated with the drive to raise standards and "commercialized professionalism" whilst in Finland they are influenced by notions of "teacher empowerment". This article analyses findings…

  7. Mortality of People with Intellectual Disabilities in England: A Comparison of Data from Existing Sources

    Heslop, Pauline; Glover, Gyles


    Background: At present, there is limited statistical information about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England. This study explores the data that are currently available. Materials and Methods: Four recent sources of data about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England are reviewed: the Confidential…

  8. Radionuclide levels in food, animals and agricultural products. Post Chernobyl monitoring in England and Wales


    Data are presented in the following lists: 1) General Monitoring results, for England and Wales, presented separately (milk, milk products, dairy, vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, game, herbage, honey). 2) Restricted area sheep monitoring results, England and Wales presented separately. (U.K.)

  9. MERGANSER - An Empirical Model to Predict Fish and Loon Mercury in New England Lakes

    MERGANSER (MERcury Geo-spatial AssessmeNtS for the New England Region) is an empirical least-squares multiple regression model using mercury (Hg) deposition and readily obtainable lake and watershed features to predict fish (fillet) and common loon (blood) Hg in New England lakes...

  10. Distribution of cocaine on banknotes in general circulation in England and Wales.

    Aitken, C G G; Wilson, A; Sleeman, R; Morgan, B E M; Huish, J


    A study of the quantities of cocaine on banknotes in general circulation was conducted to investigate regional variations across England and Wales. No meaningful support was found for the proposition that there is regional variation in the quantities of cocaine in banknotes in general circulation in England and Wales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing Professionalism within a Regulatory Framework in England: Challenges and Possibilities

    Miller, Linda


    Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) is now firmly on government agendas in many countries, including England, and the need to develop a professional workforce is generally agreed. The reform of the children's workforce in England acknowledges that increasing the skills and competence of this workforce is critical to its success. Two new…

  12. 78 FR 61958 - New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...


    ... Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On August 20, 2013, the New England Hydropower Company... river are owned by the city of Meriden. Applicant Contact: Mr. Michael C. Kerr, New England Hydropower...

  13. 77 FR 11532 - Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at ISO New England... members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend upcoming ISO New England Inc. (ISO-NE) and New..., the Commission and Commission staff may monitor the various meetings posted on the ISO-NE Web site...

  14. Neutron slowing-down time in matter

    Chabod, Sebastien P., E-mail: [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 38000 Grenoble (France)


    We formulate the neutron slowing-down time through elastic collisions in a homogeneous, non-absorbing, infinite medium. Our approach allows taking into account for the first time the energy dependence of the scattering cross-section as well as the energy and temporal distribution of the source neutron population in the results. Starting from this development, we investigate the specific case of the propagation in matter of a mono-energetic neutron pulse. We then quantify the perturbation on the neutron slowing-down time induced by resonances in the scattering cross-section. We show that a resonance can induce a permanent reduction of the slowing-down time, preceded by two discontinuities: a first one at the resonance peak position and an echo one, appearing later. From this study, we suggest that a temperature increase of the propagating medium in presence of large resonances could modestly accelerate the neutron moderation.

  15. Informed choice about Down syndrome screening

    Skjøth, Mette Maria; Draborg, Eva; Lamont, Ronald Francis


    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eHealth intervention (interactive website) on pregnant women's ability to make an informed choice about Down syndrome screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial with allocation...... to an intervention group and a control group in a ratio of 1:1. Subsequent subgroup analysis was conducted. Participants were recruited from 5 August 2013 to 25 April 2014 at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Inclusion criteria were: pregnant women aged ≥18 years who were invited to participate in Down syndrome...... screening. Exclusion criteria were: high risk of abortion, psycho-socially vulnerable women, late referral, inability to speak Danish and women declining to participate. The primary outcome was informed choice about Down syndrome screening. The Multidimensional Measure of Informed Choice was used to assess...

  16. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Down syndrome pregnancy

    ZHANG Yu; XU Chen-ming; ZHU Yi-min; DONG Min-yue; QIAN Yu-li; JIN Fan; HUANG He-feng


    Objective: To evaluate the effect of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) conducted for women who had Down syndrome pregnancy previously. Methods: Trisomy 21 was diagnosed by using fluorescence in site hybridization (FISH) before embryo transfer in two women who had Down syndrome pregnancies. Each received one or two PGD cycles respectively. Results:Case 1: one PGD cycle was conducted, two oocytes were fertilized and biopsied. One embryo is of trisomy 21 and the other of monosomy 21. No embryo was transferred. Case 2: two PGD cycles were conducted, in total, sixteen oocytes were fertilized and biopsied. Four embryos were tested to be normal, six of trisomy 21, and one of monosomy 21. Five had no signal. Four normal embryos were transferred but no pregnancy resulted. Conclusion: For couples who had pregnancies with Down syndrome previously, PGD can be considered, and has been shown to be an effective strategy.

  17. Enhancing the conservation of crop wild relatives in England.

    Hannah Fielder

    Full Text Available Humans require resilient, rapidly renewable and sustainable supplies of food and many other plant-derived supplies. However, the combined effects of climate change and population growth compromise the provision of these supplies particularly in respect to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR contain higher genetic diversity than crops and harbour traits that can improve crop resilience and yield through plant breeding. However, in common with most countries, CWR are poorly conserved in England. There is currently no provision for long-term CWR conservation in situ, and comprehensive ex situ collection and storage of CWR is also lacking. However, there is a commitment to achieve their conservation in England's Biodiversity Strategy and the UK has international commitments to do so as part of the Global Plant Conservation Strategy. Here, we identify a series of measures that could enhance the conservation of English CWR, thereby supporting the achievement of these national and international objectives. We provide an inventory of 148 priority English CWR, highlight hotspots of CWR diversity in sites including The Lizard Peninsula, the Dorset coast and Cambridgeshire and suggest appropriate sites for the establishment of a complementary network of genetic reserves. We also identify individual in situ and ex situ priorities for each English CWR. Based on these analyses, we make recommendations whose implementation could provide effective, long-term conservation of English CWR whilst facilitating their use in crop improvement.

  18. Child survival in England: Strengthening governance for health.

    Wolfe, Ingrid; Mandeville, Kate; Harrison, Katherine; Lingam, Raghu


    The United Kingdom, like all European countries, is struggling to strengthen health systems and improve conditions for child health and survival. Child mortality in the UK has failed to improve in line with other countries. Securing optimal conditions for child health requires a healthy society, strong health system, and effective health care. We examine inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral policy and governance for child health and survival in England. Literature reviews and universally applicable clinical scenarios were used to examine child health problems and English policy and governance responses for improving child health through integrating care and strengthening health systems, over the past 15 years. We applied the TAPIC framework for analysing policy governance: transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, and capacity. We identified strengths and weaknesses in child health governance in all the five domains. However there remain policy failures that are not fully explained by the TAPIC framework. Other problems with successfully translating policy to improved health that we identified include policy flux; policies insufficiently supported by delivery mechanisms, measurable targets, and sufficient budgets; and policies with unintended or contradictory aspects. We make recommendations for inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral child health governance, policy, and action to improve child health in England with relevant lessons for other countries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing the conservation of crop wild relatives in England.

