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Sample records for dowex 50w resins

  1. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined.

  2. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined

  3. Alkali metal ion-proton exchange equilibria and water sorption studies on nafon 117 membrane and dowex 50 W exchange resins: effect of long storage or aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, Jayshree; Venkataramani, B.

    2004-09-01

    Alkali metal ion -H + exchanges on Nafion 117 membrane treated differently, Dowex 50 W x 4 and Dowex 50 W x 8 resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm -3 . The water sorption isotherms of these exchangers in different ionic forms generated over the entire range of water activity, have been analysed by the D'Arcy and Watt equation (DWE). Water sorption studies have shown that the physical structure of the exchangers have changed due to long -storage or aging, resulting in poorer water sorption and even formation of pores in the case of Dowex 50 W x 8 resin. As a result, the counter ions in the exchangers are not hydrated and the water is present in a free form, albeit structured, in the resin phase. The selectivity sequence for the alkali metal ions with reference to the H + (Li + + + ) for the exchangers used in the present study is in accordance with that reported in the literature for the ionomers having sulphonic acid as the functional group. In view of the absence of hydration of the cations in the resin phase, the driving force for the selectivity of the cation, namely, the net gain in entropy, is expected to come from the loss of structured water during the exchange process. Pre treating the Nafion 117 membrane with boiling acid solution activates the clustered region of the membrane in the H + form, while pretreatment with boiling water expands the non-ionic domain (the region connecting the clusters). These modifications influence the state of water present in the Nafion 117 membrane and the ion exchange equilibria. As a result of long storage or aging, the ion exchangers lose their elasticity or swelling characteristics. The results obtained in the present study indicate that in aged materials, the ionogenic groups are existing as isolated ion -pairs rather than in a clustered morphology. (author)

  4. Radiation effects on ion-exchange resins. Part II. Gamma irradiation of Dowex 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Horrell, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The effects were determined of gamma radiation on the anion exchange resin, Dowex 1. Part I on Dowex 50W was reported May 10, 1974. The exchange capacity (both strong and weak base), moisture content, radiolysis products, and physical deterioration of the resin were analyzed after irradiation with doses up to 6.9 x 10 8 rads. The resin capacity decreased approximately 50 percent after a radiation dose of 4 x 10 8 rads. Resin irradiated, when air dried in the nitrate form, showed more stability than resin irradiated in 7N nitric acid (HNO 3 ), which in turn showed more stability than resin irradiated when air dried in the chloride form. Radiation decreased the strong base capacity to a greater extent than the total capacity. The result indicates that some of the quarternary ammonium groups were transformed to secondary and tertiary amine groups that have weak base ion-exchange capability. (U.S.)

  5. Recovery of tretrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery of the tretrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q=kC''n. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20 degree centigree. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin. (Author) 6 refs

  6. Studies on the adsorption behaviour of heavy rare earths with a strong cation exchanger DOWEX 50W-2X8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Kotekar, M.K.; Dasgupta, K.; Singh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earths have been a very fascinating area of research since long due to its wide applicability's in many field including superconductors, lasers, phosphors, medical, electronics, magnet, optics etc. Separation of rare earths is a challenging task and over the years many separation schemes based on solvent extraction, ion exchange, membrane etc have been developed and deployed. In the present work, we have investigated the adsorption behavior of heavy rare earths from a crude concentrate analyzing ∼ 80% Y 2 O 3 , ∼12% Dy 2 O 3 , ∼4% Er 2 O 3 etc., with a strong cationic exchanger namely Dowex 50W-2X8 in order to separate them in pure form. To start with, Y was selected as a representative of heavy rare earths and the conditions were optimized in batch experiments and later were applied to the feed solution containing Dy, Er, Ho etc. in a column study. Effects of experimental variables such as contact time, pH, weight of resin, concentration of the feed metal, temperature, desorption agents, on adsorption of Y was studied

  7. Radiotracer application for characterization of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P.U.

    2015-01-01

    Radio isotopic tracer technique as one of the versatile nondestructive technique is employed to evaluate the performance of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC. The evaluation was made on the basis of ion-isotopic exchange reaction kinetics by using 131 I and 82 Br radioactive tracer isotopes. It was observed that for both the resins, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of ion exchanged (mmol) and initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) were calculated to be lower for bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. It was observed that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions of 30.0 C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.001 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were calculated as 0.377, 0.212, 0.080 and 15.5 respectively for Dowex SBR LC resin, which was higher than 0.215, 0.144, 0.031 and 14.1 respectively as that obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. Also at a constant temperature of 30.0 C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 84.75 % to 90.20 % for Dowex SBR LC resins which was higher than increases from 57.66 % to 62.38 % obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. The identical trend was observed for the two resins during bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The overall results indicate superior performance of Dowex SBR LC over Tulsion A23 resins under identical experimental conditions.

  8. Method for immobilizing invertase by adsorption on Dowex® anionic exchange resin Método para a imobilização da invertase por adsorção em resinas trocadoras de ânions (DOWEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Junko Tomotani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication describes a method for adsorbing the invertase (EC.3.2.1.26 on DOWEX® anion exchange resin. Among the types of DOWEX® resins studied (1x8:50-400; 1x4:50-400 and 1x2:100-400, 1X4-200 was the most suitable, because it adsorbed the invertase molecules completely and the complex 1X4-200/invertase retained 100% of the catalytic activity. Moreover, no leakage of enzyme from the support was noted at the end of the sucrose hydrolysis.O presente trabalho descreve um método de adsorção da invertase (EC. 3.2.1.26 na resina de troca aniônica do tipo Dowex®. Entre os tipos de resinas Dowex® estudados (1x8:50-400; 1x4:50-400 e 1x2:100-400, 1x4-200 foi a mais apropriada devido à completa adsorção das moléculas de invertase e a sua retenção de atividade catalítica de 100% do complexo 1x4-200/invertase. Salienta-se ainda a ausência do desprendimento da enzima do suporte após o término da hidrólise da sacarose.

  9. Ion-Isotopic Exchange Reaction Kinetics using Anion Exchange Resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Singare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the characterization of ion exchange resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A based on kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reactions for which the short lived radioactive isotopes 131I and 82Br were used as a tracers. The study was performed for different concentration of ionic solution varying from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L and temperature in the range of 30.0 °C to 45.0 °C. The results indicate that as compared to bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, iodide exchange reaction take place at the faster rate. For both the ion-isotopic exchange reactions, under identical experimental conditions, the values of specific reaction rate increases with increase in the ionic concentration and decreases with rise in temperature. It was observed that at 35.00C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.002 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the values of specific reaction rate (min-1, amount of ion exchanged (mmol, initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min and log Kd were 0.270, 0.342, 0.092 and 11.8 respectively for Dowex 550A LC resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.156, 0.241, 0.038 and 7.4 as that obtained for Indion-930A resins. From the results, it appears that Dowex 550A LC resins show superior performance over Indion-930A resins under identical experimental conditions.

  10. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part V: Nickel(II/H+/Dowex C400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Alguacil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cationic exchange resin Dowex C400 was used to remove nickel(II from aqueous solutions of different pH values and under various experimental conditions: stirring speed of the aqueous solution/resin system, temperature, resin dosage and aqueous ionic strength. The selectivity of the resin was investigated against the presence of various metals in the aqueous solution, and the removal of nickel(II from aqueous solutions was also compared with results obtained using multiwalled carbon nanotubes or functionalized (carboxylic groups multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents. According to batch experimental data, best fit of the results is obtained with the Freundlich model, whereas the ion exchange process is best explained by the pseudo-first order model. Experimental data fit well to the moving boundary controlled model. Elution of the nickel(II loaded onto Dowex C400 resin is fully possible using acidic solutions.

  11. Comparative study of the ionic exchange of Ca{sup ++}, Sr{sup ++}, and Ba{sup ++} cations on resins and inorganic exchangers; Etude comparative de l'echange ionique des cations Ca{sup ++}, Sr{sup ++} et Ba{sup ++} sur resine et sur echangeurs mineraux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Batanero, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-03-01

    With a view to applying the results to certain problems related to chemical separations in activation analysis, a study has been made, of the possibilities of separating the alkaline-earth elements Ca, Sr and Ba on organic resins and inorganic exchangers using the radioactive indicator method. The partition coefficients of the cations Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} have been measured on Dowex 50 W (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) x 8 resin in the presence of EDTA - NTA - EGTA and DCTA as complexing agents, and on zirconium phosphate, tungstate and molybdate in the presence of HCl and NH{sub 4}Cl. Methods have been developed for separating mixtures of alkaline-earth elements using DCTA-NH{sub 4}{sup +} followed by elution on Dowex 50 W (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) x 8 resin columns and on zirconium phosphate. Amongst the complexing agents used on the ion-exchange resins the most promising appears to be DCTA which leads to partition coefficients Ca, Sr and Ba which are very different. The results of measurements of partition coefficients on zirconium phosphate (NH{sub 4}{sup +} form) using DCTA-NH{sub 4}{sup +} show the interesting possibilities of separations on columns. The separation of the alkaline-earth elements on zirconium phosphate seems to be less quantitative than on Dowex 50 resin; it is however much faster in the former case and this can be useful for treating short half-life radioisotopes in activation analysis. (author) [French] En vue de l'application a certains problemes de separations chimiques en analyse par activation, on a etudie les possibilites de separation des elements alcalino-terreux Ca-Sr et Ba sur resine organique et sur echangeurs mineraux par la methode des indicateurs radioactifs. Les coefficients de partage des cations Ca{sup +2}, Sr{sup +2} et Ba{sup +2} sur resine Dowex 50 W (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) x 8 en milieux complexants EDTA - NTA - EGTA et DCTA et sur phosphate, tungstate et molybdate de zirconium en milieu HCl et NH{sub 4}Cl ont ete mesures. Des

  12. Kinetics of ion exchange in the chelating resin Dowex A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of ion exchanges of Ag + , Zn 2+ and Cr 3+ at extremely low concentrations on the chelating resin Dowex A-1 has been studied by means of finite volume method. The rate of exchanges for both Ag + and Zn 2+ is dependent on the ionic strength, particle size of the resin and reaction temperature. At higher ionic strength (0.1 - 0.05) the kinetics is controlled by particle diffusion, whereas at lower ionic one (0.01 - 0.001) film diffusion is predominant. The apparent activation energy obtained is 3.84 kcal/mol for Ag + and 3.91 kcal/mol for Zn 2+ . The exchange rate of Cr 3+ obeys a first-order rate equation independent of the ionic strength and particle size of the resin. The apparent activation energy is 15.5 kcal/mol. These results support the view that the rate-determining step of this reaction is chelate formation reaction. (auth.)

  13. Comparative study of the ionic exchange of Ca++, Sr++, and Ba++ cations on resins and inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Batanero, P.

    1969-03-01

    With a view to applying the results to certain problems related to chemical separations in activation analysis, a study has been made, of the possibilities of separating the alkaline-earth elements Ca, Sr and Ba on organic resins and inorganic exchangers using the radioactive indicator method. The partition coefficients of the cations Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ have been measured on Dowex 50 W (NH 4 + ) x 8 resin in the presence of EDTA - NTA - EGTA and DCTA as complexing agents, and on zirconium phosphate, tungstate and molybdate in the presence of HCl and NH 4 Cl. Methods have been developed for separating mixtures of alkaline-earth elements using DCTA-NH 4 + followed by elution on Dowex 50 W (NH 4 + ) x 8 resin columns and on zirconium phosphate. Amongst the complexing agents used on the ion-exchange resins the most promising appears to be DCTA which leads to partition coefficients Ca, Sr and Ba which are very different. The results of measurements of partition coefficients on zirconium phosphate (NH 4 + form) using DCTA-NH 4 + show the interesting possibilities of separations on columns. The separation of the alkaline-earth elements on zirconium phosphate seems to be less quantitative than on Dowex 50 resin; it is however much faster in the former case and this can be useful for treating short half-life radioisotopes in activation analysis. (author) [fr

  14. Basic Retention Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of multiple cation competition on the adsorption of Sr onto two synthetic ion-exchange resins, i. e. DOWEX 50W and DOWEX CCR-2, as well as onto the clay mineral, kaolinite has been studied. The results for DOWEX 50W, and under certain experimental conditions also for DOWEX CCR-2 were...

  15. Esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oils (WCO): Role of ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalan Ozbay; Nuray Oktar; N. Alper Tapan [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Although WCO plays a crucial role for the economical production of biodiesel, free fatty acid (FFA) level in the nature of WCO cause saponification problems during transesterification. Acidic ion-exchange resins can be used to decrease WCO free fatty acid level. In this study, activities of resins (Amberlyst-15 (A-15), Amberlyst-35 (A-35), Amberlyst-16 (A-16) and Dowex HCR-W2) in direct FFA esterification were examined in the temperature range of 50-60{sup o}C and the effect of catalyst amount (1-2 wt%) on FFA conversion was also analyzed. FFA conversion increased with increasing reaction temperature and catalyst amount. Order of catalytic activities was found as A-15 > A-35 > A-16 > Dowex HCR-W2. This was related to the size of average pore diameters and magnitude of BET surface area. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Dissolution of ion exchange resin by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    The resin dissolution process was conducted successfully in full-scale equipment at the SRL Semiworks. A solution containing 0.001M Fe 2+ , or Fe 3+ , and 3 vol % H 2 O 2 in 0.1M HNO 3 is sufficient to dissolve up to 40 vol % resin slurry (Dowex 50W-X8). Foaming and pressurization can be eliminated by maintaining the dissolution temperature below 99 0 C. The recommended dissolution temperature range is 85 to 90 0 C. Premixing hydrogen peroxide with all reactants will not create a safety hazard, but operating with a continual feed of hydrogen peroxide is recommended to control the dissolution rate. An air sparging rate of 1.0 to 1.5 scfm will provide sufficient mixing. Spent resin from chemical separation contains DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) residue, and the resin must be washed with 0.1M NH 4 OH to remove excess DTPA before dissolution. Gamma irradiation of resin up to 4 kW-hr/L did not change the dissolution rate significantly

  17. A comparison study on the use of Dowex 1 and TEVA-resin in determination of 99Tc in environmental and nuclear coolant samples in a SIA system with ICP-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołacińska, Kamila; Samczyński, Zbigniew; Dudek, Jakub; Bojanowska-Czajka, Anna; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2018-07-01

    This work refers to a comparative study of sorbents widely used in determinations of 99 Tc such as TEVA resin and Dowex 1. Despite having a similar functional group of quaternary amines, both materials represent different chromatographic methods-extraction (TEVA resin) and anion exchange (Dowex 1)-which provides a diverse range of their properties significant in determination of 99 Tc in flow conditions. The comparative tests, carried out in a SIA-LOV (Sequential Injection Analysis-Lab-on-Valve) system combined with mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection, considered several factors that are crucial from the standpoint of resin´s utility such as sorption capacity, durability, or selectivity, critical in 99 Tc separation from interferences. The developed and optimized analytical procedure based on the application of the TEVA resin provided determinations of 99 Tc at minimum detectable limit (MDL) 6.00 mBq L -1 in 50 min and has been successfully employed in analyses of samples from nuclear industrial and research units (reactor coolant and sewage) as well as from the river surrounding the nuclear reactor. The method proved to be sufficient for routine analysis of water samples in accordance with EPA standards. The reliability of the method was confirmed in the analysis of the BH standard provided by the NPL for inter-laboratory proficiency tests. The 99 Tc recovery for all real samples was evaluated as 80-100%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molybdenum adsorption by alumina and Dowex 1x8 resin for the separation and purification process of fission 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, M.; Damasceno, M.O.; Freitas, A.A.; Camilo, R.L.; Araujo, I.C.; Forbicini, C.A.L.G. de O.

    2011-01-01

    Molybdenum-99 is the most widely employed radioisotope in nuclear medicine, due to its decay product, Technetium-99m, a radioisotope used in over 80% of diagnostic tests. Since 2009, the production of generators 99 Mo/ 99m Tc suffers a crisis of global supply. The raw material, the 99 Mo, is produced mainly by fission of 235 U in the reactor in uranium targets. Brazilian government invests in building of a research reactor suitable for the domestic production of 99 Mo from LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) targets and the IPEN/CNEN develops the production technology. This work is part of the research for the development of production technology of 99 Mo at the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The study has evaluated the adsorption behaviour of molybdenum from the alkaline dissolution of aluminum plates by the alumina and by the anionic resin Dowex 1x8 aiming at their use in the process of separation and purification in chromatography columns. Influences of pH and of aluminum concentration in the retention of molybdenum were investigated. Results showed high performance in the wide pH range. However in strongly acid solutions containing aluminum, alumina showed higher adsorption percentage than that achieved by the resin Dowex 1x8. (author)

  19. Molybdenum adsorption by alumina and Dowex 1x8 resin for the separation and purification process of fission {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, M.; Damasceno, M.O.; Freitas, A.A.; Camilo, R.L.; Araujo, I.C.; Forbicini, C.A.L.G. de O., E-mail: myamaura@ipen.b, E-mail: molidam@ipen.b, E-mail: afreitas@ipen.b, E-mail: rcamilo@ipen.b, E-mail: cruz.araujo@uol.com.b, E-mail: cforbici@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Molybdenum-99 is the most widely employed radioisotope in nuclear medicine, due to its decay product, Technetium-99m, a radioisotope used in over 80% of diagnostic tests. Since 2009, the production of generators {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc suffers a crisis of global supply. The raw material, the {sup 99}Mo, is produced mainly by fission of {sup 235}U in the reactor in uranium targets. Brazilian government invests in building of a research reactor suitable for the domestic production of {sup 99}Mo from LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) targets and the IPEN/CNEN develops the production technology. This work is part of the research for the development of production technology of {sup 99}Mo at the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The study has evaluated the adsorption behaviour of molybdenum from the alkaline dissolution of aluminum plates by the alumina and by the anionic resin Dowex 1x8 aiming at their use in the process of separation and purification in chromatography columns. Influences of pH and of aluminum concentration in the retention of molybdenum were investigated. Results showed high performance in the wide pH range. However in strongly acid solutions containing aluminum, alumina showed higher adsorption percentage than that achieved by the resin Dowex 1x8. (author)

  20. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fouling is a challenging process for the ultrafiltration membrane during wastewater treatment. This research paper determines the organic character of foulants of different kinds of wastewater before and after adding some ion exchange resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary wastewater effluents were treated using ultrafiltration membrane. To reduce fouling, pretreatment using some adsorbents were used in the study. Six ion exchange resins out of twenty were chosen to compare the effect of adsorbents on fouling membrane. Based on the percent of dissolved organic carbon’s removal, three adsorbents were determined to be the most efficient (DOWEX Marathon 11 anion exchange resin, DOWEX Optipore SD2 polymeric adsorbent, and DOWEX PSR2 anion exchange), and three other ones were determined to the least efficient (DOWEX Marathon A2 anion exchange resin, DOWEX SAR anion exchange resin, and DOWEX Optipore L493 polymeric adsorbent). Organic characterization for feed, permeate, and backwash samples were tested using LC-OCD and TOC to better understand the characteristics of foulants to prevent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. The results suggested that the polymeric ion exchange resin, DOWEX SD2, reduced fouling potential for both treated wastewaters. All the six ion exchange resins removed more humic fraction than other organic fractions in different percent, so this fraction is not the main for cause for UF membrane fouling. The fouling of colloids was tested before and after adding calcium. There is a severe fouling after adding Ca2+ to effluent colloids.

  1. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  2. Raman spectroscopic study of the aging and nitration of actinide processing anion-exchange resins in concentrated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscher, C. T.; Donohoe, R. J.; Mecklenburg, S. L.; Berg, J. M.; Tait, C. D.; Huchton, K. M.; Morris, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of two types of anion exchange resins, Dowex 11 and Reillex HPQ, from the action of concentrated nitric acid (4 to 12 M) and radiolysis [from depleted uranium as UO 2 2+ nitrate species and 239 Pu as Pu(IV) nitrate species] was followed as a function of time with Raman vibrational spectroscopy. Elevated temperatures (∼50 degree sign C) were used in the absence of actinide metal loading to simulate longer exposures of the resin to a HNO 3 process stream and waste storage conditions. In the absence of actinide loading, only minor changes in the Dowex resin at acid concentrations ≤10 M were observed, while at 12 M acid concentration, the emergence of a Raman peak at 1345 cm-1 indicates the addition of nitro functional groups to the resin. Similar studies with the Reillex resin show it to be more resistant to nitric acid attack at all acid concentrations. Incorporation of weakly radioactive depleted uranium as the UO 2 2+ nitrate species to the ion-exchange sites of Dowex 11 under differing nitric acid concentrations (6 to 12 M) at room temperature showed no Raman evidence of resin degradation or nitration, even after several hundred days of contact. In contrast, Raman spectra for Dowex 11 in the presence of 239 Pu as Pu(IV) nitrate species reveal numerous changes indicating resin alterations, including a new mode at 1345 cm-1 consistent with a Pu(IV)-nitrate catalyzed addition of nitro groups to the resin backbone. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  3. Studies on molybdenum elution study in dowex 1x8 resin applied on purification process of fission 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damasceno, M.O.; Yamaura, M.; Santos, J.L. dos; Forbicini, C.A.L.G. de O.

    2013-01-01

    Molybdenum-99 is the most widely employed radioisotope in nuclear medicine, due to its decay product, Technetium-99, which is used in radio-pharmaceutical marking molecules for diagnostic examinations tumor dis-eases. Today Brazil imports 99 Mo from some countries, so the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is implementing a new research reactor RMB, currently in the conceptual design phase. The process of separation of fission 99 Mo begins with the dissolution of uranium targets after irradiation in reactor; the resulting solution goes through a series of chromatographic columns that allows a gradual decontamination of other components, yielding the 99 Mo with high radio-chemical and chemical purity for use in nuclear medicine as a generator of 99 mTc. This work is part of the RMB research project to separate and purify the fission 99 Mo by chromatographic columns from alkaline dissolution of LEU UAl x -Al targets. In the present study Mo removal by batch assays and glass column was investigated using anionic exchanger Dowex 1x8. Different salts and its concentration, cations and temperature were evaluated on elution of molybdenum and iodine (contaminant) retained on resin Dowex 1x8, aiming at their use in the process of separation and purification in chromatography columns on Brazilian project. Results showed high recovery of Mo and low-level contamination by iodine using NaHCO 3 hot solution. (author)

  4. Preferential solvation of single ions in mixed solvents: Part 1. New experimental approach and solvation of monovalent ions in methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixture. Part 2. Theoretical computation and comparison with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rege, Aarti C.; Venkataramani, B.; Gupta, A.R.

    1999-06-01

    Preferential solvation of single ion solutions has been studied with Li + , Na + , K + and Ag +- forms of Dowex 50W resins of different cross-linkings in methanol-water and acetonitrile (AN)- water mixtures. The solvent uptake by this alkali metal ionic forms of Dowex 50W resins was studied in an isopiestic set-up using 2,4,6 and 8 m LiCl solutions in 11.0, 20.8, 44.3 and 70.2 % (w/w) methanol-water mixtures and that of Na +- and Ag +- forms using 14.6 to 94.3 % (w/w) AN - water mixtures. The solvent sorbed in the resin phase was extracted by Rayleigh-type distillation and analysed gas chromatographically. The data were analysed by the N s (mole fraction of the organic solvent in the resin phase) vs n t au (total solvent content in the resin phase) plots and separation factor, alpha(ratio of mole fraction of the solvents in the resin and solution phases) or N s vs m (molality in the resin phase) plots. The limiting values of these plots gave the composition of the solvent in the primary solvation shell around the single ion. The compositions of the primary solvation shell around Li + , Na + , and K + in methanol-water mixtures and Na + and Ag + in acetonitrile (AN) - water mixtures have been computed using Franks equation and the approach of Marcus and compared with the experimental results obtained with the above mentioned ionic forms of Dowex 50W resins in different mixed solvents. The experimental results for Li + showed good agreement with the values computed using Franks equation for all methanol-water composition. However, in the case of Na + and K + in methanol-water mixtures and Na + in AN-water mixtures, there was agreement only at lower organic solvent content and the Franks equation predicted higher values for the organic solvent in the primary solvation shell around the cation at higher organic solvent content as compared to experimental results

  5. Complex ion kinetics. Reaction rates on ion-exchange resins compared to those in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, I.B.; Murmann, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the rates in water and on an ion-exchange resin for the aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ and for the 18 O isotopic exchange of water with [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ and ReO 4 - . The rate of water exchange on [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ was not changed by association with Dowex 50W resins. Aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and water exchange on ReO 4 - had modified pH dependencies when associated with a resin. With the cobalt complex the rates were faster on the resin in the acidic region and slower on the resin in the basic region. A new term in the rate equation was observed when ReO 4 - was on the resin, first order in H + , while the other terms appear to be unchanged. Aquation of [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ was much slower when it was absorbed on the resin. This was related to the known ionic strength effect of the reaction. (auth)

  6. Behaviour of Pu-IV with various ion exchangers in solutions containing nitric acid and oxalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.; Ali, S.A.

    1982-02-01

    The distribution of Pu-IV on the ion exchangers Dowex 50W-X8, Dowex 1-X8 und Dowex Chelating Resin Al-X8 in the presence of various concentrations of nitric acid and oxalate were investigated. The results indicate that nitric acid and oxalic acid influence each other during complexation of Pu-IV with oxalate ions solutions containing nitric acid it is not possible to neglect the formation of Pu-IV nitrate complexes. The complex Pu(IV) (C 2 O 4 ) 3 2 - only is formed in solutions containing low nitric acid and high oxalic acid concentrations. The separation of Pu-IV in Dowex Chelating Resin from nitric acid solution in the presence of higher oxalate concentrations is possible, provided that the nitric acid concentration is lower than 0.25 molar [fr

  7. An efficient ultrasound assisted approach for the impregnation of room temperature ionic liquid onto Dowex 1 × 8 resin matrix and its application toward the enhanced adsorption of chromium (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalidhasan, S.; Santhana Krishna Kumar, A.; Vidya Rajesh; Rajesh, N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultrasound assisted impregnation of an ionic liquid in a Dowex resin matrix is studied through various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. ► Chromium is adsorbed with a high adsorption capacity of 230.9 mg g −1 . ► The adsorbent is regenerated using HCl–ascorbic acid mixture. ► Chromium could be effectively detoxified from an industrial effluent and the developed method was validated with the analysis of a certified reference material. - Abstract: The work discussed in this paper is based on the utilization of ultrasound in conjunction with an ionic liquid (Aliquat 336) impregnated Dowex 1 × 8 resin for the effective adsorption of chromium. Ionic liquids are known for their selectivity toward metal extraction and ultrasonic medium offers efficient energy transfer for impregnating the ionic liquid in the resin matrix. The molecular interaction between the ionic liquid impregnated resin and chromium was studied through various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The influence of various analytical parameters on the adsorption of Cr(VI) such as pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and interference of foreign ions was studied in detail. Chromium (VI) was quantitatively adsorbed in the pH range of 3.5–4, with a high adsorption capacity of 230.9 mg g −1 in conformity with the Langmuir isotherm model. The study of thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The adsorbent could be regenerated using 1 mol L −1 HCl–0.28 mol L −1 ascorbic acid mixture. Chromium could be effectively detoxified from an industrial effluent and finally the developed method was validated with the analysis of a certified reference material (BCR-715). The obtained results indicated that the ultrasonic assisted impregnation of the room temperature ionic liquid significantly enhances and improves the removal efficiency of Cr(VI).

  8. Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Rambutan Fruit cv. Rongrian by HPLC-ELSD and Separation of GABA from Rambutan Fruit Using Dowex 50W-X8 Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeploy, Maneerat; Deewatthanawong, Rujira

    2016-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was validated for the determination of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rambutan fruit without any sample pretreatment or derivatization. In the concentration range of 0.05-1.0 mg/mL GABA, the ELSD response was linear with a correlation coefficient (r) >0.999. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.7 and 2.0 µg/mL, respectively. The method enabled the complete separation of GABA in the aqueous extract of rambutan flesh from the impurity peaks at 45.7 min. The recoveries of sample added GABA were obtained in the range of 92.0-99.3%. Intraday and interday relative standard deviations were rambutan flesh, 0.71 ± 0.23 mg of GABA was found in 1 g fresh weight. The recovery of GABA after passing through the Dowex 50W-X8 column was 96.65%. The analytical methodology could be potentially applied to the detection and quantification of GABA in other fruits and complex matrices when a sufficient quantity is available. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Preparation of curium-americium oxide microspheres by resin-bead loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattin, F.R.; Benker, D.E.; Lloyd, M.H.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Resin-bead loading and calcination techniques have been used to produce all curium and americium oxide feed material (about 2.2 kg) for HFIR targets since 1971. The process based on Dowex 50W resin has progressed from a series of test runs, through special production runs, into routine production in permanent equipment beginning in 1975. Key attributes of this process are its reliability, high yields, and ease of operation. The process is suited for remote operation in hot cells. Yields approaching 95% are routinely obtained and only one unacceptable product has been generated during routine production operations. There have been no problems in fabricating targets from this oxide or in the subsequent irradiation of these targets. The present scale of production of 150 to 250 g/y supplies the present need and is comparable with the level of other chemical process operations at TRU. Since the annual production is accomplished in two 8 to 12 day periods, there has been no reason to consider further scale-up. However, the rate of production could easily be doubled by simply adding a second set of calcination equipment

  10. Study of plutonium IV elution from macromolecular anion exchange resin by 0.5 M nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, M.N.; Mayankutty, P.C.; Pillai, N.S.; Shinde, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary studies indicated that macroreticular resins possess more or less the same capacities and absorption characteristics for thorium, uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solutions as the conventional resins. Detailed studies were, then, conducted. It was found that Pu(IV) can be loaded on the macroreticular anion exchange resin, Amberlyst A-26 from 7.2 M nitric acid in much the same way as Dowex 1x4. It was also observed that the elution of Pu(IV) from Amberlyst A-26 by 0.5 M nitric acid is much more rapid and quantitative than from Dowex 1x4. (author)

  11. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensitive method for the assay of guanylate cyclase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczewski, P; Krause, E G [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Herz- und Kreislauf-Regulationsforschung

    1978-07-01

    A method for the assay of guanylate cyclase is described utilizing ..cap alpha..-(/sup 32/P)-GTP as substrate for the enzyme reaction. 100-150 ..mu..g of enzyme protein is incubated in a 15.6 mM Tris-HCl buffer incubation mixture, pH 7.6. The reaction is stopped by the addition of EDTA. The (/sup 32/P)-cyclic GMP formed is separated by a two-step column chromatography on Dowex 50W-X4 ion-exchange resin and neutral alumina. The recovery for cyclic GMP was about 70%. The blank values ranged from 0.001-0.003 % of the added ..cap alpha..-(/sup 32/P)-GTP which had been purified by Dowex 50W-X4 column chromatography. This method was employed for the assay of guanylate cyclase activities in different tissues.

  13. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50 Section 414.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The provisions... the products classified under SIC 28214 thermosetting resins including those resins and resin groups...

  14. Flow-injection determination of thorium and uranium after on-line ion-exchange preconcentration in Dowex 50-X8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Pavon, J.L.; Garcia Pinto, C.G.; Rodriguez Garcia, Estrella; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    1992-01-01

    The preconcentration of thorium and uranium on Dowex 50-X8 was studied as a method for the preconcentration of these cations prior to their determination by flow injection with spectrophotometric detection using Arsenazo III in 3.6 M HCl stabilized with Triton X-100 as chromogenic reagent. The preconcentration device is a minicolumn included in the sample loop of the injection valve. A second valve contains a reducing minicolumn filled with lead powder to reduce U(VI) to U(IV) before the confluence of the sample with the reagent stream. The method can be applied to samples containing 0.5-100 μg l -1 and was tested with different spiked water samples. (author). 15 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. The determination of iodine in cheese by neutron activation combined with separation of iodine by selective retention on Dowex 2-X8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbye, P.I.; Augustson, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    Iodine has been determined in Norwegian cheese by combination of neutron activation and subsequent separation of radioiodine ( 128 I) by selective retention on Dowex 2-X8 anion exchange resin. Iodine may be detected down to 5ng in terms of absolute amounts. In terms of concentration the detection limit was 10ppb. Results showed a precision of 5 percent at a concentration level of 1ppm. (Auth.)

  16. Sorption of plutonium and curium on ion exchange resins in mixed aqueous organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidvogel, N.; Reitsamer, G.; Grass, F.

    1974-12-01

    The sorption of the sulfate and nitrate-complexes of the actinides Pu(III), Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Am(III) and Om(III) on the ion-exchange-resins Dowex 1X8 and Dowex 50 WX8 is investigated. The strong sorbability of these actinide ions in solvents with high content of alcohol is explained by the existence of anionic complexes like Pu(III) (SO 4 ) 2 - , Pu(IV) (SO 4 ) 3 2 - , Pu(VI)O 2 (SO 4 ) 2 2 - , Am(SO 4 ) 2 - respectively Am(NO 3 ) 4 - and Om(NO 3 ) 4 - . The taking of autoradiographs from the thin-layer chromatograms by the aid of a special device and the evaluation of the autoradiographs by a particular photodensitometer are described. The measurement of the radioactivity of the α-emitting nuclides Pu 239, Am 241 and Om 242 are done by liquid-scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  17. Evaluation of {sup 131}I retention in several adsorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanoso, Marcela F.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: marcela.forli@gmail.co, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia

    2011-07-01

    Several iodine radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for treatment and diagnostic purposes. The radioisotope {sup 131}I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by {beta}{sup -} and its {gamma}-ray emissions suitable for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN through the irradiation of TeO{sub 2} targets in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. After the irradiation, the {sup 131}I is separated by dry distillation, where the targets are put in an oven, heated at 760 deg C for 2 hours and the {sup 131}I, volatile, is carried by an O{sub 2} gas stream. The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention and elution of {sup 131}I samples produced at IPEN in several adsorbers as part of a project aiming the purification of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules. Samples of {sup 131}I were used for retention and elution studies with the following adsorbers: commercial cartridges, anionic resin columns and cationic resin column. The results showed that Ag cartridges and anionic resins Dowex 1X8, Dowex 3 and IRA 400 had a great iodine retention but no elution after using specific eluents. The QMA light, acid alumina, neutral alumina and cationic resin Dowex 50WX4 showed high retention and elution and QMA plus and cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Dowex 50WX12 had a good retention but lower elution. Regarding to the better retention and elution, Ag cartridges and resins showed a higher percentage of iodine retention but lower elution yield and QMA light, acid and neutral alumina cartridges showed better results. (author)

  18. Evaluation of 131I retention in several adsorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catanoso, Marcela F.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Several iodine radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for treatment and diagnostic purposes. The radioisotope 131 I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by β - and its γ-ray emissions suitable for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN through the irradiation of TeO 2 targets in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. After the irradiation, the 131 I is separated by dry distillation, where the targets are put in an oven, heated at 760 deg C for 2 hours and the 131 I, volatile, is carried by an O 2 gas stream. The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention and elution of 131 I samples produced at IPEN in several adsorbers as part of a project aiming the purification of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules. Samples of 131 I were used for retention and elution studies with the following adsorbers: commercial cartridges, anionic resin columns and cationic resin column. The results showed that Ag cartridges and anionic resins Dowex 1X8, Dowex 3 and IRA 400 had a great iodine retention but no elution after using specific eluents. The QMA light, acid alumina, neutral alumina and cationic resin Dowex 50WX4 showed high retention and elution and QMA plus and cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Dowex 50WX12 had a good retention but lower elution. Regarding to the better retention and elution, Ag cartridges and resins showed a higher percentage of iodine retention but lower elution yield and QMA light, acid and neutral alumina cartridges showed better results. (author)

  19. Separation of zirconium from hafnium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, Elaine C.B.; Palhares, Hugo G.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q., E-mail: elainecfelipe@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: hugopalhares@gmail.com, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are two of the most important metals for the nuclear industry. Hafnium occurs in all zirconium ores usually in the range 2 - 3%. However, for the most nuclear industry applications, it is necessary to use a zirconium of extremely pure level. The current work consists in the separation of zirconium and hafnium by the ion exchange method in order to obtain a zirconium concentrate of high purity. The zirconium and hafnium liquors were produced from the leaching of the Zr(OH){sub 4} and Hf(OH){sub 4} with nitric acid for 24 hours. From these two liquors it was prepared one solution containing 7.5 x 10{sup -2} mol L{sup -1} of Zr and 5.8 x 10{sup -3} mol L{sup -1} of Hf with acidity of 1 M. Ion exchange experiments were carried out in batch with the resins Dowex 50WX4, Dowex 50WX8 100, Dowex 50WX8 50, Amberlite IR-120 and Marathon C at constant temperature 28 deg C. Other variables such as, acidity and agitation were kept constant. The data were adjusted to Langmuir equation in order to calculate the maximum loading capacity (q{sub max}) of the resins, the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) for Zr and Hf and the separation factor (α{sub Hf}{sup Zr} ). The results of maximum loading capacity (q{sub max}) for Zr and Hf, in mmol g{sup -}1, showed that the most suitable resins for columns experiments are: Dowex 50WX4 50 (q{sub max} Z{sub r} = 2.21, Hf = 0.18), Dowex 50WX8 50 (q{sub max} Zr = 1.89, Hf = 0.13) and Amberlite (q{sub max} Zr = 1.64, Hf = 0.12). However, separations factors, α{sub Hf}{sup Zr}, showed that the resins are not selective. (author)

  20. Separation process of 99Mo from 132Te using thiourea as a complex agent. Application to the separation of 99Mo from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik, S.A.C.; Silva, C.P.G. da

    1986-01-01

    A radiochemical method has been developed to separate 99 Mo from 13 2Te both produced in the fission of 235 U. The method is based on the formation of a cationic complex of tellurium with thiourea in acid medium which is retained on the cationic exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X8, 100-200 mesh) while the molyhdenum does not form such complex and passes through. The experimental results show that the retention of Te-thiourea complex on the resin is (98,3 +- 1,1) %. (Author) [pt

  1. Novel solid phase extraction procedure for gold(III) on Dowex M 4195 prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)], E-mail: mtuzen@gop.edu.tr; Saygi, Kadriye O. [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    A method for solid phase extraction (SPE) of gold(III) using Dowex M 4195 chelating resin has been developed. The optimum experimental conditions for the quantitative sorption of gold(III), pH, effect of flow rates, eluent types, sorption capacity and the effect of diverse ions on the sorption of gold(III) have been investigated. The chelating resin can be reused for more than 100 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption of gold(III) ions. The recovery values for gold(III) and detection limit (LOD) of gold were greater than 95% and 1.61 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 31. The relative standard deviation of the method was <5%. The adsorption capacity of the resin was 8.1 mg g{sup -1}. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of gold(III) in some real samples including water, soil and sediment samples.

  2. Possibilities of chemical isolation of element 106 from aqueous solutions according to the model experiments with short lived tungsten isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglowski, Z.; Bruchertseifer, H.; Brudanin, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    A rapid method for continuous separation of short-lived tungsten isotopes from the lanthanides has been developed. It consists in transforming nuclear reaction products from the target by an aerosol jet to an absorber where the KCl particulates are dissolved in 0.2 M HF and percolating the product solution through three successively linked columns filled with ion exchange resins Dowex 50X8 (cationite), Dowex 1X8 (anionite) and again Dowex 50X8. 3 refs

  3. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings

  4. Novel solid phase extraction procedure for gold(III) on Dowex M 4195 prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Saygi, Kadriye O.; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    A method for solid phase extraction (SPE) of gold(III) using Dowex M 4195 chelating resin has been developed. The optimum experimental conditions for the quantitative sorption of gold(III), pH, effect of flow rates, eluent types, sorption capacity and the effect of diverse ions on the sorption of gold(III) have been investigated. The chelating resin can be reused for more than 100 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption of gold(III) ions. The recovery values for gold(III) and detection limit (LOD) of gold were greater than 95% and 1.61 μg L -1 , respectively. The preconcentration factor was 31. The relative standard deviation of the method was -1 . The proposed method has been applied for the determination of gold(III) in some real samples including water, soil and sediment samples

  5. Tests on the measurement of iodine-131 in milk using anionic ion-exchangers; Essais relatifs au dosage de l'iode 131 dans le lait au moyen d'echangeur d'ion anionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Patti, F; Daburon, M L; Gros, R; Bertrand, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The milk produced by a cow contaminated by a single ingestion has been passed over a Dowex 1 resin to fix the iodine it contained, The percentage amount fixed, originally around 100 per cent, falls to 50 per cent after 15 days. (authors) [French] Le lait d'une vache contaminee par ingestion unique a ete passe sur resine Dowex 1 pour fixer l'iode qu'il contenait. Le pourcentage de fixation, qui a l'origine est voisin de 100 pour cent, tombe a 50 pour cent au bout de 15 jours. (auteurs)

  6. Isotopic enrichment of 15N by ionic exchange cromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Matsui, E.; Salati, E.

    1979-01-01

    The ionic exchange chromatographic method in columns of resin which is employed in the study of isotopic enrichment of 15 N is presented. Determinations are made of the isotopic separation constant for the exchange of isotopes 15 N and 14 N in the equilibrium involving ammonium hidroxide in the solution phase and ions NH 4 + adsorbed in cationic resins: Dowex 50W-X8 and X12, 100-200 mesh. Experiments are also conducted for determination of height of theoretical plates for situations of equilibrium of the NH 4 + band in two systems of resin's columns aimed at estimating the experimental conditions used. The isotopic analyses of nitrogen are carried out by mass spectrometry [pt

  7. Radiochemical study of Re/W adsorption behavior on a strongly basic anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, Matthew D.; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO; Ballard, Beau D.; Redman, Lindsay N.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium-186g is a radionuclide with a high potential for therapeutic applications. It emits therapeutic β - particles accompanied by low energy γ-rays, which allows for in-vivo tracking of the radiolabeled compound and dosimetry estimates. The current reactor production pathway 185 Re(n,γ) 186g Re produces low specific activity 186g Re, thereby limiting its therapeutic application. Work is underway to develop an accelerator-based, charged particle induced production method for high specific activity 186g Re from targets of enriched 186 W. To optimize the chemical 186g Re recovery method, batch studies have been performed to characterize the adsorption behavior of Re and W on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. An in-depth physicochemical profile was developed for the interaction of Re with resin material, which showed the reaction to be endothermic and spontaneous. Basic (NaOH) and acidic (HNO 3 ) matrices were used to determine the equilibrium distribution coefficients for Re and W. The resin exhibits the best affinity for Re at slightly basic conditions and little affinity above moderately acidic concentrations. Tungsten has low affinity for the resin above moderately basic concentrations. A study was performed to examine the effect of W concentration on Re adsorption, which showed that even a high ionic WO 4 2- strength of up to 1.9 mol kg -1 does not significantly compromise ReO 4 - retention on the resin. (orig.)

  8. Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Chi, K.Y.; Choi, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    For the purpose of determining trace rare earths a spectrofluorimetric method has been studied. Except Ce and Tb, the fluorescence intensities are not enough to allow satisfactory analysis. Complexing agents such as tungstate and hexafluoroacetylacetone should be employed to increase fluorescence intensities. As a preliminary experiment for the separation of individual rare earth element and uranium, the distribution coefficient, % S here, are obtained on the Dowex 50 W against HCl concentration by a batch method. These % S data are utilized to obtain elution curves. The % S data showed a minimum at around 4 M HCl. To understand this previously known phenomenon the adsorption of Cl - on Dowex 50 W is examined as a function of HCl concentration and found to be decreasing while % S of rare earths increasing. It is interpreted that Cl - and rare earth ions are moved into the resin phase separately and that the charge and the charge densities of these ions are responsible for the different % S curves. Dehydration appears to play an important role in the upturn of the % S curves at higher HCl concentrations

  9. Radiochemical study of Re/W adsorption behavior on a strongly basic anion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gott, Matthew D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ballard, Beau D.; Redman, Lindsay N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; and others

    2014-07-01

    Rhenium-186g is a radionuclide with a high potential for therapeutic applications. It emits therapeutic β{sup -} particles accompanied by low energy γ-rays, which allows for in-vivo tracking of the radiolabeled compound and dosimetry estimates. The current reactor production pathway {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186g}Re produces low specific activity {sup 186g}Re, thereby limiting its therapeutic application. Work is underway to develop an accelerator-based, charged particle induced production method for high specific activity {sup 186g}Re from targets of enriched {sup 186}W. To optimize the chemical {sup 186g}Re recovery method, batch studies have been performed to characterize the adsorption behavior of Re and W on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. An in-depth physicochemical profile was developed for the interaction of Re with resin material, which showed the reaction to be endothermic and spontaneous. Basic (NaOH) and acidic (HNO{sub 3}) matrices were used to determine the equilibrium distribution coefficients for Re and W. The resin exhibits the best affinity for Re at slightly basic conditions and little affinity above moderately acidic concentrations. Tungsten has low affinity for the resin above moderately basic concentrations. A study was performed to examine the effect of W concentration on Re adsorption, which showed that even a high ionic WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} strength of up to 1.9 mol kg{sup -1} does not significantly compromise ReO{sub 4}{sup -} retention on the resin. (orig.)

