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Sample records for downhole seismic receiver

  1. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400

  2. Permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaques, P.; Ong, H.; Jupe, A.; Brown, I.; Jansenns, M.

    2003-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the 'Oilfield of the Future' will incorporate distributed permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells. However the effectiveness of these sensors will be limited by the extent to which seismic signals can be discriminated, or de-coupled, from flow induced

  3. Downhole seismic monitoring with Virtual Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    sources and receivers (e.g. in-situ 4D seismic), but for now VSM may be the most economical alternative. By performing data-driven redatuming with measured Green's functions, these data can be recast into complete downhole dataset with buried Virtual Sources located at each downhole geophone. This step can be effectively thought of as a time reversal and it's remarkable feature is that velocity model between sources and receivers is not required to perform it. We will show various applications of the VSM method to several synthetic and real time-lapse datasets to illustrate the following advantages: 1) ability of VSM to eliminate overburden distortions without knowing velocity model between surface sources and downhole receivers, 2) greater quality of Virtual Sources in strongly scattering environment, 3) beneficial downward only radiation pattern on the Virtual Sources, 4) ability to correct non-repeatability caused by slight changes in acquisition geometry and temporal changes in the near surface, 5) ability to create P-wave Virtual Sources without shear radiation and S-sources without P-waves. Versatility of VSM to handle 1D, 2D and 3D situations and its ability to handle overburdens of any complexity makes it an indispensable tool for the active geophysical monitoring in a challenging geological environments. Although examples presented all come from an oilfield, it is straightforward to envision analogous applications in many other fields ranging from global geophysics to monitoring man-made structures.

  4. Surface-Source Downhole Seismic Analysis in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.

    2007-01-01

    This report discusses a method for interpreting a layered slowness or velocity model from surface-source downhole seismic data originally presented by Boore (2003). I have implemented this method in the statistical computing language R (R Development Core Team, 2007), so that it is freely and easily available to researchers and practitioners that may find it useful. I originally applied an early version of these routines to seismic cone penetration test data (SCPT) to analyze the horizontal variability of shear-wave velocity within the sediments in the San Francisco Bay area (Thompson et al., 2006). A more recent version of these codes was used to analyze the influence of interface-selection and model assumptions on velocity/slowness estimates and the resulting differences in site amplification (Boore and Thompson, 2007). The R environment has many benefits for scientific and statistical computation; I have chosen R to disseminate these routines because it is versatile enough to program specialized routines, is highly interactive which aids in the analysis of data, and is freely and conveniently available to install on a wide variety of computer platforms. These scripts are useful for the interpretation of layered velocity models from surface-source downhole seismic data such as deep boreholes and SCPT data. The inputs are the travel-time data and the offset of the source at the surface. The travel-time arrivals for the P- and S-waves must already be picked from the original data. An option in the inversion is to include estimates of the standard deviation of the travel-time picks for a weighted inversion of the velocity profile. The standard deviation of each travel-time pick is defined relative to the standard deviation of the best pick in a profile and is based on the accuracy with which the travel-time measurement could be determined from the seismogram. The analysis of the travel-time data consists of two parts: the identification of layer-interfaces, and the

  5. Seismic Observations in the Taipei Metropolitan Area Using the Downhole Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlain by soft soils, the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA experienced major damage due to ground-motion amplification during the Hualien earthquake of 1986, the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999, the Hualien earthquake of 2002 and the Taitung earthquake of 2003. To study how a local site can substantially change the characteristics of seismic waves as they pass through soft deposits below the free surface, two complementary downhole seismic arrays have been operated in the TMA, since 1991 and 2008. The accelerometer downhole array is composed of eight boreholes at depths in excess of 300 meters. The downhole array velocity sensor collocated with accelerometer composed of four boreholes at depths up to 90 meters. The integrated seismic network monitors potential earthquakes originating from faults in and around the TMA and provides wide-dynamic range measurement of data ranging in amplitude from seismic background noise levels to damage levels as a result of shaking. The data sets can be used to address on the response of soft-soil deposits to ground motions. One of the major considerations is the nonlinear response of soft soil deposits at different levels of excitation. The collocated acceloerometer and velocity sensors at boreholes give the necessary data for studies of non-linearity to be acquired. Such measurements in anticipation of future large, damaging earthquakes will be of special importance for the mitigation of earthquake losses.

  6. Downhole interferometric illumination diagnosis and balancing

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Neut, J.

    2012-01-01

    With seismic interferometry or the virtual source method, controlled sources can be redatumed from the Earth’s surface to generate so-called virtual sources at downhole receiver locations. Generally this is done by crosscorrelation of the recorded down-hole data and stacking over source locations. By studying the retrieved data at zero time lag, downhole illumination conditions that determine the virtual source radi- ation pattern can be analyzed without a velocity model. This can be benefici...

  7. Comparison of shear-wave velocity measurements by crosshole, downhole and seismic cone penetration test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suthaker, N.; Tweedie, R. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Shear wave velocity measurements are an integral part of geotechnical studies for major structures and are an important tool in their design for site specific conditions such as site-specific earthquake response. This paper reported on a study in which shear wave velocities were measured at a proposed petrochemical plant site near Edmonton, Alberta. The proposed site is underlain by lacustrine clay, glacial till and upper Cretaceous clay shale and sandstone bedrock. The most commonly used methods for determining shear wave velocity include crosshole seismic tests, downhole seismic tests, and seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT). This paper presented the results of all 3 methods used in this study and provided a comparison of the various test methods and their limitations. The crosshole test results demonstrated a common trend of increasing shear wave velocity with depth to about 15 m, below which the velocities remained relatively constant. An anomaly was noted at one site, where the shear wave velocity was reduced at a zone corresponding to clay till containing stiff high plastic clay layers. The field study demonstrated that reasonable agreement in shear wave velocity measurements can be made using crosshole, downhole and seismic tests in the same soil conditions. The National Building Code states that the shear wave velocity is the fundamental method for determining site classification, thus emphasizing the importance of obtaining shear wave velocity measurements for site classification. It was concluded that an SCPT program can be incorporated into the field program without much increase in cost and can be supplemented by downhole or crosshole techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Development of a downhole seismic source with controlled waveform; Hakei seigyogata kochu shingen no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, T; Ikawa, T [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T [Meiho Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kakuma, H [Akashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Onuma, H [Engineering Advancement Association of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A downhole seismic source which can output continuous waves having arbitrary waveforms was developed. The development was targeted to make tomographic exploration purposed to evaluate geological properties of a ground bed before and after constructing a building in a ground several hundred meters deep from the ground surface. The source is considered to be used in an environment consisting of soft rocks or more robust rocks and having no casing. It can be used in a well hole having a diameter of 100 mm, is capable of measuring P and S waves in a distance between well holes of up to 100 m, can be used at a depth of up to 500 m, and can output waveforms having seismic source spectra of up to 1000 Hz. An oscillation actuator using laminated piezo-electric elements was used for the oscillation element. The seismic source consists of a hydraulic device to clamp the equipment onto hole walls, piezo-electric elements as the oscillation element, and an inertia weight for applying vibration from above and below. To make an oscillation, the main body is first clamped on the hole wall. For horizontal oscillation, the piezo-electric elements contained in a clamping device provide the horizontal oscillation. For vertical oscillation, the piezo-electric elements placed below the main body oscillates the inertia weight. The initially targeted specifications have been achieved. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Application of multi-stage, multi-disk type downhole seismic source; Tadanshiki taso enbangata koseinai shingen no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, N [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoji, Y [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A multi-stage, multi-disk type seismic source was developed as a downhole seismic source. The seismic source is an improved version of the downhole seismic source of a system in which an elastic wave is generated by a weight accelerated by restitutive force of a spring striking the upper part of a laminated structure consisted of metal disks and elastic bodies installed in water in a well. Enhancing the vibration exciting efficiency requires impedance radiated from the disks to be increased. The multi-disk structure was adopted because of restrictions on the disk area under the limiting condition of being inside the well. Further limitation has still existed, which led to finally structuring the multi-disk type to a multi-stage construction to increase the radiated impedance. In order to increase average velocity on the radiation surface, mass relationship between the hammer and the anvil was sought so that the maximum velocity is achieved at the process of converting motion energies among the hammer, anvil and disks. The anvil mass may sufficiently be 50% to 100% of the hammer mass. The equipment was installed in an actual oil well for testing. This seismic source was verified to have sufficient applicability in the cross hole measurement. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Contribution of the Surface and Down-Hole Seismic Networks to the Location of Earthquakes at the Soultz-sous-Forêts Geothermal Site (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaert, X.; Gaucher, E.; Kohl, T.; Achauer, U.

    2018-03-01

    Seismicity induced in geo-reservoirs can be a valuable observation to image fractured reservoirs, to characterize hydrological properties, or to mitigate seismic hazard. However, this requires accurate location of the seismicity, which is nowadays an important seismological task in reservoir engineering. The earthquake location (determination of the hypocentres) depends on the model used to represent the medium in which the seismic waves propagate and on the seismic monitoring network. In this work, location uncertainties and location inaccuracies are modeled to investigate the impact of several parameters on the determination of the hypocentres: the picking uncertainty, the numerical precision of picked arrival times, a velocity perturbation and the seismic network configuration. The method is applied to the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forêts, which is located in the Upper Rhine Graben (France) and which was subject to detailed scientific investigations. We focus on a massive water injection performed in the year 2000 to enhance the productivity of the well GPK2 in the granitic basement, at approximately 5 km depth, and which induced more than 7000 earthquakes recorded by down-hole and surface seismic networks. We compare the location errors obtained from the joint or the separate use of the down-hole and surface networks. Besides the quantification of location uncertainties caused by picking uncertainties, the impact of the numerical precision of the picked arrival times as provided in a reference catalogue is investigated. The velocity model is also modified to mimic possible effects of a massive water injection and to evaluate its impact on earthquake hypocentres. It is shown that the use of the down-hole network in addition to the surface network provides smaller location uncertainties but can also lead to larger inaccuracies. Hence, location uncertainties would not be well representative of the location errors and interpretation of the seismicity

  11. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  12. Geological controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate from core, downhole log, and seismic data in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiujuan Wang,; ,; Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun; Wu, Shiguo

    2014-01-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection data, well logs, and recovered sediment cores have been used in this study to characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Shenhu area of the South China Sea. The concept of the "gas hydrate petroleum system" has allowed for the systematic analysis of the impact of gas source, geologic controls on gas migration, and the role of the host sediment in the formation and stability of gas hydrates as encountered during the 2007 Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey Gas Hydrate Expedition (GMGS-1) in the Shenhu area. Analysis of seismic and bathymetric data identified seventeen sub-linear, near-parallel submarine canyons in this area. These canyons, formed in the Miocene, migrated in a northeasterly direction, and resulted in the burial and abandonment of canyons partially filled by coarse-grained sediments. Downhole wireline log (DWL) data were acquired from eight drill sites and sediment coring was conducted at five of these sites, which revealed the presence of suitable reservoirs for the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate accumulations. Gas hydrate-bearing sediment layers were identified from well log and core data at three sites mainly within silt and silt clay sediments. Gas hydrate was also discovered in a sand reservoir at one site as inferred from the analysis of the DWL data. Seismic anomalies attributed to the presence of gas below the base of gas hydrate stability zone, provided direct evidence for the migration of gas into the overlying gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary sections. Geochemical analyses of gas samples collected from cores confirmed that the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Shenhu area is controlled by the presence thermogenic methane gas that has migrated into the gas hydrate stability zone from a more deeply buried source.

  13. Downhole adjustable bent assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes downhole adjustable apparatus for creating a bend angle in order to affect the inclination of a drilled borehole. It comprises an upper tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; lower tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; one of the portions being received within the other for relative rotational movement about an axis that is inclined with respect to the the longitudinal axes of the members, whereby in a first rotational position the longitudinal axes have one geometrical relationship, and in a second rotational position the longitudinal axes have a second, different geometrical relationship

  14. Multichannel analysis of surface-waves and integration of downhole acoustic televiewer imaging, ultrasonic Vs and Vp, and vertical seismic profiling in an NEHRP-standard classification, South of Concordia, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Gad, Sabreen; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey

    2015-10-01

    Seismic site characteristics, as pertaining to earthquake hazard reduction, are a function of the subsurface elastic moduli and the geologic structures. This study explores how multiscale (surface, downhole, and laboratory) datasets can be utilized to improve "constrained" average Vs30 (shear-wave velocity to a 30-meter depth). We integrate borehole, surface and laboratory measurements for a seismic site classification based on the standards of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). The seismic shear-wave velocity (Vs30) was derived from a geophysical inversion workflow that utilized multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW) and downhole acoustic televiewer imaging (DATI). P-wave and S-wave velocities, based on laboratory measurements of arrival times of ultrasonic-frequency signals, supported the workflow by enabling us to calculate Poisson's ratio, which was incorporated in building an initial model for the geophysical inversion of MASW. Extraction of core samples from two boreholes provided lithology and thickness calibration of the amplitudes of the acoustic televiewer imaging for each layer. The MASW inversion, for calculating Vs sections, was constrained with both ultrasonic laboratory measurements (from first arrivals of Vs and Vp waveforms at simulated in situ overburden stress conditions) and the downhole acoustic televiewer (DATV) amplitude logs. The Vs30 calculations enabled categorizing the studied site as NEHRP-class "C" - very dense soil and soft rock. Unlike shallow fractured carbonates in the studied area, S-wave and P-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequency for the deeper intact shale core-samples from two boreholes were in better agreement with the corresponding velocities from both a zero-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocity dispersion curves.

  15. Gas hydrate identified in sand-rich inferred sedimentary section using downhole logging and seismic data in Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lee, Myung W.; Collett, Timothy S.; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun; Wu, Shiguo

    2014-01-01

    Downhole wireline log (DWL) data was acquired from eight drill sites during China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition (GMGS-1) in 2007. Initial analyses of the acquired well log data suggested that there were no significant gas hydrate occurrences at Site SH4. However, the re-examination of the DWL data from Site SH4 indicated that there are two intervals of high resistivity, which could be indicative of gas hydrate. One interval of high resistivity at depth of 171–175 m below seafloor (mbsf) is associated with a high compressional- wave (P-wave) velocities and low gamma ray log values, which suggests the presence of gas hydrate in a potentially sand-rich (low clay content) sedimentary section. The second high resistivity interval at depth of 175–180 mbsf is associated with low P-wave velocities and low gamma values, which suggests the presence of free gas in a potentially sand-rich (low clay content) sedimentary section. Because the occurrence of free gas is much shallower than the expected from the regional depth of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR), the free gas could be from the dissociation of gas hydrate during drilling or there may be a local anomaly in the depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. In order to determine whether the low P-wave velocity with high resistivity is caused by in-situ free gas or dissociated free gas from the gas hydrate, the surface seismic data were also used in this analysis. The log analysis incorporating the surface seismic data through the construction of synthetic seismograms using various models indicated the presence of free gas directly in contact with an overlying gas hydrate-bearing section. The occurrence of the anomalous base of gas hydrate stability at Site SH4 could be caused by a local heat flow conditions. This paper documents the first observation of gas hydrate in what is believed to be a sand-rich sediment in Shenhu area of the South China Sea.

  16. Seismic Broadband Full Waveform Inversion by shot/receiver refocusing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffinger, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Full waveform inversion is a tool to obtain high-resolution property models of the subsurface from seismic data. However, the technique is computationally expens- ive and so far no multi-dimensional implementation exists to achieve a resolution that can directly be used for seismic interpretation

  17. Downhole pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Sensor remains accurate in spite of varying temperatures. Very accurate, sensitive, and stable downhole pressure measurements are needed for vaiety of reservoir engineering applications, such as deep petroleum reservoirs, especially gas reservoirs, and in areas of high geothermal gradient.

  18. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume V S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (V), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  19. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume VI S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (VI), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  20. SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE TOKYO BAY AREA DURING THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE USING DOWNHOLE ARRAY RECORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takaaki; Konagai, Kazuo; Katagiri, Toshihiko

    Underground motions within a hard diluvial stratum were obtained in the March 11th 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake at a downhole in the Tokyo Bay area, which has suffered serious sand-liquefaction over its long 42km2 stretch. The motions in the diluvial sand deposit are characterized by their (1) long dura-tion times with 6 to 8s components surpassing others, (2) moderate amplitude of 51.1 cm/s2 in PGA, which is estimated to have resulted in moderate average strains of 8 to 9 × 10-4 and 5 to 7 × 10-4 over shal-low -2 to -30m and deep -30 to -77m soil deposits, respectively. The peak strain reached in the interior of soil was estimated to be about 1.3 × 10-3.

  1. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume I P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  2. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume III P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (III), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 390 to 1220 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 40 ft (later relocated to 27.5 ft due to visibility in borehole after rain) in Borehole C4997, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4997, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  3. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume II P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (II), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 360 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1180 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4996, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4996, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  4. Beyond seismic interferometry: imaging the earth's interior with virtual sources and receivers inside the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, C. P. A.; Van der Neut, J.; Thorbecke, J.; Broggini, F.; Slob, E. C.; Snieder, R.

    2015-12-01

    Imagine one could place seismic sources and receivers at any desired position inside the earth. Since the receivers would record the full wave field (direct waves, up- and downward reflections, multiples, etc.), this would give a wealth of information about the local structures, material properties and processes in the earth's interior. Although in reality one cannot place sources and receivers anywhere inside the earth, it appears to be possible to create virtual sources and receivers at any desired position, which accurately mimics the desired situation. The underlying method involves some major steps beyond standard seismic interferometry. With seismic interferometry, virtual sources can be created at the positions of physical receivers, assuming these receivers are illuminated isotropically. Our proposed method does not need physical receivers at the positions of the virtual sources; moreover, it does not require isotropic illumination. To create virtual sources and receivers anywhere inside the earth, it suffices to record the reflection response with physical sources and receivers at the earth's surface. We do not need detailed information about the medium parameters; it suffices to have an estimate of the direct waves between the virtual-source positions and the acquisition surface. With these prerequisites, our method can create virtual sources and receivers, anywhere inside the earth, which record the full wave field. The up- and downward reflections, multiples, etc. in the virtual responses are extracted directly from the reflection response at the surface. The retrieved virtual responses form an ideal starting point for accurate seismic imaging, characterization and monitoring.

  5. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  6. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume IV S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (IV), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. S-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1300 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Shear (S) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition, a second average shear wave record was recorded by reversing the polarity of the motion of the T-Rex base plate. In this sense, all the signals recorded in the field were averaged signals. In all cases, the base plate was moving perpendicular to a radial line between the base plate and the borehole which is in and out of the plane of the figure shown in Figure 1.1. The definition of “in-line”, “cross-line”, “forward”, and “reversed” directions in items 2 and 3 of Section 2 was based on the moving direction of the base plate. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas (UT) was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. The Redpath geophone and the UT geophone were properly aligned so that one of the horizontal components in each geophone was aligned with the direction of horizontal shaking of the T-Rex base plate. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows. Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vs Profile at Borehole C4993

  7. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Tubel

    2004-02-01

    The development work during this quarter was focused in the assembly of the downhole power generator hardware and its electronics module. The quarter was also spent in the development of the surface system electronics and software to extract the acoustic data transmitted from downhole to the surface from the noise generated by hydrocarbon flow in wells and to amplify very small acoustic signals to increase the distance between the downhole tool and the surface receiver. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Assembly of the downhole power generator mandrel for generation of electrical power due to flow in the wellbore. (2) Test the piezoelectric wafers to assure that they are performing properly prior to integrating them to the mechanical power generator mandrel. (3) Coat the power generator wafers to prevent water from shorting the power generator wafers. (4) Test of the power generator using a water tower and an electric pump to create a water flow loop. (5) Test the power harvesting electronics module. (6) Upgrade the signal condition and amplification from downhole into the surface system. (7) Upgrade the surface processing system capability to process data faster. (8) Create a new filtering technique to extract the signal from noise after the data from downhole is received at the surface system.

  8. Challenges in Downhole Multiphase Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelund, A.; Midttveit, Oe.; Richards, A.

    1996-12-31

    Permanent downhole multi-phase monitoring (DMM) can have several advantages in field development, such as increased flexibility in the development of multi-lateral and horizontal wells, optimisation of artificial lift systems and monitoring of multi-layered wells. This paper gives an overview of existing permanent downhole measurement systems and a status of topside and subsea multi-phase flow meters (MFM). The main focus is on the challenges in downhole multi-phase measurements. Topics to be taken into consideration for realization of a downhole multi-phase meter are discussed, such as actual flow conditions occurring at the point of measurement, which quantities that need to be measured, sensor principles, data processing needs and signal transmission capability. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Numerical and experimental investigation of thermoelectric cooling in down-hole measuring tools; a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitha Weerasinghe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of Peltier cooling in down-hole seismic tooling has been restricted by the performance of such devices at elevated temperatures. Present paper analyses the performance of Peltier cooling in temperatures suited for down-hole measuring equipment using measurements, predicted manufacturer data and computational fluid dynamic analysis. Peltier performance prediction techniques is presented with measurements. Validity of the extrapolation of thermoelectric cooling performance at elevated temperatures has been tested using computational models for thermoelectric cooling device. This method has been used to model cooling characteristics of a prototype downhole tool and the computational technique used has been proven valid.

  10. Relocating San Miguel Volcanic Seismic Events for Receiver Functions and Tomographic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, E.; Velasco, A. A.; Konter, J.

    2009-12-01

    The San Miguel volcano lies near the city of San Miguel, El Salvador (13.43N and -88.26W). San Miguel volcano, an active stratovolcano, presents a significant natural hazard for the city of San Miguel. Furthermore, the internal state and activity of volcanoes remains an important component to understanding volcanic hazard. The main technology for addressing volcanic hazards and processes is through the analysis of data collected from the deployment of seismic sensors that record ground motion. Six UTEP seismic stations were deployed around San Miguel volcano from 2007-2008 to define the magma chamber and assess the seismic and volcanic hazard. We utilize these data to develop images of the earth structure beneath the volcano, studying the volcanic processes by identifying different sources, and investigating the role of earthquakes and faults in controlling the volcanic processes. We will calculate receiver functions to determine the thickness of San Miguel volcano internal structure, within the Caribbean plate. Crustal thicknesses will be modeled using calculated receiver functions from both theoretical and hand-picked P-wave arrivals. We will use this information derived from receiver functions, along with P-wave delay times, to map the location of the magma chamber.

  11. A robust economic technique for crosswell seismic profiling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Simmons, J.L. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to investigate a novel way to acquire crosswell tomographic data, that being to use a standard surface-positioned seismic energy source stationed inline with two wells that have downhole receiver arrays. This field technique differs from the traditional way that crosswell tomography is done, which requires that a downhole receiver array be in one well and that a downhole seismic source be in a second well. The purpose of the research effort was to evaluate the relative merits of the potential advantages and pitfalls of surface-source crosswell tomography, which some also refer to as twin-receiver-well crosswell tomography. The principal findings were: (1) surface-source crosswell tomography is a viable technology and can be used in appropriate reservoir conditions, (2) raypath modeling should be done to determine if the targeted interwell space is properly illuminated by surface-generated wavefields before proceeding to collect surface-source tomographic data, (3) crosswell data generated by a surface-based source are subject to a greater range of traveltime errors than are data generated by a downhole source, primarily due to shot statics caused by variable weathered layers, and (4) the accuracy and reliability of the interwell tomogram increase as more independent velocity information (sonic logs, velocity checkshots, vertical seismic profiles, downhole-source crosswell data) is available to constrain the inversion. The surface-source approach to crosswell tomography was evaluated by recording twin-receiver well data at the Texaco Borehole Test Site in Humble, Texas.

  12. Approximate Seismic Diffusive Models of Near-Receiver Geology: Applications from Lab Scale to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas; Benson, Philip; De Siena, Luca; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel and simple method of seismic envelope analysis that can be applied at multiple scales, e.g. field, m to km scale and laboratory, mm to cm scale, and utilises the diffusive approximation of the seismic wavefield (Wegler, 2003). Coefficient values for diffusion and attenuation are obtained from seismic coda energies and are used to describe the rate at which seismic energy is scattered and attenuated into the local medium around a receiver. Values are acquired by performing a linear least squares inversion of coda energies calculated in successive time windows along a seismic trace. Acoustic emission data were taken from piezoelectric transducers (PZT) with typical resonance frequency of 1-5MHz glued around rock samples during deformation laboratory experiments carried out using a servo-controlled triaxial testing machine, where a shear/damage zone is generated under compression after the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microcracks. Passive field data were collected from conventional geophones during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano (MSH), USA where a sudden reawakening of the volcanic activity and a new dome growth has occurred. The laboratory study shows a strong correlation between variations of the coefficients over time and the increase of differential stress as the experiment progresses. The field study links structural variations present in the near-surface geology, including those seen in previous geophysical studies of the area, to these same coefficients. Both studies show a correlation between frequency and structural feature size, i.e. landslide slip-planes and microcracks, with higher frequencies being much more sensitive to smaller scale features and vice-versa.

  13. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  14. Receiver function structure beneath a broad-band seismic station in south Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, K. A.; Hidayat, D.; Goh, S.

    2010-12-01

    We estimated the one-dimensional velocity structure beneath a broad-band station in south Sumatra by the forward modeling and inversion of receiver functions. Station PMBI belongs to the GEOFON seismic network maintained by GFZ-Potsdam, and at a longitude of 104.77° and latitude of -2.93°, sits atop the south Sumatran basin. This station is of interest to researchers at the Earth Observatory of Singapore, as data from it and other stations in Sumatra and Singapore will be incorporated into a regional velocity model for use in seismic hazard analyses. Three-component records from 193 events at teleseismic distances and Mw ≥ 5.0 were examined for this study and 67 records were deemed to have sufficient signal to noise characteristics to be retained for analysis. Observations are primarily from source zones in the Bougainville trench with back-azimuths to the east-south-east, the Japan and Kurile trenches with back-azimuths to the northeast, and a scattering of observations from other azimuths. Due to the level of noise present in even the higher-quality records, the usual frequency-domain deconvolution method of computing receiver functions was ineffective, and a time-domain iterative deconvolution was employed to obtain usable wave forms. Receiver functions with similar back-azimuths were stacked in order to improve their signal to noise ratios. The resulting wave forms are relatively complex, with significant energy being present in the tangential components, indicating heterogeneity in the underlying structure. A dip analysis was undertaken but no clear pattern was observed. However, it is apparent that polarities of the tangential components were generally reversed for records that sample the Sunda trench. Forward modeling of the receiver functions indicates the presence of a near-surface low-velocity layer (Vp≈1.9 km/s) and a Moho depth of ~31 km. Details of the crustal structure were investigated by employing time-domain inversions of the receiver

  15. Joint Inversion of Surface Waves Dispersion and Receiver Function at Cuba Seismic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, O'Leary; Moreno, Bladimir; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2010-06-01

    Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion and receiver functions have been used to estimate the crust and upper mantle structure at eight seismic stations in Cuba. Receiver functions have been computed from teleseismic recordings of earthquakes at epicentral (angular) distances between 30 o and 90 o and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion have been taken from a surface-wave tomography study of the Caribbean area. The thickest crust (around 27 km) is found at Cascorro (CCC), Soroa (SOR), Moa (MOA) and Maisi (MAS) stations while the thinnest crust (around 18 km) is found at stations Rio Carpintero (RCC) and Guantanamo Bay (GTBY), in the southeastern of Cuba; this result is in agreement with the southward gradual thinning of the crust revealed by previous studies. The inversion shows a crystalline crust with S-wave velocity between 2.9 km/s and 3.9 km/s and at the crust-mantle transition zone the shear wave velocity varies from 3.9 km/s and 4.3 km/s. The lithospheric thickness varies from 74 km, in the youngest lithosphere, to 200 km in the middle of the Cuban island. Evidences of a subducted slab possibly belonging to the Caribbean plate are present below the stations Las Mercedes (LMG), RCC and GTBY and a thicker slab is present below the SOR station. (author)

  16. Downhole pulse radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  17. Controlled-source seismic interferometry with one way wave fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Neut, J.; Wapenaar, K.; Thorbecke, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    In Seismic Interferometry we generally cross-correlate registrations at two receiver locations and sum over an array of sources to retrieve a Green's function as if one of the receiver locations hosts a (virtual) source and the other receiver location hosts an actual receiver. One application of this concept is to redatum an area of surface sources to a downhole receiver location, without requiring information about the medium between the sources and receivers, thus providing an effective tool for imaging below complex overburden, which is also known as the Virtual Source method. We demonstrate how elastic wavefield decomposition can be effectively combined with controlled-source Seismic Interferometry to generate virtual sources in a downhole receiver array that radiate only down- or upgoing P- or S-waves with receivers sensing only down- or upgoing P- or S- waves. For this purpose we derive exact Green's matrix representations from a reciprocity theorem for decomposed wavefields. Required is the deployment of multi-component sources at the surface and multi- component receivers in a horizontal borehole. The theory is supported with a synthetic elastic model, where redatumed traces are compared with those of a directly modeled reflection response, generated by placing active sources at the virtual source locations and applying elastic wavefield decomposition on both source and receiver side.

  18. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  19. Seismic Discontinuities within the Crust and Mantle Beneath Indonesia as Inferred from P Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelbern, I.; Rumpker, G.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia is situated at the southern margin of SE Asia, which comprises an assemblage of Gondwana-derived continental terranes, suture zones and volcanic arcs. The formation of SE Asia is believed to have started in Early Devonian. Its complex history involves the opening and closure of three distinct Tethys oceans, each accompanied by the rifting of continental fragments. We apply the receiver function technique to data of the temporary MERAMEX network operated in Central Java from May to October 2004 by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. The network consisted of 112 mobile stations with a spacing of about 10 km covering the full width of the island between the southern and northern coast lines. The tectonic history is reflected in a complex crustal structure of Central Java exhibiting strong topography of the Moho discontinuity related to different tectonic units. A discontinuity of negative impedance contrast is observed throughout the mid-crust interpreted as the top of a low-velocity layer which shows no depth correlation with the Moho interface. Converted phases generated at greater depth beneath Indonesia indicate the existence of multiple seismic discontinuities within the upper mantle and even below. The strongest signal originates from the base of the mantle transition zone, i.e. the 660 km discontinuity. The phase related to the 410 km discontinuity is less pronounced, but clearly identifiable as well. The derived thickness of the mantle-transition zone is in good agreement with the IASP91 velocity model. Additional phases are observed at roughly 33 s and 90 s relative to the P onset, corresponding to about 300 km and 920 km, respectively. A signal of reversed polarity indicates the top of a low velocity layer at about 370 km depth overlying the mantle transition zone.

  20. Deghosting, Demultiple, and Deblurring in Controlled-Source Seismic Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost van der Neut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With controlled-source seismic interferometry we aim to redatum sources to downhole receiver locations without requiring a velocity model. Interferometry is generally based on a source integral over cross-correlation (CC pairs of full, perturbed (time-gated, or decomposed wavefields. We provide an overview of ghosts, multiples, and spatial blurring effects that can occur for different types of interferometry. We show that replacing cross-correlation by multidimensional deconvolution (MDD can deghost, demultiple, and deblur retrieved data. We derive and analyze MDD for perturbed and decomposed wavefields. An interferometric point spread function (PSF is introduced that can be obtained directly from downhole data. Ghosts, multiples, and blurring effects that may populate the retrieved gathers can be locally diagnosed with the PSF. MDD of perturbed fields can remove ghosts and deblur retrieved data, but it leaves particular multiples in place. To remove all overburden-related effects, MDD of decomposed fields should be applied.

  1. Strong crustal seismic anisotropy in the Kalahari Craton based on Receiver Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Earlier seismic studies of the Kalahari Craton in southern Africa infer deformation of upper mantle by flow with fast direction of seismic anisotropy being parallel to present plate motion, and/or report anisotropy frozen into the lithospheric mantle. We present evidence for very strong seismic...... is uniform within tectonic units and parallel to orogenic strike in the Limpopo and Cape fold belts. It is further parallel to the strike of major dyke swarms which indicates that a large part of the observed anisotropy is controlled by lithosphere fabrics and macroscopic effects. The directions of the fast...... that the crust and lithospheric mantle may have been coupled since cratonisation. If so, the apparent match between mantle anisotropy and the present plate motion is coincidental....

  2. Downhole Applications of Magnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Li, Bodong; Moellendick, Timothy E

    2017-10-19

    In this paper we present a review of the application of two types of magnetic sensors-fluxgate magnetometers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors-in the oil/gas industry. These magnetic sensors play a critical role in drilling wells safely, accurately and efficiently into a target reservoir zone by providing directional data of the well and acquiring information about the surrounding geological formations. Research into magnetic sensors for oil/gas drilling has not been explored by researchers to the same extent as other applications, such as biomedical, magnetic storage and automotive/aerospace applications. Therefore, this paper aims to serve as an opportunity for researchers to truly understand how magnetic sensors can be used in a downhole environment and to provide fertile ground for research and development in this area. A look ahead, discussing other magnetic sensor technologies that can potentially be used in the oil/gas industry is presented, and what is still needed in order deploy them in the field is also addressed.

  3. Downhole Applications of Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka P. Gooneratne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a review of the application of two types of magnetic sensors—fluxgate magnetometers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR sensors—in the oil/gas industry. These magnetic sensors play a critical role in drilling wells safely, accurately and efficiently into a target reservoir zone by providing directional data of the well and acquiring information about the surrounding geological formations. Research into magnetic sensors for oil/gas drilling has not been explored by researchers to the same extent as other applications, such as biomedical, magnetic storage and automotive/aerospace applications. Therefore, this paper aims to serve as an opportunity for researchers to truly understand how magnetic sensors can be used in a downhole environment and to provide fertile ground for research and development in this area. A look ahead, discussing other magnetic sensor technologies that can potentially be used in the oil/gas industry is presented, and what is still needed in order deploy them in the field is also addressed.

  4. 275 C Downhole Microcomputer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Hutchens; Hooi Miin Soo

    2008-08-31

    An HC11 controller IC and along with serial SRAM and ROM support ICs chip set were developed to support a data acquisition and control for extreme temperature/harsh environment conditions greater than 275 C. The 68HC11 microprocessor is widely used in well logging tools for control, data acquisition, and signal processing applications and was the logical choice for a downhole controller. This extreme temperature version of the 68HC11 enables new high temperature designs and additionally allows 68HC11-based well logging tools and MWD tools to be upgraded for high temperature operation in deep gas reservoirs, The microcomputer chip consists of the microprocessor ALU, a small boot ROM, 4 kbyte data RAM, counter/timer unit, serial peripheral interface (SPI), asynchronous serial interface (SCI), and the A, B, C, and D parallel ports. The chip is code compatible with the single chip mode commercial 68HC11 except for the absence of the analog to digital converter system. To avoid mask programmed internal ROM, a boot program is used to load the microcomputer program from an external mask SPI ROM. A SPI RAM IC completes the chip set and allows data RAM to be added in 4 kbyte increments. The HC11 controller IC chip set is implemented in the Peregrine Semiconductor 0.5 micron Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process using a custom high temperature cell library developed at Oklahoma State University. Yield data is presented for all, the HC11, SPI-RAM and ROM. The lessons learned in this project were extended to the successful development of two high temperature versions of the LEON3 and a companion 8 Kbyte SRAM, a 200 C version for the Navy and a 275 C version for the gas industry.

  5. 2750 C Downhole Microcomputer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchens, Chris; Soo, Hooi Miin

    2008-01-01

    An HC11 controller IC and along with serial SRAM and ROM support ICs chip set were developed to support a data acquisition and control for extreme temperature/harsh environment conditions greater than 275 C. The 68HC11 microprocessor is widely used in well logging tools for control, data acquisition, and signal processing applications and was the logical choice for a downhole controller. This extreme temperature version of the 68HC11 enables new high temperature designs and additionally allows 68HC11-based well logging tools and MWD tools to be upgraded for high temperature operation in deep gas reservoirs, The microcomputer chip consists of the microprocessor ALU, a small boot ROM, 4 kbyte data RAM, counter/timer unit, serial peripheral interface (SPI), asynchronous serial interface (SCI), and the A, B, C, and D parallel ports. The chip is code compatible with the single chip mode commercial 68HC11 except for the absence of the analog to digital converter system. To avoid mask programmed internal ROM, a boot program is used to load the microcomputer program from an external mask SPI ROM. A SPI RAM IC completes the chip set and allows data RAM to be added in 4 kbyte increments. The HC11 controller IC chip set is implemented in the Peregrine Semiconductor 0.5 micron Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process using a custom high temperature cell library developed at Oklahoma State University. Yield data is presented for all, the HC11, SPI-RAM and ROM. The lessons learned in this project were extended to the successful development of two high temperature versions of the LEON3 and a companion 8 Kbyte SRAM, a 200 C version for the Navy and a 275 C version for the gas industry

  6. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    vertical stage; a second actuator at the top of the downhole probe allows radial scanning of the borehole. Analysis of iron and titanium in lunar simulant with LIBS was performed in air using the method of standard addition. The results for lunar simulant NU-LHT-2M show a value for the concentration of iron ranging between 2.29% and 3.05% depending on the atomic line selected. The accepted value for the sample analyzed is 2.83%, showing the capability for the system in development to provide qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis in real-time.

  7. Combining inter-source seismic interferometry and source-receiver interferometry for deep local imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Arntsen, B.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Van der Neut, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The virtual source method has been applied successfully to retrieve the impulse response between pairs of receivers in the subsurface. This method is further improved by an updown separation prior to the crosscorrelation to suppress the reflections from the overburden and the free surface. In a

  8. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R [Provo, UT; Pixton, David S [Lehi, UT; Johnson, Monte L [Orem, UT; Bartholomew, David B [Springville, UT; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Rawle, Michael [Springville, UT

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  9. Downhole dehydration - status report and implementation study; Downhole Dehydration - Statusbericht und Umsetzungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.; Schmidt, D. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Downhole dehydration, i.e. in-situ separation of water and oil, is an interesting new technology. The contribution describes the technology and the results of a field experiment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Tail-End Foerderphase in der deutschen Erdoelproduktion, welche durch hohe Wasserhebekosten gekennzeichnet ist, erfordert zur Aufrechterhaltung der Wirtschaftlichkeit neue Gedankenansaetze. Ein aus wirtschaftlicher und technischer Sicht reizvoller Optimierungsgedanke ist die untertaegige Wasser/Oel Separation, auch Downhole Dehydration genannt. Unter Downhole Dehydration (DHD) versteht man also die untertaegige (teilweise) Separation des Lagerstaettenwassers vom Nassoel, kurz nachdem das Gemisch untertaegig in das Bohrloch eingetreten ist. Dabei wird das abgetrennte Lagerstaettenwasser untertage in einen geeigneten Horizont unmittelbar wieder injiziert und das Oel (wie bei der konventionellen Foerderung) zutage gepumpt, mit dem Ziel der Nutzung der daraus resultierenden Kosten- und Investitionsersparnis. Ziel dieses Vortrages ist es, einen kurzen Einblick in die erstmalig in Europa angewandte Technik zu geben und von den Erfahrungen des praktizierten Feldversuches zu berichten. (orig.)

  10. Rift Structure in Eastern Papua New Guinea From the Joint Inversion of Receiver Functions and Seismic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abers, G. A.; Obrebski, M. J.; Jin, G.; Eilon, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The recent CDPapua seismic array in the active D'Entrecasteaux-Woodlark Rift provides insights into how continental crust accommodates large extension. Here, >100 km of extension has occurred in the last 4-6 Ma, exhuming rocks from 100 km depth. To better understand the modes of deformation of the crust, we analyze shear wave velocity (Vs) distribution for a set of temporary land and ocean bottom broadband stations. We resolve the depth of the main velocity contrasts using receiver function (RF) analysis, alleviating the intrinsic trade-off between depth and velocity intrinsic by joint inversion with dispersion constraints (10 - 100 s) from earthquake surface waves and ambient noise. A transdimensional Bayesian scheme explores the model space (Vs in each layer, number of interfaces and their respective depths), minimizing the number of layers required to fit the observations given their noise level. Preliminary results suggest that the Moho is sharp in most places, with a depth of 28-38 km and 20-27 km below the Papuan Peninsula and the highly-extended D'Entracasteaux Islands, respectively. The mid-lower crust of these regions appears to be similar and consistent with felsic compositions, 3.25≤Vs≤3.5 km/s, and may represent the Owen-Stanley Metamorphic Belt or underlying continental rocks. A fast layer (3.75≤Vs≤4 km/s) is observed below the Papuan Peninsula in the 20-30 km depth range and may indicate more mafic lower crust. In contrast, faster velocities between 10 and 20km depth are modeled below the Goodenough Basin (3.75≤Vs≤4 km/s) and the Trobriand Basin (3.5≤Vs≤3.75 km/s) where rocks of the Papuan Ultramafic Belt have been suggested, although these results partly depend upon complicated signals from ocean-bottom seismometers. Well-located seismicity shows that active fault systems generally follow the boundaries between regions of different crustal velocity structure. Overall these results confirm a continental velocity structure for the

  11. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Tubel

    2003-10-14

    The fourth quarter of the project was dedicated to the manufacturing of the mechanical system for wireless communications and the power generation module and inspection pre assembly of the mechanical components. Another emphasis for the quarter was the development of filter control and signal detection software. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Dimensional issues were resolved and revised drawings for manufacturing of the wireless communications gauge and power generator were completed and sent to a machine shop for manufacturing. (2) Finalized the requirements and fittings and connections for testing the tool in the Halliburton flow loop. (3) The new acoustic generator was manufactured successfully and it was delivered during this quarter. The assembly will be outsourced for plastic coating in preparation for hostile environment use. (4) The acoustic two-way communications development continued to progress. The real time firmware for the surface system was developed and the processor was able to detect and process the data frame transmitted from downhole. The analog section of the tool was also developed and it is being tested for filtering capabilities and signal detection and amplification. (5) The new transformer to drive the acoustic generator assembly was manufactured and was successfully tested. Spring mandrel design showed increased acoustic output on the pipe and was implemented. (6) PCBA board carrier with board set was tested for function and fit and is 100% complete. (7) Filter control software is complete and software to allow modification of communication parameters dynamically is 50% complete. (8) All mechanical parts to assemble the wireless gauge and power generator have been received and verified to be within specification. (9) Acoustic generator has been assembled in the tool mandrel and tested successfully. (10) The circuit required to harvest the power generated downhole has been designed and the power generator

  12. Seismic Imaging of the Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone Using S-to-P Receiver Functions: Insights From VoiLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, B.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.; Rietbrock, A.; Collier, J.; Henstock, T.; Goes, S. D. B.; Kendall, J. M.; Krueger, F.

    2017-12-01

    In the Lesser Antilles subduction zone Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, expected to be highly hydrated, is being subducted beneath the Caribbean plate. Water and other volatiles from the down-going plate are released and cause the overlying mantle to melt, feeding volcanoes with magma and hence forming the volcanic island arc. However, the depths and pathways of volatiles and melt within the mantle wedge are not well known. Here, we use S-to-P receiver functions to image seismic velocity contrasts with depth within the subduction zone in order to constrain the release of volatiles and the presence of melt in the mantle wedge, as well as slab structure and arc-lithosphere structure. We use data from 55-80° epicentral distances recorded by 32 recovered broadband ocean-bottom seismometers that were deployed during the 2016-2017 Volatiles in the Lesser Antilles (VoiLA) project for 15 months on the back- and fore-arc. The S-to-P receiver functions are calculated using two methods: extended time multi-taper deconvolution followed by migration to depth to constrain 3-D discontinuity structure of the subduction zone; and simultaneous deconvolution to determine structure beneath single stations. In the south of the island arc, we image a velocity increase with depth associated with the Moho at depths of 32-40 ± 4 km on the fore- and back-arc, consistent with various previous studies. At depths of 65-80 ± 4 km beneath the fore-arc we image a strong velocity decrease with depth that is west-dipping. At 96-120 ± 5 km beneath the fore-arc, we image a velocity increase with depth that is also west-dipping. The dipping negative-positive phase could represent velocity contrasts related to the top of the down-going plate, a feature commonly imaged in subduction zone receiver function studies. The negative phase is strong, so there may also be contributions to the negative velocity discontinuity from slab dehydration and/or mantle wedge serpentinization in the fore-arc.

  13. An Overview of Downhole Imaging Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, S. M.

    In this presentation we give an overview of downhole imaging tools that can be used to image the borehole wall and its vicinity with a variety of physical methods. Among these are ultrasonic scans with a rotating transducer that performs a pulse-echo mea- surement in rapid succession. This gives a transit time and a reflected amplitude image of the borehole wall. Electrical imaging is done with a whole family of measurements that operate mostly in the low AC range. All of them feature a number of electrodes that is inversely proportional to the desired resolution and depth of investigation. They image layering, fracturing and other heterogeneities in the rocks traversed by the bore- hole. Some of these images can be recorded and transmitted to the surface in real-time while the well is being drilled. Imaging using nuclear methods is also possible, for ex- ample for the natural radioactivity, density, or neutron porosity of the rock. However, these devices have generally low spatial resolutions. Finally, optical imaging is pos- sible in translucent and slightly opaque muds with a downhole video camera. Recent developments have resulted in a device that can withstand high pressures and temper- atures and that transmits live video images to the surface in real-time. This method has the highest resolution but is of limited applicability in the oil industry where gener- ally opaque muds are used. These images can be successfully used to determined the structural and intrinsic properties of rock traversed by a borehole.