    Fielder, Hannah; Brotherton, Peter; Hosking, Julian; Hopkins, John J; Ford-Lloyd, Brian; Maxted, Nigel


    Humans require resilient, rapidly renewable and sustainable supplies of food and many other plant-derived supplies. However, the combined effects of climate change and population growth compromise the provision of these supplies particularly in respect to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR) contain higher genetic diversity than crops and harbour traits that can improve crop resilience and yield through plant breeding. However, in common with most countries, CWR are poorly conserved in England. There is currently no provision for long-term CWR conservation in situ, and comprehensive ex situ collection and storage of CWR is also lacking. However, there is a commitment to achieve their conservation in England's Biodiversity Strategy and the UK has international commitments to do so as part of the Global Plant Conservation Strategy. Here, we identify a series of measures that could enhance the conservation of English CWR, thereby supporting the achievement of these national and international objectives. We provide an inventory of 148 priority English CWR, highlight hotspots of CWR diversity in sites including The Lizard Peninsula, the Dorset coast and Cambridgeshire and suggest appropriate sites for the establishment of a complementary network of genetic reserves. We also identify individual in situ and ex situ priorities for each English CWR. Based on these analyses, we make recommendations whose implementation could provide effective, long-term conservation of English CWR whilst facilitating their use in crop improvement.

  20. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England.

    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J


    To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free 'Healthy Start' vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. 13 primary care trusts in England. Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation.

  1. Possible windborne spread of myxomatosis to England in 1953.

    Sellers, R F


    An analysis of the meterological conditions showed that the first outbreaks of myxomatosis in S.E. England in 1953 could have resulted from wind carriage of insects infected with myxoma virus from northern France. South-easterly winds on the night 11-12 August would have carried the insects 120-160 km from the Départements of Nord, Pas de Calais and Somme across the English Channel to near Edenbridge, Kent. The flight would have taken 6.5-8.5 h at wind speeds of 15-22 km h-1. On the night 11-12 August, temperatures increased with height (inversion) up to 500 m; at ground level temperature was around 19 degrees C and at 500 m was 25 degrees C. Insects would have travelled up to the top of the inversion arriving on 12 August as the inversion declined. Two or possibly three generations of infection would have taken place before the disease was seen around the middle of September 1953. The most likely insect was the mosquito Anopheles atroparvus which breeds along the coastal marshes of England and northern France and which has been shown experimentally and in the field to transmit myxoma virus mechanically.

  2. Origins of modern economic system: England or Holland

    Rozinskaya Natalia, A.


    Full Text Available This paper, following the approach of the Dutch scholars de Vries and vab der Woude, claims that the Netherlands, rather than England (as it is generally assumed, were the first country, which performed the transition from the traditional society to modern one. Identification of criteria distinguishing traditional and modern societies follows the works of W. Rostow, S. Kuznets and other authors who studied the issue. In order to prove the thesis, author compares urbanization level in Holland and in England, as well as degree of commercialization of those economies, and considers the process of commercial and productive specialization in the United Provinces. Besides that, the formation of modern-type institutional system in Holland is analyzed: the genesis of the markets of factors of production, development of monetary and credit systems and of institutional and technological basis of the industry, strengthening of competitive forces in the economy. Land ownership structure in Holland is considered and its role in genesis of the markets of factors of production. Attention is paid to technological basis of the industry, examined is the impact of immigration. It concludes that the Netherlands were the first country where modern economic growth, as defined by S. Kuznets, started. It was Holland where for the first time the markets of factors of production were formed and, what is particularly important, the industry began to operate on a competitive basis.

  3. Rates of surgery for frozen shoulder: an experience in England.

    Kwaees, Tariq A; Charalambous, Charalambos P


    the aim of this study was to identify the incidence of surgical treatment for frozen shoulder in a western population. patients included in this study all resided within a well-defined area in the North West of England, all had surgery for frozen shoulder over a 3-year period and were identified from theatre logbooks of two local hospitals. Cases having surgery for shoulder stiffness other than frozen shoulder were excluded. Local and national population size estimates were based on data obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics. 117 patients underwent surgery for frozen shoulder during the period examined; of these 101 had arthroscopic arthrolysis and 16 had manipulation under anaesthesia. The overall incidence of frozen shoulder surgery was calculated at 2.67 procedures per 10,000 general population per year, and at 7.55 for those aged 40-60. surgical intervention for frozen shoulder is common, estimated at over 14,180 cases per year in England. Given the variation in costs associated with arthroscopic arthrolysis and manipulation under anaesthesia, comparative studies of the cost effectiveness of the two procedures would be of great value. 2C (outcome research).

  4. Radionuclides around nuclear sites in England and Wales

    Sanchez, A.L.; Horrill, A.D.; Singleton, D.L.; Leonard, D.R.P.


    Environmental releases of low levels of radioactivity can occur as a consequence of normal operations at nuclear facilities. In England and Wales, the impact of gaseous discharges on the terrestrial environment is monitored routinely by the site operators as well as by Food Science Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. The terrestrial surveillance programme carried out by MAFF Food Science concentrates on agricultural produce to provide assessments of doses to members of the population derived from the consumption of terrestrial foodstuffs. We present here the results of a survey, undertaken in 1993 to supplement the monitoring data of MAFF, of artificial radioactive contamination around eighteen nuclear establishments in England and Wales. Grass and soil samples were used as indicators of environmental contamination at these sites for the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. When compared to estimated background radionuclide concentrations close to each site, these data reveal that four of the 18 sites have contributed measurable increases to both the 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu inventory within 500 m outside the boundary fence. Two additional sites showed slight increases above the expected background soil levels of 239+240 Pu

  5. Physiological profile of senior and junior England international amateur boxers.

    Smith, Marcus S


    Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focussed on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21-days) and rapid (0 to 7-days) phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 ± 0.3 % of the 7.0 ± 0. 8 % weight loss occurring over the final 24-hours. An increase in body weight >4% was observed following a recovery period. High urine osmolality values (> 1000 mOsm·kg(-1)) were recorded during training and competition. High post-competition blood lactate values (>13.5 mmol·l(-1)) highlighted the need for a well-developed anaerobic capacity and the importance of not entering the ring in a glycogen depleted state. The aerobic challenge of competition was demonstrated by maximum heart rate values being recorded during 'Open' sparring. Mean body fat values of 9-10% were similar to those reported for other weight classified athletes. Normal resting values were reported for hematocrit (Senior 48 ± 2 % and Junior 45 ± 2 %), haemoglobin (Senior 14.7 ± 1.0 g·dl(-1) and Junior 14.5 ± 0.8 g·dl(-1)), bilirubin (Senior 15.3 ± 6.2 µmol·l-1(-1)) and ferritin (Senior 63.3 ± 45.7 ng·ml(-1)). No symptoms associated with asthma or exercise-induced asthma was evident. A well- developed aerobic capacity was reflected in the Senior VO2max value of 63.8 ± 4.8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1). Senior lead hand straight punching force (head 1722 ± 700 N and body 1682 ± 636 N) was lower than the straight rear hand (head 2643 ± 1273 N and body 2646 ± 1083 N), lead hook (head 2412 ± 813 N and body 2414 ± 718 N) and rear hook (head 2588 ± 1040 N and body 2555 ± 926 N). It was concluded that amateur boxing performance is dependent on the interplay between anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. Current weight making methods may lead to impaired substrate availability, leading to reduced competitive performance and an increased risk to a boxers

  6. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A


    ), in an attempt to explain the observed variation in national uptake rates. METHODS: We used a mixed methods approach with an embedded design: a) documentary analysis and b) expert stakeholder analysis. National central statistical offices and legal documents were studied first to gain insight in demographic....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands...

  7. Personalized medicine for individuals with Down syndrome.

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B


    As the cost of whole genome analysis decreases, we have the opportunity to explore the interactions of various gene changes in an individual that lead to their particular phenotype. This will provide the ability to move from the epidemiologic study of groups, in which, the individuals are treated collectively and homogenously, to personalized medicine, and a model in which the individual is recognized and treated as a distinct entity. We will be applying personalized medicine to individuals with Down syndrome in order to understand and develop biomarkers for increased risk of co-morbidities. Personalized medicine will change the "culture of intractability" of Down syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of focusing-and-deflection columns

    Szilagyi, M.; Mui, P.H.