  10. Immobilization of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase onto ion-exchange resin beads and hydrolysis of natural starch at high concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kapish; Jana, Asim Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Maiti, Mithu

    2013-11-01

    α-Amylase was immobilized on Dowex MAC-3 with 88 % yield and amyloglucosidase on Amberlite IRA-400 ion-exchange resin beads with 54 % yield by adsorption process. Immobilized enzymes were characterized to measure the kinetic parameters and optimal operational parameters. Optimum substrate concentration and temperature were higher for immobilized enzymes. The thermal stability of the enzymes enhanced after the immobilization. Immobilized enzymes were used in the hydrolysis of the natural starch at high concentration (35 % w/v). The time required for liquefaction of starch to 10 dextrose equivalent (DE) and saccharification of liquefied starch to 96 DE increased. Immobilized enzymes showed the potential for use in starch hydrolysis as done in industry.

  11. Evaluation of new macroporous resins for the removal of uranium and plutonium from waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W.; Herald, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Organic ion exchange resins were evaluated for 238 Pu(IV), 238 Pu(VI), and 233 U(VI) removal from water. The capacity of the resins and equilibrium coefficients (Kd) were compared with each other and to bone char--an inorganic adsorbent consisting of hydroxyapatite (HAP) for which data is available. Bone char gave the best results for the removal of 238 Pu(IV), Amberlite XE279 (one of the new macroporous resins) gave the best results for 238 Pu(VI), and another macroporous resin, Dowex-MSA-1, gave good results for 233 U(VI). Kd values were shown to be a function of pH

  12. Removal of aluminum(III)-based turbidity in water using hydrous titanium oxide dispersed in ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.; Karweer, S.B.; Iyer, R.K.; Phatak, G.M.; Iyer, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    An adsorber consisting of hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO) dispersed in a Dowex-type ion-exchange resin matrix (designated RT resins) has been developed which is capable of removing Al(III)-based colloidal dispersions in the neutral pH condition. The effect of resin crosslinking, particle size, HTiO loading, turbidity level, and flow rate on the turbidity removal efficiency of RT resins has been studied. It is demonstrated that a train of columns comprising RT resin, H + , and OH - form of resins could be used for large-scale purification operations at high flow rates. These columns, apart from removing turbidity and associated radioactivity, can effectively remove dissolved uranium present in ppb levels when used for water purification in nuclear reactors

  13. Geochemistry of ferromanganese nodule-sediment pairs from central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    analyses and remaining part of the solution was used for rare earth element separation using Dowex AG 50W-X8 (200-400 mesh) ion exchange resin following the procedure of Jarvis and Jarvis (1985). Major, few trace and rare earth elements were analysed... and precision based on duplicate sample analysis were ± 4 %. For total silica measurements, both nodules and sediments were fused with lithium metaborate in a furnace and clear solutions obtained were analysed with ICP-AES. Accuracy was better than ± 4...

  14. studies on the use of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for separation of indium(III) from cadmium(II) using analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organic and inorganic ion exchangers have many applications not only in the industrial, environmental and the nuclear fields but also in the separation of metal ions. This may be returned to its high measured capacity, high selectivity for some metal ions, low solubility, high chemical radiation stability and easy to use.Indium and cadmium are produced from cyclotron target where the solvent extraction represents an ordinary method for separation of indium and cadmium from its target. In the present work, More than chromatographic columns were successfully used for the separation and recovery of indium(III) and cadmium(II) ions from di-component system in aqueous solution using organic and inorganic ion exchangers. The work was carried out in three main parts;1- In the first part, the commercial resin (Dowex50w-x8) was used for the separation of indium from cadmium. The effect of pH, the weight of resin, and equilibrium time on the sorption process of both metal ions were determined. It was found that the adsorption percentage was more than 99% at pH 4 (as optimum pH value) using batch experiment. The results show that indium was first extracted while cadmium is slightly extracted at this pH value. The recovery of indium and cadmium is about 98% using hydrochloric acid as best eluent. The ion exchange/complexing properties of Dowex50w-x8 resin containing various substituted groups towards indium and cadmium cations were investigated.2- In the second part, Zn(II)polymethacrylates, and poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid), as synthetic organic ion exchangers were prepared by gamma irradiation polymerization technique of the corresponding monomer at 30 kGy. The obtained organic resins were mixed with indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solutions using batch experiment.

  15. Recover of some rare earth elements from leach liquor of the Saghand uranium ore using combined precipitation and cation exchange methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanchi, A. R.; Rafati, H.; Rezvaniyanzadeh, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this research work, the recovery and separation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III), Dy(III) and Nd(III) from Saghand uranium ore have been studied by precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography methods using Dowex 50 W-X 8 cation exchanger. At first, some preliminary and preconcentration experiments such as comminution, sieve analysis, gravity table and electrostatic in preconcentration of lanthanides were performed. Then, acidic digesting and leaching procedure were used. The results of experiments showed that rare earth elements, along with interfering ions such as Al(III), Fe(III), Mg(II) and Mn(II) present in the leach liquor solution. The investigation of separation process by precipitation method revealed that precipitation and then fast separation using centrifugal technique had the best results in the elimination of interference elements. In order to separate the lanthanides and to obtain their elution curves, the chromatographic column containing Dowex 50 W-X 8 resin was employed. For efficient separation of lanthanides from interference elements the hydrochloric acid with concentration of two and six molar was used respectively. Recovery of lanthanides from the leach liquor solution was achieved more than 85%

  16. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: Column sorption-elution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koese, T. Ennil; Oztuerk, Nese

    2008-01-01

    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5 M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well

  17. Sulfur isotope separation by anion exchange chromatography: 34 S isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar O.; Carneiro Junior, Francisco

    1995-01-01

    The 34 S isotope separation was carried out by isotopic exchange reactions between sulphurous acid in solution and bisulphite anions adsorbed on an ammonium quaternary (Dowex 1 x 8 and Dowex 2 x 8, 100-200 mesh) anion exchange resin packed in columns. Each resin column had 130 cm length and 2.2 cm diameter. The columns were connected in series during displacement of bisulphite bands. For the experiments, a band of bisulphite was fixed to the anion resin, initially in the hydroxyl ion form, and subsequently eluted with 0.2 0.3, 0.4 and 0.6 mol L -1 HCL solution. The hydrochloric acid solution was kept under a nitrogen atmosphere at 245 KPa of pressure, in order to prevent the evolution of gases and also the oxidation of the bisulphite. The experiments showed that the best results were obtained with the elution of bisulphite with 0.2 mol.L -1 HCL, with the Dowex 1 x 8 resin. Enrichments in 34 S of 17.33 atoms% were obtained using Dowex 1 x 8 resin, 0.2 mol.L -1 HCL solution and band displacement of 50 m. Replacing the depleted portion of the band with natural bisulphite, for each 10 m of band displacement, produced 6.79 mmol of sulphurous acid enriched with approximately 17% of 34 S, after 14 m of band dislocation. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Studies on the rates of exchange of Hg(II), Cd(II), La(III) and Ce(III) ions in sodium nitrite-aqueous acetone media using an anion-exchanger Dowex-1x8(NO3-)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, R.P.; Bhardwaj, Archana; Bhardwaj, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Rate of exchange has been studied on Hg(II), Cd(II), La(III) and Ce(III) ions in sodium nitrite-aqueous acetone media using an anion exchanger Dowex-1 x 8(NO 3 - ). Acetone was used to provide solvent media of 10%, 30% and 50% and temperature was used in rate studies, carried out at 30 deg, 40 deg, 50 degC. Always 1 g. of Dowex-1x8 in nitrate form was used for distribution studies to get rate data. After suitable time intervals aliquots (1 ml) were withdrawn and metal ion concentration was found out. (author)

  19. Calcium isotope fractionation in ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.A.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Significant fractionation of the isotopes of calcium has been observed during elution through short ion-exchange columns packed with Dowex 50W-X8 resin. A double isotopic tracer was used to provide correction for instrumental fractionation effects. The absolute 40 Ca/ 44 Ca ratio is determined by this method to 0.05% and provides a measure of the fractionation of all Ca isotopes. It is found that the lighter isotopes are preferentially retained by the resin, with variations in 40 Ca/ 44 Ca between the first and last fractions of up to 1.1%. An estimate of the separation factor between batch solute and resin gives epsilon = 2.1 x 10 -4 . Details of the chemical or physical mechanisms causing isotope fractionation of Li, Na, Ca, and other elements during ion-exchange chromatography are not yet clear

  20. Crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation in mechanically alloyed Fe50W50 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif El-Eskandarany, M.S.; Sumiyama, K.; Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    A mechanical alloying process via a ball milling technique has been applied for preparing amorphous Fe 50 W 50 alloy powders. The results have shown that during the first and second stages of milling (0 to 360 ks) W atoms emigrate to Fe lattices to form nanocrystalline b.c.c. Fe-W solid solution, with a grain size of about 7 nm in diameter. After 720 ks of the milling time, this solid solution was transformed to an amorphous Fe-W alloy coexisting with the residual fraction of the unprocessed W powders. During the last stage of milling (720 to 1,440 ks) all of this residual W powder reacts with the amorphous phase to form a homogeneous Fe 50 W 50 amorphous alloy. The crystallization temperature and the enthalpy change of crystallization of amorphous Fe 50 W 50 powders milled for 1,440 ks were measured to be 860 K and -9kJ/mol, respectively. The amorphous Fe 50 W 50 powder produced is almost paramagnetic at room temperature. The powder comprises homogeneous and smooth spheres with an average size of about 0.5 microm in diameter

  1. Isolation of 14C labelled amino acids by biosynthesis in maize plants (Zea mais L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, N.; Mazon, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A method of obtaining 14 C labelled amino acids by biosynthesis in maize plants which had assimilated 14CO 2 , has been assayed. The plants were labelled for 60 minutes with 14 C O2 produced from Ba 14 C O3 (specific activity of 148 KBq/μmol). An extract of the soluble compounds was obtained with 80% ethanol and the amino acids were separated from the rest of the soluble compounds by ion exchange chromatography on column of Dowex 50-X8 resin. Finally, seventeen amino acids were isolated and identified from the purified extract. The acid amino acids were separated in anionic column (Dowex 1-X8) and the neutral and basic amino acids in cationic column (Dowex 50-X4). (Author) 56 refs

  2. Isolation of carbon 14 labelled amino acids by biosynthesis in maize plants (zea mais L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, N.; Mazon, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A method of obtaining 14 C labelled amino acids by biosynthesis in maize plants which had assimilated 14 CO 2 , has been assayed. The plants were labelled for 60 minutes with 14 CO 2 produced from Ba 14 CO 3 (specific activity of 148 KBq/μmol). An extract of the soluble compounds was obtained with 80% ethanol and the amino acids were separated from the rest of the soluble compounds by ion exchange chromatography on column of Dowex 50-X8 resin. Finally, seventeen amino acids were isolated and identified from the purified extract. The acid amino acids were separated in anionic column (Dowex 1-X8) and the neutral and basic amino acids in cationic columns (Dowex 50-X4). (author)

  3. 1-Butanol absorption in poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) ion exchange resins for catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maciá, M A; Curcó, D; Bringué, R; Iborra, M; Rodríguez-Ropero, F; van der Vegt, N F A; Aleman, Carlos

    2015-12-21

    The swelling behaviour of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene), P(S-DVB), ion exchange resins in 1-butanol (BuOH) has been studied by means of atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD). The topological characteristics reported for the resin in the dry state, which exhibited complex internal loops (macropores), were considered for the starting models used to examine the swelling induced by BuOH contents ranging from 10% to 50% w/w. Experimental measurements using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer indicate that swelling causes a volume variation with respect to the dry resin of 21%. According to MD simulations, such a volume increment corresponds to a BuOH absorption of 31-32% w/w, which is in excellent agreement with the indirect experimental estimation (i.e. 31% w/w). Simulations reveal that, independently of the content of BuOH, the density of the swelled resin is higher than that of the dry resin, evidencing that the alcohol provokes important structural changes in the polymeric matrix. Thus, BuOH molecules cause a collapse of the resin macropores when the content of alcohol is ≤20% w/w. In contrast, when the concentration of BuOH is close to the experimental value (∼30% w/w), P(S-DVB) chains remain separated by pores faciliting the access of the reactants to the reaction centers. On the other hand, evaluation of both bonding and non-bonding interactions indicates that the mixing energy is the most important contribution to the absorption of BuOH into the P(S-DVB) resin. Overall, the results displayed in this work represent a starting point for the theoretical study of the catalytic conversion of BuOH into di-n-butyl ether in P(S-DVB) ion exchange resins using sophisticated electronic methods.

  4. Exchange of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, M.N.; Mayankutty, P.C.; Pillai, N.S.; Shinde, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Absorption of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchangers, Amberlyst 15 (cationic) and Amberlyst A-26 (anionic) were studied in nitric acid solutions and the results were found comparable with those on their microreticular counter parts, Dowex 50x8 and Dowex IX4. With a view to evalute the efficiency of Amberlyst A-26 for the final purification of plutonium from the purex process stream, detailed studies conducted to determine the breakthrough capacity of Pu(IV) from 7.2 M nitric acid, elution by 0.5 M nitric acid and the decontamination factors for uranium and zirconium-95. Because of its faster kinetics, Amberlyst A-26 exhibited a much more efficient elution of Pu(IV) by 0.5 M nitric acid than Dowex IX4. (author)

  5. Comparative study using different resins to determine thorium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: my_linhares@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratório de Pocos de Caldas; Cheberle, Luan T.V., E-mail: luancheberle@gmail.com [Ambientis Radioproteção, Barueri, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive element that is widely distributed in the crust of the Earth. This element is very common in mineral formations in regions with high levels of natural radioactivity, therefore, its determination in environmental samples is important. Thorium isotopes ({sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th) were determined in a reference material, the IAEA Soil 327 sample, to validate the two methods employed using different resins. The initial preparation with acid dissolution is the same to both, in the first is used anion exchange resin (DOWEX 1 x 2) and electrodeposition in silver planchets. And in the second method is used a specific chromatographic resin (TEVA) and cerium fluoride microprecipitation. At the end both analysis are quantified by alpha spectrometry. The two methods the results obtained were satisfactory for the reference material used, with relative error of less than 4% for {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th. The main differences found between them were spectrums resolutions, time and cost of analysis. (author)

  6. Isolation of 14{sub C} labelled amino acids by biosynthesis in maize plants (Zea mais L.); Obtencin de aminoacidos marcados con 14{sub C} por biosintesis en plantulas de maiz (Zea mais L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, N; Mazon, M P

    1983-07-01

    A method of obtaining 14{sub C} labelled amino acids by biosynthesis in maize plants which had assimilated 14CO{sub 2}, has been assayed. The plants were labelled for 60 minutes with 14{sub C}O2 produced from Ba 14{sub C}O3 (specific activity of 148 KBq/{mu}mol). An extract of the soluble compounds was obtained with 80% ethanol and the amino acids were separated from the rest of the soluble compounds by ion exchange chromatography on column of Dowex 50-X8 resin. Finally, seventeen amino acids were isolated and identified from the purified extract. The acid amino acids were separated in anionic column (Dowex 1-X8) and the neutral and basic amino acids in cationic column (Dowex 50-X4). (Author) 56 refs.

  7. Bisulphite complexation in the resin catalysed epimerisation of D-fructose-radiotracer investigations [Paper No. AR-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murlidharan, B.; Mallika, S.; Viswanathan, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tracer methods were used to study the conversion of D-Fructose- 16 C to its aldose epimers. D-Fructose- 14 C sorbed on Dowex-1-X8(OH - form) columns on elution with dilute sulphurous acid (>0.1M) was converted mainly to D-Glucose- 14 C accompanied by excessive degradation. Treatment of D-Fructose- 14 C with Dowex-1-X4 in carbonate and bisulphite forms at 50degC in 50 per cent ethanol gave an epimeric mixture containing more than 25 per cent of D-Mannose- 14 C. (author)

  8. Studies on {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc adsorption and elution behaviors using the inorganic sorbent ceric tungstate and conventional organic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; Fattah, Alaa El-Din A. Abdel; Aly, Shorouk M.; Ghamry, Mohamed A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories Center; El-Sheikh, Ragaa [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

    2017-09-01

    Adsorption behavior of {sup 99}Mo(VI) and {sup 99m}Tc(VII) was studied on ceric tungstate (CeW) and compared with the adsorption on the conventional cation and anion exchangers Dowex-50X8 and AG-2X8, respectively. The studies were carried out under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of contact time and pH on the adsorption was investigated under static conditions. High K{sub d}-values for sorption of {sup 99}Mo(VI) on (CeW) were obtained over the investigated pH range. {sup 99m}Tc was adsorbed with much lower K{sub d}-values. The K{sub d}-values were pH dependent. K{sub d}-values of {sup 99}Mo-adsorption on AG-2X8 were lower than those on (CeW) and vice versa for {sup 99m}Tc. Ionic species of both elements were not adsorbed on Dowex-50X8, indicating the absence of cationic species and the adsorption of both elements on AG-2X8 and (CeW) as anionic species. The loading and elution behaviors of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc on (CeW) were studied using different eluents. {sup 99}Mo remained strongly adsorbed under all conditions whereas {sup 99m}Tc was easily eluted. Adsorption of some fission products, i.e. {sup 95}Zr(IV) and {sup 95}Nb(V), in addition to {sup 123m}Te(IV) and {sup 75}Se(IV), as representatives of their corresponding fission product isotopes, as well as {sup 181}Hf, as probable radioactive contaminant was also studied. Solutions of the ionic species of those metals were loaded in mixtures together with {sup 99}Mo on (CeW) columns. Strong adsorption of those ionic species and {sup 99}Mo on (CeW) was found whereas {sup 99m}Tc was easily eluted. Different eluents were investigated for eluting {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo-adsorbed on (CeW).

  9. Separation of lithium isotopes on ion exchangers; Separation des isotopes du lithium sur echangeurs d'ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menes, F; Saito, E; Roth, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A survey of the literature shows that little information has been published on the separation of lithium isotopes with ion exchange resins. We have undertaken a series of elutions using the ion-exchange resins 'Dowex 50 x 12' and IRC 50, and various eluting solutions. Formulae derived from the treatment of Mayer and Tompkins permit the calculation of the separation factor per theoretical plate. For the solutions tried out in our experiments the separation factors lie in the interval 1.001 to 1.002. These values are quite low in comparison to the factor 1.022 found by Taylor and Urey for ion exchange with zeolites. (author) [French] Nous avons trouve relativement peu de donnees dans la litterature scientifique sur la separation des isotopes de lithium par les resines echangeuses d'ions. Nous avons effectue un certain nombre d'essais sur Dowex 50 X 12 et IRC 50 utilisant divers eluants. Des formules derivees de celles de Mayer et Tompkins permettent le calcul du coefficient de separation par plateau theorique. Pour les eluants etudies, ces facteurs de separation se trouvent entre 1,001 et 1,002. Ces valeurs sont faibles en comparaison du facteur 1,022 trouve par Taylor et Urey pour les zeolithes. (auteur)

  10. Synthesis of DL-adrenaline (methyl C{sup 14}) (1961); Synthese de la DL-adrenaline (methyle {sup 14}C) (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L; Audinot, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The sodium derivative of 5-3-4 dibenzyl oxyphenyl 2-oxazolidinone reacted with methyl iodide {sup 14}C, in stoichiometric quantity, gives rise to the corresponding N-methyl {sup 14}C derivative. The oxazolidinone ring is opened by concentrated hydrochloric acid and the benzyl groups removed by catalytic hydrogenolysis. Adrenaline methyl {sup 14}C is then purified on Dowex 50 X-12 exchange resin. Overall-yield is 45 per cent based upon methyl iodide {sup 14}C. (author) [French] Le derive sode de la (dibenzyloxy-3-4-phenyl)-5 oxazolidinone-2 traite par l'iodure de methyle {sup 14}C, en proportion stoechiometrique, fournit le derive N-methyle {sup 14}C correspondant. Apres ouverture du cycle oxazolidinone par HCL concentre et debenzylation par hydrogenation catalytique, on purifie l'adrenaline (methyle {sup 14}C) par chromatographie sur resine echangeuse Dowex 50 X-12. Le rendement est de 45 pour cent par rapport a l'iodure de methyle {sup 14}C. (auteurs)

  11. Synthesis of DL-adrenaline (methyl C{sup 14}) (1961); Synthese de la DL-adrenaline (methyle {sup 14}C) (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L.; Audinot, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The sodium derivative of 5-3-4 dibenzyl oxyphenyl 2-oxazolidinone reacted with methyl iodide {sup 14}C, in stoichiometric quantity, gives rise to the corresponding N-methyl {sup 14}C derivative. The oxazolidinone ring is opened by concentrated hydrochloric acid and the benzyl groups removed by catalytic hydrogenolysis. Adrenaline methyl {sup 14}C is then purified on Dowex 50 X-12 exchange resin. Overall-yield is 45 per cent based upon methyl iodide {sup 14}C. (author) [French] Le derive sode de la (dibenzyloxy-3-4-phenyl)-5 oxazolidinone-2 traite par l'iodure de methyle {sup 14}C, en proportion stoechiometrique, fournit le derive N-methyle {sup 14}C correspondant. Apres ouverture du cycle oxazolidinone par HCL concentre et debenzylation par hydrogenation catalytique, on purifie l'adrenaline (methyle {sup 14}C) par chromatographie sur resine echangeuse Dowex 50 X-12. Le rendement est de 45 pour cent par rapport a l'iodure de methyle {sup 14}C. (auteurs)

  12. Preparation and characterization of silane-modified SiO2 particles reinforced resin composites with fluorinated acrylate polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Wang, Zengyao; Zhao, Chengji; Bu, Wenhuan; Na, Hui

    2018-04-01

    A series of fluorinated dental resin composites were prepared with two kinds of SiO 2 particles. Bis-GMA (bisphenol A-glycerolate dimethacrylate)/4-TF-PQEA (fluorinated acrylate monomer)/TEGDMA (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (40/30/30, wt/wt/wt) was introduced as resin matrix. SiO 2 nanopartices (30nm) and SiO 2 microparticles (0.3µm) were silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) and used as fillers. After mixing the resin matrix with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% SiO 2 nanopartices and 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% SiO 2 microparticles, respectively, the fluorinated resin composites were obtained. Properties including double bond conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), water sorption (W p ), water solubility (W y ), mechanical properties and cytotoxicity were investigated in comparison with those of neat resin system. The results showed that, filler particles could improve the overall performance of resin composites, particularly in improving mechanical properties and reducing PS of composites along with the addition of filler loading. Compared to resin composites containing SiO 2 microparticles, SiO 2 nanoparticles resin composites had higher DC, higher mechanical properties, lower PS and lower W p under the same filler content. Especially, 50% SiO 2 microparticles reinforced resins exhibited the best flexural strength (104.04 ± 7.40MPa), flexural modulus (5.62 ± 0.16GPa), vickers microhardness (37.34 ± 1.13 HV), compressive strength (301.54 ± 5.66MPa) and the lowest polymerization (3.42 ± 0.22%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of microcuries of 234-thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suner, A.; La Gamma de Batistoni, A.M.; Botbol, J.

    1974-11-01

    A procedure for the preparation of microcuries of 234 Th from hydrochloric acid solutions of uranium (VI) is described. A solution of uranyl chloride in radioactive equilibrium with 234 Th (older than 6 months) and having 232 Th as carrier, is percoled through a Dowex 50 Wx8 (H + ) resin bed, wherein is absorbed 85% of Th and some uranium, which is then desorbed with 10 N HCl. The thorium remains in the column and is extracted later with a 0,025 M SO 4 H 2 plus 1 M SO 4 (NH 4 ) 2 solution. The thorium solution is freed from sulfate by precipitation with ammonia, dissolving the precipitate with 10 N HCl, whose solution is treated with Dowex 2x8 resin. The ion exchanger absorbs the anionic impurities and the thorium obtained is of high chemical and radiochemical purity. (author)

  14. Determination of radionuclide levels in rainwater using ion exchange resin and γ-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungck, Matthias H.A.; Andrey, Jean-Louis; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of radioactivity accidentally released into the atmosphere involves determining the radioactivity levels of rainwater samples. Rainwater scavenges atmospheric airborne radioactivity in such a way that surface contamination can be deduced from rainfall rate and rainwater radioactivity content. For this purpose, rainwater is usually collected in large surface collectors and then measured by γ-spectrometry after such treatments as evaporation or iron hydroxide precipitation. We found that collectors can be adapted to accept large surface (diameter 47 mm) cartridges containing a strongly acidic resin (Dowex AG 88) which is able to quantitatively extract radioactivity from rainwater, even during heavy rainfall. The resin can then be measured by γ-spectrometry. The detection limit is 0.1 Bq per sample of resin (80 g) for 137 Cs. Natural 7 Be and 210 Pb can also be measured and the activity ratio of both radionuclides is comparable with those obtained through iron hydroxide precipitation and air filter measurements. Occasionally 22 Na has also been measured above the detection limit. A comparison between the evaporation method and the resin method demonstrated that 2/3 of 7 Be can be lost during the evaporation process. The resin method is simple and highly efficient at extracting radioactivity. Because of these great advantages, we anticipate it could replace former rainwater determination methods. Moreover, it does not necessitate the transportation of large rainwater volumes to the laboratory

  15. Design, performance, and economics of 50-kW and 500-kW vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienbein, L. A.; Malcolm, D. J.

    1983-11-01

    A review of the development and performance of the DAF Indal 50-kW vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine shows that a high level of technical development and reliability has been achieved. Features of the drive train, braking and control systems are discussed and performance details are presented. Details are also presented of a 500-kW VAWT that is currently in production. A discussion of the economics of both the 50-kW and 500-kW VAWTs is included, showing the effects of charge rate, installed cost, operating cost, performance, and efficiency.

  16. Sorption behaviour of W, Hf, Lu, U, and Th on ion exchangers from HCl/H2O2 solutions. Model experiments for chemical studies of seaborgium (Sg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, D.; Andrassy, M.; Nitsche, H.; Misiak, R.; Schaedel, M.; Bruechle, W.; Schausten, B.; Kratz, J.V.

    1997-08-01

    In model experiments with W, Hf, Th, and U radionuclides, a chemical system was developed for the separation of seaborgium from element 104 and heavy actinides, i.e., cation exchange on DOWEX 50 x 8 from solutions containing 0.1-1.0 M HCl and 0.5-2.0 vol.% H 2 O 2 . The system should be suitable for fast on-line experiments if seaborgium exibits a non-uranium-like behaviour. Adding hydrogen peroxide to mixed HCl/HF solutions suppresses the partial sorption of W and, presumably seaborgium, on the cation exchanger. This way, the elution volume can be minimized. Prospects for anion exchange separations of group 6 from 4 elements are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  17. 50 W Resonant SMPS with coreless transformer for AM radio application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakhost, Pezhman; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Resonant converters are attractive in some applications, because of their soft-switching behaviour. The very low switching losses make them superior compared to traditional hard-switching converters. The present paper considers a 50 W resonant SMPS with coreless transformer for AM radio applicati......Resonant converters are attractive in some applications, because of their soft-switching behaviour. The very low switching losses make them superior compared to traditional hard-switching converters. The present paper considers a 50 W resonant SMPS with coreless transformer for AM radio...... percent deviation. The experimental tests show that the realized converter has a high performance and efficiency up to 87.6%. It is shown that with a DC input voltage range of 276-375 V, the output voltage is 15 V from 10 W to 50 W output power, except in no load. The output voltage ripple is 84 m......Vppand 114 mVppat 15 W and 50 W output power, respectively. In addition, ra switching frequency from 1.9 MHz up to around 4 MHz is possible....

  18. Enhancement of uranium loading on ion exchange resin from carbonate leachate by lowering pH from 8 to 6.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses a laboratory study that shows the saturation ion-exchange loading of uranium from carbonate leachate can be doubled by lowering the pH of the leachate from 8 to 6.5. Small column and batch resin loading tests using Dowex 21K ion-exchange resin are described. The leachate contained 3,300 ppm chloride, 2,400 ppm carbonate, and 220 ppm U 3 O 8 , and had a pH of 8. Even at this rather mild salinity the saturation ion-exchange loading was found to be only about 3 to 4 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (48 to 64 g/dm 3 ) because of competition with the chloride ion for exchange sites on the anionic resin. Lowering the pH of the leachate to 6.5 by CO 2 gas addition, however, increased loading to about 8 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (128 g/dm 3 ). The pH-lowering effect worked especially well at relatively high salt concentration. The same leachate, with its chloride content increased to 12,000 ppm, loaded only 0.5 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (8 g/dm 3 ) at pH 8 but loaded 5.5 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (88 g/dm 3 ) at pH 6.5

  19. Non-hydrolytic sol-gel synthesis of epoxysilane-based inorganic-organic hybrid resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Sunirmal; Lim, Mi Ae; Baek, In Chan; Kim, Chang Hae; Seok, Sang Il

    2008-01-01

    A silica-based inorganic-organic hybrid resins (IOHR) were synthesized by non-hydrolytic sol-gel process from 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO) and diphenylsilanediol (DPSD) at a fixed amount of (20 mol%) phenyltrimethoxysilane using barium hydroxide as a catalyst. The confirmation of condensation reaction in the IOHR was done by liquid state 29 Si NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy, measurement of viscosity as well as weight average molecular weight (W m ) of the IOHR. The W m of the IOHR was varied from 1091 to 2151, depending upon the DPSD content. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements were performed to investigate the details of vibrational absorption bands in the IOHR. It was seen that up to 50 mol% of DPSD there were no absorption peaks in the region of 3000-3600 cm -1 responsible for O-H groups and it reappeared at 60 mol% of DPSD due to some unreacted OH groups present in the resin. The IOHR at all the compositions was oily transparent liquid, miscible with various organic solvents like toluene, cyclohexanone, chloroform, tehrahydrofuran (THF), etc., and also commercial epoxy resins but immiscible with water. The color of the IOHR was pale yellow, which lightened with increasing DPSD content. The IOHR having 40-50 mol% of DPSD were storable. The refractive index at 632.8 nm of the resin films varied from 1.556 to 1.588, depending upon the resin composition. Physico-chemical properties such as the thermal stability, visible transparency, etc. after curing were investigated as a function of the chemical composition

  20. Study of the separation of metallic compounds by means of an anion exchanger resin and of complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis de Trobriand, Anne

    1971-01-01

    In order to define better separation conditions of molybdenum and aluminium from uranium alloys, this research thesis first reports the study of the fixation of each of these elements on a Dowex resin in a carbonate medium. Results obtained by other studies in a hydrogen carbonate medium has leaded to the use of mixing of CO 3 2- and HCO 3 - . In a last part, the author reports the analysis of two samples (uranium-molybdenum and uranium-aluminium): after an attack of these alloys in a melt carbonate medium, components are separated by elution in one of the studied media

  1. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  2. Fixation of metallic sulfosalicylate complexes on an anionic exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahuzac, S.

    1969-06-01

    Since sulfosalicylate ions have acid-base properties, sulfosalicylate complexes have an apparent stability which varies with the ph. As a result, the fixation of sulfo-salicylates on an anionic exchange resin depends on the ph of the solution in equilibrium with the resin. This research has been aimed at studying the influence of the ph on the fixation on an anionic exchange resin (Dowex 1 x 4) of sulfosalicylate anions on the one hand, and of metallic sulfosalicylate complexes on the other hand. In the first part of this work, a determination has been made, by frontal analysis of the distribution of sulfosalicylate ions in the resin according to the total sulfosalicylate I concentration in the aqueous solution in equilibrium with the resin. The exchange constants of these ions between the resin and the solution have been calculated. In the second part, a study has been made of the fixation of anionic sulfosalicylate complexes of Fe(III), Al(III), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Fe(II) and UO 2 2+ . By measuring the partition coefficients of these different elements between the resin and the solution it has been possible to give interpretation for the modes of fixation of the metallic ions, and to calculate their exchange constant between the resin and the solution. The relationship has been established for each metallic element studied, between its partition coefficient, the ph and the total concentration of the complexing agent in solution. Such a relationship makes it possible to predict, for given conditions, the nature of the species in solution and in the resin, as well as the partition coefficient of a metallic, element. Finally, in the third part of the work, use has been made of results obtained previously, to carry out some separations (Ni 2+ - Co 2+ ; Ni 2+ - Co 2+ - Cu 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Fe 3+ ; UO 2 2+ - Cr 3+ ; UO 2 2+ - Cu 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Ni 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Co 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Mn 2+ and UO 2 2+ - Cd 2+ ), as well as the purification

  3. Kinetic investigation of the immobilization of chromotropic acid derivatives onto anion exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasmina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption kinetics of pyrazol- (РАСА and imidazol-azo-chromo-tropic acid (IACA onto Dowex 1-X8 resin, as a function of the dye concentration and temperature were investigated at pH 4.5. The pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the obtained kinetic data. The adsorption rate constants were found to be in the order of magnitude 10-2 min-1 for all of the used kinetics models. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing initial dye concentration. The study of adsorption kinetics at different temperatures (in the range from 5 to 25 °C reveals an increase in the rate of adsorption and adsorption capacity with increasing temperature. The activation energy (in the case of РАСА 16.6 kJ/mol, and for IACA 11.3 kJ/mol was determined using the Arrhenius dependence. Electrostatic interactions between the dye and resin beads were shown to be the adsorption mechanism.

  4. The Influence of Volume, Temperature and Flow Rate on the of Separation Ru from IRC-50 Amberlite Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdani Sumarsono; Djoko Widodo

    2002-01-01

    It was studied Ru elution of IRC-50 amberlite resin for separating, Ru of resin bonding. The resin bonding was ion exchange result of spent fuel uranyl nitrate. In this experiment, the eluent was used 6 N HNO 3 solution the adsorption of Ru was 20 ppm and then it was eluted with 6 N HNO 3 eluent. The objective of this experiment was to determine the operation condition of elution proses that was based on the value of Ru release from its bonding as much as possible. Based on the experiment, the relative good condition were resin volume = 205 ml, elution temperature = 85 o C and the flow rate of eluent = 2 ml 6 N HNO 3 / minute and Ru as result was 93 %. (author)

  5. Screening Analyses of Pinosylvin Stilbenes, Resin Acids and Lignans in Norwegian Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Fiksdahl; Karin Oyaas; Ingebjorg Leirset; Hanne Hovelstad

    2006-01-01

    The content and distribution of stilbenes and resin acids in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies), sampled in central Norway, have been examined. The contents of pinosylvin stilbenes in pine heartwood/living knots were 0.2-2/2-8 % (w/w). No stilbenes could be detected in spruce (Picea abies). The resin acid contents of pine sapwood/heartwood and knots were 1-4 and 5-10 % (w/w), respectively. Minor amounts of resin acids (

  6. Resin purification from Dragons Blood by using sub critical solvent extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuddin; Nahar

    2018-04-01

    Jernang resin (dragon blood) is the world's most expensive sap. The resin obtained from jernang that grows only on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. Jernang resin is in demand by the State of China, Hong Kong, and Singapore since they contain compounds that have the potential dracohordin as a medicinal ingredient in the biological and pharmacological activity such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor and cytotoxic activity. The resin extracting process has conventionally been done by drizzly with maceration method as one way of processing jernang, which is done by people in Bireuen, Aceh. However, there are still significant obstacles, namely the quality of the yield that obtained lower than the jernang resin. The technological innovation carried out by forceful extraction process maceration by using methanol produced a yield that is higher than the extraction process maceration method carried out in Bireuen. Nevertheless, the use of methanol as a solvent would raise the production costs due to the price, which is relatively more expensive and non-environmentally friendly. To overcome the problem, this research proposed a process, which is known as subcritical solvent method. This process is cheap, and also abundant and environmentally friendly. The results show that the quality of jernang resins is better than the one that obtained by the processing group in Bireuen. The quality of the obtained jernang by maceration method is a class-A quality based on the quality specification requirements of jernang (SNI 1671: 2010) that has resin (b/b) 73%, water (w/w) of 6.8%, ash (w/b) 7%, impurity (w/w) 32%, the melting point of 88°C and red colours. While the two-stage treatment obtained a class between class-A and super quality, with the resin (b/b) 0.86%, water (w/w) of 6.5%, ash (w/w) of 2.8%, levels of impurities (w/w) of 9%, the melting point of 88 °C and dark-red colours.

  7. Evaluation of temperature rise with different curing methods and units in two composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaei M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The majority of commercial curing units in dentistry are of halogen lamp type. The new polymerizing units such as blue LED are introduced in recent years. One of the important side effects of light curing is the temperature rise in composite resin polymerization which can affect the vitality of tooth pulp. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature rise in two different composite resins during polymerization with halogen lamps and blue LED. Materials and Methods: This experimental study investigated the temperature rise in two different composites (Hybrid, Tetric Ceram/Nanofilled, Filteke Supreme of A2 shade polymerized with two halogen lamps (Coltolux 50, 350 mW/cm2 and Optilux 501 in standard, 820 mW/cm2 and Ramp, 100-1030 mW/cm2 operating modes and one blue LED with the intensity of 620 mW/cm2. Five samples for each group were prepared and temperature rise was monitored using a k-type thermocouple. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Light curing units and composite resins had statistically significant influence on the temperature rise (p<0.05. Significantly, lower temperature rise occurred in case of illumination with Coltolux 50.There was no significant difference between Optilux 501 in standard curing mode and LED. Tetric Ceram showed higher temperature rise. Conclusion: According to the results of this study the high power halogen lamp and LED could produce significant heat which may be harmful to the dental pulp.

  8. Evaluation of the polymerization shrinkage of experimental flowable composite resins through optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Vanda S. M.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Souza, Alex F.; Cajazeira, Marlus R. R.; Gerbi, Marleny E. M. M.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the polymerization shrinkage of two experimental flowable composite resins (CR) with different proportions of Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers in the organic matrix (50:50 and 60:40, respectively). A commercially available flowable CR, Tetric N-Flow (Ivoclair Vivadent, Liechtenstein, Germany), was employed as the control group. The resins were inserted in a cylindrical teflon mold (7 mm diameter, 0.6 mm height) and scanned with OCT before photoactivation, immediately after and 15 minutes after light-curing (Radii-Cal, SDI, Australia, 1,200 mW/cm2 ) exposure. A Callisto SD-OCT system (Thorlabs Inc, USA), operating at 930 nm central wavelength was employed for imaging acquisition. Cross-sectional OCT images were captured with 8 mm transverse scanning (2000x512 matrix), and processed by the ImageJ software, for comparison between the scanning times and between groups. Pearson correlation showed significant shrinkage for all groups in each time analyzed. Kruskal-Wallis test showed greater polymerization shrinkage for the 50:50 UDMA/TEGDMA group (p=0.001), followed by the control group (p=0.018). TEGDMA concentration was proportionally related to the polymerization shrinkage of the flowable composite resins.

  9. Mercuric iodide semiconductor detectors encapsulated in polymeric resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao F. Trencher; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Oliveira, Adriano S.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disch, Christian; Fiederle, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg - UniFreibrug, Freiburg Materials Research Center - FMF, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The development of new semiconductor radiation detectors always finds many setback factors, such as: high concentration of impurities in the start materials, poor long term stability, the surface oxidation and other difficulties discussed extensively in the literature, that limit their use. In this work was studied, the application of a coating resin on HgI2 detectors, in order to protect the semiconductor crystal reactions from atmospheric gases and to isolate electrically the surface of the crystals. Four polymeric resins were analyzed: Resin 1: 50% - 100%Heptane, 10% - 25% methylcyclohexane, <1% cyclohexane; Resin 2: 25% - 50% ethanol, 25% - 50% acetone, <2,5% ethylacetate; Resin 3: 50% - 100% methylacetate, 5% - 10% n-butylacetate; Resin 4: 50% - 100% ethyl-2-cyanacrylat. The influence of the polymeric resin type used on the spectroscopic performance of the HgI{sub 2} semiconductor detector is, clearly, demonstrated. The better result was found for the detector encapsulated with Resin 3. An increase of up to 26 times at the stability time was observed for the detectors encapsulated compared to that non-encapsulated detector. (author)

  10. Effect of light aging on silicone-resin bond strength in maxillofacial prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzois, Gregory; Pantopoulos, Antonis; Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Hatamleh, Muhanad

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of accelerated light aging on bond strength of a silicone elastomer to three types of denture resin. A total of 60 single lap joint specimens were fabricated with auto-, heat-, and photopolymerized (n = 20) resins. An addition-type silicone elastomer (Episil-E) was bonded to resins treated with the same primer (A330-G). Thirty specimens served as controls and were tested after 24 hours, and the remaining were aged under accelerated exposure to daylight for 546 hours (irradiance 765 W/m(2) ). Lap shear joint tests were performed to evaluate bond strength at 50 mm/min crosshead speed. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were carried out to detect statistical significance (p Accelerated light aging for 546 hours affects the bond strength of an addition-type silicone elastomer to three different denture resins. The bond strength significantly increased after aging for photo- and autopolymerized resins. All the bonds failed adhesively. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Design, performance and economics of the DAF Indal 50 kW and 375 kW vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienbein, L. A.; Malcolm, D. J.

    1982-03-01

    A review of the development and performance of the DAF Indal 50 kW vertical axis Darrieus wind turbines shows that a high level of technical development and reliability has been achieved. Features of the drive train, braking and control systems are discussed and performance details are presented. A description is given of a wind-diesel hybrid presently being tested. Details are also presented of a 375 kW VAWT planned for production in late 1982. A discussion of the economics of both the 50 kW and 375 kW VAWTs is included, showing the effects of charge rate, installed cost, operating cost, performance and efficiency. The energy outputs are translated into diesel fuel cost savings for remote communities.

  12. Determination of Hf, Sc and Y in geological samples together with the rare-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihareva, N.; Delaloye, M.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of Hf, Sc and Y simultaneously with the REE in geological materials. An earlier method for REE separation from major elements was studied with the aim to apply it also to the determination of Hf, Sc and Y. Sample decomposition was carried out by melting with LiBO 2 . The method involves separation and concentration stages, using the cation-exchange resin DOWEX AG 50W-X8. Matrix elements were eluted with 2 mol/l HCl, whereas 6 mol/l HNO 3 with oxalic acid and 8 mol/l HNO 3 were used to elute the elements to be determined. Some of the matrix elements could not be completely removed. This effect as well as the recovery rates of the determined elements were investigated. The measurements were performed by ICP-AES. Spectral interferences were also tested. (orig.). With 1 tab

  13. Determination of kinetic parameters of heterogeneous isotopic exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ting-Chia; Tsai, Fuan-Nan

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model has been proposed for a heterogeneous isotopic exchange reaction which involves film diffusion, surface chemical reaction and intraparticle diffusion. The exchange equation to predict the exchange fraction as a function of time for the spherical particles immersed in a solution of finite volume has been derived. The relations between the exchange fraction and dimensionless time are plotted with xi(=ak sub(f)/KD sub(e)), xi 1 (=K 1 a 2 /D sub(e)) and final fractional uptake as parameters. From the values of the kinetic parameters xi and xi 1 , the relative importance of each limiting step is discussed. Experimental results of the isotopic exchange reaction of calcium ion in both system CaCO 3 (s)/Ca 2+ (aq) and system calcium type resin Dowex 50W-X8/Ca 2+ (aq) are coincident with the theoretical equation proposed in this study. (auth.)