  14. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    . An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified

  15. Downhole drilling hammer. Marteau de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techy, M.

    1987-07-28

    This invention concerns a drilling hammer of the downhole type, comprising a tubular body fed by compressed air, a drilling cutter and a hammer piston set into movement inside an interior cylinder by a compressed air distribution mechanism alternately above and below the piston. The hammer includes a gas-oil injection device in the chamber above the piston and a mechanism for initiating the injection during the rising of the piston; the additional compression provokes the combustion of the gas-oil-air mixture, which hurls the piston towards the cutter. This type of apparatus permits an important reduction in costs of materials and of operation, and permits at the same time an increase in drilling power and a reduction in energy consumption. 8 figs.

  16. Seismic VSP Investigations at Olkiluoto, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enescu, N.; Cosma, C.; Balu, L. (Vibrometric, Vantaa (Finland))

    2007-08-15

    Posiva Oy carries out R and D related tasks for spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. The site characterization has been conducted since 1987 in Olkiluoto in western Finland. The ONKALO underground characterization facility has been under construction since 2004. Vibrometric Oy has been contracted to carry out seismic VSP survey in four drillholes in the immediate vicinity of ONKALO, for the characterization of the seismically responsive structures. Four drillholes, KR8, KR27, KR29 and KR38 were included to the project. Seven seismic source locations on ground surface were used for each drillhole. The source locations were optimized with respect to the drillhole and ONKALO and were configured as linear arrays to produce optimum imaging focused on the ONKALO volume. A mechanical Vibsist source, using a hydraulic rock breaker mounted on a 22 t excavator, was used as source of seismic signal. The signal was recorded with downhole 3-component geophones. The recording array was 8-level long, with 5 m spacing between levels. Acquisition was run throughout the drillholes. Processing of the VSP profiles consisted of time decoding of the impact sequences, filtering and image point (IP) transform. The interpretation was carried out interactively, seeking for best match of orientation of each reflection according to different borehole profiles where the features were seen. The interpretations were built as an add-on to a previous seismic model of the site. The most distinct reflectors were interpreted, compiled to as a part of a terrain model composed of 3D surfaces, and transferred digitally together with other results (3D elements of reflector locations) into Posiva's 3D modeling system. Some of the reflectors have already received direct confirmation from ONKALO observations. (orig.)

  17. Seismic VSP Investigations at Olkiluoto, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, N.; Cosma, C.; Balu, L.

    2007-08-01

    Posiva Oy carries out R and D related tasks for spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. The site characterization has been conducted since 1987 in Olkiluoto in western Finland. The ONKALO underground characterization facility has been under construction since 2004. Vibrometric Oy has been contracted to carry out seismic VSP survey in four drillholes in the immediate vicinity of ONKALO, for the characterization of the seismically responsive structures. Four drillholes, KR8, KR27, KR29 and KR38 were included to the project. Seven seismic source locations on ground surface were used for each drillhole. The source locations were optimized with respect to the drillhole and ONKALO and were configured as linear arrays to produce optimum imaging focused on the ONKALO volume. A mechanical Vibsist source, using a hydraulic rock breaker mounted on a 22 t excavator, was used as source of seismic signal. The signal was recorded with downhole 3-component geophones. The recording array was 8-level long, with 5 m spacing between levels. Acquisition was run throughout the drillholes. Processing of the VSP profiles consisted of time decoding of the impact sequences, filtering and image point (IP) transform. The interpretation was carried out interactively, seeking for best match of orientation of each reflection according to different borehole profiles where the features were seen. The interpretations were built as an add-on to a previous seismic model of the site. The most distinct reflectors were interpreted, compiled to as a part of a terrain model composed of 3D surfaces, and transferred digitally together with other results (3D elements of reflector locations) into Posiva's 3D modeling system. Some of the reflectors have already received direct confirmation from ONKALO observations. (orig.)

  18. A Monte Carlo approach to constraining uncertainties in modelled downhole gravity gradiometry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Samuel J.; O'Neill, Craig; Lackie, Mark A.

    2017-06-01

    Gravity gradiometry has a long legacy, with airborne/marine applications as well as surface applications receiving renewed recent interest. Recent instrumental advances has led to the emergence of downhole gravity gradiometry applications that have the potential for greater resolving power than borehole gravity alone. This has promise in both the petroleum and geosequestration industries; however, the effect of inherent uncertainties in the ability of downhole gravity gradiometry to resolve a subsurface signal is unknown. Here, we utilise the open source modelling package, Fatiando a Terra, to model both the gravity and gravity gradiometry responses of a subsurface body. We use a Monte Carlo approach to vary the geological structure and reference densities of the model within preset distributions. We then perform 100 000 simulations to constrain the mean response of the buried body as well as uncertainties in these results. We varied our modelled borehole to be either centred on the anomaly, adjacent to the anomaly (in the x-direction), and 2500 m distant to the anomaly (also in the x-direction). We demonstrate that gravity gradiometry is able to resolve a reservoir-scale modelled subsurface density variation up to 2500 m away, and that certain gravity gradient components (Gzz, Gxz, and Gxx) are particularly sensitive to this variation in gravity/gradiometry above the level of uncertainty in the model. The responses provided by downhole gravity gradiometry modelling clearly demonstrate a technique that can be utilised in determining a buried density contrast, which will be of particular use in the emerging industry of CO2 geosequestration. The results also provide a strong benchmark for the development of newly emerging prototype downhole gravity gradiometers.

  19. A harmonic analysis approach to joint inversion of P-receiver functions and wave dispersion data in high dense seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Aguilera, A.; Mancilla, F. D. L.; Julià, J.; Morales, J.

    2017-12-01

    Joint inversion techniques of P-receiver functions and wave dispersion data implicitly assume an isotropic radial stratified earth. The conventional approach invert stacked radial component receiver functions from different back-azimuths to obtain a laterally homogeneous single-velocity model. However, in the presence of strong lateral heterogeneities as anisotropic layers and/or dipping interfaces, receiver functions are considerably perturbed and both the radial and transverse components exhibit back azimuthal dependences. Harmonic analysis methods exploit these azimuthal periodicities to separate the effects due to the isotropic flat-layered structure from those effects caused by lateral heterogeneities. We implement a harmonic analysis method based on radial and transverse receiver functions components and carry out a synthetic study to illuminate the capabilities of the method in isolating the isotropic flat-layered part of receiver functions and constrain the geometry and strength of lateral heterogeneities. The independent of the baz P receiver function are jointly inverted with phase and group dispersion curves using a linearized inversion procedure. We apply this approach to high dense seismic profiles ( 2 km inter-station distance, see figure) located in the central Betics (western Mediterranean region), a region which has experienced complex geodynamic processes and exhibit strong variations in Moho topography. The technique presented here is robust and can be applied systematically to construct a 3-D model of the crust and uppermost mantle across large networks.

  20. Downhole television (DHTV) applications in borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Statler, R.D.; Peterson, E.W.

    1980-05-01

    The Borehole Plugging (BHP) Program is a part of the Sandia experimental program to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Sandia BHP program is an Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI)-funded program designed to provide inputs to the generic plugging program while simultaneously acquiring WIPP-specific data. For this reason a close liaison is maintained between the Sandia WIPP project and the ONWI generic program. Useful technology developed within the Sandia BHP to support WIPP is made available and considered for further development and application to the generic Borehole Plugging and Repository Sealing Program at ONWI. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the usefulness of downhole television (DHTV) observations of a borehole to plan plugging operations. An indication of the wellbore conditions observed is provided. The equipment and setup procedure used in the evaluation of AEC-7 for the Bell Canyon test series are illustrated. A sequence of pictures at various depths as the DHTV rig is lowered through the wellbore is presented. Sample photographs taken with both dry and underwater lamps for illumination are included. The caliper logs for the same depth are included for comparison. General comments are provided on the illustrations

  1. Crustal structure in the southern part of Central Java based on analysis of tele-seismic receiver function using a neighbourhood algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, P.; Syuhada; Rosid, S.; Anggono, T.; Januarti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we applied receiver functions analysis to determine the crustal thickness, the ratio of Vp/Vs and the S wave velocity in the southern part of the Central Java. We selected tele-seismic data with magnitude more than 6 (M>6) and epicenter distance 30°-90° recorded from 3 broadband stations: UGM, YOGI, and WOJI station, as part of Indonesia-Geophone Network (IA-GE). Inversions were performed using nonlinear Neighborhood Algorithm (NA). We observed Ps phase conversion on the receiver functions corresponding to Moho depth at around 36-39 km. We also observed strong negative phase arrivals at around 10-12 s which might be associated with Indo-Australian subducting slab underneath the stations. The inversion results show the presence of low velocity zone with high Vp/Vs ratio (>1.78) in the middle crust around the study area which could be related to the Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA).

  2. ANZA Seismic Network- From Monitoring to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F.; Eakin, J.; Martynov, V.; Newman, R.; Offield, G.; Hindley, A.; Astiz, L.

    2007-05-01

    earthquakes, the ANZA network is receiving real-time data from borehole arrays located at the UCSD Thornton Hospital, and from UCSB's Borrego Valley and Garner Valley Downhole Arrays. Finally the ANZA network is acquiring data from seven PBO sites each with 300 meter deep MEMs accelerometers, passive seismometers, and a borehole strainmeter.

  3. Downhole success : back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This Power Point presentation included several viewgraphs depicting the difference that technology makes for exploration success. In particular, it refers to the impact that information technology and computers have had in increasing our knowledge base of the subsurface through measurement while drilling (MWD) data and logging while drilling (LWD) data. Computers have made it possible to model Darcy's Law of fluid flow through porous media along with Moore's Law. Onshore control centres make it possible to manage assets, plan preventive maintenance, and continuously monitor safety and environmental compliance. The paper described the key components of the NOW Field as being 4-D seismic, seismic while drilling, intelligent wells, remote operations, visualization technology, forecasting, subsurface models, and data hubs used to build a subsurface model. tabs., figs.

  4. Design of a Novel Electro-hydraulic Drive Downhole Tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delei; Shang, Jianzhong; Yang, Junhong; Wang, Zhuo; Wu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the traction ability and the work efficiency of downhole tractor in oil field, a novel electro-hydraulic drive downhole tractor was designed. The tractor’s supporting mechanism and moving mechanism were analyzed based on the tractor mechanical structure. Through the introduction of hydraulic system, the hydraulic drive mechanism and the implementation process were researched. Based on software, analysis of tractor hydraulic drive characteristic and movement performance were simulated, which provide theoretical basis for the development of tractor prototype.

  5. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, E-mail: hadda9@gmail.com [Graduate Research on Earthquake and Active Tectonics (GREAT), Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia); Hananto, Nugroho D.; Handayani, Lina [Research Centre for Geotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Sangkuriang (Kompleks LIPI) Bandung 40135 (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi [Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering ITB, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Anggono, Titi [Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  6. Geoelectric Monitoring of geological CO2 storage at Ketzin, Germany (CO2SINK project): Downhole and Surface-Downhole measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, D.; Schuett, H.; Schoebel, B.; Krueger, K.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Schilling, F.

    2009-04-01

    images of the true resistivity distribution in the reservoir, which reflects the extent of the CO2 plume. The resistivity data provide information about the saturation state of the reservoir independently of seismic methods. Base data sets have been measured prior to the CO2 injection; monitoring data sets are registered while CO2 is being injected. Using combined 3D surface-downhole measurements (realized in cooperation with University of Leipzig) we got in addition an indication for effects of anisotropy in CO2 migration. We present an overview of the electrode installation, first examples for baseline and monitoring datasets and the corresponding tomograms that show indications of the CO2 migration.

  7. Interpretation of Seismic Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    Five Seismic Cone Penetration Tests (SCPT) were conducted at a test site in northern Denmark where the subsoil consists primarily of sandy silt with clay bands. A portion of the test data were collected every 0.5 m to compare the efficacy of closely-spaced down-hole data collection on the computa...

  8. Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to

  9. Imaging Fracking Zones by Microseismic Reverse Time Migration for Downhole Microseismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is an engineering tool to create fractures in order to better recover oil and gas from low permeability reservoirs. Because microseismic events are generally associated with fracturing development, microseismic monitoring has been used to evaluate the fracking process. Microseismic monitoring generally relies on locating microseismic events to understand the spatial distribution of fractures. For the multi-stage fracturing treatment, fractures created in former stages are strong scatterers in the medium and can induce strong scattering waves on the waveforms for microseismic events induced during later stages. In this study, we propose to take advantage of microseismic scattering waves to image fracking zones by using seismic reverse time migration method. For downhole microseismic monitoring that involves installing a string of seismic sensors in a borehole near the injection well, the observation geometry is actually similar to the VSP (vertical seismic profile) system. For this reason, we adapt the VSP migration method for the common shot gather to the common event gather. Microseismic reverse-time migration method involves solving wave equation both forward and backward in time for each microseismic event. At current stage, the microseismic RTM is based on 2D acoustic wave equation (Zhang and Sun, 2008), solved by the finite-difference method with PML absorbing boundary condition applied to suppress the reflections of artificial boundaries. Additionally, we use local wavefield decomposition instead of cross-correlation imaging condition to suppress the imaging noise. For testing the method, we create a synthetic dataset for a downhole microseismic monitoring system with multiple fracking stages. It shows that microseismic migration using individual event is able to clearly reveal the fracture zone. The shorter distance between fractures and the microseismic event the clearer the migration image is. By summing migration images for many

  10. Development and Test of a 1,000 Level 3C Fiber Optic Borehole Seismic Receiver Array Applied to Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for CCS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 a contract to design, build and test a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Paulsson, Inc. has completed a design or a unique borehole seismic system consisting of a novel drill pipe based deployment system that includes a hydraulic clamping mechanism for the sensor pods, a new sensor pod design and most important – a unique fiber optic seismic vector sensor with technical specifications and capabilities that far exceed the state of the art seismic sensor technologies. These novel technologies were all applied to the new borehole seismic system. In combination these technologies will allow for the deployment of up to 1,000 3C sensor pods in vertical, deviated or horizontal wells. Laboratory tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed during this project have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown that the system can record events at magnitudes much smaller than M-2.3 at frequencies up to 2,000 Hz. The sensors have also proved to be about 100 times more sensitive than the regular coil geophones that are used in borehole seismic systems today. The fiber optic seismic sensors have furthermore been qualified to operate at temperatures over 300°C (572°F). The fibers used for the seismic sensors in the system are used to record Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) data allowing additional value added data to be recorded simultaneously with the seismic vector sensor data.

  11. Analytical-numerical solution for the trajectory of seismic rays in media with vertical heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhof, Armando Luis; Calvo, Carlos Adolfo; Moyano, Amalia; Sanchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A determined curve path is followed by the propagation of seismic waves generated in emitters and detected in receivers by the principle of minimum time of Fermat. An ordinary differential equation is derived from the application of the calculation of variations. Due to the compaction of the terrain, the speed usually increases with depth. The experimental laws for each soil have led to this variation leading to a numerical resolution. The adjustment of experimental speed data by an exponential function; the analytical integration of the differential equation and the numerical determination of the integration constants are studied. A geophysical method such as up-hole or down-hole has determined the experimental data. Its main application is centered in the validation of numerical models of curved trajectories. Then time of first arrivals through tomographic algorithms for detection and modeling of anomalies in the first 12 m depth. (author) [es

  12. Research on Overflow Monitoring Mechanism Based on Downhole Microflow Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow rate variation of the drilling fluid and micro-overflow loss is difficult to analyze. The purpose to prevent the occurrence of kick, lost circulation, and other complex conditions is not easy to be achieved. Therefore, the microflow-induced annulus multiphase flow rate and annulus pressure field model were studied, and a downhole microflow measurement system has been developed. A differential pressure type flow measurement was used in the system, and real-time downhole information was obtained to achieve deep, narrow windows and other safety-density complex formation security. This paper introduced a new bottom-hole flow meter which can measure the annular flux while drilling and monitor overflow and circulation loss. The accuracy and reliability of the MPD (managed pressure drilling system can be improved obviously by applying the device; as a result, the safety of drilling is enhanced and the cost is reduced.

  13. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. Gamma-ray spectrometry applied to down-hole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumesnil, P.; Umiastowsky, K.

    1983-11-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry permits to improve the accuracy of natural gamma, gamma-gamma and neutron-gamma geophysical measurements. The probe developed at Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay allows down-hole gamma-ray spectrometry. Among others, this probe can be applied to the uranium content determination by selective natural gamma method, down-hole determination of the ash content in the coal by gamma-gamma selective method and elemental analysis by neutron-gamma method. For the calibration and an exact interpretation of the measurements it is important to know the gamma-ray and neutron characteristics of the different kinds of rocks considered as probabilistic variables

  15. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  16. Tuning Fork Oscillators as Downhole Viscometers in Oilfield Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Miguel; Bernero, Greg; Alvarez, Oliverio; Ham, Gregory; Max, Deffenbaugh; Sensors Development Team

    2015-03-01

    The commerciality of oil wells is greatly influenced by the physical properties of the fluids being produced. A key parameter in determining how producible the hydrocarbons are is their viscosity. Pressure and temperature changes in recovering a downhole sample to the surface can alter viscosity while accurate downhole measurement of this critical property remains a rudimentary effort in the industry. In this presentation we describe the challenges of measuring and quantifying the viscosity of reservoir fluids in situ at downhole conditions, as well as present an overview of some of the different measurement techniques currently used. Additionally, we show our characterization of a piezoelectric tuning fork oscillator used as a viscosity sensor. In an attempt to recreate the environment found in oil wells, its mechanical and electrical properties were studied while the device was immersed in different fluids and, separately, under different conditions of pressure and temperature. This device is a first step toward the development of an inexpensive, integrated, and miniaturized sensing platform for the in situ characterization of reservoir fluids.

  17. Crustal structure and mantle transition zone thickness beneath a hydrothermal vent at the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39'E): a supplementary study based on passive seismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Aiguo; Hu, Hao; Li, Jiabiao; Niu, Xiongwei; Wei, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Aoxing

    2017-06-01

    As a supplementary study, we used passive seismic data recorded by one ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) station (49°41.8'E) close to a hydrothermal vent (49°39'E) at the Southwest Indian Ridge to invert the crustal structure and mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness by P-to-S receiver functions to investigate previous active seismic tomographic crustal models and determine the influence of the deep mantle thermal anomaly on seafloor hydrothermal venting at an ultra-slow spreading ridge. The new passive seismic S-wave model shows that the crust has a low velocity layer (2.6 km/s) from 4.0 to 6.0 km below the sea floor, which is interpreted as partial melting. We suggest that the Moho discontinuity at 9.0 km is the bottom of a layer (2-3 km thick); the Moho (at depth of 6-7 km), defined by active seismic P-wave models, is interpreted as a serpentinized front. The velocity spectrum stacking plot made from passive seismic data shows that the 410 discontinuity is depressed by 15 km, the 660 discontinuity is elevated by 18 km, and a positive thermal anomaly between 182 and 237 K is inferred.

  18. Air distribution system with the discharge action in the working cavity of downhole air hammer drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, VV; Alekseev, SE; Kokoulin, DI; Kubanychbek, B.

    2018-03-01

    It is proposed to carry out pre-mine methane drainage using underground degassing holes made by downhole air hammer drills. The features of downhole air drills are described. The downhole air drill layout with the simple-shape striking part is presented with its pluses and minuses. The researchers point at available options to eliminate the shortcomings. The improved layout of the downhole air hammer drill is suggested. The paper ends with the test data on the prototype air hammer drill, its characteristics and trial drilling results.

  19. Topology Optimization of an Actively Cooled Electronics Section for Downhole Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soprani, Stefano; Klaas Haertel, Jan Hendrik; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2015-01-01

    Active cooling systems represent a possible solution to the electronics overheating that occurs in wireline downhole tools operating in high temperature oil and gas wells. A Peltier cooler was chosen to maintain the downhole electronics to a tolerable temperature, but its integration into the dow......Active cooling systems represent a possible solution to the electronics overheating that occurs in wireline downhole tools operating in high temperature oil and gas wells. A Peltier cooler was chosen to maintain the downhole electronics to a tolerable temperature, but its integration......, according to the topology optimization results and assembly constraints, and compared to the optimized cases....

  20. Seismic protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, R.

    1988-01-01

    To ensure that a nuclear reactor or other damage-susceptible installation is, so far as possible, tripped and already shut down before the arrival of an earthquake shock at its location, a ring of monitoring seismic sensors is provided around it, each sensor being spaced from it by a distance (possibly several kilometres) such that (taking into account the seismic-shock propagation velocity through the intervening ground) a shock monitored by the sensor and then advancing to the installation site will arrive there later than a warning signal emitted by the sensor and received at the installation, by an interval sufficient to allow the installation to trip and shut down, or otherwise assume an optimum anti-seismic mode, in response to the warning signal. Extra sensors located in boreholes may define effectively a three-dimensional (hemispherical) sensing boundary rather than a mere two-dimensional ring. (author)

  1. Geophysical Monitoring at the CO2SINK Site: Combining Seismic and Geoelectric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, R.; Lüth, S.; Cosma, C.; Juhlin, C.; Kiessling, D.; Schütt, H.; Schöbel, B.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Schilling, F.; Co2SINK Group

    2009-04-01

    The CO2SINK project at the German town of Ketzin (near Berlin), is aimed at a pilot storage of CO2, and at developing and testing efficient integrated monitoring procedures (physical, chemical, and biological observations) for assessing the processes triggered within the reservoir by a long term injection operation. In particular, geophysical methods as seismic and geoelectric measurements have delivered the structural framework, and they enable to observe the reaction of the reservoir and the caprock to CO2 propagation at locations which are not accessible for direct observations. We report on the seismic monitoring program of the CO2SINK project which comprises baseline and repeat observations at different scales in time and space, combined with comprehensive geoelectrical monitoring performed in the Ketzin wells and on the surface. The main objectives of the 3D seismic survey (carried out in spring 2005) were to provide the structural model around the location of the Ketzin wells, to verify earlier geologic interpretations of structure based on vintage 2D seismic and borehole data, as well as providing a baseline for future seismic surveys. The uppermost 1000 m are well imaged and show an anticlinal structure with an east-west striking central graben on its top. The 3D baseline survey was extended by VSP (vertical seismic profiling), MSP (moving source profiling) on 7 profiles, and crosshole tomographic measurements. 2D "star" measurements were carried out on the 7 MSP profiles in order to tie-in the down-hole surveys with the 3D baseline survey. These measurements provide enhanced resolution in time (faster and more cost effective than a full 3D survey) and space (higher source and receiver frequencies). Three crosshole measurements were performed, one baseline survey in May 2008, and two repeats in July and August 2008, respectively. A third crosshole repeat is planned for a later stage in the project when a steady state situation has been reached in the

  2. Assessment and interpretation of cross- and down-hole seismograms at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.; Wang, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Selfridge, R.J. (Automated Sciences Group, (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This paper is an assessment and interpretation of cross-and down-hole seismograms recorded at four sites in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Arrival times of shear (S-) and compressional (P-) waves are recorded on these seismograms in milliseconds. Together with known distances between energy sources and seismometers lowered into boreholes, these arrival times are used to calculate S- and P-wave velocities in unconsolidated soils and sediments that overlie bedrock approximately 320 ft beneath PGDP. The soil columns are modified after an earlier draft by ERC Environmental and Energy Services Company (ERCE), 1990. In addition to S- and P- wave velocity estimates from this paper, the soil columns contain ERCE's lithologic and other geotechnical data for unconsolidated soils and sediments from the surface to bedrock. Soil columns for Sites 1 through 4 and a site location map are in Plates 1 through 5 of Appendix 6. The velocities in the four columns are input parameters for the SHAKE computer program, a nationally recognized computer model that simulates ground response of unconsolidated materials to earthquake generated seismic waves. The results of the SHAKE simulation are combined with predicted ground responses on rock foundations (caused by a given design earthquake) to predict ground responses of facilities with foundations placed on unconsolidated materials. 3 refs.

  3. Imaging the Moho beneath Sedimentary Basins: A Comparative Study of Virtual Deep Seismic Sounding (VDSS) and P Wave Receiver Functions (PRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Klemperer, S. L.; Yu, C.; Ning, J.

    2017-12-01

    In the past decades, P wave receiver functions (PRF) have been routinely used to image the Moho, although it is well known that PRFs are susceptible to contamination from sedimentary multiples. Recently, Virtual Deep Seismic Sounding (VDSS) emerged as a novel method to image the Moho. However, despite successful applications of VDSS on multiple datasets from different areas, how sedimentary basins affect the waveforms of post-critical SsPmp, the Moho reflection phase used in VDSS, is not widely understood. Here, motivated by a dataset collected in the Ordos plateau, which shows distinct effects of sedimentary basins on SsPmp and Pms waveforms, we use synthetic seismograms to study the effects of sedimentary basins on SsPmp and Pms, the phases used in VDSS and PRF respectively. The results show that when the sedimentary thickness is on the same order of magnitude as the dominant wavelength of the incident S wave, SsPmp amplitude decreases significantly with S velocity of the sedimentary layer, whereas increasing sedimentary thickness has little effect in SsPmp amplitude. Our explanation is that the low S velocity layer at the virtual source reduces the incident angle of S wave at the free surface, thus decreases the S-to-P reflection coefficient at the virtual source. In addition, transmission loss associated with the bottom of sedimentary basins also contributes to reducing SsPmp amplitude. This explains not only our observations from the Ordos plateau, but also observations from other areas where post-critical SsPmp is expected to be observable, but instead is too weak to be identified. As for Pms, we observe that increasing sedimentary thickness and decreasing sedimentary velocities both can cause interference between sedimentary multiples and Pms, rendering the Moho depths inferred from Pms arrival times unreliable. The reason is that although Pms amplitude does not vary with sedimentary thickness or velocities, as sedimentary velocities decrease and thickness

  4. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Texas-Gulf of Mexico margin from joint inversion of Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Pulliam, J.; Sen, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The seismic structure beneath Texas Gulf Coast Plain (GCP) is determined via velocity analysis of stacked common conversion point (CCP) Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface wave dispersion. The GCP is a portion of a ocean-continental transition zone, or 'passive margin', where seismic imaging of lithospheric Earth structure via passive seismic techniques has been rare. Seismic data from a temporary array of 22 broadband stations, spaced 16-20 km apart, on a ~380-km-long profile from Matagorda Island, a barrier island in the Gulf of Mexico, to Johnson City, Texas were employed to construct a coherent image of the crust and uppermost mantle. CCP stacking was applied to data from teleseismic earthquakes to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of converted phases, such as Ps phases. An inaccurate velocity model, used for time-to-depth conversion in CCP stacking, may produce higher errors, especially in a region of substantial lateral velocity variations. An accurate velocity model is therefore essential to constructing high quality depth-domain images. To find accurate velocity P- and S-wave models, we applied a joint modeling approach that searches for best-fitting models via simulated annealing. This joint inversion approach, which we call 'multi objective optimization in seismology' (MOOS), simultaneously models Ps receiver functions, Sp receiver functions and group velocity surface wave dispersion curves after assigning relative weights for each objective function. Weights are computed from the standard deviations of the data. Statistical tools such as the posterior parameter correlation matrix and posterior probability density (PPD) function are used to evaluate the constraints that each data type places on model parameters. They allow us to identify portions of the model that are well or poorly constrained.

  5. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  6. Passive thermal management system for downhole electronics in harsh thermal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Bofeng; Ma, Yupu; Hu, Run; Yuan, Chao; Hu, Jinyan; Luo, Xiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A passive thermal management system is proposed for downhole electronics. • Electronics temperature can be maintained within 125 °C for six-hour operating time. • The result shows potential application for the logging tool in oil and gas industry. - Abstract: The performance and reliability of downhole electronics will degrade in high temperature environments. Various active cooling techniques have been proposed for thermal management of such systems. However, these techniques require additional power input, cooling liquids and other moving components which complicate the system. This study presents a passive Thermal Management System (TMS) for downhole electronics. The TMS includes a vacuum flask, Phase Change Material (PCM) and heat pipes. The thermal characteristics of the TMS is evaluated experimentally. The results show that the system maintains equipment temperatures below 125 °C for a six-hour operating period in a 200 °C downhole environment, which will effectively protect the downhole electronics.

  7. Evaluation and Design of Downhole Heat Exchangers for Direct Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, G [Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, Oregon; Reistad, G M [Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon

    0000-12-30

    Over 400 wells with downhole heat exchangers are in use in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Some have been in use for nearly 30 years. Despite the large number and the long experience, the exact nature of the mechanism of heat exchange and, therefore, the maximum output was not known, except that it had been theorized that convection cells were established in the well. Oregon Institute of Technology and Oregon State University are jointly involved in a project to study the heat exchange process and economics of the downhole heat exchanger system. The existence of significant convection cell circulation has been established and measured using a “spinner,” hot film anemometer, and by energy balance calculations. Based on these measurements, analytical models have been developed which predict heat extraction rates within 15% of actual measured values. The existence of significant mixing of “new” and circulating well fluid has been established and can be calculated, although at this time not accurately predicted before testing a well. Based on the analytical models, multi-tube heat exchangers have been designed and very recently tested with outputs within 15% of predicted values. Economic analyses shows that for small to moderate extraction rates, about 300 kW thermal, and shallow wells, DHEs may be more economical than pumped systems when surface discharge is not acceptable.

  8. Subsurface multidisciplinary research results at ICTJA-CSIC downhole lab and test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose; Salvany, Josep Maria; Teixidó, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Two scientific boreholes, Almera-1 and Almera-2 were drilled in the Barcelona University campus area in 2011. The main purpose for this drilling was to create a new geophysical logging and downhole monitoring research facility and infrastructure. We present results obtained in the frame of multidisciplinary studies and experiments carried out since 2011 at the ICTJA "Borehole Geophysical Logging Lab - Scientific Boreholes Almera" downhole lab facilities. First results obtained from the scientific drilling, coring and logging allowed us to characterize the urban subsurface geology and hydrology adjacent to the Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera (ICTJA-CSIC) in Barcelona. The subsurface geology and structural picture has been completed with recent geophysical studies and monitoring results. The upper section of Almera-1 214m deep hole was cased with PVC after drilling and after the logging operations. An open hole interval was left from 112m to TD (Paleozoic section). Almera-2 drilling reached 46m and was cased also with PVC to 44m. Since completion of the drilling in 2011, both Almera-1 and Almera-2 have been extensively used for research purposes, tests, training, hydrological and geophysical monitoring. A complete set of geophysical logging measurements and borehole oriented images were acquired in open hole mode of the entire Almera-1 section. Open hole measurements included acoustic and optical imaging, spectral natural gamma ray, full wave acoustic logging, magnetic susceptibility, hydrochemical-temperature logs and fluid sampling. Through casing (PVC casing) measurements included spectral gamma ray logging, full wave sonic and acoustic televiewer. A Quaternary to Paleozoic section was characterized based on the geophysical logging and borehole images interpretation and also on the complete set of (wireline) cores of the entire section. Sample availability was intended for geological macro and micro-facies detailed characterization, mineralogical and

  9. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  10. 275 C Downhole Switched-Mode Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Hutchens; Vijay Madhuravasal

    2008-08-31

    A vee-square (V2) control based controller IC is developed for a switch mode power supply capable of operating at extreme temperature/harsh environment conditions. A buck type regulator with silicon carbide power junction field effect transistors (JFET) as power devices is used to analyze the performance of controller. Special emphases are made on the analog sub-blocks--voltage reference, operational transconductance amplifier and comparator as individual building blocks. Transformer coupled gate drives and high temperature operable magnetic cores and capacitors are identified and tested for use in the design. Conventional ceramic chip packaging of ICs combined with lead carrier type mounting of passive filter components is introduced for hybrid packaging of the complete product. The developed SMPS is anticipated to support the operation of down-hole microcontrollers and other electronics devices that require low/medium power filtered dc inputs over an operating temperature of 275 C.

  11. Design, Installation, and Monitoring of a New Downhole Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiasson, A.D.; G.G. Culver (Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR, USA); Favata, D. (Alternative Geothermal Solutions, Oklahoma City, OK, USA); Keiffer, S. (Facilities Services, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR, USA)

    2005-01-01

    The downhole heat exchanger (DHE) is used to provide space heating and domestic hot water from a single geothermal well. The most common construction of DHEs has been black iron, which is subject to failure by corrosion. This paper describes the design, installation, and monitoring of a new type of DHE constructed of cross-linked polyethylene plastic (PEX), a material known for its relatively high temperature and pressure rating, durability, and chemical resistance. The PEX DHE was installed as a retrofit at a residence in Klamath Falls, OR and a data logger was used to record system temperatures at 5-minute intervals for the 2004-2005 heating season. Observations thus far show the PEX assembly to be an acceptable DHE.

  12. The role of duplex stainless steels for downhole tubulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, R.

    1993-01-01

    In sour conditions there is an increasing trend to turn to corrosion resistant alloys for downhole tubulars. The most commonly used CRA tubular is 13Cr, and there are thousands of feet in service. However, there are limits to the use of 13Cr, ie., the risk of sulphide stress corrosion cracking at high H 2 S levels, and the possibility of pitting or high corrosion rates in waters with high chloride contents. Where the service conditions are felt to be too severe for 13Cr alloys it has been traditional to switch to nickel base alloys such as alloys 825 and C-276 (UNS N08825 and N10276). The alloys are much more expensive than 13Cr, and in recent years the duplex stainless steels have been selected as alloys with superior corrosion and SSCC resistance compared with 13Cr, and having lower cost than nickel alloys. Originally the 22Cr duplex alloy (UNS 31803) was used, but more recently the 25Cr super duplex alloys (UNS S32760 and S32750) have become more available. The present paper reviews the data available for 13Cr and the limits of applicability. Data is also presented for laboratory tests for both the 22Cr and 25Cr super duplex alloys. There is extensive service experience with both 22Cr and 25Cr super duplex in the North Sea, covering both downhole tubulars, manifold and post wellhead equipment. Data is presented showing some of the sour condition being experienced in the North Sea by super duplex alloys. These results show that there is a substantial gap between the limits of use for 13Cr and the 25Cr super duplex stainless steel alloys. This means that in many sour environments super duplex stainless steel provides a cost effective alternative to nickel-base alloys

  13. Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND–1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND–1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237–342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND–1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND–1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692–1018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

  14. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics...... successfully been tested on experimental data from a medium-scale horizontal flow loop in Sta- vanger, Norway. The flow loop represents a 700 m borehole with emulation of the following downhole contingencies: drillstring washout, drill bit nozzle plugging, gas influx and fluid loss. In the tests...

  15. Is it cement to be? Downhole cement that uses zeolite additive may offer lightweight alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.

    2001-05-01

    C2C Zeolite Corporation produces zeolites from a large deposit near Cache Creek, British Columbia, and processes them for use as an additive in downhole cement well casings. Early research indicates that zeolites can significantly improve the way downhole cement is made in the oil industry. Zeolites are made up mostly of silicates of aluminum and calcium. They have a great ability to absorb water, resulting in a lighter and more fluid cement than is currently available. C2C claims that zeolites will reduce cement weight, column pressure and operator costs. The cost benefits of using lighter cement downhole includes easier moving, processing and handling of the mix. Initial research suggests that zeolites might prove to be viable alternatives to other cement lighteners such as silica fumes or flyash. Zeolite-based cement also performed reasonably well in freeze-thaw tests and showed good adhesion and no evidence of shrinkage in downhole tests. 3 figs.

  16. Accessing SAFOD data products: Downhole measurements, physical samples and long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, C.; Zoback, M.; Hickman, S. H.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2005-12-01

    Many different types of data were collected during SAFOD Phases 1 and 2 (2004-2005) as part of the National Science Foundation's EarthScope program as well as from the SAFOD Pilot Hole, drilled in 2002 and funded by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). Both SAFOD and the SAFOD Pilot Hole are being conducted as a close collaboration between NSF, the U.S. Geological Survey and the ICDP. SAFOD data products include cuttings, core and fluid samples; borehole geophysical measurements; and strain, tilt, and seismic recordings from the multilevel SAFOD borehole monitoring instruments. As with all elements of EarthScope, these data (and samples) are openly available to members of the scientific and educational communities. This paper presents the acquisition, storage and distribution plan for SAFOD data products. Washed and unwashed drill cuttings and mud samples were collected during Phases 1 and 2, along with three spot cores at depths of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.1 km. A total of 52 side-wall cores were also collected in the open-hole interval between 2.5 and 3.1 km depth. The primary coring effort will occur during Phase 3 (2007), when we will continuously core up to four, 250-m-long multilaterals directly within and adjacent to the San Andreas Fault Zone. Drill cuttings, core, and fluid samples from all three Phases of SAFOD drilling are being curated under carefully controlled conditions at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Gulf Coast Repository in College Station, Texas. Photos of all physical samples and a downloadable sample request form are available on the ICDP website (http://www.icdp-online.de/sites/sanandreas/index/index.html). A suite of downhole geophysical measurements was conducted during the first two Phases of SAFOD drilling, as well as during drilling of the SAFOD Pilot Hole. These data include density, resistivity, porosity, seismic and borehole image logs and are also available via the ICDP website. The SAFOD monitoring program

  17. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    1983-08-01

    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Vertical seismic profile data from well Mallik 2L-38 for gas hydrate studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Y [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Walia, R [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Hyndman, R D; Sakai, A

    1999-01-01

    A gas hydrate research well was drilled in the Canadian Arctic to determine gas hydrates in a permafrost setting in a collaborative research project between the Japan National Oil Corp., and the Geological Survey of Canada with the participation of other agencies. The multidisciplinary study included an electromagnetic survey, permafrost and gas hydrate coring, and comprehensive downhole geophysical logging and measurement. Laboratory studies on recovered cores and cuttings included sedimentology, physical properties, geochemistry, and reservoir characteristics of the Mallik gas accumulation. As part of the field program, a vertical seismic profiling survey was conducted at zero and offset source positions with 3 component receiver tools and horizontal and vertical vibration sources. A special effort was made to record shear wave data, and results from this work were combined with down hole logs and regional surface seismic data. The data will be used also to determine the effect of gas hydrates on formation velocities and to measure gas hydrate concentrations as a function of depth in the formation penetrated by the well. Certain conclusions followed from the initial VSP analysis. 1) Zero offset vertical vibration Z component and horizontal X component data give reliable velocity estimation within the gas hydrate formation zone, and P wave velocities from offset data indicate excellent consistency with that from zero offset data and with the sonic log. 2) The VSP data permitted reliable identification of gas hydrate bearing zones. 4 refs.

  19. Seismic Input Motion Determined from a Surface-Downhole Pair of Sensors: A Constrained Deconvolution Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dino Bindi; Stefano Parolai; M. Picozzi; A. Ansal

    2010-01-01

    We apply a deconvolution approach to the problem of determining the input motion at the base of an instrumented borehole using only a pair of recordings, one at the borehole surface and the other at its bottom. To stabilize the bottom-tosurface spectral ratio, we apply an iterative regularization algorithm that allows us to constrain the solution to be positively defined and to have a finite time duration. Through the analysis of synthetic data, we show that the method is capab...

  20. Processing Approaches for DAS-Enabled Continuous Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Wood, T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; McDonald, S.; Pevzner, R.; Lindsey, N.; Gelvin, A.; Saari, S.; Morales, A.; Ekblaw, I.; Wagner, A. M.; Ulrich, C.; Daley, T. M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is creating a "field as laboratory" capability for seismic monitoring of subsurface changes. By providing unprecedented spatial and temporal sampling at a relatively low cost, DAS enables field-scale seismic monitoring to have durations and temporal resolutions that are comparable to those of laboratory experiments. Here we report on seismic processing approaches developed during data analyses of three case studies all using DAS-enabled seismic monitoring with applications ranging from shallow permafrost to deep reservoirs: (1) 10-hour downhole monitoring of cement curing at Otway, Australia; (2) 2-month surface monitoring of controlled permafrost thaw at Fairbanks, Alaska; (3) multi-month downhole and surface monitoring of carbon sequestration at Decatur, Illinois. We emphasize the data management and processing components relevant to DAS-based seismic monitoring, which include scalable approaches to data management, pre-processing, denoising, filtering, and wavefield decomposition. DAS has dramatically increased the data volume to the extent that terabyte-per-day data loads are now typical, straining conventional approaches to data storage and processing. To achieve more efficient use of disk space and network bandwidth, we explore improved file structures and data compression schemes. Because noise floor of DAS measurements is higher than that of conventional sensors, optimal processing workflow involving advanced denoising, deconvolution (of the source signatures), and stacking approaches are being established to maximize signal content of DAS data. The resulting workflow of data management and processing could accelerate the broader adaption of DAS for continuous monitoring of critical processes.

  1. Geotechnical investigation for seismic issues for K-reactor area at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.; Reeves, C.Q.

    1991-01-01

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed at Savannah River Site to characterize the foundation conditions in K-Reactor Area and confirm soil design properties for use in seismic qualification of structures. The scope of field work included ten soil borings to a 200-foot depth with split-spoon and undisturbed sampling. Additionally, 42 cone penetrometer tests were performed with seismic down-hole measurements. Three cross-hole shear wave velocity tests were also completed to confirm the assumed dynamic properties which had been used in preliminary seismic analysis

  2. Seismic tomography inversion in the case that sources and receivers are distributed out of a 2-D plane; Shingen jushinten ga nijigen heimennai ni nai baai no danseiha tomography kaiseki ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, T; Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Rokugawa, S; Matsushima, J [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ashida, Y [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    In the case where sources and receivers are not distributed on a 2-D plane, seismic tomography inversion was studied. In tomography experiments, the existing wells are generally used. In such case, sources and receivers are frequently not distributed on a 2-D plane. The 2.5-D analysis method including 2-D structure and 3-D ray-tracing was thus developed. This method is featured by less memory necessary for ray-tracing calculation, and the same algorithm for velocity determination as 2-D analysis method. In previous methods, since analysis is generally carried out by projecting sources and receivers on a certain assumed 2-D plane, it can derive correct results in the case of constant velocity and straight ray, however, in the other case, it derives incorrect results. Application of 3-D tomography requires a large amount of memory, and falls into poor convergence because of various parameters. The 2.5-D analysis method can avoid these demerits. This analysis method was applied to the data obtained in Ogiri area, Kagoshima prefecture. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Apparatus for deploying and energizing submersible electric motor downhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, S.E.; Dwiggins, J.L.; Brookbank, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for deploying and energizing a submergible electric motor downhole. It comprises a cable socket assembly and a cable connecting-and-sealing chamber assembly adapted to be arranged seriatim in the path of cable means and the motor, the assemblies having first and second housings, respectively, means for connecting a lower end of the first housing to an upper end of the second housing, a lower end of the second housing being adapted for connection to the motor, the cable socket assembly having an attachment portion including means for attaching a weight-bearing cable of the cable means to the first housing via a breakaway connection, the first housing having a passage therein adapted to pass an electrical cable of the cable means to the second housing, the second housing being divided by a body therein into first and second chambers sealed from each other, the first chamber being adapted to communicate sealingly with the passage and the second chamber being adapted to communicate sealingly with the interior of the motor, a first set of electrical conductors in the first chamber and a second set of electrical conductors in the second chamber, the body having feed-through means for electrically interconnecting conductors of the first set with corresponding conductors of the second set, the conductors of the first set having electrical connector parts adapted to connect releasably with corresponding electrical connector parts of the electrical cable, and the conductors of the second set having electrical connector parts adapted to connect with corresponding electrical connector parts of the motor, each of the chambers being adapted to be filled with fluid to exclude well fluid therefrom

  4. Down-hole catalytic upgrading of heavy crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J.G.; Kessler, R.V.; Sawicki, R.A.; Belgrave, J.D.M.; Laureshen, C.J.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G.; Ursenbach, M.G. [University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Several processing options have been developed to accomplish near-well bore in-situ upgrading of heavy crude oils. These processes are designed to pass oil over a fixed bed of catalyst prior to entering the production well, the catalyst being placed by conventional gravel pack methods. The presence of brine and the need to provide heat and reactant gases in a down-hole environment provide challenges not present in conventional processing. These issues were addressed and the processes demonstrated by use of a modified combustion tube apparatus. Middle-Eastern heavy crude oil and the corresponding brine were used at the appropriate reservoir conditions. In-situ combustion was used to generate reactive gases and to drive fluids over a heated sand or catalysts bed, simulating the catalyst contacting portion of the proposed processes. The heavy crude oil was found to be amenable to in-situ combustion at anticipated reservoir conditions, with a relatively low air requirement. Forcing the oil to flow over a heated zone prior to production results in some upgrading of the oil, as compared to the original oil, due to thermal effects. Passing the oil over a hydroprocessing catalyst located in the heated zone results in a product that is significantly upgraded as compared to either the original oil or thermally processed oil. Catalytic upgrading is due to hydrogenation and the results in about a 50% sulfur removal and an 8{degree} API gravity increase. Additionally, the heated catalyst was found to be efficient at converting CO to additional H{sub 2}. While all of the technologies needed for a successful field trial of in-situ catalytic upgrading exist, a demonstration has yet to be undertaken. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Measurement Of Compressional-Wave Seismic Velocities In 29 Wells At The Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Check shot seismic velocity surveys were collected in 100 B/C, 200 East, 200-PO-1 Operational Unit (OU), and the Gable Gap areas in order to provide time-depth correlation information to aid the interpretation of existing seismic reflection data acquired at the Hanford Site (Figure 1). This report details results from 5 wells surveyed in fiscal year (FY) 2008, 7 wells in FY 2009, and 17 wells in FY 2010 and provides summary compressional-wave seismic velocity information to help guide future seismic survey design as well as improve current interpretations of the seismic data (SSC 1979/1980; SGW-39675; SGW-43746). Augmenting the check shot database are four surveys acquired in 2007 in support of the Bechtel National, Inc. Waste Treatment Plant construction design (PNNL-16559, PNNL-16652), and check shot surveys in three wells to support seismic testing in the 200 West Area (Waddell et al., 1999). Additional sonic logging was conducted during the late 1970s and early 1980s as part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) (SSC 1979/1980) and check shot/sonic surveys as part of the safety report for the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear project (RDH/10-AMCP-0164). Check shot surveys are used to obtain an in situ measure of compressional-wave seismic velocity for sediment and rock in the vicinity of the well point, and provide the seismic-wave travel time to geologic horizons of interest. The check shot method deploys a downhole seismic receiver (geophone) to record the arrival of seismic waves generated by a source at the ground surface. The travel time of the first arriving seismic-wave is determined and used to create a time-depth function to correlate encountered geologic intervals with the seismic data. This critical tie with the underlying geology improves the interpretation of seismic reflection profile information. Fieldwork for this investigation was conducted by in house staff during the weeks of September 22, 2008 for 5 wells in the 200 East Area (Figure 2); June 1

  6. Design Enhancement and Performance Examination of External Rotor Switched Flux Permanent Magnet Machine for Downhole Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Sulaiman, E.; Soomro, H. A.; Jusoh, L. I.; Bahrim, F. S.; Omar, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    The recent change in innovation and employments of high-temperature magnets, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) has turned out to be one of the suitable contenders for seaward boring, however, less intended for downhole because of high atmospheric temperature. Subsequently, this extensive review manages the design enhancement and performance examination of external rotor PMFSM for the downhole application. Preparatory, the essential design parameters required for machine configuration are computed numerically. At that point, the design enhancement strategy is actualized through deterministic technique. At last, preliminary and refined execution of the machine is contrasted and as a consequence, the yield torque is raised from 16.39Nm to 33.57Nm while depreciating the cogging torque and PM weight up to 1.77Nm and 0.79kg, individually. In this manner, it is inferred that purposed enhanced design of 12slot-22pole with external rotor is convenient for the downhole application.