    Szilagyi and Szep have demonstrated that focusing lenses of high performances can be constructed from a column of circular plate electrodes. Later, Szilagyi modified that system to include dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components by partitioning each plate into eight equal sectors. It has already been shown that the additional quadrupole components can indeed bring about substantial improvements in the focusing of charged particle beams. In this article, that design procedure is expanded to construct columns capable of both focusing and deflecting particle beams by just introducing additional dipole components. In this new design, the geometry of the system remains unchanged. The only extra complication is the demand for more individual controls of the sector voltages. Two sample designs, one for negative ions and one for electrons, are presented showing that in both cases a ±2.3 mrad diverging beam can be focused down to a spot of less than 50 nm in radius over a scanning circular area of radius 0.25 mm. The details of the two systems are given in Sec. IV along with the source conditions. The performance of the negative ion system is found to be comparable to the published data. For the relativistic electron system, the interaction of individual components to reduce various aberrations is investigated. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society


    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M


    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  10. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL


    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  11. Change in Soil and Forest Floor Carbon after Shelterwood Harvests in a New England Oak-Hardwood Forest, USA

    Kayanna L. Warren


    Full Text Available There has been effort worldwide to quantify how much carbon forests contain in order to designate appropriate offset credits to forest carbon climate mitigation. Carbon pools on or immediately below the soil surface are understood to be very active in response to environmental change but are not well understood. Our study focused on the effects of shelterwood regeneration harvests in New England on the carbon stored in litter, woody debris, and surface soil carbon. Results demonstrate significant difference in surface (0–10 cm soil carbon between control (nonharvested and harvested sites, with higher carbon percentage on control sites. Results showed a significant difference in coarse woody debris with higher amounts of carbon per area on harvested sites. No significant difference in litter mass was recorded between harvested and control sites. When coarse woody debris and litter are included with soil carbon, total carbon did not have a significant decline over 20 years following shelterwood treatment to the forest to secure regeneration, but there was considerable variability among sites. When taking all surface soil carbon measurements together, our results suggest that for accounting purposes the measurement of below-ground carbon after shelterwood harvests is not necessary for the southern New England region.

  12. Facilitative and competitive interaction components among New England salt marsh plants

    John F. Bruno


    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific interactions can be broken down into facilitative and competitive components. The net interaction between two organisms is simply the sum of these counteracting elements. Disentangling the positive and negative components of species interactions is a critical step in advancing our understanding of how the interaction between organisms shift along physical and biotic gradients. We performed a manipulative field experiment to quantify the positive and negative components of the interactions between a perennial forb, Aster tenuifolius, and three dominant, matrix-forming grasses and rushes in a New England salt marsh. Specifically, we asked whether positive and negative interaction components: (1 are unique or redundant across three matrix-forming species (two grasses; Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens, and one rush; Juncus gerardi, and (2 change across Aster life stages (seedling, juvenile, and adult. For adult Aster the strength of the facilitative component of the matrix-forb interaction was stronger than the competitive component for two of the three matrix species, leading to net positive interactions. There was no statistically significant variation among matrix species in their net or component effects. We found little difference in the effects of J. gerardi on Aster at later life-history stages; interaction component strengths did not differ between juveniles and adults. However, mortality of seedlings in neighbor removal plots was 100%, indicating a particularly strong and critical facilitative effect of matrix species on this forb during the earliest life stages. Overall, our results indicate that matrix forming grasses and rushes have important, yet largely redundant, positive net effects on Aster performance across its life cycle. Studies that untangle various components of interactions and their contingencies are critical to both expanding our basic understanding of community organization, and predicting

  13. Demens hos personer med Downs syndrom

    Salem, Lise Cronberg; Jørgensen, Kasper


    In developed countries the population of elderly people with Down syndrome expands resulting in an increasing incidence of age-related diseases, including dementia. The assessment of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability is often complicated due to large intra-individual variability...

  14. Treatment Approaches in Down's Syndrome: A Review.

    Foreman, Philip J.; Ward, James


    The paper reviews research into treatment approaches in Down's Syndrome. Pharmacological treatments reviewed include thyroid therapy, 5-hydroxytryptophan, vitamin therapy, and cell therapy. Other treatments considered are movement patterning, early intervention, and facial surgery. Early educational intervention is seen as the most effective…

  15. LS1 Report: Summer cool down

    Katarina Anthony


    As the final LS1 activities are carried out in the machine, teams have been cooling down the accelerator sector by sector in preparation for beams.   The third sector of the LHC to be cooled down - sector 1-2 - has seen the process begin this week. During the cool-down phase, survey teams are measuring and smoothing (or realigning) the magnets at cold. By the end of August, five sectors of the machine will be in the process of cooling down, with one (sector 6-7) at cold. The LHC Access Safety System (LASS) is now being commissioned, and will be validated during the DSO tests at the beginning of October. As teams consolidate the modifications made to LASS during the shutdown, many points were closed for testing purposes. The CSCM (copper stabiliser continuity measurement) tests have been completed in the first sector (6-7) and no defect has been found. These results will be presented to the LHC Machine Committee next week. CSCM tests will start in the second sector in mid-August. Following many...

  16. Top-down modulation, emotion, and hallucination

    Aleman, A; Kahn, RS


    We argue that the pivotal role assigned by Northoff to the principle of top-down modulation in catatonia might successfully be applied to other symptoms of schizophrenia, for example, hallucinations. Second, we propose that Northoffs account would benefit from a more comprehensive analysis of the

  17. Life as a GDP--down under.

    Morris, C


    At the end of 1987 a colleague and friend from New Zealand offered me the opportunity to work in a general dental practice in his beautiful country for six months. It seemed an ideal way to combine some travelling 'down under' with living and working in Auckland thus affording the chance to get to know the country and its people better.

  18. Down syndrome and aberrant right subclavian artery

    Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; van Meer, Hester; Rietman, Wim G.; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    Down syndrome (DS) may be associated with various organ system disorders. Feeding problems are frequent in children with DS and may be caused by associated defects, including congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal defects, or endocrine disorders. In the absence of these associated conditions,

  19. Memory Performance in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others


    The memory abilities of adults (N=20) with Down Syndrome (DS) were compared to subjects matched on age and IQ and on age alone. Three memory tasks were employed: facial recognition, free recall of pictures and words, and cued recall of separate or interacting pictures. In DS individuals, memory was improved primarily by practice and interactive…

  20. Tearing Down the Wall: Literature and Science.

    Westcott, Warren B.; Spell, J. Everett


    Suggests English teachers might draw from authors such as Carl Sagan, Arthur C. Clarke, Mary Shelly and others: (1) to knock down the walls that separate science and literature; (2) to show their interrelationship; and (3) to instill enthusiasm for the study of both. (NH)

  1. Emotion Regulation in Children with Down Syndrome.

    Smith, Maureen C.; Walden, Tedra A.

    This study presents a preliminary exploration of emotion regulation in a sample of 20 children (ages 3-18 years) with Down Syndrome. Three aspects of emotion regulation (modulation, organization, flexibility) were predicted from emotion variables (affect intensity, affective expression, and autonomy-curiosity and motivation) in backward regression…

  2. Analysis of the neutron slowing down equation

    Sengupta, A.; Karnick, H.


    The infinite series solution of the elementary neutron slowing down equation is studied using the theory of entire functions of exponential type and nonharmonic Fourier series. It is shown from Muntz--Szasz and Paley--Wiener theorems, that the set of exponentials ]exp(ilambda/sub n/u) ]/sup infinity//sub n/=-infinity, where ]lambda/sub n/]/sup infinity//sub n/=-infinity are the roots of the transcendental equation in slowing down theory, is complete and forms a basis in a lethargy interval epsilon. This distinctive role of the maximum lethargy change per collision is due to the Fredholm character of the slowing down operator which need not be quasinilpotent. The discontinuities in the derivatives of the collision density are examined by treating the slowing down equation in its differential-difference form. The solution (Hilbert) space is the union of a countable number of subspaces L 2 (-epsilon/2, epsilon/2) over each of which the exponential functions are complete

  3. Nuchal translucency beyond Down syndrome screening

    Timmerman, E.