  14. Antibacterial effect of composite resins containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudovin-Farber, Ira; Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I.; Domb, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI)-based nanoparticles were synthesized by crosslinking with dibromopentane followed by N-alkylation with various alkyl halides and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. Insoluble pyridinium-type particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine followed by N-alkylation with alkyl halides. Polyamine-based nanoparticles embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using direct contact test. Activity analysis revealed that the alkyl chain length of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl-alkylated QA-PEI embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w that totally inhibited S. mutans growth in 3-month-aged samples. This data indicates that restorative composite resin with antibacterial properties can be produced by the incorporation of QA-PEI nanoparticles.

  15. Antibacterial effect of composite resins containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudovin-Farber, Ira [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry (Israel); Domb, Abraham J., E-mail: avid@ekmd.huji.ac.i [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel)

    2010-02-15

    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI)-based nanoparticles were synthesized by crosslinking with dibromopentane followed by N-alkylation with various alkyl halides and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. Insoluble pyridinium-type particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine followed by N-alkylation with alkyl halides. Polyamine-based nanoparticles embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using direct contact test. Activity analysis revealed that the alkyl chain length of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl-alkylated QA-PEI embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w that totally inhibited S. mutans growth in 3-month-aged samples. This data indicates that restorative composite resin with antibacterial properties can be produced by the incorporation of QA-PEI nanoparticles.

  16. Feasibility studies for production of {sup 89}Sr in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Debasish; Vithya, J.; Ashok Kumar, G.V.S.; Swaminathan, K.; Kumar, R.; Venkata Subramani, C.R.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2013-07-01

    {sup 89}Sr, a pure beta emitter with half life of 50.53 d is used as its chloride solution for palliative care of bone metastases. This paper describes the feasibility studies that have been conducted at FBTR, IGCAR for production of this radionuclide using the {sup 89}Y(n, p){sup 89}Sr reaction. Yttria pellets were irradiated in a special subassembly at the core centre for a total of 73 d in two steps of 35 d and 38 d with a time gap of 38 d. The irradiated yttria target was dissolved in nitric acid and the bulk Y was separated by solvent extraction using the TBP-HNO{sub 3} complex. The {sup 89}Sr fraction was purified using the cation exchange resin DOWEX 50W x 8 (100-200 mesh size) from the other radioactive impurities seen. The eluted {sup 89}Sr fraction was assayed using a GM counting system. The {sup 89}Sr activity produced in 1 g of yttria pellet was found to be 19 mCi. (orig.)

  17. Separation of metal ions by anion exchange in mixtures of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, J.P.

    1978-12-01

    Distribution coefficients were determined for the adsorption of more than 40 elements on anion-exchange resins from mixtures of HCl (0.1 to 12M) and HF (0.1-8M). Two resins, Dowex 1 x 10, 200 to 400 mesh and Dowex 1 x 4, 100 to 200 mesh, were used. Distribution coefficients were also determined for the adsorption of many elements on both resins from 0.1 to 12M HCl and 0.1 to 12M HF. Anion exchange in the presence of HF was found useful for separating impurities from various materials for their subsequent determination, and specific procedures used in our spectrochemical laboratory for this purpose are outlined. The results of a literature search on the use of anion exchange in hydrofluoric acid and fluoride-containing media are presented in an extensive bibliography. 404 references, 9 tables

  18. Separation of macro-quantities of actinide elements at Savannah River by high-pressure cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale separation of actinides from fission products and from each other by pressurized cation exchange chromatography at Savannah River is reviewed. Several kilograms of 244 Cm have been separated, with each run containing as much as 150 g of 244 Cm. Dowex 50W-X8 (Dow Chemical Co.) cation resin, graded to 30-70 micron size range, is used, and separation is made by eluting with 0.05M diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) at a pH of 3. The effluent from the column is continuously monitored by a BF 3 detector, a NaI detector, and a lithium-drifted germanium detector and gamma spectrometer to guide collection of product fractions. Operating the columns at 300 to 1000 psi pressure eliminates resin bed disruption caused by radiolytically produced gases, and operating at increased flow rates decreases the radiolytic degradation of the resin per unit of product processed. A portion of the hot canyon of a production radiochemical separation plant was converted from a remote crane-operated facility to a master-slave manipulator-operated facility for separation and purification of actinide elements by pressurized cation exchange. It also contains an evaporator, furnaces, a calorimeter, and several precipitators and associated tanks. Actinide processing from target dissolution to packaging of purified product is planned in this facility

  19. Ballistic properties of bidirectional fiber/resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimeski, Dimko; Spaseska, Dijana

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the research was to make evaluation of the ballistic strength of four different fiber/resin composites intended to be used in manufacturing of ballistic items for personal protection. Research has been performed on glass, ballistic nylon, aramid and HPPE (High Performance Polyethylene) plainly woven fabric based composites. As a matrix system, in all cases, polyvinylbutyral modified phenolic resin was used. For the investigation, areal weight range 2 - 9 kg/m 2 chosen was, which is applicable for personal ballistic protection and the ultimate resin content range 20 - 50 vol.%. Ballistic test of the composites has shown that the best results exhibit HPPE based composites; aramid based composites have been the second best followed by the polyamide based composites. The worst results have been shown by the glass based composites. All composites with lower resin content (20%) have performed much better than their counterparts with higher resin content (50 %).The plot of the ballistic strength (V 50 ) versus areal weight has shown a linear increase of V 50 with the increase of areal weight. The ballistic strength of the composites is highly dependant on the fiber/resin ratio and increases with the increase of the fiber content. (Author)

  20. Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesham, Dean O.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Miller, Charles W.; Meyers, P.; Jaschke, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher

  1. Borehole data package for wells 299-W22-48, 299-W22-49, and 299-W22-50 at single-shell tank waste management Area S-SX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, D.G.; Johnson, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    Three new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) groundwater monitoring wells were installed at the single-shell tank farm Waste Management Area (WMA) S-SX in October 1999 through February 2000 in fulfillment of Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology 1996) milestone M-24-41. The wells are 299-W22-48, 299-W22-49, and 299-W22-50. Well 299-W22-48 is located east of the southeast corner of 241-S tank farm and is a new downgradient well in the monitoring network. Well 299-W22-49 is located on the east side of the 241-SX tank farm, adjacent to well 299-W22-39, which it replaces in the monitoring network. Well 299-W22-50 is located at the southeast corner of the 241-SX tank farm and is a replacement for downgradient monitoring well 299-W22-46, which is going dry. The original assessment monitoring plan for WMA S-SX was issued in 1996 (Caggiano 1996). That plan was updated for the continued assessment at WMA S-SX in 1999 (Johnson and Chou 1999). The updated plan provides justification for the new wells. The new wells were constructed to the specifications and requirements described in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-160 and WAC 173-303, the updated assessment plan for WMA S-SX (Johnson and Chou 1999), and the description of work for well drilling and construction. This document compiles information on the drilling and construction, well development, pump installation, and sediment and groundwater sampling applicable to the installation of wells 299-W22-48, 299-W22-49 and 299-W22-50. Appendix A contains the Well Summary Sheets (as-built diagrams), the Well Construction Summary Reports, and the geologist's logs. Appendix B contains results of laboratory analyses of the physical properties of sediment samples obtained during drilling. Appendix C contains borehole geophysical logs, and Appendix D contains the analytical results from groundwater samples obtained during well drilling and construction

  2. Borehole data package for wells 299-W22-48, 299-W22-49, and 299-W22-50 at single-shell tank waste management Area S-SX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DG Horton; VG Johnson

    2000-05-18

    Three new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) groundwater monitoring wells were installed at the single-shell tank farm Waste Management Area (WMA) S-SX in October 1999 through February 2000 in fulfillment of Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology 1996) milestone M-24-41. The wells are 299-W22-48, 299-W22-49, and 299-W22-50. Well 299-W22-48 is located east of the southeast corner of 241-S tank farm and is a new downgradient well in the monitoring network. Well 299-W22-49 is located on the east side of the 241-SX tank farm, adjacent to well 299-W22-39, which it replaces in the monitoring network. Well 299-W22-50 is located at the southeast corner of the 241-SX tank farm and is a replacement for downgradient monitoring well 299-W22-46, which is going dry. The original assessment monitoring plan for WMA S-SX was issued in 1996 (Caggiano 1996). That plan was updated for the continued assessment at WMA S-SX in 1999 (Johnson and Chou 1999). The updated plan provides justification for the new wells. The new wells were constructed to the specifications and requirements described in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-160 and WAC 173-303, the updated assessment plan for WMA S-SX (Johnson and Chou 1999), and the description of work for well drilling and construction. This document compiles information on the drilling and construction, well development, pump installation, and sediment and groundwater sampling applicable to the installation of wells 299-W22-48, 299-W22-49 and 299-W22-50. Appendix A contains the Well Summary Sheets (as-built diagrams), the Well Construction Summary Reports, and the geologist's logs. Appendix B contains results of laboratory analyses of the physical properties of sediment samples obtained during drilling. Appendix C contains borehole geophysical logs, and Appendix D contains the analytical results from groundwater samples obtained during well drilling and construction.

  3. Effect of the molecular structure of phenolic novolac precursor resins on the properties of phenolic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Yong-Gang; Pan, Yan-Ping; Ren, Rui; Dang, Jiang-Min; Liu, Chun-Ling

    2013-01-01

    A series of phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights (M w ) and ortho/para (O/P) ratios were prepared. The effect of the phenolic precursor resin structure on the structure and properties of the resulting phenolic fibers was investigated. The structures of the resins and fibers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, melt rheometry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that the O/P ratio, unsubstituted ortho and para carbon ratio (O u /P u ), and M w of the phenolic resins play an important role in determining the properties of the phenolic fibers. The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac precursor O u /P u ratios, corresponding to low O/P ratios, at comparable resin M w values. Also, the tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac M w values at comparable O/P ratios. Phenolic fibers with high tensile strength and good flame resistance characteristics were generated from a phenolic precursor resin, possessing a high weight-average molecular weight and a low O/P value. - Highlights: • Phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights and ortho/para ratios have been prepared. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with reducing novolac O/P ratio. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac M w

  4. Boron determination in U3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Nadia S.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Rosa, Daniele S.; Ulrich, Joao C.

    2009-01-01

    There exist specifications of the concentration as far the limit of impurities in the used uranium compounds is concerned. Among those impurities the boron element is detached. that in the uranium compounds acts as neutron absorber in nuclear reactions. Therefore, the determination of this element in uranium compounds, it is fundamental for the quality and performance of the nuclear fuels. However, the determination of this element is many times prejudiced by the presence of the uranium. For solving this problem, it is performed a chemical separation of the uranium (matrix) out of the interest. The most used methods to accomplish that separation are the solvent extraction and the ion exchange. In this work, the boron concentration will be done through the ion exchange technique, using polypropylene columns and Dowex AG 50W - X8 100-200 mesh cation resin in chloricide medium 0.25 M. The boron concentration will be determined through high resolution inductive coupling plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS)

  5. The isolation of lutetium from gadolinium contained in Purex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Vick, D.O.; May, M.P.; Walker, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    A chemical separation procedure has been devised to isolate Lu from Purex dissolver solutions containing the neutron poison, Gd. The isolation procedure involves the removal of U and >Pu from a dissolver solution using tributylphosphate solvent extraction. If required, solvent extraction using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid can be employed to further purify the sample be removing alkali and alkali earth elements. Finally, Lu is chromatographically separated from Gd and rare earth fission products on a Dowex 50W-X8 resin column using an alpha-hydroxyisobutyrate eluant. The success of the chemical separation procedure has been demonstrated in the quantitative recovery of as little as 1.4 ng Lu from solutions containing a 5000-fold excess of Gd. Additionally, Lu has been isolated from synthetic dissolver samples containing U, Ba, Cs, and Gd. Thermal emission MS data indicated that the Lu fraction of the synthetic sample was free of Gd interference

  6. Cation exchange resins labeled with holmium-166 for treatment of liver malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Renata F.; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing interest in new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is prompting investigators to utilize isotopes with more focused capabilities for treating various tumors, reducing the negative effects on neighboring healthy cells. Local radionuclide therapy using radioactive microspheres is a promising therapy for non-operable group of patients suffering from liver malignancies. Many publications have shown the success of this technique. The emphasis in the present work is the resin-based microspheres labeled with 166 Ho. The production of 166 Ho is feasible in the IEA-R1 Reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, because it does not need high power and high neutron fluxes. Samples of Ho 2 O 3 were irradiated in selected positions of the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The neutron flux was 1.0 x10 13 n.s -1 .cm -2 for 1 hour. The dissolution of Ho 2 O 3 was studied with different volumes of 0.1M HCl and also varying the heating temperature. The AG50W-X8 200-400 mesh and CM Sephadex C-25 cation exchange resins were labeled with 166 Ho. The retention of 166 Ho in the resins was studied and also its stability. The results of the dissolution experiments of Ho 2 O 3 showed that there is a direct relation between the increasing volumes needed to dissolve higher masses, and also the positive effect of raising the temperature. The results show very good retention of 166 Ho in both columns, even when high volumes of 0.1M HCl are passed through the column containing the resins and its good stability towards saline solution, PBS solution and glucose.Although the resins employed in this work did not have the right particle size (20-50μm), the chemical behavior showed the very good labeling of the resins with 166 Ho, and its stability. (author)

  7. Interacting large-scale magnetic fields and ionized gas in the W50/SS433 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnes, J. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Purcell, C.; Sun, X. H.; Haverkorn, M.; Lenc, E.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Akahori, T.

    2017-06-01

    The W50/SS433 system is an unusual Galactic outflow-driven object of debatable origin. We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to observe a new 198 pointing mosaic, covering 3° × 2°, and present the highest-sensitivity full-Stokes data of W50 to date using wide-field, wide-band imaging over a 2 GHz bandwidth centred at 2.1 GHz. We also present a complementary Hα mosaic created using the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric Hα Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane. The magnetic structure of W50 is consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the nebula is a reanimated shell-like supernova remnant (SNR), which has been re-energized by the jets from SS433. We observe strong depolarization effects that correlate with diffuse Hα emission, likely due to spatially varying Faraday rotation measure (RM) fluctuations of ≥48-61 rad m-2 on scales ≤4.5-6 pc. We also report the discovery of numerous, faint, Hα filaments that are unambiguously associated with the central region of W50. These thin filaments are suggestive of an SNR's shock emission, and almost all have a radio counterpart. Furthermore, an RM-gradient is detected across the central region of W50, which we interpret as a loop magnetic field with a symmetry axis offset by ≈90° to the east-west jet-alignment axis, and implying that the evolutionary processes of both the jets and the SNR must be coupled. A separate RM-gradient is associated with the termination shock in the eastern ear, which we interpret as a ring-like field located where the shock of the jet interacts with the circumstellar medium. Future optical observations will be able to use the new Hα filaments to probe the kinematics of the shell of W50, potentially allowing for a definitive experiment on W50's formation history.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of biological materials for sub PPM amount of mercury without determining the chemical yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foldzinska, A.; Dybczynski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple method for the determination of sub ppm amounts of mercury in various biological materials by neutron activation analysis is described. Irradiated samples were decomposed with H 2 SO 4 - fuming HNO 3 mixture and mercury selectively isolated by ion exchange chromatography using Dowex 50X2(H + ) and Dowex 1X4(Br - ) columns in HBr medium. Finally the activity of 197 Hg fixed on an anion exchange resin was measured either with a Ge(Li) or a NaI (Tl) detector. Both the high radiochemical purity of mercury and the practically quantitative recovery were achieved thus eliminating the necessity of determining the chemical yield. The method was used for the determination of mercury in flour, milk, butter, margarine, fish, etc. Total time of analysis (including counting) amounted to 6-7 hrs and several samples could be simultaneously analysed by one technician. (T.G.)

  9. Fractionation of nitrogen and carbon isotopes by means of urea chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, K.; Krumbiegel, P.; Faust, H.

    1981-01-01

    Between aqueous urea solutions and strongly acid cation exchange resins of the polystyrene-sulfoacid type a solid-liquid-phase distribution equilibrium develops with an isotope effect of nitrogen and carbon in urea. The [ 13 C, 15 N] urea molecules are preferably bound to the exchanger matrix. The elementary separation factors for 15 N and 13 C enrichment have been determined to be 1.00 per cent. Column chromatographic separation with the aid of Dowex 50 WX8 renders the preparation of double-labelled urea feasible. (author)

  10. Feasibility of isotachochromatography as a method for the preparative separation of weak acids and weak bases. II. Experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, C.; Sluyterman, L.A.A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of isotachochromatography has been verified and proved to be essentially correct. Acetate was used as a leading buffer and mostly serine as a terminal buffer to separate acids with pKa values intermediate between those of the leading and terminal buffers on a column of Dowex 50W-X2.

  11. Immobilisation in cement of ion exchange resins arising from the purification of reagents used for the decontamination of reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.; Lee, D.J.

    1988-04-01

    The aim of the programme is to show that ion exchange resins used to remove activity from decontaminating agents used in water reactors can be successfully immobilised in cement. To achieve this, blends of Ordinary Portland Cement and ground granulated Blast Furnace Slag (ratio 9:1) have been used. Improvements in the properties of the product and the waste loading of 50 w/o damp resin can be achieved using microsilica, a finely divided form of silicon dioxide, as an additive to the blended cement. This report contains data on the effects of anion resins, and mixed anion/cation resins, on the performance of the cemented product. The effects of organic acids, especially picolinic and formic acids, bound to anion resins have also been investigated. In addition, formulations developed have been assessed at commercial scale (200 litres of cemented product) for their process and product characteristics. The final part of the report deals with the long-term product performance of samples prepared from cation resins which are now nearly one year old. (author)

  12. Nanomechanical properties of dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S; Akhtar, R; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2012-12-01

    To determine by nanoindentation the hardness and elastic modulus of resin-composites, including a series with systematically varied filler loading, plus other representative materials that fall into the categories of flowable, bulk-fill and conventional nano-hybrid types. Ten dental resin-composites: three flowable, three bulk-fill and four conventional were investigated using nanoindentation. Disc specimens (15mm×2mm) were prepared from each material using a metallic mold. Specimens were irradiated in the mold at top and bottom surfaces in multiple overlapping points (40s each) with light curing unit at 650mW/cm(2). Specimens were then mounted in 3cm diameter phenolic ring forms and embedded in a self-curing polystyrene resin. After grinding and polishing, specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. Specimens were investigated using an Agilent Technologies XP nanoindenter equipped with a Berkovich diamond tip (100nm radius). Each specimen was loaded at one loading rate and three different unloading rates (at room temperature) with thirty indentations, per unloading rate. The maximum load applied by the nanoindenter to examine the specimens was 10mN. Dependent on the type of the resin-composite material, the mean values ranged from 0.73GPa to 1.60GPa for nanohardness and from 14.44GPa to 24.07GPa for elastic modulus. There was a significant positive non-linear correlation between elastic modulus and nanohardness (r(2)=0.88). Nonlinear regression revealed a significant positive correlation (r(2)=0.62) between elastic moduli and filler loading and a non-significant correlation (r(2)=0.50) between nanohardness and filler loading of the studied materials. Varying the unloading rates showed no consistent effect on the elastic modulus and nanohardness of the studied materials. For a specific resin matrix, both elastic moduli and nanohardness correlated positively with filler loading. For the resin-composites investigated, the group-average elastic

  13. Improvement in char formability of phenolic resin for development of Carbon/Carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajhosseini, M.; Payami, A.; Ghaffarian, S. R.; Rezadoust, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In the processing of carbon/carbon composites using polymer resin as the matrix precursor, it is inevitable that a porous structure was formed after carbonization. As a result, densification by liquid phase impregnation followed by recarbonization is required to obtain a densified composite. Consequently, the char formability of resin is an important factor in reducing the number of densification cycles and hence the processing cost. In this study, a novel approach is adopted to improve the densification of carbon/carbon composites by using a new phenolic resin modified by pitch. For this purpose, soluble part of pitch was extracted and dispersed in resol type phenolic resin. The polymerization reaction was performed in presence of para-formaldehyde and a resol-pitch compound was obtained. The second compound was prepared by mixing novolac-furfural in 55:45 weight ratio containing 9% by weight hexamethylene tetramine. This compound was added to resol-pitch compound in 10,20,50 and 80 w %. The microstructure of carbonized resin was investigated by X-ray diffraction and char yield, and the linear and volumetric shrinkage were obtained. Results show that in 80:20 ratio of resol-pitch to novolac-furfural , the char yield would be maximized by 71% and volumetric shrinkage would be minimized at 16.4%. At the same time, XRD results indicate that the resin has a strong ability to graphitize carbon/carbon composites matrix as a necessary step for its processing

  14. Production of no carrier added residue free /sup 22/Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, J L.Q. de; Bastos, M A.V.; Silva, R.F. da; Silva, A.G. da

    1988-05-02

    A method for the production of no carrier added and residue free /sup 22/Na, was developed via the /sup 24/Mg(d,..cap alpha..)/sup 22/Na nuclear reaction applying 14 MeV deuterons and a high current MG-Cu target. The yield for the reaction was measured and the chemical separation was performed using a Dowex 50WX8 resin in H/sup +/ form. The overall yield was higher than 98%. Residue could not be detected. All experiments were carried out at IEN's CV-28 cyclotron. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.

  15. Determination of microquantities of zirconium and thorium in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber de D'Alessio, Ana; Zucal, Raquel.

    1975-07-01

    A method for the determination of 10 to 50 ppm of zirconium and thorium in uranium IV oxide of nuclear purity is established. Zirconium and thorium are retained in a strong cation-exchange resin Dowex 50 WX8 in 1 M HCl. Zirconium is eluted with 0,5% oxalic acid solution and thorium with 4% ammonium oxalate. The colorimetric determination of zirconium with xilenol orange is done in perchloric acid after destructtion of oxalic acid and thorium is determined with arsenazo III in 5 M HCl. 10 μg of each element were determined with a standard deviation of 2,1% for thorium and 3,4% for zirconium. (author) [es

  16. Analysis of gap formation at tooth-composite resin interface: effect of C-factor and light-curing protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Oliveira dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C-factor and light-curing protocol on gap formation in composite resin restorations. Material and METHODS: Cylindrical cavities with 5.0 mm diameter and three different depths (A=1.0, B=2.0 and C=3.0 mm were prepared on the occlusal surface of 30 human molars and restored in a single increment with P 60. The composite resin was light-cured according to two protocols: standard - 850 mW/cm² / 20 s and gradual - 100 up to 1000 mW/cm² / 10 s + 1000 mW/cm² / 10 s. After storage in distilled water (37°C/7 days, the restorations were cut into three slices in a buccolingual direction and the gap widths were analyzed using a 3D-scanning system. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (alpha=0.05. RESULTS: ANOVA detected a significant influence for the C-factor and light-curing protocol as independent factors, and for the double interaction C-factor vs. light-curing protocol. Cavities with higher C-factor presented the highest gap formation. The gradual light-curing protocol led to smaller gap formation at cavity interfaces. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the C-factor played an essential role in gap formation. The gradual light-curing protocol may allow relaxation of composite resin restoration during polymerization reaction.

  17. 50 kW laser weapon demonstrator of Rheinmetall Waffe munition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewigt, K.; Riesbeck, Th.; Graf, A.; Jung, M.

    2013-10-01

    We will present the setup of a 50 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator (LWD) and results achieved with this system. The LWD is a ground based Air Defence system consisting of a Skyguard sensor unit for target acquisition and two laser equipped weapon turrets. The weapon turrets used are standard air defence turrets of Rheinmetall Air Defence which were equipped with several 10 kW Laser Weapon Modules (LWM). Each LWM consists of one 10 kW fiber laser and a beam forming unit (BFU). Commercial of the shelf fiber laser were modified for our defence applications. The BFU providing diffraction limited beam focusing, target imaging and fine tracking of the target was developed. The LWD was tested in a firing campaign at Rheinmetall test ground in Switzerland. All laser beams of both weapon turrets were superimposed on stationary and dynamic targets. Test results of the LWD for the scenarios Air Defence and C-RAMM (counter rockets, artillery, mortar and missiles) will be presented. An outlook for the next development stage towards a 100 kW class laser weapon on RWM will be given.

  18. Effect of two lasers on the polymerization of composite resins: single vs combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Jung-Hoon; Son, Sung-Ae; Park, Jeong-kil; Jeon, Gye-Rok; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2015-07-01

    The selection of a light-curing unit for the curing composite resins is important to achieve best outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to test lasers of 457 and 473 nm alone or in combination under different light conditions with respect to the cure of composite resins. Four different composite resins were light cured using five different laser combinations (530 mW/cm(2) 457 nm only, 530 mW/cm(2) 473 nm only, 177 mW/cm(2) 457 + 177 mW/cm(2) 473 nm, 265 mW/cm(2) 457 + 265 mW/cm(2) 473 nm, and 354 mW/cm(2) 457 + 354 mW/cm(2) 473 nm). Microhardness and polymerization shrinkage were evaluated. A light-emitting diode (LED) unit was used for comparison purposes. On top surfaces, after aging for 24 h, microhardness achieved using the LED unit and the lasers with different conditions ranged 42.4-65.5 and 38.9-67.7 Hv, respectively, and on bottom surfaces, corresponding ranges were 25.2-56.1 and 18.5-55.7 Hv, respectively. Of the conditions used, 354 mW/cm(2) 457 nm + 354 mW/cm(2) 473 nm produced the highest bottom microhardness (33.8-55.6 Hv). On top and bottom surfaces, microhardness by the lowest total light intensity, 354 (177 × 2) mW/cm(2), ranged 39.0-60.5 and 18.5-52.8 Hv, respectively. Generally, 530 mW/cm(2) at 457 nm produced the lowest polymerization shrinkage. However, shrinkage values obtained using all five laser conditions were similar. The study shows the lasers of 457 and 473 nm are useful for curing composite resins alone or in combination at much lower light intensities than the LED unit.

  19. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.

    1983-07-01

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m 3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  20. FIA versatile system for spectrophotometric determinations of vanadium and molybdenum exploring the catalytic activities of V(V) and Mo(VI); Sistema FIA polivalente para determinacoes espectrofotometricas de vanadio e molibdenio explorando as atividades cataliticas de V(V) e Mo(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Gilmara Caseri de

    1996-02-01

    A versatile system for chemical analysis by flow injection analysis was developed and applied for catalytic spectrophotometric determination of vanadium or molybdenum in metallic alloys. The selected methods were based upon indicator reactions chromotropic (CS)-bromate acid or hydrogen iodide-peroxide, respectively. Initially, a model system was proposed, in which common parameters for methods were studied. This included a re-sampling process in which high degrees of samples dilution were obtained. Other parameters such as concentrations and reagents addition order, reaction medium Ph, temperature and ionic power, as well as procedures for sample solubilization, were studied relating to each method. A mini-column with cationic exchanger resin (Dowex 50W-X8, 50-100 mesh, H{sup +} form) was used. The system for vanadium determination processes 120 samples by hour, consuming 2,0 mg CS and 10 mg K Br O{sub 3b}y determination. Concerning the method for molybdenum, the reagents consumption was 2,0 mg KI and 1,0 {mu}L of solution 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by determination, since the analytic velocity was the same, in relation to vanadium.

  1. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  2. Removal method of fluorescent dyes as pretreatment for measurement of major ion concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Takuma; Kashiwaya, Koki; Kodama, Hiroki; Miyajima, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    The major ion concentration and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen can provide important information for migration of groundwater. Sometimes, quantitative estimation of these chemical and isotopic characteristics of solution is necessary for groundwater containing fluorescent dyes, which are used in drilling borehole and tracer experiments. However, sometimes correct estimation is disturbed by dyes and they become a cause of troubles for measurement equipments. Thus development of method to remove dyes is required so that the characteristics of groundwater can be estimated without the negative effect of dyes on measurement or equipments. In this study, removal of four representative dyes (Uranin, Eosin, Naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium(NAP) and Amino G acid potassium salt (AG)) was investigated. Uranin and Eosin were found to be removed by non-ionic synthetic resin: HP2MG. 99.99% of the dyes were removed from initial solutions containing dyes with 10 mg/L after contact with resin, while the contact had little effect on ion concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Thus the chemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater samples containing Uranin and Eosin can be obtained by using the HP2MG resin. On the other hand, the NAP and AG were found to be difficult to remove by the HP2MG resin but they were able to be removed by anion exchange resin (Dowex 1x8). Though contact of solution with Dowex 1x8 did not affect cation concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, anion concentrations were changed by the contact. Therefore the Dowex 1x8 is only applicable to estimation of the cation concentrations and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen. When both anion and cation concentrations from the samples were necessary, Uranin or Eosin were recommended as a tracer in drilling or tracer experiments. (author)

  3. Biodiesel production from acid oils and ethanol using a solid basic resin as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Errazu, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    In the search of an alternative fuel to substitute diesel fuel, biodiesel appears as one of the most promising sources of energy for diesel engines because of its environmental advantages and also due to the evolution of the petroleum market. Refined oil is the conventional raw material for the production of this biofuel; however, its major disadvantage is the high cost of its production. Therefore, frying oils, waste oils, crude oils and/or acid oils are being tested as alternative raw materials; nevertheless, there will be some problems if a homogeneous basic catalyst (NaOH) is employed due to the high amount of free fatty acid present in the raw oil. In this work, the transesterification reaction of acid oil using solid resin, Dowex monosphere 550 A, was studied as an alternative process. Ethanol was employed to have a natural and sustainable final product. The reaction temperature's effects, the initial amount of free fatty acid, the molar ratio of alcohol/oil and the type of catalyst (homogeneous or heterogeneous) over the main reaction are analyzed and their effects compared. The results obtained show that the solid resin is an alternative catalyst to be used to produce fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by a transesterification reaction with a final conversion over 90%. On the other hand, the time required to achieve this conversion is bigger than the one required using conventional technology which employs a homogeneous basic catalyst. This reaction time needs to be optimized. (author)

  4. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ∼336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin

  5. A 50-kW Module Power Station of Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Meador, W. E.; Conway, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual design of a 50 kW Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser (DSPIL) module was developed for a space-based power station which transmits its coherent-beam power to users such as the moon, Martian rovers, or other satellites with large (greater than 25 kW) electric power requirements. Integration of multiple modules would provide an amount of power that exceeds the power of a single module by combining and directing the coherent beams to the user's receiver. The model developed for the DSPIL system conservatively predicts the laser output power (50 kW) that appears much less than the laser output (93 kW) obtained from the gain volume ratio extrapolation of experimental data. The difference in laser outputs may be attributed to reflector configurations adopted in both design and experiment. Even though the photon absorption by multiple reflections in experimental cavity setup was more efficient, the maximum secondary absorption amounts to be only 24.7 percent of the primary. However, the gain volume ratio shows 86 percent more power output than theoretical estimation that is roughly 60 percent more than the contribution by the secondary absorption. Such a difference indicates that the theoretical model adopted in the study underestimates the overall performance of the DSPIL. This fact may tolerate more flexible and radical selection of design parameters than used in this design study. The design achieves an overall specific power of approximately 5 W/kg and total mass of 10 metric tons.

  6. Reinforcement of a PMMA resin for interim fixed prostheses with silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzi, Marianthi; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Bikiaris, Dimitrios; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Koidis, Petros

    2017-05-01

    Fractures in long span provisional/interim restorations are a common complication. Adequate fracture toughness is necessary to resist occlusal forces and crack propagation, so these restorations should be constructed with materials of improved mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reinforcement of neat silica nanoparticles and trietoxyvinylsilane-modified silica nanoparticles in a PMMA resin for fixed interim restorations. Composite PMMA-Silica nanoparticles powders were mixed with PMMA liquid and compact bar shaped specimens were fabricated according to the British standard BS EN ISO 127337:2005. The single-edge notched method was used to evaluate fracture toughness (three-point bending test), while the dynamic thermomechanical properties (Storage Modulus, Loss Modulus, tanδ) of a series of nanocomposites with different amounts of nanoparticles (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% w.t.) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed and the statistically significant level was set to pPMMA resins used in fixed provisional restorations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Batch and column adsorption behaviors of Se(IV) and Te(IV) on organic and inorganic ion exchangers from HCl solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; Abdel-Fattah, Alaa El-Din A.; Aly, Shorouk M.; Ghamry, Mohamed A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories Center; El-Sheikh, Ragaa [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption behaviors of Se(IV) and Te(IV) on the inorganic ion exchanger ceric tungstate (CeW) was studied under static and dynamic conditions and compared with the adsorption on the organic cation and anion exchangers Dowex-50X8 and AG-2X8, respectively. The radioactive isotopes {sup 75}Se and {sup 123m}Te were used to trace the respective elements. Some parameters affecting the adsorption were investigated under static conditions. In the case of batch technique the adsorption was studied from slightly acidic HCl as well as slightly alkaline media, i.e. at two pH-ranges. Se(IV) and Te(IV) were adsorbed on both the inorganic ion exchanger (CeW) and on AG-2X8, from slightly alkaline solutions. From the similarity of adsorption on both ion exchangers it was clear that (CeW) acts as an anion exchanger. Moreover, the obtained K{sub d}-values for the adsorption on (CeW) were much higher than those for the adsorption on the organic anion exchanger AG-2X8. Se(IV) was not adsorbed on Dowex-50X8 all over the studied pH-range whereas Te(IV) was slightly adsorbed. Loading and elution behaviors of Se(IV) and Te(IV) on columns of AG-2X8 and (CeW) were studied using solutions of HCl of different concentrations. Some good separation alternatives of Se(IV) and Te(IV) under certain conditions were achieved.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disodium salt of 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol is made to react with 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone in such a... Limitations Dimethyl sulfoxide Not to exceed 50 parts per million as residual solvent in finished basic resin... residual solvent in finished basic resin in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone Not to...

  9. Enhanced vanillin production from recombinant E. coli using NTG mutagenesis and adsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang-Hwal; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Das, Amitabha; Lee, Sook-Hee; Li, Cui; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Seo, Weon-Taek; Kim, Seon-Won

    2007-01-01

    Vanillin production was tested with different concentrations of added ferulic acid in E. coli harboring plasmid pTAHEF containing fcs (feruloyl-CoA synthase) and ech (enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase) genes cloned from Amycolatopsis sp. strain HR104. The maximum production of vanillin from E. coli DH5alpha harboring pTAHEF was found to be 1.0 g/L at 2.0 g/L of ferulic acid for 48 h of culture. To improve the vanillin production by reducing its toxicity, two approaches were followed: (1) generation of vanillin-resistant mutant of NTG-VR1 through NTG mutagenesis and (2) removal of toxic vanillin from the medium by XAD-2 resin absorption. The vanillin production of NTG-VR1 increased to three times at 5 g/L of ferulic acid when compared with its wild-type strain. When 50% (w/v) of XAD-2 resin was employed in culture with 10 g/L of ferulic acid, the vanillin production of NTG-VR1 was 2.9 g/L, which was 2-fold higher than that obtained with no use of the resin.

  10. High performance dental resin composites with hydrolytically stable monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Huyang, George; Palagummi, Sri Vikram; Liu, Xiaohui; Skrtic, Drago; Beauchamp, Carlos; Bowen, Rafael; Sun, Jirun

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to: 1) develop strong and durable dental resin composites by employing new monomers that are hydrolytically stable, and 2) demonstrate that resin composites based on these monomers perform superiorly to the traditional bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA) composites under testing conditions relevant to clinical applications. New resins comprising hydrolytically stable, ether-based monomer, i.e., triethylene glycol divinylbenzyl ether (TEG-DVBE), and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) were produced via composition-controlled photo-polymerization. Their composites contained 67.5wt% of micro and 7.5wt% of nano-sized filler. The performances of both copolymers and composites were evaluated by a battery of clinically-relevant assessments: degree of vinyl conversion (DC: FTIR and NIR spectroscopy); refractive index (n: optical microscopy); elastic modulus (E), flexural strength (F) and fracture toughness (K IC ) (universal mechanical testing); Knoop hardness (HK; indentation); water sorption (W sp ) and solubility (W su ) (gravimetry); polymerization shrinkage (S v ; mercury dilatometry) and polymerization stress (tensometer). The experimental UDMA/TEG-DVBE composites were compared with the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA composites containing the identical filler contents, and with the commercial micro hybrid flowable composite. UDMA/TEG-DBVE composites exhibited n, E, W sp , W su and S v equivalent to the controls. They outperformed the controls with respect to F (up to 26.8% increase), K IC (up to 27.7% increase), modulus recovery upon water sorption (full recovery vs. 91.9% recovery), and stress formation (up to 52.7% reduction). In addition, new composites showed up to 27.7% increase in attainable DC compared to the traditional composites. Bis-GMA/TEGDMA controls exceeded the experimental composites with respect to only one property, the composite hardness. Significantly, up to 18.1% lower HK values in

  11. Multimode-singlemode-multimode optical fiber sensor coated with novolac resin for detecting liquid phase alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfu'ah, Amalia, Niza Rosyda; Hatta, Agus Muhamad; Pratama, Detak Yan

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol sensor based on multimode-singlemode-multimode (MSM) optical fiber with novolac resin as the external medium is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. Novolac resin swells when it is exposed by the alcohol. This effect causes a change in the polymer density leading to the refractive index's variation. The transmission light of the sensor depends on the refractive index of external medium. Based on the results, alcohol sensor based on MSM optical fiber structure using novolac resin has a higher sensitivity compared to the sensor without using novolac resin in the mixture of alcohol and distilled water. Alcohol sensor based on MSM optical fiber structure using novolac resin in the mixture of alcohol and distilled water with a singlemode fiber length of 5 mm has a sensitivity of 0.028972 dBm per % V/V, and in the mixture of alcohol and sugar solution of 10% w/w has a sensitivity of 0.005005 dBm per % V/V.

  12. Separation of hafnium from zirconium in sulfuric acid solutions using pressurized ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    High-resolution pressurized ion exchange has been used successfully to study and separate hafnium and zirconium sulfate complexes by chromatographic elution from Dowex 50W-X8 (15 to 25 μm) resin with sulfuric acid solutions. Techniques were developed to continuously monitor the column effluents for zirconium and hafnium by reaction with fluorometric and colorimetric reagents. Since neither reagent was specific for either metal ion, peak patterns were initially identified by using the stable isotopes 90 Zr and 180 Hf as fingerprints of their elution position. Distribution ratios for both zirconium and hafnium decrease as the inverse fourth power of the sulfuric acid concentration below 2N and as the inverse second power at higher acid concentration. The hafnium-to-zirconium separation factor is approximately constant (approx. 8) over the 0.5 to 3N range. Under certain conditions, an unseparated fraction was observed that was not retained by the resin. The amount of this fraction which is thought to be a polymeric hydrolysis product appears to be a function of metal and sulfuric acid concentrations. Conditions are being sought to give the highest zirconium concentration and the lowest acid concentration that can be used as a feed material for commercial scale-up in the continuous annular chromatographic (CAC) unit without formation of the polymer

  13. A50-kW(el) solar energy thermionic power generator for spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.

    1978-01-01

    The technical limits of thermionic reactors in space craft and the potentials of solar energy thermionic converters are discussed. The technical design of a solar energy thermionic generator for 50 kW(el) as a secondary energy source in unmanned space craft is presented. (GG) [de

  14. Mathematical Modelling of Nitrate Removal from Water Using a Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid System with Four Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahatheva Kalaruban

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive concentrations of nitrate in ground water are known to cause human health hazards. A submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system that includes a microfilter membrane and four different adsorbents (Dowex 21K XLT ion exchange resin (Dowex, Fe-coated Dowex, amine-grafted (AG corn cob and AG coconut copra operated at four different fluxes was used to continuously remove nitrate. The experimental data obtained in this study was simulated mathematically with a homogeneous surface diffusion model that incorporated membrane packing density and membrane correlation coefficient, and applied the concept of continuous flow stirred tank reactor. The model fit with experimental data was good. The surface diffusion coefficient was constant for all adsorbents and for all fluxes. The mass transfer coefficient increased with flux for all adsorbents and generally increased with the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents.

  15. Effect of light-curing units on the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Kil; Hur, Bock; Ko, Ching-Chang; García-Godoy, Franklin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2010-12-01

    To examine the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites after light-curing using different light-curing units. Four different resin nanocomposites and four different light-curing units [quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH), light emitting diode (LED), laser, and plasma arc] were chosen. Metal dies were filled with resin to make specimens and light-cured. The light intensity and light-curing time of the QTH and LED light-curing units were 1000 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds, 700 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds for the laser, and 1600 mW/cm2 and 3 seconds for the plasma arc. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was evaluated using a thermomechanical analyzer (TMA) at temperatures ranging from 30-80 degrees C. The CTE of the resin nanocomposites tested ranged from 28.5 to 65.8 (x 10(-6)/ degrees C), depending on the product and type of light-curing unit used. Among the specimens, Grandio showed the lowest CTE. The specimens cured using the plasma arc unit (Apollo 95E) showed the highest CTE. There was a linear correlation between the CTE and filler content (vol%) (R: -0.94-0.99 depending on the light-curing unit). The results may suggest a careful selection of the light-curing unit because there was more expansion in the specimens cured using the plasma arc unit than those cured by the other units.

  16. Resin Poliester Tak Jenuh Untuk Imobilisasi Resin Bekas Pengolahan Simulasi Limbah Radioaktif Cair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlan Martono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang imobilisasi resin bekas pengolah limbah trans-uranium denganresin poliester tak jenuh untuk mengetahui kualitas blok polimer-limbah sebagai fungsi kandunganlimbah. Polimerisasi dilakukan dengan mencampurkan resin poliester tak jenuh dengan katalisdengan perbandingan katalis 1% dari jumlah resin poliester tak jenuh yang digunakan, kemudianditambahkan limbah cair transuranium simulasi. blok polimer-limbah yang terjadi diukur densitas,kuat tekan dengan alat Paul Weber, dan laju pelindihan dengan alat soxhlet pada 100 0C dan 1 atmselama 6 jam. Blok polimer dibuat dengan kandungan limbah 10, 20, 30, 40, dan 50 % berat. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar kandungan limbah maka kuat tekan blok polimerlimbahsemakin kecil, sedangkan laju pelindihannya semakin besar. Berdasarkan kuat tekan dan lajupelindihan, maka hasil terbaik diperoleh untuk blok-polimer dengan kandungan limbah 20 % dan 30%.

  17. Degradation of ion spent resin using the Fenton's reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Leandro Goulart de

    2013-01-01

    The most common method for spent radioactive ion exchange resin treatment is its immobilization in cement, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. Although this method is efficient, it increases considerably the final volume of the waste due to the low incorporation capacity. The objective of this work was to develop a degradation method of spent resins arising from the nuclear research reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagents. This method would allow a higher incorporation in cement. Three different resins were evaluated: cationic, anionic and a mixture of both resins. The reactions were conducted varying the catalyst concentration (25, 50, 100 and 150 mM), the volume of hydrogen peroxide (320 to 460 mL), and three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg C. Degradation of about 98% was achieved using a 50 mM catalyst solution and 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution. The most efficient temperature was 60 deg C. (author)

  18. Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.