  7. Two applications of time reversal mirrors: Seismic radio and seismic radar

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2011-01-01

    Two seismic applications of time reversal mirrors (TRMs) are introduced and tested with field experiments. The first one is sending, receiving, and decoding coded messages similar to a radio except seismic waves are used. The second one is, similar

  8. Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.

    1999-01-31

    The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely

  9. High Resolution Vertical Seismic Profile from the Chicxulub IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Borehole: Wave Speeds and Seismic Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lofi, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    We acquired a closely-spaced vertical seismic profile (VSP) in the Chicxulub K-Pg Impact Crater drilling program borehole to calibrate the existing surface seismic profiles and provide complementary measurements of in situ seismic wave speeds. Downhole seismic records were obtained at spacings ranging from 1.25 m to 5 m along the borehole from 47.5 m to 1325 mwsf (meters wireline below sea floor) (Fig 1a) using a Sercel SlimwaveTM geophone chain (University of Alberta). The seismic source was a 30/30ci Sercel Mini GI airgun (University of Texas), fired a minimum of 5 times per station. Seismic data processing used a combination of a commercial processing package (Schlumberger's VISTA) and MatlabTM codes. The VSP displays detailed reflectivity (Fig. 1a) with the strongest reflection seen at 600 mwsf (280 ms one-way time), geologically corresponding to the sharp contact between the post-impact sediments and the target peak ring rock, thus confirming the pre-drilling interpretations of the seismic profiles. A two-way time trace extracted from the separated up-going wavefield matches the major reflection both in travel time and character. In the granitic rocks that form the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater, we observe P-wave velocities of 4000-4500 m/s which are significantly less than the expected values of granitoids ( 6000 m/s) (Fig. 1b). The VSP measured wave speeds are confirmed against downhole sonic logging and in laboratory velocimetry measurements; these data provide additional evidence that the crustal material displaced by the impact experienced a significant amount of damage. Samples and data provided by IODP. Samples can be requested at http://web.iodp.tamu.edu/sdrm after 19 October 2017. Expedition 364 was jointly funded by ECORD, ICDP, and IODP with contributions and logistical support from the Yucatan State Government and UNAM. The downhole seismic chain and wireline system is funded by grants to DRS from the Canada Foundation for Innovation and

  10. Characterizing the Relationship Between Lithospheric Deformation and Seismic Anisotropy in the Basin and Range Province and San Andreas Fault System using Ps Receiver Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H. A.; Schnorr, E.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of complex and spatially variable anisotropy in many parts of the western U.S. has been tied to regional tectonic and dynamic processes that go beyond the (frequently) assumed plate motion oriented shear. In the Basin and Range, a well-imaged "swirl" of shear wave splitting observations has been explained via a number of different dynamic processes, including a lithospheric drip and toroidal flow. In central California, rapid variations in splitting direction across the plate boundary have been attributed to a relatively narrow, well-defined shear zone. Ambient noise tomography has further complicated the picture, indicating that some of the observed complexity can be explained by incorporating multiple layers of anisotropy. The goal of this study is to place firm constraints on vertical variations in anisotropy over two tectonically distinct, yet related, regions- the Basin and Range province and the San Andreas fault system, in order to better understand how deformation of the lithosphere is accommodated. To do this, radial and transverse component Ps receiver functions have been calculated for 14 stations within the two regions. Within both study areas, variability exists between most stations at crust and lithospheric mantle depths. This is particularly true for stations located near the San Andreas Fault system. These differences may be attributed to variations in the provenance of the lithospheric "packages" in some areas, however several stations are located near or within the plate boundary system and may be sampling multiple regions with varying deformation fabrics. To account for this, future work will include binning as a function of piercing point. One notable exception to the generally observed variability is along the western margin of the Basin and Range, where several stations show similarities in back azimuthal variations at lower crust and uppermost mantle depths. Preliminary forwarding modeling of two of these stations indicates that

  11. Green's function representations for seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Fokkema, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The term seismic interferometry refers to the principle of generating new seismic responses by crosscorrelating seismic observations at different receiver locations. The first version of this principle was derived by Claerbout (1968), who showed that the reflection response of a horizontally layered

  12. Downhole multiphase metering in wells by means of soft-sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, M.; Kruif, B. de; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Gryzlov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphase flow meters are indispensable tools for achieving optimal operation and control of wells as these meters deliver real-time information about their performance. For example, multiphase flow meters located downhole can improve the production of multilateral and multizone wells by timely

  13. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path between mud pump pressure interference and downhole mud pressure signals. Considering pressure signal transmission characteristics of the mud pipe, a mathematical model of ideal low-pass filter for limited frequency band signal is introduced to study the pole frequency impact on the signal reconstruction and the constraints of pressure sensor distance are obtained by pole frequencies analysis. Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation show that the method can effectively eliminate mud pump pressure interference and the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals can be reconstructed successfully with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in the condition of satisfying the constraints of pressure sensor distance.

  14. Seismic Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power

  15. Seismic study of soil dynamics at Garner Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archuleta, R.J.; Seale, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Garner Valley downhole array (GVDA) of force-balanced accelerometers was designed to determine the effect that near-surface soil layers have on surface ground motion by measuring in situ seismic waves at various depths. Although there are many laboratory, theoretical and numerical studies that are used to predict the effects that local site geology might have on seismic waves, there are very few direct measurements that can be used to confirm the predictions made by these methods. The effects of local site geology on seismic ground motions are critical for estimating the base motion of structures. The variations in site amplifications at particular periods can range over a factor of 20 or more in comparing amplitude spectra from rock and soil sites, e.g., Mexico City (1985) or San Francisco (1989). The basic phenomenon of nonlinear soil response, and by inference severe attenuation of seismic waves, has rarely been measured although it is commonly observed in laboratory experiments. The basic question is whether or not the local site geology amplifies are attenuates the seismic ground motion. Because the answer depends on the interaction between the local site geology and the amplitude as well as the frequency content of the incoming seismic waves, the in situ measurements must sample the depth variations of the local structure as well as record seismic waves over as wide a range as possible in amplitude and frequency

  16. Vertical seismic profile data from well Mallik 2L-38 for gas hydrate studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Y [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Walia, R [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada) School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Hyndman, R [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada) Pacific Geoscience Centre

    1999-07-01

    A gas hydrate research well was drilled in the Canadian Arctic to study gas hydrates in a permafrost setting in a collaborative research project between the Japan National Oil Corp., the Geological Survey of Canada and other agencies. The multidisciplinary study included an electromagnetic survey, permafrost and gas hydrate coring, comprehensive downhole geophysical logging and measurement. Laboratory studies concerned studies on recovered cuttings and core including sedimentology, physical properties, geochemistry, and reservoir characteristics of the Mallik gas accumulation. As part of the Mallik 2L-38 field program, a vertical seismic profiling survey was conducted at zero and other offset source positions with three component receiver tools and horizontal and vertical vibration sources. A special effort was made to record shear wave data, which will be used to estimate the effect of gas hydrate on formation velocities and to determine gas hydrate concentration as a function of the Mallik gas accumulation. From the initial VSP analysis, certain conclusions follow: 1) zero offset vertical vibration component Z and horizontal X component data give reliable velocity determination within the gas hydrate formation zone. P wave velocities from offset VSP data show an excellent consistency with that from offset data and with the sonic log. And 2) the VSP data permit reliable identification of gas hydrate bearing zones. Abstract only included.

  17. New Developments in Long-Term Downhole Monitoring Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kück

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term observation of active geological processes is a major research goal in an increasing number of scientific drilling projects. An extended monitoring phase within a potentially hostile environment (e.g., temperature, pressure, salinity requires new long-lasting and robust instrumentation currently unavailable from either industry or academia. Extended exposure of instrument packages to extreme conditions will typically cause seals to weaken and fail,electronic parts to break under permanent load, and sensors to degrade or develop strong drift. In the framework of scientific exploration, there are currently several major research projects targeting fault zone drilling and in situ measurements to monitor physical and chemical conditions before, during, and after seismic events. Planning has now begun for tool development, testing, and continuous long-term monitoring for the San Andreas Fault Zone Observatory at Depth, SAFOD (Parkfi eld, Calif., U.S.A.; See article on page 32..

  18. Application of Genetic Algorithms in Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupios, Pantelis; Akca, Irfan; Mpogiatzis, Petros; Basokur, Ahmet; Papazachos, Constantinos

    2010-05-01

    application of hybrid genetic algorithms in seismic tomography is examined and the efficiency of least squares and genetic methods as representative of the local and global optimization, respectively, is presented and evaluated. The robustness of both optimization methods has been tested and compared for the same source-receiver geometry and characteristics of the model structure (anomalies, etc.). A set of seismic refraction synthetic (noise free) data was used for modeling. Specifically, cross-well, down-hole and typical refraction studies using 24 geophones and 5 shoots were used to confirm the applicability of the genetic algorithms in seismic tomography. To solve the forward modeling and estimate the traveltimes, the revisited ray bending method was used supplemented by an approximate computation of the first Fresnel volume. The root mean square (rms) error as the misfit function was used and calculated for the entire random velocity model for each generation. After the end of each generation and based on the misfit of the individuals (velocity models), the selection, crossover and mutation (typical process steps of genetic algorithms) were selected continuing the evolution theory and coding the new generation. To optimize the computation time, since the whole procedure is quite time consuming, the Matlab Distributed Computing Environment (MDCE) was used in a multicore engine. During the tests, we noticed that the fast convergence that the algorithm initially exhibits (first 5 generations) is followed by progressively slower improvements of the reconstructed velocity models. Thus, to improve the final tomographic models, a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) approach was adopted by combining the GAs with a local optimization method after several generations, on the basis of the convergence of the resulting models. This approach is shown to be efficient, as it directs the solution search towards a model region close to the global minimum solution.

  19. Development and validation of the downhole freestanding shear device (DFSD) for measuring the dynamic properties of clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Downhole Freestanding Shear Device (DFSD) is an innovative tool developed for in situ measurement of dynamic : properties (modulus and damping) of clay soils over a broad range of strains. The device essentially performs : laboratory-quality tors...

  20. Induced seismicity. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models

  1. An improved fiber optic pressure and temperature sensor for downhole application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref, S H; Zibaii, M I; Latifi, H

    2009-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a high pressure extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric (EFPI) fiber optic sensor for downhole applications by using a mechanical transducer. The mechanical transducer has been used for increasing the pressure sensitivity and the possibility of installation of the sensor downhole. The pressure–temperature cross-sensitivity (PTCS) problem has been solved by replacing the reflecting fiber with a metal microwire in the EFPI sensor. In this way the PTCS coefficient of the sensor was decreased from 47.25 psi °C −1 to 7 psi °C −1 . By using a new EFPI design, a temperature sensor was fabricated. Further improvement in the pressure and temperature sensor has been done by developing fabrication technique and signal processing

  2. Mechanical Design of Downhole Tractor Based on Two-Way Self-locking Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delei; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Wu, Guoheng; Liu, Yiying

    2018-03-01

    Based on the technology of horizontal well tractor, a kind of downhole tractor was developed which can realize Two-Way self-locking function. Aiming at the needs of horizontal well logging to realize the target of small size, high traction and high reliability, the tractor selects unique heart-shaped CAM as the locking mechanism. The motion principle of telescopic downhole tractor, the design of mechanical structure and locking principle of the locking mechanism are all analyzed. The mathematical expressions of traction are obtained by mechanical analysis of parallel support rod in the locking mechanism. The force analysis and contour design of the heart-shaped CAM are performed, which can lay the foundation for the development of tractor prototype.

  3. Numerical Study of Water Control with Downhole Oil-Water Separation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Khor Yin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The maturing oil fields with increasing water production can pose a challenging produced water handling and disposal issues. This paper presents a numerical study of a motorless hydrocyclone to enhance understanding of the downhole oil-water separation. The turbulence of fluid flow is obtained using K-ε Realizable Turbulence model for complex swirl dominated flow, while the interface between hydrocarbon and water is described using the Discrete Phase model. In this approach, factors which contribute to the hydrocyclone separation instability were discussed. Discussion is then extended to the relationship of residence time with pressure difference between overflow and underflow. These pressure differences are able to relate to pressure condition for high water cut well which require downhole separation.

  4. Integrated hydraulic booster/tool string technology for unfreezing of stuck downhole strings in horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Q. Z.

    2017-12-01

    It is common to use a jarring tool to unfreeze stuck downhole string. However, in a horizontal well, influenced by the friction caused by the deviated section, jarring effect is poor; on the other hand, the forcing point can be located in the horizontal section by a hydraulic booster and the friction can be reduced, but it is time-consuming and easy to break downhole string using a large-tonnage and constant pull force. A hydraulic booster - jar tool string has been developed for unfreezing operation in horizontal wells. The technical solution involves three elements: a two-stage parallel spring cylinder structure for increasing the energy storage capacity of spring accelerators; multiple groups of spring accelerators connected in series to increase the working stroke; a hydraulic booster intensifying jarring force. The integrated unfreezing tool string based on these three elements can effectively overcome the friction caused by a deviated borehole, and thus unfreeze a stuck string with the interaction of the hydraulic booster and the mechanical jar which form an alternatively dynamic load. Experimental results show that the jarring performance parameters of the hydraulic booster-jar unfreezing tool string for the horizontal wells are in accordance with original design requirements. Then field technical parameters were developed based on numerical simulation and experimental data. Field application shows that the hydraulic booster-jar unfreezing tool string is effective to free stuck downhole tools in a horizontal well, and it reduces hook load by 80% and lessens the requirement of workover equipment. This provides a new technology to unfreeze stuck downhole string in a horizontal well.

  5. Downhole microseismic monitoring of shale deposits: Case study from Northern Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swiech, E.; Wandycz, P.; Eisner, Leo; Pasternacki, A.; Mackowski, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2017), s. 297-304 ISSN 1214-9705 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) CNR-16-17 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Polish shale gas * downhole microseismic processing * anisotropy * microseismic events Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  6. Study on Dynamic Response of Downhole Tools under Perforation Impact Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of a multibody system is established to investigate the dynamic response of an oil tube-shock absorber-perforating gun system in downhole perforation-test joint operation. In the model, the oil tube and perforating gun are modeled as elastic rods and the shock absorber is modeled as single particle system with damping and a spring. Two force continuity conditions are used to simulate the interactions among the three components. The perforation impact load is determined by an experiment of underwater explosion of perforating bullets. Using the model, the effects of charge quantity of perforating bullet, the number of shock absorbers, and the length of oil tube on the dynamic response of oil tube and packer are investigated. On this basis, a basic principle of the combination design of shock absorber and oil tube is proposed to improve the mechanical state of downhole tools. The study results can provide theoretical support for the design of downhole perforation-test joint operation.

  7. Development and Application of the Downhole Drilling String Shock-Absorption and Hydraulic Supercharging Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a hot topic for deep/ultradeep wells to improve rock-breaking efficiency and drilling speed by available downhole energy. Based on different downhole energies and working conditions, specialized plunger pump is proposed to convert longitudinal vibration of drilling string into rock-breaking energy. Technical design is developed to generate high-pressure water jet. And then a simulation model is built to verify feasibility of the technical design. Through simulation, the influence law of key factors is obtained. On this basis, this device is tested in several wells. The result indicates this device can increase drilling speed as much as 136%. Meanwhile the harmful vibration can be absorbed. The energy from drilling string vibration is of high frequency and increases as well depth and formation anisotropy increase. By reducing adverse vibration, this device is able to increase the drilling speed and the service life also meets the demand of field application. The longest working time lasts for more than 130 hours. The performance of this device demonstrates great application prospect in deep/ultradeep resources exploration. To provide more equipment support for deep/ultradeep wells, more effort should be put into fundamental study on downhole drill string vibration and related equipment.

  8. Feasibility of using electrical downhole heaters in Faja heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Bashbush, J.L.; Rincon, A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Numerical models were used to examine the effect of downhole heaters in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes in Venezuela's Orinoco reservoir. The downhole heaters were equipped with mineral-insulated cables that allowed alternating currents to flow between 2 conductors packed in a resistive core composed of polymers and graphite. The heaters were used in conjunction with steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes and also used in horizontal wells for limited amounts of time in order to accelerate production and pressure declines. The models incorporated the petrophysical and fluid characteristics of the Ayacucho area in the Faja del Orinoco. A compositional-thermal simulator was used to describe heat and fluid flow within the reservoir. A total of 8 scenarios were used to examine the electrical heaters with horizontal and vertical wells with heaters of various capacities. Results of the study were then used in an economic analysis of capitalized and operating costs. Results of the study showed that downhole heaters are an economically feasible EOR option for both vertical and horizontal wells. Use of the heaters prior to SAGD processes accelerated production and achieved higher operational efficiencies. 5 refs., 9 tabs., 15 figs.

  9. Research on calibration method of downhole optical fiber temperature measurement and its application in SAGD well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Han, Li; Hu, Chengjun; Pan, Yong; Duan, Shengnan; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Shijian; Nuer, Maimaiti

    2017-10-01

    With the development of oil and gas fields, the accuracy and quantity requirements of real-time dynamic monitoring data needed for well dynamic analysis and regulation are increasing. Permanent, distributed downhole optical fiber temperature and pressure monitoring and other online real-time continuous data monitoring has become an important data acquisition and transmission technology in digital oil field and intelligent oil field construction. Considering the requirement of dynamic analysis of steam chamber developing state in SAGD horizontal wells in F oil reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, it is necessary to carry out real-time and continuous temperature monitoring in horizontal section. Based on the study of the principle of optical fiber temperature measurement, the factors that cause the deviation of optical fiber temperature sensing are analyzed, and the method of fiber temperature calibration is proposed to solve the problem of temperature deviation. Field application in three wells showed that it could attain accurate measurement of downhole temperature by temperature correction. The real-time and continuous downhole distributed fiber temperature sensing technology has higher application value in the reservoir management of SAGD horizontal wells. It also has a reference for similar dynamic monitoring in reservoir production.

  10. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K

    1996-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.

    1995-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  13. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  14. Imaging Seismic Source Variations Using Back-Projection Methods at El Tatio Geyser Field, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, C. L.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    During October 2012, 51 geophones and 6 broadband seismometers were deployed in an ~50x50m region surrounding a periodically erupting columnar geyser in the El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile. The dense array served as the seismic framework for a collaborative project to study the mechanics of complex hydrothermal systems. Contemporaneously, complementary geophysical measurements (including down-hole temperature and pressure, discharge rates, thermal imaging, water chemistry, and video) were also collected. Located on the western flanks of the Andes Mountains at an elevation of 4200m, El Tatio is the third largest geyser field in the world. Its non-pristine condition makes it an ideal location to perform minutely invasive geophysical studies. The El Jefe Geyser was chosen for its easily accessible conduit and extremely periodic eruption cycle (~120s). During approximately 2 weeks of continuous recording, we recorded ~2500 nighttime eruptions which lack cultural noise from tourism. With ample data, we aim to study how the source varies spatially and temporally during each phase of the geyser's eruption cycle. We are developing a new back-projection processing technique to improve source imaging for diffuse signals. Our method was previously applied to the Sierra Negra Volcano system, which also exhibits repeating harmonic and diffuse seismic sources. We back-project correlated seismic signals from the receivers back to their sources, assuming linear source to receiver paths and a known velocity model (obtained from ambient noise tomography). We apply polarization filters to isolate individual and concurrent geyser energy associated with P and S phases. We generate 4D, time-lapsed images of the geyser source field that illustrate how the source distribution changes through the eruption cycle. We compare images for pre-eruption, co-eruption, post-eruption and quiescent periods. We use our images to assess eruption mechanics in the system (i.e. top-down vs. bottom-up) and

  15. Shallow Seismic Reflection Study of Recently Active Fault Scarps, Mina Deflection, Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R. A.; Christie, M.; Tsoflias, G. P.; Stockli, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    During the spring and summer of 2006 University of Kansas geophysics students and faculty acquired shallow, high resolution seismic reflection data over actively deforming alluvial fans developing across the Emmigrant Peak (in Fish Lake Valley) and Queen Valley Faults in western Nevada. These normal faults represent a portion of the transition from the right-lateral deformation associated with the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone to the normal and left-lateral faulting of the Mina Deflection. Data were gathered over areas of recent high resolution geological mapping and limited trenching by KU students. An extensive GPR data grid was also acquired. The GPR results are reported in Christie, et al., 2006. The seismic data gathered in the spring included both walkaway tests and a short CMP test line. These data indicated that a very near-surface P-wave to S-wave conversion was taking place and that very high quality S-wave reflections were probably dominating shot records to over one second in time. CMP lines acquired during the summer utilized a 144 channel networked Geode system, single 28 hz geophones, and a 30.06 downhole rifle source. Receiver spacing was 0.5 m, source spacing 1.0m and CMP bin spacings were 0.25m for all lines. Surveying was performed using an RTK system which was also used to develop a concurrent high resolution DEM. A dip line of over 400m and a strike line over 100m in length were shot across the active fan scarp in Fish Lake Valley. Data processing is still underway. However, preliminary interpretation of common-offset gathers and brute stacks indicates very complex faulting and detailed stratigraphic information to depths of over 125m. Depth of information was actually limited by the 1024ms recording time. Several west-dipping normal faults downstep towards the basin. East-dipping antithetic normal faulting is extensive. Several distinctive stratigraphic packages are bound by the faults and apparent unconformitites. A CMP dip line

  16. Seismic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground

  17. Seismic Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-01-01

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  18. Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keranen, Katie M.; Weingarten, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has created abundant opportunities to study induced earthquakes and triggering processes. This review briefly summarizes early studies but focuses on results from induced earthquakes during the past 10 years related to fluid injection in petroleum fields. Study of these earthquakes has resulted in insights into physical processes and has identified knowledge gaps and future research directions. Induced earthquakes are challenging to identify using seismological methods, and faults and reefs strongly modulate spatial and temporal patterns of induced seismicity. However, the similarity of induced and natural seismicity provides an effective tool for studying earthquake processes. With continuing development of energy resources, increased interest in carbon sequestration, and construction of large dams, induced seismicity will continue to pose a hazard in coming years.

  19. Seismic Readings from the Deepest Borehole in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolery, Edward W [KY Geological Survey, Univ of KY; Wang, Zhenming [KY Geological Survey, Univ of KY; Sturchio, Neil C [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago

    2006-03-01

    Since the 1980s, the research associated with the UK network has been primarily strong-motion seismology of engineering interest. Currently the University of Kentucky operates a strong-motion network of nine stations in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. A unique feature of the network is the inclusions of vertical strong-motion arrays, each with one or two downhole accelerometers. The deepest borehole array is 260 m below the surfaces at station VASA in Fulton County, Kentucky. A preliminary surface seismic refraction survey was conducted at the site before drilling the hole at VSAS (Woolery and Wang, 2002). The depth to the Paleozoic bedrock at the site was estimated to be approximately 595 m, and the depth to the first very stiff layer (i.e. Porters Creek Clay) was found to be about 260 m. These depths and stratigraphic interpretation correlated well with a proprietary seismic reflection line and the Ken-Ten Oil Exploration No. 1 Sanger hole (Schwalb, 1969), as well as our experience in the area (Street et al., 1995; Woolery et al., 1999).

  20. The planning of a passive seismic experiment: the Ketzin case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, G.; Petronio, L.

    2009-04-01

    In the last years, it has been recognized the importance of using microseismic activity data to gain information on the state and dynamics of a reservoir, notwithstanding the difficulties of recording, localizing the events, interpret them correctly, in terms of developing fractures, or thermal effects. The increasing number of CO2 storage experiments, with the necessity of providing efficient, economic, and long-term monitoring methods, both in the injection and post-injection phases, further encourage the development and improvement of recording and processing techniques. Microseismic signals are typically recorded with downhole sensors. Monitoring with surface sensors is problematic due to increased noise levels and signal attenuation particularly in the near surface. The actual detection distance depends on background noise conditions, seismic attenuation and the microseismic source strength. In the frame of the European project Co2ReMoVe and of the European Network of Excellence Co2GeoNet, a passive seismic experiment was planned in the Ketzin site for geological storage of CO2, a former gas store near Potsdam, object of the CO2SINK European project and inserted also in the European project Co2ReMoVe. Aim of the survey is to complement the CO2-SINK active seismic downhole experiments, adding precious information on the microseismicity induced by stress field changes at the reservoir level and in the overburden, due to the CO2 injection. The baseline survey was done in May 2008 by the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale-OGS (Italy), with the support of the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum-GFZ (Germany) and the collaboration of the Institut für Geowissenschaftliche Gemeinschaftsaufgaben-GGA (Germany), shortly before the starting of the CO2 injection (June 30th 2008). A continuous monitoring (about 5 days) was performed by 2 downhole 3C geophones, and 3 surface 3C geophones located around the wells. This paper, based on the analysis of

  1. Ruggedized downhole tool for real-time measurements and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Ryan Falcone; Lindblom, Scott C.; Yelton, William G.; Limmer, Steven J.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2018-01-09

    The present invention relates to ruggedized downhole tools and sensors, as well as uses thereof. In particular, these tools can operate under extreme conditions and, therefore, allow for real-time measurements in geothermal reservoirs or other potentially harsh environments. One exemplary sensor includes a ruggedized ion selective electrode (ISE) for detecting tracer concentrations in real-time. In one embodiment, the ISE includes a solid, non-conductive potting material and an ion selective material, which are disposed in a temperature-resistant electrode body. Other electrode configurations, tools, and methods are also described.

  2. Disposal of oil cuttings by downhole fracturing injections : slurry product specifications issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzuan Junin

    1994-01-01

    The technique of using on-site injection of oil contaminated drill cuttings is attracting considerable attention as a cost effective means of complying with environmental legislation concerning discharges of drilling wastes. The slurrification and injection of oil based cuttings into a casing annulus, a process developed in 1989 by a major oil and gas producer/ operator, has proven to be a significant step toward reduction of such environmental waste. This paper discusses the development of the cuttings reinjection, slurrification, slurry properties and benefits of quality slurry, and behaviour of solid laden slurries in a fracture in conjunction with down-hole disposal operations

  3. Subsurface Rock Physical Properties by Downhole Loggings - Case Studies of Continental Deep Drilling in Kanto Distinct, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, K.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, many examples of physical logging have been carried out in deep boreholes. The loggings are direct in-situ measurements of rock physical properties under the ground. They provide significant basic data for the geological, geophysical and geotechnical investigations, e.g., tectonic history, seismic wave propagation, and ground motion prediction. Since about 1980's, Natl. Res. Inst. for Earth Sci. and Disast. Prev. (NIED) dug deep boreholes (from 200m to 3000m depth) in sedimentary basin of Kanto distinct, Japan, for purposes of installing seismographs and hydrological instruments, and in-situ stress and pore pressure measurements. At that time, downhole physical loggings were conducted in the boreholes: spontaneous potential, electrical resistance, elastic wave velocity, formation density, neutron porosity, total gamma ray, caliper, temperature loggings. In many cases, digital data values were provided every 2m or 1m or 0.1m. In other cases, we read printed graphs of logging plots and got digital data values. Data from about 30 boreholes are compiled. Especially, particular change of logging data at the depth of an interface between a shallow part (soft sedimentary rock) and a base rock (equivalent to hard pre-Neogene rock) is examined. In this presentation, the correlations among physical properties of rock (especially, formation density, elastic wave velocity and electrical resistance) are introduced and the relation to the lithology is discussed. Formation density, elastic wave velocity and electric resistance data indicate the data are divide in two groups that are higher or lower than 2.5g/cm3: the one correspond to a shallow part and the other correspond to a base rock part. In each group, the elastic wave velocity and electric resistance increase with increase of formation density. However the rates of increases in the shallow part are smaller than in the base rock part. The shallow part has lower degree of solidification and higher porosity

  4. Seismic Symphonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  5. Seismic Structure of Southern African Cratons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina; Levander, Alan

    2014-01-01

    functions and finite-frequency tomography based on data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE). Combining the two methods provides high vertical and lateral resolution. The main results obtained are (1) the presence of a highly heterogeneous crustal structure, in terms of thickness, composition (as......Cratons are extremely stable continental crustal areas above thick depleted lithosphere. These regions have remained largely unchanged for more than 2.5 Ga. This study presents a new seismic model of the seismic structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle constrained by seismic receiver...

  6. Advanced Data Communications for Downhole Data Logging and Control Applications in the Oil Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spracklen, C T; Aslam, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    We present details of 'Mercury', a high-speed downhole communications system that utilizes the (metallic) wall of a gas or oil pipeline or a drill 'string' as the communications 'channel' to control or monitor equipment or sensors used in the oil industry. Conventional downhole communication systems typically use 'mud pulse' telemetry for 'Measurement While Drilling' (MWD) operations. Current mud pulse telemetry technology offers bandwidths of up to 40 bit/s. However the data rate drops with increasing length of the wellbore and is typically as low as 1.5 bit/s – 3.0 bit/s at a depth of 35,000 ft. – 40,000 ft. The system described, by contrast, offers data rates of several megabits per second over distances of many kilometres and uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) coupled with Wideband Frequency Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA). This paper presents details of our system; results of several trials undertaken on actual gas pipelines in the UK will be presented at the Conference

  7. The design and simulation of new downhole vibration device about acoustic oil recovery technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Hou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available More and more oilfields are using acoustic technology to enhance oil recovery. In order to know the mechanism of acoustic oil recovery technology, the sound radiator of a new downhole vibration device is modeled and analyzed. Based on the theoretical background, this paper firstly analyzes the acoustic mechanism for the oil reservoir and then makes a acoustic response analysis on the sound radiator model for frequency and time-domain investigation by using professional acoustic simulation software–LMS Virtual.lab Acoustics, finally calculates the acoustic transmission loss in the downhole oil reservoir. The research reveals that firstly, acoustic waves have influences on the oil & water fluidity in the oil reservoir, the oil pressure gradient and the interfacial tension of capillary; secondly, the acoustic radiation power and sound pressure of field point attain a peak on the natural frequency of the sound radiator; thirdly, with the acoustic impact, the sound pressure of oil reservoir would fluctuate so as to improve the oil recovery ratio; the last but not the least one is both the sound pressure of oil reservoir point and the transmission loss of rock have a positive correlation with the vibration frequency. Therefore, it is of great importance for the research of vibration frequency and structure optimization of sound radiator.

  8. Seismic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    were presumed nuclear explosions announced by ERDA. Of the last, 11 were at the Semipalatinsk test site , 2 at the Western Kazakh test site , 2 in Novaya...which will fulfill U.S. ob- ligations that may be incurred under a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. This report includes 9 contributions...which could assume U.S. seismic-data-management responsibilities in the event that international agreement is reached on a Comprehensive Test Ban

  9. Martian seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goins, N.R.; Lazarewicz, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    During the Viking mission to Mars, the seismometer on Lander II collected approximately 0.24 Earth years of observations data, excluding periods of time dominated by wind-induced Lander vibration. The ''quiet-time'' data set contains no confirmed seismic events. A proper assessment of the significance of this fact requires quantitative estimates of the expected detection rate of the Viking seismometer. The first step is to calculate the minimum magnitude event detectable at a given distance, including the effects of geometric spreading, anelastic attenuation, seismic signal duration, seismometer frequency response, and possible poor ground coupling. Assuming various numerical quantities and a Martian seismic activity comparable to that of intraplate earthquakes, the appropriate integral gives an expected annual detection rate of 10 events, nearly all of which are local. Thus only two to three events would be expected in the observational period presently on hand and the lack of observed events is not in gross contradiction to reasonable expectations. Given the same assumptions, a seismometer 20 times more sensitive than the present instrument would be expected to detect about 120 events annually

  10. Amplification Factors for Spectral Acceleration Using Borehole Seismic Array in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, T. S.; Yih-Min, W.; Chao, W. A.; Chang, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the noise from surface to get the high-quality seismic recordings, there are 54 borehole seismic arrays have been installed in Taiwan deployed by Central Weather Bureau (CWB) until the end of 2016. Each array includes two force balance accelerometers, one at the surface and other inside the borehole, as well as one broadband seismometer inside the borehole. The downhole instruments are placed at a depth between 120 and 400 m. The background noise level are lower at the borehole stations, but the amplitudes recorded by borehole stations are smaller than surface stations for the same earthquake due to the different geology conditions. Therefore, the earthquake magnitude estimated by borehole station is smaller than surface station. So far, CWB only use the surface stations in the magnitude determination due to this situation. In this study, we investigate the site effects between surface and downhole for borehole seismic arrays. Using the spectral ratio derived by the two-station spectral method as the transfer function, simulated the waveform recorded by borehole stations to the surface stations. In the future, through the transfer function, the borehole stations will be included in the estimation of earthquake magnitude and the results of amplification factors can provide the information of near-surface site effects for the ground motion simulation applications.

  11. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  12. Evaluation of selected martensitic stainless steels for use in downhole tubular expansion - Results of a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Robert [Shell International E and P, b.v. Kessler Park 1, Postbus 60, 2280 AB Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    A laboratory program was performed to evaluate the potential of selected martensitic stainless steels for downhole cladding applications. The evaluation of the effects of tubular expansion on mechanical properties, defects, and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking demonstrated that some steels were acceptable for the intended application. The results were used to qualify and select the stainless steel for the intended sweet cladding applications. (authors)

  13. Characterizing Micro- and Macro-Scale Seismicity from Bayou Corne, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, A. M.; Urbancic, T.; Karimi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The initiation of felt seismicity in Bayou Corne, Louisiana, coupled with other phenomena detected by residents on the nearby housing development, prompted a call to install a broadband seismic network to monitor subsurface deformation. The initial deployment was in place to characterize the deformation contemporaneous with the formation of a sinkhole located in close proximity to a salt dome. Seismic events generated during this period followed a swarm-like behaviour with moment magnitudes culminating around Mw2.5. However, the seismic data recorded during this sequence suffer from poor signal to noise, onsets that are very difficult to pick, and the presence of a significant amount of energy arriving later in the waveforms. Efforts to understand the complexity in these waveforms are ongoing, and involve invoking the complexities inherent in recording in a highly attenuating swamp overlying a complex three-dimensional structure with the strong material property contrast of the salt dome. In order to understand the event character, as well as to locally lower the completeness threshold of the sequence, a downhole array of 15 Hz sensors was deployed in a newly drilled well around the salt dome. Although the deployment lasted a little over a month in duration, over 1000 events were detected down to moment magnitude -Mw3. Waveform quality tended to be excellent, with very distinct P and S wave arrivals observable across the array for most events. The highest magnitude events were seen as well on the surface network and allowed for the opportunity to observe the complexities introduced by the site effects, while overcoming the saturation effects on the higher-frequency downhole geophones. This hybrid downhole and surface array illustrates how a full picture of subsurface deformation is only made possible by combining the high-frequency downhole instrumentation to see the microseismicity complemented with a broadband array to accurately characterize the source

  14. Back-Projection Imaging of extended, high-frequency pre-, co-, and post-eruptive seismicity at El Jefe Geyser, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, C. L.; Lawrence, J. F.; Beroza, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    El Tatio Geyser Field in northern Chile is the third largest geyser field in the world. It is comprised of 3 basins that span 10 km x 10 km at an average elevation of 4250 m and contains at least 80 active geysers. Heavy tourist traffic and previous geothermal exploration make the field relatively non-pristine and ideal for performing minimally invasive geophysical experiments. We deployed a dense array of 51 L-28 3-component geophones (1-10 m spacing, corner frequency 4.5 Hz, 1000 Hz sample rate), and 6 Trillium 120 broadband seismometers (2-20 m spacing, long period corner 120 s, 500 Hz sample rate) in a 50 m x 50 m grid in the central Upper Geyser Basin (the largest basin in area at 5 km x 5 km) during October 2012 as part of a collaborative study of hydrothermal systems between Stanford University; U.C. Berkeley; U. of Chile, Santiago; U. of Tokyo; and the USGS. The seismic array was designed to target at El Jefe Geyser (EJG), a columnar geyser (eruption height 1-1.5 m) with a consistent periodic eruption cycle of 132 +/- 3 s. Seismicity at EJG was recorded continuously for 9 days during which 6000 total eruptions occurred. Excluding periods of high anthropogenic noise (i.e. tourist visits, field work), the array recorded 2000 eruptions that we use to create 4D time-lapse images of the evolution of seismic source locations before, during and after EJG eruptions. We use a new back-projection processing technique to locate geyser signals, which tend to be harmonic and diffuse in nature, during characteristic phases of the EJG eruption cycle. We obtain Vp and Vs from ambient-field tomography and estimates of P and S propagation from a hammer source recorded by the array. We use these velocities to back-project and correlate seismic signals from all available receiver-pairs to all potential source locations in a subsurface model assuming straight-line raypaths. We analyze results for individual and concurrent geyser sources throughout an entire EJG eruption cycle

  15. Investigation of permanent magnet machines for downhole applications: Design, prototype and testing of a flux-switching permanent magnet machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Anyuan

    2011-01-15

    The current standard electrical downhole machine is the induction machine which is relatively inefficient. Permanent magnet (PM) machines, having higher efficiencies, higher torque densities and smaller volumes, have widely employed in industrial applications to replace conventional machines, but few have been developed for downhole applications due to the high ambient temperatures in deep wells and the low temperature stability of PM materials over time. Today, with the development of variable speed drives and the applications of high temperature magnet materials, it is increasingly interesting for oil and gas industries to develop PM machines for downhole applications. Recently, some PM machines applications have been presented for downhole applications, which are normally addressed on certain specific downhole case. In this thesis the focus has been put on the performance investigation of different PM machines for general downhole cases, in which the machine outer diameter is limited to be small by well size, while the machine axial length may be relatively long. The machine reliability is the most critical requirement while high torque density and high efficiency are also desirable. The purpose is to understand how the special constraints in downhole condition affect the performances of different machines. First of all, three basic machine concepts, which are the radial, axial and transverse flux machines, are studied in details by analytical method. Their torque density, efficiency, power factor and power capability are investigated with respect to the machine axial length and pole number. The presented critical performance comparisons of the machines provide an indication of machines best suitable with respect to performance and size for downhole applications. Conventional radial flux permanent magnet (RFPM) machines with the PMs on the rotor can provide high torque density and high efficiency. This type of machine has been suggested for several different

  16. Preliminary analysis of downhole logging data from ICDP Lake Junin drilling Project, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Kück, Jochem; Rodbell, Donald T.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-04-01

    The International Continental Drilling Programm (ICDP) has supported a scientific drilling campaign in Peru during the summer season 2015. The Lake Junin Drilling Project mainly aims at obtaining high-resolution paleoclimate records from lacustrine sediments to reconstruct the history of the continental records covering the glacial-interglacial cycles. Lake Junín is located at 4000 m a.s.l. in the tropical Andes of Peru, and is characterized by a thick (> 125 m) sediment package deposited at a high rate (0.2 to 1.0 mm yr-1). Lake Junín is one of the few lakes in the tropical Andes that predates the maximum extent of glaciation and is in a geomorphic position to record the waxing and waning of glaciers in nearby cordillera, hence making the lake a key site for the investigation of the Quaternary climate evolution in the inner-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere. Continous coring was performed at three sites in overall 11 boreholes on the lake with at least two overlapping boreholes per site to avoid core gaps. The depth of the boreholes varied between approx. 30 m and 110 m depending on the drill site. The core bit had a bit size of 122.6 mm and yielded a core diameter of 85 mm. Upon completion of coring operations downhole geophysical logging was performed in five of the 11 boreholes (1A, 1C, 1D, 2A and 3B) by the Operational Support Group of ICDP. The main objective was to record in-situ the physical properties of the lacustrine sediments of Lake Junin. Downhole logs provide a powerful tool to fill in information at intervals with core gaps and as depth reference for depth matching of the discontinous cores. Furthermore it will be used for the lithological reconstruction and interpretation. The OSG downhole logging comprised total and spectrum gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, borehole geometry, temperature, and sonic P-wave velocity. Unstable and collapsing borehole walls made it neccessary to carry out logging in several sections instead of in one run. The

  17. Deformations and Rotational Ground Motions Inferred from Downhole Vertical Array Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graizer, V.

    2017-12-01

    Only few direct reliable measurements of rotational component of strong earthquake ground motions are obtained so far. In the meantime, high quality data recorded at downhole vertical arrays during a number of earthquakes provide an opportunity to calculate deformations based on the differences in ground motions recorded simultaneously at different depths. More than twenty high resolution strong motion downhole vertical arrays were installed in California with primary goal to study site response of different geologic structures to strong motion. Deformation or simple shear strain with the rate γ is the combination of pure shear strain with the rate γ/2 and rotation with the rate of α=γ/2. Deformations and rotations were inferred from downhole array records of the Mw 6.0 Parkfield 2004, the Mw 7.2 Sierra El Mayor (Mexico) 2010, the Mw 6.5 Ferndale area in N. California 2010 and the two smaller earthquakes in California. Highest amplitude of rotation of 0.60E-03 rad was observed at the Eureka array corresponding to ground velocity of 35 cm/s, and highest rotation rate of 0.55E-02 rad/s associated with the S-wave was observed at a close epicentral distance of 4.3 km from the ML 4.2 event in Southern California at the La Cienega array. Large magnitude Sierra El Mayor earthquake produced long duration rotational motions of up to 1.5E-04 rad and 2.05E-03 rad/s associated with shear and surface waves at the El Centro array at closest fault distance of 33.4km. Rotational motions of such levels, especially tilting can have significant effect on structures. High dynamic range well synchronized and properly oriented instrumentation is necessary for reliable calculation of rotations from vertical array data. Data from the dense Treasure Island array near San Francisco demonstrate consistent change of shape of rotational motion with depth and material. In the frequency range of 1-15 Hz Fourier amplitude spectrum of vertical ground velocity is similar to the scaled tilt

  18. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  19. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  20. Production of natural gas from methane hydrate by a constant downhole pressure well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Goodarz; Ji, Chuang; Smith, Duane H.