    Nuchal translucency (NT) goes far beyond Down syndrome screening. An enlarged NT is associated with a wide range of structural and genetic anomalies. A detailed first trimester scan is an important step in screening for those anomalies and in individual risk assessment. All pregnant women should be

  4. Inferential processes in readers with Down syndrome

    Rosende-Vázquez, Marta


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to know if the source of the difficulty in making inferences, readers with Down syndrome, is in access to prior knowledge or constructing ideas from purely textual knowledge (based on Saldaña and Frith, 2002 for autism. Involved a sample of 20 students with Down syndrome and mild mental retardation (mean IQ = 60 and a control group of 20 children without cognitive deficits. They were matched as to their extent read metal age via Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (average 8 years. We created two experimental situations: a subjects had to generate inferences based on physical knowledge, b social inferences about knowledge. The ability to check and reaction times in the activation of inferences about physical and social knowledge. We also analyzed the influence that the effect "priming". Results showed: a a rate of correct inferences similar verification tasks between the two groups, b Down subjects take longer to access knowledge that the previous text, c reaction times used by subjects Down were higher in activating physical inferences, d there were no significant differences in the population without reaction times gap between physical and social inferences e subjects without deficits benefited effect "priming" in both types of inferences f Down subjects only improve reaction time in the inferences of social nature. El presente estudio pretende conocer si el origen de la dificultad para realizar inferencias, en lectores con Síndrome de Down, se encuentra en el acceso al conocimiento previo o en la construcción de ideas a partir del conocimiento puramente textual (basándonos en Saldaña y Frith, 2002 para autismo. Participó una muestra de 20 alumnos con Síndrome de Down y discapacidad mental leve (media de C.I.= 60 y un grupo control de 20 alumnos sin déficit cognitivo. Ambos fueron igualados en cuanto a su edad mental lectora medida a través de la Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (media 8 a

  5. Incontinence in persons with Down Syndrome.

    Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander; Equit, Monika; Medoff, David; Wagner, Catharina; Curfs, Leopold


    To assess the rates of incontinence and associated psychological problems in children, adolescents and adults with Down Syndrome, a genetic syndrome caused by partial or complete triplication (trisomy) of chromosome 21 and characterized by typical facial features, a physical growth delay and mild or moderate intellectual disability. Three hundred and seventeen persons with Down Syndrome (4-51 years) were recruited through a German parent support group (59.6% male, mean age 19.2 years). The Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence, the Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, as well as the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC) for parents or for adults were filled out by parents or care-givers. 17.2% of the sample had nocturnal enuresis, 15.9% had daytime urinary incontinence, and 14.2% had fecal incontinence. Incontinence was present in 64.0% of young children (4-12 years), 10.3% of teens (13-17 years), 12.8% of young adults (18-30 years) and in 22.4% of older adults (>30 years). 13.6% of children and 8.4% of adults had a DBC score in the clinical range. 19.5% of children and 27.8% of adults with incontinence had behavioral problems. There was a significant association between nocturnal enuresis, daytime urinary incontinence and clinical DBC scores in adults. Incontinence in Down Syndrome is mainly present in young children and increases in older adults. Behavioral comorbidity is associated with incontinence only in adults with Down Syndrome. Screening and treatment of incontinence in individuals with Down Syndrome is recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Engaging farmers to inform future diffuse pollution policy in England

    Vrain, Emilie; Lovett, Andrew; Nobel, Lister; Grant, Fiona; Blundell, Paul; Cleasby, Will


    Stakeholder knowledge and engagement is increasingly seen as a necessary ingredient for catchment management. Whilst many agricultural management options remain voluntary, the implementation of diffuse pollution mitigation measures will only be effective with the cooperation of stakeholders. Anthony et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2012) state the need for more information on the realistic farmer uptake of methods to enhance analyses of the potential for pollution mitigation. A study engaging farmers to understand current agricultural practices and their attitudes towards mitigation measures has formed part of the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programme in England. Interviews with over seventy farmers were conducted during 2012 in three contrasting areas of the UK: the grassland dominated Eden catchment in the North West of England; the arable dominated Wensum catchment in East Anglia and the mixed farming of the Hampshire Avon catchment in southern England. Results from the farmer survey provide a baseline regarding current agricultural practices and give insight regarding attitudes to the adoption of other mitigation measures in the future. Opinions were obtained on eighty different measures taken from a recent guide to possible measures prepared for the UK government (Newell-Price et al., 2011). Analyses have been conducted examining how current use and attitudes towards future adoption of measures varies according to different characteristics of farm businesses. These findings will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and farm advisers, particularly aiding decision making with respect to strategies for future implementation of programmes of measures. References. Anthony, S.G. et al., 2009. Quantitative assessment of scenarios for managing trade-off between the economic performance of agriculture and the environment and between different environmental media. Available at:

  7. Updated birth weight centiles for England and Wales.

    Norris, Tom; Seaton, Sarah E; Manktelow, Brad N; Baker, Philip N; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Field, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Smith, Lucy K


    Construct updated birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts for use in the UK and compare these to the currently used UK-WHO charts. Secondary analysis of national birth data. Centiles were constructed using 1 269 403 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2013-2014 as part of the MBRRACE-UK national perinatal surveillance programme. These were then validated using 642 737 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2015. Sex-specific birth weight-for-gestational age centiles. Centiles were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method via the GAMLSS package in R. This method transforms the skewed birth weight distribution to approximate a normal distribution, allowing any birth weight centile to be produced. The new centiles performed well in the validation sample, with the observed and expected proportion of births below a given centile in agreement. Overall, driven by the predominance of term births, the UK-WHO charts classify a smaller proportion of infants as below a given centile. For example, the UK-WHO estimates classified only 1.32% (8035/606 430) of term infants born in 2015 as below the second centile, compared with 1.97% (11 975/606 430) using the new MBRRACE-UK centiles. At the earliest gestational ages, however, the opposite is observed, with the UK-WHO classifying a larger proportion of infants as below a given centile, particularly at the lower end of the birthweight distribution. We have constructed and validated updated birth weight-for-gestational age centiles using a contemporary sample of births occurring in England and Wales. The benefits of these updated centiles will be first to assist the national surveillance of perinatal mortality programme by improving the identification of the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by intrauterine growth restriction and, second, to aid clinicians by more accurately identifying babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth.

  8. Civil society and the Health and Social Care Act in England and Wales: theory and praxis for the twenty-first century.

    Scambler, Graham; Scambler, Sasha; Speed, Ewen


    In this paper we revisit the notion of civil society in the light of recent attempts to privatize health care in England via the passing of the Health and Social Care Act of 2013. This legislation promises a re-commodification of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The Bill was bitterly contested during its passage through parliament, most vigorously in 2011. Much of the opposition occurred at a time of widespread, global rebellion, most notably in the 'Arab uprisings' and through the 'occupy movement'. Despite a plethora of protests, we argue, a non-porous boundary between what we call the 'protest sector' of civil society and the wider public sphere of the lifeworld has become apparent in England. A good deal of collective action, whether campaign-focused (like opposition to the Health and Social Care Bill) or more generalized (like rejections of corporate greed), has so far proved ineffective, at least in the short-term; no crisis of legitimation is apparent. We highlight a new 'class/command dynamic', leading to oligarchic rule, in the present era of financial capitalism. We use this health care case-study to re-examine the notion of civil society and its changing properties in what Castells calls a 'networked society'. The contribution ends with a discussion of the role of the sociologist re-civil society and the advocacy of both 'action' and 'foresight sociologies'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Proposals for the Radioactive Substances (Basic Safety Standards) (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 and the Radioactive Substances (Basic Safety Standards) (England and Wales) Direction 2000. Consultative document