    1975-01-01

    An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)

  19. Plant start-up operation of treatment of liquid radioactive waste containing uranium in sulfuric acid by means of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante Escobedo, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    The hydrometallurgy of uranium developed by CCHEN in the '80s generated different types of liquid radioactive waste: organic and aqueous, which have to be treated to extract the uranium, obtaining uranium concentrate less than 3 [ppm], in order to comply with the current regulations and to be able to be discharged as industrial waste over to specialized companies. The radioactive wastes were treated using strongly basic ion exchange resins to obtain a lower volume of concentrated uranium in solid phase. Batch processes were carried out with different pH values (1.4-1.6-1.7-1-8 and 2.0) and different residence times (5-10-15-240 [min]), to define the optimum processing conditions. Three resins were used: IONAC, AFP-329, IONAC A-641, DOWEX 11. The load capacities for each one were: 2[g/l], 1.85 [g/l] and 2.1 [g/l], respectively. Dowex 11 obtained the best uranium load results. Because of the nature of the treated solutions, the pH variation with sodium hydroxide generated precipitation and then crystallization of the existing pieces. Ninety-five percent of the resin's maximum load was attained after about 20 [min] of residence time. Continuous tests were carried out at the solution's original pH to verify the results obtained in the batch stage. This ion exchange process was compared with the chemical precipitation, with lime and sodium hydroxide as well as evaporation and in both processes the volumes of solid that were generated were significantly greater. The ion exchange plant worked with two serially connected columns, using 10 [l] of Dowex 11 resin in each one, with a residence time of 20 [min] per column. A total of 8 [m 3 ] of solution, obtaining an effluent with a uranium concentrate of less than 3 [ppm], using 140 [l] of resin, which generated an average load of 3 [g/l] of uranium (au)

  20. Characterization of monolith block of spent resin cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Endro-Kismolo; Isman MT

    1996-01-01

    Spent resin immobilization process with cement was done to prevent release of radionuclide in the ultimate storage or disposal. The varied Composition of water/cement ratio in the cementation process were 0.3; 0.4; 0.5 and the various weight of resin waste are 25 g, 37.5 g and 50 gram. The compressive strength of the various water/cement ratio without spent resin was bigger than 0.3. This investigation proved that the compressive strength of Tiga Roda cement was bigger than those of Gresik cement or Nusantara cement. The compressive of the cement block of were the spent resin cementation was influenced by the water/cement ratio and the total spent resin addition. The best condition reached at the water/cement ratio of 0.3 and 25 gram spent resin, was compressive strength of 17.86 N/mm 2 . Leaching rate of the various weight composition of spent resin cementation for 91 days were between 10 -2 - 10 -4 gram.cm -2 .day -1

  1. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  2. Design study of wind turbines, 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary designs of low power (50 to 500 kW) and high power (500 to 3000 kW) wind generator systems (WGS) for electric utility applications were developed. These designs provide the bases for detail design, fabrication, and experimental demonstration testing of these units at selected utility sites. Several feasible WGS configurations were evaluated, and the concept offering the lowest energy cost potential and minimum technical risk for utility applications was selected. The selected concept was optimized utilizing a parametric computer program prepared for this purpose. The utility requirements evaluation task examined the economic, operational and institutional factors affecting the WGS in a utility environment, and provided additional guidance for the preliminary design effort. Results of the conceptual design task indicated that a rotor operating at constant speed, driving an AC generator through a gear transmission is the most cost effective WGS configuration.

  3. Uranium isotope separation using styrene cation exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahovec, J.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of 235 U and 238 U isotopes is carried out either by simple isotope exchange in the system uranium-cation exchanger (sulphonated styrene divinylbenzene resin), or by combination of isotope exchange in a uranium-cation exchanger (Dowex 50, Amberlite IR-120) system and a chemical reaction. A review is presented of elution agents used, the degree of cation exchanger cross-linking, columns length, and 235 U enrichment. The results are described of the isotope effect study in a U(IV)-U(VI)-cation exchanger system conducted by Japanese and Romanian authors (isotope exchange kinetics, frontal analysis, reverse (indirect) frontal analysis). (H.S.)

  4. Neutral hydrogen in the neighborhood of the supernova remnant W 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosachinskii, I.V.; Khersonskii, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of neutral hydrogen at wavelength 21 cm in the neighborhood of the supernova remnant W 50, which contains the unique object SS 433, have been made with the RATAN-600 radio telescope with resolution 2' x 130' x 6.3 km/sec. At a radial velocity of about 34 km/sec (kinematic distance 3 kpc) a patchy HI cloud is found with outer diameter 65 pc and mass ∼ 3 x 10 4 M/sub circle/. In addition, at radial velocity 69 km/sec (kinematic distances 5.0 or 10.7 kpc) there is a HI cloud without appreciable large-scale motions. Some models that could explain the connection between these objects and the observed HI clouds are considered

  5. Advances In Hexavalent Chromium Removal At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshem, D.O.; Riddelle, J.

    2012-01-01

    At the Hanford Site, chromium was used as a corrosion inhibitor in the reactor cooling water and was introduced into the groundwater as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from reactors during plutonium production since 1944. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated leading to the use of pump and treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21 K, a regenerable strong base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which is currently performed offsite. Resin was installed in a 4 vessel train, with resin removal required from the lead vessel approximately once a month. In 2007, there were 8 trains (32 vessels) in operation. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion in the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. Previous experience from one of the DOE project managers led to identification of a possible alternative resin, and the contractor was requested to evaluate alternative resins for both cost and programmatic risk reductions. Testing was performed onsite in 2009 and 2010, using a variety of potential resins in two separate facilities with groundwater from specific remediation sites to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at each site. The testing demonstrated that a weak base anion single-use resin, ResinTech SIR-700, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher capacity, could be disposed of efficiently on site, and would eliminate the complexities and programmatic risks from sampling, packaging, transportation and return of resin for regeneration. This resin was installed in Hanford's newest groundwater treatment facility, called 100-DX, which began operations in November, 2010, and used in a sister facility, 100-HX, which started up in September of 2011. This increased chromium treatment capacity to 25 trains (100 vessels). The resin is also being tested in existing facilities that utilize Dowex 21 K for

  6. Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Song, Lifu; Lin, Shan; Zhang, Zhaobin; Deng, Zixin; Xu, Ping

    2007-03-01

    High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen to adsorb vanillin in situ during the bioconversion. Resin DM11 was found to be the best, which adsorbed the most vanillin and the least ferulic acid. When 8% resin DM11 (wet w/v) was added to the biotransformation system, 45 g l(-1) ferulic acid could be added continually and 19.2 g l(-1) vanillin was obtained within 55 h, which was the highest vanillin yield by bioconversion until now. This yield was remarkable for exceeding the crystallization concentration of vanillin and therefore had far-reaching consequence in its downstream processing.

  7. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  8. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  9. Highly hydrated poly(allylamine)/silica magnetic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Andrew K.; Kaczor, Jozef; Han, Hongmei; Kaur, Maninder; Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng; Qiang, You; Paszczynski, Andrzej J.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of multifunctional nanomaterials by combining organic and inorganic components is a growing trend in nanoscience. The unique size-dependent properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) make them amenable to numerous applications such as carriers of expensive biological catalysts, in magnetically assisted chemical separation of heavy metals and radionuclides from contaminated water sources. The separation of minor actinides from high-level radionuclide waste requires a sorbent stable in acidic pH, with ease of surface functionalization, and a high capacity for binding the molecules of interest. For the described experiments, the MNPs with 50 nm average size were used (size distribution from 20 to 100 nm and an iron content of 80–90 w/w%). The MNPs that have been double coated with an initial silica coating for protection against iron solubilization and oxidation in nitric acid solution (pH 1) and a second silica/polymer composite coating incorporating partially imbedded poly(allylamine) (PA). The final product is magnetic, highly swelling, containing >95% water, with >0.5 mmol amines g −1 available for functionalization. The amine groups of the magnetic resin were functionalized with the chelating molecules diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) for separation of minor actinides from used nuclear fuel.

  10. Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

  11. Study and development recuperation of Thallium-203 from bombarded targets of this metal in production of Thallium-201 via addition of Thallium-201 radioisotope as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thallium-203 is the main material for 201 TlCl 3 radiopharmaceutical. It is very important to recover the remaining enriched Thallium-203 in every stage of the process to be reused in the production loop. In this research, the recuperation of Thallium-203 was studied with Dowex 50 WΧ8 ion exchange resin and Thallium-201 as a tracer. The results based on filling of ( 1 8 X 1.5) cm columns with this resin showed that the best flow rate of eluent is 2 ml/min. Also the most suitable volumes are 200 mL (HNO 3 0.05 M), 400 mL (solution of Thallium-203), 100 mL (H 2 O), 500 mL (Citric acid), 100 mL (H 2 0), 100 mL (EDTA 0.5 M and pH∼12.5). 60 mL (H 2 0), respectively

  12. High Power (50W) WDM Space Lasercom 1.5um Fiber Laser Transmitter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to develop and demonstrate a spaceflight prototype of a wideband, high power (up to 50W), polarization maintaining (PM), 1.5-um fiber laser...

  13. Dowex anion exchanger-loaded-baker's yeast as bi-functionalized biosorbents for selective extraction of anionic and cationic mercury(II) species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Yakout, Amr A.; Osman, Maher M.

    2009-01-01

    Dowex anion exchanger-immobilized-baker's yeast [Dae-yeast] were synthesized and potentially applied as environmental friendly biosorbents to evaluate the up-take process of anionic and cationic mercury(II) species as well as other metal ions. Optimization of mass ratio of Dowex anion exchanger versus yeast (1:1-1:10) in presence of various interacting buffer solutions (pH 4.0-9.0) was performed and evaluated. Surface modification of [Dae-yeast] was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy. The maximum metal biosorption capacity values of [Dae-yeast] towards mercury(II) were found in the range of 0.800-0.960, 0.840-0.950 and 0.730-0.900 mmol g -1 in presence of buffer solutions pH 2.0, 4.0 and 7.0, respectively. Three possible and different mechanisms are proposed to account for the biosorption of mercury and mercuric species under these three buffering conditions based on ion exchange, ion pair and chelation interaction processes. Factors affecting biosorption of mercury from aqueous medium including the pH effect of aqueous solutions (1.0-7.0), shaking time (1-30 min) and interfering ions were searched. The potential applications of modified biosorbents for selective biosorption and extraction of mercury from different real matrices including dental filling waste materials, industrial waste water samples and mercury lamp waste materials were also explored. The results denote to excellent percentage extraction values, from nitric acid as the dissolution solvent with a pH 2.0, as determined in the range of 90.77-97.91 ± 3.00-5.00%, 90.00-93.40 ± 4.00-5.00% and 92.31-100.00 ± 3.00-4.00% for the three tested samples, respectively.

  14. Separation of 99Mo from 132Te using thiourea as complexing agent. Application to the separation of 99Mo from the fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik, S.A.C.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1989-02-01

    A radiochemical method to isolate 99 Mo from 132 Te both produced in the fission of 235 U has been developed. The methods is based on the formation of a cationic complex of tellerium with thiourea in acid medium which is retained (98.7 +- 0.5)% on a cation exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X8, 100 - 200 mesh) while (99.8 +- 0.05)% 99 Mo passes through it, due to the non formation of such complex in the same experimental conditions. The radionuclidic purity of the separated 99 Mo verified by using gamma spectrometry was found to be suitable for the preparation of 99 Mo - 99 sup (m)Tc generators. The retention of 99 Mo on an alumina column as function of ph was investigated. the best pH range for this purpose was found to be between 4.0 - 4.5. the 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator was prepared. the elution of 99m Tc was carried out with physiologic saline solution. The radionuclidic purity of the eluate was found suitable and the product can be used for Nuclear Medicine applications. (author) [pt

  15. Investigation of Resin Systems for Improved Ablative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-01

    condensed rings, Boron linear chain of rings Carboranes B-P Resins Polymers Containing Si-O Silicon Si -C Si -N Furan Derivatives Furfural Base Furfural ...8217 Adsorption Theory of Adhesion’ presented at the 144th American Chemical Society Meeting, held in Los Angeles, April 1963. 15. Freeman, J. H. , L. W

  16. Utilization of maize ( Zea mays ) cob as an adsorbent for lead (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize cob was used as an adsorbent in order to evaluate its potential for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions and effluents from battery and paint industries with Dowex (synthetic resin) as control. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of Freundlich isotherm model. Equilibrium was attained at 2 h and adsorption ...

  17. [Mechanical and dimensional properties of thermosetting resins for crown (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, T; Hirano, S; Harashima, I; Hirabayashi, S; Mori, R

    1979-10-01

    The various mechanical and dimensional properties of seven thermosetting methacrylic resins for crown and one heat-curing methacrylic resin as the control were investigated. The obtained results were as follows. 1. The water sorption, namely amount of sorption water and linear expansion by water sorption of hydrophobic poly-bis-MEPP resins were 50 to 70% of that of the control. But hydrophilic poly-EDMA resins indicated the water sorption about 1 to 1.5 times as much as the control. And a poly-UDMA resin was also hydrophilic as poly-EDMA resins, indicated about 1.3 times as much as the control. 2. The properties of poly-bis-MEPP resins were more excellent than that of poly-EDMA resins especially in the wet condition, at least were equal. 3. A poly-UDMA resin contained so-called organic composite fillers, indicated more excellent properties than other resins on hardness, abrasion resistance, linear coefficient of thermal expansion, compressive strength and bending strength in the dry condition. But, in the wet condition, some of these properties of a poly-UDMA resin were approximately equal to those of other resins.

  18. Contribution to the study of rare earth separation by ion exchange, using ammonium lactate; Contribution a l'etude de la separation des terres rares par echange d'ions a l'aide de lactate d'ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratot, I [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Using the technique of chromatography on a column of Dowex 50 resin, heated to 87 deg. C, we have studied the separation of rare earths (from holmium to praseodymium) which may be produced with the cyclotron by heavy ions, {alpha} or protons. From an ammonium lactate solution M at pH 5, separations are carried out by varying the dilution as a function of the quantity of the target rare earth and of its position during elution. When weighable quantities of the rare earth (more than 5 mg) appear towards the end of the elution, the separation is little affected this case approaches that of a tracer mixture of rare earths; if on the other hand weighable quantities of the rare earth are washed through at the beginning of the chromatogram, the dilution must be adjusted in order to obtain a good separation. (author) [French] Par chromatographie sur colonne de resine Dowex 50, chauffee a 87 deg. C, nous avons examine la separation des terres rares (de l'holmium au praseodyme) susceptibles d'etre produites au cyclotron par ions lourds, {alpha} ou protons. A partir d'une solution de lactate d'ammonium M a pH 5, nous effectuons les separations en agissant sur la dilution en fonction de la quantite de terre rare cible et de sa position au cours de l'elution. Lorsque la terre rare en quantite ponderale (superieure a 5 mg) passe en fin d'elution, la separation est peu affectee; nous sommes ramenes au cas d'un melange de terres rares traceur; par contre, si la terre rare en quantite ponderale s'elue en tete du chromatogramme, nous devons agir sur la dilution pour obtenir une bonne separation. (auteur)

  19. Relationship between the degree of conversion, solubility and salivary sorption of a hybrid and a nanofilled resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreira da Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the relationship between the degree of conversion (DC, solubility, and salivary sorption of a hybrid (Filtek P 60 and a nanofilled resin composite (Filtek Supreme, and evaluated the influence of the light-activation mode on these properties. Two light-activation modes were used: Conventional (C; 850 mW/cm² for 20 s and Soft-start (SS; 100-1,000 mW/cm² for 10 s + 1,000 mW/cm² for 10 s. The DC (% was evaluated by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The solubility and salivary sorption were measured after immersion in artificial saliva for 7 days. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' test and linear regression analysis (a = 0.05. The DC varied from 50.52% (nanofilled composite to 57.15% (hybrid composite, and was influenced by the light-activation mode: C > SS. The solubility (0.45 mg/mm³ and salivary sorption (8.04 mg/mm³ of the nanofilled composite were greater than those of the hybrid composite (0.40 mg/mm³ / 6.87 mg/mm³, and were influenced by the light-activation mode: SS > C. Correlation was found between DC and solubility (r = - 0.89, p<0.05, as well as between solubility and salivary sorption (r = 0.95. These findings suggest that nanofilled composites may present higher degradation in the oral environment than hybrid ones. Soft-start light-activation mode may increase the solubility of resin composites.

  20. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira, E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais; Costa, Michelle Leali [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DMT/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  1. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of resin composites to enamel of dental adhesive systems associated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Monteiro, Gabriela Q. d. M.; Benetti, Carolina; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of resin composite to enamel etching by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the use of two differents adhesives systems. Fifty freshly extracted human molars halves were embedded in acrylic resin before preparation for the study, making a total of up to 100 available samples. The specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (η=10) according to substrate pre-treatment and adhesive system on the enamel. A two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a universal adhesive used as an etch-andrinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond Universal) were applied to the nonirradiated enamel surface according to manufacturer's instructions, as control groups (Control CF and Control SB, respectively). For the other groups, enamel surfaces were previously irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 0.5 W, 75 mJ and 66 J/cm2 (CF 5 Hz and SB 5 Hz) and 1.25 W, 50 mJ and 44 J/cm2 (CF 15 Hz and SB 15 Hz). Irradiation was performed under air (50%) and water (50%) cooling. An independent t-test was performed to compare the adhesive systems. Mean μSBS ± sd (MPa) for each group was 16.857 +/- 2.61, 17.87 +/- 5.83, 12.23 +/- 2.02, 9.88 +/- 2.26, 15.94 +/- 1.98, 17.62 +/- 2.10, respectively. The control groups and the 50 mJ laser groups showed no statistically significant differences, regardless of the adhesive system used. The results obtained lead us to affirm that the bonding interaction of adhesives to enamel depends not only on the morphological aspects of the dental surface, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed and the parameters of the laser.

  2. The effect of type and mixture of resin on the properties of impregnated paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein Kermanian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of different types of resins and also their mixtures on the impregnated paper properties. In this regard, pure urea resin (100%, mixture of melamine and urea resins with various combinations (60/40 and 70/30 and 50/50, mixture of nano-fiber cellulose ratios of 1, 2 and 3 percent with urea resin and pure PVA (100% were used to impregnate of newsprint basic paper of Mazandaran wood and paper industries. Immersion of samples in the impregnation step were done in two time of 5 and 10 seconds. Next, melamine resin was used for surface coating and then absorption of resin in the impregnation and coating process measured. Results showed that in the impregnation step with pure urea (100%, in the respect of absorption rate and surface properties of melamine paper, the best time of impregnation was obtained 10 seconds. In the combined treatment, adding up to 30% melamine to urea resin, as impregnation step resin, offers better properties in terms of stain resistance, cigarette resistance, resistance to cracking and resistance to hot water steam for impregnatedmade paper. By adding nanocellulose up to 1% in impregnation resin, better properties is obtained for melamine paper. Also, PVA as impregnation resin, can be offer similar quality to pure urea in the resulting melamine papers.

  3. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  4. Wireless (Power Transfer Transmission of Electrical Energy (Electricity Intended for Consumer Purposes up to 50 W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project deals with Power Semiconductor Systems PSS for wireless transmission of electricity to the power of 50~W with regard to the distance and transmission efficiency. We decided to use electromagnetic resonance for electrical energy transmission. For experimental verification, we have wound two coils of identical dimensions. At a given power transmission solutions, we obtain the highest efficiency η = 70% at a distance of 5 cm, where the transmitted power was 48 W.

  5. Evaluation of the resin oxidation process using Fenton's reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Leandro G.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2013-01-01

    The ion exchange resin is considered radioactive waste after its final useful life in nuclear reactors. Usually, this type of waste is treated with the immobilization in cement Portland, in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, reducing the possibility of radionuclides release in to environment. Because of the characteristic of expansion and contraction of the resins in presence of water, its incorporation in the common Portland cement is limited in 10% in direct immobilization, causing high costs in the final product. A pre-treatment would be able to reduce the volume, degrading the resins and increasing the load capacity of this material. This paper is about a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Fenton's reagent. The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic and anionic resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25 to 80 mM), with and without external heat. The time of reaction was two hours. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%. The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of CaCO 3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ca(OH) 2 and the CO 2 from the resin degradation. It was possible to degrade the resins without external heating. The calcium carbonates showed no correlation with the residual resin mass. (author)

  6. Removal of nitrate from ammonium hydroxide solution containing organics by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Gamare, Jayashree S.; Vaidya, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    Removal of nitrate from ammonium hydroxide solution containing HMTA (hexamethyltetramine) and Urea was studied using indigenously available anion exchange resins. This type of waste is produced during nuclear fuel preparation by internal gelation process. The resins used are Tulsion A-27(MP) and Duolite A. 102D. The time of equilibration and capacity of the resins were determined from distribution ratios obtained by equilibrating resin with nitrate solution. The loading, washing and elution behavior of nitrate on these resins were studied using synthetic mixture having similar composition of the waste produced. Elution studies were carried out using sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride. The studies were also carried out at higher temperature of around 60 degC. The data was compared with that obtained using Dowex 1x4 for the same purpose. (author)

  7. MegaFlex Scale-Up Cost & Risk Reduction for >50kW Future Power Demands, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the MegaFlex solar array is scaled for power demands greater than 50kW over the next 20 years and deployed load requirements remain high or increase, advanced...

  8. OBLICZENIE PRZEPŁYWÓW MAKSYMALNYCH I ICH REDUKCJI W ZLEWNI ZURBANIZOWANEJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz BARSZCZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono wyniki zastosowania modelu SWMM do obliczenia przepływów o prawdopodobieństwach 50, 10, 2 i 1% w 8. przekrojach Potoku Służewieckiego na odcinku od km 0+000 do 6+576 oraz w 2. przekrojach Rowu Wolica. Zlewnia Potoku Służewieckiego jest zlokalizowana w południowej części Warszawy. Największe zagrożenie powodziowe występuje na odcinku Potoku Służewieckiego od km 0+000 do 3+875. Przepustowość koryta Potoku na tym odcinku kształtuje się na poziomie przepływu maksymalnego o prawdopodobieństwie 50%. Największe wartości przepływów w Potoku Służewieckim prognozowano w przekroju obliczeniowym numer V (km 4+267: Q50% = 13,863, Q10% = 23,019, Q2% = 28,825 i Q1% = 30,500 m3·s-1. Jedną z przyczyn występowania zagrożenia powodziowego w dolnym biegu Potoku Służewieckiego jest dopływ dużej ilości wód opadowych Rowem Wolica. Wartości przepływów w górnym odcinku Rowu Wolica (w przekroju VI zawierały się w granicach od 8,005 do 12,402 m3·s-1, w zależności od prawdopodobieństwa wystąpienia opadu obliczeniowego. W celu określenia możliwości redukcji przepływów w Rowie Wolica, przeprowadzono obliczenia w których uwzględniono zastosowanie kryzy na odcinku ujściowym kolektora do kanału otwartego. Zastosowanie kryzy w kolektorze pozwoli zredukować przepływy o prawdopodobieństwach 50, 10 i 2% odpowiednio o 61,0; 46,0 i 36,6%. Zastosowanie kryzy o stałej średnicy ϕ1,08 m, ustalonej dla przepływu o prawdopodobieństwie 2%, spowoduje znacznie mniejszą redukcję przepływów maksymalnych o prawdopodobieństwach 50 i 10%.

  9. New-generation curing units and short irradiation time: the degree of conversion of microhybrid composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Nicolla; Venturello, Alberto; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Pera, Francesco; Pasqualini, Damiano; Geobaldo, Francesco; Berutti, Elio

    2011-09-01

    This in vitro study investigated the depth of cure of a microhybrid composite resin when cured with reduced times of exposure to three commercially available curing lights. Different sample thicknesses (1, 2, and 3 mm) were light cured in high intensity polymerization mode (2,400 mW/cm² for 5, 10, 15, and 20 seconds; 1,100 mW/cm² for 10, 20, 30, and 40 seconds; and 1,100 mW/cm² for 10, 20, 30, and 40 seconds, respectively). The degree of conversion (%) at the bottom of each sample was measured by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR F-TIR) analysis after each polymerization step. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures, showing the degree of conversion was not influenced by the curing light employed (P = .622) but was significantly influenced by the thickness of composite resin (P conversion vs the shorter irradiation time permitted (T1) were not significant among different lamps but were significant among different thicknesses. The depth of cure of microhybrid composite resin appears not to be influenced by the curing light employed. Increased irradiation time significantly increases the degree of conversion. Thickness strongly influences depth of cure.

  10. Temperature-dependence of creep behaviour of dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effect of temperature, over a clinically relevant range, on the creep behaviour of a set of conventional and flowable resin-composites including two subgroups having the same resin matrix and varied filler loading. Eight dental resin-composites: four flowable and four conventional were investigated. Stainless steel split moulds (4 mm × 6 mm) were used to prepare cylindrical specimens for creep examination. Specimens were irradiated in the moulds in layers of 2mm thickness (40s each), as well as from the radial direction after removal from the moulds, using a light-curing unit with irradiance of 650 mW/cm(2). A total of 15 specimens from each material were prepared and divided into three groups (n=5) according to the temperature; Group I: (23°C), Group II: (37°C) and Group III: (45°C). Each specimen was loaded (20 MPa) for 2h and unloaded for 2h. Creep was measured continuously over the loading and unloading periods. At higher temperatures greater creep and permanent set were recorded. The lowest mean creep occurred with GS and GH resin-composites. Percentage of creep recovery decreased at higher temperatures. At 23°C, the materials exhibited comparable creep. At 37°C and 45°C, however, there was a greater variation between materials. For all resin-composites, there was a strong linear correlation with temperature for both creep and permanent set. Creep parameters of resin-composites are sensitive to temperature increase from 23 to 45°C, as can occur intra-orally. For a given resin matrix, creep decreased with higher filler loading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Karaman, Isa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L -1 HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g -1 . The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L -1 . Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  12. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa, E-mail: m.tuzen@gmail.com [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Karaman, Isa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Biology Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-30

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L{sup -1} HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g{sup -1}. The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L{sup -1}. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  13. Additional chemical polymerization of dual resin cements: reality or a goal to be achieved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Sakaguti UMETSUBO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study serves as a warning to dentists and researchers that dual-cured resin cements may not polymerize completely under some prosthetic crowns. Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the polymerization degree of dual-cured resin cements under prosthetic barrier, by microhardness test. Material and method Three cements (Bistite II, RelyX ARC and Variolink II were light-cured through different barriers, placed between the cement and the light source: G1: without barrier; G2: composite resin (Cesead; G3: Inceram alumina; G4: IPS Empress; G5: Inceram zirconia; G6: tooth fragment. Photopolymerization was carried out using a halogen light unit (650 mW/cm2; microhardness was evaluated using the Microhardness Tester FM 700, under a load of 50gf with a dwell time of 15s, at two evaluation times (30min and 24h. Result The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (5%. Both Inceram alumina and Inceram zirconia ceramic barriers hindered polymerization. Bistite, followed by RelyX and Variolink, exhibited the highest microhardness values (p<0.05. As the highest values were obtained without a barrier, it was determined that the barrier, followed by the tooth, influenced microhardness. Both Empress and Cesead had the smallest microhardness values but with no statistically significant difference between them. Conclusion The barrier negatively affected the microhardness of dual-cured resin cements; evaluation time did not affect microhardness values for most of the conditions tested. There is a limited effect of the chemical activator on the polymerization of some dual-cured cements, and their performance is product specific.

  14. Comparison of the Amount of Fluoride Release from Nanofilled Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Conventional and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitha Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and compare the amount of fluoride release of conventional, resin modified and nanofilled resin modified glass ionomer cements.Materials and Methods: Tablets of glass-ionomer cements were immersed in deionized water and incubated at 37◦C. After 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days, fluoride ion was measured under normal atmospheric conditions by fluoride ion selective electrode. Buffer (TISAB II was used to decomplex the fluoride ion and to provide a constant background ionic strength and to maintain the pH of water between 5.0 and 5.5 as the fluoride electrode is sensitive to changes in pH. Statistical evaluation was carried out by one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance using SPSS 11.0. The significance level was set at p< 0.05.Results: The release of fluoride was highest on day 1 and there was a sudden fall on day 2 in all three groups. Initially fluoride release from conven-tional glass-ionomer cement was highest compared to the other two glass-ionomer cements, but the amount drastically reduced over the period. Although the amount of fluoride release was less than both the resin modified and nanofilled resin modified glass-ionomer cement, the release was sustained consistently for 30 daysConclusion: The cumulative fluoride release of nanofilled resin modified glass ionomer cement was very less compared to the conventional and resin modified glass ionomer cements and Nanofilled resin modified glass ionomer cement released less but steady fluoride as compared to other resin modified glass ionomer cements.

  15. LptO (PG0027) Is Required for Lipid A 1-Phosphatase Activity in Porphyromonas gingivalis W50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Minnie; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Hashim, Ahmed; McPhail, Graham; Luklinska, Zofia; Haurat, M Florencia; Feldman, Mario F; Curtis, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) rich in virulence factors, including cysteine proteases and A-LPS, one of the two lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) produced by this organism. Previous studies had suggested that A-LPS and PG0027, an outer membrane (OM) protein, may be involved in OMV formation. Their roles in this process were examined by using W50 parent and the Δ PG0027 mutant strains. Inactivation of PG0027 caused a reduction in the yield of OMVs. Lipid A from cells and OMVs of P. gingivalis W50 and the Δ PG0027 mutant strains were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Lipid A from W50 cells contained bis-P-pentaacyl, mono-P-pentaacyl, mono-P-tetraacyl, non-P-pentaacyl, and non-P-tetraacyl species, whereas lipid A from Δ PG0027 mutant cells contained only phosphorylated species; nonphosphorylated species were absent. MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem MS of mono-P-pentaacyl ( m / z 1,688) and mono-P-tetraacyl ( m / z 1,448) lipid A from Δ PG0027 showed that both contained lipid A 1-phosphate, suggesting that the Δ PG0027 mutant strain lacked lipid A 1-phosphatase activity. The total phosphatase activities in the W50 and the Δ PG0027 mutant strains were similar, whereas the phosphatase activity in the periplasm of the Δ PG0027 mutant was lower than that in W50, supporting a role for PG0027 in lipid A dephosphorylation. W50 OMVs were enriched in A-LPS, and its lipid A did not contain nonphosphorylated species, whereas lipid A from the Δ PG0027 mutant (OMVs and cells) contained similar species. Thus, OMVs in P. gingivalis are apparently formed in regions of the OM enriched in A-LPS devoid of nonphosphorylated lipid A. Conversely, dephosphorylation of lipid A through a PG0027-dependent process is required for optimal formation of OMVs. Hence, the relative proportions of nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated lipid A appear to be crucial for OMV formation in this organism. IMPORTANCE

  16. Condensate-polisher resin-leakage quantification and resin-transport studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, C.C.; Doss, P.L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this program were to: (1) determine the extent of resin leakage from current generation condensate polisher systems, both deep bed and powdered resin design, during cut-in, steady-state and flow transient operation, (2) analyze moisture separator drains and other secondary system samples for resin fragments and (3) document the level of organics in the secondary system. Resin leakage samples were obtained from nine-power stations that have either recirculating steam generators or once through steam generators. Secondary system samples were obtained from steam generator feedwater, recirculating steam generator blowdown and moisture separator drains. Analysis included ultraviolet light examination, SEM/EDX, resin quantification and infrared analysis. Data obtained from the various plants were compared and factors affecting resin leakage were summarized

  17. FTIR analysis and the effects of alkyd/melamine resin ratio on the properties of the coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakić Suzana M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkyd/melamine resin mixtures are mainly used in industrial baking enamels. The effects of the alkyd/butylated melamine resin ratio (from 90/10 to 50/50 and curing temperature (from 110 to 180°C on the crosslinking and properties of the coating are presented in this paper. The curing reactions through functional groups of resins were monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. The hardness, elasticity, degree of adherence and gloss were also determined. Optimal coating properties could be achieved with an alkyd/melamine resin ratio of 80/20, a curing temperature of 150°C and a curing time of 20 min.

  18. Improving Gold Recovery from Artificial Preg-Robbing Ore by Pre-treatment using Blinding Agent and Resin-in-Leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zaki Mubarok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effectiveness of the use of blinding agents, ionic exchanger resins and the combination of them in improving gold extraction from simulated preg-robbing ore is discussed. The blinding agents used were kerosene, diesel oil and pine oil, while the ion exchange resins used were Lewatit Monoplus MP 800, Lewatit AF 5 and guanidine. Preg-robbing conditions were simulated by blending fine activated carbon with ore sample. The investigation results show that the presence of artificial carbonaceous materials at 2% (w/w in the gold ore significantly reduces gold recovery. Pretreatment of artificial preg-robbing ore prior to cyanidation by mixing with kerosene, diesel oil and pine oil for 0.5h improved gold recovery up to 25.4%. A combination of pre-treatment using blinding agent and a resin in leach (RIL test using Lewatit MP 800 resin demonstrated a synergistic effect that improves gold recovery up to a level of 99.5%,which is significantly higher than using activated carbon and without pretreatment.

  19. The effect of curing units and methods on degree of conversion of two types of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani Tabatabaei M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Halogen lamp is the commonly used light source for composite photo polymerization. Recently, high power halogen lamps, LED and plasma arc are introduced for improving the polymerization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conventional and high power halogen lamps and LED light curing unit on degree of conversion of two different composite resins.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study two halogen units (Coltolux 50 with the intensity of  330 mW/cm2 and Optilux 501 with two different operating modes of standard with the intensity of 820 mW/cm2 and Ramp with the intentsiy of 100-1030mW/cm2 and one LED light curing unit (620 mW/cm2 were used. The composites were hybrid (Tetric ceram and nanofilled (Filteke supreme. Each materials/curing method contained three samples and degree of conversion (DC was measured with FTIR. Data were analyzed statistically with one way and two way ANOVA, Tukey HSD. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance.Results: Tetric ceram revealed higher DCthan Supreme. Tetric ceram showed a significant decrease in DC when Coltolux 50 was used in comparison to LED and Optilux 501. The latters did not show significant effect on DC of this material. DC of Supreme polymerized with various curing modes was not significantly different.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, degree of conversion in hybrid composites was higher than nanofilled. In comparison with conventional halogen lamp (Coltolux 50, high intensity halogen lamps and LED unit significantly lead to higher degree of conversion in hybrid composites.

  20. Three rapid methods for determination {sup 90}Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N. [Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Environmental Radiation Protection Div., National Radiation Protection Dept. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, N. [Tarbiat Modarres Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Strontium radionuclide {sup 90}Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of {sup 90}Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, {sup 90}Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  1. Three rapid methods for determination 90Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N.; Afshar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Strontium radionuclide 90 Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of 90 Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, 90 Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  2. Management of the installation of a 10 MeV, 50 kW electron-beam irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.B.; Armstrong, L.; Drewell, N.H.; McKeown, J.; Scott, L.; O'Brien, D.; Svendsen, E.

    1995-08-01

    An IMPELA-10/50 electron-beam irradiator has been installed by AECL Accelerators in Iotron Industries' service centre near Vancouver. Construction of the facility, installation of the accelerator and conveyor, and commissioning to the full rated power of 50 kW were completed in 12 months. Iotron began commercial irradiation immediately and the first continuous operation achieved 250 hours of production in 12 days. The engineering, production and project management organizations and activities to complete the on-schedule installation and commissioning are reviewed. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Padmakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. Objectives : This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner. Materials and Methods : A total of 70 specimens (64 Χ 10 Χ 3.3 mm were polymerized according to the manufacturer′s instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10. Control group specimens were not subjectedto any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W and time (3, 4, and 5 min settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student′s t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results : For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Conclusion : Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  4. Characterization of the sorption of uranium(VI) on different complexing resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesavento, Maria; Biesuz, Raffaela; Alberti, Giancarla; Sturini, Michela [Dipartimento di Chimica Generale dell' Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Via Taramelli 12, 27100, Pavia (Italy)

    2003-08-01

    The sorption of uranium(VI) on two cationic resins containing different complexing groups, the iminodiacetic resin Chelex 100 and the weak carboxylic resin Amberlite CG-50, was investigated. The Gibbs-Donnan model was used to describe and to predict the sorption through the determination of the intrinsic complexation constants. These quantities, even though non-thermodynamic, characterize the sorption as being independent of experimental conditions. The sorption mechanism of the metal on the complexing resins was also studied by adding a competitive soluble ligand that shifts the sorption curves to higher pH values. The ligand competes with the resin for the complexation with the metal ion. Uranium is also strongly sorbed on Chelex 100 at very acid pH, through formation of two complexes in the resin phase: ML with log{beta}{sub 110i}=-1.16, in more acidic solution, and ML{sub 2}with log {beta}{sub 120i}=-5.72. Only the presence of the competitive ligand in solution makes the determination of the second complex possible. Also on Amberlite CG-50 the sorption is strong and involves the formation of the complex ML {sub 2}, in more acidic solution, with log {beta}{sub 120i}=-3.16. In the presence of the ligand EDTA, the complex ML {sub 2}(OH) {sub 2}was characterized with log {beta}{sub 12-2i}=-5.15. In all the experiments the hydrolysis reaction in the aqueous phase was quantitatively considered. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of the sorption of uranium(VI) on different complexing resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesavento, Maria; Biesuz, Raffaela; Alberti, Giancarla; Sturini, Michela

    2003-01-01

    The sorption of uranium(VI) on two cationic resins containing different complexing groups, the iminodiacetic resin Chelex 100 and the weak carboxylic resin Amberlite CG-50, was investigated. The Gibbs-Donnan model was used to describe and to predict the sorption through the determination of the intrinsic complexation constants. These quantities, even though non-thermodynamic, characterize the sorption as being independent of experimental conditions. The sorption mechanism of the metal on the complexing resins was also studied by adding a competitive soluble ligand that shifts the sorption curves to higher pH values. The ligand competes with the resin for the complexation with the metal ion. Uranium is also strongly sorbed on Chelex 100 at very acid pH, through formation of two complexes in the resin phase: ML with logβ 110i =-1.16, in more acidic solution, and ML 2 with log β 120i =-5.72. Only the presence of the competitive ligand in solution makes the determination of the second complex possible. Also on Amberlite CG-50 the sorption is strong and involves the formation of the complex ML 2 , in more acidic solution, with log β 120i =-3.16. In the presence of the ligand EDTA, the complex ML 2 (OH) 2 was characterized with log β 12-2i =-5.15. In all the experiments the hydrolysis reaction in the aqueous phase was quantitatively considered. (orig.)

  6. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  7. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  8. The characteristics of epoxy resin cured by {gamma}-ray and E-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Y.C. E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr; Kang, Phil Hyun; Park, Jong Seok

    2004-10-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used as high-performance thermosetting resins for many industrial applications. In this study, the effect of an electron beam (E-beam) and {gamma}-ray irradiation on the curing of epoxy resins was investigated. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A(DGEBA), diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F(DGEBF) as epoxy resins, triarylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate(TASHFA), and triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate(TASHFP) as initiators were used in this study. The chemical and mechanical characteristics of irradiated epoxy resins were compared after curing of E-beam and {gamma}-ray irradiation up to 50 kGy in N{sub 2} and air atmosphere. We ascertained the effect of oxygen on the radiation curing of epoxy resin. The thermal properties of cured epoxy were investigated using DMA and TGA. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength were measured. The chemical structures of cured epoxy were characterized by FT-NIR. The gel fraction and the stress at yield of epoxy resins irradiated by E-beam and {gamma}-ray in N{sub 2} atmosphere were also compared with those of epoxy resins irradiated by E-beam and {gamma}-ray in air.

  9. Damage analysis of fiber reinforced resin matrix composites irradiated by CW laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hong; Hu Kaiwei; Mu Jingyang; Bai Shuxin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the damage modes of the carbon fiber and the glass fiber reinforced epoxy or bakelite resin matrix composites irradiated by CW laser under different power densities were analyzed, and the changes of the microstructure and the tensile strength of the composites were also researched. When the resin matrix composites were radiated at a power density more than 0.1 kW/cm 2 , the matrix would be decomposed and the tensile properties of the radiated samples were lost over 30% while the carbon fiber hardly damaged and the glass fiber melted. When the power density of the laser was raised to 1 kW/cm 2 , the matrix burned violently and the carbon fiber cloth began to split with some carbon fiber being fractured, therefore, the fracture strength of the radiated sample lost over 80%. The higher the power density of radiation was, the more serious the damage of the sample was. It was also found that the difference of the matrixes had little effect on the damage extent of the composites. The influence of the radiation density on the temperature of the radiated surface of the carbon/resin composite was numerically calculated by ANSYS finite element software and the calculation results coincided with the damage mode of the radiated composites. (authors)

  10. Two-body wear rate of CAD/CAM resin blocks and their enamel antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Özcan, Mutlu; Trottmann, Albert; Schmutz, Felix; Roos, Malgorzata; Hämmerle, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resins exhibit good mechanical properties and can be used as long-term restorations. The wear rate of such resins and their enamel antagonists is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test and compare the 2-body wear rate of CAD/CAM resin blocks. Wear specimens (N=42, n=6) were made from 5 CAD/CAM resins: ZENO PMMA (ZP), artBloc Temp (AT), Telio CAD (TC), Blanc High-class (HC), CAD-Temp (CT); 1 manually polymerized resin: Integral esthetic press (negative control group, IEP); and 1 glass-ceramic: VITA Mark II (positive control group, VM2). The specimens for the wear resistance were aged in a thermomechanical loading machine (49 N, 1.67 Hz, 5/50°C) with human enamel antagonists. The material loss of all specimens before, during, and after aging was evaluated with a 3DS profilometer. The measured material loss data of all tested groups were statistically evaluated with linear mixed model analysis (a=.05). Manually polymerized resin showed significantly higher material wear (P<.001) than all other tested groups. Glass-ceramic showed significantly lower wear values (P<.001) than CAD/CAM resins ZP, AT, HC, CT, and IES. CAD/CAM resin TC was not significantly different from the positive control group. Glass-ceramic showed the highest enamel wear values (P<.001) of all tested resins. No differences were found in the enamel wear among all resins. The glass-ceramic group showed damage in the form of cracks on the worn enamel surface in 50% of specimens. CAD/CAM resins showed lower wear rates than those conventionally polymerized. Only one CAD/CAM resin, TC, presented material wear values comparable with glass-ceramic. The tested glass-ceramic developed cracks in the enamel antagonist and showed the highest enamel wear values of all other tested groups. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative analysis of PMR-15 polyimide resin by HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Lauver, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of individual components and of total solids of 50 wt pct PMR-15 resin solutions was determined using reverse-phase HPLC to within + or - 8 percent accuracy. Acid impurities, the major source of impurities in 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDE), were eliminated by recrystallizing the BTDE prior to esterification. Triester formation was not a problem because of the high rate of esterification of the anhydride relative to that of the carboxylic acid. Aging of PMR-15 resin solutions resulted in gradual formation of the mononadimide and bisnadimide of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, with the BTDE concentration remaining constant. Similar chemical reactions occurred at a reduced rate in dried films of PMR-15 resin.