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing downhole well was studied. The case that the well pressure was kept constant was treated, and two different linearization schemes in an axisymmetric configuration were used in the analysis. For different fixed well pressures and reservoir temperatures, approximate self similar solutions were obtained. Distributions of temperature, pressure and gas velocity field across the reservoir were evaluated. The distance of the decomposition front from the well and the natural gas production rate as functions of time were also computed. Time evolutions of the resulting profiles were presented in graphical forms, and their differences with the constant well output results were studied. It was shown that the gas production rate was a sensitive function of well pressure and reservoir temperature. The sensitivity of the results to the linearization scheme used was also studied

  1. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY WITH DOWNHOLE VIBRATION STIMULATION IN OSAGE COUNTY OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Westermark; J. Ford Brett

    2003-11-01

    This Final Report covers the entire project from July 13, 2000 to June 30, 2003. The report summarizes the details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma'' under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-00BC15191. The project was divided into nine separate tasks. This report is written in an effort to document the lessons learned during the completion of each task. Therefore each task will be discussed as the work evolved for that task throughout the duration of the project. Most of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, but certain tasks were dependent on earlier tasks being completed. During the three years of project activities, twelve quarterly technical reports were submitted for the project. Many individual topic and task specific reports were included as appendices in the quarterly reports. Ten of these reports have been included as appendices to this final report. Two technical papers, which were written and accepted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, have also been included as appendices. The three primary goals of the project were to build a downhole vibration tool (DHVT) to be installed in seven inch casing, conduct a field test of vibration stimulation in a mature waterflooded field and evaluate the effects of the vibration on both the produced fluid characteristics and injection well performance. The field test results are as follows: In Phase I of the field test the DHVT performed exceeding well, generating strong clean signals on command and as designed. During this phase Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had installed downhole geophones and hydrophones to monitor the signal generated by the downhole vibrator. The signals recorded were strong and clear. Phase II was planned to be ninety-day reservoir stimulation field test. This portion of the field tests was abruptly ended after one week of operations, when the DHVT became stuck in the well

  2. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program

  3. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O' Connor

    2007-08-10

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

  4. Downhole microseismic signal-to-noise ratio enhancement via strip matching shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ji, Shuo; Li, Yue; Qian, Zhihong; Lu, Weili

    2018-04-01

    Shearlet transform has been proved effective in noise attenuation. However, because of the low magnitude and high frequency of downhole microseismic signals, the coefficient values of valid signals and noise are similar in the shearlet domain. As a result, it is hard to suppress the noise. In this paper, we present a novel signal-to-noise ratio enhancement scheme called strip matching shearlet transform. The method takes into account the directivity of microseismic events and shearlets. Through strip matching, the matching degree in direction between them has been promoted. Then the coefficient values of valid signals are much larger than those of the noise. Consequently, we can separate them well with the help of thresholding. The experimental results on both synthetic records and field data illustrate that our proposed method preserves the useful components and attenuates the noise well.

  5. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  6. Down-Hole Heat Exchangers: Modelling of a Low-Enthalpy Geothermal System for District Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carlini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to face the growing energy demands, renewable energy sources can provide an alternative to fossil fuels. Thus, low-enthalpy geothermal plants may play a fundamental role in those areas—such as the Province of Viterbo—where shallow groundwater basins occur and conventional geothermal plants cannot be developed. This may lead to being fuelled by locally available sources. The aim of the present paper is to exploit the heat coming from a low-enthalpy geothermal system. The experimental plant consists in a down-hole heat exchanger for civil purposes and can supply thermal needs by district heating. An implementation in MATLAB environment is provided in order to develop a mathematical model. As a consequence, the amount of withdrawable heat can be successfully calculated.

  7. Theoretical background and the flow fields in downhole liquid-liquid hydrocyclone (LLHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Harrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocyclone system for downhole oil-water separation provides an effective technique of enhancing the economic viability of higher water-cut wells while at the same time reducing the risk of environmental pollution. This paper describes the hydrodynamics of the liquid-liquid hydrocyclones and the flow fields within it are paramount for achieving successful separation process. Some of the important hydrodynamic flow phenomenon within the liquid-liquid hydrocyclone and how they influence the separation efficiency of water/oil was analyzed through analytical solution. The properties of the liquids were based on Bayan offshore field measured properties. The results indicated that there are two swirling zones separated by stagnant flow field. The inner is the light liquid zone, while the outer is the heavy liquid zone.

  8. Holy grail: Pioneering acoustic telemetry technology set to revolutionize downhole communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenaway, R.

    2003-12-01

    Acoustic telemetry, a faster and more efficient downhole-to-surface-communication technology, is the latest development in downhole communication systems. The system has been developed by Extreme Engineering Limited of Calgary, led by Derek Logan, founder and one-time senior vice-president of Ryan Energy Technologies that developed the original measurement -while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling )LWD) tools. The company predicts that acoustic telemetry will cause a massive transformation of the drilling industry in Western Canada once the technology is commercialized. Conventional MWD techniques, based on mud-pulse technology, have been industry standard since the 1970s, but mud-pulse technology is now considered extremely slow. In the 1980s industry came up electromagnetic telemetry, as an alternative to mud-pulse. Today, the need to transmit ever more data, the need for a faster communications system and greater wellbore control, has become even more pressing. Logan believes that acoustic technology is the answer. It is not only capable of transmitting data 20 to 30 times faster than mud-pulse telemetries, it can also communicate massive amounts of data. It can be used in drilling, completion production, drillstem testing, frac monitoring and any other wellbore process requiring wireless real-time telemetry. Acoustic telemetry is also the only wireless system that can perform MWD and LWD in offshore underbalanced drilling. Notwithstanding its great promise, Extreme Engineering Limited had considerable difficulty raising funds for developing and commercializing XAcT (the trade name for acoustic telemetry). Prospects are reported to have been substantially improved by recent infusion of funds by the federal Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP) , and XAcT's recognition by R and D Magazine with one of the R and D 100 awards for 2003. 3 figs.

  9. Measurement of Streaming Potential in Downhole Application: An Insight for Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Downhole monitoring using streaming potential measurement has been developing in order to respond to actual reservoir condition. Most studies have emphasized on monitoring water flooding at various reservoir condition and improving the approaches of measurement. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR could significantly improve oil recovery and the efficiency of the process should be well-monitored. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP flooding is the most promising chemical EOR method due to its synergy of alkaline, surfactant and polymer, which could enhance the extraction of residual oil. However, limited studies have been focused on the application of streaming potential in EOR processes, particularly ASP. Thus, this paper aims to review the streaming potential measurement in downhole monitoring with an insight for EOR application and propose the potential measurement in monitoring ASP flooding. It is important for a preliminary study to investigate the synergy in ASP and the effects on oil recovery. The behaviour of streaming potential should be investigated when the environment of porous media changes with respect to ASP flooding. Numerical model can be generated from the experimental data to forecast the measured streaming potential signal during production associated with ASP flooding. Based on the streaming potential behaviour on foam assisted water alternate gas (FAWAG and water alternate gas (WAG processes, it is expected that the streaming potential could change significantly when ASP flooding alters the environment and surface properties of porous media. The findings could provide new prospect and knowledge in the relationship between streaming potential and ASP mechanisms, which could be a potential approach in monitoring the efficiency of the process.

  10. Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC Porto—Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Física, da Faculdade de Ciências, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-02-17

    Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5 × 10{sup −5} nm/psi at 1480 nm to 1.3 × 10{sup −3} nm/psi at 1680 nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000 psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from −3.4 × 10{sup −6} 1/psi to −1.3 × 10{sup −6} 1/psi and from −5 × 10{sup −6} 1/psi to −1.8 × 10{sup −6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

  11. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  12. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  13. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  14. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  15. Seismic qualification of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation into the seismic qualification of equipment located in CANDU nuclear power plants. It is particularly concerned with the evaluation of current seismic qualification requirements, the development of a suitable methodology for the seismic qualification of safety systems, and the evaluation of seismic qualification analysis and testing procedures

  16. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.

  17. Proposal for a seismic facility for reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.A.; Dove, R.C.; Rhorer, R.L.

    1976-07-01

    Certain problem areas in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear reactors are enumerated and the way in which an experimental program might contribute to each area is examined. The use of seismic simulation testing receives particular attention, especially with regard to the verification of structural response analysis. The importance of scale modeling used in conjunction with seismic simulation is also stressed. The capabilities of existing seismic simulators are summarized, and a proposed facility is described which would considerably extend the ability to conduct, with confidence, confirmatory experiments on the behavior of reactor components when subjected to seismic excitation. Particular applications to gas-cooled and other reactor types are described

  18. German seismic regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    Rules and regulations for seismic design in Germany cover the following: seismic design of conventional buildings; and seismic design of nuclear facilities. Safety criteria for NPPs, accident guidelines, and guidelines for PWRs as well as safety standards are cited. Safety standards concerned with NPPs seismic design include basic principles, soil analysis, design of building structures, design of mechanical and electrical components, seismic instrumentation, and measures to be undertaken after the earthquake

  19. Evaluation of the lithology contents and types of clay minerals using downhole spectral analyzer of natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivanov, M.; Savicic, M.; Grbovic, G.

    1992-01-01

    The microprocessor downhole spectrum analyzer of natural gamma radiation is an important part of the new generation of geophysical well logging systems. This instrument produces complete energy spectra of the penetrated formations. here physical principles of logging are shown. based on the logging results from one of the wells complex lithology was identified, together with shale contents in the formation and types of clay and minerals. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional site response at KiK-net downhole arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Tanaka, Yasuo; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Ground motions at two Kiban-Kyoshin Network (KiK-net) strong motion downhole array sites in Hokkaido, Japan (TKCH08 in Taiki and TKCH05 in Honbetsu) illustrate the importance of three-dimensional (3D) site effects. These sites recorded the M8.0 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake, with recorded accelerations above 0.4 g at both sites as well as numerous ground motions from smaller events. Weak ground motions indicate that site TKCH08 is well modeled with the assumption of plane SH waves traveling through a 1D medium (SH1D), while TKCH05 is characteristic of a poor fit to the SH1D theoretical response. We hypothesized that the misfit at TKCH05results from the heterogeneity of the subsurface. To test this hypothesis, we measured four S-wave velocity profiles in the vicinity (KiK-net site pair is ideal for assessing the relative importance of 3D site effects and nonlinear site effects. The linear ground motions at TKCH05 isolate the 3D site effects, as we hypothesized from the linear ground motions and confirmed with our subsequent SASW surveys. The Tokachi-Oki time history at TKCH08 isolates the effects of nonlinearity from spatial heterogeneity because the 3D effects are negligible. The Tokachi-Oki time history at TKCH05 includes both nonlinear and 3D site effects. Comparisons of the accuracy of the SH1D model predictions of these surface time histories from the downhole time histories indicates that the 3D site effects are at least as important as nonlinear effects in this case. The errors associated with the assumption of a 1D medium and 1D wave propagation will be carried into a nonlinear analysis that relies on these same assumptions. Thus, the presence of 3D effects should be ruled out prior to a 1D nonlinear analysis. The SH1D residuals show that 3D effects can be mistaken for nonlinear effects.

  1. Summary evaluation of Yucca Mountain surface transects with implications for downhole sampling. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckenna, S.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    The results of previously completed vertical outcrop sampling transacts are summarized with respect to planning downhole sampling. The summary includes statistical descriptions and descriptions of the spatial variability of the sampled parameters. Descriptions are made on each individual transect, each thermal/mechanical unit and each previously defined geohydrologic unit. Correlations between parameters indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity is not globally correlated to porosity. The correlation between porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity is both spatially and lithologically dependent. Currently, there are not enough saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity data to define relationships between these properties and porosity on a unit by unit basis. Also, the Prow Pass member of the Crater Flat Tuff and stratigraphically lower units have gone essentially unsampled in these outcrop transacts. The vertical correlation length for hydrologic properties is not constant across the area of the transacts. The average sample spacing within the transacts ranges from 1.25 to 2.1 meters. It appears that, with the exception of the Topopah Spring member units, a comparable sample spacing will give adequate results in the downhole sampling campaign even with the nonstationarity of the vertical correlation. The properties within the thermal/mechanical units and geohydrologic units of the Topopah Spring member appear to have a spatial correlation range less than or equal to the current sample spacing within these units. For the downhole sampling, a sample spacing of less than 1.0 meters may be necessary within these units

  2. New seismic source `BLASTER` for seismic survey; Hasaiyaku wo shingen to shite mochiita danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, G; Yoshikuni, Y [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Built-up weight and vacuole have been conceived as seismic sources without using explosive. There have been problems that they have smaller energy to generate elastic wave than explosive, and that they have inferior working performance. Concrete crushing explosive is tried to use as a new seismic source. It is considered to possess rather large seismic generating energy, and it is easy to handle from the viewpoint of safety. Performance as seismic source and applicability to exploration works of this crushing explosive were compared with four kinds of seismic sources using dynamite, dropping weight, shot-pipe utilizing shot vacuole, and impact by wooden maul. When considered by the velocity amplitude, the seismic generating energy of the crushing explosive of 120 g is about one-fifth of dynamite of 100 g. Elastic wave generated includes less high frequency component than that by dynamite, and similar to that using seismic source without explosive, such as the weight dropping. The maximum seismic receiving distance obtained by the seismic generation was about 100 m. This was effective for the slope survey with the exploration depth between 20 m and 30 m. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Linking downhole logging data and clay mineralogy analysis in the ICDP Lake Junín drilling Project, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, S.; Schleicher, A.; Kueck, J.; Rodbell, D. T.; Abbott, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    The lake Junin drilling project, co-funded by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), is located at 4000 m a.s.l. in the tropical Andes of Peru. Several boreholes were drilled with the goal to obtain both high-resolution paleoclimate records from lacustrine sediments and to reconstruct the history of the continental records covering the glacial-interglacial cycles. Lake Junín is characterized by a thick package of lacustrine sediments (> 125 m) deposited at a high rate (0.2 to 1.0 mm yr-1), and it is one of the few lakes in the tropical Andes that is hundreds of thousands of years old with a continuous sedimentation rate preserving a very long and continuous record of past ice age cycles. The boreholes reached a maximum depth of 110.08 m and continuous coring was performed at three sites with 11 boreholes. Additionally, an extensive geophysical downhole logging campaign was performed on five boreholes (1A, 1C, 1D, 2A and 3B) by the Operational Support Group of ICDP. Downhole logging measurements comprise total and spectrum gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, borehole geometry, temperature, and sonic p-wave velocity. In order to fit the downhole logging depths to the composite profile depths, each borehole was depth-matched with the core data. Interpreting the downhole logging data permits to establish a complete lithological log, to characterize the in-situ physical properties of drilled lacustrine sediments, to determine sedimentary structures and to obtain evidences about palaeoclimatic conditions during up to 200 ka. Th and K values are used as a proxy for a first estimate and characterization of clay content in the sediments, which are present as montmorillonite, smectite, illite, and kaolinite in different amounts. Linking the clay minerals that occur in the core material with the downhole logging data allows assessing the geological history of the lake and the relationship to climate change processes. Additional laboratory analysis will be

  4. Use of seismic experience data for replacement and new equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.W.; Hardy, G.S.; Horstman, N.G.; Baughman, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past seven years the use of seismic experience data to address seismic concerns has received a great deal of attention, particularly regarding the NRC Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46. The Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG) was formed in January 1982 to develop a practical alternative to the rigorous seismic qualification of equipment for resolution of USI A-46. The alternative method chosen is seismic experience technology. The purpose of this paper is to explore two additional potential applications of seismic experience technology: Replacement parts and New equipment/design change process. The need for, and benefits of, these applications are summarized. The available technology and the methodologies proposed are described. The methodology descriptions include a summary of the requirements for the seismic evaluations, an outline of the method, and the documentation requirements. (orig./HP)

  5. SNR enhancement for downhole microseismic data based on scale classification shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ji, Shuo; Li, Yue; Qian, Zhihong; Lu, Weili

    2018-06-01

    Shearlet transform (ST) can be effective in 2D signal processing, due to its parabolic scaling, high directional sensitivity, and optimal sparsity. ST combined with thresholding has been successfully applied to suppress random noise. However, because of the low magnitude and high frequency of a downhole microseismic signal, the coefficient values of valid signals and noise are similar in the shearlet domain. As a result, it is difficult to use for denoising. In this paper, we present a scale classification ST to solve this problem. The ST is used to decompose noisy microseismic data into serval scales. By analyzing the spectrum and energy distribution of the shearlet coefficients of microseismic data, we divide the scales into two types: low-frequency scales which contain less useful signal and high-frequency scales which contain more useful signal. After classification, we use two different methods to deal with the coefficients on different scales. For the low-frequency scales, the noise is attenuated using a thresholding method. As for the high-frequency scales, we propose to use a generalized Gauss distribution model based a non-local means filter, which takes advantage of the temporal and spatial similarity of microseismic data. The experimental results on both synthetic records and field data illustrate that our proposed method preserves the useful components and attenuates the noise well.

  6. Method and apparatus for determining the spontaneous earth potential log from downhole gradient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the differential or gradient of an earth variable within a well bore (e.g., the spontaneous earth potential) and producing improved logs of this gradient or differential and its integral variable essentially free of any accumulated instrument and base line drift or error. The differential spontaneous potential of an earth formation traversed by a well bore is measured at repeated multiple depths by moving a pair of closely spaced electrodes through the well bore wherein each electrode is electrically insulated externally from the other and from a third downhole local ground (such as the well tool cable) to which each is internally resistively referenced. The measured electrical potential across the closely spaced electrodes is amplified and digitized before being transmitted to the earth's surface, whereupon an averaged value of such differential measurements within a traveling data window of predetermined length and adjacent to each successive measurement is used to adjust for base line drift, noise and instrument induced error. The resulting compensated differential logs are integrated, resulting in spontaneous potential logs of improved character

  7. Fast and objective detection and analysis of structures in downhole images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedge, Daniel; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Mike; Spadaccini, Nick

    2017-09-01

    Downhole acoustic and optical televiewer images, and formation microimager (FMI) logs are important datasets for structural and geotechnical analyses for the mineral and petroleum industries. Within these data, dipping planar structures appear as sinusoids, often in incomplete form and in abundance. Their detection is a labour intensive and hence expensive task and as such is a significant bottleneck in data processing as companies may have hundreds of kilometres of logs to process each year. We present an image analysis system that harnesses the power of automated image analysis and provides an interactive user interface to support the analysis of televiewer images by users with different objectives. Our algorithm rapidly produces repeatable, objective results. We have embedded it in an interactive workflow to complement geologists' intuition and experience in interpreting data to improve efficiency and assist, rather than replace the geologist. The main contributions include a new image quality assessment technique for highlighting image areas most suited to automated structure detection and for detecting boundaries of geological zones, and a novel sinusoid detection algorithm for detecting and selecting sinusoids with given confidence levels. Further tools are provided to perform rapid analysis of and further detection of structures e.g. as limited to specific orientations.

  8. Casingless down-hole for sealing an ablation volume and obtaining a sample for analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald T.; Braymen, Steven D.; Anderson, Marvin S.

    1996-10-01

    A casing-less down hole sampling system for acquiring a subsurface sample for analysis using an inductively coupled plasma system is disclosed. The system includes a probe which is pushed into the formation to be analyzed using a hydraulic ram system. The probe includes a detachable tip member which has a soil point mad a barb, with the soil point aiding the penetration of the earth, and the barb causing the tip member to disengage from the probe and remain in the formation when the probe is pulled up. The probe is forced into the formation to be tested, and then pulled up slightly, to disengage the tip member and expose a column of the subsurface formation to be tested. An instrumentation tube mounted in the probe is then extended outward from the probe to longitudinally extend into the exposed column. A balloon seal mounted on the end of the instrumentation tube allows the bottom of the column to be sealed. A source of laser radiation is emitted from the instrumentation tube to ablate a sample from the exposed column. The instrumentation tube can be rotated in the probe to sweep the laser source across the surface of the exposed column. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated sample from the probe to the surface for testing in an inductively coupled plasma system. By testing at various levels in the down-hole as the probe is extracted from the soil, a profile of the subsurface formation may be obtained.

  9. Fault diagnosis of downhole drilling incidents using adaptive observers and statistical change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Blanke, Mogens; Imsland, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Downhole abnormal incidents during oil and gas drilling causes costly delays, any may also potentially lead to dangerous scenarios. Dierent incidents willcause changes to dierent parts of the physics of the process. Estimating thechanges in physical parameters, and correlating these with changes ...... expectedfrom various defects, can be used to diagnose faults while in development.This paper shows how estimated friction parameters and ow rates can de-tect and isolate the type of incident, as well as isolating the position of adefect. Estimates are shown to be subjected to non......-Gaussian,t-distributednoise, and a dedicated multivariate statistical change detection approach isused that detects and isolates faults by detecting simultaneous changes inestimated parameters and ow rates. The properties of the multivariate di-agnosis method are analyzed, and it is shown how detection and false alarmprobabilities...... are assessed and optimized using data-based learning to obtainthresholds for hypothesis testing. Data from a 1400 m horizontal ow loop isused to test the method, and successful diagnosis of the incidents drillstringwashout (pipe leakage), lost circulation, gas in ux, and drill bit plugging aredemonstrated....

  10. Cavola experiment site: geophysical investigations and deployment of a dense seismic array on a landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical site investigations have been performed in association with deployment of a dense array of 95 3-component seismometers on the Cavola landslide in the Northern Apennines. The aim of the array is to study propagation of seismic waves in the heterogeneous medium through comparison of observation and modelling. The small-aperture array (130 m×56 m operated continuously for three months in 2004. Cavola landslide consists of a clay body sliding over mudstone-shale basement, and has a record of historical activity, including destruction of a small village in 1960. The site investigations include down-hole logging of P- and S-wave travel times at a new borehole drilled within the array, two seismic refraction lines with both P-wave profiling and surface-wave analyses, geo-electrical profiles and seismic noise measurements. From the different approaches a consistent picture of the depths and seismic velocities for the landslide has emerged. Their estimates agree with resonance frequencies of seismic noise, and also with the logged depths to basement of 25 m at a new borehole and of 44 m at a pre-existing borehole. Velocities for S waves increase with depth, from 230 m/s at the surface to 625 m/s in basement immediately below the landslide.

  11. Tectonic Tremor analysis with the Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Program (TCDP) downhole seismometer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Hillers, G.; Ma, K.; Campillo, M.

    2011-12-01

    We study tectonic tremor activity in the Taichung area, Taiwan, analyzing continuous seismic records from 6 short-period sensors of the TCDP borehole array situated around 1 km depth. The low background noise level facilitates the detection of low-amplitude tectonic tremor and low-frequency earthquake (LFE) waveforms. We apply a hierarchical analysis to first detect transient amplitude increases, and to subsequently verify its tectonic origin, i.e. to associate it with tremor signals. The frequency content of tremor usually exceeds the background noise around 2-8 Hz; hence, in the first step, we use BHS1, BHS4 and BHS7 (top, center, bottom sensor) records to detect amplitude anomalies in this frequency range. We calculate the smoothed spectra of 30 second non-overlapping windows taken daily from 5 night time hours to avoid increased day time amplitudes associated with cultural activities. Amplitude detection is then performed on frequency dependent median values of 5 minute advancing, 10 minute long time windows, yielding a series of threshold dependent increased-energy spectra-envelopes, indicating teleseismic waveforms, potential tremor records, or other transients related to anthropogenic or natural sources. To verify the transients' tectonic origin, potential tremor waveforms detected by the amplitude method are manually picked in the time domain. We apply the Brown et al. (2008) LFE matched filter technique to three-component data from the 6 available sensors. Initial few-second templates are taken from the analyst-picked, minute-long segments, and correlated component-wise with 24-h data. Significantly increased similarity between templates and matched waveform segments is detected using the array-average 7-fold MAD measure. Harvested waveforms associated with this initial `weak' detection are stacked, and the thus created master templates are used in an iterative correlation procedure to arrive at robust LFE detections. The increased similarity of waveforms

  12. Seismic intrusion detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  13. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  14. Quantitative Seismic Amplitude Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Seismic Value Chain quantifies the cyclic interaction between seismic acquisition, imaging and reservoir characterization. Modern seismic innovation to address the global imbalance in hydrocarbon supply and demand requires such cyclic interaction of both feed-forward and feed-back processes.

  15. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    The Ketzin pilot site in Germany is the longest operating on-shore CO2 storage site in Europe. From June 2008 till August 2013, a total of ˜67,000 tonnes of CO2 were safely stored in a saline aquifer at depths of 630 m to 650 m. The storage site has now entered the abandonment phase, and continuation of the multi-disciplinary monitoring as part of the national project "CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site" (COMPLETE) provides the unique chance to participate in the conclusion of the complete life cycle of a CO2 storage site. As part of the continuous evaluation of the functionality and integrity of the CO2 storage in Ketzin, from October 12, 2015 till January 6, 2015 a total of ˜2,900 tonnes of brine were successfully injected into the CO2 reservoir, hereby simulating in time-lapse the natural backflow of brine and the associated displacement of CO2. The main objectives of this brine injection experiment include investigation of how much of the CO2 in the pore space can be displaced by brine and if this displacement of CO2 during the brine injection differs from the displacement of formation fluid during the initial CO2 injection. Geophysical monitoring of the brine injection included continuous geoelectric measurements accompanied by monitoring of pressure and temperature conditions in the injection well and two adjacent observation wells. During the previous CO2 injection, the geoelectrical monitoring concept at the Ketzin pilot site consisted of permanent crosshole measurements and non-permanent large-scale surveys (Kiessling et al., 2010). Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies derived from the weekly crosshole data at near-wellbore scale complemented by six surface-downhole surveys at a scale of 1.5 km showed a noticeable resistivity signature within the target storage zone, which was attributed to the CO2 plume (Schmidt-Hattenberger et al., 2011) and interpreted in terms of relative CO2 and brine saturations (Bergmann

  16. Simulations of seismic acquisition footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.; Margrave, G.; Lawton, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the causes of commonly observed artefacts in seismic field data. These seismic acquisition footprints typically consist of modulations in recorded amplitudes that are spatially correlated to the surface locations of sources and receivers used in a survey. Two broad classes of footprint were considered, notably amplitude variations related to the edges of the survey and the amplitude variations in the interior of the survey. The variations in amplitude obscure the true reflection response of the subsurface. The MATLAB numerical modelling code was used to produce the synthetic seismic data and create a thorough dataset using a survey design incorporating dense grids of sources and receivers. The footprint consisting of periodic amplitude variations in the interior of the surveys, similar to that observed in field data and likely produced by poor sampling, was observed in the decimated dataset. This type of footprint varied in strength between images produced with different processing algorithms. The observed footprint in these simulations was most organized in the unmigrated stack and was somewhat randomized after poststack. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  18. Seismic changes industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth in the seismic industry as a result of the recent increases in the foreign market. With the decline of communism and the opening of Latin America to exploration, seismic teams have moved out into these areas in support of the oil and gas industry. The paper goes on to discuss the improved technology available for seismic resolution and the subsequent use of computers to field-proof the data while the seismic team is still on-site. It also discusses the effects of new computer technology on reducing the amount of support staff that is required to both conduct and interpret seismic information

  19. Lessons Learned From the Analysis of the SAFOD Downhole Instrument Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wade; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen

    2013-04-01

    In September of 2008 a downhole instrument package (DIP) consisting of a string of seismometers and tilt meters in isolated pressure vessels (PODs) was installed in the SAFOD main borehole. This package was designed to protect the sensors from the corrosive borehole environment and to operate for two years. The SAFOD borehole is not sealed at the bottom allowing borehole gasses and fluids infiltratration. Previous short-term installations of instruments in the SAFOD main borehole had also failed as a result of corrosion of the wireline cable head. The average failure time for these installations was two weeks. The use of stainless steel tubing connected to the pressure vessels through gas tight fittings was designed to block borehole fluid and gas infiltration of the individual instruments within the PODs. Unfortunately, the DIP completely failed within a month of its installation. In October of 2010, the DIP was removed from the borehole and a failure analysis was performed. This analysis involved to following steps: 1. Analysis of data to understand timeline of failure 2. Remove instrument safely, maintaining integrity of spliced section and documenting any external clues. Test instrument at surface 3. Open PODs in a way that allows for sampling and avoids damaging instruments. 4. Chemical analysis of fluids recovered from splices and PODs. 5. Instrument failure analysis by the instrument manufacturers. The analysis found that there were several design flaws in the DIP. This included the use of motor oil to take up air space in the individual PODs, use of a large number of gas tight seals, lack of internal seals, poorly done solder joints, use of non-temperature rated sensors, and lack of management oversight. The lessons learned from the attempts to instrument the SAFOD borehole are critical to the success of future deep borehole projects.

  20. A comparison of seismic velocity inversion methods for layered acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, T.; Mulder, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    In seismic imaging, one tries to infer the medium properties of the subsurface from seismic reflection data. These data are the result of an active source experiment, where an explosive source and an array of receivers are placed at the surface. Due to the absence of low frequencies in the data, the

  1. Source Characterization and Seismic Hazard Considerations for Hydraulic Fracture Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, K.; Viegas, G. F.; Baig, A. M.; Urbancic, T.

    2015-12-01

    Large microseismic events (M>0) have been shown to be generated during hydraulic fracture treatments relatively frequently. These events are a concern both from public safety and engineering viewpoints. Recent microseismic monitoring projects in the Horn River Basin have utilized both downhole and surface sensors to record events associated with hydraulic fracturing. The resulting hybrid monitoring system has produced a large dataset with two distinct groups of events: large events recorded by the surface network (0structures; small events are concentrated at reservoir depth. Differences in behavior have been observed between these two datasets, leading to conclusions of different underlying processes responsible for the recorded activity. Both datasets show very low seismic efficiency, implying slip weakening and possibly the presence of fluids in the source region. Reservoir events have shear-tensile source mechanisms ranging between tensile opening and tensile closing, and fracture orientations dominated by the rock fabric which are not always optimally oriented to the regional stress field. The observed source characteristics are expected for events driven by increased pore pressure and reduced friction due to lubrication. On average, deep events show higher stress drop, apparent stress, and rupture velocity than reservoir events. This reflects higher confining stresses with depth, and possibly the release of stored energy in the existing zone of weakness. Deep events are dominated by shear failures, but source characteristics are smaller than for naturally occurring tectonic earthquakes of similar magnitude. Most importantly from a seismic hazard perspective, large earthquakes associated with hydrofracing have lower stress drops than tectonic earthquakes, and thus produce smaller peak ground acceleration and less damage on surface. The largest event recorded in this dataset has a moment magnitude of +2.9 and was felt by field crews in the area. The response

  2. Deep seismic profiling of the continents and their margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, T.; Iwasaki, T.; Thybo, Hans

    2009-01-01

    , in many applications, the methods are used up-to their limits at the present technological state. Therefore, development of methods has high priority in the seismic community. This volume provides an overview of recent development of deep seismic techniques and their application to the imaging and probing......Application of deep seismic methods to studies of the crust and lithospheric mantle receives considerable interest and the methods are constantly refined and new methods are developed, which allows the extension of studies to new subjects and regions. Deep seismic methods are applied to a long...

  3. EVOLUTION OF SOUTHERN AFRICAN CRATONS BASED ON SEISMIC IMAGING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    present a new seismic model for the structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle of the Kalahari Craton, constrained by seismic receiver functions and finite-frequency tomography based on the seismological data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE). The combination of these two methods...... since formation of the craton, and (3) seismically fast lithospheric keels are imaged in the Kaapvaal and Zimabwe cratons to depths of 300-350 km. Relatively low velocity anomalies are imaged beneath both the paleo-orogenic Limpopo Belt and the Bushveld Complex down to depths of ~250 km and ~150 km...

  4. Validation of seismic soil-structure interaction analysis methods: EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute]/NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] cooperation in Lotung, Taiwan, experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The cooperative program between NRC/ANL and EPRI on the validation of soil-structure interaction analysis methods with actual seismic response data is described. A large scale-model of a containment building has been built by EPRI/Taipower in a highly seismic region of Taiwan. Vibration tests were performed, first on the basemat before the superstructure was built and then on the completed structure. Since its completion, the structure has experienced many earthquakes. The site and structural response to these earthquakes have been recorded with field (surface and downhole) and structural instrumentation. The validation program involves blind predictions of site and structural response during vibration tests and a selected seismic event, and subsequent comparison between the predictions and measurements. The predictive calculations are in progress. The results of the correlation are expected to lead to the evaluation of the methods as to their conservatisms and sensitivities

  5. Angola Seismicity MAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  6. Operations plan for the Regional Seismic Test Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Regional Seismic Test Network program was established to provide a capability for detection of extremely sensitive earth movements. Seismic signals from both natural and man-made earth motions will be analyzed with the ultimate objective of accurately locating underground nuclear explosions. The Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has designed an unattended seismic station capable of recording seismic information received at the location of the seismometers installed as part of that specific station. A network of stations is required to increase the capability of determining the source of the seismic signal and the location of the source. Current plans are to establish a five-station seismic network in the United States and Canada. The Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, has been assigned the responsibility for deploying, installing, and operating these remote stations. This Operation Plan provides the basic information and tasking to accomplish this assignment

  7. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  8. Geomorphology and seismic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    1991-07-01

    The author analyses the contributions provided by geomorphology in studies suited to the assessment of seismic risk: this is defined as function of the seismic hazard, of the seismic susceptibility, and of the vulnerability. The geomorphological studies applicable to seismic risk assessment can be divided into two sectors: (a) morpho-neotectonic investigations conducted to identify active tectonic structures; (b) geomorphological and morphometric analyses aimed at identifying the particular situations that amplify or reduce seismic susceptibility. The morpho-neotectonic studies lead to the identification, selection and classification of the lineaments that can be linked with active tectonic structures. The most important geomorphological situations that can condition seismic susceptibility are: slope angle, debris, morphology, degradational slopes, paleo-landslides and underground cavities.

  9. Lithological controls on gas hydrate saturation: Insights from signal classification of NMR downhole data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Klaus; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Henninges, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) downhole data are analyzed with a new strategy to study gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada). NMR logging is a powerful tool to study geological reservoir formations. The measurements are based on interactions between the magnetic moments of protons in geological formation water and an external magnetic field. Inversion of the measured raw data provides so-called transverse relaxation time (T2) distribution curves or spectra. Different parts of the T2 curve are related with distinct pore radii and corresponding fluid components. A common practice in the analysis of T2 distribution curves is to extract single-valued parameters such as apparent total porosity. Moreover, the derived total NMR apparent porosity and the gamma-gamma density log apparent porosity can be combined to estimate gas hydrate saturation in hydrate-bearing sediments. To avoid potential loss of information, in our new approach we analyze the entire T2 distribution curves as quasi-continuous signals to characterize the rock formation. The approach is applied to NMR data measured in gas hydrate research well Mallik 5L-38. We use self-organizing maps, a neural network clustering technique, to subdivide the data set of NMR T2 distribution curves into classes with a similar and distinctive signal shape. The method includes (1) preparation of data vectors, (2) unsupervised learning, (3) cluster definition, and (4) classification and depth mapping of all NMR signals. Each signal class thus represents a specific pore size distribution which can be interpreted in terms of distinct lithologies and reservoir types. A key step in the interpretation strategy is to reconcile the NMR classes with other log data not considered in the clustering analysis, such as gamma ray, photo-electric factor, hydrate saturation, and other logs. Our results defined six main lithologies within the target zone. Gas hydrate layers were recognized by their low signal

  10. Application of surface–downhole combined microseismic monitoring technology in the Fuling shale gas field and its enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fuling shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin, as a national shale gas demonstration area, is the largest commercially developed shale gas field in the world except those in North America. The fracturing technology in the mode of “well factory” has been applied widely in the gas field, but it is necessary to perform further investigation on the way to evaluate effectively the fracturing effect of multi-well platform “well factory” and the distribution laws of its induced fracture networks. In this paper, the fractures induced by the “well factory” at the JY 48 platform were real-time monitored by a surface–downhole combined microseismic monitoring technology. The geometric size and extension direction of artificial fractures induced in the model of “well factory” fracturing in the Jiaoshiba block of Fuling Shale Gas Field were preliminarily understood. Moreover, the fracturing parameters under the mode of “well factory” were recognized by using the comprehensive interpretation results of surface–downhole combined microseismic monitoring technology, together with the SRV fracturing prediction chart. Eventually, the distribution laws of artificial fractures during the “well-factory-zipper” fracturing in the Fuling Shale Gas Field were clarified definitely. This paper provides guidance for the optimization of fracturing parameters at the later stage.

  11. Burar seismic station: evaluation of seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela

    2005-01-01

    A new seismic monitoring system, the Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR), has been established since July 2002, in the Northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. The small-aperture array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 vertical short-period and one three-component broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km 2 area. At present, the seismic data are continuously recorded by the BURAR and transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center in Bucharest and National Data Center of the USA, in Florida. Based on the BURAR seismic information gathered at the National Data Center, NIEP (ROM N DC), in the August 2002 - December 2004 time interval, analysis and statistical assessments were performed. Following the preliminary processing of the data, several observations on the global performance of the BURAR system were emphasized. Data investigation showed an excellent efficiency of the BURAR system particularly in detecting teleseismic and regional events. Also, a statistical analysis for the BURAR detection capability of the local Vrancea events was performed in terms of depth and magnitude for the year 2004. The high signal detection capability of the BURAR resulted, generally, in improving the location solutions for the Vrancea seismic events. The location solution accuracy is enhanced when adding BURAR recordings, especially in the case of low magnitude events (recorded by few stations). The location accuracy is increased, both in terms of constraining hypocenter depth and epicentral coordinates. Our analysis certifies the importance of the BURAR system in NIEP efforts to elaborate seismic bulletins. Furthermore, the specific procedures for array data processing (beam forming, f-k analysis) increase significantly the signal-to-noise ratio by summing up the coherent signals from the array components, and ensure a better accuracy

  12. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  13. Detailed evaluation of gas hydrate reservoir properties using JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well downhole well-log displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well project was designed to investigate the occurrence of in situ natural gas hydrate in the Mallik area of the Mackenzie Delta of Canada. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed in the Mallik 2L-38 well included the Schlumberger Platform Express with a high resolution laterolog, Array Induction Imager Tool, Dipole Shear Sonic Imager, and a Fullbore Formation Microlmager. The downhole log data obtained from the log- and core-inferred gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary interval (897.25-1109.5 m log depth) in the Mallik 2L-38 well is depicted in a series of well displays. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces, calculated from available downhole well-log and core data. The gas hydrate accumulation delineated by the Mallik 2L-38 well has been determined to contain as much as 4.15109 m3 of gas in the 1 km2 area surrounding the drill site.

  14. VSP in crystalline rocks - from downhole velocity profiling to 3-D fracture mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N.

    1998-01-01

    VSP surveys have been carried out at several potential nuclear waste disposal sites in Finland since the mid 80s. To date, more than 200 three-component profiles have been measured. The main purpose of the surveys was to detect fracture zones in the crystalline bedrock and to determine their position. Most seismic events could be linked to zones of increased fracturing observed in the borehole logs. The more pronounced seismic reflectors could be correlated with hydrogeologically significant zones, which have been the main targets in the investigations. Processing and interpretation methods have been developed specifically for VSP surveys in crystalline rocks: Weak reflections from thin fracture zones are enhanced by multi-channel filtering techniques based on the Radon transform. The position and orientation of the fracture zones are determined by polarisation analysis and by combining data from several shot points. The compilation of the results from several boreholes gives a comprehensive image of the fracture zones at the scale of the whole site. The discussion of the methodology is based on examples from the Olkiluoto site, in SW Finland

  15. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  16. Seismic exploration for water on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, T.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to soft-land three seismometers in the Utopia-Elysium region and three or more radio controlled explosive charges at nearby sites that can be accurately located by an orbiter. Seismic signatures of timed explosions, to be telemetered to the orbiter, will be used to detect present surface layers, including those saturated by volatiles such as water and/or ice. The Viking Landers included seismometers that showed that at present Mars is seismically quiet, and that the mean crustal thickness at the site is about 14 to 18 km. The new seismic landers must be designed to minimize wind vibration noise, and the landing sites selected so that each is well formed on the regolith, not on rock outcrops or in craters. The explosive charges might be mounted on penetrators aimed at nearby smooth areas. They must be equipped with radio emitters for accurate location and radio receivers for timed detonation

  17. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, A. Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  18. Using Seismic Interferometry to Investigate Seismic Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, E.; Morency, C.; Templeton, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity provides a direct means of measuring the physical characteristics of active tectonic features such as fault zones. Hundreds of small earthquakes often occur along a fault during a seismic swarm. This seismicity helps define the tectonically active region. When processed using novel geophysical techniques, we can isolate the energy sensitive to the fault, itself. Here we focus on two methods of seismic interferometry, ambient noise correlation (ANC) and the virtual seismometer method (VSM). ANC is based on the observation that the Earth's background noise includes coherent energy, which can be recovered by observing over long time periods and allowing the incoherent energy to cancel out. The cross correlation of ambient noise between a pair of stations results in a waveform that is identical to the seismogram that would result if an impulsive source located at one of the stations was recorded at the other, the Green function (GF). The calculation of the GF is often stable after a few weeks of continuous data correlation, any perturbations to the GF after that point are directly related to changes in the subsurface and can be used for 4D monitoring.VSM is a style of seismic interferometry that provides fast, precise, high frequency estimates of the Green's function (GF) between earthquakes. VSM illuminates the subsurface precisely where the pressures are changing and has the potential to image the evolution of seismicity over time, including changes in the style of faulting. With hundreds of earthquakes, we can calculate thousands of waveforms. At the same time, VSM collapses the computational domain, often by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This allows us to do high frequency 3D modeling in the fault region. Using data from a swarm of earthquakes near the Salton Sea, we demonstrate the power of these techniques, illustrating our ability to scale from the far field, where sources are well separated, to the near field where their locations fall within each other

  19. The Seismic Analyzer: Interpreting and Illustrating 2D Seismic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seism...

  20. Seismic Search Engine: A distributed database for mining large scale seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Vaidya, S.; Kuzma, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO collects terabytes worth of seismic measurements from many receiver stations situated around the earth with the goal of detecting underground nuclear testing events and distinguishing them from other benign, but more common events such as earthquakes and mine blasts. The International Data Center (IDC) processes and analyzes these measurements, as they are collected by the IMS, to summarize event detections in daily bulletins. Thereafter, the data measurements are archived into a large format database. Our proposed Seismic Search Engine (SSE) will facilitate a framework for data exploration of the seismic database as well as the development of seismic data mining algorithms. Analogous to GenBank, the annotated genetic sequence database maintained by NIH, through SSE, we intend to provide public access to seismic data and a set of processing and analysis tools, along with community-generated annotations and statistical models to help interpret the data. SSE will implement queries as user-defined functions composed from standard tools and models. Each query is compiled and executed over the database internally before reporting results back to the user. Since queries are expressed with standard tools and models, users can easily reproduce published results within this framework for peer-review and making metric comparisons. As an illustration, an example query is “what are the best receiver stations in East Asia for detecting events in the Middle East?” Evaluating this query involves listing all receiver stations in East Asia, characterizing known seismic events in that region, and constructing a profile for each receiver station to determine how effective its measurements are at predicting each event. The results of this query can be used to help prioritize how data is collected, identify defective instruments, and guide future sensor placements.

  1. Downhole logs of natural gamma radiation and magnetic susceptibility and their use in interpreting lithostratigraphy in AND-1B, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T.; Morin, R. H.; Jarrard, R. D.; Jackolski, C. L.; Henrys, S. A.; Niessen, F.; Magens, D.; Kuhn, G.; Monien, D.; Powell, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    The ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 metres of sediment representing the last 14 million years of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 metres, and are complementary to data acquired from the core itself. We describe here the natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs, and their application to understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND-1B. Natural gamma radiation logs cover the whole interval from the sea floor to 1018 metres, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open-hole intervals between 692-1018 and 237-342 metres. NGR logs were stacked and corrected for signal attenuation through the drill pipe, and magnetic susceptibility logs were corrected for drift. In the upper part of AND-1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamict (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, and heavy minerals). In the lower open-hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamicts (relatively high in magnetite), while sandstones generally have high resistivity log values at AND-1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, three sets of facies can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692-1018m interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 7% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Similarly, the NGR log provides the best information on the lithology of the poorly recovered top 25m of AND-1B. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties, and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy (for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites).

  2. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  3. Seismic sequences in the Sombrero Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, J.; Huerfano, V. A.; ten Brink, U.; von Hillebrandt, C.

    2007-05-01

    The northeastern Caribbean, in the vicinity of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, has a long and well-documented history of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis, including major events in 1670, 1787, 1867, 1916, 1918, and 1943. Recently, seismicity has been concentrated to the north and west of the British Virgin Islands, in the region referred to as the Sombrero Seismic Zone by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). In the combined seismicity catalog maintained by the PRSN, several hundred small to moderate magnitude events can be found in this region prior to 2006. However, beginning in 2006 and continuing to the present, the rate of seismicity in the Sombrero suddenly increased, and a new locus of activity developed to the east of the previous location. Accurate estimates of seismic hazard, and the tsunamigenic potential of seismic events, depend on an accurate and comprehensive understanding of how strain is being accommodated in this corner region. Are faults locked and accumulating strain for release in a major event? Or is strain being released via slip over a diffuse system of faults? A careful analysis of seismicity patterns in the Sombrero region has the potential to both identify faults and modes of failure, provided the aggregation scheme is tuned to properly identify related events. To this end, we experimented with a scheme to identify seismic sequences based on physical and temporal proximity, under the assumptions that (a) events occur on related fault systems as stress is refocused by immediately previous events and (b) such 'stress waves' die out with time, so that two events that occur on the same system within a relatively short time window can be said to have a similar 'trigger' in ways that two nearby events that occurred years apart cannot. Patterns that emerge from the identification, temporal sequence, and refined locations of such sequences of events carry information about stress accommodation that is obscured by large clouds of

  4. Seismic Creep, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seismic creep is the constant or periodic movement on a fault as contrasted with the sudden rupture associated with an earthquake. It is a usually slow deformation...