    This document contains proposals for changes to the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (RSA 93) and proposals for a Direction to be given to the Environment Agency in order to implement aspects of the European Directive 96/29/Euratom concerned with the control of radioactive waste. The Directive lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation. With the Government pledged to making government more accessible and responsive, an important feature of this approach is effective consultation with all interested organisations. This leads to more realistic and robust proposals, which is particularly important when dealing with proposed legislation. In March this year, the Government published a consultation paper 'The Radioactive Substances Act 1993: Implementing the Revised Basic Safety Standards Directive Euratom 96/29.' This sought comments on the basic principles for change - including the setting of levels of radioactivity below which radioactive material should be considered outside the framework of regulatory control. This document forms the second stage of the consultation process with the aim of gathering views on the proposed legal instruments to implement the Directive. This document: explains the background to the proposed regulations (paragraphs 8-13); summarises the results of the consultation on principles (paragraphs 14-24); describes the proposed changes (paragraphs 25-36); includes draft Regulations (paragraphs 27-29); includes a draft Direction to the Environment Agency (paragraphs 30-36); describes the next steps (paragraphs 37-39); includes a draft Regulatory Impact Assessment (paragraphs 40-41). In general, the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have assumed responsibility for environmental issues and hence management of radioactive waste policies and legislation affecting their respective countries. However, this

  10. Assessment of safety measures and plant risks during shut-down periods at NPP Biblis

    Pamme, H.; Roess, P.H.


    Results of French probabilistic PWR-studies indicated a high contribution of shut down states to the overall plant risk. Mainly inspired by these results qualitative and also probabilistic analyses were started in Germany since 1991. As the Biblis-B-NPP was already reference plant of the German Risk Study first studies of shut-down-states were again focuses on Biblis-B. These studies were mainly performed by the German Association for Reactor Safety (GRS) in close cooperation with the utility RWE Energie AG. This paper briefly reviews the chosen approach to model and assess shut-down-states at Biblis-NPP. An in-depth-presentation is focuses on the quantification of risk in mid-loop-operation (MLO) which was performed by the authors with intensive support of plant personnel

  11. England and Wales: Stable fertility and pronounced social status differences

    Wendy Sigle-Rushton


    Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.

  12. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in England 2008-2011.

    Thornicroft, Amalia; Goulden, Robert; Shefer, Guy; Rhydderch, Danielle; Rose, Diana; Williams, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire


    Better newspaper coverage of mental health-related issues is a target for the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma programme in England, whose population impact may be influenced by how far concurrent media coverage perpetuates stigma and discrimination. To compare English newspaper coverage of mental health-related topics each year of the TTC social marketing campaign (2009-2011) with baseline coverage in 2008. Content analysis was performed on articles in 27 local and national newspapers on two randomly chosen days each month. There was a significant increase in the proportion of anti-stigmatising articles between 2008 and 2011. There was no concomitant proportional decrease in stigmatising articles, and the contribution of mixed or neutral elements decreased. These findings provide promising results on improvements in press reporting of mental illness during the TTC programme in 2009-2011, and a basis for guidance to newspaper journalists and editors on reporting mental illness.

  13. The Projects of Two Different Universtiy Libraries in England

    Çev.: Muhittin Gürbüz


    Full Text Available To respond to the changing needs of the 21st century, libraries are changing and must continue to change. In a competitive area, libraries either have to be brave and innovative or have to demonstrate their relevance, value and impact to make their community difference. In this study, information was given about the projects of two different universtiy libraries in England. Firstly, Study Happy project of Warwick University Library was mentioned. With the project, besides the information service which is traditional task of library, by organizing various activities aimed at providing a comfortable learning area for its users. Secondly, Reads and Rights project of Bath Spa University library was expressed. The main aim of the project is to stimulate thinking and conversations about equality and diversity and at the same time about books, reading and libraries.

  14. Tectonic model for the Late Paleozoic of southeastern New England

    Wintsch, R.P.; Sutter, J.F.


    Hornblende and biotite /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectra from rocks in south-central Connecticut help define a Permian-Triassic cooling curve for the area. Together with petrologic and structural information, a time-temperature-pressure-strain path is established. Similar data for the Narragansett basin in Rhode Island and Massachusetts allow correlation of the late Paleozoic histories of the two areas. Together, these data suggest that in the late Paleozoic, south-central New England was part of a fold-thrust belt, and the Narragansett basin was a retroarc foreland basin. NW-SE compression during the final assembly of Pangaea resulted in SE directed thrusting, causing the development of clastic wedges in adjacent Rhode Island and Massachusetts in the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. A clockwise rotation of this deformation from NW to NNE led to northward underthrusting and concomitant uplift of both eastern Connecticut and Rhode Island in the Permian and Triassic.

  15. Panel Data Models of New Firm Formation in New England

    Jitendra Parajuli


    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the determinants of new firm formation in New England at the county level from 1999 to 2009. Based on the Spatial Durbin panel model that accounts for spillover effects, it is found that population density and human capital positively affect single-unit firm births within a county and its neighbors. Population growth rate also exerts a significant positive impact on new firm formation, but most of the effect is from spatial spillovers. On the contrary, the ratio of large to small firm in terms of employment size and unemployment rate negatively influence single-unit firm births both within counties and among neighbors. However, there is no significant impact of local financial capital and personal income growth on new firm formation.


    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L


    This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls.

  17. Sarcomas in north west England: I. Histopathological peer review.

    Harris, M; Hartley, A L; Blair, V; Birch, J M; Banerjee, S S; Freemont, A J; McClure, J; McWilliam, L J


    A total of 468 cases of bone, soft tissue and visceral sarcomas (and certain other tumours) diagnosed during the years 1982-84 in North West England were entered in a study of histopathological peer review, incidence and survival. This paper describes the effects of peer review. Material was reviewed by a panel of five pathologists for 413 of the 450 cases originally registered as sarcomas with the Regional Cancer Registry. The diagnosis of sarcomas was confirmed in 76% cases and and there was agreement on sub-type for 53% cases. Measures of agreement were lowest for the two sub-types most commonly diagnosed i.e. malignant fibrous histiocytoma and leiomyosarcoma. Degree of agreement between individual pathologists and final panel diagnosis was also very variable but never less than 65%. It is concluded that second opinion is essential in cases of presumed sarcomas for studies of incidence and aetiology and to ensure that appropriate treatment is selected.

  18. Automated biosurveillance data from England and Wales, 1991-2011.

    Enki, Doyo G; Noufaily, Angela; Garthwaite, Paul H; Andrews, Nick J; Charlett, André; Lane, Chris; Farrington, C Paddy


    Outbreak detection systems for use with very large multiple surveillance databases must be suited both to the data available and to the requirements of full automation. To inform the development of more effective outbreak detection algorithms, we analyzed 20 years of data (1991-2011) from a large laboratory surveillance database used for outbreak detection in England and Wales. The data relate to 3,303 distinct types of infectious pathogens, with a frequency range spanning 6 orders of magnitude. Several hundred organism types were reported each week. We describe the diversity of seasonal patterns, trends, artifacts, and extra-Poisson variability to which an effective multiple laboratory-based outbreak detection system must adjust. We provide empirical information to guide the selection of simple statistical models for automated surveillance of multiple organisms, in the light of the key requirements of such outbreak detection systems, namely, robustness, flexibility, and sensitivity.