  12. Preparation of arginine (guanide 14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Baret, C.

    1960-01-01

    Reaction of anhydrous ammoniac at 800 deg. C on 14 CO 3 Ba gives rise to barium cyanamide 14 C with a yield of about 98 per cent. Addition on H 2 S on cyanamide 14 C leads to thiourea 14 C with a 85 per cent yield, which is quantitatively transformed into S-ethyl-isothiouronium iodide by treatment with methyl iodide. This 14 C-isothiouronium salt is used to introduce 14 C guanide group in α-N-tosyl-ornithine; tosyl group in α-N-tosyl-arginine thus obtained is then removed by hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. Arginine is separated as flavianic acid salt and is purified on exchange resin Dowex-50. The overall yield based on 14 CO 3 Ba is 25 per cent. (author) [fr

  13. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2018-06-01

    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  14. Nanoindentation creep versus bulk compressive creep of dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S; Silikas, N; Akhtar, R; Watts, D C

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate nanoindentation as an experimental tool for characterizing the viscoelastic time-dependent creep of resin-composites and to compare the resulting parameters with those obtained by bulk compressive creep. Ten dental resin-composites: five conventional, three bulk-fill and two flowable were investigated using both nanoindentation creep and bulk compressive creep methods. For nano creep, disc specimens (15mm×2mm) were prepared from each material by first injecting the resin-composite paste into metallic molds. Specimens were irradiated from top and bottom surfaces in multiple overlapping points to ensure optimal polymerization using a visible light curing unit with output irradiance of 650mW/cm(2). Specimens then were mounted in 3cm diameter phenolic ring forms and embedded in a self-curing polystyrene resin. Following grinding and polishing, specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24h. Using an Agilent Technologies XP nanoindenter equipped with a Berkovich diamond tip (100nm radius), the nano creep was measured at a maximum load of 10mN and the creep recovery was determined when each specimen was unloaded to 1mN. For bulk compressive creep, stainless steel split molds (4mm×6mm) were used to prepare cylindrical specimens which were thoroughly irradiated at 650mW/cm(2) from multiple directions and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24h. Specimens were loaded (20MPa) for 2h and unloaded for 2h. One-way ANOVA, Levene's test for homogeneity of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test (all at p≤0.05), plus regression plots, were used for statistical analysis. Dependent on the type of resin-composite material and the loading/unloading parameters, nanoindentation creep ranged from 29.58nm to 90.99nm and permanent set ranged from 8.96nm to 30.65nm. Bulk compressive creep ranged from 0.47% to 1.24% and permanent set ranged from 0.09% to 0.38%. There was a significant (p=0.001) strong positive non-linear correlation (r(2)=0.97) between bulk

  15. Investigation of the photoluminescence properties of composite optical resins containing high lanthanide content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongmei; Wang Fuxiang; Peng Weixian

    2012-01-01

    Novel composite optical resins with high lanthanide content have been synthesized through a free radical copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA), styrene (St) and Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals. We characterized the structure, the thermal properties, dimensions and photoluminescence properties of Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals. Our results indicated that the diameters of the Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals were within the range of 30 to 300 nm. These materials exhibited characteristic europium ion luminescence. The europium-bearing nanocrystals and were then incorporated into the copolymer systems of MA/St and luminescence functional optical resins with high lanthanide content (50 wt%) were obtained. The combination of these particles and optical resins is facile because the diameter of Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O is decreased. These copolymer-based optical resins not only possess good transparency and mechanical performance, but also exhibit an intense narrow band emission of lanthanide complexes and longer fluorescence lifetimes under UV excitation at room temperature. - Highlights: ► Novel composite optical resins with high lanthanide content have been synthesized. ► The Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals were within the range of 30 to 300 nm. ► Fluorescent resins with high lanthanide content (50 wt%) were obtained. ► Resins exhibit intense emission of lanthanide and longer fluorescence lifetimes. ► Variety properties of Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals were characterized.

  16. Batch adsorptive removal of Fe(III, Cu(II and Zn(II ions in aqueous and aqueous organic–HCl media by Dowex HYRW2-Na Polisher resin as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Aleem Soliman Aboul-Magd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the metal ions in tap, Nile, waste and sea water samples and some ores were carried out. Removal of heavy metal ions such as Fe(III, Cd(II, Zn(II, Cu(II, Mn(II, Mg(II, and Pb(II from water and wastewater is obligatory in order to avoid water pollution. Batch shaking adsorption experiments to evaluate the performance of nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions in the removal of metal ions by cation exchange resin at the same conditions for both, such as the effect of initial metal ion concentration, different proportions of some organic solvents, H+-ion concentrations and reaction temperature on the partition coefficients. The metal adsorption for the cation exchanger was found to be significant in different media for both nitric and hydrochloric acids, i.e., the adsorption up take of metal ions presented in this work is very significant depending on the characteristics of ions and on the external concentrations of solute. The presence of low ionic strength or low concentration of acids does have a significant adsorption of metal ions on ion-exchange resin. The results show that the ion exchanger could be employed for the preconcentration, separation and the determination.

  17. Effects of blood contamination on resin-resin bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksson, Sigurdur O; Pereira, Patricia N R; Swift, Edward J; Heymann, Harald O; Sigurdsson, Asgeir

    2004-02-01

    Incremental placement and curing of resin composites has been recommended. However, this requires longer operating time, and therefore, increased risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination on microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) between resin interfaces and to determine the best decontamination method to re-establish the original resin-resin bond strength. The top surfaces of 64, 4-mm composite blocks (Z-250, Renew, APX, Pertac II) were untreated as the control, or were treated as follows: blood applied and dried on the surface (Treatment 1), blood applied, rinsed, dried (Treatment 2), blood applied, rinsed, and an adhesive applied (Single Bond, One-Step, Clearfil SE, Prompt L-Pop) (Treatment 3). Fresh composite was applied and light-cured in 2-mm increments. After 24 h storage in water, the specimens were sectioned into 0.7-mm thick slabs, trimmed to a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2), and loaded to failure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min using an Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (pcontamination resulted in resin-resin bond strengths of only 1.0-13.1 MPa. Rinsing raised bond strengths to over 40 MPa for each material. Use of an adhesive further increased bond strengths except for Pertac II. Rinsing blood from contaminated surfaces increases the resin-resin bond strength significantly and the application of an appropriate adhesive increases the bond strength to control levels.

  18. Vitrification process for the volume reduction and stabilization of organic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a series of experimental tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the feasibility of incinerating and vitrifying organic ion-exchange resins in a single-step process. The resins used in this study were identical to those used for decontaminating auxiliary building water at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor. The primarily organic resins were loaded with nonradioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium for processing in a pilot-scale, joule-heated glass melter modified to support resin combustion. The feasibility tests demonstrated an average process rate of 3.0 kg/h. Based on this rate, if 50 organic resin liners were vitrified in a six-month campaign, a melter 2.5 times the size of the pilot scale unit would be adequate. A maximum achievable volume reduction of 91% was demonstrated in these tests

  19. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  20. Supercritical water oxidation of ion exchange resins: Degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A. [CEA Marcoule, DEN DTCD SPDE LFSM, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Guichardon, P. [Ecole Cent Marseille, F-13451 Marseille 20 (France); Boutin, O. [Aix Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS 6181, F-13545 Aix En Provence 4 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Spent ion exchange resins are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation could offer a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins and contain radioactivity. IER degradation experiments were carried out in a continuous supercritical water reactor. Total organic carbon degradation rates in the range of 95-98% were obtained depending on operating conditions. GC-MS chromatography analyses were carried out to determine intermediate products formed during the reaction. Around 50 species were identified for cationic and anionic resins. Degradation of poly-styrenic structure leads to the formation of low molecular weight compounds. Benzoic acid, phenol and acetic acid are the main compounds. However, other products are detected in appreciable yields such as phenolic species or heterocycles, for anionic IERs degradation. Intermediates produced by intramolecular rearrangements are also obtained. A radical degradation mechanism is proposed for each resin. In this overall mechanism, several hypotheses are foreseen, according to HOO center dot radical attack sites. (authors)

  1. Speciation and surface interactions of actinides on aged ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Buscher, C.T.; Donohoe, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is presently faced with the stabilization and safe disposition of hundreds of metric tons of residue materials resulting from 50+ years of nuclear weapons production activities. These residues encompass a broad range of substrates and radionuclides and include both solid and liquid materials. Combustible residues constitute a significant fraction of the total residue inventory, and an important constituent within the combustible category is spent anion ion-exchange resins. These resins are typically utilized for the separation of plutonium from other radionuclides under strongly acidic nitric or hydrochloric acid solution conditions which favor the formation and partitioning of anionic Pu(IV) nitrato or chloride species. The spent resins are usually rinsed prior to storage as residues to reduce both acid and radionuclide concentrations, but significant radionuclide concentrations remain in these resins, and the long-term effects of concentrated acid and radiolysis on the resin integrity are relatively unexplored. Thus, new research is needed to assess the stability of these resin residues and address the need for further treatment to ensure stability prior to long-term disposal

  2. Examining exposure reciprocity in a resin based composite using high irradiance levels and real-time degree of conversion values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Daniela; Haenel, Thomas; Hausnerová, Berenika; Moeginger, Bernhard; Labrie, Daniel; Sullivan, Braden; Price, Richard B T

    2015-05-01

    Exposure reciprocity suggests that, as long as the same radiant exposure is delivered, different combinations of irradiance and exposure time will achieve the same degree of resin polymerization. This study examined the validity of exposure reciprocity using real time degree of conversion results from one commercial flowable dental resin. Additionally a new fitting function to describe the polymerization kinetics is proposed. A Plasma Arc Light Curing Unit (LCU) was used to deliver 0.75, 1.2, 1.5, 3.7 or 7.5 W/cm(2) to 2mm thick samples of Tetric EvoFlow (Ivoclar Vivadent). The irradiances and radiant exposures received by the resin were determined using an integrating sphere connected to a fiber-optic spectrometer. The degree of conversion (DC) was recorded at a rate of 8.5 measurements a second at the bottom of the resin using attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR). Five specimens were exposed at each irradiance level. The DC reached after 170s and after 5, 10 and 15 J/cm(2) had been delivered was compared using analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD post hoc multiple comparison tests (alpha=0.05). The same DC values were not reached after the same radiant exposures of 5, 10 and 15 J/cm(2) had been delivered at an irradiance of 3.7 and 7.5 W/cm(2). Thus exposure reciprocity was not supported for Tetric EvoFlow (p<0.05). For Tetric EvoFlow, there was no significant difference in the DC when 5, 10 and 15J/cm(2) were delivered at irradiance levels of 0.75, 1.2 and 1.5 W/cm(2). The optimum combination of irradiance and exposure time for this commercial dental resin may be close to 1.5 W/cm(2) for 12s. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Study on color of thermosetting resin for veneer crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitomai, H

    1989-02-01

    Based on the viewpoint that stresses the importance of achieving natural colors and forms for veneer crown, four representative kinds of thermosetting resins were investigated colorimetrically in an attempt to clarify the relationship between the thickness and color of resins in opaque, dentin and enamel colors respectively. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the colors, the CIE colorimetric system employed to show the readings, and the CIE 1964 U*V*W* space was utilized to indicate the color differences, with the following results. 1. In the case of dentin, certain specific colors were observed for thickness of 1.3 to 1.8 mm when used alone, but when applied over opaque the range was 0.2 to 0.5 mm lower than when used alone. 2. Enamel resins were grouped into two types according to different color groups, one group similar to achromatic color with low limpidity and the other similar to the dentin color with high limpidity. The former type became more grayer with an increase in thickness when applied over dentin. The latter type showed no difference in color even when the thickness increased. This study has shown that the facing color results vary depending on the color properties of the different resins used. Therefore, it is advisable that careful consideration be given to these differencies in order to achieve the intended color facing.

  4. Quantum-CEP processing spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarsky, Myron

    1997-01-01

    Quantum-CEP (Q-CEP) is an innovative and proprietary technology developed by Molten Metal Technology, Inc, which can process radioactive and mixed waste streams to decontaminate and recover resources of commercial value while achieving significant volume reduction and radionuclide stabilization. A Q-CEP facility, located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, processes low-level radioactive spent ion exchange resins (IER) from U.S commercial nuclear power plants. The first campaign processing low level radioactive spent IER was successfully completed in December 1996. Other milestones, since December, include operating parallel Trains A and B simultaneously and processing 25,000 lb. dry resin (50,000 lb. wet resin) or six equivalent High Integrity Containers (HICs) in one batch campaign, in March; and processing 50,000 lb. dry resin or 12 equivalent HICs in one batch campaign in May. This paper presents results from the March campaign (97-008) in which 25,000 lb. of dry spent IER from five nuclear power stations were processed. This campaign has been selected since it is representative of campaigns completed during the first five months of operation. Key highlights for this campaign include processing six HICs in batch campaign while achieving a volume reduction of 24: 1. Key performance targets for the facility are to process an average of six HICs per campaign batch and achieve a volume reduction of 30: 1. The average batch size and other performance parameters have steadily improved during the initial operating period with radioactive resin. The progress was dramatically demonstrated by the May campaign during which 12 HICs were processed - achieving a volume reduction estimated to exceed 50: 1. The campaigns in March and May demonstrate that the facility's design and technology are capable of achieving and even exceeding the facility's key target performance parameters

  5. A Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy analysis of the degree of conversion of a universal hybrid resin composite cured with light-emitting diode curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Anders; Emami, Nazanin; van Dijken, Jan W V

    2005-01-01

    The degree of conversion (DC), of a universal hybrid resin composite cured with LED curing units with low and high power densities and a 510 mW/cm2 quartz tungsten halogen unit, was investigated with Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. Three curing depths (0, 2, 4mm) and 0 and 7 mm light guide tip - resin composite (LT - RC) distances were tested. The DC of the LED units varied between 52.3% - 59.8% at the top surface and 46.4% - 57.0% at 4 mm depth. The DC of specimen cured with a 0 mm LT- RC distance at 4 mm depth varied between 50.8% - 57.0% and with 7 mm distance between 46.4% - 55.4%. The low power density LED unit showed a significantly lower DC for both distances at all depth levels compared to the other curing units (p units were only found at the 4 mm depth level cured from 7 mm distance (p units. It can be concluded that the improved LED curing units could cure the studied resin composite to the same DC as the control unit.

  6. Development of method to chemical separation of gallium-67 by thermal diffusion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Patricia de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes of gallium have been studied and evaluated for medical applications since 1949. Over the past 50 years 67 Ga has been widely used in the diagnosis of various diseases, including acute and chronic inflammatory lesions, bacterial or sterile and several types of tumors. In Brazil 30% of clinics that provide services for Nuclear Medicine use 67 Ga citrate and the demand for 67 G a at IPEN-CNEN/SP is 37 GBq (1 Ci)/week. The 67 Ga presents physical half-life of 3.26 days (78 hours) and decays 100% by electron capture to stable 67 Zn. Its decay includes the emission of γ rays with energies of 93.3 keV (37%), 184.6 keV (20.4%), 300.2 keV (16.6%) and 888 keV (26%). In the past 67 Ga was produced by the reaction 68 Zn (p, 2n) 67 Ga at IPEN-CNEN/SP. After irradiation, the target was dissolved in concentrated HCl and the solution percolated through a cationic resin DOWEX 50W-X8, 200-400 mesh, conditioned with 10 mol L -1 HCl. Zinc, nickel and copper were eluted in 10 mol L -1 HCl and 67 Ga 3.5 mol L -1 HCl. The final product was obtained as 67 Ga citrate. This work presents a new, fast, direct and efficient method for the chemical separation of 67 G a by thermal diffusion (heating of the target) combined with concentrated acetic acid extraction. Purification was performed by ion exchange chromatography. Natural zinc electrodeposition was performed on nickel/copper plates as substrate and the zinc deposits were adherent to the substrate, slightly shiny and uniform. The targets were irradiated with 26 MeV protons and integrated current of 10 μA.h. After irradiation, the targets were heated at 300 deg C for 2 hours and placed in contact with concentrated acetic acid for 1 hour. The average yield of extraction of 67 Ga was (72 ± 10)%. This solution was evaporated and the residue was taken up in 0.5 mol L -1 NH 4 OH. The 67 G a was purified on cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 in NH 4 OH medium. The 67 Ga recovery was (98 ± 2)%. This solution was evaporated and taken up

  7. Mechanical properties of dental resin composites by co-filling diatomite and nanosized silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua; Zhu Meifang; Li Yaogang; Zhang Qinghong; Wang Hongzhi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical property effects of co-filling dental resin composites with porous diatomite and nanosized silica particles (OX-50). The purification of raw diatomite by acid-leaching was conducted in a hot 5 M HCl solution at 80 deg. C for 12 h. Both diatomite and nanosized SiO 2 were silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The silanized inorganic particles were mixed into a dimethacrylate resin. Purified diatomite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. Silanized inorganic particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical properties of the composites were tested by three-point bending, compression and Vicker's microhardness. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show the cross-section morphologies of the composites. Silanization of diatomite and nanosized silica positively reinforced interactions between the resin matrix and the inorganic particles. The mechanical properties of the resin composites gradually increased with the addition of modified diatomite (m-diatomite). The fracture surfaces of the composites exhibited large fracture steps with the addition of m-diatomite. However, when the mass fraction of m-diatomite was greater than 21 wt.% with respect to modified nanosized silica (mOX-50) and constituted 70% of the resin composite by weight, the mechanical properties of the resin composites started to decline. Thus, the porous structure of diatomite appears to be a crucial factor to improve mechanical properties of resin composites.

  8. Analysis of surface hardness of artificially aged resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of artificially accelerated aging (AAA on the surface hardness of eight composite resins: Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma, and Filtek Z100. Sixteen specimens were made from the test piece of each material, using an 8.0 × 2.0 mm teflon matrix. After 24 hours, eight specimens from each material were submitted to three surface hardness readings using a Shimadzu Microhardness Tester for 5 seconds at a load of 50 gf. The other eight specimens remained in the artificially accelerated aging machine for 382 hours and were submitted to the same surface hardness analysis. The means of each test specimen were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p > 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. With regard to hardness (F = 86.74, p < 0.0001 the analysis showed significant differences among the resin composite brands. But aging did not influence the hardness of any of the resin composites (F = 0.39, p = 0.53. In this study, there was interaction between the resin composite brand and the aging factors (F = 4.51, p < 0.0002. It was concluded that notwithstanding the type of resin, AAA did not influence surface hardness. However, with regard to hardness there was a significant difference among the resin brands.

  9. Mechanical properties of composites based on unsaturated polyester resins obtained by chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Aleksandar D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites based on unsaturated polyester (UPe resins and fumed silica AEROSIL® RY 50, NY 50, RX 50 and NAX 50, as well as graphite, TiO2 or organically modified clay CLOISITE 30B were prepared in order to investigate the influence of reinforcing agents on the mechanical properties of composites. Unsaturated polyester resins were synthesized from maleic anhydride and products of glycolysis, obtained by depolymerization of poly(ethylene terephthalate with dipropylene glycol (UPe1 resin and triethylene glycol (UPe2 resin in the presence of tetrabutyl titanate catalyst. The obtained unsaturated polyesters were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, acid and hydroxyl values, and their mechanical properties were also examined. Significant increase of the tensile modulus, tensile strength and decrease of the elongation at break was observed for composites prepared after addition of 10 wt.% of graphite or 10 wt.% of TiO2 to the UPe resins, indicating strong interaction between matrix and filler particles. On the other hand, nanocomposites prepared using UPe2 and hydrophobically modified silica nanoparticles showed lower tensile strength and tensile modulus than polymer matrix. The presence of CLOISITE 30B had no significant influence on the mechanical properties of UPe1, while tensile strength and tensile modulus of UPe2 increased after adding 10 wt.% of clay. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  10. Design of the 50 kW neutron converter for SPIRAL2 facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilov, M.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk, SB RAS (Russian Federation); Tecchio, L.B., E-mail: tecchio@lnl.infn.i [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Titov, A.T. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, 630090 Novosibirsk, SB RAS (Russian Federation); Tsybulya, V.S. [Trofimuk Institute of Geology, 630090 Novosibirsk, SB RAS (Russian Federation); Zhmurikov, E.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk, SB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-21

    SPIRAL2 is a facility for the study of fundamental nuclear physics and multidisciplinary research. SPIRAL2 represents a major advance for research on exotic nuclei. The radioactive ion beam (RIB) production system is comprised of a neutron converter, a target and an ion source. This paper is dedicated to the designing of the 50 kW neutron converter for the SPIRAL2 facility. Among the different variants of the neutron converter, the one based on a rotating solid disk seems quite attractive due to its safety, ease in production and relatively low cost. Dense graphite used as the converter's material allows the production of high-intensity neutron flux and, at the same time, the heat removal from the converter by means of radiation cooling. Thermo-mechanical simulations performed in order to determine the basic geometry and physical characteristics of the neutron production target for SPIRAL2 facility, to define the appropriate beam power distribution, and to predict the target behaviour under the deuteron beam of nominal parameters (40 MeV, 1.2 mA, 50 kW) are presented. To study the main physical and mechanical properties and serviceability under operating conditions, several kinds of graphite have been analyzed and tested. The paper reports the results of such measurements. Radiation damage is the most important issue for the application of graphite as neutron converter. It is well known that the thermal conductivity of the neutron-irradiated graphite is reduced by a factor of 10 from the initial value after irradiation. Difference in volume expansions between the matrix and the fiber results in serious damage of neutron-irradiated C/C composites. Calculations showed that at high temperature the effect of neutron radiation is not so critical and that the change in thermal conductivity does not prevent the use of graphite as neutron converter.

  11. Design of the 50 kW neutron converter for SPIRAL2 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, M.S.; Tecchio, L.B.; Titov, A.T.; Tsybulya, V.S.; Zhmurikov, E.I.

    2010-01-01

    SPIRAL2 is a facility for the study of fundamental nuclear physics and multidisciplinary research. SPIRAL2 represents a major advance for research on exotic nuclei. The radioactive ion beam (RIB) production system is comprised of a neutron converter, a target and an ion source. This paper is dedicated to the designing of the 50 kW neutron converter for the SPIRAL2 facility. Among the different variants of the neutron converter, the one based on a rotating solid disk seems quite attractive due to its safety, ease in production and relatively low cost. Dense graphite used as the converter's material allows the production of high-intensity neutron flux and, at the same time, the heat removal from the converter by means of radiation cooling. Thermo-mechanical simulations performed in order to determine the basic geometry and physical characteristics of the neutron production target for SPIRAL2 facility, to define the appropriate beam power distribution, and to predict the target behaviour under the deuteron beam of nominal parameters (40 MeV, 1.2 mA, 50 kW) are presented. To study the main physical and mechanical properties and serviceability under operating conditions, several kinds of graphite have been analyzed and tested. The paper reports the results of such measurements. Radiation damage is the most important issue for the application of graphite as neutron converter. It is well known that the thermal conductivity of the neutron-irradiated graphite is reduced by a factor of 10 from the initial value after irradiation. Difference in volume expansions between the matrix and the fiber results in serious damage of neutron-irradiated C/C composites. Calculations showed that at high temperature the effect of neutron radiation is not so critical and that the change in thermal conductivity does not prevent the use of graphite as neutron converter.

  12. High performance, rapid thermal/UV curing epoxy resin for additive manufacturing of short and continuous carbon fiber epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, James

    2018-04-17

    An additive manufacturing resin system including an additive manufacturing print head; a continuous carbon fiber or short carbon fibers operatively connected to the additive manufacturing print head; and a tailored resin operatively connected to the print head, wherein the tailored resin has a resin mass and wherein the tailored resin includes an epoxy component, a filler component, a catalyst component, and a chain extender component; wherein the epoxy component is 70-95% of the resin mass, wherein the filler component is 1-20% of the resin mass, wherein the catalyst component is 0.1-10% of the resin mass, and wherein the chain extender component is 0-50% of the resin mass.

  13. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasoohi, Negin; Hoorizad, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30) was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10). Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposite resins. PMID:29104597

  14. Application of Resin in Pulp Technique for Ion Exchange Separation of Uranium from Alkaline Leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.C.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Resin-in-pulp technique was applied for purification and enrichment of uranium values from a finely ground uranium ore leach slurry of alkaline nature using strong base anion exchange resin (size 500 - 675μm). • The chemical composition of the solution phase of the alkaline leach slurry (pH 9.5) was consisting of about 40 g/L of total dissolved solutes (TDS) predominantly with Na_2CO_3 and NaHCO_3 and minor levels of Na_2SO_4. The uranium content was only 730 mg/L and d50 of solids was 34μm. • Amongst the various commercially available resins studied PFA 4740 and 4783 having quaternary ammonium ion on polystyrene crosslink with divibyl benzez (DVB) gave best performance. The maximum loading capacity achieved in the RIP studies was about 60-65 g of U_3O_8/L of wet settled resin amounting to 98% of loading. This has necessitated 4 stages of counter-current extraction with overall contact time of 100 minutes at a resin to leach slurry volume ratio of about 1:50. Practically the entire uranium values loaded on the resin were eluted using NaCl. • The RIP process was found quite efficient for uranium bearing alkaline leach slurries.

  15. Arsenic Removal from Pinctada martensii Enzymatic Hydrolysate by Using Zr(Ⅳ)-Loaded Chelating Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoman; DAI Wenjin; SUN Huili; PAN Jianyu

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the removal of inorganic arsenic from Pinctada martensii enzymatic hydrolysate through unmodified resin (D296) and Zr(Ⅳ)-loaded chelating resin (Zr-D401).By loading Zr to macroporous chelating resin D401,the as exchange adsorption active sites are generated.This transforms D401 from a material that does not have the arsenic adsorption capacity into a material that has excellent arsenic exchange adsorption capacity.The static adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the optimal removal condition for D296 and Zr-D401.The experimental results show that:the optimum condition for D296 is that T=25℃,pH=5,resin additive amount=1 g(50mL)-1,and contact time=10h,the corresponding arsenic removal rate being 65.7%,and protein loss being 2.33%; the optimum condition for Zr-D401 is that T=25 ℃,pH=8,resin additive amount=1 g (50 mL)-1,and contact time=10 h,the corresponding arsenic removal rate being 70.3%,and protein loss being 4.65%.These results show that both of the two resins are effective in arsenic removal for preserving useful substance.Our research provides scientific evidence and advances in the processing technology for heavy metal removal in shellfish.

  16. Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1997-10-01

    There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory's Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system's costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies

  17. Light curing through glass ceramics: effect of curing mode on micromechanical properties of dual-curing resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate micromechanical properties of five dual-curing resin cements after different curing modes including light curing through glass ceramic materials. Vickers hardness (VH) and indentation modulus (Y HU) of Panavia F2.0, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, SpeedCEM, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA were measured after 1 week of storage (37 °C, 100 % humidity). The resin cements were tested following self-curing or light curing with the second-generation light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit Elipar FreeLight 2 in Standard Mode (1,545 mW/cm(2)) or with the third-generation LED curing unit VALO in High Power Mode (1,869 mW/cm(2)) or in XtraPower Mode (3,505 mW/cm(2)). Light curing was performed directly or through glass ceramic discs of 1.5 or 3 mm thickness of IPS Empress CAD or IPS e.max CAD. VH and Y HU were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05). RelyX Unicem 2 Automix resulted in the highest VH and Y HU followed by BeautiCem SA, BisCem, SpeedCEM, and finally Panavia F2.0. Self-curing of RelyX Unicem 2 Automix and SpeedCEM lowered VH and Y HU compared to light curing whereas self-curing of Panavia F2.0, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA led to similar or significantly higher VH and Y HU compared to light curing. Generally, direct light curing resulted in similar or lower VH and Y HU compared to light curing through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. Light curing through 3-mm-thick discs of IPS e.max CAD generally reduced VH and Y HU for all resin cements except SpeedCEM, which was the least affected by light curing through ceramic discs. The resin cements responded heterogeneously to changes in curing mode. The applied irradiances and light curing times adequately cured the resin cements even through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. When light curing resin cements through thick glass ceramic restorations, clinicians should consider to prolong the light curing times even with LED curing units providing high

  18. Importance of resin ducts in reducing ponderosa pine mortality from bark beetle attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeffrey M; Kolb, Thomas E

    2010-11-01

    The relative importance of growth and defense to tree mortality during drought and bark beetle attacks is poorly understood. We addressed this issue by comparing growth and defense characteristics between 25 pairs of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees that survived and trees that died from drought-associated bark beetle attacks in forests of northern Arizona, USA. The three major findings of our research were: (1) xylem resin ducts in live trees were >10% larger (diameter), >25% denser (no. of resin ducts mm(-2)), and composed >50% more area per unit ring growth than dead trees; (2) measures of defense, such as resin duct production (no. of resin ducts year(-1)) and the proportion of xylem ring area to resin ducts, not growth, were the best model parameters of ponderosa pine mortality; and (3) most correlations between annual variation in growth and resin duct characteristics were positive suggesting that conditions conducive to growth also increase resin duct production. Our results suggest that trees that survive drought and subsequent bark beetle attacks invest more carbon in resin defense than trees that die, and that carbon allocation to resin ducts is a more important determinant of tree mortality than allocation to radial growth.

  19. Isotopic measurement of uranium using NP-type chelate resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lanbi; Chen Wenpo; Wang Shijun

    1994-08-01

    NP-type chelate resin beads is used as a carrier of samples in the isotopic measurements of uranium by mass spectrometry. The results show that its absorption efficiency for uranium can be greater than 50%. It is one order magnitude higher than that strong basic anion resin, however, the ionization efficiencies of both are almost the same. Therefore, the amount of uranium required for isotopic analysis can be reduced one order of magnitude. This method has been used for isotopic analysis of uranium in NP-type chelate resin beads contained 10 -9 ∼ 10 -7 g uranium. For standard sample UTB-500, the external precision of measurements are within +-0.2%, for natural uranium samples are within +- 0.5%. The application of NP-type chelate resin beads in the isotopic measurement of uranium is a new creative achievement. It has been used in the depletion test of uranium-atomic vapor laser isotope separation

  20. Design and manufacturing concrete cells for shielding and storing radioactive semi liquid waste (resin) from MPR-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudjijanto-MS; Bahdir-Johan

    2003-01-01

    Semi liquid or quasi solid waste on Multipurpose Reactor G.A. Siwabessy (MPR-GAS) produced from operating resin rinsing systems and resin disposal systems during changes insert trap resin. Volume of the disposal resin waste in the filter mixed-bed per operation rinsing period are approx. 1.00 m 3 (in the Primary Cooling Water Treatment System) with activity ∼ 18.6 Ci/m 3 (0.688 TBq/m 3 ), 0.50 m 3 (in the Radioisotope Storage Pool Water Treatment System) with activity approx ∼ 0.162 Ci/m 3 (5.99 x 10 3 MBq/m 3 ) and 0.50 m 3 (in the Interim Spent Fuel Storage Pool Water Treatment System) with activity ∼ 0.162 Ci/m 3 (5.99 x 10 3 MBq/m 3 ) respectively. On the discharging and unloading, the gross radioactivity concentration of the resin waste loaded in the disposal resin waste tank are approx. 10 Ci/m 3 (0.37 TBq/m 3 ). After 6 months delayed, this activity is still 0.32 Ci/m 3 (11.84 GBq/m 3 ). Based on this data, some concrete cells to storage resin waste as semi liquid or quasi solid waste produced continuously by MPR-GAS installation has been designed and manufactured eternally

  1. Batch adsorptive removal of Fe(III), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in aqueous and aqueous organic–HCl media by Dowex HYRW2-Na Polisher resin as adsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Aboul-Magd, Abdul-Aleem Soliman; Al-Husain, Salwa Al-Rashed; Al-Zahrani, Salma Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Of the metal ions in tap, Nile, waste and sea water samples and some ores were carried out. Removal of heavy metal ions such as Fe(III), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Mg(II), and Pb(II) from water and wastewater is obligatory in order to avoid water pollution. Batch shaking adsorption experiments to evaluate the performance of nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions in the removal of metal ions by cation exchange resin at the same conditions for both, such as the effect of initial metal ion ...

  2. Mechanical properties of dental resin composites by co-filling diatomite and nanosized silica particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hua; Zhu Meifang [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li Yaogang [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang Qinghong, E-mail: zhangqh@dhu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang Hongzhi, E-mail: wanghz@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical property effects of co-filling dental resin composites with porous diatomite and nanosized silica particles (OX-50). The purification of raw diatomite by acid-leaching was conducted in a hot 5 M HCl solution at 80 deg. C for 12 h. Both diatomite and nanosized SiO{sub 2} were silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The silanized inorganic particles were mixed into a dimethacrylate resin. Purified diatomite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm. Silanized inorganic particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical properties of the composites were tested by three-point bending, compression and Vicker's microhardness. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show the cross-section morphologies of the composites. Silanization of diatomite and nanosized silica positively reinforced interactions between the resin matrix and the inorganic particles. The mechanical properties of the resin composites gradually increased with the addition of modified diatomite (m-diatomite). The fracture surfaces of the composites exhibited large fracture steps with the addition of m-diatomite. However, when the mass fraction of m-diatomite was greater than 21 wt.% with respect to modified nanosized silica (mOX-50) and constituted 70% of the resin composite by weight, the mechanical properties of the resin composites started to decline. Thus, the porous structure of diatomite appears to be a crucial factor to improve mechanical properties of resin composites.

  3. Utilisation of the binders prepared from coal tar pitch and phenolic resins for the production metallurgical quality briquettes from coke breeze and the study of their high temperature carbonization behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benk, Ayse [University of Erciyes, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    To reduce the cost of the formed coke briquettes which can be used as a substitute fuel to the metallurgical coke for the blast furnace from the coke breeze alternative binders and their blends were used. The high temperature behavior was investigated. The binders tested were: the nitrogen blown, air blown coal tar pitch and the blend of air blown coal tar pitch with the phenolic resins blends. The phenolic resin blends were prepared by mixing equal amount of resole and novalac. From the results, nitrogen blowing resulted in the weakest briquettes. The air blowing procedure should be preferred in place of nitrogen blowing for this purpose. When the air blown coal tar pitch was used alone as a binder, the briquettes must be cured at 200 C for 2 h, then carbonized at a temperature above 670 C. Since it requires higher temperature at carbonization stage, using air blown coal tar pitch alone as a binder was not economical. Therefore, the briquettes were prepared from the blended binder, containing air blown coal tar pitch and phenolic resins blend. The optimum amount of air blown coal tar pitch was found to be 50% w/w in the blended binder. Curing the briquettes at 200 C for 2 h was found to be sufficient for producing strong briquettes with a tensile strength of 50.45 MN/m{sup 2}. When these cured briquettes were carbonized at temperatures 470 C, 670 C and 950 C, their strength were increasing continuously, reaching to 71.85 MN/m{sup 2} at the carbonization temperature of 950 C. These briquettes can be used as a substitute for the metallurgical coke after curing; the process might not require un-economical high temperature carbonization stage. (author)

  4. Capacity Enhancement for Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Channels with 46.8Gbit/sWireless Multi-CAP Transmission over 50m at W-Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Transmission of a 46.8 Gbit/s multi-band CAP signal is experimentally demonstrated over a 50 m W-band radio-over-fiber link. Bit error rates below 3.8×10-3 are achieved, employing nine CAP bands with bit and power loading.......Transmission of a 46.8 Gbit/s multi-band CAP signal is experimentally demonstrated over a 50 m W-band radio-over-fiber link. Bit error rates below 3.8×10-3 are achieved, employing nine CAP bands with bit and power loading....

  5. Novel matrix resins for composites for aircraft primary structures, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, P. M.; Maynard, S.; Bishop, M. T.; Bruza, K. J.; Godschalx, J. P.; Mullins, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the contract is the development of matrix resins with improved processability and properties for composites for primarily aircraft structures. To this end, several resins/systems were identified for subsonic and supersonic applications. For subsonic aircraft, a series of epoxy resins suitable for RTM and powder prepreg was shown to give composites with about 40 ksi compressive strength after impact (CAI) and 200 F/wet mechanical performance. For supersonic applications, a thermoplastic toughened cyanate prepreg system has demonstrated excellent resistance to heat aging at 360 F for 4000 hours, 40 ksi CAI and useful mechanical properties at greater than or equal to 310 F. An AB-BCB-maleimide resin was identified as a leading candidate for the HSCT. Composite panels fabricated by RTM show CAI of approximately 50 ksi, 350 F/wet performance and excellent retention of mechanical properties after aging at 400 F for 4000 hours.

  6. Spray pond piping made from fiberglass-reinforced thermosetting resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for implementing requirements pertaining to the design, fabrication, and testing of fiberglass-reinforced thermosetting resin piping for spray pond applications. These requirements are given in 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.55a and Apppendix A, Criterion 1. This guide applies to both light-water-cooled and gas-cooled reactors. Input has been provided by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

  7. Slug Test Characterization Results for Multi-Test/Depth Intervals Conducted During the Drilling of CERCLA Operable Unit OU ZP-1 Wells 299-W11-43, 299-W15-50, and 299-W18-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2010-06-21

    The following report presents test descriptions and analysis results for multiple, stress level slug tests that were performed at selected test/depth intervals within three Operable Unit (OU) ZP-1 wells: 299-W11-43 (C4694/Well H), 299-W15-50 (C4302/Well E), and 299-W18-16 (C4303/Well D). These wells are located within south-central region of the Hanford Site 200-West Area (Figure 1.1). The test intervals were characterized as the individual boreholes were advanced to their final drill depths. The primary objective of the hydrologic tests was to provide information pertaining to the areal variability and vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity with depth at these locations within the OU ZP-1 area. This type of characterization information is important for predicting/simulating contaminant migration (i.e., numerical flow/transport modeling) and designing proper monitor well strategies for OU and Waste Management Area locations.

  8. Effect of long-term water immersion or thermal shock on mechanical properties of high-impact acrylic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hirono; Hamanaka, Ippei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term water immersion or thermal shock on the mechanical properties of high-impact acrylic denture base resins. Two high-impact acrylic denture base resins were selected for the study. Specimens of each denture base material tested were fabricated according to the manufacturers' instructions (n=10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit, the elastic modulus and the impact strength of the specimens were evaluated. The flexural strength at the proportional limit of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins did not change after six months' water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The elastic moduli of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly increased after six months' water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The impact strengths of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly decreased after water immersion or thermocycling as described above.

  9. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  10. Preparation of minor actinides targets or blankets by the means of Ionic Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Mokhtari, H.; Ramiere, I.; Jobelin, I. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Process Department, Actinides Chemistry Laboratory, BP17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The objective of our R and D work is the elaboration by the use of ionic exchange resin of minor actinide precursors for target or blanket dedicated to their transmutation in sodium fast reactor. From the beginning, the resin process called WAR (acronym of Weak Acid Resin) was developed in the 70's at the ORNL for the making of uranium carbide kernels for the high temperature gas reactor [1] [2]. By now, our aim is to extend this concept to the manufacturing of minor actinides oxide mixed with uranium oxides [3]. More precisely, this process can be divided in two major steps: the loading of the resin and the thermal treatment of the fully loaded resin driving either to oxide or carbide phases depending on the gas atmosphere. The difficulty stems from the preparation of the loading solutions which must fulfill precise conditions of pH in presence of actinides cations prone to hydrolysis. Furthermore, the proportions of uranium and minor actinides in solutions must be adjusted to fit the right ratio in the solid. The study presented here will then focus on the experiments and tests which enable us to optimize the fixing of minor actinides on ionic exchange resin and their carbonization in oxide. [1] G. W. Weber, R. L. Beatty et V. J. Tennery, Nuclear Technology, 35, 217-226, (1977), 'Processing and composition control of weak-acid-resin derived fuel microspheres'. [2] K. J. Notz, P. A. Haas, J. H. Shaffer, Radiochimica Acta, 25, 153-160, (1978). 'The preparation of HTGR Fissile Fuel Kernels by Uranium Loading of Ion Exchange Resin'. [3] S. Picart, H. Mokhtari, I. Ramiere, 'Plutonium Futures, The Science 2008', 7-11 july 2008, Dijon, France. 'Modelling of the ionic Exchange between a weak acid resin in its ammonium form and a minor actinide'. (authors)

  11. Salivary bisphenol A levels and their association with composite resin restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ha; Yi, Seung-Kyoo; Kim, Se-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Soo; Son, Sung-Ae; Jeong, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2017-04-01

    Composite resin has been increasingly used in an effort to remove minimal amount of tooth structure and are used for restoring not just carious cavities but also cervical abrasion. To synthesize composite resin, bisphenol A (BPA) is used. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in salivary BPA level related with composite resin restoration. ELISA was used to examine the BPA levels in the saliva collected from 30 volunteers whose teeth were filled with composite resin. Salivary samples were collected immediately before filling and 5 min and 7 d after filling. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and linear regression were performed to test the significant differences of the changes in BPA levels in saliva. Before a new composite resin filling, there was no significant difference between with and without existing filling of composite resin and BPA level in the saliva was not correlated to the number of filled surfaces with composite resin. However, BPA level in the saliva increased to average 3.64 μg/L from average 0.15 μg/L after filling 5 min. BPA level increased in proportion with the number of filled surfaces. BPA level decreased to average 0.59 after filling 7 d. However it was higher than the BPA level before a new composite resin filling. Considering 50 μg/kg/day as the Tolerable Daily Intake of BPA suggested by European Food Safety Authority, the amount of BPA eluted in saliva after the composite resin filling is considered a safe level that is not a hazard to health at all. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Manufacturing of a REBCO racetrack coil using thermoplastic resin aiming at Maglev application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel REBCO coil structure which applies thermoplastic resin. • The thermoplastic resin bonds the coil winding and cooling plates. • The adhesiveness of the resin is strong enough to withstand the thermal stress. • The thermoplastic resin does not cause the degradation because of its high viscosity. • We successfully made a full-scale racetrack REBCO coil with the thermoplastic resin. - Abstract: The REBCO coated conductor is a promising technology for the Maglev application in terms of its high critical temperature. The operating temperature of the on-board magnets can be around 40–50 K with the coated conductor. The REBCO coils are cooled by cryocoolers directly, and hence the thermal design of the REBCO coils significantly changes from that of LTS coils. We have developed a novel REBCO coil structure using thermoplastic resin. The coil is not impregnated and the thermoplastic resin is used to bond the coil winding and the heat transfer members, e.g. copper and aluminum plates. The viscosity of the thermoplastic resin is high enough for the thermoplastic resin not to permeate between the turns in the coil. Therefore, the thermal stress does not occur and the risk of degradation is removed. This paper contains the following three topics. First, the thermal resistance of the thermoplastic resin was measured at cryogenic temperature. Then, a small round REBCO coil was experimentally produced. It has been confirmed that the thermoplastic resin does not cause the degradation and, the adhesion between the coil winding and copper plates withstands the thermal stress. Finally, we successfully produced a full-scale racetrack REBCO coil applying the coil structure with the thermoplastic resin.

  13. Manufacturing of a REBCO racetrack coil using thermoplastic resin aiming at Maglev application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi, E-mail: mizuno.katsutoshi.14@rtri.or.jp; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We propose a novel REBCO coil structure which applies thermoplastic resin. • The thermoplastic resin bonds the coil winding and cooling plates. • The adhesiveness of the resin is strong enough to withstand the thermal stress. • The thermoplastic resin does not cause the degradation because of its high viscosity. • We successfully made a full-scale racetrack REBCO coil with the thermoplastic resin. - Abstract: The REBCO coated conductor is a promising technology for the Maglev application in terms of its high critical temperature. The operating temperature of the on-board magnets can be around 40–50 K with the coated conductor. The REBCO coils are cooled by cryocoolers directly, and hence the thermal design of the REBCO coils significantly changes from that of LTS coils. We have developed a novel REBCO coil structure using thermoplastic resin. The coil is not impregnated and the thermoplastic resin is used to bond the coil winding and the heat transfer members, e.g. copper and aluminum plates. The viscosity of the thermoplastic resin is high enough for the thermoplastic resin not to permeate between the turns in the coil. Therefore, the thermal stress does not occur and the risk of degradation is removed. This paper contains the following three topics. First, the thermal resistance of the thermoplastic resin was measured at cryogenic temperature. Then, a small round REBCO coil was experimentally produced. It has been confirmed that the thermoplastic resin does not cause the degradation and, the adhesion between the coil winding and copper plates withstands the thermal stress. Finally, we successfully produced a full-scale racetrack REBCO coil applying the coil structure with the thermoplastic resin.

  14. Mechanical and Magnetic Properties of YBCO Superconductor with Bi/CNT Composite and Resin/CNT Impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, W. S.; Jang, G. E.; Han, Y. H.; Sung, T. H.

    2007-01-01

    Bi/CNT composite and resin/CNT were chosen to improve the mechanical properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) superconductor. In order to elucidate the effects of Bi/CNT composite and resin/CNT in YBCO superconductors, melt texture superconductor were impregnated by mixed compound of Bi and CNT into the artificial holes parallel to the c-axis, which were drilled on the YBCO superconductor. Various amount of Bi/CNT and resin/CNT were impregnated to YBCO superconductor with different holes diameters. Typical artificial holes diameters were 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 mm respectively. Result of three-point bending test measurement, the bending strength with resin/CNT impregnation was improved up to 59.64 MPa as compared with 50.79 MPa of resin/CNT free bulk. Resin/CNT impregnation has been found to be one of the effective ways in improving the mechanical properties of bulk superconductor.