  5. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  6. Seismic data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Nadre, V.N.; Rao, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Details of seismic data acquisition systems developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay are reported. The seismic signals acquired belong to different signal bandwidths in the band from 0.02 Hz to 250 Hz. All these acquisition systems are built around a unique technique of recording multichannel data on to a single track of an audio tape and in digital form. Techniques of how these signals in different bands of frequencies were acquired and recorded are described. Method of detecting seismic signals and its performance is also discussed. Seismic signals acquired in different set-ups are illustrated. Time indexing systems for different set-ups and multichannel waveform display systems which form essential part of the data acquisition systems are also discussed. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. PSMG switchgear seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehster, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    LOFT primary coolant system motor generator (PSMG) switchgear boxes were analyzed for sliding and overturning during a seismic event. Boxes are located in TAN-650, Room B-239, with the PSMG generators. Both boxes are sufficiently anchored to the floor

  8. Seismic facies; Facies sismicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johann, Paulo Roberto Schroeder [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao Corporativo. Gerencia de Reservas e Reservatorios]. E-mail: johann@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    The method presented herein describes the seismic facies as representations of curves and vertical matrixes of the lithotypes proportions. The seismic facies are greatly interested in capturing the spatial distributions (3D) of regionalized variables, as for example, lithotypes, sedimentary facies groups and/ or porosity and/or other properties of the reservoirs and integrate them into the 3D geological modeling (Johann, 1997). Thus when interpreted as curves or vertical matrixes of proportions, seismic facies allow us to build a very important tool for structural analysis of regionalized variables. The matrixes have an important application in geostatistical modeling. In addition, this approach provides results about the depth and scale of the wells profiles, that is, seismic data is integrated to the characterization of reservoirs in depth maps and in high resolution maps. The link between the different necessary technical phases involved in the classification of the segments of seismic traces is described herein in groups of predefined traces of two approaches: a) not supervised and b) supervised by the geological knowledge available on the studied reservoir. The multivariate statistical methods used to obtain the maps of the seismic facies units are interesting tools to be used to provide a lithostratigraphic and petrophysical understanding of a petroleum reservoir. In the case studied these seismic facies units are interpreted as representative of the depositional system as a part of the Namorado Turbiditic System, Namorado Field, Campos Basin.Within the scope of PRAVAP 19 (Programa Estrategico de Recuperacao Avancada de Petroleo - Strategic Program of Advanced Petroleum Recovery) some research work on algorithms is underway to select new optimized attributes to apply seismic facies. One example is the extraction of attributes based on the wavelet transformation and on the time-frequency analysis methodology. PRAVAP is also carrying out research work on an

  9. Earth modeling and estimation of the local seismic ground motion due to site geology in complex volcanoclastic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Fiore

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic areas often show complex behaviour as far as seismic waves propagation and seismic motion at surface are concerned. In fact, the finite lateral extent of surface layers such as lava flows, blocks, differential welding and/or zeolitization within pyroclastic deposits, introduces in the propagation of seismic waves effects such as the generation of surface waves at the edge, resonance in lateral direction, diffractions and scattering of energy, which tend to modify the amplitude as well as the duration of the ground motion. The irregular topographic surface, typical of volcanic areas, also strongly influences the seismic site response. Despite this heterogeneity, it is unfortunately a common geophysical and engineering practice to evaluate even in volcanic environments the subsurface velocity field with monodimensional investigation method (i.e. geognostic soundings, refraction survey, down-hole, etc. prior to the seismic site response computation which in a such cases is obviously also made with 1D algorithms. This approach often leads to highly inaccurate results. In this paper we use a different approach, i.e. a fully 2D P-wave Çturning rayÈ tomographic survey followed by 2D seismic site response modeling. We report here the results of this approach in three sites located at short distance from Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei and characterized by overburdens constituted by volcanoclastic deposits with large lateral and vertical variations of their elastic properties. Comparison between 1D and 2D Dynamic Amplification Factor shows in all reported cases entirely different results, both in terms of peak period and spectral contents, as expected from the clear bidimensionality of the geological section. Therefore, these studies suggest evaluating carefully the subsoil geological structures in areas characterized by possible large lateral and vertical variations of the elastic properties in order to reach correct seismic site response

  10. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  11. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  12. Accelerometer Sensor Specifications to Predict Hydrocarbon Using Passive Seismic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Md Khir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambient seismic ground noise has been investigated in several surveys worldwide in the last 10 years to verify the correlation between observed seismic energy anomalies at the surface and the presence of hydrocarbon reserves beneath. This is due to the premise that anomalies provide information about the geology and potential presence of hydrocarbon. However a technology gap manifested in nonoptimal detection of seismic signals of interest is observed. This is due to the fact that available sensors are not designed on the basis of passive seismic signal attributes and mainly in terms of amplitude and bandwidth. This is because of that fact that passive seismic acquisition requires greater instrumentation sensitivity, noise immunity, and bandwidth, with active seismic acquisition, where vibratory or impulsive sources were utilized to receive reflections through geophones. Therefore, in the case of passive seismic acquisition, it is necessary to select the best monitoring equipment for its success or failure. Hence, concerning sensors performance, this paper highlights the technological gap and motivates developing dedicated sensors for optimal solution at lower frequencies. Thus, the improved passive seismic recording helps in oil and gas industry to perform better fracture mapping and identify more appropriate stratigraphy at low frequencies.

  13. Optimizing Seismic Monitoring Networks for EGS and Conventional Geothermal Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Bethmann, Falko; Stefan, Wiemer

    2013-04-01

    In the past several years, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential for the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquakes at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized

  14. Seismic waveform modeling over cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    With the fast growing computational technologies, numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation achieved huge successes. Obtaining the synthetic waveforms through numerical simulation receives an increasing amount of attention from seismologists. However, computational seismology is a data-intensive research field, and the numerical packages usually come with a steep learning curve. Users are expected to master considerable amount of computer knowledge and data processing skills. Training users to use the numerical packages, correctly access and utilize the computational resources is a troubled task. In addition to that, accessing to HPC is also a common difficulty for many users. To solve these problems, a cloud based solution dedicated on shallow seismic waveform modeling has been developed with the state-of-the-art web technologies. It is a web platform integrating both software and hardware with multilayer architecture: a well designed SQL database serves as the data layer, HPC and dedicated pipeline for it is the business layer. Through this platform, users will no longer need to compile and manipulate various packages on the local machine within local network to perform a simulation. By providing users professional access to the computational code through its interfaces and delivering our computational resources to the users over cloud, users can customize the simulation at expert-level, submit and run the job through it.

  15. Seismic characteristics of tensile fracture growth induced by hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Van der Baan, M.; Boroumand, N.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a process of injecting high-pressure slurry into a rockmass to enhance its permeability. Variants of this process are used for unconventional oil and gas development, engineered geothermal systems and block-cave mining; similar processes occur within volcanic systems. Opening of hydraulic fractures is well documented by mineback trials and tiltmeter monitoring and is a physical requirement to accommodate the volume of injected fluid. Numerous microseismic monitoring investigations acquired in the audio-frequency band are interpreted to show a prevalence of shear-dominated failure mechanisms surrounding the tensile fracture. Moreover, the radiated seismic energy in the audio-frequency band appears to be a miniscule fraction (<< 1%) of the net injected energy, i.e., the integral of the product of fluid pressure and injection rate. We use a simple penny-shaped crack model as a predictive framework to describe seismic characteristics of tensile opening during hydraulic fracturing. This model provides a useful scaling relation that links seismic moment to effective fluid pressure within the crack. Based on downhole recordings corrected for attenuation, a significant fraction of observed microseismic events are characterized by S/P amplitude ratio < 5. Despite the relatively small aperture of the monitoring arrays, which precludes both full moment-tensor analysis and definitive identification of nodal planes or axes, this ratio provides a strong indication that observed microseismic source mechanisms have a component of tensile failure. In addition, we find some instances of periodic spectral notches that can be explained by an opening/closing failure mechanism, in which fracture propagation outpaces fluid velocity within the crack. Finally, aseismic growth of tensile fractures may be indicative of a scenario in which injected energy is consumed to create new fracture surfaces. Taken together, our observations and modeling provide evidence that

  16. Seismic isolation - efficient procedure for seismic response assessement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfir, M. A.; Androne, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this analysis is to reduce the dynamic response of a structure. The seismic isolation solution must take into consideration the specific site ground motion. In this paper will be presented results obtained by applying the seismic isolation method. Based on the obtained results, important conclusions can be outlined: the seismic isolation device has the ability to reduce seismic acceleration of the seismic isolated structure to values that no longer present a danger to people and environment; the seismic isolation solution is limiting devices deformations to safety values for ensuring structural integrity and stability of the entire system; the effective seismic energy dissipation and with no side effects both for the seismic isolated building and for the devices used, and the return to the initial position before earthquake occurence are obtained with acceptable permanent displacement. (authors)

  17. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. ... seismic sources, linear and areal, were considered in the present study to model the seismic sources in the ..... taken as an authentic reference manual for iden-.

  18. Seismic fragility analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Marin

    2000-01-01

    In the last two decades there is increasing number of probabilistic seismic risk assessments performed. The basic ideas of the procedure for performing a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of critical structures (NUREG/CR-2300, 1983) could be used also for normal industrial and residential buildings, dams or other structures. The general formulation of the risk assessment procedure applied in this investigation is presented in Franzini, et al., 1984. The probability of failure of a structure for an expected lifetime (for example 50 years) can be obtained from the annual frequency of failure, β E determined by the relation: β E ∫[d[β(x)]/dx]P(flx)dx. β(x) is the annual frequency of exceedance of load level x (for example, the variable x may be peak ground acceleration), P(fI x) is the conditional probability of structure failure at a given seismic load level x. The problem leads to the assessment of the seismic hazard β(x) and the fragility P(fl x). The seismic hazard curves are obtained by the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The fragility curves are obtained after the response of the structure is defined as probabilistic and its capacity and the associated uncertainties are assessed. Finally the fragility curves are combined with the seismic loading to estimate the frequency of failure for each critical scenario. The frequency of failure due to seismic event is presented by the scenario with the highest frequency. The tools usually applied for probabilistic safety analyses of critical structures could relatively easily be adopted to ordinary structures. The key problems are the seismic hazard definitions and the fragility analyses. The fragility could be derived either based on scaling procedures or on the base of generation. Both approaches have been presented in the paper. After the seismic risk (in terms of failure probability) is assessed there are several approaches for risk reduction. Generally the methods could be classified in two groups. The

  19. Seismic forecast using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecu, Valeriu; Mateiciuc, Doru

    2007-01-01

    The main idea of this research direction consists in the special way of constructing a new type of mathematical function as being a correlation between a computed statistical quantity and another physical quantity. This type of function called 'position function' was taken over by the authors of this study in the field of seismology with the hope of solving - at least partially - the difficult problem of seismic forecast. The geostatistic method of analysis focuses on the process of energy accumulation in a given seismic area, completing this analysis by a so-called loading function. This function - in fact a temporal function - describes the process of energy accumulation during a seismic cycle from a given seismic area. It was possible to discover a law of evolution of the seismic cycles that was materialized in a so-called characteristic function. This special function will help us to forecast the magnitude and the occurrence moment of the largest earthquake in the analysed area. Since 2000, the authors have been evolving to a new stage of testing: real - time analysis, in order to verify the quality of the method. There were five large earthquakes forecasts. (authors)

  20. Pickering seismic safety margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.; Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has sufficient seismic safety margin over its design basis to assure plant safety. In this review process, it is possible to identify the weak links which might limit the seismic performance of critical structures, systems and components. The proposed methodology is a modification the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) approach. The methodology includes: the characterization of the site margin earthquake, the definition of the performance criteria for the elements of a success path, and the determination of the seismic withstand capacity. It is proposed that the margin earthquake be established on the basis of using historical records and the regional seismo-tectonic and site specific evaluations. The ability of the components and systems to withstand the margin earthquake is determined by database comparisons, inspection, analysis or testing. An implementation plan for the application of the methodology to the Pickering A NGS is prepared

  1. Seismicity and seismic monitoring in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, D.; Gommlich, G.; Hente, B.

    1987-01-01

    Seismicity analyses are made in order to assess the safety of candidate sites for ultimate disposal of hazardous wastes. The report in hand reviews the seismicity history of the Asse salt mine and presents recent results of a measuring campaign made in the area. The monitoring network installed at the site supplies data and information on the regional seismicity, on seismic amplitudes under ground and above ground, and on microseismic activities. (DG) [de

  2. Detection of gas hydrate with downhole logs and assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) and gas volumes on the Blake Ridge with electrical resistivity log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.; Ladd, J.

    2000-01-01

    Let 164 of the Ocean Drilling Program was designed to investigate the occurrence of gas hydrate in the sedimentary section beneath the Blake Ridge on the southeastern continental margin of North America. Site 994, and 997 were drilled on the Blake Ridge to refine our understanding of the in situ characteristics of natural gas hydrate. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed on Leg 164 included the Schlumberger quad-combination tool (NGT, LSS/SDT, DIT, CNT-G, HLDT), the Formation MicroScanner (FMS), and the Geochemical Combination Tool (GST). Electrical resistivity (DIT) and acoustic transit-time (LSS/SDT) downhole logs from Sites 994, 995, and 997 indicate the presence of gas hydrate in the depth interval between 185 and 450 mbsf on the Blake Ridge. Electrical resistivity log calculations suggest that the gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary section on the Blake Ridge may contain between 2 and 11 percent bulk volume (vol%) gas hydrate. We have determined that the log-inferred gas hydrates and underlying free-gas accumulations on the Blake Ridge may contain as much as 57 trillion m3 of gas.

  3. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to delineate seismic source zones in the study area (south India) based on the seismicity parameters. Seismicity parameters and the maximum probable earthquake for these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. The probabilistic evaluation of ...

  4. Seismic Microzonation for Refinement of Seismic Load Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, A. I.; Bugaevskii, A. G., E-mail: office@geodyn.ru, E-mail: bugaevskiy@geodyn.ru [Center of the Office of Geodynamic Observations in the Power Sector, an affiliate of JSC “Institut Gidroproekt” (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Functional dependencies are established for the characteristics of seismic transients recorded at various points of a studied site, which are used to propose a new approach to seismic microzonation (SMZ) that enables the creation of new SMZ maps of strong seismic motion, with due regard for dynamic parameters of recorded transients during weak earthquakes.

  5. Status report on seismic re-evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In May 1997, a meeting of the PWG 3 Sub Group on the Seismic Behaviour of Structures agreed several priority objectives, of which one was the production of a status report on seismic re-evaluation. Seismic re-evaluation is identified as the process of carrying out a re-assessment of the safety of existing nuclear power plants for a specified seismic hazard. This may be necessary when no seismic hazard was considered in the original design of the plant, the relevant codes and regulations have been revised, the seismic hazard for the site has been re-assessed or there is a need to assess the capacity of the plant for severe accident conditions and behaviour beyond the design basis. Re-evaluation may also be necessary to resolve an issue, or to assess the impact of new findings or knowledge. A questionnaire on the subject was issued to all members of the Seismic Sub Group in the summer of 1997, and responses to the questionnaire had been received from most members by the end of 1997. This report is based on the responses to the questionnaire, together with comment and discussion within the group. The questionnaire covered the following main topics of interest in relation to seismic re-evaluation: General and Legislative Framework, Overall Approach, Input Definition and Analysis Methods, Scope of Plant and Assessment of As-built Situation, Assessment criteria, Outcome of Re-evaluations, Research. The responses to the questionnaire have been collated and reviewed with the objective of comparing current practice in the field of seismic re-evaluation in member countries, and a number of important points have been identified in relation to the position of seismic re-evaluation in the nuclear power industry throughout the world. It is evident that seismic re-evaluation is a relatively mature process that has been developing for some time, with most countries adopting similar practices, often based on principles which have been developed in the US nuclear industry. Seismic

  6. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  7. Two applications of time reversal mirrors: Seismic radio and seismic radar

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2011-07-08

    Two seismic applications of time reversal mirrors (TRMs) are introduced and tested with field experiments. The first one is sending, receiving, and decoding coded messages similar to a radio except seismic waves are used. The second one is, similar to radar surveillance, detecting and tracking a moving object(s) in a remote area, including the determination of the objects speed of movement. Both applications require the prior recording of calibrationGreen’s functions in the area of interest. This reference Green’s function will be used as a codebook to decrypt the coded message in the first application and as a moving sensor for the second application. Field tests show that seismicradar can detect the moving coordinates ( x(t), y(t), z(t)) of a person running through a calibration site. This information also allows for a calculation of his velocity as a function of location. Results with the seismic radio are successful in seismically detecting and decoding coded pulses produced by a hammer. Both seismic radio and radar are highly robust to signals in high noise environments due to the super-stacking property of TRMs.

  8. Seismic radio by reverse time mirrors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Sandoval Curiel, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    We present the theory and one field example of using seismic waves to send and receive coded messages. The method requires the recording of one calibration shot gather that will be used to decode the message. Coded messages can be send with a system similar to Baudot code. One field test is recorded in Tucson, AZ., USA, where we send and received 3‐short messages. One possible application of this method is to send coded messages from trapped miners to the surface. Advantages of this method are; no velocity model is required, easy and fast to use.

  9. Seismic radio by reverse time mirrors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2010-10-17

    We present the theory and one field example of using seismic waves to send and receive coded messages. The method requires the recording of one calibration shot gather that will be used to decode the message. Coded messages can be send with a system similar to Baudot code. One field test is recorded in Tucson, AZ., USA, where we send and received 3‐short messages. One possible application of this method is to send coded messages from trapped miners to the surface. Advantages of this method are; no velocity model is required, easy and fast to use.

  10. Quake warnings, seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Huggins, Tom; Miles, Scott; Otegui, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990, nearly one million people have died from the impacts of earthquakes. Reducing those impacts requires building a local seismic culture in which residents are aware of earthquake risks and value efforts to mitigate harm. Such efforts include earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that provide seconds to minutes notice of pending shaking. Recent events in Mexico provide an opportunity to assess performance and perception of an EEW system and highlight areas for further improvement. We have learned that EEW systems, even imperfect ones, can help people prepare for earthquakes and build local seismic culture, both beneficial in reducing earthquake-related losses.

  11. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  12. Seismic microzonation of Bangalore, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evaluation of seismic hazards and microzonation of cities enable us to characterize the potential seismic areas which have similar exposures to haz- ards of earthquakes, and these results can be used for designing new structures or retrofitting the existing ones. Study of seismic hazard and preparation of microzonation ...

  13. Seismic and dynamic qualification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on seismic effects on nuclear power plants. Topics considered at the conference included seismic qualification of equipment, multifrequency test methodologies, damping in piping systems, the amplification factor, thermal insulation, welded joints, and response factors for seismic risk analysis of piping

  14. Development of a downhole tool measuring real-time concentration of ionic tracers and pH in geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ryan F.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Limmer, Steven; Yelton, William G.; Bingham, Samuel; Stillman, Greg; Lindblom, Scott; Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    For enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) geothermal brine is pumped to the surface via the production wells, the heat extracted to turn a turbine to generate electricity, and the spent brine re-injected via injection wells back underground. If designed properly, the subsurface rock formations will lead this water back to the extraction well as heated brine. Proper monitoring of these geothermal reservoirs is essential for developing and maintaining the necessary level of productivity of the field. Chemical tracers are commonly used to characterize the fracture network and determine the connectivity between the injection and production wells. Currently, most tracer experiments involve injecting the tracer at the injection well, manually collecting liquid samples at the wellhead of the production well, and sending the samples off for laboratory analysis. While this method provides accurate tracer concentration data at very low levels of detection, it does not provide information regarding the location of the fractures which were conducting the tracer between wellbores. Sandia is developing a high-temperature electrochemical sensor capable of measuring tracer concentrations and pH downhole on a wireline tool. The goal of this effort is to collect real-time pH and ionic tracer concentration data at temperatures up to 225 °C and pressures up to 3000 psi. In this paper, a prototype electrochemical sensor and the initial data obtained will be presented detailing the measurement of iodide tracer concentrations at high temperature and pressure in a newly developed laboratory scale autoclave.

  15. Real-time monitoring of seismic data using satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merucci

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ARGO Satellite Seismic Network (ARGO SSN as a reliable system for monitoring, collection, visualisation and analysis of seismic and geophysical low-frequency data, The satellite digital telemetry system is composed of peripheral geophysical stations, a centraI communications node (master sta- tion located in CentraI Italy, and a data collection and processing centre located at ING (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Rome. The task of the peripheral stations is to digitalise and send via satellite the geophysical data collected by the various sensors to the master station. The master station receives the data and forwards them via satellite to the ING in Rome; it also performs alI the monitoring functions of satellite communications. At the data collection and processing centre of ING, the data are received and analysed in real time, the seismic events are identified and recorded, the low-frequency geophysical data are stored. In addition, the generaI sta- tus of the satellite network and of each peripheral station connected, is monitored. The procedure for analysjs of acquired seismic signals allows the automatic calculation of local magnitude and duration magnitude The communication and data exchange between the seismic networks of Greece, Spain and Italy is the fruit of a recent development in the field of technology of satellite transmission of ARGO SSN (project of European Community "Southern Europe Network for Analysis of Seismic Data"

  16. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  17. Seismic prospecting using a continuous shooting and continuous recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wason, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    A method of seismic prospecting is disclosed in which the seismic source is excited in such a manner as to maximize the use of the energy generated by the seismic source. In certain cases it may be desirable to convert the received seismic signals to their frequency domain counterparts before performing subsequent processing. Such conversion may be performed using the discrete Fourier transform with the result that transformed values are obtained only at certain discrete frequencies. It may further be desirable that processing be performed only at subsets of the total set of discrete frequencies with the values at the remaining frequencies being discarded. In the practice of the present invention, source energy is generated only at those discrete frequencies at which subsequent processing is to be performed. As a result there is substantially no source energy in the transform values at the frequencies which are discarded

  18. Relays undergo seismic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities are required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to document that seismic vibration will not adversely affect critical electrical equipment. Seismic testing should be designed to determine the malfunction level (fragility testing). Input possibilities include a continuous sine, a decaying sine, a sine beat, random vibrations, and combinations of random vibrations and sine beat. The sine beat most accurately simulates a seismic event. Test frequencies have a broad range in order to accommodate a variety of relay types and cabinet mounting. Simulation of motion along three axes offers several options, but is best achieved by three in-phase single-axis vibration machines that are less likely to induce testing fatigue failure. Consensus on what constitutes relay failure favors a maximum two microsecond discontinuity. Performance tests should be conducted for at least two of the following: (1) nonoperating modes, (2) operating modes, or (3) the transition above the two modes, with the monitoring mode documented for all three. Results should specify a capability curve of maximum safe seismic acceleration and a graph plotting acceleration with sine-beat frequency

  19. Mobile seismic exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dräbenstedt, A., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de; Seyfried, V. [Research & Development, Polytec GmbH, Waldbronn (Germany); Cao, X.; Rembe, C., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de [Institute of Electrical Information Technology, TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Polom, U., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de [Leibniz Institute of Applied Geophysics, Hannover (Germany); Pätzold, F.; Hecker, P. [Institute of Flight Guidance, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Zeller, T. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik Institut CUTEC, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2016-06-28

    Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry (LDV) is an established technique to measure vibrations in technical systems with picometer vibration-amplitude resolution. Especially good sensitivity and resolution can be achieved at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm. High-resolution vibration measurements are possible over more than 100 m distance. This advancement of the LDV technique enables new applications. The detection of seismic waves is an application which has not been investigated so far because seismic waves outside laboratory scales are usually analyzed at low frequencies between approximately 1 Hz and 250 Hz and require velocity resolutions in the range below 1 nm/s/√Hz. Thermal displacements and air turbulence have critical influences to LDV measurements at this low-frequency range leading to noise levels of several 100 nm/√Hz. Commonly seismic waves are measured with highly sensitive inertial sensors (geophones or Micro Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS)). Approaching a laser geophone based on LDV technique is the topic of this paper. We have assembled an actively vibration-isolated optical table in a minivan which provides a hole in its underbody. The laser-beam of an infrared LDV assembled on the optical table impinges the ground below the car through the hole. A reference geophone has detected remaining vibrations on the table. We present the results from the first successful experimental demonstration of contactless detection of seismic waves from a movable vehicle with a LDV as laser geophone.

  20. Understanding induced seismicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsworth, Derek; Spiers, Christopher J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829323; Niemeijer, Andre R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132

    2016-01-01

    Fluid injection–induced seismicity has become increasingly widespread in oil- and gas-producing areas of the United States (1–3) and western Canada. It has shelved deep geothermal energy projects in Switzerland and the United States (4), and its effects are especially acute in Oklahoma, where

  1. Reflection imaging of the Moon's interior using deep-moonquake seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishitsuji, Y.; Rowe, CA; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    The internal structure of the Moon has been investigated over many years using a variety of seismic methods, such as travel time analysis, receiver functions, and tomography. Here we propose to apply body-wave seismic interferometry to deep moonquakes in order to retrieve zero-offset reflection

  2. Seismic Waveform Inversion : Bump functional, parameterization analysis and imaging ahead of a tunnel-boring machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisupati, P.B.

    2017-01-01

    During a seismic experiment, mechanical waves are usually generated by various manmade sources. These waves propagate in the subsurface and are recorded at receivers. Modern seismic exploration methods analyze them to infer the mechanical properties of the subsurface; this is commonly referred as

  3. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  4. Romanian seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Rizescu, Mihaela; Popa, Mihaela; Grigore, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    The research in the field of seismology in Romania is mainly carried out by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP). The NIEP activities are mainly concerned with the fundamental research financed by research contracts from public sources and the maintenance and operation of the Romanian seismic network. A three stage seismic network is now operating under NIEP, designed mainly to monitor the Vrancea seismic region in a magnitude range from microearthquakes to strong events: - network of 18 short-period seismometers (S13); - Teledyne Geotech Instruments (Texas); - network of 7 stations with local digital recording (PCM-5000) on magnetic tape, made up of, S13 geophone (T=2 s) on vertical component and SH1 geophone (T=5 s) on horizontal components; - network of 28 SMA-1 accelerometers and 30 digital accelerometers (Kinemetrics - K2) installed in the free field conditions in the framework of the joint German-Romanian cooperation program (CRC); the K2 instruments cover a magnitude range from 1.4 to 8.0. Since 1994, MLR (Muntele Rosu) station has become part of the GEOFON network and was provided with high performance broad band instruments. At Bucharest and Timisoara data centers, an automated and networked seismological system performs the on-line digital acquisition and processing of the telemetered data. Automatic processing includes discrimination between local and distant seismic events, earthquake location and magnitude computation, and source parameter determination for local earthquakes. The results are rapidly distributed via Internet, to several seismological services in Europe and USA, to be used in the association/confirmation procedures. Plans for new developments of the network include the upgrade from analog to digital telemetry and new stations for monitoring local seismicity. (authors)

  5. Simultaneous Inversion of Receiver Functions, Multi-Mode Dispersion, and Travel-Time Tomography for Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Middle East and North Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ammon, Charles J; Kosarian, Minoo; Hermann, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    .... Towards this goal, we perform receiver function analysis using teleseismic waveforms recorded at permanent and temporary broadband seismic stations located in Middle East, Europe, Asia, and North Africa...

  6. Surface-seismic imaging for nehrp soil profile classifications and earthquake hazards in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    We acquired high-resolution seismic-refraction data on the ground surface in selected areas of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) to help explain the earthquake damage patterns and the variation in ground motion caused by the 17 January 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake. We used these data to determine the compressional- and shear-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) at 20 aftershock recording sites to 30-m depth ( V??s30, and V??p30). Two other sites, located next to boreholes with downhole Vp and Vs data, show that we imaged very similar seismic-vefocity structures in the upper 40 m. Overall, high site response appears to be associated with tow Vs in the near surface, but there can be a wide rangepf site amplifications for a given NEHRP soil type. The data suggest that for the SFV, if the V??s30 is known, we can determine whether the earthquake ground motion will be amplified above a factor of 2 relative to a local rock site.

  7. Detecting Seismic Infrasound Signals on Balloon Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Komjathy, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Kedar, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hall, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of the interior structure of a planet requires detailed seismic investigations - a process that entails the detection and characterization of seismic waves due to geological activities (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.). For decades, this task has primarily been performed on Earth by an ever-expanding network of terrestrial seismic stations. However, on planets such as Venus, where the surface pressure and temperature can reach as high as 90 atmospheres and 450 degrees Celsius respectively, placing seismometers on the planet's surface poses a vexing technological challenge. However, the upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere are more benign and capable of hosting geophysical payloads for longer mission lifetimes. In order to achieve the aim of performing geophysical experiments from an atmospheric platform, JPL and its partners (ISAE-SUPAERO and California Institute of Technology) are in the process of developing technologies for detection of infrasonic waves generated by earthquakes from a balloon. The coupling of seismic energy into the atmosphere critically depends on the density differential between the surface of the planet and the atmosphere. Therefore, the successful demonstration of this technique on Earth would provide ample reason to expect success on Venus, where the atmospheric impedance is approximately 60 times that of Earth. In this presentation, we will share results from the first set of Earth-based balloon experiments performed in Pahrump, Nevada in June 2017. These tests involved the generation of artificial sources of known intensity using a seismic hammer and their detection using a complex network of sensors, including highly sensitive micro-barometers suspended from balloons, GPS receivers, geophones, microphones, and seismometers. This experiment was the first of its kind and was successful in detecting infrasonic waves from the earthquakes generated by the seismic hammer. We will present the first comprehensive analysis

  8. A new seismic station in Romania the Bucovina seismic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigore, Adrian; Grecu, Bogdan; Ionescu, Constantin; Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela; Rizescu, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a new seismic monitoring station, the Bucovina Seismic Array, has been established in the northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania. The array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 short-period and one broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km area. On July 24, 2002 the official Opening Ceremony of Bucovina Seismic Array took place in the area near the city of Campulung Moldovenesc in the presence of Romanian Prime Minister, Adrian Nastase. Starting with this date, the new seismic monitoring system became fully operational by continuous recording and transmitting data in real-time to the National Data Center of Romania, in Bucharest and to the National Data Center of USA, in Florida. Bucovina Seismic Array, added to the present Seismic Network, will provide much better seismic monitoring coverage of Romania's territory, on-scale recording for weak-to-strong events, and will contribute to advanced seismological studies on seismic hazard and risk, local effects and microzonation, seismic source physics, Earth structure. (authors)

  9. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Seismic exploration utilizes controlled sources, which emit seismic waves that propagate through the earth subsurface and get reflected off subsurface interfaces and scatterers. The reflected and scattered waves are recorded by recording stations installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single-scattering assumption, where only energy that bounces once off a subsurface scatterer and recorded by a receiver is projected back to its subsurface position. The internally multiply scattered seismic energy is considered as unwanted noise and is usually suppressed or removed from the recorded data. Conventional seismic imaging techniques yield subsurface images that suffer from low spatial resolution, migration artifacts, and acquisition fingerprint due to the limited acquisition aperture, number of sources and receivers, and bandwidth of the source wavelet. Hydrocarbon traps are becoming more challenging and considerable reserves are trapped in stratigraphic and pinch-out traps, which require highly resolved seismic images to delineate them. This thesis focuses on developing and implementing new advanced cost-effective seismic imaging techniques aiming at enhancing the resolution of the migrated images by exploiting the sparseness of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and utilizing the multiples that are usually neglected when imaging seismic data. I first formulate the seismic imaging problem as a Basis pursuit denoise problem, which I solve using an L1-minimization algorithm to obtain the sparsest migrated image corresponding to the recorded data. Imaging multiples may illuminate subsurface zones, which are not easily illuminated by conventional seismic imaging using primary reflections only. I then develop an L2-norm (i.e. least-squares) inversion technique to image

  10. Comparison of seismic sources for shallow seismic: sledgehammer and pyrotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Aleksander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pyrotechnic materials are one of the types of the explosives materials which produce thermal, luminous or sound effects, gas, smoke and their combination as a result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Therefore, pyrotechnics can be used as a seismic source that is designed to release accumulated energy in a form of seismic wave recorded by tremor sensors (geophones after its passage through the rock mass. The aim of this paper was to determine the utility of pyrotechnics for shallow seismic engineering. The work presented comparing the conventional method of seismic wave excitation for seismic refraction method like plate and hammer and activating of firecrackers on the surface. The energy released by various sources and frequency spectra was compared for the two types of sources. The obtained results did not determine which sources gave the better results but showed very interesting aspects of using pyrotechnics in seismic measurements for example the use of pyrotechnic materials in MASW.

  11. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the case of drilling for deep reservoirs previous exploration is indispensable. In recent years the focus shifted more on geological structures like small layers or hydrothermal fault systems. Beside 2D- or 3D-seismics from the surface and seismic measurements like Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) or Seismic While Drilling (SWD) within a borehole these methods cannot always resolute this structures. The resolution is worsen the deeper and smaller the sought-after structures are. So, potential horizons like small layers in oil exploration or fault zones usable for geothermal energy production could be failed or not identified while drilling. The application of a device to explore the geology with a high resolution ahead of the drill bit in direction of drilling would be of high importance. Such a device would allow adjusting the drilling path according to the real geology and would minimize the risk of discovery and hence the costs for drilling. Within the project SPWD a device for seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit will be developed. This device should allow the seismic exploration to predict areas about 50 to 100 meters ahead of the drill bit with a resolution of one meter. At the GFZ a first prototype consisting of different units for seismic sources, receivers and data loggers has been designed and manufactured. As seismic sources four standard magnetostrictive actuators and as receivers four 3-component-geophones are used. Every unit, actuator or geophone, can be rotated in steps of 15° around the longitudinal axis of the prototype to test different measurement configurations. The SPWD prototype emits signal frequencies of about 500 up to 5000 Hz which are significant higher than in VSP and SWD. An increased radiation of seismic wave energy in the direction of the borehole axis allows the view in areas to be drilled. Therefore, every actuator must be controlled independently of each other regarding to amplitude and phase of the source signal to

  12. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  13. Seismic detection of tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatom, F. B.

    1993-01-01

    Tornadoes represent the most violent of all forms of atmospheric storms, each year resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage and approximately one hundred fatalities. In recent years, considerable success has been achieved in detecting tornadic storms by means of Doppler radar. However, radar systems cannot determine when a tornado is actually in contact with the ground, expect possibly at extremely close range. At the present time, human observation is the only truly reliable way of knowing that a tornado is actually on the ground. However, considerable evidence exists indicating that a tornado in contact with the ground produces a significant seismic signal. If such signals are generated, the seismic detection and warning of an imminent tornado can become a distinct possibility. 

  14. Seismic Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagling, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Seismic Safety Guide provides facilities managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. Most facilities managers, unfamiliar with earthquake engineering, tend to look for answers in techniques more sophisticated than required to solve the actual problems in earthquake safety. Often the approach to solutions to these problems is so academic, legalistic, and financially overwhelming that mitigation of actual seismic hazards simply does not get done in a timely, cost-effective way. The objective of the Guide is to provide practical advice about earthquake safety so that managers and engineers can get the job done without falling into common pitfalls, prolonged diagnosis, and unnecessary costs. It is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, non-structural elements, life lines, and risk management. 5 references

  15. Seismic analysis - what goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagart, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    The seismic analysis of nuclear components is characterized today by extensive engineering computer calculations in order to satisfy both the component standard codes such as ASME III as well as federal regulations and guides. The current nuclear siesmic design procedure has envolved in a fragmented fashion and continues to change its elements as improved technology leads to changing standards and guides. The dominant trend is a monotonic increase in the overall conservation with time causing a similar trend in costs of nuclear power plants. Ironically the improvements in the state of art are feeding a process which is eroding the very incentives that attracted us to nuclear power in the first place. This paper examines the cause of this process and suggests that what is needed is a realistic goal which appropriately addresses the overall uncertainty of the seismic design process. (Auth.)

  16. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Source of seismic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovskii, B.A.; Khor' yakov, K.A.

    1980-08-30

    Patented is a source of seismic signals consisting of a shock generator with a basic low-voltage and auxillary high-voltage stator coils, a capacitive transformer and control switches. To increase the amplitude of signal excitation a condensor battery and auxillary commutator are introduced into the device, which are connected in parallel and serially into the circuit of the main low-voltage stator coil.

  18. Stutter seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumma, W. H.; Hughes, D. R.; Zimmerman, N. S.

    1980-08-12

    An improved seismic prospecting system comprising the use of a closely spaced sequence of source initiations at essentially the same location to provide shorter objective-level wavelets than are obtainable with a single pulse. In a preferred form, three dynamite charges are detonated in the same or three closely spaced shot holes to generate a downward traveling wavelet having increased high frequency content and reduced content at a peak frequency determined by initial testing.

  19. Long Period Seismic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    Geoffsica, TPHM. No. 5 , p. 161. Vargas, Freddy (To he published in 1976) 1 .-DTSCRP1TNACTON DE EVENTO«; NATHDALE«; Y ARTTFTCT ALES. 2.- CALCULO DEL...seismic risk, bv de - fininn relative weiqht of maximum MM intensity at a pivon distance ponulation density, area feolupy and attenuation of intensity wit...Population densitv, area peolopv and attenuation of intensitv with distance, is presented topether with a map anplvinp theorv to Bo- livia. ^«^a

  20. Oklahoma seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr.; Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK

    1993-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent

  1. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  2. Seismic contracts and agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N.M.; Krause, V.

    1999-01-01

    Some points to consider regarding management of seismic projects within the Canadian petroleum industry were reviewed. Seismic projects involve the integration of many services. This paper focused on user-provider relationships, the project planning process, competitive bid considerations, the types of agreement used for seismic and their implications, and the impact that certain points of control may have on a company: (1) initial estimate versus actual cost, (2) liability, (3) safety and operational performance, and (4) quality of deliverables. The objective is to drive home the point that in today's environment where companies are forming, merging, or collapsing on a weekly basis , chain of command and accountability are issues that can no longer be dealt with casually. Companies must form business relationships with service providers with a full knowledge of benefits and liabilities of the style of relationship they choose. Diligent and proactive management tends to optimize cost, safety and liability issues, all of which have a bearing on the points of control available to the company

  3. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented

  4. Seismicity and seismic hazard in Sabah, East Malaysia from earthquake and geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, A.; Rawlinson, N.; Tongkul, F.; Stephenson, R.

    2017-12-01

    While the levels of seismicity are low in most of Malaysia, the state of Sabah in northern Borneo has moderate levels of seismicity. Notable earthquakes in the region include the 1976 M6.2 Lahad Datu earthquake and the 2015 M6 Ranau earthquake. The recent Ranau earthquake resulted in the deaths of 18 people on Mt Kinabalu, an estimated 100 million RM ( US$23 million) damage to buildings, roads, and infrastructure from shaking, and flooding, reduced water quality, and damage to farms from landslides. Over the last 40 years the population of Sabah has increased to over four times what it was in 1976, yet seismic hazard in Sabah remains poorly understood. Using seismic and geodetic data we hope to better quantify the hazards posed by earthquakes in Sabah, and thus help to minimize risk. In order to do this we need to know about the locations of earthquakes, types of earthquakes that occur, and faults that are generating them. We use data from 15 MetMalaysia seismic stations currently operating in Sabah to develop a region-specific velocity model from receiver functions and a pre-existing surface wave model. We use this new velocity model to (re)locate earthquakes that occurred in Sabah from 2005-2016, including a large number of aftershocks from the 2015 Ranau earthquake. We use a probabilistic nonlinear earthquake location program to locate the earthquakes and then refine their relative locations using a double difference method. The recorded waveforms are further used to obtain moment tensor solutions for these earthquakes. Earthquake locations and moment tensor solutions are then compared with the locations of faults throughout Sabah. Faults are identified from high-resolution IFSAR images and subsequent fieldwork, with a particular focus on the Lahad Datau and Ranau areas. Used together, these seismic and geodetic data can help us to develop a new seismic hazard model for Sabah, as well as aiding in the delivery of outreach activities regarding seismic hazard

  5. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Abe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is an available method to evaluate residual risks of nuclear plants that are designed on definitive seismic conditions. From our preliminary seismic PSA analysis, horizontal shaft pumps are important components that have significant influences on the core damage frequency (CDF). An actual horizontal shaft pump and some kinds of elements were tested to evaluate realistic fragility capacities. Our test results showed that the realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as high as a current value, 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 , used for our seismic PSA. We are going to incorporate the fragility capacity data that were obtained from those tests into our seismic PSA analysis, and we expect that the reliability of seismic PSA should increase. (author)

  6. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  7. Estimation of reliability of seismic and electromagnetic monitoring in seismic active areas by diffraction tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Troyan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithms and results of the numerical simulation of the solution of a 2-D inverse problem on the restoration of seismic parameters and electrical conductivity of local inhomogeneities by the diffraction tomography method based upon the first order Born approximation. The direct problems for the Lame and Maxwell equations are solved by the finite difference method. Restoration of inhomogeneities which are not very weak is implemented with the use of a small number of receivers (source-receiver pairs.

  8. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; hide

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  9. Seismic capacity of a reinforced concrete frame structure without seismic detailing and limited ductility seismic design in moderate seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Kim, I. H.

    1999-01-01

    A four-story reinforced concrete frame building model is designed for the gravity loads only. Static nonlinear pushover analyses are performed in two orthogonal horizontal directions. The overall capacity curves are converted into ADRS spectra and compared with demand spectra. At several points the deformed shape, moment and shear distribution are calculated. Based on these results limited ductility seismic design concept is proposed as an alternative seismic design approach in moderate seismicity resign

  10. Seismic safety research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This document presents a plan for seismic research to be performed by the Structural and Seismic Engineering Branch in the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The plan describes the regulatory needs and related research necessary to address the following issues: uncertainties in seismic hazard, earthquakes larger than the design basis, seismic vulnerabilities, shifts in building frequency, piping design, and the adequacy of current criteria and methods. In addition to presenting current and proposed research within the NRC, the plan discusses research sponsored by other domestic and foreign sources

  11. Seismic modelling of shallow coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C. (University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics.)

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to determine whether reflection seismic surveys can be used to map stratigraphic and structural detail of shallow Plains-type coal deposits. Two coalfields in central Alberta were used to examine and determine optimum acquisition parameters for reflection seismic surveys in such settings. The study was based on 1-D and 2-D numerical seismic modelling using sonic and density well logs to formulate a layered earth model. Additional objectives were to interpret the reflection seismic data in terms of geologic features in the study area, and to investigate the relationship between vertical resolution and field acquisition geometry. 27 refs., 41 figs.

  12. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  13. Seismic surveys test on Innerhytta Pingo, Adventdalen, Svalbard Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Giuliana; Petronio, Lorenzo; Accaino, Flavio; Romeo, Roberto; Wheeler, Walter

    2015-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of an experimental full-wave seismic survey test conducted on the Innnerhytta a Pingo, located in the Adventdalen, Svalbard Islands, Norway. Several seismic surveys were adopted in order to study a Pingo inner structure, from classical reflection/refraction arrays to seismic tomography and surface waves analysis. The aim of the project IMPERVIA, funded by Italian PNRA, was the evaluation of the permafrost characteristics beneath this open-system Pingo by the use of seismic investigation, evaluating the best practice in terms of logistic deployment. The survey was done in April-May 2014: we collected 3 seismic lines with different spacing between receivers (from 2.5m to 5m), for a total length of more than 1 km. We collected data with different vertical geophones (with natural frequency of 4.5 Hz and 14 Hz) as well as with a seismic snow-streamer. We tested different seismic sources (hammer, seismic gun, fire crackers and heavy weight drop), and we verified accurately geophone coupling in order to evaluate the different responses. In such peculiar conditions we noted as fire-crackers allow the best signal to noise ratio for refraction/reflection surveys. To ensure the best geophones coupling with the frozen soil, we dug snow pits, to remove the snow-cover effect. On the other hand, for the surface wave methods, the very high velocity of the permafrost strongly limits the generation of long wavelengths both with these explosive sources as with the common sledgehammer. The only source capable of generating low frequencies was a heavy drop weight system, which allows to analyze surface wave dispersion below 10 Hz. Preliminary data analysis results evidence marked velocity inversions and strong velocity contrasts in depth. The combined use of surface and body waves highlights the presence of a heterogeneous soil deposit level beneath a thick layer of permafrost. This is the level that hosts the water circulation from depth controlling

  14. Tutorial on seismic interferometry : Part 1 — Basic principles and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.; Snieder, R.; Campman, X.; Verdel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic interferometry involves the crosscorrelation of responses at different receivers to obtain the Green's function between these receivers. For the simple situation of an impulsive plane wave propagating along the x-axis, the crosscorrelation of the responses at two receivers along the x-axis

  15. Physical Properties and Seismic Structure of Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore Arc crust: Results From IODP Expedition 352 and Comparison with Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeson, G. L.; Morgan, S.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the well-preserved ophiolite complexes are believed to form in supra-subduction zone settings. One of the goals of IODP Expedition 352 was to test the supra-subduction zone ophiolite model by drilling forearc crust at the northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system. IBM forearc drilling successfully cored 1.22 km of volcanic lavas and underlying dikes at four sites. A surprising observation is that basement compressional velocities measured from downhole logging average ~3.0 km/s, compared to values of 5 km/s at similar basement depths at oceanic crust sites 504B and 1256D. Typically there is an inverse relationship in extrusive lavas between velocity and porosity, but downhole logging shows similar porosities for the IBM and oceanic crust sites, despite the large difference in measured compressional velocities. These observations can be explained by a difference in crack morphologies between IBM forearc and oceanic crust, with a smaller fractional area of asperity contact across cracks at EXP 352 sites than at sites 504B and 1256D. Seismic profiles at the IBM forearc image many faults, which may be related to the crack population.