  19. Threat, prejudice and the impact of the riots in England.

    de Rooij, Eline A; Goodwin, Matthew J; Pickup, Mark


    This paper examines how a major outbreak of rioting in England in 2011 impacted on prejudice toward three minority groups in Britain: Muslims, Black British and East Europeans. We test whether the riots mobilized individuals by increasing feelings of realistic and symbolic threat and ultimately prejudice, or whether the riots galvanized those already concerned about minorities, thus strengthening the relationship between threat and prejudice. We conducted three national surveys - before, after and one year on from the riots - and show that after the riots individuals were more likely to perceive threats to society's security and culture, and by extension express increased prejudice toward Black British and East European minorities. We find little evidence of a galvanizing impact. One year later, threat and prejudice had returned to pre-riots levels; however, results from a survey experiment show that priming memories of the riots can raise levels of prejudice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges Facing Healthwatch, a New Consumer Champion in England.

    Carter, Pam; Martin, Graham


    This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The article describes these new organisational structures for PPI and shows how those who seek to influence planning and delivery of services or comment or complain about aspects of their care face considerable complexity. This is due, in part, to the ambiguous remit set out for newly instigated Healthwatch organisations by government. Drawing on governance theory, we show that it can also be understood as a function of an increasingly polycentric governance arena. Challenges that flow from this include problems of specifying jurisdictional responsibility, accountability, and legitimacy. We review Healthwatch progress to date, then we set out four challenges facing local Healthwatch organisations before discussing the implications of these for patients and the public. The first challenge relates to non-coterminous boundaries and jurisdictional integrity. Secondly, establishing the unique features of Healthwatch is problematic in the crowded PPI arena. The third challenge arises from limited resources as well as the fact that resources flow to Healthwatch from the local authorities that Healthwatch are expected to hold to account. The fourth challenge we identify is how local Healthwatch organisations negotiate the complexity of being a partner to statutory and other organisations, while at the same time being expected to champion local people's views. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  1. Building regulations in energy efficiency: Compliance in England and Wales

    Pan Wei; Garmston, Helen


    There is an international pragmatic shift towards the use of building energy regulations, standards and codes to reduce building energy consumption. The UK Government revised Building Regulations in 2002, 2006 and 2010, towards more stringent energy efficiency standards and ultimately the target of ‘zero carbon’ new homes from 2016. This paper aims to: reveal levels of compliance with energy Building Regulations of new-build dwellings in England and Wales; explore underlying issues; and identify possible solutions. In total 376 new-build dwellings were investigated. The compliance revealed was poor, at a level of 35%; accompanied by 43% ‘grey compliance’ and 21% ‘grey non-compliance’ (due to insufficient evidence of achieving required carbon emissions reductions). It is a serious concern when building control approves so many dwellings when insufficient evidence of compliance has been received. Underlying issues were centred on: incorrect compilation and/or insufficient submission of carbon emissions calculations by builders/developers; inappropriate timings of such submissions; and a paucity of proper checks by building control. Exploring these issues reveals a complex system of factors influencing energy regulations compliance, which involves a wide range of stakeholders. The findings should inform the formulation and implementation of energy efficiency building regulations and policy in the future. - Highlights: ► The compliance with energy Building Regulations (England and Wales) was poor. ► The problematic implementation of energy Building Regulations is a serious concern. ► Identified issues suggest a lack of knowledge of builders and building control. ► There is a complex system of factors influencing energy regulations compliance. ► A systems approach is needed to improve compliance, while training is crucial.

  2. Visualizing Coastal Erosion, Overwash and Coastal Flooding in New England

    Young Morse, R.; Shyka, T.


    Powerful East Coast storms and their associated storm tides and large, battering waves can lead to severe coastal change through erosion and re-deposition of beach sediment. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has modeled such potential for geological response using a storm-impact scale that compares predicted elevations of hurricane-induced water levels and associated wave action to known elevations of coastal topography. The resulting storm surge and wave run-up hindcasts calculate dynamic surf zone collisions with dune structures using discrete regime categories of; "collision" (dune erosion), "overwash" and "inundation". The National Weather Service (NWS) recently began prototyping this empirical technique under the auspices of the North Atlantic Regional Team (NART). Real-time erosion and inundation forecasts were expanded to include both tropical and extra-tropical cyclones along vulnerable beaches (hotspots) on the New England coast. Preliminary results showed successful predictions of impact during hurricane Sandy and several intense Nor'easters. The forecasts were verified using observational datasets, including "ground truth" reports from Emergency Managers and storm-based, dune profile measurements organized through a Maine Sea Grant partnership. In an effort to produce real-time visualizations of this forecast output, the Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (NERACOOS) and the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) partnered with NART to create graphical products of wave run-up levels for each New England "hotspot". The resulting prototype system updates the forecasts twice daily and allows users the ability to adjust atmospheric and sea state input into the calculations to account for model errors and forecast uncertainty. This talk will provide an overview of the empirical wave run-up calculations, the system used to produce forecast output and a demonstration of the new web based tool.

  3. Structure of the New England herring gull population

    Kadlec, J.A.; Drury, W.H.


    Measurements of the rates of population increase, reproduction, and mortality together with an observed age ratio, were used to analyze the population of the Herring Gull in New England. Data from sporadic censuses prior to this study, aerial censuses by the authors, and National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count indicated that the New England breeding population has been doubling every 12 to 15 years since the early 1900's. This increase has involved founding new colonies and expanding the breeding range There is evidence that 15 to 30% of the adults do not breed in any given year. Sixty-one productivity measurements on 43 islands from 1963 through 1966, involving almost 13,000 nests, showed that from 0.8 to 1.4 young/breeding pair/year is the usual range of rate of production. The age distribution in the population was determined by classifying Herring Gulls by plumage category on an aerial census of the coast from Tampico, Mexico, to Cape Sable, Nova Scotia. Of the 622,000 gulls observed, 68% were adults, 17% were second- and third-year birds, and 15% were first-year birds. Mortality rates derived from band recovery data were too high to be consistent with the observed rate of population growth, productivity, and age structure. Loss of bands increasing to the rate of about 20%/year 5 years after banding eliminates most of the discrepancy. The age structure and rate of population increase indicate a mortality rate of 4 to 9% for gulls 2 years old or older, compared with the 25 to 30% indicated by band recoveries. The population structure we have developed fits everything we have observed about Herring Gull population dynamics, except mortality based on band recoveries.

  4. How to sell electricity from eastern Canada to New England

    Jessome, D.


    This presentation provided an overview of the natural gas market in the Maritimes. It described market restructuring, market seams and future opportunities. The resource activities of Emera Energy Inc. are based in electricity, midstream and downstream power development, and energy services. The Northeast supply mix includes natural gas pipelines and electric power generation. This presentation included a graph of electricity market demand in the Northeast which outlined generation capacity as well as peak demand for Canada's eastern provinces and the New England states. A history of natural gas exploration and development in Nova Scotia was also included. In December 1999, Nova Scotia received natural gas for the first time when the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP) delivered the first production of natural gas from the Sable Offshore Energy Project. Natural gas is now a bigger part of the province's economy than the fishery. Sable Offshore Energy Tier 2 is underway, as is phase 3 of the M and NP project in the United States to connect to the Boston Hubline. EnCana's Deep Panuke project is currently on hold. Nova Scotia is also considering electricity restructuring for 2005. Recommendations have been made for open transmission access for all market participants, and for transmission tariffs to be compatible with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The government of New Brunswick also introduced a new Electricity Act to restructure NB Power to open electricity markets by 2003, and to be in compliance with FERC Order 888. The market in the New England Power Pool (NEPOOL) was opened to wholesale access in 1999. The New Standard Market Design in the NEPOOL is expected to begin in March 2003 to reflect wholesale power costs more accurately. Trade challenges between Canada and the United States were highlighted with reference to transmission access and capacity. 12 figs

  5. Crouching or lying-down? The reason of a (uncomfortable) delivery position.

    Lippi, Donatella; Weber, Domizia


    Through a deep historical and cultural perspective, this article focuses on the revolution that took place in childbirth, due to the introduction of medical knowledge and surgical skills. Ranging from Greek mythology to the Sixties, this contribution analyses the social, scientific and anthropological reasons that led to the desertion of the delivery vertical position in favour of the lying down one.