  15. Influence of curing rate of resin composite on the bond strength to dentin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, E; Peutzfeldt, A

    2007-01-01

    @ 1000 mW/cm2) for all groups. A split Teflon mold was clamped to the treated dentin surface and filled with resin composite. The rate of cure was varied, using one of four LED-curing units of different power densities. The rate of cure was also varied using the continuous or pulse-delay mode....... In continuous curing mode, in order to give an energy density totaling 16 J/cm2, the power densities (1000, 720, 550, 200 mW/cm2) emitted by the various curing units were compensated for by the light curing period (16, 22, 29 or 80 seconds). In the pulse-delay curing mode, two seconds of light curing at one...... of the four power densities was followed by a one-minute interval, after which light cure was completed (14, 29, 27 or 78 seconds), likewise, giving a total energy density of 16 J/cm2. The specimens produced for each of the eight curing protocols and two resin composites (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of novel halloysite-incorporated adhesive resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Sabrina A; Münchow, Eliseu A; Al-Zain, Afnan O; Kamocki, Krzysztof; Platt, Jeffrey A; Bottino, Marco C

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of Halloysite® aluminosilicate clay nanotubes (HNTs) addition on selected physical, mechanical, and biological properties of experimental adhesive resins. Experimental dentin adhesive resins were prepared by mixing Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA (50/25/25wt.%), and photo-initiators. As-received HNTs were then incorporated into the resin mixture at distinct concentrations: 0 (HNT-free, control), 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 20wt.%. The degree of conversion (DC), radiopacity (RP), Knoop hardness (KHN), flexural strength (FS), and cytotoxicity analyses were carried out for each adhesive formulation. The adhesive resin of Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) was used as the commercially available reference for both the RP and cytotoxicity tests. Data were statistically analyzed using One-Way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p≤0.05). All adhesives exhibited similar DC (p=0.1931). The RP of adhesives was improved with the addition of up to 5wt.% of HNTs (p<0.001). Adhesives containing 5-10wt.% of HNTs led to greater KHN when compared to the control (p<0.001). The FS was reduced only when 20wt.% of HNTs was added (p≤0.001). None of the prepared adhesives was cytotoxic. The incorporation of up to 10wt.% of HNTs into the adhesive resins did not jeopardize the tested physical and biological properties. When using HNTs as carriers of drugs/bioactive compounds, the amount of the former added into adhesive resin materials should not exceed 10wt.%; otherwise, a significant reduction in physicomechanical properties may be expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A study of adsorption equilibrium on quaternary ammonium resin in uranyl sulphate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Genfu; Xu Jiazhong; Zhu Jinghua

    1986-01-01

    Adsorption equilibrium on quaternary ammonium resin in uranyl sulphate solution, which is similar to composition used in uranium hydrometallurgy, was studied by chemical equivalent method. In the given range, the ratio of HSO 4 - to SO 4 2- on the resin is dependent on concentration of H + and ionic strength (μ) of solution, but it is independent of other anions sorbed on the resin. When the solution has μ of 0.1 to 0.5, pH of 1.5 to 1.9 and 0.5 x 10 -3 to 2.0 x 10 -3 M of uranium, the value of n in complex UO 2 (SO 4 ) n 2-2n is 2.5 to 2.7. The uranium occupies about 30% to 50% of total resin capacity

  18. Experimental 1 kW 20 cell PEFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F N; Marmy, C A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ruge, M [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A 20-cell PEFC stack was designed and built. Resin impregnated graphite was used as bipolar plate material. The air cooling of the stack was optimized by introducing high surface structures into the open space of the cooling plates. At {eta} (H{sub 2} LHV) = 0.5 a power of 880 W was obtained under conditions of low gas-pressures of 1.15 bar{sub a}. The auxiliary power for process air supply and cooling at 880 W power is less than 7% of the power output, indicating that the described system may be operated at a high efficiency. (author) 5 figs., 2 refs.

  19. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  20. Formation of functionalized nanoclusters by solvent evaporation and their effect on the physicochemical properties of dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Henry A; Giraldo, Luis F; Casanova, Herley

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of silica nanoclusters (SiNC), obtained by a solvent evaporation method and functionalized by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) and MPS+octyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) (50/50wt/wt), on the rheological, mechanical and sorption properties of urethane dimethylacrylate (UDMA)/triethylenglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (80/20wt/wt) resins blend. Silica nanoparticles (SiNP) were silanized with MPS or MPS+OTMS (50/50wt/wt) and incorporated in an UDMA-isopropanol mix to produce functionalized silica nanoclusters after evaporating the isopropanol. The effect of functionalized SiNC on resins rheological properties was determined by large and small deformation tests. Mechanical, thermal, sorption and solubility properties were evaluated for composite materials. The UDMA/TEGDMA (80/20wt/wt) resins blend with added SiNC (ca. 350nm) and functionalized with MPS showed a Newtonian flow behavior associated to their spheroidal shape, whereas the resins blend with nanoclusters silanized with MPS+OTMS (50/50wt/wt) (ca. 400nm) showed a shear-thinning behavior due to nanoclusters irregular shape. Composite materials prepared with bare silica nanoclusters showed lower compressive strength than functionalized silica nanoclusters. MPS functionalized nanoclusters showed better mechanical properties but higher water sorption than functionalized nanoclusters with both silane coupling agents, MPS and OTMS. The solvent evaporation method applied to functionalized nanoparticles showed to be an alternative way to the sinterization method for producing nanoclusters, which improved some dental composite mechanical properties and reduced water sorption. The shape of functionalized silica nanoclusters showed to have influence on the rheological properties of SiNC resin suspensions and the mechanical and sorption properties of light cured composites. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coating glass-ionomer cements with a nanofilled resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifacio, C.C.; Werner, A.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a nanofilled resin coat on the flexural strength (FS) and the early wear (after 50 000 and 200 000 cycles) of the glass-ionomer cements Fuji IX GP Extra (FIXE) and Ketac Molar Aplicap (KM). Materials and methods. Specimens were

  2. Synthesis of ion-exchange resin for selective thorium and uranyl ions sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Konstantin; Sachkov, Victor

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the method of ion-exchange resin synthesis selective to radionuclides (uranium and thorium) is presented. The method includes synthesis of polymeric styrene-divinylbenzene macroporous matrix with size of 0.1-0.2 mm, and its subsequent transformation by nitration and then reduction by tin (II) chloride. For passivation of active primary amines partially oxidation by oxygen from air is used. Obtained ion-exchange resin has ratio of sorption sum U+Th to sorption sum of other total rare-earth elements as 1:1.88 at ratio of solid to liquid phase 1:200. The proposed method of ion-exchange resin synthesis is scaled-up for laboratory reactors with volume of 5 and 50 liters.

  3. Correlations of norbornenyl crosslinked polyimide resin structures with resin thermo-oxidative stability, resin glass transition temperature and composite initial mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.

    1988-01-01

    PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare 70 different polyimide oligomeric resins and 30 different unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide composites. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on resin thermo-oxidative stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. A linear correlation of decreasing 316 C resin weight loss/surface area versus (1) decreasing aliphatic content, or (2) increasing benzylic/aliphatic content stoichiometry ratio over a wide range of resin compositions was observed. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was also observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial composite mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength). However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining a clear correlation. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at 25, 288, and 316 C. Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the correlation study was (1) the PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins containing a wide variety of monomer modifications, (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins formulated exhibited satisfactory processing flow, and (3) that PMR resins exhibited predictable rates of 316 C weight loss/surface area based on their benzylic/aliphatic stoichiometery ratio.

  4. Bracket bond strength and cariostatic potential of an experimental resin adhesive system containing Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masanori; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Kohda, Naohisa; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-09-01

    To determine if a new experimental resin-based material containing Portland cement (PC) can help prevent enamel caries while providing adequate shear bond strength (SBS). Brackets were bonded to human premolars with experimental resin-based adhesive pastes composed of three weight rations of resin and PC powder (PC 30, 7:3; PC 50, 5:5; PC 70, 3:7; n  =  7). Self-etching primer (SEP) adhesive (Transbond Plus) and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) adhesive (Fuji Ortho FC Automix) were used for comparison. All of the bonded teeth were subjected to alternating immersion in demineralizing (pH 4.55) and remineralizing (pH 6.8) solutions for 14 days. The SBS for each sample was examined, and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was calculated. The hardness and elastic modulus of the enamel were determined by a nanoindenter at 20 equidistant depths from the external surface at 100 µm from the bracket edge. Data were compared by one-way analysis of variance and a chi-square test. PC 50 and PC 70 showed significantly greater SBS than Fuji Ortho FC Automix, although Transbond Plus showed significantly greater SBS than other bonding systems. No significant difference in the ARI category was observed among the five groups. For specimens bonded with PC 50 and PC 70, the hardness and elastic modulus values in most locations were equivalent to those of Fuji Ortho FC Automix. Experimental resin-based bonding material containing PC provides adequate SBS and a caries-preventive effect equivalent to that of the RMGIC adhesive system.

  5. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  6. Purification of bioactive phenolics from Phanerochaete chysosporium biomass extract on selected macroporous resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Z. M.; Dzahir, M. I. H. M.; Jamal, P.; Barkat, A. A.; Xian, R. L. W.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, two different types of macroporous resins known as XAD-7HP and HP-20 were evaluated for the adsorption and desorption properties against bioactive phenolics extracted from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. From the previous static sorption studies, it was found that the adsorption capacity for both resins had has no significant difference. Then, the kinetic adsorption data were analyzed with both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations and the later performed better. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well by both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Meanwhile in desorption study, HP-20 and XAD-7HP gave 90.52% and 88.28% recoveries, respectively. Considering the desorption results of the macroporous resins, HP-20 and XAD-7HP were packed in chromatography column to further purify the phenolics. For dynamic adsorption, breakthrough capacity of HP-20 (0.522) was found to be higher than XAD-7HP (0.131). Different ethanol concentrations (30% to 50% (v/v)) were investigated at fixed flowrate (1 ml/min) on phenolics recovery from both types of resins. The highest recovery of bioactive phenolics was 94.3% using XAD-7HP resins at 50% (v/v) of ethanol. Only 77.1% of bioactive phenolics were recovered using HP-20 resin at the same experimental conditions. The purified extract subsequently was analyzed using HPLC. The results showed that three phenolics (gallic acid 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) were identified with higher concentrations as compared to non-purified extract. Finally, the purified extract was tested for scavenging activity against DPPH, and it showed that the activity increased significantly to 90.80% from 59.94% in non-purified extract.

  7. Radiochemical determination of Beryllium-7 in a fission-product mixture containing many inorganic salts; Determination radiochimique du beryllium-7 dans un melange de produits de fission riche en sels mineraux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigent, Y; Van Kote, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A radiochemical method is described for analysing beryllium-7 in a mixture of fission products containing many inorganic salts. By studying the influence of various parameters it has been possible to speed up the decontamination on an anionic resin using an HCl isopropanol mixture, as proposed by KORKISCH- and al. Be(OH){sub 2} is first precipitated in the presence of E.D.T.A.; the main contaminants are then fixed on Dowex 1 x 10 in 12 M HCl and on Dowex 1 x 8 in a 3 M HCl (20 per cent)-isopropanol (80 per cent) (vol/vol) mixture. The Be, which is not fixed, is precipitated by NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} in the presence of E.D.T.A., ignited as Be{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, filtered, weighed, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The method makes it possible to dose 4 samples in 16 hours with a chemical yield of 80 per cent, using a 4 day-old fission product solution. The overall decontamination factor, exceeds 10{sup 8}. (authors) [French] On decrit un procede d'analyse radiochimique du beryllium-7 a partir d'un melange de produits de fission riche en sels mineraux. L'etude de l'influence de differents parametres a permis d'accelerer la decontamination sur resine anionique en milieu HCl-isopropanol proposee par KORKISCH et COLL. On precipite d'abord Be(OH){sub 2} en presence d'E.D.T.A., puis fixe les principaux contaminants sur Dowex 1 x 10 en milieu HCl 12 M et sur Dowex 1 x 8 en milieu HCl 3 M (20 pour cent)-isopropanol (80 pour cent) (v/v). Be, non fixe, est precipite par NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} en presence d'E.D.T.A., calcine en Be{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, filtre, pese et analyse par spectrometrie gamma. La methode permet de traiter quatre echantillons en 16 h, avec un rendement de 80 pour cent, a partir d'une solution de produits de fission vieille de quatre jours. Le facteur de decontamination global depasse 10{sup 8}. (auteurs)

  8. Thermodynamic characteristics of sorption of metal-ions by ion exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    ABBASOV ALIADDIN DAYYAN; JAFARLI MAHNUR MOYSUN; MEMMEDOVA FIZZA SADIKH; HEYDEROVA FARAH FARMAN

    2016-01-01

    Conditions of sorption equilibrium of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead-ions by chelatforming resins Diaion CR 11, Dowex M 4195 and Duolite C 467 depending on the degree of neutralization of their ionogenic groups, the acidity of the medium and concentration of solutions are studied; corresponding equations expressing the isotherms of sorption are offered. Kinetics of these processes is studied; on the basis of equilibrium and kinetic parameters are calculated thermodynamic quantities. It is sho...

  9. Ball milling and annealing of Co-50 at% W Powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolokang, AS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadening and height reduction of X-ray diffraction peaks were observed after cold-pressing of unmilled Co-W pow- der mixture. It seems the effect of cold pressing has slightly reduced the lattice parameter of W from 3.165 to 3.143 Å. Consequent...

  10. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  11. Analysis of long-term monomer elution from bulk-fill and conventional resin-composites using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshali, Ruwaida Z; Salim, Nesreen A; Sung, Rehana; Satterthwaite, Julian D; Silikas, Nick

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess monomer elution from bulk-fill and conventional resin-composites stored in different media using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for up to 3 months. Six bulk-fill (SureFil SDR, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra base, Filtek Bulk Fill flowable, Sonic Fill, and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) and eight conventional resin-composites (Grandioso Flow, Venus Diamond Flow, X-Flow, Filtek Supreme XTE, Grandioso, Venus Diamond, TPH Spectrum, and Filtek Z250) were tested. Cylindrical samples (n=5) were immersed in water, 70% ethanol/water solution (70% E/W), and artificial saliva and stored at 37°C for 24h, 1 month, and 3 months. The storage solutions were analysed with HPLC. Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey post hoc test at α=0.05. Monomers detected in water and artificial saliva were TEGDMA, DEGDMA, UDMA, and TCD-DI-HEA. No eluted monomers were detected from X-tra base and Sonic fill in these media. All monomers showed a variable extent of elution into 70% E/W with significantly higher amounts than those detected in water and artificial saliva. Significantly higher elution was detected from UDMA-BisEMA based composites compared to BisGMA and BisGMA-BisEMA based systems in 70% E/W. The rate of elution into different media varied between different monomers and was highly dependent on the molecular weight of the eluted compounds. Elution from bulk-fill resin-composites is comparable to that of conventional materials despite their increased increment thickness. Monomer elution is highly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the base monomers and the final network characteristics of the resin-matrix. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Manufacturing of a REBCO racetrack coil using thermoplastic resin aiming at Maglev application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The REBCO coated conductor is a promising technology for the Maglev application in terms of its high critical temperature. The operating temperature of the on-board magnets can be around 40-50 K with the coated conductor. The REBCO coils are cooled by cryocoolers directly, and hence the thermal design of the REBCO coils significantly changes from that of LTS coils. We have developed a novel REBCO coil structure using thermoplastic resin. The coil is not impregnated and the thermoplastic resin is used to bond the coil winding and the heat transfer members, e.g. copper and aluminum plates. The viscosity of the thermoplastic resin is high enough for the thermoplastic resin not to permeate between the turns in the coil. Therefore, the thermal stress does not occur and the risk of degradation is removed. This paper contains the following three topics. First, the thermal resistance of the thermoplastic resin was measured at cryogenic temperature. Then, a small round REBCO coil was experimentally produced. It has been confirmed that the thermoplastic resin does not cause the degradation and, the adhesion between the coil winding and copper plates withstands the thermal stress. Finally, we successfully produced a full-scale racetrack REBCO coil applying the coil structure with the thermoplastic resin.

  13. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  14. Gastroprotective effect of the Mapuche crude drug Araucaria araucana resin and its main constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania

    2005-10-03

    The resin from the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) has been used since pre-columbian times by the Mapuche amerindians to treat ulcers. The gastroprotective effect of the resin was assessed in the ethanol-HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice showing a dose-dependent gastroprotective activity at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg per os. The main three diterpene constituents of the resin, namely imbricatolic acid, 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid were isolated and evaluated for gastroprotective effect at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. A dose-related gastroprotective effect with highly significant activity (PMapuche culture.

  15. Influence of surface conditions and silane agent on the bond of resin to IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohr, Ana Maria; Sobrinho, Lourenço Correr; Consani, Simonides; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments on the tensile bond strength between IPS Empress 2 ceramic framework and Rely X adhesive resin cement, with or without the application of a silane coupling agent. One hundred twenty disks were made, embedded in resin, and randomly divided into six groups: group 1 = sandblasting (100 microm), no silanation; group 2 = sandblasting (100 microm), silane treatment; group 3 = sandblasting (50 microm), no silanation; group 4 = sandblasting (50 microm), silane treatment; group 5 = hydrofluoric acid etching, no silanation; and group 6 = hydrofluoric acid etching, silane treatment. The disks were bonded into pairs with adhesive resin cement. All samples were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and then thermocycled. The samples were submitted to tensile testing. The use of silane improved the bond strength in relation to the groups in which silane was not applied (P Empress 2 ceramic framework and resin agent.

  16. [Resin infiltration of white spot lesions during the fixed orthodontic appliance therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodescu, A; Ogodescu, Emilia; Talpoş, S; Zetu, Irina

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of resin infiltrated white spot lesions (WSLs) during 10 month of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy using the photographic examination method. Twelve patients with mild decalcifications prior to the orthodontic treatment were examined once each month. At aggravation of the WSLs, by patients who fail to maintain good oral hygiene, the brackets were taken down, the lesions were infiltrated with resin (ICON) and the brackets were bonded in place. WSLs were evaluated from intraoral photographs taken before and during the treatment. 35.2% of existing lesions aggravated in the first 6 months of treatment. 41.2 % of the W.S.L. were considered severe and were infiltrated. In the next 10 month of orthodontic treatment 92.5% of the infiltrated WSLs were clinically stable. This clinical study showed a positive evolution of the resin infiltrated WSLs during the fixed orthodontic therapy. This is especially important for patients with long periods of treatment like interdisciplinary orthodontic-orthognathic surgery cases or patients that are refractory to oral hygiene measures.

  17. Hydration effect on ion exchange resin irradiated by swift heavy ions and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, I.; Labed, V.; Gerenton, A.; Ngono-Ravache, Y.; Dannoux-Papin, A.

    2018-06-01

    Gamma radiolysis of ion exchange resins (IER) is widely studied since the sixties, as a function of different parameters (resin type, dose, atmosphere, water content …). However, to our knowledge, there are very few data concerning hydrogen emission from anionic and cationic resins irradiated at high Linear Energy Transfers (LET). In the present work, we focus on the influence of hydration on hydrogen emission, in anionic and cationic resins irradiated under inert atmosphere using Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) and gamma irradiations. The radiation chemical yield of molecular hydrogen is nonlinear with water content for both resins. The molecular hydrogen production depends first on the water form in IER (free or linked) and second on the solubility of degradation products. Three steps have been observed: at lower water content where G(H2) is stable, at 50%, G(H2) increases due to reactions between water radiolytic species and the resin functional groups and at high water content, G(H2) decreases probably due to its accumulation in water and its consumption by hydroxyl radicals in the supernatant.

  18. Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Surface Treatments on Micro Push-Out Bond Strength of Fiber Posts to Composite Resin Core Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsima Ghavami-Lahiji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: The bonding of fiber post to resin core or root dentin is challenged by limited penetration of resin material to the polymeric matrix of fiber posts. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG on micro push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to resin core material. Materials and Methods: We used 2 commercially available fiber posts, Exacto (Angelus and White Post DC (FGM, which had similar coronal diameters. Specimens of each fiber post (n=36 were randomly divided into three subgroups (n=12 posts per group according to different surface treatment methods: control (no surface treatment, irradiation by 1W Er,Cr:YSGG, and irradiation by 1.5W Er,Cr:YSGG. A cylindrical plastic tube was placed around the post. Resin core material was filled into the tube and cured. Coronal portions of the posts were sectioned into 1-mm-thick slices. Then, the specimens were subjected to a thermocyling device for 3000 cycles. The micro push-out test was carried out using a Universal Testing Machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD post hoc test to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on each type of fiber post. Results: The 1.5W Er,Cr:YSGG laser statistically reduced micro push-out bond strength values in the Exacto groups (P0.05. Mode of failure analysis showed that mixed failure was the predominant failure type for all surface treatment groups. Conclusions: The beneficial effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser application could not be confirmed based on the results of this in vitro study. Er,Cr:YSGG laser could not significantly enhance the bond strength values. However, the 1.5W laser statistically decreased micro push-out bond strength in the Exacto fiber posts.

  19. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1985-12-01

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation

  20. Design principles for handmade electrical insulation of superconducting joints in W7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, K., E-mail: kerstin.rummel@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); John, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Sulek, Z. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► In W-7X there are several types of handmade electrical insulation. ► In general insulation based on impregnated glass tapes and special G10 pieces. ► A proper overlapping of glass tapes turned out to be mandatory. ► Detailed qualification and training helps to minimize the failure rate. ► Visual inspection and Paschen tests after every insulation steps are important. -- Abstract: The superconducting magnet system of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) experiment consists of 50 non-planar and 20 planar coils, 121 bus bars and 14 current leads. The connection between bus bars, coils and current leads will be provided by 198 joints. The joints have to be insulated manually during the assembly of the machine in constraint positions and a tight environment. In general the insulation is based on glass tapes impregnated with epoxy resin and special G10 insulating pieces embedded in the glass tape insulation. In critical areas Kapton{sup ®}-foils are embedded in the insulation. All types of insulation were qualified at mock-ups in a 1:1 model of the expected environment in W7-X. The qualification programme comprises thermal cycling between room temperature and 77 K and high voltage tests under air, under vacuum and under reduced pressure (Paschen test). The paper describes the main principles used for different types of handmade Paschen-tight insulations in W7-X and the visual and electrical tests during and after assembly.

  1. ''Spray'' drying unit for spent ion-exchange resins sludges and radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raibaud, J.

    1985-01-01

    The procedure consisting in drying radwaste either in liquid form or in aqueous suspension is a very attractive solution for volume Reduction. Technicatome presents an experimental spray drying station for 50 kg/hr, using the LEAFLASH process, developed by Rhone Poulenc Recherches. This process, used at full scale in a large number of branches in industry, is applicable to the drying of various materials: bead type ion-echange resins, powered ion exchange resins, centrifuge sludges, filter sludges, evaporator bottoms [fr

  2. Post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, A.U.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin using a digital microhardness tester. Change in hardness of these materials over a period of 6 months was compared to that of conventional glass ionomer cements and a composite resin. With the exception of the composite resin, all materials showed a significant increase in hardness over 24 h after their initial set. Dual-cure resin-modified glass ionomer cements showed decreased hardness with increased storage time in saline at 37 o C. Results suggest that the addition of resins to glass ionomer cements does not improve initial hardness and does not negate the acid-base reaction of conventional cements. Resin addition may, however, lead to increased water sorption and decreased hardness. (author)

  3. The difference of acrylic resin residual monomer levels with various polymerization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Salim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After polymerization process, heat cured acrylic resin denture base actually still contains residual monomers that can become potential irritants later in oral cavity. Polymerization process is essential to obtain acrylic resin which can meet the requirements of the biocompatible and good physical properties. To meet the requirements, there are several methods of polymerization process used. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the differences of the residual monomer levels of acrylic resin processed by various polymerization methods. Methods: Acrylic resin powder and liquid were mixed based on the rules of factory, and sample was made with size of 30 mm × 50 mm × 3 mm and then polymerized by using microwave at 70° C for 24 hours based on the methods of Japan Industrial Standard (JIS. Each group of samples was cut with weight of ± 0.2 g, dissolved in 5 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in test tubes, and then stored at ± 5° C for four days. Residual monomer level was conducted by using gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. Data obtained were then analyzed by using One-Way ANOVA test with p < 0.05. Results: After the level of polymerizing residual monomer with JIS method was compared to that at 70° C for 24 hours using microwave, it is known that there were significant differences (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The highest level of residual monomer of acrylic resin was that polymerized at 70° C for 24 hours.Latar belakang: Basis gigi tiruan yang berbahan dasar resin akrilik jenis heat cured setelah proses polimerisasi selesai masih mengandung monomer sisa yang berpotensi sebagai bahan iritan dalam rongga mulut. Proses polimerisasi sangat penting untuk mendapatkan resin akrilik yang memenuhi persyaratan biokompatibilitas dan fisik yang baik. Untuk persyaratan tersebut digunakan berbagai macam proses polimerisasi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kadar monomer sisa resin akrilik yang diproses dengan metode

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING PAPA_145W_50N and MOORINGS_PAPA_145W_50N in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-06-15 to 2014-06-19 (NODC Accession 0100074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100074 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING PAPA_145W_50N and MOORINGS_PAPA_145W_50N in the North...

  5. Applying a method of chemical separation and mass spectrometry for the determination of radium-226 in surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez, Rita Y; Cozzella, Maria Letizia; Guillen Arruebarrena, Aniel

    2014-01-01

    Radium-226 ( 226 Ra) is a naturally occurring radionuclide, alpha emitter with half-life of 1 622 years originating from uranium-238 ( 238 U). Its presence in drinking water is a major radiological hazards, which requires constant monitoring. The analytical techniques used in the determination of 226 Ra generally require the establishment of secular equilibrium and/or tedious separation of other elements. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the efficiency and speed of a method of preconcentration and separation of 226 Ra in natural water samples using coprecipitation with MnO 2 radius and purification by cation exchange resin Dowex 50WX8. Measurement technique was Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and associated induced plasma ICP-Q-MS. The 226 Ra values obtained are in the range of 0,010-0,219 pg/L in natural waters analyzed

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium and thorium with arsenazo III in the flow injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M. das G.M. de.

    1986-12-01

    A simple system for flow injection analysis (FIA) with double confluence was built using a filter photocolorimeter, an analogic potentiometer, 'plexiglass' flow cuvettes, polyethylene colls and tubes, 'plexiglass' commuter and peristaltic pump to introduce solutions and gravity as flow source. The system was dimensioned and studied using only Arsenazo III solutions. Spectrophotometric methods for uranium and thorium using Arsenazo III were studied using a scanning spectrophotometer and after chosing adequate red filter, adapted to photocolorimetry using flow cuvettes and FIA. Synthetic samples, phosphate rock, and process samples from uranium recovery of dolomites were analysed. Rocks of Morro do Ferro (MG, Brazil), Caldasite (Baddeleyte + Zirconite), Zirconite, Monazite from a program for certification and certified rocks (Dunite DC-1, CANMET) were analysed without chemical separation of Th (IV) and with ion exchange separation in semi-micro columns of cation exchange resin (Dowex 50). (Author) [pt

  7. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  8. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin

  9. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE`s Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin.

  10. Effects of He{sup +} ion implantation on surface properties of UV-cured Bis-GMA/TEGDMA bio-compatible resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, G.G., E-mail: gfuentes@ain.e [Center of Advanced Surface Engineering, AIN, Cordovilla-Pamplona, E-31191 (Spain); Esparza, J.; Rodriguez, R.J. [Center of Advanced Surface Engineering, AIN, Cordovilla-Pamplona, E-31191 (Spain); Manso-Silvan, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 (Spain); Palomares, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 (Spain); Juhasz, J.; Best, S. [Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Str, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Mattilla, R.; Vallittu, P. [Institute of Dentistry, Turku Clinical Biomaterials Centre, Itaeinen Pitkaekatu 4, B FI-20520, Turku (Finland); Achanta, S. [Falex Tribology Wingepark 23 B, 3110 Rotselaar (Belgium); Giazzon, M.; Weder, G. [Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique, CSEM, Jaquet-Drot 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Donati, I. [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Via Licio Giorgieri 1, I 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    This work reports on the surface characterisation of 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxyl-oxypropoxy)phenyl]propane/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate bio-compatible resins after high energy He{sup +} ion implantation treatments. The samples have been characterised by diffuse reflectance FT-IR, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, ultramicro-hardness and nano-scratch wear tests. In addition, osteblast cell assays MG-63 have been used to test the bio-compatibility of the resin surfaces after the ion implantation treatments. It has been observed that the maximum surface hardening of the resin surfaces is achieved at He-ion implantation energies of around 50 keV and fluences of 1 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. At 50 keV of He-ion bombardment, the wear rate of the resin surface decreases by a factor 2 with respect to the pristine resin. Finally, in vitro tests indicate that the He-ion implantation does not affect to the cell-proliferation behaviour of the UV-cured resins. The enhancement of the surface mechanical properties of these materials can have beneficial consequences, for instance in preventing wear and surface fatigue of bone-fixation prostheses, whose surfaces are continuously held to sliding and shearing contacts of sub-millimetre scale lengths.

  11. Toward advanced gamma rays radiation resistance and shielding efficiency with phthalonitrile resins and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derradji, Mehdi; Zegaoui, Abdeldjalil; Xu, Yi-Le; Wang, An-ran; Dayo, Abdul Qadeer; Wang, Jun; Liu, Wen-bin; Liu, Yu-Guang; Khiari, Karim

    2018-04-01

    The phthalonitrile resins have claimed the leading place in the field of high performance polymers thanks to their combination of outstanding properties. The present work explores for the first time the gamma rays radiation resistance and shielding efficiency of the phthalonitrile resins and its related tungsten-reinforced nanocomposites. The primary goal of this research is to define the basic behavior of the phthalonitrile resins under highly ionizing gamma rays. The obtained results confirmed that the neat phthalonitrile resins can resist absorbed doses as high as 200 kGy. Meanwhile, the remarkable shielding efficiency of the phthalonitrile polymers was confirmed to be easily improved by preparing lead-free nanocomposites. In fact, the gamma rays screening ratio reached the exceptional value of 42% for the nanocomposites of 50 wt% of nano-tungsten loading. Thus, this study confirms that the remarkable performances of the phthalonitrile resins are not limited to the thermal and mechanical properties and can be extended to the gamma rays radiation and shielding resistances.

  12. The Physical and Chemical Properties of Fine Carbon Particles-Pinewood Resin Blends and Their Possible Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviwe Melapi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of biomass gasification technology is very important in the sense that it helps to relieve the dwindling supply of natural gas from fossil fuels, and the desired product of its gasification process is syngas. This syngas is a mixture of CO and H2; however, by-products such as char, tar, soot, ash, and condensates are also produced. This study, therefore, investigated selected by-products recovered from the gasification process of pinewood chips with specific reference to their potential application in other areas when used as blends. Three samples of the gasification by-products were obtained from a downdraft biomass gasifier system and were characterized in terms of chemical and physical properties. FTIR analysis confirmed similar spectra in all char-resin blends. For fine carbon particles- (soot- resin blends, almost the same functional groups as observed in char-resin blends appeared. In bomb calorimeter measurements, 70% resin/30% char blends gave highest calorific value, followed by 50% resin/50% soot blends with values of 35.23 MJ/kg and 34.75 MJ/kg consecutively. Provided these by-products meet certain criteria, they could be used in other areas such as varnishes, water purification, and wind turbine blades.

  13. Solid phase extraction of Am (III) by resins impregnated with multiply diglycolamide-functionalized ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujar, R.B.; Ansari, S.A.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Verboom, W.

    2016-01-01

    Solvent extraction studies with multiply diglycolamide-functionalized extractants such as tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) or diglycolamide-functionalized calix(4)arene (C4DGA) ligands have shown excellent results as compared to those of normal DGA ligands such as TODGA. A very high selectivity for Am(III) has been reported with these ligands with respect to U(VI) and Pu(IV). High selectivities and large extraction efficiencies of these ligands towards trivalent f elements were ascribed to a co-operative complexation mechanism. Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of these ligands increased several folds in ionic liquid medium as compared to paraffinic solvents. It was of interest, therefore, to prepare extraction chromatographic resins by impregnation of solvent systems containing these ligands in an ionic liquid. In the present work, solid phase extraction studies were carried out using these two multiply diglycolamide-functionalized extractants, viz. T-DGA (resin I) and C4DGA (resin-II) containing the ionic liquid C 4 mim. NTf 2 impregnated on Chromosorb-W

  14. Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Resin Composites with Resin Modified Glass Ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha NA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are controversial reports regarding physical and mechanical properties of resin composites and glass ionomer cements. Some revealed higher strength and hardness for resin composites while others showed a comparable value for glass ionomer cements. Evaluation of mechanical properties of different types of resin composites in comparison with resin modified glass ionomers is not widely studied. Objectives: To measure and compare the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of three resin composites and two resins modified glass ionomer cements before and after ageing. Materials and Methods: Three resin composites, i.e. Filtek Supreme XTE (3M ESPE, Ice (SDI, Gradia (GC, and two resins modified glass ionomers, i.e. Fuji II LC (GC and Riva Light Cure (SDI, were selected. Ten barshaped specimens were prepared for each material and cured using LED curing light. After 24 hours storage in distilled water at 37oC, the specimens were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=5. The first group was tested as a baseline and the second group was restored at 37oC for another 29 days. Flexural strength was performed by four-point bending test using universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min, and the maximum load at failure was recorded. The specimen’s halves were used for evaluating Vickers hardness, using a Digital Hardness Tester (300 g/15 sec and the Vickers hardness number (VHN was recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey’s and student’s t-test. Results: After 24 hours of immersion, the highest hardness number was found for Filtek Supreme and Ice and the highest flexural strength was obtained for Gradia. After 30 days of storage, hardness of Fuji II LC and Gradia showed a significant decrease; flexural strength of Ice and Fuji II LC revealed a significant increase while Gradia and Filtek Supreme showed a significant decrease. Conclusions: Resin modified glass ionomers showed

  15. Fractographic analysis, accuracy of fit and impact strength of acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Faot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated accuracy of fit, impact strength, types and morphology of fractures of a microwave acrylic resin polymerized with a cycle alternative to that recommended by the manufacturer. Onda Cryl was polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions (MC, 3 min at 360 W, 4-min pause, and 3 min at 810 W; and with an alternative cycle (AC of 6 min at 630 W. Accuracy of fit was measured at 3 points at the right (A and left (B ridge crests and at the midline (C on the posterior palatal seal for each denture base (n = 10/group. The measurements were taken immediately after finishing and after 30-day storage in water. The impact strength test (Charpy method was performed with a 40 kJ/cm load (n = 20/group. Fractographic analysis was accomplished for all fragments and the fracture types were characterized by means of their morphology, crack propagation angles and microstructure. Accuracy of fit data were analyzed by ANOVA, impact strength and radius values were compared by the t test, and the fractographic analysis data, by the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test. The significance level was fixed at p < 0.05. No statistical differences were found between the two cycles of polymerization used. However, after the 30-day storage period in water, the denture bases showed better fit (P < .05. Most of the fractures were classified as brittle (MD: 70%, AC: 80%. Based on the results of this study, it could be concluded that both polymerization cycles are adequate to polymerize the denture resin studied.

  16. Marginal Leakage of Class V Composite Resin Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available >Introduction: Marginal leakage is one of the significant causes of restoration failure. This in-vitro study was conducted to compare cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and dye-penetration methods for determining marginal leakage at gingival surface of class V resin composite restorations.Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of nineteen caries-free extracted human molar teeth. Cavities were conditioned and filled. The teeth were immersed in a 50% w/w aqueous silver nitrate solution for 24 h and were taken out and rinsed with distilled water. Then, they were put into a developing solution. Whole specimens were first viewed with CBCT and were then sectioned and evaluated by stereomicroscope.Results: Measurement of agreement between CBCT and stereomicroscope revealed that 15 (78.9% teeth had score 0, 1 (5.3% tooth had score 1, and 1 (5.3% tooth had score 2 in both techniques. Measurement of agreement between CBCT and stereomicroscope techniques, in the detection of marginal leakage, was 89.5% (Kappa coefficient = 0.627, P = 0.00. The Wilcoxon paired rank test revealed no significant difference between the results of CBCT and stereomicroscope in measuring the leakage at gingival margin (P = 0.157.Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the study, there was no significant difference between the results of CBCT and stereomicroscope in measuring the leakage at gingival margin of class V composite restorations. CBCT can be used noninvasively to detect the marginal leakage of gingival wall of class V composite restorations using aqueous silver nitrate solution as a tracer.

  17. Fixing of metallic acetates on an anion-exchange resin; Fixation d'acetates metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigaudeau-Vaissiere, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etude Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving a brief review of the theoretical principles governing the fixation of anionic complexes of metallic elements on an anion exchange resin, we consider the particular case of uranyl acetate. By plotting the partition curves we have been able to calculate the exchange constants in the resin. By studying the changes in the logarithm of the limiting partition coefficient as a function of the logarithm of the free acetate ion concentration, it has been possible to calculate the dissociation constants for the complexes in solution. The fixation of a large number of metallic acetates has been studied. All the tests have been negative except in the case of mercury. For this reason we have been able to consider the possibility of separating uranium from a certain number of elements. Some of these separations are possible even in the presence of interfering anions such as chlorides which have a greater affinity for the resin than have the acetate ions. In the case of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol mixtures, we have improved the conditions under which copper acetate and mercury acetate may be fixed. This study has enabled us to calculate the dissociation constant for the CuAc{sub 3}{sup -} complex in the mixtures water +40% (by weight) isopropanol and water +50% (by weight) isopropanol. It should also make it possible to use separation conditions which could not hitherto be applied in aqueous media. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele les principes theoriques de la fixation des complexes anioniques des elements metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions, nous avons etudie tout particulierement le cas de l'acetate d'uranyle. Le trace des courbes de partage nous a permis de calculer les constantes d'echange dans la resine. L'etude des variations du logarithme du coefficient limite de partage avec le logarithme de la concentration des ions acetate libres nous a conduits aux calculs des constantes de dissociation des complexes en solution. La fixation d

  18. Effect of resins of heat exchanger fouling by asphaltene-containing oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Atar, E.; Watkinson, A.P. [British Columbia Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Bio-Resource Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The effects of resins on the thermal fouling of asphaltene containing oils in heat exchangers was investigated as well as the nature of the deposits. Building on previous research, a sample of de-asphalted vacuum bottoms (DAO), serving as a source of natural resins, heavy oil (HO) and fuel oil was used to investigate the effects of resin concentration on the rate of thermal fouling. The conditions of the study included: fluid circulation through the UBC annular fouling test section for up to 30 hour periods, monitoring of thermal fouling by measurement, and nitrogen atmospheres at a bulk temperature of 85 degrees C, a bulk velocity of 0.85 am/s, and a pressure of 410 kPa. Physical and chemical characterization of the deposits was affected, and filtration at the bulk temperature before and after a run was used to determine the occurrence of fine solids in the fluid. The rate of fouling generally decreased tending generally towards asymptotic behavior in the limit, and after one day Rf values up to 0.3 m2K/kW occurred with severe fouling. An increase in the fouling rate occurred with increased DAO concentration in the mixture, at a fixed heavy oil concentration of 5 weight percent, and the relation between Asomaning's colloidal instability index and the trends in fouling rate was not observed, although there were some indications of reduced fouling as there was an increase in the ratio of resins to asphaltenes, however, blends of the DAO-HO-FO helped to control the concentration of asphaltenes and resins that are possible. (Abstract only).

  19. Effect of high intensity vs. soft-start halogen irradiation on light-cured resin-based composites. Part I. Temperature rise and polymerization shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Norbert; Markert, Tanja; Hugo, Burkard; Klaiber, Bernd

    2003-12-01

    To determine polymerization shrinkage kinetics and temperature rise of light-cured resin-based composites after high intensity vs. soft-start quartz tungsten halogen irradiation. Shrinkage kinetics was evaluated using the "deflecting disk technique", modified for simultaneous measurement of temperature within the resin-based composite using a thermocouple. Additional irradiations after 60 and 65 minutes allowed the determination of temperature rises caused by radiation or by reaction heat. Four hybrids (Filtek Z250, Herculite, Solitaire 2, Tetric Ceram), an inhomogeneously filled hybrid (InTen-S) and a microfill (Filtek A110, formerly Silux Plus) were cured using the quartz tungsten halogen units Astralis 10 and Optilux 501 in the high intensity (A10 HiPo: 10 seconds at 1300 mW/cm2; OL Boost: 10 seconds at 1140 mW/cm2) or soft-start modes (A10 Pulse: increase to 700 mW/cm2 within 10 seconds, three periods of 2 seconds at 1300 mW/cm2 alternating with two periods of 2 seconds at 700 mW/cm2; OL Ramp: exponential increase within 10 seconds, followed by 10 seconds at 1140 mW/cm2). The soft-start protocols produced less contraction, and polymerization shrinkage started later and progressed slower (or: more slowly), compared to high intensity irradiation [correction]. The lowest shrinkage was observed for InTen-S, followed by Filtek Z250 and A110, whereas Solitaire 2, Herculite and Tetric Ceram scored highest for this parameter. Temperature rise was caused more or less equally by radiation and by reaction heat and reached values of up to 28.9 degrees C relative to a baseline of 37 degrees C. For some combinations of curing modes and resin-based composites, less heat was generated by the soft-start protocols and by Optilux 501.

  20. Microbial degradation of resins fractionated from Arabian light crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Hoaki, T.; Kato, M.; Maruyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Japanese coasts were screened for microorganisms able to degrade resin components of crude oil. A mixed population that could degrade 35% of 5000 ppm resin in 15 days was obtained. This population also metabolized 50% of saturates and aromatics present in crude oil (5000 ppm) in 7 days. A Pseudomonas sp., isolated from the mixed population, emulsified and degraded 30% of resins. It also degraded saturates and aromatics (30%) present in crude oil (5000 ppm). These results were obtained from Iatroscan analysis. Degradation of crude oil was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The peaks corresponding to known aliphatic hydrocarbons in crude oil greatly decreased within the first two days of incubation in the cultures of the RY-mixed population and of Pseudomonas strain UN3. Aromatic compounds detected as a broad peak by GC were significantly degraded at day 7 by Pseudomonas strain UN3, and at day 15 by the RY-mixed population. Investigations are ongoing to determine the genetic basis for the ability of these organisms to grow on the resin fractions of crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Influence of epoxy resin as encapsulation material of silicon photovoltaic cells on maximum current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo-Gómez David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis about how the performance of silicon photovoltaic cells is influenced by the use of epoxy resin as encapsulation material with flat roughness. The effect of encapsulation on current at maximum power of mono-crystalline cell was tested indoor in a solar simulator bench at 1000 w/m² and AM1.5G. The results show that implementation of flat roughness layer onto cell surface reduces the maximum current inducing on average 2.7% less power with respect to a cell before any encapsulation. The losses of power and, in consequence, the less production of energy are explained by resin light absorption, reflection and partially neutralization of non-reflective coating.