  16. Seismic imaging of Southern African cratons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad

    Cratonic regions are the oldest stable parts of continents that hold most of Earth’s mineral resources. There are several open questions regarding their formation and evolution. In this PhD study, passive source seismic methods have been used to investigate the crustal and lithosphere structures...... of this research was based on Ps- and Sp- receiver functions analysis to determine crustal thickness while finite-frequency traveltime tomography is utilized to model 3D heterogeneity in the upper mantle. Combining the two methods provides high vertical and lateral resolution....

  17. The influence of backfill on seismicity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hemp, DA

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available , that the seismicity has been reduced in areas where backfill had been placed. A factor complicating the evaluation of backfill on seismicity is the effect of geological structures on seismicity....

  18. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  19. Deciphering Equatorial Pacific Deep Sea Sediment Transport Regimes by Core-Log-Seismic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, E.; Tominaga, M.; Marcantonio, F.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating deep-sea sediment transportation and deposition regimes is a key to accurately understand implications from geological information recorded by pelagic sediments, e.g. climate signals. However, except for physical oceanographic particle trap experiments, geochemical analyses of in situsediments, and theoretical modeling of the relation between the bottom currents and sediment particle flux, it has remained a challenging task to document the movement of deep sea sediments, that takes place over time. We utilized high-resolution, multichannel reflection seismic data from the eastern equatorial Pacific region with drilling and logging results from two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sites, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT) 7 (Site U1337) and 8 (Site U1338), to characterize sediment transportation regimes on 18-24 Ma oceanic crust. Site U1337, constructed by a series of distinct abyssal hills and abyssal basins; Site U1338, located 570 km SE from Site U1337 site and constructed by a series of ridges, seamounts, and abyssal hills. These sites are of particular interest due to their proximity to the equatorial productivity zone, areas with high sedimentation rates and preservation of carbonate-bearing sediment that provide invaluable insights on equatorial Pacific ecosystems and carbon cycle. We integrate downhole geophysical logging data as well as geochemistry and physical properties measurements on recovered cores from IODP Sites U1337 and U1338 to comprehensively examine the mobility of deep-sea sediments and sediment diagenesis over times in a quasi-3D manner. We also examine 1100 km of high resolution underway seismic surveys from site survey lines in between PEAT 7 and 8 in order to investigate changes in sediment transportation between both sites. Integrating detailed seismic interpretations, high resolution core data, and 230Th flux measurements we aim to create a detailed chronological sedimentation and sediment diagenesis history

  20. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buland, Arild

    2002-07-01

    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  1. Seismic Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, Gerben; Pellissetti, Manuel; Duncan-Whiteman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    For most external events, the calculation of the core damage frequency (CDF) in Level 1 PSA is sufficient to be able to show that the contribution of the event to the plant risk is negligible. However, it is not sufficient to compare the CDF due to the external event to the total plant CDF; instead the Level 1 PSA result for the event should be compared to the large early release frequency (LERF), or alternatively arguments should be given why the CDF from the external event will not contribute mostly to LERF. For seismic events in particular, it can often not be easily excluded that sequences leading to core damage would not also result in LERF. Since the confinement function is one of the most essential functions for Level 2 PSA, special care must be taken of the containment penetrations. For example systems with containment penetrations that are normally closed during operation or are designed to withstand more than the maximum containment pressure are normally screened out in the Level 2 PSA for the containment isolation function, however the possibility of LOCA in such systems due to an earthquake may nevertheless lead to containment bypass. Additionally, the functionality of passive features may be compromised in case of a beyond design earthquake. In the present paper, we present crucial ingredients of a methodology for a Level 2 seismic PSA. This methodology consists of the following steps: Extension of the seismic equipment list (SEL) to include Level 2 PSA relevant systems (e.g. containment isolation system, features for core melt stabilization, hydrogen mitigation systems), Determination of the systems within the existing SEL with increased demands in case of severe accidents, Determination of essential components for which a dedicated fragility analysis needs to be performed. (author)

  2. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Li, Haoyu; Liu, Xingbin; Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Ronghua; Huang, Chunhui; Hu, Jinhai; Deng, Gang

    2016-10-14

    First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  3. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  4. Seismic wave generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaure, Bernard.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a device for simulating earth tremors. This device includes a seismic wave generator formed of a cylinder, one end of which is closed by one of the walls of a cell containing a soil, the other end being closed by a wall on which are fixed pyrotechnic devices generating shock waves inside the cylinder. These waves are transmitted from the cylinder to the cell through openings made in the cell wall. This device also includes a mechanical device acting as low-pass filter, located inside the cylinder and close to the cell wall [fr

  5. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  6. Mine-induced seismicity at East-Rand proprietary mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milev, AM

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Mining results in seismic activity of varying intensity, from small micro seismic events to larger seismic events, often associated with significant seismic induced damages. This work deals with the understanding of the present seismicity...

  7. Seismic fragility of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, P.

    1985-01-01

    The failure and fragility analyses of reinforced concrete structures and elements in nuclear reactor facilities within the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are evaluated. Uncertainties in material modeling, behavior of low shear walls, and seismic risk assessment for nonlinear response receive special attention. Problems with ductility-based spectral deamplification and prediction of the stiffness of reinforced concrete walls at low stress levels are examined. It is recommended to use relatively low damping values in connection with ductility-based response reductions. The study of static nonlinear force-deflection curves is advocated for better nonlinear dynamic response predictions

  8. Weak localization of seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larose, E.; Margerin, L.; Tiggelen, B.A. van; Campillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity

  9. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EARNEST, S.; KO, H.; DOCKERY, W.; PERNISI, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to perform a dynamic and static analysis on the Dry Transfer Facility, and to determine the response spectra seismic forces for the design basis ground motions. The resulting seismic forces and accelerations will be used in a subsequent calculation to complete preliminary design of the concrete shear walls, diaphragms, and basemat

  10. Seismic Data Gathering and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Three recent earthquakes in the last seven years have exceeded their design basis earthquake values (so it is implied that damage to SSC’s should have occurred). These seismic events were recorded at North Anna (August 2011, detailed information provided in [Virginia Electric and Power Company Memo]), Fukushima Daichii and Daini (March 2011 [TEPCO 1]), and Kaswazaki-Kariwa (2007, [TEPCO 2]). However, seismic walk downs at some of these plants indicate that very little damage occurred to safety class systems and components due to the seismic motion. This report presents seismic data gathered for two of the three events mentioned above and recommends a path for using that data for two purposes. One purpose is to determine what margins exist in current industry standard seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) tools. The second purpose is the use the data to validated seismic site response tools and SSI tools. The gathered data represents free field soil and in-structure acceleration time histories data. Gathered data also includes elastic and dynamic soil properties and structural drawings. Gathering data and comparing with existing models has potential to identify areas of uncertainty that should be removed from current seismic analysis and SPRA approaches. Removing uncertainty (to the extent possible) from SPRA’s will allow NPP owners to make decisions on where to reduce risk. Once a realistic understanding of seismic response is established for a nuclear power plant (NPP) then decisions on needed protective measures, such as SI, can be made.

  11. A repeatable seismic source for tomography at volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratdomopurbo

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available One major problem associated with the interpretation of seismic signals on active volcanoes is the lack of knowledge about the internal structure of the volcano. Assuming a 1D or a homogeneous instead of a 3D velocity structure leads to an erroneous localization of seismic events. In order to derive a high resolution 3D velocity model ofMt. Merapi (Java a seismic tomography experiment using active sources is planned as a part of the MERAPI (Mechanism Evaluation, Risk Assessment and Prediction Improvement project. During a pre-site survey in August 1996 we tested a seismic source consisting of a 2.5 l airgun shot in water basins that were constructed in different flanks of the volcano. This special source, which in our case can be fired every two minutes, produces a repeatable, identical source signal. Using this source the number of receiver locations is not limited by the number of seismometers. The seismometers can be moved to various receiver locations while the source reproduces the same source signal. Additionally, at each receiver location we are able to record the identical source signal several times so that the disadvantage of the lower energy compared to an explosion source can be reduced by skipping disturbed signals and stacking several recordings.

  12. Investigation of geophysical methods for assessing seepage and internal erosion in embankment dams : a study of through-dam seismic testing at WAC Bennett Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffran, P.; Jeffries, M. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-15

    Crosshole tomography is used to establish the distribution of seismic velocity between drill holes. The through-dam mode takes advantage of the triangular cross-section of earth embankments, obviating the need for drill holes. Seismic energy, generated on one face of the dam, passes underneath the crest and is detected by sensors arrayed on the opposite face. The sinkholes discovered at WAC Bennett Dam in 1996 provided an opportunity to test the procedure. Using p-wave energy, two series of measurements were conducted, notably one immediately before remediation of one sinkhole, and a second one shortly after the sinkhole was repaired. The known defect was successfully imaged by the first round of measurements. This report presented the results of an investigation of the through-dam seismic method using propagation of seismic waves through a dam from upstream to downstream, or vice-versa. The purpose of the study was to determine if this procedure could characterize the distribution of seismic velocity within a dam in an accurate and cost effective manner. The report presented the methods of velocity testing such as crosshole and downhole, and tomography; and through-dam measurements. Background to the Bennett Dam studies was also provided, with particular reference to the Bennett Dam sinkholes; sinkhole investigations; working hypothesis for sinkhole development; sinkhole number one characterization; and sinkhole remediation. An analysis of compression wave testing at Bennett Dam and shear wave testing was then offered. Other topics that were discussed included field test procedures; methodologies for data processing; p-waves versus s-waves; applicability of the research; and costs of through-dam surveys. It was concluded that under the right circumstances, through-dam seismic testing was capable of detecting changed conditions in an embankment dam. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 41 figs., 1 appendix.

  13. Seismic imaging of sandbox experiments – laboratory hardware setup and first reflection seismic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Krawczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezoelectric transducers used here for the first time in an array mode. To assess the possibilities and limits of seismic imaging of small-scale structures in sandbox models, different geometry setups were tested in the first 2-D experiments that also tested the proper functioning of the device and studied the seismo-elastic properties of the granular media used. Simple two-layer models of different materials and layer thicknesses as well as a more complex model comprising channels and shear zones were tested using different acquisition geometries and signal properties. We suggest using well sorted and well rounded grains with little surface roughness (glass beads. Source receiver-offsets less than 14 cm for imaging structures as small as 2.0–1.5 mm size have proven feasible. This is the best compromise between wide beam and high energy output, and is applicable with a consistent waveform. Resolution of the interfaces of layers of granular materials depends on the interface preparation rather than on the material itself. Flat grading of interfaces and powder coverage yields the clearest interface reflections. Finally, sandbox seismic sections provide images of high quality showing constant thickness layers as well as predefined channel structures and indications of the fault traces from shear zones. Since these were artificially introduced in our test models, they can be regarded as zones of disturbance rather than tectonic shear zones characterized by decompaction. The multiple-offset surveying introduced here, improves the quality with respect to S / N ratio and source signature even more; the maximum depth

  14. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  15. Seismic isolation in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.I.; Robinson, W.H.; McVerry, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Bridges, buildings, and industrial equipment can be given increased protection from earthquake damage by limiting the earthquake attack through seismic isolation. A broad summary of the seismic responses of base-isolated structures is of considerable assistance for their preliminary design. Seismic isolation as already used in New Zealand consists of a flexible base or support combined with some form of energy-dissipating device, usually involving the hysteretic working of steel or lead. This paper presents examples of the New Zealand experience, where seismic isolation has been used for 42 bridges, 3 buildings, a tall chimney, and high-voltage capacitor banks. Additional seismic response factors, which may be important for nuclear power plants, are also discussed briefly

  16. Integrated system for seismic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the various features of the seismic module of the CARES system (computer analysis for rapid evaluation of structures). This system was developed to perform rapid evaluations of structural behavior and capability of nuclear power plant facilities. The CARES is structural in a modular format. Each module performs a specific type of analysis i.e., static or dynamic, linear or nonlinear, etc. This paper describes the features of the seismic module in particular. The development of the seismic modules of the CARES system is based on an approach which incorporates major aspects of seismic analysis currently employed by the industry into an integrated system that allows for carrying out interactively computations of structural response to seismic motions. The code operates on a PC computer system and has multi-graphics capabilities

  17. Seasonal patterns of seismicity and deformation at the Alutu geothermal reservoir, Ethiopia, induced by hydrological loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Wilks, Matthew; Biggs, Juliet; Kendall, J.-Michael; Ayele, Atalay; Lewi, Elias

    2018-05-01

    Seasonal variations in the seismicity of volcanic and geothermal reservoirs are usually attributed to the hydrological cycle. Here, we focus on the Aluto-Langano geothermal system, Ethiopia, where the climate is monsoonal and there is abundant shallow seismicity. We deployed temporary networks of seismometers and GPS receivers to understand the drivers of unrest. First, we show that a statistically significant peak in seismicity occurred 2-3 months after the main rainy season, with a second, smaller peak of variable timing. Seasonal seismicity is commonly attributed to variations in either surface loading or reservoir pore pressure. As loading will cause subsidence and overpressure will cause uplift, comparing seismicity rates with continuous GPS, enables us to distinguish between mechanisms. At Aluto, the major peak in seismicity is coincident with the high stand of nearby lakes and maximum subsidence, indicating that it is driven by surface loading. The magnitude of loading is insufficient to trigger widespread crustal seismicity but the geothermal reservoir at Aluto is likely sensitive to small perturbations in the stress field. Thus we demonstrate that monsoonal loading can produce seismicity in geothermal reservoirs, and the likelihood of both triggered and induced seismicity varies seasonally.

  18. Lithospheric strucutre and relationship to seismicity beneath the Southeastern US using reciever functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, E.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Despite being on a passive margin for millions of years, the Southeastern United States (SEUS) contains numerous seismogenic zones with the ability to produce damaging earthquakes. However, mechanisms controlling these intraplate earthquakes are poorly understood. Recently, Biryol et al. 2016 use P-wave tomography suggest that upper mantle structures beneath the SEUS correlate with areas of seismicity and seismic quiescence. Specifically, thick and fast velocity lithosphere beneath North Carolina is stable and indicative of areas of low seismicity. In contrast, thin and slow velocity lithosphere is weak, and the transition between the strong and weak lithosphere may be correlated with seismogenic zones found in the SEUS. (eg. Eastern Tennessee seismic zone and the Central Virginia seismic zone) Therefore, I systematically map the heterogeneity of the mantle lithosphere using converted seismic waves and quantify the spatial correlation between seismicity and lithospheric structure. The extensive network of seismometers that makes up the Earthscope USArray combined with the numerous seismic deployments in the Southeastern United States allows for unprecedented opportunity to map changes in lithospheric structure across seismogenic zones and seismic quiescent regions. To do so, I will use both P-to-s and S-to-p receiver functions (RFS). Since RFs are sensitive to seismic wavespeeds and density discontinuities with depth, they particularly useful for studying lithospheric structure. Ps receiver functions contain high frequency information allowing for high resolution, but can become contaminated by large sediment signals; therefore, I removed sediment multiples and correct for time delays of later phases using the method of Yu et. al 2015 which will allow us to see later arriving phases associated with lithospheric discontinuities. S-to-p receiver functions are not contaminated by shallow layers, making them ideal to study deep lithospheric structures but they can

  19. Civil Works Seismic Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. This rule defines: - the parameters characterizing the design seismic motions - the calculation methods - the mathematical schematization principles on which calculations are based - the use of the seismic response for the structure checking - the content of the documents to be presented

  20. A seismic recording device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, R; Kind, A G; Thompson, S R

    1983-06-08

    A method and a device for noting the moment of an explosion on a seismic recording is proposed, in which the moment of the explosion is recorded as a result of a break in an electrical circuit under the effects of the explosive charge used to excite the seismic waves. The electrical circuit being broken is connected to the same energy source as the electric detonator which initiates the explosion, which is attached to a high frequency, alternating current source, where the circuit being broken is either the primary or the secondary winding of a transformer, through which the electric detonator is switched in to the source. The moment the circuit is broken is determined from the ceasation of current in the circuit or by the sharp rise in voltage in the broken sector. The method makes it possible to more precisely fix the moment of the break than the existing methods. When insulated copper wires are used the recording of the time occurs 100 microseconds after the explosion.

  1. Overview of seismic margin insights gained from seismic PRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Sues, R.H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted under NRC and EPRI sponsorship in which published seismic PRAs were reviewed in order to gain insight to the seismic margins inherent in existing nuclear plants. The approach taken was to examine the fragilities of those components which have been found to be dominant contributors to seismic risk at plants in low-to-moderate seismic regions (SSE levels between 0.12g and 0.25g). It is concluded that there is significant margin inherent in the capacity of most critical components above the plant design basis. For ground motions less than about 0.3g, the predominant sources of seismic risk are loss of offsite power coupled with random failure of the emergency diesels, non-recoverable circuit breaker trip due to relay chatter, unanchored equipment, unreinforced non-load bearing block walls, vertical water storage tanks, systems interactions and possibly soil liquefaction. Recommendations as to which components should be reviewed in seismic margin studies for margin earthquakes less than 0.3g, between 0.3g and 0.5g, and greater than 0.5g, developed by the NRC expert panel on the quantification of seismic margins (based on the review of past PRA data, earthquake experience data, and their own personal experience) are presented

  2. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  3. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  4. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  5. seismic-py: Reading seismic data with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of seismic exploration of the Earth has changed
    dramatically over the last half a century. The Society of Exploration
    Geophysicists (SEG has worked to create standards to store the vast
    amounts of seismic data in a way that will be portable across computer
    architectures. However, it has been impossible to predict the needs of the
    immense range of seismic data acquisition systems. As a result, vendors have
    had to bend the rules to accommodate the needs of new instruments and
    experiment types. For low level access to seismic data, there is need for a
    standard open source library to allow access to a wide range of vendor data
    files that can handle all of the variations. A new seismic software package,
    seismic-py, provides an infrastructure for creating and managing drivers for
    each particular format. Drivers can be derived from one of the known formats
    and altered to handle any slight variations. Alternatively drivers can be
    developed from scratch for formats that are very different from any previously
    defined format. Python has been the key to making driver development easy
    and efficient to implement. The goal of seismic-py is to be the base system
    that will power a wide range of experimentation with seismic data and at the
    same time provide clear documentation for the historical record of seismic
    data formats.

  6. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  7. Interpretation of Microseismicity Observed From Surface and Borehole Seismic Arrays During Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale - Bedding Plane Slip Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, F.; Jechumtalova, Z.; Eisner, L.

    2017-12-01

    We present a geomechanical model explaining microseismicity induced by hydraulic fracturing in shales developed from many datasets acquired with two most common types of seismic monitoring arrays, surface and dual-borehole arrays. The geomechanical model explains the observed source mechanisms and locations of induced events from two stimulated shale reservoirs. We observe shear dip-slip source mechanisms with nodal planes aligned with location trends. We show that such seismicity can be explained as a shearing along bedding planes caused by aseismic opening of vertical hydraulic fractures. The source mechanism inversion was applied only to selected high-quality events with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. We inverted P- and P- and S-wave arrival amplitudes to full-moment tensor and decomposed it to shear, volumetric and compensated linear vector dipole components. We also tested an effect of noise presented in the data to evaluate reliability of non-shear components. The observed seismicity from both surface and downhole monitoring of shale stimulations is very similar. The locations of induced microseismic events are limited to narrow depth intervals and propagate along distinct trend(s) showing fracture propagation in direction of maximum horizontal stress from injection well(s). The source mechanisms have a small non-shear component which can be partly explained as an effect of noise in the data, i.e. events represent shearing on faults. We observe predominantly dip-slip events with a strike of the steeper (almost vertical) nodal plane parallel to the fracture propagation. Therefore the other possible nodal plane is almost horizontal. The rake angles of the observed mechanisms divide these dip-slips into two groups with opposite polarities. It means that we observe opposite movements on the nearly identically oriented faults. Realizing a typical structural weakness of shale in horizontal planes, we interpret observed microseismicity as a result of shearing

  8. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  9. Quantifying uncertainties of seismic Bayesian inversion of Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Elastic waves excited by earthquakes are the fundamental observations of the seismological studies. Seismologists measure information such as travel time, amplitude, and polarization to infer the properties of earthquake source, seismic wave propagation, and subsurface structure. Across numerous applications, seismic imaging has been able to take advantage of complimentary seismic observables to constrain profiles and lateral variations of Earth's elastic properties. Moreover, seismic imaging plays a unique role in multidisciplinary studies of geoscience by providing direct constraints on the unreachable interior of the Earth. Accurate quantification of uncertainties of inferences made from seismic observations is of paramount importance for interpreting seismic images and testing geological hypotheses. However, such quantification remains challenging and subjective due to the non-linearity and non-uniqueness of geophysical inverse problem. In this project, we apply a reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMcMC) algorithm for a transdimensional Bayesian inversion of continental lithosphere structure. Such inversion allows us to quantify the uncertainties of inversion results by inverting for an ensemble solution. It also yields an adaptive parameterization that enables simultaneous inversion of different elastic properties without imposing strong prior information on the relationship between them. We present retrieved profiles of shear velocity (Vs) and radial anisotropy in Northern Great Plains using measurements from USArray stations. We use both seismic surface wave dispersion and receiver function data due to their complementary constraints of lithosphere structure. Furthermore, we analyze the uncertainties of both individual and joint inversion of those two data types to quantify the benefit of doing joint inversion. As an application, we infer the variation of Moho depths and crustal layering across the northern Great Plains.

  10. Adaptive Sensor Tuning for Seismic Event Detection in Environment with Electromagnetic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Abra E.

    The goal of this research is to detect possible microseismic events at a carbon sequestration site. Data recorded on a continuous downhole microseismic array in the Farnsworth Field, an oil field in Northern Texas that hosts an ongoing carbon capture, utilization, and storage project, were evaluated using machine learning and reinforcement learning techniques to determine their effectiveness at seismic event detection on a dataset with electromagnetic noise. The data were recorded from a passive vertical monitoring array consisting of 16 levels of 3-component 15 Hz geophones installed in the field and continuously recording since January 2014. Electromagnetic and other noise recorded on the array has significantly impacted the utility of the data and it was necessary to characterize and filter the noise in order to attempt event detection. Traditional detection methods using short-term average/long-term average (STA/LTA) algorithms were evaluated and determined to be ineffective because of changing noise levels. To improve the performance of event detection and automatically and dynamically detect seismic events using effective data processing parameters, an adaptive sensor tuning (AST) algorithm developed by Sandia National Laboratories was utilized. AST exploits neuro-dynamic programming (reinforcement learning) trained with historic event data to automatically self-tune and determine optimal detection parameter settings. The key metric that guides the AST algorithm is consistency of each sensor with its nearest neighbors: parameters are automatically adjusted on a per station basis to be more or less sensitive to produce consistent agreement of detections in its neighborhood. The effects that changes in neighborhood configuration have on signal detection were explored, as it was determined that neighborhood-based detections significantly reduce the number of both missed and false detections in ground-truthed data. The performance of the AST algorithm was

  11. 100 years of seismic research on the Moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodehl, Claus; Kennett, Brian; Artemieva, Irina M.; Thybo, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The detection of a seismic boundary, the “Moho”, between the outermost shell of the Earth, the Earth's crust, and the Earth's mantle by A. Mohorovičić was the consequence of increased insight into the propagation of seismic waves caused by earthquakes. This short history of seismic research on the Moho is primarily based on the comprehensive overview of the worldwide history of seismological studies of the Earth's crust using controlled sources from 1850 to 2005, by Prodehl and Mooney (2012). Though the art of applying explosions, so-called “artificial events”, as energy sources for studies of the uppermost crustal layers began in the early 1900s, its effective use for studying the entire crust only began at the end of World War II. From 1945 onwards, controlled-source seismology has been the major approach to study details of the crust and underlying crust-mantle boundary, the Moho. The subsequent description of history of controlled-source crustal seismology and its seminal results is subdivided into separate chapters for each decade, highlighting the major advances achieved during that decade in terms of data acquisition, processing technology, and interpretation methods. Since the late 1980s, passive seismology using distant earthquakes has played an increasingly important role in studies of crustal structure. The receiver function technique exploiting conversions between P and SV waves at discontinuities in seismic wavespeed below a seismic station has been extensively applied to the increasing numbers of permanent and portable broad-band seismic stations across the globe. Receiver function studies supplement controlled source work with improved geographic coverage and now make a significant contribution to knowledge of the nature of the crust and the depth to Moho.

  12. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  14. Real-Time Seismic Data from the Bottom Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Roset

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An anchored marine seismometer, acquiring real-time seismic data, has been built and tested. The system consists of an underwater seismometer, a surface buoy, and a mooring line that connects them. Inductive communication through the mooring line provides an inexpensive, reliable, and flexible solution. Prior to the deployment the dynamics of the system have been simulated numerically in order to find optimal materials, cables, buoys, and connections under critical marine conditions. The seismometer used is a high sensitivity triaxial broadband geophone able to measure low vibrational signals produced by the underwater seismic events. The power to operate the surface buoy is provided by solar panels. Additional batteries are needed for the underwater unit. In this paper we also present the first results and an earthquake detection of a prototype system that demonstrates the feasibility of this concept. The seismometer transmits continuous data at a rate of 1000 bps to a controller equipped with a radio link in the surface buoy. A GPS receiver on the surface buoy has been configured to perform accurate timestamps on the seismic data, which makes it possible to integrate the seismic data from these marine seismometers into the existing seismic network.

  15. Discriminating Induced-Microearthquakes Using New Seismic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. M.; Horton, S.

    2016-12-01

    We studied characteristics of induced-microearthquakes on the basis of the waveforms recorded on a limited number of surface receivers using machine-learning techniques. Forty features in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains were measured on each waveform, and several techniques such as correlation-based feature selection, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Logistic Regression (LR) and X-mean were used as research tools to explore the relationship between these seismic features and source parameters. The results show that spectral features have the highest correlation to source depth. Two new measurements developed as seismic features for this study, spectral centroids and 2D cross-correlations in the time-frequency domain, performed better than the common seismic measurements. These features can be used by machine learning techniques for efficient automatic classification of low energy signals recorded at one or more seismic stations. We applied the technique to 440 microearthquakes-1.7Reference: Mousavi, S.M., S.P. Horton, C. A. Langston, B. Samei, (2016) Seismic features and automatic discrimination of deep and shallow induced-microearthquakes using neural network and logistic regression, Geophys. J. Int. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggw258.

  16. Real-Time Seismic Data from the Bottom Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roset, Xavier; Trullols, Enric; Artero-Delgado, Carola; Prat, Joana; Del Río, Joaquin; Massana, Immaculada; Carbonell, Montserrat; Barco de la Torre, Jaime; Toma, Daniel Mihai

    2018-04-08

    An anchored marine seismometer, acquiring real-time seismic data, has been built and tested. The system consists of an underwater seismometer, a surface buoy, and a mooring line that connects them. Inductive communication through the mooring line provides an inexpensive, reliable, and flexible solution. Prior to the deployment the dynamics of the system have been simulated numerically in order to find optimal materials, cables, buoys, and connections under critical marine conditions. The seismometer used is a high sensitivity triaxial broadband geophone able to measure low vibrational signals produced by the underwater seismic events. The power to operate the surface buoy is provided by solar panels. Additional batteries are needed for the underwater unit. In this paper we also present the first results and an earthquake detection of a prototype system that demonstrates the feasibility of this concept. The seismometer transmits continuous data at a rate of 1000 bps to a controller equipped with a radio link in the surface buoy. A GPS receiver on the surface buoy has been configured to perform accurate timestamps on the seismic data, which makes it possible to integrate the seismic data from these marine seismometers into the existing seismic network.

  17. Integrated system for seismic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the various features of the Seismic Module of the CARES system (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures). This system was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to perform rapid evaluations of structural behavior and capability of nuclear power plant facilities. The CARES is structured in a modular format. Each module performs a specific type of analysis i.e., static or dynamic, linear or nonlinear, etc. This paper describes the features of the Seismic Module in particular. The development of the Seismic Module of the CARES system is based on an approach which incorporates all major aspects of seismic analysis currently employed by the industry into an integrated system that allows for carrying out interactively computations of structural response to seismic motions. The code operates on a PC computer system and has multi-graphics capabilities. It has been designed with user friendly features and it allows for interactive manipulation of various analysis phases during the seismic design process. The capabilities of the seismic module include (a) generation of artificial time histories compatible with given design ground response spectra, (b) development of Power Spectral Density (PSD) functions associated with the seismic input, (c) deconvolution analysis using vertically propagating shear waves through a given soil profile, and (d) development of in-structure response spectra or corresponding PSD's. It should be pointed out that these types of analyses can also be performed individually by using available computer codes such as FLUSH, SAP, etc. The uniqueness of the CARES, however, lies on its ability to perform all required phases of the seismic analysis in an integrated manner. 5 refs., 6 figs

  18. Canadian seismic agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Lapointe, S.P.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    This is the twenty-first progress report under the agreement entitled Canadian Seismic Agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Canadian Commercial Corporation. Activities undertaken by the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and supported in part by the NRC agreement are described below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong motion network developments and earthquake activity. In this time period eastern Canada experienced its largest earthquake in over 50 years. This earthquake, which has been christened the Saguenay earthquake, has provided a wealth of new data pertinent to earthquake engineering studies in eastern North America and is the subject of many continuing studies, which are presently being carried out at GD and elsewhere. 41 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Artificial seismic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Page, Morgan T.; Michael, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In their 2013 paper, Bouchon, Durand, Marsan, Karabulut, 3 and Schmittbuhl (BDMKS) claim to see significant accelerating seismicity before M 6.5 interplate mainshocks, but not before intraplate mainshocks, reflecting a preparatory process before large events. We concur with the finding of BDMKS that their interplate dataset has significantly more fore- shocks than their intraplate dataset; however, we disagree that the foreshocks are predictive of large events in particular. Acceleration in stacked foreshock sequences has been seen before and has been explained by the cascade model, in which earthquakes occasionally trigger aftershocks larger than themselves4. In this model, the time lags between the smaller mainshocks and larger aftershocks follow the inverse power law common to all aftershock sequences, creating an apparent acceleration when stacked (see Supplementary Information).

  20. Seismics - Yesterday and today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, W.

    2014-01-01

    This article published in the Swiss Bulletin for Applied Geology takes a look at technical developments in the field of seismological exploration over the past 25 years. In particular, developments in the information technology area are discussed. Increased data-storage capacities and miniaturization of data-capture systems and sensors are examined. In spite of such developments, the quality of the seismological data acquired is quoted as not showing significantly increased quality. Alternatives to vibration-based seismic exploration are discussed. The challenges faced by near-surface seismology are looked at. Computer-based statistical correction of data and improved resolution are discussed, as is hybrid seismology. Examples are quoted and graphically illustrated. A list of relevant literature completes the article

  1. Seismic and Infrasound Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Begnaud, Michael L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-19

    This presentation includes slides on Signal Propagation Through the Earth/Atmosphere Varies at Different Scales; 3D Seismic Models: RSTT; Ray Coverage (Pn); Source-Specific Station Corrections (SSSCs); RSTT Conclusions; SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) Global 3D Earth Model for Travel Time; Comparison of IDC SSSCs to RSTT Predictions; SALSA3D; Validation and Model Comparison; DSS Lines in the Siberian Platform; DSS Line CRA-4 Comparison; Travel Time Δak135; Travel Time Prediction Uncertainty; SALSA3D Conclusions; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Location; How does BISL work?; BISL: Application to the 2013 DPRK Test; and BISL: Ongoing Research.

  2. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  3. Seismic retrofitting of Apsara reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Parulekar, Y.M.; Sharma, A.; Rao, K.N.; Narasimhan, Rajiv; Srinivas, K.; Basha, S.M.; Thomas, V.S.; Soma Kumar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Seismic analysis of Apsara Reactor building was carried out and was found not meeting the current seismic requirements. Due to the building not qualifying for seismic loads, a retrofit scheme using elasto-plastic dampers is proposed. Following activities have been performed in this direction: Carried out detailed seismic analysis of Apsara reactor building structure incorporating proposed seismic retrofit. Demonstrating the capability of the retrofitted structure to with stand the earth quake level for Trombay site as per the current standards by analysis and by model studies. Implementation of seismic retrofit program. This paper presents the details of above aspects related to Seismic analysis and retrofitting of Apsara reactor building. (author)

  4. Comparison of seismic isolation concepts for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, H.; Mazda, T.; Kasai, H.; Kanda, J.N.; Kubo, T.; Madokoro, M.; Shimomura, T.; Nojima, O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper seeks to verify the reliability and effectiveness of seismic isolation for FBR. Some results of the preliminary study of the program are described. Seismic isolation concepts and corresponding seismic isolation devices were selected. Three kinds of seismically-isolated FBR plant concepts were developed by applying promising seismic isolation concepts to the non-isolated FBR plant, and by developing plant component layout plans and building structural designs. Each plant was subjected to seismic response analysis and reduction in the amount of material of components and buildings were estimated for each seismic isolation concepts. Research and development items were evaluated

  5. Seismic efficiency of meteor airbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetsov, V. V.; Artemieva, N. A.; Shuvalov, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of numerical simulation for impacts of relatively small asteroids and ice bodies of 30-100 m in size, decelerated in the atmosphere and exploding before they reach the surface, but still producing seismic effects due to the impact wave reaching the surface. The calculated magnitudes fall within the range of 4 to 6, and average seismic efficiency of these events is 2.5 × 10-5. The results obtained allow the seismic hazard from impacts of cosmic bodies to be estimated.

  6. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  7. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  8. Extraction of Pn seismic signals from air-gun shots recorded by the Cascadia Amphibious seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayaka, S.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study is to extract Pn (head wave) seismic waveforms recorded by both offshore and onshore (broadband and short period) seismic stations and evaluate the data quality. Two offshore active-source seismic experiments, MGL 1211 and MGL 1212, were conducted from 13th June to 24th July 2012, during the first year deployment of the Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Array. In total, we choose 110 ocean bottom seismometers and 209 inland stations that are located along the entire Cascadia subduction zone. We first remove the instrument response, and then explore the potential frequency ranges and the diurnal effect. We make the common receiver gathering for each seismic station and filter the seismic waveforms at multiple frequency bands, ranging from 3-5 Hz, 5-10 Hz, 10-20 Hz, to 20-40 Hz, respectively. To quantitatively evaluate the data quality, we calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the waveforms for usable stations that record clear Pn arrivals at multiple frequency bands. Our results show that most offshore stations located at deep water (>1.5 km) record clear air-gun shot signals at frequencies higher than 3 Hz and up to 550 km away from the source. For most stations located on the shallow continental shelf, the seismic recordings appear much noisier at all the frequencies compared to stations at deep water. Three general trends are observed for the SNR distribution; First, the SNR ratio increases from lower to higher frequency bands; Second, the ratio decreases with the increasing source-to-receiver distance; And third, the ratio increases from shallow to deep water. We also observe a rough negative relationship of the signal-to-noise ratio with the thickness of the marine sediment. Only 5 inland stations record clear air-gun shot arrivals up to 200 km away from the source. More detailed data quality analysis with more results will also be present.

  9. Seismic gaps and plate tectonics: seismic potential for major boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, W R; Nishenko, S P; Sykes, L R; Krause, J

    1979-01-01

    The theory of plate tectonics provides a basic framework for evaluating the potential for future great earthquakes to occur along major plate boundaries. Along most of the transform and convergent plate boundaries considered in this paper, the majority of seismic slip occurs during large earthquakes, i.e., those of magnitude 7 or greater. The concepts that rupture zones, as delineated by aftershocks, tend to abut rather than overlap, and large events occur in regions with histories of both long-and short-term seismic quiescence are used in this paper to delineate major seismic gaps. The term seismic gap is taken to refer to any region along an active plate boundary that has not experienced a large thrust or strike-slip earthquake for more than 30 years. A region of high seismic potential is a seismic gap that, for historic or tectonic reasons, is considered likely to produce a large shock during the next few decades. The seismic gap technique provides estimates of the location, size of future events and origin time to within a few tens of years at best. The accompanying map summarizes six categories of seismic potential for major plate boundaries in and around the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean, South Sandwich and Sunda (Indonesia) regions for the next few decades. These six categories are meant to be interpreted as forecasts of the location and size of future large shocks and should not be considered to be predictions in which a precise estimate of the time of occurrence is specified. The categories of potential assigned here provide a rationale for assigning priorities for instrumentation, for future studies aimed at predicting large earthquakes and for making estimates of tsunami potential.

  10. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  11. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  12. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  13. Post-seismic relaxation from geodetic and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Rodkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the aftershock sequence and the post-seismic deformation process of the Parkfield earthquake (2004, M = 6, California, USA source area using GPS data. This event was chosen because of the possibility of joint analysis of data from the rather dense local GPS network (from SOPAC Internet archive and of the availability of the rather detailed aftershock sequence data (http://www.ncedc.org/ncedc/catalog-search.html. The relaxation process of post-seismic deformation prolongs about the same 400 days as the seismic aftershock process does. Thus, the aftershock process and the relaxation process in deformation could be the different sides of the same process. It should be noted that the ratio of the released seismic energy and of the GPS obtained deformation is quite different for the main shock and for the aftershock stage. The ratio of the released seismic energy to the deformation value decreases essentially for the post-shock process. The similar change in the seismic energy/deformation value ratio is valid in a few other strong earthquakes. Thus, this decrease seems typical of aftershock sequences testifying for decrease of ratio of elastic to inelastic deformation in the process of post-shock relaxation when the source area appears to be mostly fractured after the main shock occurs, but the healing process had no yet sufficient time to develop.

  14. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Lion; Smith, James; Lei, Wenjie; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Ruan, Youyi; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Podhorszki, Norbert; Bozdağ, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-11-01

    We present ASDF, the Adaptable Seismic Data Format, a modern and practical data format for all branches of seismology and beyond. The growing volume of freely available data coupled with ever expanding computational power opens avenues to tackle larger and more complex problems. Current bottlenecks include inefficient resource usage and insufficient data organization. Properly scaling a problem requires the resolution of both these challenges, and existing data formats are no longer up to the task. ASDF stores any number of synthetic, processed or unaltered waveforms in a single file. A key improvement compared to existing formats is the inclusion of comprehensive meta information, such as event or station information, in the same file. Additionally, it is also usable for any non-waveform data, for example, cross-correlations, adjoint sources or receiver functions. Last but not least, full provenance information can be stored alongside each item of data, thereby enhancing reproducibility and accountability. Any data set in our proposed format is self-describing and can be readily exchanged with others, facilitating collaboration. The utilization of the HDF5 container format grants efficient and parallel I/O operations, integrated compression algorithms and check sums to guard against data corruption. To not reinvent the wheel and to build upon past developments, we use existing standards like QuakeML, StationXML, W3C PROV and HDF5 wherever feasible. Usability and tool support are crucial for any new format to gain acceptance. We developed mature C/Fortran and Python based APIs coupling ASDF to the widely used SPECFEM3D_GLOBE and ObsPy toolkits.

  15. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  16. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  17. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    process constrain the seismic hazard assessment. Some frequent issues .... to obtain information on the causality between .... 2004), and low frequency deep triggering. (Miyazawa .... can trigger shallow thrust fault earthquakes; Science 306.

  18. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  19. Time-lapse seismic - repeatability versus usefulness and 2D versus 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landro, M.

    2017-12-01

    Time-lapse seismic has developed rapidly over the past decades, especially for monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs and subsurface storage of CO2. I will review and discuss some of the critical enabling factors for the commercial success of this technology. It was early realized that how well we are able to repeat our seismic experiment is crucial. However, it is always a question of detectability versus repeatability. For marine seismic, there are several factors limiting the repeatability: Weather conditions, positioning of sources and receivers and so on. I will discuss recent improvements in both acquisition and processing methods over the last decade. It is well known that repeated 3D seismic data is the most accurate tool for reservoir monitoring purposes. However, several examples show that 2D seismic data may be used for monitoring purposes despite lower repeatability. I will use examples from an underground blow out in the North Sea, and repeated 2D seismic lines acquired before and after the Tohoku earthquake in 2011 to illustrate this. A major challenge when using repeated 2D seismic for subsurface monitoring purposes is the lack of 3D calibration points and significantly less amount of data. For marine seismic acquisition, feathering issues and crossline dip effects become more critical compared to 3D seismic acquisition. Furthermore, the uncertainties arising from a non-ideal 2D seismic acquisition are hard to assess, since the 3D subsurface geometry has not been mapped. One way to shed more light on this challenge is to use 3D time lapse seismic modeling testing various crossline dips or geometries. Other ways are to use alternative data sources, such as bathymetry, time lapse gravity or electromagnetic data. The end result for all time-lapse monitoring projects is an interpretation associated with uncertainties, and for the 2D case these uncertainties are often large. The purpose of this talk is to discuss how to reduces and control these

  20. Seismic Applications of Energy Dampers

    OpenAIRE

    Shambhu Sinha

    2004-01-01

    Damping devices based on the operating principle of high velocity fluid flow through orifices have found numerous applications in the shock and vibration isolation of aerospace and defence systems. The study aims to investigate the feasibility of using energy dissipating fluid viscous dampers in structures to protect against seismic loads and to prove analytically and  experimentally that fluid viscous dampers can improve the seismic capacity of a structure by reducing damage and displacement...

  1. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnworth, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A

  2. Visualization of volumetric seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickermann, Dela; Böttinger, Michael; Ashfaq Ahmed, Khawar; Gajewski, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Mostly driven by demands of high quality subsurface imaging, highly specialized tools and methods have been developed to support the processing, visualization and interpretation of seismic data. 3D seismic data acquisition and 4D time-lapse seismic monitoring are well-established techniques in academia and industry, producing large amounts of data to be processed, visualized and interpreted. In this context, interactive 3D visualization methods proved to be valuable for the analysis of 3D seismic data cubes - especially for sedimentary environments with continuous horizons. In crystalline and hard rock environments, where hydraulic stimulation techniques may be applied to produce geothermal energy, interpretation of the seismic data is a more challenging problem. Instead of continuous reflection horizons, the imaging targets are often steep dipping faults, causing a lot of diffractions. Without further preprocessing these geological structures are often hidden behind the noise in the data. In this PICO presentation we will present a workflow consisting of data processing steps, which enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, followed by a visualization step based on the use the commercially available general purpose 3D visualization system Avizo. Specifically, we have used Avizo Earth, an extension to Avizo, which supports the import of seismic data in SEG-Y format and offers easy access to state-of-the-art 3D visualization methods at interactive frame rates, even for large seismic data cubes. In seismic interpretation using visualization, interactivity is a key requirement for understanding complex 3D structures. In order to enable an easy communication of the insights gained during the interactive visualization process, animations of the visualized data were created which support the spatial understanding of the data.

  3. Inferring the lithology of borehole rocks by applying neural network classifiers to downhole logs: an example from the Ocean Drilling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaouda, D.; Wadge, G.; Whitmarsh, R. B.; Rothwell, R. G.; MacLeod, C.

    1999-02-01

    In boreholes with partial or no core recovery, interpretations of lithology in the remainder of the hole are routinely attempted using data from downhole geophysical sensors. We present a practical neural net-based technique that greatly enhances lithological interpretation in holes with partial core recovery by using downhole data to train classifiers to give a global classification scheme for those parts of the borehole for which no core was retrieved. We describe the system and its underlying methods of data exploration, selection and classification, and present a typical example of the system in use. Although the technique is equally applicable to oil industry boreholes, we apply it here to an Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) borehole (Hole 792E, Izu-Bonin forearc, a mixture of volcaniclastic sandstones, conglomerates and claystones). The quantitative benefits of quality-control measures and different subsampling strategies are shown. Direct comparisons between a number of discriminant analysis methods and the use of neural networks with back-propagation of error are presented. The neural networks perform better than the discriminant analysis techniques both in terms of performance rates with test data sets (2-3 per cent better) and in qualitative correlation with non-depth-matched core. We illustrate with the Hole 792E data how vital it is to have a system that permits the number and membership of training classes to be changed as analysis proceeds. The initial classification for Hole 792E evolved from a five-class to a three-class and then to a four-class scheme with resultant classification performance rates for the back-propagation neural network method of 83, 84 and 93 per cent respectively.

  4. Russian regulatory approaches to seismic design and seismic analysis of NPP piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliberda, Y.V.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of Russian regulatory approaches to seismic design and seismic analysis of NPP piping. The paper is focused on categorization and seismic analysis of nuclear power plant items (piping, equipment, supports, valves, but not building structures). The paper outlines the current seismic recommendations, corresponding methods with the examples of calculation models. The paper considers calculation results of the mechanisms of dynamic behavior and the problems of developing a rational and economical approaches to seismic design and seismic protection. (author)

  5. Recent Vs. Historical Seismicity Analysis For Banat Seismic Region (Western Part Of Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Oros Eugen; Diaconescu Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The present day seismic activity from a region reflects the active tectonics and can confirm the seismic potential of the seismogenic sources as they are modelled using the historical seismicity. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the last decade seismicity recorded in the Banat Seismic Region (western part of Romania) and the historical seismicity of the region (Mw≥4.0). Four significant earthquake sequences have been recently localized in the region, three of them nearby the city of...