  6. Down-side Risk Metrics as Portfolio Diversification Strategies across the GFC

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)


    textabstractThis paper features an analysis of the effectiveness of a range of portfolio diversification strategies, with a focus on down-side risk metrics, as a portfolio diversification strategy in a European market context. We apply these measures to a set of daily arithmetically compounded

  7. Fine Motor Control Is Related to Cognitive Control in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Chen, Chih-Chia; Ringenbach, Shannon D. R.; Albert, Andrew; Semken, Keith


    The connection between human cognitive development and motor functioning has been systematically examined in many typical and atypical populations; however, only a few studies focus on people with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve adolescents with DS participated and their cognitive control, measured by the Corsi-Block tapping test (e.g., visual working…

  8. The Evaluation of a Personal Narrative Language Intervention for School-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Finestack, Lizbeth; O'Brien, Katy H.; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Lyrek, Kristen A.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject…

  9. Computational numerical modelling of plasma focus

    Brollo, Fabricio


    Several models for calculation of the dynamics of Plasma Focus have been developed. All of them begin from the same physic principle: the current sheet run down the anode length, ionizing and collecting the gas that finds in its way.This is known as snow-plow model.Concerning pinch's compression, a MHD model is proposed.The plasma is treated as a fluid , particularly as a high ionized gas.However, there are not many models that, taking into account thermal equilibrium inside the plasma, make approximated calculations of the maximum temperatures reached in the pinch.Besides, there are no models which use those temperatures to estimate the termofusion neutron yield for the Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium gas filled cases.In the PLADEMA network (Dense Magnetized Plasmas) a code was developed with the objective of describe the plasma focus dynamics, in a conceptual engineering stage.The codes calculates the principal variables (currents, time to focus, etc) and estimates the neutron yield in Deuterium-filled plasma focus devices.It can be affirmed that the code's experimental validation, in its axial and radial stages, was very successfully. However, it was accepted that the compression stage should be formulated again, to find a solution for a large variation of a parameter related with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch.The objectives of this work can be stated in the next way : - Check the compression's model hypothesis. Develop a new model .- Implement the new model in the code. Compare results against experimental data of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world [es

  10. New England Energy Congress: a blueprint for energy action. Executive summary and recommendations. Final report

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Connolly, Patrick F.; Spencer, Bailey


    The task of the New England Congress deals with reducing the region's dependence on foreign oil and its cost disadvantage compared to the rest of the country. The work of the Congress is summarized. Recommendations address the demand side of the energy equation and then analysis and recommendations address supply options. Reports from the following committees are included: New England Energy Supply; Alternatives; Economic Development Through Alternative Sources of Energy; New England Energy Demand; Conservation; Demand Transportation; Energy Conservation; Residential Energy Package; Regulatory and Institutional Processes; and Energy Economics and Financing.

  11. Compensation and exotic livestock disease management: the views of animal keepers and veterinarians in England.

    Hamilton-Webb, A; Naylor, R; Little, R; Maye, D


    Relatively little is known about the perceived influence of different compensation systems on animal keepers' management of exotic livestock disease. This paper aims to address this research gap by drawing on interviews with 61 animal keepers and 21 veterinarians, as well as a series of nine animal keeper focus groups across five different livestock sectors in England. The perceived influence of current compensation systems on disease control behaviour was explored and alternative compensation systems that respectively reward positive practices and penalise poor practices were presented in the form of scenarios, alongside a third system that considered the option of a cost-sharing levy system between industry and government. The results indicate that animal keepers consider themselves to be influenced by a range of non-financial factors, for example, feelings of responsibility, reputation and animal welfare concerns, in the context of their exotic disease management practices. The majority of animal keepers were unaware of the current compensation systems in place for exotic diseases, and were therefore not consciously influenced by financial recompense. Concerns were raised about linking compensation to disease management behaviour due to auditing difficulties. A cost-sharing levy system would likely raise awareness of exotic disease and compensation among animal keepers, but differentiation of payments based upon individual farm-level risk assessments was called for by participants as a strategy to promote positive disease management practices. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Gastrointestinal helminths of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus/Pipistrellus pygmaeus) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) of England.

    Lord, Jennifer S; Parker, Steve; Parker, Fiona; Brooks, Darren R


    Although bats are one of the most successful and diverse of mammalian orders, studies that focus upon bat endoparasites are limited. To further knowledge of bat parasitology, pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) were acquired from across the Greater Manchester and Lancashire region of England and examined for gastrointestinal helminths using morphological and molecular analyses. Sixty-eight of 90 adult/juvenile bats (76% prevalence) were infected with at least 1 species of helminth and mean helminth abundance was 48·2 (+/-7·0). All helminths were digenean trematodes and the following species were identified in 51 P. pipistrellus specimens (prevalence in parentheses): Lecithodendrium linstowi (80·4%), L. spathulatum (19·6%), Prosthodendrium sp. (35·3%), Plagiorchis koreanus (29·4%) and Pycnoporus heteroporus (9·8%). Statistical analyses, incorporating multifactorial models, showed that male bats exhibited a significantly more aggregated helminth distribution and lower abundance than females. Positive associations were observed between L. linstowi and L. spathulatum, Prosthodendrium sp. and P. heteroporus and between L. spathulatum and P. koreanus. A revised phylogeny of bat-associated Lecithodendriidae, incorporating novel L. spathulatum and Prosthodendrium sp. 28S rRNA sequences, separated the controversial clade formed by L. linstowi and P. hurkovaae. Further studies are likely to assist the understanding of bat-parasite/pathogen relationships, helminth infracommunity structures and phylogenetics.

  13. [Attitude of cancer patients to fatigue: patient attitude in Switzerland and England].

    Glaus, Agnes; Frei, Irena Anna; Knipping, Cornelia; Ream, Emma; Browne, Natasha


    In the course of a cancer trajectory, many patients suffer from distressing fatigue. In past years, research has shown that care givers tend to underestimate or even to ignore this frequent phenomenon. Despite increasing knowledge, fatigue seems to remain an orphan topic in symptom management. A qualitative research strategy was used to explore the perception of cancer patients regarding the awareness of fatigue in professionals and the way they deal with it. Patients also evaluated the usefulness of some currently available information material about fatigue. The expert-opinion of cancer patients in Switzerland and England was analysed. Convenient sampling guided the selection process of seven patients in each country. A tape-recorded focus-group interview served as method to collect and transcribe data. Data were analysed according to the framework analyses by Richie & Spencer. Results were very similar in both countries. Patients stated a great need for more information regarding fatigue. They feel that care givers are not sufficiently aware of it and that a specific support is not part of current standard practice. The information material was well received and generally judged as very good and helpful. Communication barriers in professionals as well as in patients continue to exist. Patients wish to be better informed by care givers. The available information material serves well to support this information as they provide words for the unmentioned phenomenon. Far more professional fatigue education is needed to raise care givers' awareness.

  14. Monitoring and Evaluation of Human Trafficking Partnerships in England and Wales

    Ruth Van Dyke


    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom, human trafficking and, more recently, modern slavery has been pushed up the political and policy agenda. At the same time, partnership working has been promoted at international and national levels in order to encourage a more holistic response to trafficking. This article examines the nature of the evidence collected to monitor and evaluate the activities and outcomes of organisations involved in a number of human trafficking partnerships in England and Wales. Underpinning this analysis is the ‘4 Ps’ approach to tackling human trafficking: Prevention, Protection, Prosecution and Partnership. Based on interviews with a variety of actors working in different partner bodies, limitations of evidence in relation to both monitoring activities as well as evaluating outcomes emerged. These relate to inadequate data collection, lack of robust methods of data collection, untested assumptions, the complexity of gathering evidence which reflect human welfare oriented goals, and the sharing of evidence between partner organisations. A key finding is that current data and methods of data collection are inadequate for the purpose of measuring the effectiveness of anti-trafficking initiatives and partnerships. Another key finding is the way in which partnerships challenged received outcomes and expanded their focus beyond victims of trafficking or criminal justice goals. Finally, I explore whether criminal justice outcomes can be leveraged to foster deterrence, by interrogating what evidence might be needed.