  2. Design and operational experience and testing of 50 kW/120 kHz oscillator for 3 MeV, 30 kW DC accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.K.; Bakhtsingh, R.I.; Saroj, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    A 3 MeV, 30 kW dc industrial electron beam Accelerator is being developed at EBC, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The 3 MV dc is generated by parallel coupled voltage multiplier operating at 120 kHz. This requires an input voltage of 150 kV-0-150 kV at 120 kHz. This is achieved by 50 kW/120 kHz power oscillator in conjunction with a tuned air-core step-up transformer. Input primary voltage of 6 kV-0-6 kV at 120 kHz is generated by an oscillator using BW1121J2 water cooled triodes in push-pull Colpitts configuration. The tank circuit for the oscillator is formed by the secondary winding inductance of the step-up transformer and capacitance formed by RF feeder electrodes of the voltage multiplier column. Grid feedback for the oscillator is derived by arranging a set of electrodes in the feeder assembly in a capacitive divider configuration. The oscillator is operated in class-C mode with grid leak bias for better efficiency which also has the advantages of self-adjustment with varying load conditions. High power test has been conducted in a simulated test set-up on dummy load up to 30kW. Subsequently, the power oscillator has been tested with HV multiplier at 1MeV level satisfactorily. This paper describes the design, test results and operational experiences of the oscillator. (author)

  3. The mechanism of uranium adsorption on Resin 508 and isoelectric point of the resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Qingping; Lu Weichang; Su Huijuan; Hu Jinbo; Zhang Liqin; Chen Banglin

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption process of uranium by Resin 508 at the solid-liquid interface was investigated and the mechanism of uranium adsorption including adsorption dynamics, adsorption thermodynamics and isoelectric point of resin was studied. The results are as follows: The maximum of uranium adsorption is attained at pH5-7; Uranium adsorption isotherm by Resin 508 in experimental conditions agrees with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm, the maximum of uranium adsorbed (Vm) is 716 mg U/g-dried resin; The adsorption of uranium by Resin 508 is an endothermic reaction and ΔH = 16.87 kJ/mol; The exchange-adsorption rate is mainly controlled by liquid film diffusion; The isoelectric points of Resin 508 before and after uranium adsorption are found to be pH7.5 and pH5.7 respectively. It is a specific adsorption for uranium

  4. REMOVAL AND CONCENTRATION OF URANIUM FROM WASTE MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Augusta Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of leaching agents, such as sodium citrate and ammonium carbonate, were assessed for the extraction of uranium from one mining residue containing 0.25% U. Concentration techniques such as precipitation and ion exchange were employed to recover the uranium from the leaching liquor. Leaching results showed maximum uranium extraction of about 40% for both reagents. The use 10 mol L-1 NaOH to precipitate the uranium from the leach liquor leads to a recovery of 62%; what was considered not satisfactory. In view of this, resins were used to concentrate the uranium from the liquor and the metal loading obtained at pH 3.9 was higher for the resin DOWEX RPU, whose maximum loading maximum capacity was 148.3 mg g-1, compared to 126.9 mg g-1 presented by the resin IRA 910 U.

  5. T/sub 4/ radioimmunoassay with ion-exchange resin separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, J D; Modha, K [Hoechst Pharmaceuticals Research Ltd., Milton Keynes (UK)

    1977-05-28

    An explanation is provided for the reports of falsely low values of serum-thyroxine (T/sub 4/) measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), particularly in sera containing raised concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) (Burr, W.A., Evans, S.E., Hogan, T.C., 1977, Lancet, April 2, 757). A re-examination of the assay technique used in commercial RIA kits ('RIA-gnost T/sub 3/' and 'RIA-gnost T/sub 4/', Behring Diagnostics) showed that blocking of binding proteins by 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulphonic acid (ANS) was incomplete in sera with raised TBG levels. Spectroscopic determination of the blocker concentration during the time the solution was in contact with the ion exchange resin showed that 98% of the ANS was removed from solution by 10 min contact with the resin, yet 60 min was required to absorb the free T/sub 4/. There was therefore ample time for unblocked TBG to recombine with free T/sub 4/ which was then misclassified as antibody-bound T/sub 4/. The assay technique used in the kits was therefore modified. The less polar TBG blocking agent, ethylmercurithiosalicylate (merthiolate), replaced ANS and it was demonstrated that accurate T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ measurements in high TBG sera could be made by resin-separation RIA without resorting to prior denaturation or alcohol extraction.

  6. Avaliação in vitro da efetividade de polimerização da resina acrílica dental ativada através de energia de microondas, quando em contato com metal Use of microwave energy for processing acrylic resin near metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Olmedo BRAUN

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a efetividade da energia de microondas na polimerização da resina acrílica próxima ao metal, foram confeccionados 36 corpos-de-prova cilíndricos com 30,0 mm de diâmetro x 4,0 mm de espessura, contendo no seu interior uma sela metálica com 28,0 mm x 8,0 mm x 0,5 mm, divididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos e submetidos aos seguintes processamentos: G1 resina Clássico polimerizada em ciclo curto; G2 resina Acron-MC polimerizada em forno de microondas por 3 minutos a 500 W; G3 resina Clássico polimerizada em forno de microondas por 3 minutos a 500 W. Após a polimerização, cada amostra foi dividida em duas partes aproximadamente iguais, sendo que uma das partes foi utilizada para a avaliação de monômero residual, enquanto a outra foi submetida aos testes de dureza e porosidade. A dosagem de monômero liberada na água durante doze dias consecutivos foi avaliada através da espectrofotometria. A dureza Knoop foi verificada nas distâncias de 50, 100, 200, 400 e 800 mm da sela metálica, e a porosidade interna e externa foi avaliada a olho nu e com auxílio de microscópio com aumento de 100 X. Diante dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a energia de microondas pode ser utilizada para a polimerização da resina acrílica contendo sela metálica no seu interior e que as resinas acrílicas convencionais, quando polimerizadas através da energia de microondas, apresentaram maior quantidade de poros.The conventional method to process acrylic resin is a time consuming step to construct removable prosthodontics. Microwave energy could provide a solution, but there are still questions regarding this process taking place in the presence of metal. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare residual monomer, microhardness and porosity of two acrylic resins cured by different methods in the presence of a metal framework. The conditions evaluated were: Group 1 - Acrylic resin Clássico, short cycle heatcured for 3

  7. Degradation of ion spent resin using the Fenton's reagent; Degradacao da resina de troca ionica utilizando o reagente de Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro Goulart de

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for spent radioactive ion exchange resin treatment is its immobilization in cement, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. Although this method is efficient, it increases considerably the final volume of the waste due to the low incorporation capacity. The objective of this work was to develop a degradation method of spent resins arising from the nuclear research reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagents. This method would allow a higher incorporation in cement. Three different resins were evaluated: cationic, anionic and a mixture of both resins. The reactions were conducted varying the catalyst concentration (25, 50, 100 and 150 mM), the volume of hydrogen peroxide (320 to 460 mL), and three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg C. Degradation of about 98% was achieved using a 50 mM catalyst solution and 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution. The most efficient temperature was 60 deg C. (author)

  8. A preconcentration system for determination of copper and nickel in water and food samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Ferreira, Hadla S.; Korn, Maria das Graças Andrade; Bezerra, Marcos de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p. 1041-1045 A separation/preconcentration procedure using solid phase extraction has been proposed for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and nickel at trace level in food samples. The solid phase is Dowex Optipore SD-2 resin contained on a minicolumn, where analyte ions are sorbed as 5-methyl-4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol chelates. After elution using 1 mol L−1 nitric acid solution, the analytes are determinate employing fla...

  9. Development of method to chemical separation of gallium-67 by thermal diffusion technique; Desenvolvimento de metodo para separacao quimica de galio-67 pela tecnica de difusao termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Patricia de Andrade

    2012-07-01

    Radioisotopes of gallium have been studied and evaluated for medical applications since 1949. Over the past 50 years {sup 67}Ga has been widely used in the diagnosis of various diseases, including acute and chronic inflammatory lesions, bacterial or sterile and several types of tumors. In Brazil 30% of clinics that provide services for Nuclear Medicine use {sup 67}Ga citrate and the demand for 67{sup G}a at IPEN-CNEN/SP is 37 GBq (1 Ci)/week. The {sup 67}Ga presents physical half-life of 3.26 days (78 hours) and decays 100% by electron capture to stable {sup 67}Zn. Its decay includes the emission of {gamma} rays with energies of 93.3 keV (37%), 184.6 keV (20.4%), 300.2 keV (16.6%) and 888 keV (26%). In the past {sup 67}Ga was produced by the reaction {sup 68}Zn (p, 2n) {sup 67}Ga at IPEN-CNEN/SP. After irradiation, the target was dissolved in concentrated HCl and the solution percolated through a cationic resin DOWEX 50W-X8, 200-400 mesh, conditioned with 10 mol L{sup -1} HCl. Zinc, nickel and copper were eluted in 10 mol L{sup -1} HCl and {sup 67}Ga 3.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl. The final product was obtained as {sup 67}Ga citrate. This work presents a new, fast, direct and efficient method for the chemical separation of 67{sup G}a by thermal diffusion (heating of the target) combined with concentrated acetic acid extraction. Purification was performed by ion exchange chromatography. Natural zinc electrodeposition was performed on nickel/copper plates as substrate and the zinc deposits were adherent to the substrate, slightly shiny and uniform. The targets were irradiated with 26 MeV protons and integrated current of 10 {mu}A.h. After irradiation, the targets were heated at 300 deg C for 2 hours and placed in contact with concentrated acetic acid for 1 hour. The average yield of extraction of {sup 67}Ga was (72 {+-} 10)%. This solution was evaporated and the residue was taken up in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}OH. The 67{sup G}a was purified on cationic resin Dowex 50WX8

  10. Resin regenerating device in condensate desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Hiroo; Oosumi, Katsumi; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Norikazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy in the separation of anionic and cationic exchange resins. Constitution: Resins transferred from a condensate desalting column are charged in a cationic exchange resin column. The temperature of water for separating and transferring the resins is measured by a temperature detector disposed in a purified water injection line, and water is adjusted to a suitable flow rate for the separation and transfer of the resins by an automatic flow rate control valve, and then is injected. The resins are separated into cationic exchange resins and anionic exchange resins, in which only the anionic exchange resins are transferred, through an anionic exchange transfer line, into an anionic exchange resin column. By controlling the flow rate depending on the temperature of the injected water, the developing rate of the resin layer is made constant to enable separation and transfer of the resins at high accuracy. (Seki, T.)

  11. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  12. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  13. Design, integration and demonstration of a 50 W JP8/kerosene fueled portable SOFC power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheekatamarla, Praveen K.; Finnerty, Caine M.; Robinson, Charles R.; Andrews, Stanley M.; Brodie, Jonathan A.; Lu, Y.; DeWald, Paul G.

    A man-portable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system integrated with desulfurized JP8 partial oxidation (POX) reformer was demonstrated to supply a continuous power output of 50 W. This paper discusses some of the design paths chosen and challenges faced during the thermal integration of the stack and reformer in aiding the system startup and shutdown along with balance of plant and power management solutions. The package design, system capabilities, and test results of the prototype unit are presented.

  14. The influence of "C-factor" and light activation technique on polymerization contraction forces of resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Kiyoshi Ishikiriama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the influence of the cavity configuration factor ("C-Factor" and light activation technique on polymerization contraction forces of a Bis-GMA-based composite resin (Charisma, Heraeus Kulzer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three different pairs of steel moving bases were connected to a universal testing machine (emic DL 500: groups A and B - 2x2 mm (CF=0.33, groups C and D - 3x2 mm (CF=0.66, groups e and F - 6x2 mm (CF=1.5. After adjustment of the height between the pair of bases so that the resin had a volume of 12 mm³ in all groups, the material was inserted and polymerized by two different methods: pulse delay (100 mW/cm² for 5 s, 40 s interval, 600 mW/cm² for 20 s and continuous pulse (600 mW/cm² for 20 s. Each configuration was light cured with both techniques. Tensions generated during polymerization were recorded by 120 s. The values were expressed in curves (Force(N x Time(s and averages compared by statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test, p<0.05. RESULTS: For the 2x2 and 3x2 bases, with a reduced C-Factor, significant differences were found between the light curing methods. For 6x2 base, with high C-Factor, the light curing method did not influence the contraction forces of the composite resin. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse delay technique can determine less stress on tooth/restoration interface of adhesive restorations only when a reduced C-Factor is present.

  15. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN SILIKON TERHADAP SUDUT KONTAK HIDROPOBIK DAN KARAKTERISTIK ARUS BOCOR PERMUKAAN BAHAN RESIN EPOKSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Syakur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, polymer materials such as epoxy resin have been used as an insulator in the distribution andtransmission line. Some advantages of using this epoxy resin material having the dielectric properties are betterthan porcelain and glass insulators. On the other side, epoxy resins are also disadvantage the surface ishygroscopic. For the repair was done by adding the surface properties of silicone rubber materialThis paper describes the effect of adding silicone rubber against contact angle of hidrophobicity and surfaceleakage current characteristics of epoxy resin materials ( Di-Glycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA andMethaphenilene Diamine (MPDA. The study was conducted in the laboratory using the electrode method IEC587:1984 with NH4Cl contaminants. The voltage applied to the epoxy resin sample at 3.5 kV and 50 HzfrequencyThe experimental results showed that the addition of silicon rubber in epoxy resin makes the surface materialcontact angle increases. The higher percentage of silicone rubber, the greater the contact angle and the longertime required for the occurrence of surface discharge.

  16. A critical analysis of the degree of conversion of resin-based luting cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORONHA FILHO, Jaime Dutra; BRANDÃO, Natasha Lamego; POSKUS, Laiza Tatiana; GUIMARÃES, José Guilherme Antunes; da SILVA, Eduardo Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study analyzed the degree of conversion (DC%) of four resin-based cements (All Ceram, Enforce, Rely X ARC and Variolink II) activated by two modes (chemical and dual), and evaluated the decrease of DC% in the dual mode promoted by the interposition of a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc. Material and Methods In the chemical activation, the resin-based cements were prepared by mixing equal amounts of base and catalyst pastes. In the dual activation, after mixing, the cements were light-activated at 650 mW/cm2 for 40 s. In a third group, the cements were lightactivated through a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc. The DC% was evaluated in a FT-IR spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total reflectance crystal (ATR). The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Results For all resin-based cements, the DC% was significantly higher with dual activation, followed by dual activation through IPS Empress 2, and chemical activation (pEmpress 2 disc (pEmpress 2. PMID:21085798

  17. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the study of simulated radwaste, spent ion-exchange resins, borates/evaporator-concentrates and animal ashes, in bituminized form, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidized bitumen were used for characterizing the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weight composition 30, 40, 50, 60% by weight the dry waste material. The asphaltine and parafin contents in the bitumens were determined. Some additives and clays were used aiming best characteristics of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were loaded with Cs 134 and mixtures of resins-bitumens were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. It was used a conventional screw-extruder, used in plastic industry, to determine operational conditions and process difficulties. Mixtures resins-bitumen and concentrate-bitumen in differents operational condition were prepared and analysed. (Author) [pt

  18. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  19. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  20. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  1. Determination of vanadium in sea water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a tube coated with pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tokuo; Sakai, Kaoru

    1981-01-01

    The trace amount of vanadium in sea water was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a tube coated with pyrolytic graphite. To correct the background absorption, a deuterium lamp with a higher-brilliant thermal cathode was used. The sensitivity for vanadium increased 10 -- 20 fold by the use of the tube coated with pyrolytic graphite, and the utility lifetime of the tube was greatly extended. Vanadium(V) - 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) complexes were extracted into chloroform as an ion-pair with benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (Zephiramine) cation alternatively. The sample of sea water, which was made to 0.1 N in sulfuric acid and 0.1% in hydrogen peroxide, was loaded onto the column of Dowex 1-X 4 resin (SO 4 2- -form). Vanadium was then eluted from the resin with 1 N sulfuric acid-0.1% hydrogen peroxide or 1 N hydrochloric acid-0.1% hydrogen peroxide evaporated to dry. After dissolution of the elute in 0.2 N nitric acid, vanadium was extracted. Secondly, the sample of sea water was adjusted to pH 5.0, and loaded onto the column of Chelex-100 resin. Vanadium was eluted from the resin with 2 N ammonia. The above two methods took much time, but the coprecipitation method was not so and recommended for the determination of vanadium in sea water. Vanadium was coprecipitated with iron(III) hydroxide-hydrous titanium(IV) oxide at pH 6.0. The precipitate was digested with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide. The solution was diluted to 50 ml with water. The resulting solutions were employed to determine the vanadium concentration by the graphite furnace atomic absorption measurement. The trace amounts of vanadium in various kinds of the coastal sea water were determined by the coprecipitation method. (author)

  2. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  3. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  4. High thermal stability in W/MgO/CoFeB/W/CoFeB/W stacks via ultrathin W insertion with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi; Yu, Tao [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu, Zhengyong; Zhong, Huicai [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Khamis, Khamis Masoud [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu, Kaigui, E-mail: kgzhu@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics, Ministry of Education, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of a series of top MgO/CoFeB/W stacks were studied. In these stacks, the thickness of CoFeB is limited in a range of 1.1–2.2 nm. It was found that the stack can still maintain PMA in a 1.9 nm thick CoFeB free layer. Besides, we investigated the thermal stability factor ∆ of a spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) by inserting an ultra-thin W film of 0.8 nm between two CoFeB films. The result shows a clear PMA behavior for the samples with CoFeB thickness up to 2.5 nm, and an in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) when the CoFeB is thicker than 2.5 nm. Moreover, the thermal stability factor ∆ of the CoFeB stack with W insertion is about 132 for a 50 nm size STT-MRAM device, which is remarkably improved compared to 112 for a sample without W insertion. Our results represent an alternative way to realize the endurance at high annealing temperature, high-density and high ∆ in STT-MRAM device by ultra-thin W insertion. - Highlights: • The MgO/CoFeB/W multilayer can still maintain PMA in a CoFeB thickness of 1.9 nm. • The sample with 2.5 nm thickness of CoFeB by W insertion can still maintain PMA. • The sample with W insertion can still maintain PMA until the annealing temperature as high as 350 °C. • The thermal stability factor ∆ of sample with W insertion could be increase to about 132 for a 50 nm size STT-MRAM device.

  5. Determination of Ni{sup 2+} using an equilibrium ion exchange technique: Important chemical factors and applicability to environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M. [CABE - Analytical and Biophysical Environmental Chemistry, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Wilkinson, Kevin J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada)], E-mail: KJ.Wilkinson@umontreal.ca

    2008-05-26

    In natural waters, the determination of free metal concentrations is a key parameter for studying bioavailability. Unfortunately, few analytical tools are available for determining Ni speciation at the low concentrations found in natural waters. In this paper, an ion exchange technique (IET) that employs a Dowex resin is evaluated for its applicability to measure [Ni{sup 2+}] in freshwaters. The presence of major cations (e.g. Na, Ca and Mg) reduced both the times that were required for equilibration and the partition coefficient to the resin ({lambda}{sup '}{sub Ni}). IET measurements of [Ni{sup 2+}] in the presence of known ligands (citrate, diglycolate, sulfoxine, oxine and diethyldithiocarbamate) were verified by thermodynamic speciation models (MINEQL{sup +} and VisualMINTEQ). Results indicated that the presence of hydrophobic complexes (e.g. Ni(DDC){sub 2}{sup 0}) lead to an overestimation of the Ni{sup 2+} fraction. On the other hand, [Ni{sup 2+}] measurements that were made in the presence of amphiphilic complexes formed with humic substances (standard aquatic humic acid (SRHA) and standard aquatic fulvic acid (SRFA)) were well correlated to free ion concentrations that were calculated using a NICA-DONNAN model. An analytical method is also presented here to reduce the complexity of the calibration (due to the presence of many other cations) for the use of Dowex equilibrium ion exchange technique in natural waters.

  6. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  7. Comparative study of resin sealant and resin modified glass ionomer as pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Malek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the marginal integrity of resin modified glass ionomer cement with that of resin sealant, in vitro. Forty artificial pit and fissure cavities were prepared in occlusal surface of extracted premolar teeth by using ¼ round carbide bur. Cavities were condensed with artificial organic debris followed by cleaning with prophylaxis pumice brush and paste and then separated into two treatment groups. In Group A, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin sealant and in Group B, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant. These specimens were subjected to thermo-cycling followed by dye penetration test. The remaining 5 cavities from each group were analyzed for debris score by the SEM. The results of the microleakage test showed that the efficacy of preventing microleakage of samples sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant was higher than the samples sealed by resin sealant. However, no significant differences were found. It can be concluded that use of resin modified glass ionomer sealant is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures.

  8. The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples by preferential ion exchange separation from calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hiroto; Nonaka, Nobuhiro; Honda, Tetsutaro; Kimura, Toshimasa; Higuchi, Hideo

    1979-01-01

    The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples involves a difficulty in the separation and purification of strontium from large amounts of calcium. The principal technique employed in this study is based on a cation exchange separation after preferential chelation of calcium over strontium by EDTA. The alkaline earth fraction separated from samples is dissolved in 1.2 M HCl and an equivalent amount of EDTA is added. The solution is passed through a Dowex 50W-X8 ion exchange column at a flow rate of 20 ml/min after the pH has been adjusted to 5.1. A fraction of calcium retained on the resin is eluted out with 1.8 l of 2 w/v% EDTA solution at pH 5.1. Then the strontium is eluted with 450 ml of 2 M HCl. The strontium carbonate is precipitated, and the chemical yield is determined. After standing for 14 days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of 90 Sr - 90 Y, the activity of 89 Sr + 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured. Then the activity of 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured by milking the 90 Y. The proposed procedure has been applied to sea water, soil and various ash samples of vegetables, seaweeds and daily foods. The results obtained are in good agreement with those by a classical fuming nitric acid precipitation method. The detection limits are 0.1 pCi/l for 10 l of sea water, 10 pCi/kg for 100 g of soil and 1 pCi/kg-fresh for 20 g ash samples, respectively. (author)

  9. Pre-heated dual-cured resin cements: analysis of the degree of conversion and ultimate tensile strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Álvares França

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the degree of conversion (DC and ultimate tensile strength (UTS of dual-cured resin cements heated to 50º C prior to and during polymerization. Disc- and hourglass-shaped specimens of Rely X ARC (RX and Variolink II (VII were obtained using addition silicon molds. The products were manipulated at 25º C or 50º C and were subjected to 3 curing conditions: light-activation through a glass slide or through a pre-cured 2-mm thick resin composite disc, or they were allowed to self-cure (SC. All specimens were dark-stored dry for 15 days. For DC analysis, the resin cements were placed into the mold located on the center of a horizontal diamond on the attenuated total reflectance element in the optical bench of a Fourier Transformed Infrared spectrometer. Infrared spectra (n = 6 were collected between 1680 and 1500 cm-1, and DC was calculated by standard methods using changes in ratios of aliphatic-to-aromatic C=C absorption peaks from uncured and cured states. For UTS test, specimens (n = 10 were tested in tension in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. DC and UTS data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test (α= 5%. Both products showed higher DC at 50º C than at 25º C in all curing conditions. No significant difference in UTS was noted between most light-activated groups at 25º C and those at 50º C. VII SC groups showed higher UTS at 50º C than at 25º C (p < 0.05. Increased temperature led to higher DC, but its effects on resin cement UTS depended on the curing condition.

  10. Effects of toothbrush hardness on in vitro wear and roughness of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoizumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Junji; Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate and compare the effects of toothbrushes with different hardness on abrasion and surface roughness of composite resins. Toothbrushes (DENT. EX Slimhead II 33, Lion Dental Products Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) marked as soft, medium and hard, were used to brush 10 beam-shaped specimens of each of three composites resins (Venus [VEN], Venus Diamond [VED] and Venus Pearl [VEP]; HeraeusKulzer) with standardized calcium carbonate slurry in a multistation testing machine (2N load, 60 Hz). After each of five cycles with 10k brushing strokes the wear depth and surface roughness of the specimens were determined. After completion of 50k strokes representative samples were inspected by SEM. Data were treated with ANOVA and regression analyses (p composite resins increased linearly with increasing number of brushing cycles (r² > 0.9). Highest wear was recorded for VEN, lowest for VED. Hard brushes produced significantly higher wear on VEN and VEP, whereas no difference in wear by toothbrush type was detected for VED. Significantly highest surface roughness was found on VED specimens (Ra > 1.5 µm), the lowest one on VEN (Ra composite resins produced by toothbrushing with dentifrice depend mainly on the type of restorative resin. Hardness grades of toothbrushes have minor effects only on abrasion and surface roughness of composite resins. No relationship was found between abrasion and surface roughness. The grade of the toothbrush used has minor effect on wear, texture and roughness of the composite resin.

  11. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU. The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage. A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB, beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W, and artificial saliva (AS; control. The color change (DE was evaluated before (baseline and after thermocycling (T1, and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2, 3 h (T3, 24 h (T4, 48 h (T5, and 96 h (T6. The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  12. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Nóbrega, Adhara Smith; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU). The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage). A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB), beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W), and artificial saliva (AS; control). The color change (DE) was evaluated before (baseline) and after thermocycling (T1), and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2), 3 h (T3), 24 h (T4), 48 h (T5), and 96 h (T6). The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  13. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamińska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

  14. The management of spent resins at rad waste installation (RWI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan, Bahdir

    2002-01-01

    During years 2000 RWI has been managed 1.596 liters the spent resins from MPR, multipurpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS). The spent resins containing 6 0 C o, 1 37 C s and 8 9 S r. The immobilization of spent resins using Portland cement type I and sand in shell 950 liter has been carried out. The immobilization product quality was characterized by measurement of surface exposure, density, compression strength and leaching rate. The samples each being 3000 g are made by taking cement slurry from the 950 liter shell. The samples are molded in the form of cylinder of 50 mm diameter and height 50 mm. The density was determined by weighing and measuring sample's volume. The compression strength was determinate using P aul Weber a pparatus. The leaching rate by immerse of the samples in the demineralized water and the rate the contact surface dose measures using survey meter. The results show that the density ρ= (1,72 ± 0,01) s/d 1,73 ± 0,03) g.cm - 3 , the compression strength Γ= (20,10 ± 0,02 s/d 20,18 ± 0,02) N.mm - 2 , the leaching rate R n = (1,32x10 - 2 s /d 2,0x10 - 3 ) g.cm - 2 . h - 1 , the contact surface rate D 0 = (0,374 s/d 0,79) mrem.jam - 1 a nd 1m distance from the surface D 1 = (0,18 s/d 0,19) mrem.jam - 1 h ave been in compliance with the criteria recommended by IAEA the quality of spent resins concrete in shell 950 liters (number 22C to 27C) is qualified for ultimate disposal

  15. Ion exchange separation of carrier-free 140Ba and 140La from their equilibrium mixture using nitrilotriacetic acid and ascorbic acid as eluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.; Bhattacharyya, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    A simple cation exchange procedure for separation of 140 Ba- 140 La using Dowex 50W-X8 and nitrilotriacetic acid or ascorbic acid as the eluent has been described. The optimal separation of the daughter from the parent has been achieved using a 4% Na-nitrilotriacetate or Na-ascorbate solution at pH 7. The parent, 140 Ba, left in the column can be eluted with dilute hydrochloric acid or it can be retained in the column for milking off the daughter, 140 La, when needed. The radiochemical purity of the separated isotopes, 140 Ba and 140 La, were verified by γ-ray spectrometry. (author)

  16. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author) [pt

  17. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitument matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    To study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms, many samples of bitumen mixed with ion-exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared. The resins used in the tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/anionic bead resins. Different bittumen types were assayed: two destilled and to oxidized bitumens. Laboratory to scale samples, with surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 1, were molded to 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height. The composition of the mixtures were: 30, 40, 50 and 60% by weight of dried resin with bitumen. The leachant was deionized water with a leachant volume to sample surface rario of about 8 cm. Leached fractions were collected according to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant beckers after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli were used for counting in a Ge(Li) detector. Up to now, results of 250 days have been accumulated. Samples prepared with distilled bitumen have shown a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -14 cm 2 /sec and those prepared with oxidized bitumen yielded a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -12 cm 2 /sec. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry were employed to fit experimental data. (Author) [pt

  18. 4-META opaque resin--a new resin strongly adhesive to nickel-chromium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Nagata, K; Takeyama, M; Atsuta, M; Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E

    1981-09-01

    1) A new adhesive opaque resin containing a reactive monomer, 4-methacryloxy-ethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), was prepared, and its application to thermosetting acrylic resin veneer crowns was studied. 2) The 4-META opaque resin was applied to a variety of nickel-chromium dental alloy specimens which had undergone different treatment, and endurance tests were conducted to evaluate the durability of adhesion. 3) Stable adhesion against water penetration was achieved with metal surfaces first etched with HCl and then oxidized with HNO3. A bond strength of 250 kg/cm2 was maintained even after immersion in water at 37 degrees C for 30 wk or at 80 degrees C for ten wk. Furthermore, this value did not decrease even after the specimens were subjected to 500 thermal cycles. 4) The 4-META opaque resin studied can eliminate the necessity for retention devices on metal castings. 5) The smooth 4-META opaque resin should have no adverse effects on gingivae.

  19. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  20. Formation of carbon nanosheets via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization of macroporous anion-exchange resin for supercapacitors application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Ma, Guofu; Sun, Kanjun; Mu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhe; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-12-10

    Two-dimensional mesoporous carbon nanosheets (CNSs) have been prepared via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization route using macroporous anion-exchange resin (AER) as carbon precursor and ZnCl2 and FeCl3 as activating agent and catalyst, respectively. The iron catalyst in the skeleton of the AER may lead to carburization to form a sheetlike structure during the carbonization process. The obtained CNSs have a large number of mesopores, a maximum specific surface area of 1764.9 m(2) g(-1), and large pore volume of 1.38 cm(3) g(-1). As an electrode material for supercapacitors application, the CNSs electrode possesses a large specific capacitance of 283 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability (64% retention ratio even at 50 A g(-1)) in 6 mol L(-1) KOH. Furthermore, CNSs symmetric supercapacitor exhibits specific energies of 17.2 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 224 W kg(-1) operated in the voltage range of 0-1.8 V in 0.5 mol L(-1) Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, and outstanding cyclability (retains about 96% initial capacitance after 5000 cycles).

  1. Concentration and purification of plutonium solutions by means of ion-exchange columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R W; Aikin, A M

    1953-02-15

    Equilibrium experiments using Dowex 50 ion-exchange resin and nitric acid solutions of Pu{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} cations have yielded values for the absorption affinities for these ions. Trivalent plutonium was found to be far more strongly absorbed than UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}. Column studies have shown that uranium can be completely separated from plutonium even when the initial concentration of uranium is very much greater than that of the plutonium. A plutonium concentration increase of about fifty-fold can be obtained from solutions about 10{sup -3} M in plutonium and 1.0M in nitric acid. The equation K{sub Pu}{sup 3+} = X{sub R} (1-X{sub S}){sup 3} C{sub S}{sup 2}/X{sub S} (1-X{sub R}){sup 3} C{sub R}{sup 2} for estimating the maximum amount of plutonium taken up by a column of resin of unit volume from a solution of total equivalent concentration, C{sub S} , has been shown to hold for values of C{sub S} up to 3 equivalents per litre. X{sub R}, the equivalent fraction of plutonium on the resin, is the number of equivalents of plutonium absorbed by the resin divided by the total capacity of the column. X{sub S}, the equivalent fraction of plutonium in solution, is the equivalent concentration of plutonium divided by the total equivalent concentration of cations in solution. C{sub R} is the total capacity of the resin in milli-equivalents per gram of dry resin. Recommendations have been made for the application and operation of ion-exchange columns in the Plutonium-Extraction Plant. (author)

  2. Verification of a three-dimensional resin transfer molding process simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerson, John C.; Loos, Alfred C.; Dexter, H. Benson

    1995-01-01

    Experimental evidence was obtained to complete the verification of the parameters needed for input to a three-dimensional finite element model simulating the resin flow and cure through an orthotropic fabric preform. The material characterizations completed include resin kinetics and viscosity models, as well as preform permeability and compaction models. The steady-state and advancing front permeability measurement methods are compared. The results indicate that both methods yield similar permeabilities for a plain weave, bi-axial fiberglass fabric. Also, a method to determine principal directions and permeabilities is discussed and results are shown for a multi-axial warp knit preform. The flow of resin through a blade-stiffened preform was modeled and experiments were completed to verify the results. The predicted inlet pressure was approximately 65% of the measured value. A parametric study was performed to explain differences in measured and predicted flow front advancement and inlet pressures. Furthermore, PR-500 epoxy resin/IM7 8HS carbon fabric flat panels were fabricated by the Resin Transfer Molding process. Tests were completed utilizing both perimeter injection and center-port injection as resin inlet boundary conditions. The mold was instrumented with FDEMS sensors, pressure transducers, and thermocouples to monitor the process conditions. Results include a comparison of predicted and measured inlet pressures and flow front position. For the perimeter injection case, the measured inlet pressure and flow front results compared well to the predicted results. The results of the center-port injection case showed that the predicted inlet pressure was approximately 50% of the measured inlet pressure. Also, measured flow front position data did not agree well with the predicted results. Possible reasons for error include fiber deformation at the resin inlet and a lag in FDEMS sensor wet-out due to low mold pressures.

  3. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  4. Solid-phase extraction of copper, iron and zinc ions on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Melek, Esra [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: msoylak@gmail.com

    2008-11-30

    Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493 as new adsorbent for the separation-preconcentration of heavy metal ions has been proposed. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of copper(II), iron(III) and zinc(II) including pH, amounts of adsorbent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The influences of alkaline and earth alkaline ions were also reported. The recovery values for the analytes are generally higher than 95%. The preconcentration factor was 37. The limit of detections of the analyte ions (k = 3, N = 21) were 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for copper, 2.01 {mu}g L{sup -1} for iron and 0.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for zinc. The relative standard deviations of the determinations were found to be lower than 9%. The procedure was validated by analyzing copper, iron and zinc contents in two certified reference materials, NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. Agreements between the obtained results and the certified values were achieved. The developed preconcentration method was applied in the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in several samples including a multivitamin-multimineral tablet, dialysis solutions, natural waters and some food samples.

  5. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  6. Multi-podant diglycolamides and room temperature ionic liquid impregnated resins: An excellent combination for extraction chromatography of actinides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, R B; Ansari, S A; Verboom, W; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-05-27

    Extraction chromatography resins, prepared by impregnating two multi-podant diglycolamide ligands, viz. diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (RTIL: C4mimTf2N) on Chromosorb-W (an inert solid support), gave excellent results for the removal of trivalent actinides from acidic waste solutions. Distribution coefficient measurements on several metal ions showed selective sorption of Am(III) over hexavalent uranyl ions and other fission product elements such as strontium and cesium. The sorbed metal ions could be efficiently desorbed with a complexing solution containing guanidine carbonate and EDTA buffer. The sorption of Am(III) on both resins followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics with rate constants of 1.37×10(-6) and 6.88×10(-7)g/cpmmin for T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The metal sorption on both resins indicated the Langmuir monolayer chemisorption phenomenon with Eu(III) sorption capacities of 4.83±0.21 and 0.52±0.05mg per g of T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The results of column studies show that these resins are of interest for a possible application for the recovery of hazardous trivalent actinides from dilute aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Degradation of ion spent resin using the Fenton's reagent; Degradacao da resina de troca ionica utilizando o reagente de Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro Goulart de

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for spent radioactive ion exchange resin treatment is its immobilization in cement, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. Although this method is efficient, it increases considerably the final volume of the waste due to the low incorporation capacity. The objective of this work was to develop a degradation method of spent resins arising from the nuclear research reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagents. This method would allow a higher incorporation in cement. Three different resins were evaluated: cationic, anionic and a mixture of both resins. The reactions were conducted varying the catalyst concentration (25, 50, 100 and 150 mM), the volume of hydrogen peroxide (320 to 460 mL), and three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg C. Degradation of about 98% was achieved using a 50 mM catalyst solution and 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution. The most efficient temperature was 60 deg C. (author)

  8. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  9. Study on the pyrolysis of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and modified PF resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jigang, E-mail: wangjigang@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiang, Haiyun [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 210013 (China); Jiang, Nan [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-12-10

    The pyrolysis of pure phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) modified PF resin was investigated by using thermogravimetry (TG) and pyrolysis gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (PY-GC/MS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were also employed to investigate the micro-structural evolution. It was shown from the TG analysis that the char residues of pure PF resin were 62.9 and 60.5% after being pyrolyzed at 700 and 1000 {sup o}C, respectively. The degradation and failure of the resin matrix were mainly resulted from the release of volatiles. The phenol and its methyl derivates took a large proportion in the amount of volatiles. In comparison with the pure PF resin, the char residues of B{sub 4}C modified PF resin were obviously higher, with the values of 71.9 and 68.4% at 700 and 1000 {sup o}C, respectively. Due to the oxidation-reduction reactions between B{sub 4}C additive and oxygen-containing volatiles including CO and H{sub 2}O, partial carbon and oxygen elements in the volatiles remained in the resin matrix in the forms of amorphous carbon and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. The results of SEM and FT-IR characterization demonstrated the occurrence of the modification, and the amorphous carbon existed in the form of reticular substance. In addition, the amount of the released phenol and its methyl derivates was also decreased drastically due to the formation of borate.

  10. Contribution to the study of rare earth separation by ion exchange, using ammonium lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratot, I.

    1958-01-01

    Using the technique of chromatography on a column of Dowex 50 resin, heated to 87 deg. C, we have studied the separation of rare earths (from holmium to praseodymium) which may be produced with the cyclotron by heavy ions, α or protons. From an ammonium lactate solution M at pH 5, separations are carried out by varying the dilution as a function of the quantity of the target rare earth and of its position during elution. When weighable quantities of the rare earth (more than 5 mg) appear towards the end of the elution, the separation is little affected this case approaches that of a tracer mixture of rare earths; if on the other hand weighable quantities of the rare earth are washed through at the beginning of the chromatogram, the dilution must be adjusted in order to obtain a good separation. (author) [fr

  11. Neutron-activation analysis of phosphorus in aluminium-silicon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajchev, Kh.

    1976-01-01

    Silicon-aluminium alloy samples weighing about 50 mg are irradiated in a nuclear reactor with a neutron flow of 5x10 12 neutrons, cm -2 .s -1 . After a period of one week for decay of the short-lived isotopes, the sample is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acid. It is neutralized up to pH 2,5 and the present radioactive two- and three-valent cations are sorbed on chelating ion exchange resin Dowex A1. An ammonium phosphate standard is irradiated in parallel with the sample for qualitative determinations. The quantity of phosphorus is measured in aliquots from the sample and the standard with a liquid counter. The method proposed for separating and determining the phosphorus in silumins ensures practically the full separation of phosphorus (98,5 +- 0,5 %) and a precise determination of microquantities of the element - up to 10 -10 g. (author)

  12. Quantitative radio-chemical separation of calcium, strontium and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.; Dupuis, M.; Le Nagard, M.; Michot, H.

    1965-01-01

    A method for separation of Ca 45 , Sr 89 and Ba 140 has been developed for the radiochemical determination of these isotopes in a solution of fission with a large concentration of mineral salts. After removal of most fission products by solvent extraction (TTA-MIBK) at different pH, the alkaline earths are extracted from the aqueous phase at pH 9. After recovery with diluted hydrochloric acid, the three elements are adsorbed on cationic resin Dowex 50 and eluted sequentially with ammonium α - Hydroxy iso-butyrate using gradient concentration and pH. Ca 45 and Sr 89 are measured by β - counting and Ba 140 by γ spectrometry. The chemical yield approximates 80 per cent for calcium, and 70 per cent for strontium and barium. The decontamination factor is 10 5 for most fission products. Four separations can be performed in twenty hours. (authors) [fr

  13. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  14. Biocompatibility Research of a Novel pH Sensitive Ion Exchange Resin Microsphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Shi, Shuangshuang; Pan, Weisan; Sun, Changshan; Zou, Xiaomian; Fu, Min; Feng, Yingshu; Ding, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate biocompatibility and provide in-vivo pharmacological and toxicological evidence for further investigation of the possibility of pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere for clinical utilizations. Acute toxicity study and general pharmacological studies were conducted on the pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere we prepared. The general pharmacological studies consist of the effects of the pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere on the nervous system of mice, the functional coordination of mice, the hypnosis of mice treated with nembutal at subliminal dose, the autonomic activities of tested mice, and the heart rate, blood pressure, ECG and breathing of the anesthetic cats. The LD50 of pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere after oral administration was more than 18.84 g·Kg(-1). Mice were orally administered with 16 mg·Kg(-1), 32 mg·Kg(-1) and 64 mg·Kg(-1) of pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere and there was no significant influence on mice nervous system, general behavior, function coordination, hypnotic effect treated with nembutal at subliminal dose and frequency of autonomic activities. Within the 90 min after 5 mg·Kg(-1), 10 mg·Kg(-1), 20 mg·Kg(-1) pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere was injected to cat duodenum, the heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and ECG of the cats didn't make significant changes in each experimental group compared with the control group. The desirable pharmacological and toxicological behaviors of the pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere exhibited that it has safe biocompatibility and is possible for clinical use.

  15. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n = 168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz); diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  16. Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and H.E.S.S. observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Bednarek, W.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Bernardini, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes above the sensitivity limits of current Cherenkov telescopes have been predicted for both the central X-ray binary system and the interaction regions of SS 433 jets with the surrounding W50 nebula. Non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported, indicating that efficient partic...

  17. An investigation of the sorption/desorption of organics from natural waters by solid adsorbents and anion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, B.M.; Sedlov, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The results of laboratory and operational tests at thermal and nuclear power stations on anion exchangers and solid adsorbents of makeup water treatment plants with regard to the sorption/desorption of organic substances in natural water and condensate are presented. The resins Amberlite trademark IRA-67, IRA-900, IRA-958Cl, Purolite registered 2 A-500P, Dowex TM3 Marathon, and others were tested. Retention of up to 60-80% of the ''organic'' material on the anion exchangers and organic absorbers installed at different places in the technological scheme of the water processing unit was attained. The possibility of a partial ''poisoning'' of the resins and the degradation of the working characteristics over the first year of operation are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2001-07-10

    Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

  19. Thermosetting behavior of pitch-resin from heavy residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingfang, Z.; Yansheng, G.; Baohua, H.; Yuzhen, Z. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong (China). State Key LAboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Heavy Oil Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Thermosetting resins are widely employed as a basic matrix for c/c composites in carbon materials production. A new type of synthesized thermosetting resin is called pitch resin. Pitch resin is a cheaper resin and possesses a potential opportunity for future use. However, the thermosetting behavior of pitch resin is not very clear. The hardening process and conditions for thermosetting are very important for future use of pitch resin. B-stage pitch resin is a soluble and meltable inter-media condensed polymer, which is not fully reacted and is of a low molecular weight. The insoluble and unmelted pitch resin can only be obtained from synthesized B-stage resin after a hardening stage. This paper presented an experiment that synthesized B-stage pitch resin with a link agent (PXG) under catalyst action from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of the slurry's aromatic enriched component (FCCDF). The paper discussed the experiment, including the synthesis of pitch resin and thermosetting of pitch resin. Two kinds of thermosetting procedures were used in the study called one-step thermosetting and two-step thermosetting. It was concluded that the B-stage pitch resin could be hardened after a thermosetting procedure by heat treatment. The thermosetting pitch resin from 2-step thermosetting possesses was found to have better thermal resistant properties than that of the 1-step thermosetting pitch resin. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  1. Ion chromatography for the analysis of salt splitting capacities of cation and anion resin in premixed resin sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Satinath; Kumar, Rakesh; Tripathy, M.K.; Dhole, K.; Sharma, R.S.; Varde, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Mixed bed ion exchange resin is commonly used in various plants including nuclear reactors for the purpose of fine polishing. The analysis of ion exchange capacities of cation and anion resin in resin mixture is therefore an agenda in the context of purchasing of premixed resin from the manufacturer. An ion chromatographic method for assaying ion exchange capacities of pure as well as mixed resin has been optimized. The proposed method in contrast to the conventional ASTM method has been found to be quite encouraging to consider it as an alternate method for the analysis of premixed resin. (author)

  2. Overview on resins available in microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, B.; Schue, F.; Montginoul, C.; Giral, L.