  6. Cooperative New Madrid seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, R.B.; Johnston, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The development and installation of components of a U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN) in the eastern United States provides the basis for long term monitoring of eastern earthquakes. While the broad geographical extent of this network provides a uniform monitoring threshold for the purpose of identifying and locating earthquakes and while it will provide excellent data for defining some seismic source parameters for larger earthquakes through the use of waveform modeling techniques, such as depth and focal mechanism, by itself it will not be able to define the scaling of high frequency ground motions since it will not focus on any of the major seismic zones in the eastern U.S. Realizing this need and making use of a one time availability of funds for studying New Madrid earthquakes, Saint Louis University and Memphis State University successfully competed for funding in a special USGS RFP for New Madrid studies. The purpose of the proposal is to upgrade the present seismic networks run by these institutions in order to focus on defining the seismotectonics and ground motion scaling in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The proposed network is designed both to complement the U.S. National Seismic Network and to make use of the capabilities of the communication links of that network

  7. Seismic signatures of the Lodgepole fractured reservoir in Utah-Wyoming overthrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.; Collier, H.; Angstman, B.

    1997-08-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based upon the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. We present the feasibility of using seismic measurement techniques to map the fracture zones between wells spaced 2400 ft at depths of about 1000 ft. For this purpose we constructed computer models (which include azimuthal anisotropy) using Lodgepole reservoir parameters to predict seismic signatures recorded at the borehole scale, crosswell scale, and 3 D seismic scale. We have integrated well logs with existing 2D surfaces seismic to produce petrophysical and geological cross sections to determine the reservoir parameters and geometry for the computer models. In particular, the model responses are used to evaluate if surface seismic and crosswell seismic measurements can capture the anisotropy due to vertical fractures. Preliminary results suggested that seismic waves transmitted between two wells will propagate in carbonate fracture reservoirs, and the signal can be received above the noise level at the distance of 2400 ft. In addition, the large velocities contrast between the main fracture zone and the underlying unfractured Boundary Ridge Member, suggested that borehole reflection imaging may be appropriate to map and fracture zone thickness variation and fracture distributions in the reservoir.

  8. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Double Seismic Zone and Upper Mantle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Oki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

    2005-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) had been performed from June 2003 until April 2004, which is a part of the MARGINS program funded by the NSF. Prior to this observation, a pilot long-term seismic array observation was conducted in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs from Oct. 2001 until Feb. 2003. At that time, 8 LTOBSs were recovered but one had no data. Recently, 2 LTOBSs, had troubles in the releasing, were recovered by the manned submersible (Shinkai 6500, Jamstec) for the research of the malfunction in July 2005. By using all 9 LTOBS's data, those are about 11 months long, hypocenter determination was performed and more than 3000 local events were found. Even with the 1D velocity structure based on the iasp91 model, double seismic zones and a systematic shift of epicenters between the PDE and this study were observed. To investigate the detail of hypocenter distribution and the 3D velocity structure, the DD inversion (tomoDD: Zhang and Thurber, 2003) was applied for this data set with the 1D structure initial model except for the crust, which has been surveyed by using a dense airgun-OBS system (Takahashi et al., 2003). The result of relocated hypocenters shows clear double seismic zones until about 200 km depth, a high activity area around the fore-arc serpentine sea-mount, the Big Blue, and a lined focuses along the current ridge axis in the back-arc basin, and the result of the tomography shows a image of subducting slab and a low-Vs region below the same sea-mount mentioned. The wedge mantle structure was not clearly resolved due to the inadequate source-receiver coverage, which will be done in the recent experiment.

  9. Bayesian inversion of refraction seismic traveltime data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, T.; Haberland, Ch

    2018-03-01

    We apply a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) formalism to the inversion of refraction seismic, traveltime data sets to derive 2-D velocity models below linear arrays (i.e. profiles) of sources and seismic receivers. Typical refraction data sets, especially when using the far-offset observations, are known as having experimental geometries which are very poor, highly ill-posed and far from being ideal. As a consequence, the structural resolution quickly degrades with depth. Conventional inversion techniques, based on regularization, potentially suffer from the choice of appropriate inversion parameters (i.e. number and distribution of cells, starting velocity models, damping and smoothing constraints, data noise level, etc.) and only local model space exploration. McMC techniques are used for exhaustive sampling of the model space without the need of prior knowledge (or assumptions) of inversion parameters, resulting in a large number of models fitting the observations. Statistical analysis of these models allows to derive an average (reference) solution and its standard deviation, thus providing uncertainty estimates of the inversion result. The highly non-linear character of the inversion problem, mainly caused by the experiment geometry, does not allow to derive a reference solution and error map by a simply averaging procedure. We present a modified averaging technique, which excludes parts of the prior distribution in the posterior values due to poor ray coverage, thus providing reliable estimates of inversion model properties even in those parts of the models. The model is discretized by a set of Voronoi polygons (with constant slowness cells) or a triangulated mesh (with interpolation within the triangles). Forward traveltime calculations are performed by a fast, finite-difference-based eikonal solver. The method is applied to a data set from a refraction seismic survey from Northern Namibia and compared to conventional tomography. An inversion test

  10. Spectral characteristics of seismic noise using data of Kazakhstan monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, N.N.; Komarov, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    Spectral specifications of seismic noise research for PS23-Makanchi, Karatau, Akbulak, AS057-Borovoye and new three-component station AS059-Aktyubinsk was done. Spectral noise density models were obtained for day and night time and spectral density values variation. Noise close to low-level universal noise model is peculiar for all stations, which provides their high efficiency while seismic monitoring. Noise parameters dependence on seismic receivers installation conditions was investigated separately. Based on three stations (Makanchi, Borovoye, and Aktyubinsk), spectral density change features are shown after borehole equipment installation. (author)

  11. Object Classification Based on Analysis of Spectral Characteristics of Seismic Signal Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yu. V.; Spektor, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    A method for classifying moving objects having a seismic effect on the ground surface is proposed which is based on statistical analysis of the envelopes of received signals. The values of the components of the amplitude spectrum of the envelopes obtained applying Hilbert and Fourier transforms are used as classification criteria. Examples illustrating the statistical properties of spectra and the operation of the seismic classifier are given for an ensemble of objects of four classes (person, group of people, large animal, vehicle). It is shown that the computational procedures for processing seismic signals are quite simple and can therefore be used in real-time systems with modest requirements for computational resources.

  12. Recommended research program for improving seismic safety of light-water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Recommendations are presented for research areas concerned with seismic safety. These recommendations are based on an analysis of the answers to a questionnaire which was sent to over 80 persons working in the area of seismic safety of nuclear power plants. In addition to the answers of the 55 questionnaires which were received, the recommendations are based on ideas expressed at a meeting of an ad hoc group of professionals formed by Sandia, review of literature, current research programs, and engineering judgement

  13. Multicomponent seismic applications in coalbed methane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.; Trend, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2004-07-01

    Seismic applications for coalbed methane (CBM) development are used to address the following challenges: lateral continuity of coal zones; vertical continuity of coal seams; permeability of cleats and fractures; coal quality and gas content; wet versus dry coal zones; and, monitoring storage of greenhouse gases. This paper presented a brief description of existing seismic programs, including 2-D and 3-D surface seismic surveys; multicomponent seismic surveys; vertical seismic profiles; cross-well seismic surveys; and, time-lapse seismic surveys. A comparative evaluation of their use in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and the Ardley Formation was presented. The study showed that variations in reservoir properties resulting from gas production and dewatering can be effectively imaged using seismic surveys. Seismic surveys are useful in reservoir management, monitoring sweep efficiency during enhanced natural gas from coal (NGC) production, monitoring disposal of produced water and verifying storage of carbon dioxide for carbon credits. tabs., figs.

  14. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin

    2013-04-01

    Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babeş-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers

  15. Non-Invasive Seismic Methods for Earthquake Site Classification Applied to Ontario Bridge Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson Darko, A.; Molnar, S.; Sadrekarimi, A.

    2017-12-01

    How a site responds to earthquake shaking and its corresponding damage is largely influenced by the underlying ground conditions through which it propagates. The effects of site conditions on propagating seismic waves can be predicted from measurements of the shear wave velocity (Vs) of the soil layer(s) and the impedance ratio between bedrock and soil. Currently the seismic design of new buildings and bridges (2015 Canadian building and bridge codes) requires determination of the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 metres (Vs30) of a given site. In this study, two in situ Vs profiling methods; Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Ambient Vibration Array (AVA) methods are used to determine Vs30 at chosen bridge sites in Ontario, Canada. Both active-source (MASW) and passive-source (AVA) surface wave methods are used at each bridge site to obtain Rayleigh-wave phase velocities over a wide frequency bandwidth. The dispersion curve is jointly inverted with each site's amplification function (microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) to obtain shear-wave velocity profile(s). We apply our non-invasive testing at three major infrastructure projects, e.g., five bridge sites along the Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway in Windsor, Ontario. Our non-invasive testing is co-located with previous invasive testing, including Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test and downhole Vs data. Correlations between SPT blowcount and Vs are developed for the different soil types sampled at our Ontario bridge sites. A robust earthquake site classification procedure (reliable Vs30 estimates) for bridge sites across Ontario is evaluated from available combinations of invasive and non-invasive site characterization methods.

  16. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  17. Nine-component vertical seismic profiling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balch, A.H.; Erdemir, C.; Spengler, R.W.; Hunter, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Nine-component vertical seismic profiling has been conducted at the UE-25 UZ No. 16 borehole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in support of investigation of the hydrologic significance of fault and fracture systems. A large data set from multi-component sources and receivers allows state-of-the-art advances in processing using polarization filtering and reverse time migration, for enhanced interpretation of geologic features

  18. Seismic analysis for the ALMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajirian, F.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design uses seismic isolation as a cost effective approach for simplifying seismic design of the reactor module, and for enhancing margins to handle beyond design basis earthquakes (BDBE). A comprehensive seismic analysis plan has been developed to confirm the adequacy of the design and to support regulatory licensing activities. In this plan state-of-the-art computer programs are used to evaluate the system response of the ALMR. Several factors that affect seismic response will be investigated. These include variability in the input earthquake mechanism, soil-structure interaction effects, and nonlinear response of the isolators. This paper reviews the type of analyses that are planned, and discuses the approach that will be used for validating the specific features of computer programs that are required in the analysis of isolated structures. To date, different linear and nonlinear seismic analyses have been completed. The results of recently completed linear analyses have been summarized elsewhere. The findings of three-dimensional seismic nonlinear analyses are presented in this paper. These analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of changes of isolator horizontal stiffness with horizontal displacement on overall response, to develop an approach for representing BDBE events with return periods exceeding 10,000 years, and to assess margins in the design for BDBEs. From the results of these analyses and bearing test data, it can be concluded that a properly designed and constructed seismic isolation system can accommodate displacements several times the design safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) for the ALMR. (author)

  19. Investigation of sinkhole areas in Germany using 2D shear wave reflection seismics and zero-offset VSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschache, Saskia; Wadas, Sonja; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes pose a serious geohazard for humans and infrastructure in populated areas. The Junior Research Group Subrosion within the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics and the joint project SIMULTAN work on the multi-scale investigation of subrosion processes in the subsurface, which cause natural sinkholes. In two case studies in sinkhole areas of Thuringia in Germany, we applied 2D shear wave reflection seismics using SH-waves with the aim to detect suitable parameters for the characterisation of critical zones. This method has the potential to image near-surface collapse and faulting structures in improved resolution compared to P-wave surveys resulting from the shorter wavelength of shear waves. Additionally, the shear wave velocity field derived by NMO velocity analysis is a basis to calculate further physical parameters, as e.g. the dynamic shear modulus. In both investigation areas, vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired by generating P- and SH-waves (6 component VSP) directly next to a borehole equipped with a 3C downhole sensor. They provide shear and compressional wave velocity profiles, which are used to improve the 2D shear wave velocity field from surface seismics, to perform a depth calibration of the seismic image and to calculate the Vp/Vs ratio. The signals in the VSP data are analysed with respect to changes in polarisation and attenuation with depth and/or azimuth. The VSP data reveal low shear wave velocities of 200-300 m/s in rock layers known to be heavily affected by subrosion and confirm the low velocities calculated from the surface seismic data. A discrepancy of the shear wave velocities is observed in other intervals probably due to unsymmetrical travel paths in the surface seismics. In some VSP data dominant conversion of the direct SH-wave to P-wave is observed that is assumed to be caused by an increased presence of cavities. A potential fault distorting the vertical travel paths was detected by abnormal P-wave first

  20. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  1. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    operation. First experiments indicate that parts of the ISIS system can be used for smaller diameters e.g. in vertical drilling. In unconsolidated rocks S-waves are strongly attenuated. For the Sonic Softground Probing (SSP) system P-waves are used. A vibration-seismic correlation positioning system was developed. One transmitter and several receiver are placed within the cutting wheel. During drilling, a specially coded transmitter signal is sent directly from the cutterhead via the face support medium in the direction of tunneling. With this geometry, boulders can be detected 50 m ahead of the working face. Fracture zones and other discontinuities can be localized, and the physical properties of the upcoming rocks can be partly determined nearly in real time, while using sound velocity and attenuation as indicators. All evaluation is based on real time 3D velocity models which are determined during the drilling operation. Different technologies allow a seismic prediction while drilling in various rock types and geologies. Seismic prediction during vertical drilling will significantly profit from the lesson learned from state of the art tunneling systems.

  2. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  3. Generalized seismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1993-09-01

    There is a constant need to be able to solve for enforced motion of structures. Spacecraft need to be qualified for acceleration inputs. Truck cargoes need to be safeguarded from road mishaps. Office buildings need to withstand earthquake shocks. Marine machinery needs to be able to withstand hull shocks. All of these kinds of enforced motions are being grouped together under the heading of seismic inputs. Attempts have been made to cope with this problem over the years and they usually have ended up with some limiting or compromise conditions. The crudest approach was to limit the problem to acceleration occurring only at a base of a structure, constrained to be rigid. The analyst would assign arbitrarily outsized masses to base points. He would then calculate the magnitude of force to apply to the base mass (or masses) in order to produce the specified acceleration. He would of necessity have to sacrifice the determination of stresses in the vicinity of the base, because of the artificial nature of the input forces. The author followed the lead of John M. Biggs by using relative coordinates for a rigid base in a 1975 paper, and again in a 1981 paper . This method of relative coordinates was extended and made operational as DMAP ALTER packets to rigid formats 9, 10, 11, and 12 under contract N60921-82-C-0128. This method was presented at the twelfth NASTRAN Colloquium. Another analyst in the field developed a method that computed the forces from enforced motion then applied them as a forcing to the remaining unknowns after the knowns were partitioned off. The method was translated into DMAP ALTER's but was never made operational. All of this activity jelled into the current effort. Much thought was invested in working out ways to unshakle the analysis of enforced motions from the limitations that persisted.

  4. Seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vinale

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some fundamental considerations regarding the behaviour of geotechnical structures under seismic loading. First a complete definition of the earthquake disaster risk is provided, followed by the importance of performing site-specific hazard analysis. Then some suggestions are provided in regard to adequate assessment of soil parameters, a crucial point to properly analyze the seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures. The core of the paper is centered on a critical review of the analysis methods available for studying geotechnical structures under seismic loadings. All of the available methods can be classified into three main classes, including the pseudo-static, pseudo-dynamic and dynamic approaches, each of which is reviewed for applicability. A more advanced analysis procedure, suitable for a so-called performance-based design approach, is also described in the paper. Finally, the seismic behaviour of the El Infiernillo Dam was investigated. It was shown that coupled elastoplastic dynamic analyses disclose some of the important features of dam behaviour under seismic loading, confirmed by comparing analytical computation and experimental measurements on the dam body during and after a past earthquake.

  5. Study on structural seismic margin and probabilistic seismic risk. Development of a structural capacity-seismic risk diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Masato; Ohtori, Yasuki; Hirata, Kazuta

    2010-01-01

    Seismic margin is extremely important index and information when we evaluate and account seismic safety of critical structures, systems and components quantitatively. Therefore, it is required that electric power companies evaluate the seismic margin of each plant in back-check of nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic margin of structures is usually defined as a structural capacity margin corresponding to design earthquake ground motion. However, there is little agreement as to the definition of the seismic margin and we have no knowledge about a relationship between the seismic margin and seismic risk (annual failure probability) which is obtained in PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). The purpose of this report is to discuss a definition of structural seismic margin and to develop a diagram which can identify a relation between seismic margin and seismic risk. The main results of this paper are described as follows: (1) We develop seismic margin which is defined based on the fact that intensity of earthquake ground motion is more appropriate than the conventional definition (i.e., the response-based seismic margin) for the following reasons: -seismic margin based on earthquake ground motion is invariant where different typed structures are considered, -stakeholders can understand the seismic margin based on the earthquake ground motion better than the response-based one. (2) The developed seismic margin-risk diagram facilitates us to judge easily whether we need to perform detailed probabilistic risk analysis or only deterministic analysis, given that the reference risk level although information on the uncertainty parameter beta is not obtained. (3) We have performed numerical simulations based on the developed method for four sites in Japan. The structural capacity-risk diagram differs depending on each location because the diagram is greatly influenced by seismic hazard information for a target site. Furthermore, the required structural capacity

  6. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary observed with USArray receiver functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The dense deployment of seismic stations so far in the western half of the United States within the USArray project provides the opportunity to study in greater detail the structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. We use the S receiver function technique for this purpose, which has higher resolution than surface wave tomography, is sensitive to seismic discontinuities, and is free from multiples, unlike P receiver functions. Only two major discontinuities are observed in the entire area down to about 300 km depth. These are the crust-mantle boundary (Moho and a negative boundary, which we correlate with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB, since a low velocity zone is the classical definition of the seismic observation of the asthenosphere by Gutenberg (1926. Our S receiver function LAB is at a depth of 70–80 km in large parts of westernmost North America. East of the Rocky Mountains, its depth is generally between 90 and 110 km. Regions with LAB depths down to about 140 km occur in a stretch from northern Texas, over the Colorado Plateau to the Columbia basalts. These observations agree well with tomography results in the westernmost USA and on the east coast. However, in the central cratonic part of the USA, the tomography LAB is near 200 km depth. At this depth no discontinuity is seen in the S receiver functions. The negative signal near 100 km depth in the central part of the USA is interpreted by Yuan and Romanowicz (2010 and Lekic and Romanowicz (2011 as a recently discovered mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD. A solution for the discrepancy between receiver function imaging and surface wave tomography is not yet obvious and requires more high resolution studies at other cratons before a general solution may be found. Our results agree well with petrophysical models of increased water content in the asthenosphere, which predict a sharp and shallow LAB also in continents (Mierdel et al., 2007.

  7. High-resolution seismic reflection surveying with a land streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz Tapırdamaz, Mustafa; Cankurtaranlar, Ali; Ergintav, Semih; Kurt, Levent

    2013-04-01

    In this study, newly designed seismic reflection data acquisition array (land streamer) is utilized to image the shallow subsurface. Our acquisition system consist of 24 geophones screwed on iron plates with 2 m spacing, moving on the surface of the earth which are connected with fire hose. Completely original, 4.5 Kg weight iron plates provides satisfactory coupling. This land-streamer system enables rapid and cost effective acquisition of seismic reflection data due to its operational facilities. First test studies were performed using various seismic sources such as a mini-vibro truck, buffalo-gun and hammer. The final fieldwork was performed on a landslide area which was studied before. Data acquisition was carried out on the line that was previously measured by the seismic survey using 5 m geophone and shot spacing. This line was chosen in order to re-image known reflection patterns obtained from the previous field study. Taking penetration depth into consideration, a six-cartridge buffalo-gun was selected as a seismic source to achieve high vertical resolution. Each shot-point drilled 50 cm for gunshots to obtain high resolution source signature. In order to avoid surface waves, the offset distance between the source and the first channel was chosen to be 50 m and the shot spacing was 2 m. These acquisition parameters provided 12 folds at each CDP points. Spatial sampling interval was 1 m at the surface. The processing steps included standard stages such as gain recovery, editing, frequency filtering, CDP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. Furthermore, surface consistent residual static corrections were applied recursively to improve image quality. 2D F-K filter application was performed to suppress air and surface waves at relatively deep part of the seismic section. Results show that, this newly designed, high-resolution land seismic data acquisition equipment (land-streamer) can be successfully used to image subsurface. Likewise

  8. Production induced subsidence and seismicity in the Groningen gas field - can it be managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, J. A.; Muntendam-Bos, A. G.; Roest, J. P. A.

    2015-11-01

    centre of the field on subsidence and seismicity will be studied in detail in an effort to improve understanding and thereby reduce prediction uncertainties. First indications are that the reduction has led to a drop in subsidence rate and seismicity within a period of a few months. This suggests that the system can be controlled and regulated. If this is the case, the integrated loop of predicting, monitoring and updating in combination with mitigation measures can be applied to keep subsidence (rate) and induced seismicity within limits. To be able to do so, the operator has extended the field-monitoring network. It now includes PS-InSAR and GPS stations for semi-permanent subsidence monitoring in addition to a traditional network of levelling benchmarks. For the seismic monitoring 60 shallow (200 m) borehole seismometers, 60 + accelerometers and two permanent downhole seismic arrays at reservoir level will be added. Scenario's spanning the range of parameter and model uncertainties will be generated to calculate possible subsidence and seismicity outcomes. The probability of each scenario will be updated over time through confrontation with the measurements as they become available. At regular intervals the subsidence prediction and the seismic risk will be re-evaluated. Further mitigation measures, possibly including further production measures will need to be taken if probabilities indicate unacceptable risks.

  9. Production induced subsidence and seismicity in the Groningen gas field – can it be managed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. de Waal

    2015-11-01

    the centre of the field on subsidence and seismicity will be studied in detail in an effort to improve understanding and thereby reduce prediction uncertainties. First indications are that the reduction has led to a drop in subsidence rate and seismicity within a period of a few months. This suggests that the system can be controlled and regulated. If this is the case, the integrated loop of predicting, monitoring and updating in combination with mitigation measures can be applied to keep subsidence (rate and induced seismicity within limits. To be able to do so, the operator has extended the field-monitoring network. It now includes PS-InSAR and GPS stations for semi-permanent subsidence monitoring in addition to a traditional network of levelling benchmarks. For the seismic monitoring 60 shallow (200 m borehole seismometers, 60 + accelerometers and two permanent downhole seismic arrays at reservoir level will be added. Scenario's spanning the range of parameter and model uncertainties will be generated to calculate possible subsidence and seismicity outcomes. The probability of each scenario will be updated over time through confrontation with the measurements as they become available. At regular intervals the subsidence prediction and the seismic risk will be re-evaluated. Further mitigation measures, possibly including further production measures will need to be taken if probabilities indicate unacceptable risks.

  10. Innovative Approaches for Seismic Studies of Mars (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, B.

    2010-12-01

    (which can supply up to 1010 J of kinetic energy), seismic “hum” from meteorological forcing, and tidal deformation from Phobos (with a period around 6 hours). Another means for encouraging a seismic mission to Mars is to promote methods that can derive interior information from a single seismometer. Fortunately many such methods exist, including source location through P-S and back-azimuth, receiver functions, identification of later phases (PcP, PKP, etc.), surface wave dispersion, and normal mode analysis (from single large events, stacked events, or background noise). Such methods could enable the first successful seismic investigation of another planet since the Apollo seismometers were turned off almost 35 years ago.

  11. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  12. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.

    2002-05-29

    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.

  13. SEG Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert; Laughlin, Darren; Brune, Bob

    2016-10-17

    Significant advancements in the development of sensors to enable rotational seismic measurements have been achieved. Prototypes are available now to support experiments that help validate the utility of rotational seismic measurements.

  14. Seismic risks posed by mine flooding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available are allowed to flood. Such flooding-induced seismicity can have significant environmental, social and economic consequences, and may endanger neighbouring mines and surface communities. While fluid-induced seismicity has been observed in other settings (e...

  15. Annual Hanford seismic report - fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site

  16. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R. A.

    1963-10-15

    The nature of nuclear power reactors demands an exceptionally high degree of seismic integrity. Considerations involved in defining earthquake resistance requirements are discussed. Examples of seismic design criteria and applications of the spectrum technique are described. (auth)

  17. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  18. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  19. Seismic analysis and testing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed in this guide: General Recommendations for seismic classification, loading combinations and allowable limits; seismic analysis methods; implications for seismic design; seismic testing and qualification; seismic instrumentation; modelling techniques; material property characterization; seismic response of soil deposits and earth structures; liquefaction and ground failure; slope stability; sloshing effects in water pools; qualification testing by means of the transport vehicle

  20. The Apollo passive seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  1. Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  2. Crustal and upper mantle structure of Siberia from teleseismic receiver functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    ). With this method, we determine seismic P- and S-velocities that are comparable to the results of teleseismic body wave and surface wave tomography techniques. The RF model shows variations in the crustal thickness between 35 and 55 km. Intracrustal structures are identified, in particular using the high......This study presents seismic images of the crustal and lithospheric structure in Siberia based on the available broadband seismic data using teleseismic receiver functions (RFs). We invert P- and S-RFs jointly. The inversion technique is carried out by approach described by Vinnik et al. (2004....... The current results of RF analysis of the crustal and mantle structure will help to build a model for tectonic and geodynamic evolution of different provinces of Siberia. We compare our results to the recent detailed models of crustal structure in the area and with seismic models for similar geodynamic...

  3. Seismic evaluation of the Mors Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitz, E.

    1982-01-01

    The ''Seismic Case History'' of the Mors saltdome was already published in detail by ELSAM/ELKRAFT so only a few important points need to be mentioned here: (a) Processing and interpretation of the seismic material. (b) Stratigraphic classification of the most important seismic reflection horizons. (c) Construction of the depth sections and description of the saltdome model. (d) Investigations of the problematic salt overhang using interactive seismic modelling. (EG)

  4. Seismic re-evaluation of Mochovce nuclear power plant. Seismic reevaluation of civil structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podrouzek, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution, an overview of seismic design procedures used for reassessment of seismic safety of civil structures at the Mochovce NPP in Slovak Republic presented. As an introduction, the objectives, history, and current status of seismic design of the NPP have been explained. General philosophy of design methods, seismic classification of buildings, seismic data, calculation methods, assumptions on structural behavior under seismic loading and reliability assessment were described in detail in the subsequent section. Examples of calculation models used for dynamic calculations of seismic response are given in the last section. (author)

  5. Core seismic methods verification report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, B.E.; Shatoff, H.D.; Rakowski, J.E.; Rickard, N.D.; Thompson, R.W.; Tow, D.; Lee, T.H.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents the description and validation of the analytical methods for calculation of the seismic loads on an HTGR core and the core support structures. Analytical modeling, integration schemes, parameter assignment, parameter sensitivity, and correlation with test data are key topics which have been covered in detail. Much of the text concerns the description and the results of a series of scale model tests performed to obtain data for code correlation. A discussion of scaling laws, model properties, seismic excitation, instrumentation, and data reduction methods is also presented, including a section on the identification and calculation of statistical errors in the test data

  6. Seismic design of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglaret, G.; Beguin, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the method used in France for the PWR nuclear plants to derive locations and types of supports of auxiliary and secondary piping systems taking earthquake in account. The successive steps of design are described, then the seismic computation method and its particular conditions of applications for piping are presented. The different types of support (and especially seismic ones) are described and also their conditions of installation. The method used to compare functional tests results and computation results in order to control models is mentioned. Some experiments realised on site or in laboratory, in order to validate models and methods, are presented [fr

  7. Implementation guidelines for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Ovidiu; Samaddar, Sujit; Hibino, Kenta; )

    2014-01-01

    The presentation was devoted to development of guidelines for implementation of a seismic PSA. If successful, these guidelines can close an important gap. ASME/ANS PRA standards and the related IAEA Safety Guide (IAEA NS-G-2.13) describe capability requirements for seismic PSA in order to support risk-informed applications. However, practical guidance on how to meet these requirements is limited. Such guidelines could significantly contribute to improving risk-informed safety demonstration, safety management and decision making. Extensions of this effort to further PSA areas, particularly to PSA for other external hazards, can enhance risk-informed applications

  8. Seismic characterization of fracture properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myer, L.R.; Hopkins, D.; Cook, N.G.W.; Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that there is a relationship, both empirical and theoretical, between the measured seismic response, the mechanical stiffness (also referred to as specific stiffness) of fractures and their hydraulic conductivity. Laboratory measurements of the mechanical stiffness, hydraulic conductivity and seismic properties of natural fractures are summarized. A theoretical model for the amplitude and group time delay for compressional and shear waves transmitted across a single fracture is presented. Predictions based on this model are compared with laboratory measurements. Finally, the results for a single fracture are extended to multiple parallel fractures. 13 refs., 6 figs

  9. The seismic reassessment Mochovce NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumeister, P.

    2004-01-01

    The design of Mochovce NPP was based on the Novo-Voronez type WWER-440/213 reactor - twin units. Seismic characteristic of this region is characterized by very low activity. Mochovce NPP site is located on the rock soil with volcanic layer (andesit). Seismic reassessment of Mochovce NPP was done in two steps: deterministic approach up to commissioning confirmed value Horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration HPGA=0.1 g and activities after commissioning as a consequence of the IAEA mission indicate higher hazard values. (author)

  10. Seismic Holography of Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The basic goal of the project was to extend holographic seismic imaging techniques developed under a previous NASA contract, and to incorporate phase diagnostics. Phase-sensitive imaging gives us a powerful probe of local thermal and Doppler perturbations in active region subphotospheres, allowing us to map thermal structure and flows associated with "acoustic moats" and "acoustic glories". These remarkable features were discovered during our work, by applying simple acoustic power holography to active regions. Included in the original project statement was an effort to obtain the first seismic images of active regions on the Sun's far surface.

  11. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.; Liu, A.; Strand, L.

    2012-12-01

    We report on developments in sensor connectivity, architecture, and data fusion algorithms executed in Cloud computing systems in the Community Seismic Network (CSN), a network of low-cost sensors housed in homes and offices by volunteers in the Pasadena, CA area. The network has over 200 sensors continuously reporting anomalies in local acceleration through the Internet to a Cloud computing service (the Google App Engine) that continually fuses sensor data to rapidly detect shaking from earthquakes. The Cloud computing system consists of data centers geographically distributed across the continent and is likely to be resilient even during earthquakes and other local disasters. The region of Southern California is partitioned in a multi-grid style into sets of telescoping cells called geocells. Data streams from sensors within a geocell are fused to detect anomalous shaking across the geocell. Temporal spatial patterns across geocells are used to detect anomalies across regions. The challenge is to detect earthquakes rapidly with an extremely low false positive rate. We report on two data fusion algorithms, one that tessellates the surface so as to fuse data from a large region around Pasadena and the other, which uses a standard tessellation of equal-sized cells. Since September 2011, the network has successfully detected earthquakes of magnitude 2.5 or higher within 40 Km of Pasadena. In addition to the standard USB device, which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. This bypasses security concerns that some companies have with the USB-connected devices, and allows for 24/7 monitoring at sites that would otherwise shut down their computers after working hours. In buildings we use the sensors to model the behavior of the structures during weak events in order to understand how they will perform during strong events. Visualization models of instrumented buildings ranging

  12. Redatuming of sparse 3D seismic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tegtmeier, S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of a seismic survey is to produce an image of the subsurface providing an overview of the earth's discontinuities. The aim of seismic processing is to recreate this image. The seismic method is especially well suited for the exploration and the monitoring of hydrocarbon reservoirs. A

  13. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  14. A linear motor as seismic horizontal vibrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, G.; Veltman, A.; Hendrix, W.H.A.; Brouwer, J.; Hemstede, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use the concept of linear synchronous motors to act as a seismic shear-wave vibratory source. We show that a linear motor, even with a design that is not focussed on application of seismic surveying, gives seismic records that are convincing and comparable with an

  15. seismic refraction investigation of the subsurface structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    employed for exploration include magnetic, electrical and gravitational methods, which depends on the earth's natural fields. Others are seismic and electromagnetic methods, which depends on the introduction of artificial energy in thereof. The seismic refraction method uses the seismic energy that returns to the surface of ...

  16. Seismic activity maps for the Armenian Highlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, N.K.; Manukyan, Zh.O.

    1976-01-01

    Seismic activity maps for the periods 1952 to 1967 and 1952 to 1968 were compiled for the Armenian Highlands in order to study the spatial distribution of earthquake recurrence and to construct maps in isolines of seismic activity. Diagrams are presented illustrating such seismic activity maps for the indicated periods. 4 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Adaptive prediction applied to seismic event detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.A.; Rodgers, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    Adaptive prediction was applied to the problem of detecting small seismic events in microseismic background noise. The Widrow-Hoff LMS adaptive filter used in a prediction configuration is compared with two standard seismic filters as an onset indicator. Examples demonstrate the technique's usefulness with both synthetic and actual seismic data

  18. Adaptive prediction applied to seismic event detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Rodgers, P.W.

    1981-09-01

    Adaptive prediction was applied to the problem of detecting small seismic events in microseismic background noise. The Widrow-Hoff LMS adaptive filter used in a prediction configuration is compared with two standard seismic filters as an onset indicator. Examples demonstrate the technique's usefulness with both synthetic and actual seismic data.

  19. Constraints on mantle convection from seismic tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kárason, H.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the advent of global seismic tomography some 25 years ago, advances in technology, seismological theory, and data acquisition have allowed spectacular progress in our ability to image seismic heterogeneity in Earth's mantle. We briefly review some concepts of seismic tomography, such as

  20. 3D Seismic Imaging using Marchenko Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, A.; Curtis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Marchenko methods are novel, data driven techniques that allow seismic wavefields from sources and receivers on the Earth's surface to be redatumed to construct wavefields with sources in the subsurface - including complex multiply-reflected waves, and without the need for a complex reference model. In turn, this allows subsurface images to be constructed at any such subsurface redatuming points (image or virtual receiver points). Such images are then free of artefacts from multiply-scattered waves that usually contaminate migrated seismic images. Marchenko algorithms require as input the same information as standard migration methods: the full reflection response from sources and receivers at the Earth's surface, and an estimate of the first arriving wave between the chosen image point and the surface. The latter can be calculated using a smooth velocity model estimated using standard methods. The algorithm iteratively calculates a signal that focuses at the image point to create a virtual source at that point, and this can be used to retrieve the signal between the virtual source and the surface. A feature of these methods is that the retrieved signals are naturally decomposed into up- and down-going components. That is, we obtain both the signal that initially propagated upwards from the virtual source and arrived at the surface, separated from the signal that initially propagated downwards. Figure (a) shows a 3D subsurface model with a variable density but a constant velocity (3000m/s). Along the surface of this model (z=0) in both the x and y directions are co-located sources and receivers at 20-meter intervals. The redatumed signal in figure (b) has been calculated using Marchenko methods from a virtual source (1200m, 500m and 400m) to the surface. For comparison the true solution is given in figure (c), and shows a good match when compared to figure (b). While these 2D redatuming and imaging methods are still in their infancy having first been developed in

  1. Optimal wave focusing for seismic source imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Farhad

    In both global and exploration seismology, studying seismic sources provides geophysicists with invaluable insight into the physics of earthquakes and faulting processes. One way to characterize the seismic source is to directly image it. Time-reversal (TR) focusing provides a simple and robust solution to the source imaging problem. However, for recovering a well- resolved image, TR requires a full-aperture receiver array that surrounds the source and adequately samples the wavefield. This requirement often cannot be realized in practice. In most source imaging experiments, the receiver geometry, due to the limited aperture and sparsity of the stations, does not allow adequate sampling of the source wavefield. Incomplete acquisition and imbalanced illumination of the imaging target limit the resolving power of the TR process. The main focus of this thesis is to offer an alternative approach to source imaging with the goal of mitigating the adverse effects of incomplete acquisition on the TR modeling. To this end, I propose a new method, named Backus-Gilbert (BG) source imaging, to optimally focus the wavefield onto the source position using a given receiver geometry. I first introduce BG as a method for focusing waves in acoustic media at a desired location and time. Then, by exploiting the source-receiver reciprocity of the Green function and the linearity of the problem, I show that BG focusing can be adapted and used as a source-imaging tool. Following this, I generalize the BG theory for elastic waves. Applying BG formalism for source imaging requires a model for the wave propagation properties of the earth and an estimate of the source location. Using numerical tests, I next examine the robustness and sensitivity of the proposed method with respect to errors in the earth model, uncertainty in the source location, and noise in data. The BG method can image extended sources as well as point sources. It can also retrieve the source mechanism. These features of

  2. Selecting the seismic HRA approach for Savannah River Plant PRA revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papouchado, K.; Salaymeh, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has prepared a level I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), Rev. 0 of reactor operations for externally-initiated events including seismic events. The SRS PRA, Rev. 0 Seismic HRA received a critical review that expressed skepticism with the approach used for human reliability analysis because it had not been previously used and accepted in other published PRAs. This report provides a review of published probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), the associated methodology guidance documents, and the psychological literature to identify parameters important to seismic human reliability analysis (HRA). It also describes a recommended approach for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) PRA. The SRS seismic event PRA performs HRA to account for the contribution of human errors in the accident sequences. The HRA of human actions during and after a seismic event is an area subject to many uncertainties and involves significant analyst judgment. The approach recommended by this report is based on seismic HRA methods and associated issues and concerns identified from the review of these referenced documents that represent the current state-of-the- art knowledge and acceptance in the seismic HRA field

  3. Automated seismic waveform location using Multichannel Coherency Migration (MCM)-I. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peidong; Angus, Doug; Rost, Sebastian; Nowacki, Andy; Yuan, Sanyi

    2018-03-01

    With the proliferation of dense seismic networks sampling the full seismic wavefield, recorded seismic data volumes are getting bigger and automated analysis tools to locate seismic events are essential. Here, we propose a novel Multichannel Coherency Migration (MCM) method to locate earthquakes in continuous seismic data and reveal the location and origin time of seismic events directly from recorded waveforms. By continuously calculating the coherency between waveforms from different receiver pairs, MCM greatly expands the available information which can be used for event location. MCM does not require phase picking or phase identification, which allows fully automated waveform analysis. By migrating the coherency between waveforms, MCM leads to improved source energy focusing. We have tested and compared MCM to other migration-based methods in noise-free and noisy synthetic data. The tests and analysis show that MCM is noise resistant and can achieve more accurate results compared with other migration-based methods. MCM is able to suppress strong interference from other seismic sources occurring at a similar time and location. It can be used with arbitrary 3D velocity models and is able to obtain reasonable location results with smooth but inaccurate velocity models. MCM exhibits excellent location performance and can be easily parallelized giving it large potential to be developed as a real-time location method for very large datasets.

  4. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  5. Development of 3-axis precise positioning seismic physical modeling system in the simulation of marine seismic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Shin, S.; Ha, J.; Lee, D.; Lim, Y.; Chung, W.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic physical modeling is a laboratory-scale experiment that deals with the actual and physical phenomena that may occur in the field. In seismic physical modeling, field conditions are downscaled and used. For this reason, even a small error may lead to a big error in an actual field. Accordingly, the positions of the source and the receiver must be precisely controlled in scale modeling. In this study, we have developed a seismic physical modeling system capable of precisely controlling the 3-axis position. For automatic and precise position control of an ultrasonic transducer(source and receiver) in the directions of the three axes(x, y, and z), a motor was mounted on each of the three axes. The motor can automatically and precisely control the positions with positional precision of 2''; for the x and y axes and 0.05 mm for the z axis. As it can automatically and precisely control the positions in the directions of the three axes, it has an advantage in that simulations can be carried out using the latest exploration techniques, such as OBS and Broadband Seismic. For the signal generation section, a waveform generator that can produce a maximum of two sources was used, and for the data acquisition section, which receives and stores reflected signals, an A/D converter that can receive a maximum of four signals was used. As multiple sources and receivers could be used at the same time, the system was set up in such a way that diverse exploration methods, such as single channel, multichannel, and 3-D exploration, could be realized. A computer control program based on LabVIEW was created, so that it could control the position of the transducer, determine the data acquisition parameters, and check the exploration data and progress in real time. A marine environment was simulated using a water tank 1 m wide, 1 m long, and 0.9 m high. To evaluate the performance and applicability of the seismic physical modeling system developed in this study, single channel and

  6. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  7. Micromachined silicon seismic accelerometer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S. [and others

    1996-08-01

    Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of seismic monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily deployable sensor arrays. Our ultimate goal is to fabricate seismic sensors with sensitivity and noise performance comparable to short-period seismometers in common use. We expect several phases of development will be required to accomplish that level of performance. Traditional silicon micromachining techniques are not ideally suited to the simultaneous fabrication of a large proof mass and soft suspension, such as one needs to achieve the extreme sensitivities required for seismic measurements. We have therefore developed a novel {open_quotes}mold{close_quotes} micromachining technology that promises to make larger proof masses (in the 1-10 mg range) possible. We have successfully integrated this micromolding capability with our surface-micromachining process, which enables the formation of soft suspension springs. Our calculations indicate that devices made in this new integrated technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach the 10{sup -10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.

  8. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  9. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  10. Evaluating Seismic Activity in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    map is constructed from which seismic risks in a given sector ... troyed (10, 11) and the people of Eritrea remember these years ... terms of damage caused to man-made structures; they refer to .... walls of a well designed modern building were deta- ched from ... Although, at present, no theory is satisfactory, the fact remains.

  11. Seismic motions from project Rulison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    In the range from a few to a few hundred km, seismic measurements from the Rulison event are shown and compared with experimentally and analytically derived pre-event estimates. Seismograms, peak accelerations, and response spectra are given along with a description of the associated geologic environment. Techniques used for the pre-event estimates are identified with emphasis on supportive data and on Rulison results. Of particular interest is the close-in seismic frequency content which is expected to contain stronger high frequency components. This higher frequency content translates into stronger accelerations within the first tens of km, which in turn affect safety preparations. Additionally, the local geologic structure at nearby population centers must be considered. Pre-event reverse profile refraction surveys are used to delineate the geology at Rifle, Rulison, Grand Valley, and other sites. The geologic parameters are then used as input to seismic amplification models which deliver estimates of local resonant frequencies. Prediction of such resonances allows improved safety assurance against seismic effects hazards. (author)

  12. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  13. Fast Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design for Seismic Source Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan; Motamed, Mohammad; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments [1] in the context of statistical seismic source inversion [2]. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by the elastic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the true parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

  14. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design for seismic source inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-07-01

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments in the context of statistical seismic source inversion. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by elastodynamic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the "true" parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Fast Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design for Seismic Source Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-06

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments [1] in the context of statistical seismic source inversion [2]. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by the elastic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the true parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

  16. Seismic component fragility data base for IPEEE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.

    1990-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic risk assessment or a seismic margin study will require a reliable data base of seismic fragility of various equipment classes. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has selected a group of equipment and generically evaluated the seismic fragility of each equipment class by use of existing test data. This paper briefly discusses the evaluation methodology and the fragility results. The fragility analysis results when used in the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) Program for nuclear power plants are expected to provide insights into seismic vulnerabilities of equipment for earthquakes beyond the design basis. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Seismic excitation by space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.

    1992-01-01

    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were

  18. Statistical Seismology and Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; González, P. J.; Kazemian, J.

    2014-12-01

    While seismicity triggered or induced by natural resources production such as mining or water impoundment in large dams has long been recognized, the recent increase in the unconventional production of oil and gas has been linked to rapid rise in seismicity in many places, including central North America (Ellsworth et al., 2012; Ellsworth, 2013). Worldwide, induced events of M~5 have occurred and, although rare, have resulted in both damage and public concern (Horton, 2012; Keranen et al., 2013). In addition, over the past twenty years, the increase in both number and coverage of seismic stations has resulted in an unprecedented ability to precisely record the magnitude and location of large numbers of small magnitude events. The increase in the number and type of seismic sequences available for detailed study has revealed differences in their statistics that previously difficult to quantify. For example, seismic swarms that produce significant numbers of foreshocks as well as aftershocks have been observed in different tectonic settings, including California, Iceland, and the East Pacific Rise (McGuire et al., 2005; Shearer, 2012; Kazemian et al., 2014). Similarly, smaller events have been observed prior to larger induced events in several occurrences from energy production. The field of statistical seismology has long focused on the question of triggering and the mechanisms responsible (Stein et al., 1992; Hill et al., 1993; Steacy et al., 2005; Parsons, 2005; Main et al., 2006). For example, in most cases the associated stress perturbations are much smaller than the earthquake stress drop, suggesting an inherent sensitivity to relatively small stress changes (Nalbant et al., 2005). Induced seismicity provides the opportunity to investigate triggering and, in particular, the differences between long- and short-range triggering. Here we investigate the statistics of induced seismicity sequences from around the world, including central North America and Spain, and

  19. Improving the Detectability of the Catalan Seismic Network for Local Seismic Activity Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Jose Antonio; Frontera, Tànit; Batlló, Josep; Goula, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The seismic survey of the territory of Catalonia is mainly performed by the regional seismic network operated by the Cartographic and Geologic Institute of Catalonia (ICGC). After successive deployments and upgrades, the current network consists of 16 permanent stations equipped with 3 component broadband seismometers (STS2, STS2.5, CMG3ESP and CMG3T), 24 bits digitizers (Nanometrics Trident) and VSAT telemetry. Data are continuously sent in real-time via Hispasat 1D satellite to the ICGC datacenter in Barcelona. Additionally, data from other 10 stations of neighboring areas (Spain, France and Andorra) are continuously received since 2011 via Internet or VSAT, contributing both to detect and to locate events affecting the region. More than 300 local events with Ml ≥ 0.7 have been yearly detected and located in the region. Nevertheless, small magnitude earthquakes, especially those located in the south and south-west of Catalonia may still go undetected by the automatic detection system (DAS), based on Earthworm (USGS). Thus, in order to improve the detection and characterization of these missed events, one or two new stations should be installed. Before making the decision about where to install these new stations, the performance of each existing station is evaluated taking into account the fraction of detected events using the station records, compared to the total number of events in the catalogue, occurred during the station operation time from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014. These evaluations allow us to build an Event Detection Probability Map (EDPM), a required tool to simulate EDPMs resulting from different network topology scenarios depending on where these new stations are sited, and becoming essential for the decision-making process to increase and optimize the event detection probability of the seismic network.