  15. Promoting flood risk reduction: The role of insurance in Germany and England

    Surminski, Swenja; Thieken, Annegret H.


    Improving society's ability to prepare for, respond to and recover from flooding requires integrated, anticipatory flood risk management (FRM). However, most countries still focus their efforts on responding to flooding events if and when they occur rather than addressing their current and future vulnerability to flooding. Flood insurance is one mechanism that could promote a more ex ante approach to risk by supporting risk reduction activities. This paper uses an adapted version of Easton's System Theory to investigate the role of insurance for FRM in Germany and England. We introduce an anticipatory FRM framework, which allows flood insurance to be considered as part of a broader policy field. We analyze if and how flood insurance can catalyze a change toward a more anticipatory approach to FRM. In particular we consider insurance's role in influencing five key components of anticipatory FRM: risk knowledge, prevention through better planning, property-level protection measures, structural protection and preparedness (for response). We find that in both countries FRM is still a reactive, event-driven process, while anticipatory FRM remains underdeveloped. Collaboration between insurers and FRM decision-makers has already been successful, for example in improving risk knowledge and awareness, while in other areas insurance acts as a disincentive for more risk reduction action. In both countries there is evidence that insurance can play a significant role in encouraging anticipatory FRM, but this remains underutilized. Effective collaboration between insurers and government should not be seen as a cost, but as an investment to secure future insurability through flood resilience.

  16. Give me 'strength to change': insights into a social marketing campaign in the North of England.

    Thomson, Gill; Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam


    In this paper, we report on how formative research was utilised to design a social marketing campaign commissioned by a Primary Care Trust within an area of high social deprivation in the North of England. Men represent the majority of perpetrators of domestic violence and there is increasing interest in developing services for this group with the aim of changing abusive behaviour. However, men are known to be less likely to engage in help-seeking behaviours, and this reticence has been attributed to the social construction of masculinity. A further barrier for men seeking help in relation to domestic violence is the cultural construction of domestic violence. Formative research was undertaken to explore the perceptions and attitudes of a community population of males (n584). Focus groups explored barriers and drivers to help-seeking and identified effective communication messages. These findings were translated into the 'Strength to Change' campaign that minimised stigmatisation and blame while emphasising help-seeking as a 'strength' rather than a perceived weakness. Social marketing techniques facilitated an in-depth appreciation of local barriers to help-seeking and generated context-specific messages to encourage take-up of a new service for male perpetrators.

  17. Public views on the links between air pollution and health in Northeast England

    Howel, Denise; Moffatt, Suzanne; Bush, Judith; Unn, C.E.; Prince, Helen


    We investigated how public perceptions of the links between air pollution and health varied with contextual factors describing individuals and their locality. Information was collected via postal surveys on 2744 adults resident in five neighborhoods in Northeast England. Perceptions were compared by individual factors (health status, age, and gender) and locality actors (relative deprivation, proximity to industry and district--Teesside r Sunderland, with different amounts of heavy industry). There was relatively little variation in views about air pollution and health links between neighborhoods. The greatest contrasts were found when comparing those living near or further from industry and between the two districts. Any differences were related more to awareness of illness in the neighborhood thought to be affected by air pollution, rather than belief that a particular disease was linked to air pollution. Chronic illness status and age were sometimes found to be associated with perceptions of disease affected by air pollution, but gender and material deprivation were not central to differences in risk perceptions among the population studied. In understanding public perceptions about the links between air quality and health, research should focus on the characteristics of places as well as of people

  18. Report to New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers on climate change projects


    The Premiers-Governors energy discussions are aimed at promoting joint energy cooperation between provinces and states. This report outlines the major accomplishments in the implementation of the Climate Change Action Plan adopted by the Conference in 1998. The project priorities for the coming year are also outlined. In 2001, the New England Governors (NEG) and the Eastern Canadian Premiers (ECP) directed the Environment Committee and the Northeast International Committee on Energy (NICE) to implement a plan to develop a regional emissions inventory so that participating jurisdictions would have common data for measuring progress. The plan also identified specific climate actions that could be readily implemented. This report describes the results of 5 working groups which were created to focus on the following potential categories: energy, transportation, inventory and registry, adaptation, and 'lead by example'. In addition to the working groups, the Climate Change Steering Committee developed 4 proposals for consideration for implementation. These were the LED Traffic Light Proposal, the College and University Partnerships in Emissions Reductions, State/Provincial Purchasing Programs for High Efficiency-Low Emission Office Equipment, and Use of Cleaner, More Energy-Efficient Vehicles in State/Provincial Fleets. The Steering Committee will also pursue other tasks in the coming year, including the study of other proposals for cost-effective measures that could contribute to the goals of the Climate Change Action Plan, examine Internet options for coordinating internal project work, examine opportunities to pursue climate action, and identify opportunities to improve vehicle fuel efficiency

  19. Constructions of ‘the Polish’ in Northern England: Findings From a Qualitative Interview Study

    Stephen Gibson


    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union in 2004 gave rise to moral panics concerning the likelihood of mass migration from the new eastern European member states to established member states in the west. A great deal of social and political science research has examined the ongoing impact of the enlargement, but there remains a gap in the literature regarding the ways in which members of ‘receiving’ populations reacted to these changes. The present paper reports findings from a qualitative interview study of 14-16 year-olds conducted in northern England. It focuses on how migrants from one particular country – Poland – were constructed by participants. Drawing on previous analyses of immigration and racist discourse, the study points to some ways in which Polish migrants and migration were constructed, and how complaints against ‘the Polish’ were formulated. The analysis focusses on four key issues: employment and the economy; language and culture; threat and intimidation; and physical stereotyping. It is suggested that constructions of ‘the Polish’ draw on the tropes of both ‘old’ and ‘new’ racism, and that attention to the use of deixical ingroup referents (‘us’, ‘we’, ‘our’ in contrast to the explicit labelling of the outgroup (‘the Polish’ can be understood in terms of the requirement to present complaints concerning migrant groups via appeals to assumed universal standards of behaviour and civility.

  20. Evaluation of workforce and organizational issues in establishing primary angioplasty in England.

    Carter, Angela; Wood, Stephen; Goodacre, Steve; Sampson, Fiona; Stables, Rod


    To assess workforce and organizational issues in establishing a primary angioplasty service in England. Staff associated with the heart attack pathway at seven acute hospitals participating in the National Infarct Angioplasty Project (NIAP) completed a questionnaire, participated in focus groups and interviews, and observations were undertaken in catheter laboratories. All seven hospitals implemented primary angioplasty though not all provided a 24-hour service. Hospitals varied in size, number of staff involved in the delivery of angioplasty and the volume of cases. Hospitals that developed the service by incremental expansion encountered more problems than hospitals that planned for a full service at the outset. Simple, direct access to a catheter laboratory reduced delays and could be facilitated by an angioplasty gatekeeper. Little attention was paid to later cardiac rehabilitation. Multiskilling and the ability to work across traditional professional boundaries appeared to provide substantial advantages. Building relationships with key staff and auditing the heart attack pathway were critical to successful service development. Differences in remuneration and rest for staff undertaking out-of-hours working threatened sustainability. Primary angioplasty was feasible in varied settings and generally supported by staff. However, the participating hospitals were selected enthusiasts, only some implemented a 24-hour service and activity levels were relatively low. Organizational and workforce issues need to be addressed to achieve an efficient and sustainable service.