  20. Sub-crustal seismic activity beneath Klyuchevskoy Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. J.; Droznina, S.; Levin, V. L.; Senyukov, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic activity is extremely vigorous beneath the Klyuchevskoy Volcanic Group (KVG). The unique aspect is the distribution in depth. In addition to upper-crustal seismicity, earthquakes take place at depths in excess of 20 km. Similar observations are known in other volcanic regions, however the KVG is unique in both the number of earthquakes and that they occur continuously. Most other instances of deep seismicity beneath volcanoes appear to be episodic or transient. Digital recording of seismic signals started at the KVG in early 2000s.The dense local network reliably locates earthquakes as small as ML~1. We selected records of 20 earthquakes located at depths over 20 km. Selection was based on the quality of the routine locations and the visual clarity of the records. Arrivals of P and S waves were re-picked, and hypocentral parameters re-established. Newl locations fell within the ranges outlined by historical seismicity, confirming the existence of two distinct seismically active regions. A shallower zone is at ~20 km depth, and all hypocenters are to the northeast of KVG, in a region between KVG and Shiveluch volcano. A deeper zone is at ~30 km, and all hypocenters cluster directly beneath the edifice of the Kyuchevskoy volcano. Examination of individual records shows that earthquakes in both zones are tectonic, with well-defined P and S waves - another distinction of the deep seismicity beneath KVG. While the upper seismic zone is unquestionably within the crust, the provenance of the deeper earthquakes is enigmatic. The crustal structure beneath KVG is highly complex, with no agreed-upon definition of the crust-mantle boundary. Rather, a range of values, from under 30 to over 40 km, exists in the literature. Similarly, a range of velocity structures has been reported. Teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) provide a way to position the earthquakes with respect to the crust-mantle boundary. We compare the differential travel times of S and P waves from deep

  1. Enhanced seismic criteria for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F. . E-mail francoise.touboul@cea.fr; Blay, N.; Sollogoub, P.; Chapuliot, S.

    2006-01-01

    In situ or laboratory experiments have shown that piping systems exhibit satisfactory seismic behavior. Seismic motion is not severe enough to significantly damage piping systems unless large differential motions of anchorage are imposed. Nevertheless, present design criteria for piping are very severe and require a large number of supports, which creates overly rigid piping systems. CEA, in collaboration with EDF, FRAMATOME and IRSN, has launched a large R and D program on enhanced design methods which will be less severe, but still conservative, and compatible with defect justification during operation. This paper presents the background of the R and D work on this matter, and CEA proposed equations. Our approach is based on the difference between the real behavior (or the best estimated computed one) with the one supposed by codified methods. Codified criteria are applied on an elastically calculated behavior that can be significantly different from the real one: the effect of plasticity may be very meaningful, even with low incursion in the plastic domain. Moreover, and particularly in piping systems, the elastic follow-up effect affects stress distribution for both seismic and thermal loads. For seismic load, we have proposed to modify the elastic moment limitation, based on the interpretation of experimental results on piping systems. The methods have been validated on more industrial cases, and some of the consequences of the changes have been studied: modification of the drawings and of the number of supports, global displacements, forces in the supports, stability of potential defects, etc. The basic aim of the studies undertaken is to make a decision on the stress classification problem, one that is not limited to seismic induced stresses, and to propose simplified methods for its solution

  2. Time-dependent seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Of methods for measuring temporal changes in seismic-wave speeds in the Earth, seismic tomography is among those that offer the highest spatial resolution. 3-D tomographic methods are commonly applied in this context by inverting seismic wave arrival time data sets from different epochs independently and assuming that differences in the derived structures represent real temporal variations. This assumption is dangerous because the results of independent inversions would differ even if the structure in the Earth did not change, due to observational errors and differences in the seismic ray distributions. The latter effect may be especially severe when data sets include earthquake swarms or aftershock sequences, and may produce the appearance of correlation between structural changes and seismicity when the wave speeds are actually temporally invariant. A better approach, which makes it possible to assess what changes are truly required by the data, is to invert multiple data sets simultaneously, minimizing the difference between models for different epochs as well as the rms arrival-time residuals. This problem leads, in the case of two epochs, to a system of normal equations whose order is twice as great as for a single epoch. The direct solution of this system would require twice as much memory and four times as much computational effort as would independent inversions. We present an algorithm, tomo4d, that takes advantage of the structure and sparseness of the system to obtain the solution with essentially no more effort than independent inversions require. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  3. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  4. Seismic risk assessment of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.E.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Lappa, D.A.; Chuang, T.Y.; Murray, R.C.; Johnson, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The simplified seismic risk methodology developed in the USNRC Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was demonstrated by its application to the Zion nuclear power plant (PWR). The simplified seismic risk methodology was developed to reduce the costs associated with a seismic risk analysis while providing adequate results. A detailed model of Zion, including systems analysis models (initiating events, event trees, and fault trees), SSI and structure models, and piping models, was developed and used in assessing the seismic risk of the Zion nuclear power plant (FSAR). The simplified seismic risk methodology was applied to the LaSalle County Station nuclear power plant, a BWR; to further demonstrate its applicability, and if possible, to provide a basis for comparing the seismic risk from PWRs and BWRs. (orig./HP)

  5. Methodology for seismic PSA of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    1999-09-01

    A general methodology is outlined for seismic PSA (probabilistic safety assessment). The main objectives of seismic PSA include: description of the course of an event; understanding the most probable failure sequences; gaining insight into the overall probability of reactor core damage; identification of the main seismic risk contributors; identification of the range of peak ground accelerations contributing significantly to the plant risk; and comparison of the seismic risk with risks from other events. The results of seismic PSA are typically compared with those of internal PSA and of PSA of other external events. If the results of internal and external PSA are available, sensitivity studies and cost benefit analyses are performed prior to any decision regarding corrective actions. If the seismic PSA involves analysis of the containment, useful information can be gained regarding potential seismic damage of the containment. (P.A.)

  6. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  7. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestari, Titik, E-mail: t2klestari@gmail.com [Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jalan Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  8. Early arrival waveform inversion of shallow seismic land data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2013-09-22

    We estimate the near-surface velocity distribution over Wadi Qudaid in Saudi Arabia by applying early arrival waveform inversion (EWI) to shallow seismic land data collected with source-receiver offsets no longer than 232 m. The main purpose is to characterize the shallow subsurface for its water storage and reuse potential. To enhance the accuracy of EWI, we extracted a natural source wavelet from the data, and also corrected for the attenuation effects with an estimated factor Q. Results suggest that, compared to traveltime tomography, EWI can generate a highly resolved velocity tomogram from shallow seismic data. The more accurate EWI tomogram can make an economically important difference in assessing the storage potential of this wadi; in this case we find an increase of 18% of storage potential in the EWI tomogram relative to the traveltime tomogram. This approach suggests that FWI might be a more accurate means for economically characterizing the water storage potential for wadis’ throughout the world.

  9. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function.

  10. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack

    2014-01-01

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function

  11. ) Increasing Seismic Resolution in a River Delta Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akubelem, E.C.; De Bruin, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the seismic frequency band on the high frequency side during field seismic data acquisition has always been an important, but difficult goal. An increase in frequency band will improve the resolution and accuracy of the data and have a significant impact on our success in finding and significant impact on our success in finding and developing oil and gas reservoirs. It will for example make it easier to resolve thin beds within a reservoir, therein giving a better handle on volumetrics, and enable better well positioning.An experiment was recently carried out by the SPDC with the aim to extending the seismic frequency band on the high frequency side. If the experiment was successful, it was hoped that seismic acquisition in most of the company's acreage in the Niger Delta and in similar terrain elsewhere on the globe would then adopt the approach. As is well known, the surface layer in the field is generally unconsolidated and has the effect of filtering out high frequencies. In this experiment; the seismic sources and receivers were buried below the thin weathered surface layer, thus avoiding this filtering effect. In this way it was possible to retain higher frequencies and thereby obtain a higher resolution image of the subsurface.There were also some other additional advantages of the approach. Only one geophone was used per station, instead of eighteen, as is traditionally the case in routine work. Recording using the new set-up could continue uninterruptedly during rain, which in big operations will result in a considerable reduction of downtime. Additionally, buried geophones can either be retrieved and used again, or left behind for the purpose of 4D data acquisition in the future.The present experiment has provided some very encouraging results. In the first 2.5 seconds, a better resolution was indeed obtained as was hoped. At deeper levels however, the data quality was found to deteriorate. This aspect of the result now needs to be investigated

  12. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  13. Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-D space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Zong, Yuquan; Yu, Mingyu

    2016-11-01

    A boulder stone, a common geological feature in south China, is referred to the remnant of a granite body which has been unevenly weathered. Undetected boulders could adversely impact the schedule and safety of subway construction when using tunnel boring machine (TBM) method. Therefore, boulder detection has always been a key issue demanded to be solved before the construction. Nowadays, cross-hole seismic tomography is a high resolution technique capable of boulder detection, however, the method can only solve for velocity in a 2-D slice between two wells, and the size and central position of the boulder are generally difficult to be accurately obtained. In this paper, the authors conduct a multi-hole wave field simulation and characteristic analysis of a boulder model based on the 3-D elastic wave staggered-grid finite difference theory, and also a 2-D imaging analysis based on first arrival travel time. The results indicate that (1) full wave field records could be obtained from multi-hole seismic wave simulations. Simulation results describe that the seismic wave propagation pattern in cross-hole high-velocity spherical geological bodies is more detailed and can serve as a basis for the wave field analysis. (2) When a cross-hole seismic section cuts through the boulder, the proposed method provides satisfactory cross-hole tomography results; however, when the section is closely positioned to the boulder, such high-velocity object in the 3-D space would impact on the surrounding wave field. The received diffracted wave interferes with the primary wave and in consequence the picked first arrival travel time is not derived from the profile, which results in a false appearance of high-velocity geology features. Finally, the results of 2-D analysis in 3-D modeling space are comparatively analyzed with the physical model test vis-a-vis the effect of high velocity body on the seismic tomographic measurements.

  14. Review of public comments on proposed seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Shaukat, S.K.; Chokshi, N.C.; Bagchi, G.; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC

    1989-01-01

    During the first quarter of 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) prepared a proposed Revision 2 to the NUREG-0800 Standard Review Plan (SRP) Sections 2.5.2 (Vibratory Ground Motion), 3.7.1 (Seismic Design Parameters), 3.7.2 (Seismic Systems Analysis) and 3.7.3 (Seismic Subsystem Analysis). The proposed Revision 2 to the SRP was a result of many years' work carried out by the NRC and the nuclear industry on the Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-40: ''Seismic Design Criteria.'' The background material related to NRC's efforts for resolving the A-40 issue is described in NUREG-1233. In June 1988, the proposed Revision 2 of the SRP was issued by NRC for public review and comments. Comments were received from Sargent and Lundy Engineers, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Stevenson and Associates, Duke Power Company, General Electric Company and Electric Power Research Institute. In September 1988, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and its consultants (C.J. Costantino, R.P. Kennedy, J. Stevenson, M. Shinozuka and A.S. Veletsos) were requested to carry out a review of the comments received from the above six organizations. The objective of this review was to assist the NRC staff with the evaluation and resolution of the public comments. This review was initiated during October 1988 and it was completed on January 1989. As a result of this review, a set of modifications to the above mentioned sections of the SRP were recommended by BNL and its consultants. This paper summarizes the recommended modifications. 4 refs

  15. Input for seismic hazard assessment using Vrancea seismic source region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, Iren-Adelina; Enescu, B.D.; Pantea, A.

    1998-01-01

    We use an extended and combined data base including historical and modern, qualitative and quantitative data, i.e., more than 25 events during the period 1790 - 1990 with epicentral/maximum intensities ranging from X to V degree (MSK scale), the variation interval of isoseismal curves ranging from IX th to III rd degree. The data set was analysed using both the sum phasor techniques of Ridelek and Sacks (1984) for different magnitudes and depth intervals and the Stepp's method. For the assessment of seismic hazard we need a pattern of seismic source regions including an estimation for the maximum expected magnitude and the return period for the studied regions. Another necessary step in seismic hazard assessment is to develop attenuation relationships specific to a seismogenic zone, particularly to sub-crustal earthquakes of Vrancea region. The conceptual frame involves the use of appropriate decay models and consideration of the randomness in the attenuation, taking into account the azimuthal variation of the isoseist shapes. (authors)

  16. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  17. Enhancement of seismic resistance of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Sorin Dragomir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the paper are both seismic instrumentation for damage assessment and enhancing of seismic resistance of buildings. In according with seismic design codes in force the buildings are designed to resist at seismic actions. Due to the time evolution of these design provisions, there are buildings that were designed decades ago, under the less stringent provisions. The conceptual conformation is nowadays provided in all Codes of seismic design. According to the Code of seismic design P100-1:2006 the asymmetric structures do not have an appropriate seismic configuration; they have disadvantageous distribution of volumes, mass and stiffness. Using results of temporary seismic instrumentation the safety condition of the building may be assessed in different phases of work. Based on this method, the strengthening solutions may be identified and the need of seismic joints may be emphasised. All the aforementioned ideas are illustrated through a case study. Therefore it will be analysed the dynamic parameter evolution of an educational building obtained in different periods. Also, structural intervention scenarios to enhance seismic resistance will be presented.

  18. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  19. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

  20. Magma replenishment and volcanic unrest inferred from the analysis of VT micro-seismicity and seismic velocity changes at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, F.; Rivemale, E.; Clarke, D. S.; Schmid, A.; Got, J.; Battaglia, J.; Taisne, B.; Staudacher, T.; Peltier, A.; Shapiro, N. M.; Tait, S.; Ferrazzini, V.; Di Muro, A.

    2011-12-01

    Piton de la Fournaise volcano (PdF) is among the most active basaltic volcanoes worldwide with more than one eruption per year on average. Also, PdF is densely instrumented with short-period and broad-band seismometers as well as with GPS receivers. Continuous seismic waveforms are available from 1999. Piton de la Fournaise volcano has a moderate inter-eruptive seismic activity with an average of five detected Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes per day with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 3.5. These earthquakes are shallow and located about 2.5 kilometers beneath the edifice surface. Volcanic unrest is captured on average a few weeks before eruptions by measurements of increased VT seismicity rate, inflation of the edifice summit, and decreased seismic velocities from correlations of seismic noise. Eruptions are usually preceded by seismic swarms of VT earthquakes. Recently, almost 50 % of seismic swarms were not followed by eruptions. Within this work, we aim to gather results from different groups of the UnderVolc research project in order to better understand the processes of deep magma transfer, volcanic unrest, and pre-eruptive magma transport initiation. Among our results, we show that the period 1999-2003 was characterized by a long-term increase of VT seismicity rate coupled with a long-term decrease of seismic velocities. These observations could indicate a long-term replenishment of the magma storage area. The relocation of ten years of inter-eruptive micro-seismicity shows a narrow (~300 m long) sub-vertical fault zone thus indicating a conduit rather than an extended magma reservoir as the shallow magma feeder system. Also, we focus on the processes of short-term volcanic unrest and prove that magma intrusions within the edifice leading to eruptions activate specific VT earthquakes that are distinct from magma intrusions that do not lead to eruptions. We thus propose that, among the different pathways of magma transport within the edifice, only one will

  1. A high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Toni

    2014-05-01

    In the past several years, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. Due to this development an increasing number of seismic monitoring networks are being installed in densely populated areas with strongly heterogeneous, and unfavorable ambient noise conditions. This poses a major challenge on the network design process, which aims to find the sensor geometry that optimizes the

  2. Receiver Functions of the Mangystau Region, Western Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetti, L. B.; Mackey, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Mangystau Region, in southwestern Kazakhstan contains many geographic features such as basins, plateaus, and mountain ranges. However, little has been published in English or Russian, and the region has never been instrumented with broadband seismometers before. From August through September 2016, a seismic noise survey took place where 10 broadband seismic stations were deployed throughout the region for 20 days each by MSU. The sensors recorded various teleseismic events and the data were used to infer crustal thickness. The goal of this study is to determine if reliable receiver functions can be created with 20 days of data recorded, and test what is the best way to use the data to find the thickness of the crust. Since a limited amount of data is available, teleseismic events of magnitude > 5 and that occurred from 30 to 90 degrees from the station were used. To have a better solution, a local calibration event was used to solve the seismic velocity and match the results of a previously done study (5.6 - 6.5 km/s) by a Kazak group, which was then used for H-k stacking. While the work is still in progress, it will add to the knowledge of the area, thus give an insight to the crustal thickness of the overall region. This study can also be used to provide information of the crustal thickness of the northern Caspian basin, near the Caucasus, where another major effort is being conducted.

  3. Modelling of seismic reflection data for underground gas storage in the Pečarovci and Dankovci structures - Mura Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Two antiform structures in the Mura Depression were selected as the most promising in Slovenia for the construction of an underground gas storage facility in an aquifer. Seventeen reflection lines with a total length of 157km were recorded, and three boreholes were drilled. Structural models corresponding to two different horizons (the pre-Tertiary basement and the Badenian-Sarmatianboundary were constructed using the Sierra Mimic program. Evaluation of different velocity data (velocity analysis, sonic log, the down-hole method, and laboratory measurements on cores was carried out in order to perform correct timeto-depth conversion and to estabUsh lateral velocity variations. The porous rock in Pečarovci structure is 70m thick layer of dolomite, occurring at a depth of 1900m, whereas layers of marl, several hundred meter thick, represent the impermeable cap-rock. Due to faults, the Dankovci structure, at a depth of 1200m,where the reservoir rocks consist of thin layers of conglomerate and sandstone,was proved to be less reliable. ID synthetic seismograms were used to correlatethe geological and seismic data at the borehole locations, especially at intervals with thin layers. The raytracing method on 2D models (the Sierra Quik packagewas applied to confirm lateral continuity of some horizons and to improve the interpretation of faults which are the critical factor for gas storage.

  4. Lunar seismicity, structure, and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammlein, D. R.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Ewing, M.

    1974-01-01

    Natural seismic events have been detected by the long-period seismometers at Apollo stations 16, 14, 15, and 12 at annual rates of 3300, 1700, 800, and 700, respectively, with peak activity at 13- to 14-day intervals. The data are used to describe magnitudes, source characteristics, and periodic features of lunar seismicity. In a present model, the rigid lithosphere overlies an asthenosphere of reduced rigidity in which present-day partial melting is probable. Tidal deformation presumably leads to critical stress concentrations at the base of the lithosphere, where moonquakes are found to occur. The striking tidal periodicities in the pattern of moonquake occurrence and energy release suggest that tidal energy is the dominant source of energy released as moonquakes. Thus, tidal energy is dissipated by moonquakes in the lithosphere and probably by inelastic processes in the asthenosphere.

  5. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-01-01

    In Section 1 of this first report we will describe the work we are doing to collect and analyze rock physics data for the purpose of modeling seismic attenuation from other measurable quantities such as porosity, water saturation, clay content and net stress. This work and other empirical methods to be presented later, will form the basis for ''Q pseudo-well modeling'' that is a key part of this project. In Section 2 of this report, we will show the fundamentals of a new method to extract Q, dispersion, and attenuation from field seismic data. The method is called Gabor-Morlet time-frequency decomposition. This technique has a number of advantages including greater stability and better time resolution than spectral ratio methods.

  6. Advances in experimental seismic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthumani, K.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Sathish Kumar, K.; Iyer, Nagesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic testing plays a key role in better understanding physical phenomena, validating and improving analysis and design methods, and qualifying sensitive equipment. There are several different experimental techniques that can be used to test the response of structures to verify their seismic performance. These include (i) Quasi-static testing (ii) Shake table testing, (iii) Effective force testing (iv) Pseudodynamic testing and (v) Real-time dynamic hybrid testing. The sophisticated shaking table facilities and modern data acquisition and processing methods using high speed computers have made it possible to improve the accuracy and reliability of the experimental data, and to increase the number of gauge points, thus yielding a more detailed picture of the structural behavior. Lifeline structures like nuclear power plants and thermal power

  7. An economical educational seismic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    There is a considerable interest in seismology from the nonprofessional or amateur standpoint. The operation of a seismic system can be satisfying and educational, especially when you have built and operated the system yourself. A long-period indoor-type sensor and recording system that works extremely well has been developed in the James Madison University Physics Deparment. The system can be built quite economically, and any educational institution that cannot commit themselves to a professional installation need not be without first-hand seismic information. The system design approach has been selected by college students working a project or senior thesis, several elementary and secondary science teachers, as well as the more ambitious tinkerer or hobbyist at home 

  8. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  9. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 3H. Kozloduy NPP units 5/6: Analysis and testing. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In August 1991, following the SMiRT-11 Conference in Tokyo, a Technical Committee Meeting was held on the 'Seismic safety issues relating to existing NPPs'. The Proceedings of this TCM was subsequently compiled in an IAEA Working Material. One of the main recommendations of this TCM, called for the harmonization of criteria and methods used in Member States in seismic reassessment and upgrading of existing NPPs. Twenty four institutions from thirteen countries participated in the CRP named 'Benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER type NPPs'. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-1000 and WWER-440/213) selected for benchmarking. Kozloduy NPP Units 5/6 and Paks NPP represented these respectively as prototypes. Consistent with the recommendations of the TCM and the working paper prepared by the subsequent Consultants' Meeting, the focal activity of the CRP was the benchmarking exercises. A similar methodology was followed both for Paks NPP and Kozloduy NPP Unit 5. Firstly, the NPP (mainly the reactor building) was tested using a blast loading generated by a series of explosions from buried TNT charges. Records from this test were obtained at several free field locations (both downhole and surface), foundation mat, various elevations of structures as well as some tanks and the stack. Then the benchmark participants were provided with structural drawings, soil data and the free field record of the blast experiment. Their task was to make a blind prediction of the response at preselected locations. The analytical results from these participants were then compared with the results from the test. Although the benchmarking exercises constituted the focus of the CRP, there were many other interesting problems related to the seismic safety of WWER type NPPs which were addressed by the participants. These involved generic studies, i.e. codes and standards used in original WWER designs and their comparison with current international practice; seismic analysis

  10. The utility of petroleum seismic exploration data in delineating structural features within salt anticlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, S.L.; Balch, Alfred H.

    1978-01-01

    The Salt Valley anticline, in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, is under investigation for use as a location for storage of solid nuclear waste. Delineation of thin, nonsalt interbeds within the upper reaches of the salt body is extremely important because the nature and character of any such fluid- or gas-saturated horizons would be critical to the mode of emplacement of wastes into the structure. Analysis of 50 km of conventional seismic-reflection data, in the vicinity of the anticline, indicates that mapping of thin beds at shallow depths may well be possible using a specially designed adaptation of state-of-the-art seismic oil-exploration procedures. Computer ray-trace modeling of thin beds in salt reveals that the frequency and spatial resolution required to map the details of interbeds at shallow depths (less than 750 m) may be on the order of 500 Hz, with surface-spread lengths of less than 350 m. Consideration should be given to the burial of sources and receivers in order to attenuate surface noise and to record the desired high frequencies. Correlation of the seismic-reflection data with available well data and surface geology reveals the complex, structurally initiated diapir, whose upward flow was maintained by rapid contemporaneous deposition of continental clastic sediments on its flanks. Severe collapse faulting near the crests of these structures has distorted the seismic response. Evidence exists, however, that intrasalt thin beds of anhydrite, dolomite, and black shale are mappable on seismic record sections either as short, discontinuous reflected events or as amplitude anomalies that result from focusing of the reflected seismic energy by the thin beds; computer modeling of the folded interbeds confirms both of these as possible causes of seismic response from within the salt diapir. Prediction of the seismic signatures of the interbeds can be made from computer-model studies. Petroleum seismic-reflection data are unsatisfactory for

  11. Seismic Imaging of Mantle Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, Henri-Claude

    The mantle plume hypothesis was proposed thirty years ago by Jason Morgan to explain hotspot volcanoes such as Hawaii. A thermal diapir (or plume) rises from the thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and produces a chain of volcanoes as a plate moves on top of it. The idea is very attractive, but direct evidence for actual plumes is weak, and many questions remain unanswered. With the great improvement of seismic imagery in the past ten years, new prospects have arisen. Mantle plumes are expected to be rather narrow, and their detection by seismic techniques requires specific developments as well as dedicated field experiments. Regional travel-time tomography has provided good evidence for plumes in the upper mantle beneath a few hotspots (Yellowstone, Massif Central, Iceland). Beneath Hawaii and Iceland, the plume can be detected in the transition zone because it deflects the seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depths. In the lower mantle, plumes are very difficult to detect, so specific methods have been worked out for this purpose. There are hints of a plume beneath the weak Bowie hotspot, as well as intriguing observations for Hawaii. Beneath Iceland, high-resolution tomography has just revealed a wide and meandering plume-like structure extending from the core-mantle boundary up to the surface. Among the many phenomena that seem to take place in the lowermost mantle (or D''), there are also signs there of the presence of plumes. In this article I review the main results obtained so far from these studies and discuss their implications for plume dynamics. Seismic imaging of mantle plumes is still in its infancy but should soon become a turbulent teenager.

  12. Seismic evaluation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel

    1997-01-01

    Some considerations regarding extreme external events, natural or man-induce, such as earthquakes, floods, air crashes, etc, shall be done for nuclear facilities to minimizing the potential impact of the installation on the public and the environment. In this paper the main aspects of the seismic evaluation of nuclear facilities (except the nuclear power reactors) will be presented based on different codes and standards. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  14. The ISC Seismic Event Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a not-for-profit organization operating in the UK for the last 50 years and producing the ISC Bulletin - the definitive worldwide summary of seismic events, both natural and anthropogenic - starting from the beginning of 20th century. Often researchers need to gather information related to specific seismic events for various reasons. To facilitate such task, in 2012 we set up a new database linking earthquakes and other seismic events in the ISC Bulletin to bibliographic records of scientific articles (mostly peer-reviewed journals) that describe those events. Such association allows users of the ISC Event Bibliography (www.isc.ac.uk/event_bibliography/index.php) to run searches for publications via a map-based web interface and, optionally, selecting scientific publications related to either specific events or events in the area of interest. Some of the greatest earthquakes were described in several hundreds of articles published over a period of few years. The journals included in our database are not limited to seismology but bring together a variety of fields in geosciences (e.g., engineering seismology, geodesy and remote sensing, tectonophysics, monitoring research, tsunami, geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, atmospheric sciences, etc.) making this service useful in multidisciplinary studies. Usually papers dealing with large data set are not included (e.g., papers describing a seismic catalogue). Currently the ISC Event Bibliography includes over 17,000 individual publications from about 500 titles related to over 14,000 events that occurred in last 100+ years. The bibliographic records in the Event Bibliography start in the 1950s, and it is updated as new publications become available.

  15. Seismic Shot Processing on GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Owe

    2009-01-01

    Today s petroleum industry demand an ever increasing amount of compu- tational resources. Seismic processing applications in use by these types of companies have generally been using large clusters of compute nodes, whose only computing resource has been the CPU. However, using Graphics Pro- cessing Units (GPU) for general purpose programming is these days becoming increasingly more popular in the high performance computing area. In 2007, NVIDIA corporation launched their framework for develo...

  16. Seismic analysis of axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jospin, R.J.; Toledo, E.M.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells subjected to multiple support excitation are studied. The shells are spatialy discretized by the finite element method and in order to obtain estimates for the maximum values of displacements and stresses the response spectrum tecnique is used. Finally, some numerical results are presented and discussed in the case of a shell of revolution with vertical symmetry axis, subjected to seismic ground motions in the horizontal, vertical and rocking directions. (Author) [pt

  17. Seismic risk map of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Lee, Y.K.; Eum, S.H.; Yang, S.J.; Chun, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A study on seismic hazard level in Korea has been performed and the main results of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Historians suggest that the quality of historical earthquake data may be accurate in some degree and the data should be used in seismic risk analysis. 2. The historical damage events are conformed in historical literatures and their intensities are re-evaluated by joint researchers. The maximum MM intensity of them is VIII evaluated for 17 events. 3. The relation of earthquakes to surface fault is not clear. It seems resonable to related them to tectonic provinces. 4. Statistical seismic risk analysis shows that the acceleration expected within 50O year return period is less than 0.25G when only instrumental earthquakes are used and less than 0.10G if all of instrumental and historical earthquakes are used. The acceleration in Western Coast and Kyungsang area is higher than the other regions in Korea. 5. The maximum horizontal acceleration determined by conservative method is 0.26G when historical earthquake data are used and less than 0.20G if only instrumental earthquakes are used. The return period of 0.26G is 240 years in Kyungsang province and longer in other provinces. (Author)

  18. The seismic reflection inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, W W

    2009-01-01

    The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)

  19. Building a Smartphone Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    We are exploring to build a new type of seismic network by using the smartphones. The accelerometers in smartphones can be used to record earthquakes, the GPS unit can give an accurate location, and the built-in communication unit makes the communication easier for this network. In the future, these smartphones may work as a supplement network to the current traditional network for scientific research and real-time applications. In order to build this network, we developed an application for android phones and server to record the acceleration in real time. These records can be sent back to a server in real time, and analyzed at the server. We evaluated the performance of the smartphone as a seismic recording instrument by comparing them with high quality accelerometer while located on controlled shake tables for a variety of tests, and also the noise floor test. Based on the daily human activity data recorded by the volunteers and the shake table tests data, we also developed algorithm for the smartphones to detect earthquakes from daily human activities. These all form the basis of setting up a new prototype smartphone seismic network in the near future.

  20. Role of seismic PRA in seismic safety decisions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Kennedy, R.P.; Sues, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the important roles that seismic probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) can play in the seismic safety decisions of nuclear power plants. If a seismic PRA has been performed for a plant, its results can be utilized to evaluate the seismic capability beyond the safe shutdown event (SSE). Seismic fragilities of key structures and equipment, fragilities of dominant plant damage states and the frequencies of occurrence of these plant damage states are reviewed to establish the seismic safety of the plant beyond the SSE level. Guidelines for seismic margin reviews and upgrading may be developed by first identifying the generic classes of structures and equipment that have been shown to be dominant risk contributors in the completed seismic PRAs, studying the underlying causes for their contribution and examining why certain other items (e.g., piping) have not proved to be high-risk-contributors

  1. Seismic safety programme at NPP Paks. Propositions for coordinated international activity in seismic safety of the WWER-440 V-213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Paks NPP seismic safety program, highlighting the specifics of the WWER-440/213 type in operation, and the results of work obtained so far. It covers the following scope: establishment of the seismic safety program (original seismic design, current requirements, principles and structure of the seismic safety program); implementation of the seismic safety program (assessing the seismic hazard of the site, development of the new concept of seismic safety for the NPP, assessing the seismic resistance of the building and the technology); realization of the seismic safety of higher level (technical solutions, drawings, realization); ideas and propositions for coordinated international activity

  2. NRC systematic evaluation program: seismic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The NRC Systematic Evaluation Program is currently making an assessment of the seismic design safety of 11 older nuclear power plant facilities. The general review philosophy and review criteria relative to seismic input, structural response, and equipment functionability are presented, including the rationale for the development of these guidelines considering the significant evolution of seismic design criteria since these plants were originally licensed. Technical approaches thought more realistic in light of current knowledge are utilized. Initial findings for plants designed to early seismic design procedures suggest that with minor exceptions, these plants possess adequate seismic design margins when evaluated against the intent of current criteria. However, seismic qualification of electrical equipment has been identified as a subject which requires more in-depth evaluation

  3. Review of nuclear piping seismic design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Modern-day nuclear plant piping systems are designed with a large number of seismic supports and snubbers that may be detrimental to plant reliability. Experimental tests have demonstrated the inherent ruggedness of ductile steel piping for seismic loading. Present methods to predict seismic loads on piping are based on linear-elastic analysis methods with low damping. These methods overpredict the seismic response of ductile steel pipe. Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code stresses limits for piping systems that are based on considerations of static loads and hence are overly conservative. Appropriate stress limits for seismic loads on piping should be incorporated into the code to allow more flexible piping designs. The existing requirements and methods for seismic design of piping systems, including inherent conservations, are explained to provide a technical foundation for modifications to those requirements. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Seismic design practices for power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution of seismic design practices in electric power systems is reviewed. In California the evolution had led to many installation practices that are directed at improving the seismic ruggedness of power system facilities, particularly high voltage substation equipment. The primary means for substantiating the seismic ruggedness of important, hard to analyze substation equipment is through vibration testing. Current activities include system evaluations, development of emergency response plans and their exercise, and review elements that impact the entire system, such as energy control centers and communication systems. From a national perspective there is a need to standardize seismic specifications, identify a seismic specialist within each utility and enhance communications among these specialists. There is a general need to incorporate good seismic design practices on a national basis emphasizing new construction

  5. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Program, list of participants and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents a copy of the workshop program, the list of participants and extended abstracts received from speakers. It was distributed to the participants prior to the workshop. The abstracts were intended to provide advance information and to afford some basis for meaningful discussion and exchange of information

  6. Overview of potential issues related to seismic exploration off the north coast of B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.A. [LGL Ltd., King City, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    British Columbia's fisheries industry is worth hundreds of millions of dollars per year and is of great cultural significance to First Nations. While concern about the impact of seismic exploration is relatively recent LGL Limited has been examining the effects of seismic exploration on marine wildlife since 1974 with particular emphasis on the significance of underwater noise from air gun arrays and the effects of seismic hearing in fish and marine mammals such as seals and whales. Research programs have been conducted in the Gulf of Mexico, the west coast of North America, Cook Inlet, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and the Beaufort Sea. Studies have also been conducted throughout Arctic Canada, the coastal waters of Newfoundland, the Scotian Shelf, and the Bay of Fundy. This presentation described seismic noise sources, source levels, how source levels are measured, and the path of noise with reference to transmission loss, received levels, and ambient noise. Over the decades, there have not been large-scale demonstrated effects on fisheries in the areas where seismic exploration has occurred. Major collapses have not occurred in fisheries even in the most mature oil and gas fields. It was therefore concluded that seismic exploration can be conducted safely in the northern waters of British Columbia if the programs are carefully planned and if appropriate mitigation measures are in place with good quantitative monitoring by trained biologists. 5 figs.

  7. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Program, list of participants and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents a copy of the workshop program, the list of participants and extended abstracts received from speakers. It was distributed to the participants prior to the workshop. The abstracts were intended to provide advance information and to afford some basis for meaningful discussion and exchange of information.

  8. Inter-source seismic interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution (MDD) for borehole sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Romdhane, A.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic interferometry (SI) is usually implemented by crosscorrelation (CC) to retrieve the impulse response between pairs of receiver positions. An alternative approach by multidimensional deconvolution (MDD) has been developed and shown in various studies the potential to suppress artifacts due to

  9. Seismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing: techniques for determining fluid flow paths and state of stress away from a wellbore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, M.; House, L.; Kaieda, H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has gained in popularity in recent years as a way to determine the orientations and magnitudes of tectonic stresses. By augmenting conventional hydraulic fracturing measurements with detection and mapping of the microearthquakes induced by fracturing, we can supplement and idependently confirm information obtained from conventional analysis. Important information obtained from seismic monitoring includes: the state of stress of the rock, orientation and spacing of the major joint sets, and measurements of rock elastic parameters at locations distant from the wellbore. While conventional well logging operations can provide information about several of these parameters, the zone of interrogation is usually limited to the immediate proximity of the borehole. The seismic waveforms of the microearthquakes contain a wealth of information about the rock in regions that are otherwise inaccessible for study. By reliably locating the hypocenters of many microearthquakes, we have inferred the joint patterns in the rock. We observed that microearthquake locations do not define a simple, thin, planar distribution, that the fault plane solutions are consistent with shear slippage, and that spectral analysis indicates that the source dimensions and slip along the faults are small. Hence we believe that the microearthquakes result from slip along preexisting joints, and not from tensile extension at the tip of the fracture. Orientations of the principal stresses can be estimated by using fault plane solutions of the larger microearthquakes. By using a joint earthquake location scheme, and/or calibrations with downhole detonators, rock velocities and heterogeneities thereof can be investigated in rock volumes that are far enough from the borehole to be representative of intrincis rock properties.

  10. Early estimation of epicenter seismic intensities according to co-seismic deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Weidong, Li; Chaojun, Zhang; Dahui, Li; Jiayong, He; Huizhong, Chen; Lomnitz, Cinna

    2010-01-01

    The absolute fault displacement in co-seismic deformation is derived assuming that location, depth, faulting mechanism and magnitude of the earthquake are known. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M8.0) is used as an example to determine the distribution of seismic intensities using absolute displacement and a crustal model. We fnd that an early prediction of the distribution of seismic intensities after a large earthquake may be performed from the estimated absolute co-seismic displacements using...

  11. Multicomponent ensemble models to forecast induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király-Proag, E.; Gischig, V.; Zechar, J. D.; Wiemer, S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, human-induced seismicity has become a more and more relevant topic due to its economic and social implications. Several models and approaches have been developed to explain underlying physical processes or forecast induced seismicity. They range from simple statistical models to coupled numerical models incorporating complex physics. We advocate the need for forecast testing as currently the best method for ascertaining if models are capable to reasonably accounting for key physical governing processes—or not. Moreover, operational forecast models are of great interest to help on-site decision-making in projects entailing induced earthquakes. We previously introduced a standardized framework following the guidelines of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, the Induced Seismicity Test Bench, to test, validate, and rank induced seismicity models. In this study, we describe how to construct multicomponent ensemble models based on Bayesian weightings that deliver more accurate forecasts than individual models in the case of Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 enhanced geothermal stimulation projects. For this, we examine five calibrated variants of two significantly different model groups: (1) Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity based on the seismogenic index, simple modified Omori-law-type seismicity decay, and temporally weighted smoothed seismicity; (2) Hydraulics and Seismicity based on numerically modelled pore pressure evolution that triggers seismicity using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. We also demonstrate how the individual and ensemble models would perform as part of an operational Adaptive Traffic Light System. Investigating seismicity forecasts based on a range of potential injection scenarios, we use forecast periods of different durations to compute the occurrence probabilities of seismic events M ≥ 3. We show that in the case of the Basel 2006 geothermal stimulation the models forecast hazardous levels

  12. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method

  13. Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    Development of digital processing algorithms of seismic wave fields for the purpose of useful event picking to study environment and other objects is the basis for the establishment of new seismic techniques. In the submitted paper a fundamental property of seismic wave field coherence is used. The authors extended conception of coherence types of observed wave fields and devised a technique of coherent component selection from observed wave field. Time coherence and space coherence are widely known. In this paper conception "parameter coherence" has been added. The parameter by which wave field is coherent can be the most manifold. The reason is that the wave field is a multivariate process described by a set of parameters. Coherence in the first place means independence of linear connection in wave field of parameter. In seismic wave fields, recorded in confined space, in building-blocks and stratified mediums time coherent standing waves are formed. In prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping head waves are coherent by parallel correlation course or, in other words, by one measurement on generalized plane of observation system. For detail prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping on basis of coherence property by one measurement of area algorithms have been developed, permitting seismic records to be converted to head wave time sections which have neither reflected nor other types of waves. Conversion in time section is executed on any specified observation base. Energy storage of head waves relative to noise on basis of multiplicity of observation system is realized within area of head wave recording. Conversion on base below the area of wave tracking is performed with lack of signal/noise ratio relative to maximum of this ratio, fit to observation system. Construction of head wave time section and dynamic plots a basis of automatic processing have been developed, similar to CDP procedure in method of

  14. Causality between expansion of seismic cloud and maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude is critical environmental issues associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Studies for prediction of the hazardous seismicity and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated recently. Many of these studies are based on the seismological statistics and these models use the information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. We have originally developed physics based model named "possible seismic moment model" to evaluate seismic activity and assess seismic moment which can be ready to release. This model is totally based on microseismic information of occurrence time, hypocenter location and magnitude (seismic moment). This model assumes existence of representative parameter having physical meaning that release-able seismic moment per rock volume (seismic moment density) at given field. Seismic moment density is to be estimated from microseismic distribution and their seismic moment. In addition to this, stimulated rock volume is also inferred by progress of microseismic cloud at given time and this quantity can be interpreted as the rock volume which can release seismic energy due to weakening effect of normal stress by injected fluid. Product of these two parameters (equation (1)) provide possible seismic moment which can be released from current stimulated zone as a model output. Difference between output of this model and observed cumulative seismic moment corresponds the seismic moment which will be released in future, based on current stimulation conditions. This value can be translated into possible maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in future. As this way, possible seismic moment can be used to have feedback to hydraulic stimulation operation in real time as an index which can be interpreted easily and intuitively. Possible seismic moment is defined as equation (1), where D

  15. Criterions for fixing regulatory seismic acceleration coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1988-03-01

    Acceleration coeffficients to be taken into account in seismic areas for calculation of structures are defined in national seismic regulations. Joined to the described qualitative requirements, these coefficients represent a balance between precaution costs and avoided damages, both in terms of material repairing costs and damage to human life. Persons in charge of fixing these coefficients must be informed of corresponding quantitative aspects. Data on seismic motions occurrencies and consequences are gathered here and convoluted to mean damage evaluations. Indications on precaution costs are joined, which shows that currently recommended levels of seismic motions are high relatively to financial profitability, and represent in fact an aethical choice about human life value [fr

  16. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mohindra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic-event probabilistic seismic hazard model, which can be used further for estimates of seismic loss and seismic risk analysis, has been developed for the territory of Yemen. An updated composite earthquake catalogue has been compiled using the databases from two basic sources and several research publications. The spatial distribution of earthquakes from the catalogue was used to define and characterize the regional earthquake source zones for Yemen. To capture all possible scenarios in the seismic hazard model, a stochastic event set has been created consisting of 15,986 events generated from 1,583 fault segments in the delineated seismic source zones. Distribution of horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA was calculated for all stochastic events considering epistemic uncertainty in ground-motion modeling using three suitable ground motion-prediction relationships, which were applied with equal weight. The probabilistic seismic hazard maps were created showing PGA and MSK seismic intensity at 10% and 50% probability of exceedance in 50 years, considering local soil site conditions. The resulting PGA for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years (return period 475 years ranges from 0.2 g to 0.3 g in western Yemen and generally is less than 0.05 g across central and eastern Yemen. The largest contributors to Yemen’s seismic hazard are the events from the West Arabian Shield seismic zone.

  17. Seismic safety of Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive program is underway at Paks NPP for evaluation of the seismic safety and for development of the necessary safety increasing measures. This program includes the following five measures: investigation of methods, regulations and techniques utilized for reassessment of seismic safety of operating NPPs and promoting safety; investigation of earthquake hazards; development of concepts for creating the seismic safety location of earthquake warning system; determination of dynamic features of systems and facilities determined by the concept, and preliminary evaluation of the seismic safety

  18. Calculation of NPP pipeline seismic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.P.; Ambriashvili, Yu.K.; Kaliberda, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified design procedure of seismic pipeline stability of NPP at WWER reactor is described. The simplified design procedure envisages during the selection and arrangement of pipeline saddle and hydraulic shock absorbers use of method of introduction of resilient mountings of very high rigidity into the calculated scheme of the pipeline and performance of calculations with step-by-step method. It is concluded that the application of the design procedure considered permits to determine strains due to seismic loads, to analyze stressed state in pipeline elements and supporting power of pipe-line saddle with provision for seismic loads to plan measures on seismic protection

  19. Seismic proof test of shielding block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohte, Yukio; Watanabe, Takahide; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Kazuhide

    1989-01-01

    Most of the shielding block walls used for building nuclear facilities are built by dry process. When a nuclear facility is designed, seismic waves specific at each site are set as input seismic motions and they are adopted in the design. Therefore, it is necessary to assure safety of the shielding block walls for earthquake by performing anti-seismic experiments under the conditions at each site. In order to establish the normal form that can be applied to various seismic conditions in various areas, Shimizu Corp. made an actual-size test samples for the shielding block wall and confirmed the safety for earthquake and validity of normalization. (author)

  20. Evidence of unfrozen liquids and seismic anisotropy at the base of the polar ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlinger, Gérard; Farra, Véronique

    2015-03-01

    We analyze seismic data from broadband stations located on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to determine polar ice seismic velocities. P-to-S converted waves at the ice/rock interface and inside the ice sheets and their multiples (the P-receiver functions) are used to estimate in-situ P-wave velocity (Vp) and P-to-S velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) of polar ice. We find that the polar ice sheets have a two-layer structure; an upper layer of variable thickness (about 2/3 of the total thickness) with seismic velocities close to the standard ice values, and a lower layer of approximately constant thickness with standard Vp but ∼25% smaller Vs. The lower layer ceiling corresponds approximately to the -30 °C isotherm. Synthetic modeling of P-receiver functions shows that strong seismic anisotropy and low vertical S velocity are needed in the lower layer. The seismic anisotropy results from the preferred orientation of ice crystal c-axes toward the vertical. The low vertical S velocity may be due to the presence of unfrozen liquids resulting from premelting at grain joints and/or melting of chemical solutions buried in the ice. The strongly preferred ice crystal orientation fabric and the unfrozen fluids may facilitate polar ice sheet basal flow.