    1985-01-01

    Lithographic equipments using electrons and X radiation are developed. Velocity and resolution requirements fix the nature of the material to irradiate. Circuit making principles are recalled here; resists (organic polymers) are employed for it. The different types of resins and then needed characteristics are reviewed here. In the scope of electron sensitive resins methyl polymethacrylate and derivative and its copolymers (and copolymers of methacrylonitrile) and reticulated copolymers are studied. Polysulfones are also presented (poly(buten-1 sulfone), poly(styrene sulfone), poly(methyl-1 cyclopentene-1 sulfone). The interest in photosensitive resins (such as AZ) as electron sensitive resins is recalled. In the field of negative resins, the polyepoxyds, polystyrene and halogenated derivates from polystyrene (CMS and PCMS), the poly(vinyl-2 naphtalene) and its derivatives (PSTTF) are presented. The X radiation sensitive resins are also reviewed: the methyl polymethacrylate and its halogenated derivates, the acrylic homopolymers and copolymers (example of poly(acrylate of chlorinated alcoyls). The resins developable by plasma are mentioned. At last, for photosensitive resins, the diazide polydiene systems are presented together with systems diazo-2 2H-naphtalenone-1. The systems with salt photolysis are just recalled [fr

  3. Effects of layering technique on the shade of resin overlays and the microhardness of dual cure resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Sang Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the color of layered resin overlays and to test the early microhardness of dual cure resin cement (DCRC light cured through the layered resin overlays. Resin overlays of 1.5 mm thickness were fabricated with the A3 shade of Z350 (Group 1L, the A3B and A3E shades of Supreme XT (Group 2L, and the A3, E3, and T1 shades of Sinfony (Group 3L using one, two, and three layers, respectively (n = 7. Each layer of the resin overlays was set in equal thickness. The color of the resin overlays was measured with a colorimeter and compared with an A3 shade resin denture tooth. DCRC was light cured through the resin overlays, and the early microhardness of the DCRC was measured. The ΔE value between the denture tooth and the resin overlays and the Vickers hardness number (VHN of the DCRC were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test. The color differences were 8.9 ± 0.5, 5.3 ± 1.0, and 7.3 ± 0.5 and the VHNs were 19.4 ± 1.1, 21.1 ± 0.9, and 29.3 ± 0.6 for Groups 1L, 2L, and 3L, respectively. Therefore, to match the designated tooth color of resin inlays and to increase the early microhardness of DCRC, layered resin inlays are more appropriate than single-dentin-layer resin inlays. However, the translucent layer should be used cautiously because the color difference of resin inlays with a translucent layer was affected more than those without a translucent layer.

  4. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu; Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.)

  5. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro

    1995-11-07

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.).

  6. Conjugation of diisocyanate side chains to dimethacrylate reduces polymerization shrinkage and increases the hardness of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Yih-Dean; Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Lin, Chun-Pin; Tseng, Wan-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Polymerization shrinkage is one of the main causes of dental restoration failure. This study tried to conjugate two diisocyanate side chains to dimethacrylate resins in order to reduce polymerization shrinkage and increase the hardness of composite resins. Diisocyanate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and bisphenol A dimethacrylate were reacted in different ratios to form urethane-modified new resin matrices, and then mixed with 50 wt.% silica fillers. The viscosities of matrices, polymerization shrinkage, surface hardness, and degrees of conversion of experimental composite resins were then evaluated and compared with a non-modified control group. The viscosities of resin matrices increased with increasing diisocyanate side chain density. Polymerization shrinkage and degree of conversion, however, decreased with increasing diisocyanate side chain density. The surface hardness of all diisocyanate-modified groups was equal to or significantly higher than that of the control group. Conjugation of diisocyanate side chains to dimethacrylate represents an effective means of reducing polymerization shrinkage and increasing the surface hardness of dental composite resins. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. MWCNTs/Resin Nanocomposites: Structural, Thermal, Mechanical and Dielectric Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Alexopoulos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were manufactured, characterized and added to a typical aeronautical resin matrix at different concentrations as nano-reinforcement. The carbon content of produced MWCNTs was determined to be around 98.5% while they consisted of 13-20 wall-layers and their external diameter had an average size in between 20 and 50 nm. MWCNTs were dispersed in an epoxy resin system and tensile specimens for different MWCNTs concentrations were prepared in an open mould. Electrical wiring was attached to the specimens’ surface and surface electrical resistance change was in-situ monitored during monotonic tension till fracture. Performed tensile tests showed that the MWCNTs addition increased both modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength on the nano-composites with a simultaneously dramatic ductility decrease. The MWCNTs addition enhanced the investigated resin matrix with monitoring ability; electrical resistance change of the investigated tensile tests was correlated in the elastic regime with axial nominal strain and the gauge factor of the different MWCNTs concentration specimens were calculated. It was found that lowest MWCNTs concentration gave the best results in terms of piezo-resistivity and simultaneously the least enhancement in the mechanical properties.

  8. Antimicrobial and mechanical properties of dental resin composite containing bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Emre; Torlak, Emrah; Altunsoy, Mustafa

    2016-07-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy and mechanical properties of dental resin composites containing different amounts of microparticulate bioactive glass (BAG). Experimental resin composites were prepared by mixing resin matrix (70% BisGMA and 30% TEGDMA) and inorganic filler with various fractions of BAG to achieve final BAG concentrations of 5, 10 and 30 wt%. Antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in aqueous suspension against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans and in biofilm against S. mutans. The effect of incorporation of BAG on the mechanical properties of resin composite was evaluated by measuring the surface roughness, compressive strength and flexural strength. Under the dynamic contact condition, viable counts of E. coli, S. aureus and S. mutans in suspensions were reduced up to 78%, 57% and 50%, respectively, after 90 minutes of exposure to disc-shaped composite specimens, depending on the BAG contents. In 2-day-old S. mutans biofilm, incorporation of BAG into composite at ratios of 10% and 30% resulted in 0.8 and 1.4 log reductions in the viable cell counts compared with the BAG-free composite, respectively. The surface roughness values of composite specimens did not show any significant difference (p>0.05) at any concentration of BAG. However, compressive and flexural strengths of composite were decreased significantly with addition of 30% BAG (p<0.05). The results demonstrated the successful utilization of BAG as a promising biomaterial in resin composites to provide antimicrobial function.

  9. Separation of Gram-amounts of Lanthanides by Cation Exchange, using an aqueous Solution of α-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid as an Eluant. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Stigt, Ch.A. van; Zonderhuis, J.

    1970-09-01

    This report describes a procedure developed for the mutual separation of gram quantities of the lanthanides present in solutions of thermal fission products. A second aim was the purification of ''crude'' 147 Pm-sources. The method is based on column chromatography on Dowex - 50 W (50 - 100 mesh) with an aqueous solution of a-hydroxyisobutyric acid (AHIB) as an eluant. Due to the radioactivity of the samples, the process has to be performed in a shielded glove-box. Consequently, a considerably economy was exercised with respect to the volume of the apparatus. The process was successfully tested with labeled artificial mixtures of 20 grammes of the rare earths involved. The method has been applied to the purification of batches of ''crude'' 147 Pm. (author)

  10. Sorption Efficiency of a New Sorbent towards Cadmium(II: Methylphosphonic Acid Grafted Polystyrene Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Ferrah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new chelating polymeric sorbent has been developed using polystyrene resin grafted with phosphonic acid. After characterization by FTIR and elementary analysis, the new resin has been investigated in liquid-solid extraction of cadmium(II. The results indicated that phosphonic resin could adsorb Cd(II ion effectively from aqueous solution. The adsorption was strongly dependent on the pH of the medium and the optimum pH value level for better sorption was between 3.2 and 5.2. The influence of other analytical parameters including contact time, amount of resin, metal ion concentration, and the presence of some electrolytes was investigated. The maximum uptake capacity of Cd(II ions was 37,9 mg·g−1 grafted resin at ambient temperature, at an initial pH value of 5.0. The overall adsorption process was best described by pseudo second-order kinetic. When Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were tested, the latter had a better fit with the experimental data. Furthermore, more than 92% of Cd(II could be eluted by using 1.0 mol·L−1 HCl in one cycle.

  11. Acrylated Palm Oil Resins for Radiation (UV) Curing of Over Print Varnish (OPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norshamsul Arif; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail; Flora Sim; Sharilla Muhammad Faizal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of Acrylated Epoxidized Palm Oil (EPOLA) on a radiation (UV) curing Over Print Varnish (OPV) application. The initial target was to produce an environmentally friendly resin (non-VOC) and reduce the dependence on petroleum (hydrocarbon) based products which are more toxic. Toxicity was determined via Acute Oral Toxicity (LD50), OECD 401 and Acute Toxicity (Dermal), OECD 402 technique whilst the reactivity, chemical resistance and other physical properties were obtained from actual printing application test. The developed EPOLA resin was combined with acrylated monomers, photo initiator(s) and additives in typical OPV formulation before being chemically converted into protective glossy printed film under Ultra Violet (UV-C) light. The gloss, flexibility and adhesion effects are significantly greater than conventional OPV epoxy based coupled with further extremely low irritancy to skin. The contributions of this project are twofold. First, the toxicity of developed acrylated Palm Oil resin is certainly lower than conventional epoxy acrylates resin. Secondly, the benefits towards radiation curing OPV applications were significantly demonstrated. (author)

  12. Structural features of resorcinol–formaldehyde resin chars and interfacial behavior of water co-adsorbed with low-molecular weight organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun’ko, Vladimir M.; Bogatyrov, Viktor M.; Turov, Vladimir V.; Leboda, Roman; Skubiszewska-Zięba, Jadwiga; Urubkov, Iliya V.

    2013-01-01

    Products of resorcinol–formaldehyde resin carbonization (chars) are characterized by different morphology (particle shape and sizes) and texture (specific surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution) depending on water content during resin polymerization. At a low amount of water (C w = 37.8 wt.%) during synthesis resulting in strongly cross-linked polymers, carbonization gives nonporous particles. An increase in the water content to 62.7 wt.% results in a nano/mesoporous char, but if C w = 73.3 wt.%, a char is purely nanoporous. Despite these textural differences, the Raman spectra of all the chars are similar because of the similarity in the structure of their carbon sheets with a significant contribution of sp 3 C atoms. However, the difference in the spatial organization of the carbon sheet stacks in the particles results in the significant differences in the textural and morphological characteristics and in the adsorption properties of chars with respect to water, methane, benzene, hydrogen, methylene chloride, and dimethylsulfoxide.

  13. Structural features of resorcinol–formaldehyde resin chars and interfacial behavior of water co-adsorbed with low-molecular weight organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gun’ko, Vladimir M., E-mail: vlad_gunko@ukr.net [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Bogatyrov, Viktor M.; Turov, Vladimir V. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Leboda, Roman; Skubiszewska-Zięba, Jadwiga [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 20031 Lublin (Poland); Urubkov, Iliya V. [Kurdyumov Institute of Metal Physics, 36 Vernadsky Boulevard, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-10-15

    Products of resorcinol–formaldehyde resin carbonization (chars) are characterized by different morphology (particle shape and sizes) and texture (specific surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution) depending on water content during resin polymerization. At a low amount of water (C{sub w} = 37.8 wt.%) during synthesis resulting in strongly cross-linked polymers, carbonization gives nonporous particles. An increase in the water content to 62.7 wt.% results in a nano/mesoporous char, but if C{sub w} = 73.3 wt.%, a char is purely nanoporous. Despite these textural differences, the Raman spectra of all the chars are similar because of the similarity in the structure of their carbon sheets with a significant contribution of sp{sup 3} C atoms. However, the difference in the spatial organization of the carbon sheet stacks in the particles results in the significant differences in the textural and morphological characteristics and in the adsorption properties of chars with respect to water, methane, benzene, hydrogen, methylene chloride, and dimethylsulfoxide.

  14. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  15. [Physical properties of resins for veneer crown. (Part 1) Bending strength of thermosetting methacrylic resins (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, T

    1979-01-01

    The physical properties of thermosetting methacrylic resins contain a kind or more than two kinds of cross linking agents were investigated. Knoop hardness and bending strength after drying, water sorption and thermal cycling were listed in table 4 and 5. Hydrophilic resins absorbed water about 3 times as much as hydrophobic resins. The materials contain a small amount of hydrophobic cross linking agents in MMA indicate comparatively excellent properties after drying, water sorption and thermal cycling. Knoop hardness of resins generally reduced by water sorption, especially in the case of the resin contains a large amount of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate.

  16. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  17. Removal of radiocesium using cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Tachibana, Yoshitaka; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    Cation exchange resins (calcium polystyrene sulfonate, Ca-resin and sodium polystyrene sulfonate, Na-resin) have been used as agents to improve hyperkerlemia. For removing 137 Cs from the human body, the adsorption ability of the resin for 137 Cs was examined and evaluated. Resin (0.03 g) and 137 Cs (ca.1 kBq) were introduced into 3 mL of water, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 1st fluid for a dissolution test (pH 1.2) and 2nd fluid (pH 6.8), respectively, and shaken. After 1-3 hours, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was 99% in water, 60% in a pH 1.2 fluid and, 66% in a pH 6.8 fluid. By adding potassium, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Ca-resin was reduced. However, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was almost unchanged. These results show that both resins have adsorption ability for 137 Cs in the stomach and the intestines. Therefore, the proposed method will be an effective means in the case of a radiological emergency due to 137 Cs. (author)

  18. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  19. Measurement of opalescence of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lu, Huan; Powers, John M

    2005-11-01

    Opalescence is an optical property, where there is light scattering of the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum, giving the material a bluish appearance under reflected light and an orange/brown appearance under transmitted light. The objective of this study was to determine the opalescence of resin composites with a color measuring spectrophotometer. Colors of A2 and enamel or translucent shades of four resin composites and of an unfilled resin measured in the reflectance and transmittance modes were compared, and the opalescence parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in blue-yellow coordinate (Deltab*) and red-green parameter (Deltaa*) between the reflected and transmitted colors of 1-mm thick specimens. The masking effect was calculated as the color difference between the color of a black background and the color of specimen over the black background. The range of OP in resin composites was 5.7-23.7, which was higher than that of the unfilled resin. However, there were significant differences among the brands and shades of the resin composites. Opalescence varied by brand and shade of the resin composites, and contributed to the masking of background color along with translucency parameter. Some of the resin composites actually displayed opalescence.

  20. Study of Adsorption Property of Ga(III) onto Strongly Basic Resin for Ga Extraction from Bayer Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuo; Yang, Yongxiang; Lu, Hao; Hua, Zhongsheng; Ma, Xiaoling

    Ion-exchange is the main technology used in industry for gallium recovery from Bayer liquor, the largest gallium production resource. However, the co-extraction of vanadium and the degradation of resins are the major issues. Further investigations related to fundamental theory are needed. This paper reports the study of the adsorption properties of a strongly basic resin having a combination of one =NOH group and another active group -NH2 for Ga(III) extraction. The influence of operational conditions such as contact time, initial Ga(III) concentration and temperature on Ga(III) adsorption were extensively investigated. The results revealed that the resin has high adsorption capacity and Ga(III) selectivity. The optimal adsorption condition was obtained at temperatures of 40-50°C and contact time of 40-60 min. The Ga(III) adsorption data on the resin fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetics. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe Ga(III) adsorption isotherms on the resin.

  1. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  2. Influence of alloy microstructure on the microshear bond strength of basic alloys to a resin luting cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, José; Costa, José Ferreira; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Souza, Douglas Nesadal de; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of microstructure and composition of basic alloys on their microshear bond strength (µSBS) to resin luting cement. The alloys used were: Supreme Cast-V (SC), Tilite Star (TS), Wiron 99 (W9), VeraBond II (VBII), VeraBond (VB), Remanium (RM) and IPS d.SIGN 30 (IPS). Five wax patterns (13 mm in diameter and 4mm height) were invested, and cast in a centrifugal casting machine for each basic alloy. The specimens were embedded in resin, polished with a SiC paper and sandblasted. After cleaning the metal surfaces, six tygon tubes (0.5 mm height and 0.75 mm in diameter) were placed on each alloy surface, the resin cement (Panavia F) was inserted, and the excess was removed before light-curing. After storage (24 h/37°C), the specimens were subjected to µSBS testing (0.5 mm/min). The data were subjected to a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Turkey's test (α=0.05). After polishing, their microstructures were revealed with specific conditioners. The highest µSBS (mean/standard deviation in MPa) were observed in the alloys with dendritic structure, eutectic formation or precipitation: VB (30.6/1.7), TS (29.8/0.9), SC (30.6/1.7), with the exception of IPS (31.1/0.9) which showed high µSBS but no eutectic formation. The W9 (28.1/1.5), VBII (25.9/2.0) and RM (25.9/0.9) showed the lowest µSBS and no eutectic formation. It seems that alloys with eutectic formation provide the highest µSBS values when bonded to a light-cured resin luting cement.

  3. Preparation of tritiated thymidine of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan'kova, E.K.; Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Optimum conditions for the reaction are determined; and conditions for reaction component separation on resins of Dowex-1x8 and APA-8p (HCOO - , elution with ammonium formate) are optimized. It is established that the transition from thymine preparations with the specific activity of 0.15 and 1.5 TBq/mmol to the preparation with the specific activity of 3.25 TBq/mmol brings about the reduction in the desoxyribosylation reaction rate and the decrease in the thymidine yield from 85-90 to 65% [ru

  4. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor oil with melamine resin, has been studied by DSC method with programmed heating and in isothermal mode. The results determined from dynamic DSC curves were mathematically transformed using the Ozawa isoconversional method for obtaining the isothermal data. These results, degree of curing versus time, are in good agreement with those determined by the isothermal DSC experiments. By applying the Ozawa method it is possible to calculate the isothermal kinetic parameters for the alkyd/melamine resin mixtures curing using only calorimetric data obtained by dynamic DSC runs. Depending on the alkyd resin type and ratio in mixtures the values of activation energies of curing process of resin mixtures are from 51.3 to 114 kJ mol-1. The rate constant of curing increases with increasing the content of melamine resin in the mixture and with curing temperature. The reaction order varies from 1.12 to 1.37 for alkyd based on dehydrated castor oil/melamine resin mixtures and from 1.74 to 2.03 for mixtures with alkyd based on castor oil. Based on the results obtained, we propose that dehydrated castor oil alkyd/melamine resin mixtures can be used in practice (curing temperatures from 120 to 160°C.

  5. Effect of repair resin type and surface treatment on the repair strength of polyamide denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Mustafa; Yanikoglu, Nuran; Bayindir, Funda; Ciftci, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different repair resins and surface treatments on the repair strength of a polyamide denture base material. Polyamide resin specimens were prepared and divided into nine groups according to the surface treatments and repair materials. The flexural strengths were measured with a 3-point bending test. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the post-hoc Tukey test (α=0.05). The effects of the surface treatments on the surface of the polyamide resin were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The repair resins and surface treatments significantly affected the repair strength of the polyamide denture base material (p0.05). The flexural strength of the specimens repaired with the polyamide resin was significantly higher than that of those repaired with the heat-polymerized and autopolymerizing acrylic resins.

  6. Prediction model for exhausted point of ion exchange resin column of moderator purification circuit at Korean CANDU plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Wook; Kang, Duck-Won; Ahn, Hyun Kyoung; Rhee, In Hyoung

    2005-01-01

    Most of the carbon-14 produced at CANDU plants are removed by an Ion eXchange (IX) resin column of the moderator purification circuit, and a column is replaced based on an empirical guideline. Since the amount of carbon-14 released from CANDU plants is governed by the performance of a column, optimal operation of IX resin columns through the timely replacement based on an objective criterion is very important. For this, the model for predicting the exhausted point of an IX resin column has been developed based on local chemical equilibrium. The performance evaluation at Wolsong Unit 3 showed that the model was able to simulate the removal of species by an IX resin column to such a high degree that the model could provide an objective criterion to replace an IX resin column timely. The derived maximum service time of a fresh IX resin column was 4,080 h, about twice that of the existing empirical guideline (up to 2,000h). Accordingly, if the maximum service time derived in this paper is applied to Wolsong Unit 3, it is expected to reduce the cost needed for the replacement of IX resin column by about 50%. (author)

  7. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  8. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  9. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.

  10. A safe, effective, and facility compatible cleaning in place procedure for affinity resin in large-scale monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Dembecki, Jill; Jaffe, Neil E; O'Mara, Brian W; Cai, Hui; Sparks, Colleen N; Zhang, Jian; Laino, Sarah G; Russell, Reb J; Wang, Michelle

    2013-09-20

    Cleaning-in-place (CIP) for column chromatography plays an important role in therapeutic protein production. A robust and efficient CIP procedure ensures product quality, improves column life time and reduces the cost of the purification processes, particularly for those using expensive affinity resins, such as MabSelect protein A resin. Cleaning efficiency, resin compatibility, and facility compatibility are the three major aspects to consider in CIP process design. Cleaning MabSelect resin with 50mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with 1M sodium chloride is one of the most popular cleaning procedures used in biopharmaceutical industries. However, high concentration sodium chloride is a leading cause of corrosion in the stainless steel containers used in large scale manufacture. Corroded containers may potentially introduce metal contaminants into purified drug products. Therefore, it is challenging to apply this cleaning procedure into commercial manufacturing due to facility compatibility and drug safety concerns. This paper reports a safe, effective and environmental and facility-friendly cleaning procedure that is suitable for large scale affinity chromatography. An alternative salt (sodium sulfate) is used to prevent the stainless steel corrosion caused by sodium chloride. Sodium hydroxide and salt concentrations were optimized using a high throughput screening approach to achieve the best combination of facility compatibility, cleaning efficiency and resin stability. Additionally, benzyl alcohol is applied to achieve more effective microbial control. Based on the findings, the recommended optimum cleaning strategy is cleaning MabSelect resin with 25 mM NaOH, 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol solution every cycle, followed by a more stringent cleaning using 50 mM NaOH with 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol at the end of each manufacturing campaign. A resin life cycle study using the MabSelect affinity resin demonstrates that the new cleaning strategy

  11. Study by dynamic light scattering of an o/w emulsion of an epoxi resin dispersed in water by means of a triblock copolymer of type PEO-PPO-PEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscanga, E. H.; Rio, J. M. del; Avendano-Gomez, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    The curing epoxy resins are widely used in various fields of chemical industry, such as adhesives, automotive, coatings, etc. The process operation consisting of flow and mixing of epoxy resins become difficult due to their high viscosity. One solution is to dissolve the epoxy resin in volatile organic solvents (VOS) such as toluene, xylene or benzene. However, the use of VOS is not only expensive but harmful to the environment. (Author)

  12. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G

    2014-11-01

    Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The μ-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates.

  13. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, ion exchange resins are used for purification of aqueous streams. The major contaminants of the resins are usually the radioactive materials that are removed from the aqueous streams. The use of the ion exchange resins creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resin often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposal alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  14. Biological Effects of Provisional Resin Materials on Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S-K; Mahapatra, C; Lee, H-H; Kim, H-W; Lee, J-H

    This study investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity as well as the proinflammatory cytokine expression of provisional resin materials on primary cultured human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Five commercially available provisional resin materials were chosen (SNAP [SN], Luxatemp [LT], Jet [JE], Revotek LC [RL], and Vipi block [VB]). Eluates that were either polymerizing or already set were added to hDPSCs under serially diluted conditions divided into three different setting times (25% set, 50% set, and 100% set) and incubated for 24 hours with 2× concentrated culture media. Cell cytotoxicity tests were performed by LDH assay and live and dead confocal microscope images. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines in SN and VB was measured using cytokine antibody arrays. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) or ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test at a significance level of pprovisional resin materials during polymerization (SN, LT, and JE) were cytotoxic to hDPSCs and may adversely affect pulp tissue.

  15. Decomposing method for ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Takeshi; Sato, Shinshi; Akai, Yoshie; Moniwa, Shinobu; Yamada, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of decomposing ion exchange resins generated in a nuclear power plant to carbon dioxide reliably in a short period of time. (1) The ion exchange resins are mixed with water, and then they are kept for a predetermined period of time in the presence of an inert gas at high temperature and high pressure exceeding the critical point of water to decompose the ion exchange resins. (2) The ion exchange resins is mixed with water, an oxidant is added and they are kept for a predetermined time in the presence of an inert gas at a high temperature and a high pressure exceeding a critical point of water of an inert gas at a high temperature to decompose the ion exchange resins. (3) An alkali or acid is added to ion exchange resins and water to control the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution and the ion exchange resins are decomposed in above-mentioned (1) or (2). Sodium hydroxide is used as the alkali and hydrochloric acid is used as the acid. In addition, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or ozone is used as an oxidant. (I.S.)

  16. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  17. Production of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fronds lignin-derived non-toxic aldehyde for eco-friendly wood adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazwan Hussin, M; Samad, Noraini Abdul; Latif, Nur Hanis Abd; Rozuli, Nurul Adilla; Yusoff, Siti Baidurah; Gambier, François; Brosse, Nicolas

    2018-07-01

    Lignocellulosic materials can significantly contribute to the development of eco-friendly wood adhesives. In this work, glyoxal-phenolic resins for plywood were prepared using organosolv lignin, which was isolated from black liquor recovered from organosolv pulping of oil palm fronds (OPF) and considered to be an alternative to phenol. Glyoxal, which is a dialdehyde obtained from several natural resources, was used as substitute for formaldehyde. The structure of organosolv lignin and the resins were characterized by FTIR and NMR, and for thermal stability by TGA and DSC. The resins were further studied for their viscosity, pH, solids content and gel times. The resins performance as wood adhesive was further established from mechanical test in terms of tensile strength and modulus of elasticity (MOE) to obtain the optimum ratios of organosolv lignin, which replaces phenol in organosolv lignin phenol glyoxal (OLPG) resins. The adhesive composition having 50% (w/w) of phenol substituted by organosolv lignin, termed as 50% OLPG showed highest adhesive strength compared to phenol formaldehyde (PF) commercial adhesive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resin Flow in Fiber Preformed by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding with Flexible Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Shokrieh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, as a sub-branch of RTM is a method of manufacturing composite specimens. Considering the industrial development of this method, different modified techniques are designed to improve its performance. Among these techniques, using a half flexible mold is regarded as an important method. In this work, dominant equations of resin flow through the mold in polar coordinates are solved analytically. Based on this approach, closed-form solutions have been presented for different parameters such as thickness variation of preformed fiber, resin pressure, resin velocity and fiber volume fraction as functions of two variables, namely, time and the distance from injection port. After verification of the approach employed in this work, the results are presented. Important parameters influencing the quality and the rate production are studied in detail.

  19. Microhardness of dual-polymerizing resin cements and foundation composite resins for luting fiber-reinforced posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keiichi; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2014-06-01

    The optimal luting material for fiber-reinforced posts to ensure the longevity of foundation restorations remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of 3 dual-polymerizing resin cements and 2 dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins for luting fiber-reinforced posts by assessing their Knoop hardness number. Five specimens of dual-polymerizing resin cements (SA Cement Automix, G-Cem LincAce, and Panavia F2.0) and 5 specimens of dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins (Clearfil DC Core Plus and Unifil Core EM) were polymerized from the top by irradiation for 40 seconds. Knoop hardness numbers were measured at depths of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 mm at 0.5 hours and 7 days after irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, 1-way ANOVA, and the Tukey compromise post hoc test (α=.05). At both times after irradiation, the 5 resins materials showed the highest Knoop hardness numbers at the 0.5-mm depth. At 7 days after irradiation, the Knoop hardness numbers of the resin materials did not differ significantly between the 8.0-mm and 10.0-mm depths (P>.05). For all materials, the Knoop hardness numbers at 7 days after irradiation were significantly higher than those at 0.5 hours after irradiation at all depths (Presin materials were found to decrease in the following order: DC Core Plus, Unifil Core EM, Panavia F2.0, SA Cement Automix, and G-Cem LincAce (Pcomposite resins were higher than those of the 3 dual-polymerizing resin cements, notable differences were seen among the 5 materials at all depths and at both times after irradiation. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of power density and primer application on polymerization of dual-cured resin cements monitored by ultrasonic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, Chikako; Yasuda, Genta; Murayama, Ryosuke; Ogura, Yukari; Tonegawa, Motoka; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2010-08-01

    We used ultrasonic measurements to monitor the influence of power density and primer application on the polymerization reaction of dual-cured resin cements. The ultrasonic equipment comprised a pulser-receiver, transducers, and an oscilloscope. Resin cements were mixed and inserted into a transparent mould, and specimens were placed on the sample stage, onto which the primer, if used, was also applied. Power densities of 0 (no irradiation), 200, or 600 mW cm(-2) were used for curing. The transit time through the cement disk was divided by the specimen thickness to obtain the longitudinal sound velocity. When resin cements were light-irradiated, each curve displayed an initial plateau of approximately 1,500 m s(-1), which rapidly increased to a second plateau of 2,300-2,900 m s(-1). The rate of sound velocity increase was retarded when the cements were light-irradiated at lower power densities, and increased when the primer was applied. The polymerization behaviour of dual-cured resin cements was therefore shown to be affected by the power density of the curing unit and the application of self-etching primer. (c) 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. Contributions to anionexchange separation of metal ions in mixed aqueous-organic solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha-Campos, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the first chapter of the thesis a method is described for the determination of iron, copper, manganese, nickel, cobalt and uranium in samples of manganese nodules. After dissolution of the sample in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric-nitric acids, the elements are adsorbed on a column of the strongly basic anion-exchange resin Dowex 1 from a medium consisting of 80% cyclohexanone 10% methanol and 10% 1M hydrochloric acid. Following removal of iron by washing the resin bed with a mixture of the same composition, 90% methanol-10% 1M hydrochloric containing ascorbic acid is passed through the column to eluate manganese, nickel and cobalt. Subsequently, 4M hydrochloric acid-1% hydrogen peroxid solution and 1M hydrochloric acid are used to elute copper and uranium, respectively. The elements were determined quantitatively by ICP-OES, except for uranium which was determined by fluorimetry. The method was used successfully for the determination of mg and p.p.m. quantities of these elements in samples of manganese nodules. In the second chapter of the thesis a procedure is described for the determination of cadmium, lead, zinc and uranium in samples of Austrian mineral waters. After acidification, the sample was heated to expell CO 2 and the elements in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline are extracted into chloroform at pH-7. Then the metals are adsorbed on a column of the strongly basic anion-exchange resin Dowex 1 from a medium consisting of 55% chloroform, 36% methanol and 9% 12M hydrochloric acid. After simultaneous elution of the elements with 1M nitric acid, a portion of the eluate was passed through another column containing the same resin to separate uranium from the other elements. The uranium was determined fluorimetrically and cadmium, lead and zinc by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The method was successfully used for the quantitative determination of these elements in mineral water samples. (Author)

  2. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60??ppm range of solid-state 13C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000??cm- 1) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH2) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both 13C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition in the soil for as little as 1000??years. The Morwell

  3. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Paul C. [Lyons and Associates Consultants, 206 Amber Road, Middleboro, MA 02346 (United States); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60 ppm range of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH{sub 2}) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition

  4. Cation immobilization in pyrolyzed simulated spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Vittorio; Bianchi, Hugo L.; Manzini, Alberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant quantities of spent ion exchange resins that are contaminated by an assortment of radioactive elements are produced by the nuclear industry each year. The baseline technology for the conditioning of these spent resins is encapsulation in ordinary Portland cement which has various shortcomings none the least of which is the relatively low loading of resin in the cement and the poor immobilization of highly mobile elements such as cesium. The present study was conducted with cationic resin samples (Lewatit S100) loaded with Cs + , Sr 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ in roughly equimolar proportions at levels at or below 30% of the total cation exchange capacity. Low temperature thermal treatment of the resins was conducted in inert (Ar), or reducing (CH 4 ) gas atmospheres, or supercritical ethanol to convert the hydrated polymeric resin beads into carbonaceous materials that contained no water. This pyrolytic treatment resulted in at least a 50% volume reduction to give mechanically robust spherical materials. Scanning electron microscope investigations of cross-sections of the beads combined with energy dispersive analysis showed that initially all elements were uniformly distributed through the resin matrix but that at higher temperatures the distribution of Cs became inhomogeneous. Although Cs was found in the entire cross-section, a significant proportion of the Cs occurred within internal rings while a proportion migrated toward the outer surfaces to form a crustal deposit. Leaching experiments conducted in water at 25 °C showed that the divalent contaminant elements were very difficult to leach from the beads heated in inert atmospheres in the range 200–600 °C. Cumulative fractional loses of the order of 0.001 were observed for these divalent elements for temperatures below 500 °C. Regardless of the processing temperature, the cumulative fractional loss of Cs in water at 25 °C reached a plateau or steady-state within the first 24 h increasing only

  5. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  6. A novel method for selective separation of {sup 111}In from impurities by ion exchange chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavari, R.; Khanachi, A.R.; Ghannad Maragheh, M.; Bagheri, G. [Jaber Ibn-e Hayan Research Laboratories, A.E.O.I., Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    {sup 111}In is one of the most important cyclotron-produced radionuclides that is prepared from nuclear reactions like Cd (p,xn){sup 111}In and Cd (d,xn) {sup 111}In. It is used in various branches of medicine such as lymphoscintigraphy and cisternography. Several methods have been reported in the literature for the separation of carrier-free {sup 111}In from irradiated cadmium matrix. But there has not been a sufficiently fast method for this purpose until recently. In this work, a new method has been developed for the separation of {sup 111}In from a cadmium target by using Dowex 50W-X8 as an ion exchanger. (orig.)

  7. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.H.; Kuan, Y.-C.; Chern, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 deg. C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results

  8. SHALLOW SHELL RESIN VERSUS TRADITIONAL RESIN: A CASE STUDY FOR Cu(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Arar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on Cu2+ removal by shallow shell resin (Purolite SST 60 and traditional strongly acidic cation exchange resin (Purolite PFC 100 was performed. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of  resin  dosage and  solution pH and contact time. Ion exchange reaction showed a pH depended feature.  Maximum removal of Cu2+ achieved  pH  from 2 to 5. Sorption isothermal data is well interpreted by the Langmuir equation. Additionally, kinetic experiments showed that the pseudo first-order model was suitable for such resins. The regeneration performance of shallow shell technology (SST resin is better than PFC 100.  A solution of 2M H2SO4 performed well in regenerationof SST 60 resin. On the other han maximum regeneration reached 80% for PFC 100 resin.Özet: Bu çalışmada, klasik iyon değiştirici reçine (Purolite PFC 100 ve  sığ kabuk  reçine (Purolite SST 60  ile Cu2+ giderilmesi incelenmiştir. Yapılan kesikli çalışmalarla Cu2+ giderilmesine, reçine miktarı, çözelti pH`ı ve temas süresinin etkisi incelenmiştir. Çözelti pH`ının 2 ile 5 arasında olduğu durumda Cu2+ iyonları tamamen giderilmiştir. Denge çalışmalarında elde edilen sonuçlar Langmuir izoterm modeline daha uygun olmuştur. Kinetik çalışmalarda elde edilen sonuçlar yalancı birinci mertebe kinetik modeline uygunluk göstermişir. SST 60 reçinesinin rejenerasyon verimi PFC 100 reçinesinden daha yüksektir. 2M H2SO4 ile SST 60 reçinesi tamamen rejenere edilmiştir.

  9. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  10. Fracture Resistance of Lithium Disilicate Ceramics Bonded to Enamel or Dentin Using Different Resin Cement Types and Film Thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojpaibool, Thitithorn; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the influence of cement film thickness, cement type, and substrate (enamel or dentin) on ceramic fracture resistance. One hundred extracted human third molars were polished to obtain 50 enamel and 50 dentin specimens. The specimens were cemented to 1-mm-thick lithium disilicate ceramic plates with different cement film thicknesses (100 and 300 μm) using metal strips as spacers. The cements used were etch-and-rinse (RelyX Ultimate) and self-adhesive (RelyX U200) resin cements. Compressive load was applied on the ceramic plates using a universal testing machine, and fracture loads were recorded in Newtons (N). Statistical analysis was performed by multiple regression (p enamel showed the highest mean fracture load (MFL; 1591 ± 172.59 N). The RelyX Ultimate groups MFLs were significantly higher than the corresponding RelyX U200 groups (p enamel (p enamel. Reduced resin film thickness could reduce lithium disilicate restoration fracture. Etch-and-rinse resin cements are recommended for cementing on either enamel or dentin, compared with self-adhesive resin cement, for improved fracture resistance. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Effect of Resin Coating and Chlorhexidine on Microleakage of Two Resin Cements after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shafie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluating the effect of resin coating and chlorhexidine on microleakage of two resin cements after water storage.Materials and Methods: Standardized class V cavities were prepared on facial and lingual surfaces of one hundred twenty intact human molars with gingival margins placed 1mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Indirect composite inlays were fabricated and thespecimens were randomly assigned into 6 groups. In Groups 1 to 4, inlays were cemented with Panavia F2.0 cement. G1: according to the manufacturer’s instruction. G2: with light cured resin on the ED primer. G3: chlorhexidine application before priming. G4: withchlorhexidine application before priming and light cured resin on primer. G5: inlays were cemented with Nexus 2 resin cement. G6: chlorhexidine application after etching. Each group was divided into two subgroups based on the 24-hour and 6-month water storagetime. After preparation for microleakage test, the teeth were sectioned and evaluated at both margins under a 20×stereomicroscope. Dye penetration was scored using 0-3 criteria.The data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and complementary Dunn tests.Results: There was significantly less leakage in G2 and G4 than the Panavia F2.0 control group at gingival margins after 6 months (P<0.05. There was no significant differences in leakage between G1 and G3 at both margins after 24 hours and 6 months storage. After 6months, G6 revealed significantly less leakage than G5 at gingival margins (P=0.033. In general, gingival margins showed more leakage than occlusal margins.Conclusion: Additionally, resin coating in self-etch (Panavia F2.0 and chlorhexidine application in etch-rinse (Nexus resin cement reduced microleakage at gingival margins after storage.

  12. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of the...

  13. Collection and spectral control of high-order harmonics generated with a 50 W high-repetition rate Ytterbium femtosecond laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabasse, A; Hazera, Ch; Quintard, L; Cormier, E; Petit, S; Constant, E

    2016-01-01

    We generate high-order harmonics with a 50 W, Yb femtosecond fiber laser system operating at 100 kHz in a tight focusing configuration. We achieve a high photon flux even with pulses longer than 500 fs. We collect the diverging extreme ultraviolet (XUV) harmonic beam in a 35 mrad wide solid angle by using a spectrometer designed to handle the high thermal load under vacuum and refocus the XUV beam onto a detector where the beam is characterised or can alternatively be used for experiments. This setup is designed for a 50 eV XUV bandwidth and offers the possibility to perform XUV-IR pump probe experiments with both temporal and spectral resolution. The high-order harmonics were generated and optimized at 100 kHz by using several gas target geometries (a gas jet and a semi-infinite gas cell) and several gases (argon, krypton, xenon) that provide XUV beams with different characteristics. After the spectrometer and for high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in xenon, we detect more than 4 × 10 10 photons per second over four harmonics, that is a useful XUV power on target of 0.1 μW. This corresponds to the emission of more than 1 μW per harmonic at the source and we achieved a similar flux with both the semi-infinite cell and the jet. In addition, we observe a strong spectral selectivity when generating harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell as few harmonics clearly dominate the neighbouring harmonics. We attribute this spectral selectivity to phase matching effects. (paper)

  14. Acidic resin-catalysed conversion of fructose into furan derivatives in low boiling point solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Cao, Quan; Li, Chunhu; Mu, Xindong

    2011-09-27

    Conversion of fructose into furan derivatives 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 5-methoxymethylfurfural (MMF) is performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and methanol-organic solvent systems, catalysed by an acidic resin Amberlyst-15. The melted fructose can be converted into HMF on the surface of the solid resin catalyst in the presence of THF as an extracting phase, which is a good solvent for HMF and other by-products. The solid resin catalyst can be reused eleven times without losing its catalytic ability, with an average HMF yield of approximately 50%. Upon the addition of methanol, the generated HMF can further react with methanol to form MMF, and the total yield of HMF and MMF could be promoted to 65%. GC-MS analysis confirms the formation of a small amount of methyl levulinate in methanolorganic solvent system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of 89Sr and 90Sr in highly radioactive water from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojanowski, R.; Radecki, Z.; Duniec, S.

    1994-01-01

    The main criterion in assaying strontium radionuclides is to obtain radiochemically pure strontium sources for beta-particle counting. Nuclear power plant waters contain both 89 Sr and 90 Sr accompanied by many beta-particle and gamma-ray emitting fission and neutron-activation products. The latter activities can sometimes exceed those of strontium by a factor of 10 7 . Efficient purification procedures must be used to remove these products, preferably at an initial stage of analysis to reduce the radiation risk to personnel. A method has been developed in which a water sample is passed through a prefilter installed on top of an ion-exchange column filled with Dowex-50 resin in H + form. This prefilter is impregnated with ferrocyanides and manganese dioxide and retains most of the interfering radionuclides while the underlying cation-exchanger takes up strontium ions. A few additional purification steps result in a strontium salt that is free from other radioactivity. (orig.)

  16. Plutonium scrap processing at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, A.E.; McKerley, B.J.; Christensen, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory currently has the newest plutonium handling facility in the nation. Los Alamos has been active in the processing of plutonium almost since the discovery of this man-made element in 1941. One of the functions of the new facility is the processing of plutonium scrap generated at LASL and other sites. The feed for the scrap processing program is extremely varied, and a wide variety of contaminants are often encountered. Depending upon the scrap matrix and contaminants present, the majority of material receives a nitric acid/hydrofluoric acid or nitric acid/calcium fluoride leach. The plutonium nitrate solutions are then loaded onto an anion exchange column charged with DOWEX 1 x 4, 50 to 100 mesh, nitrate form resin. The column is eluted with 0.48 M hydroxyl amine nitrate. The Pu(NO 3 ) 3 is then precipitated as plutonium III oxalate which is calcined at 450 to 500 0 C to yield a purified PuO 2 product

  17. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  18. Development, design, and preliminary operation of a resin-feed processing facility for resin-based HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Drago, J.P.; Million, D.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel kernels for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. Resin-feed processing was developed and a facility was designed, installed, and operated to control the kernel size, shape, and composition by processing the resin before adding uranium. The starting materials are commercial cation exchange resins in the sodium form. The size separations are made by vibratory screening of resin slurries in water. After drying in a fluidized bed, the nonspherical particles are separated from spherical particles on vibratory plates of special design. The sized, shape-separated spheres are then rewetted and converted to the hydrogen form. The processing capacity of the equipment tested is equivalent to about 1 kg of uranium per hour and could meet commercial recycle plant requirements without scale-up of the principal process components

  19. Determination of mercury in food by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of mercury in food samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activities of copper, zinc etc. Chemical separation was carried out using anion exchange resin (DOWEX 1x8). Mercury was determined by counting 77 keV γ-rays of 197 Hg on a NaI(Tl) crystal in conjunction with a 400-channel pulse-height analyser. Levels of mercury in the following foods are tabulated: rice, wheat, pulses, millets, leafy vegetables, flower, carrot, potato, tomato, onion, chilli powder, sugar, tea leaves, milk. (T.I.)

  20. A production method for Cr-51 at IEN's cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, M.A.V.; Britto, J.L.Q. de; Vinagre, U.M.; Silva, A.G. da.

    1989-01-01

    Thick target yields for the reactions 51 V(p,n) 51 Cr and 51 V(d,2n) 51 Cr were measured and compared with literature values. The excitation function for the 51 V(p,n) 51 Cr reaction was also measured. A method for the production and separation of this radioisotope was developed via the 51 V(p,n) 51 Cr reaction and a combination of Fe +3 co-precipitation and an anion exchange technique using a Dowex 1x8(100-200 mesh) resin in hydrochloric acid medium [pt

  1. Preparation of radioactive acetyl-l-carnitine by an enzymatic exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emaus, R.; Bieber, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    A rapid method for the preparation of [1- 14 C]acetyl-L-carnitine is described. The method involves exchange of [1- 14 C]acetic acid into a pool of unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine using the enzymes acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. After isotopic equilibrium is attained, radioactive acetylcarnitine is separated from the other reaction components by chromatography on Dowex 1 (C1 - ) anion exchange resin. One of the procedures used to verify the product [1- 14 C]acetyl-L-carnitine can be used to synthesize (3S)-[5- 14 C]citric acid

  2. Determination of mercury in food by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, S J.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Air Monitoring Section

    1976-01-01

    Determination of mercury in food samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activities of copper, zinc etc. Chemical separation was carried out using anion exchange resin (DOWEX 1x8). Mercury was determined by counting 77 keV ..gamma..-rays of /sup 197/Hg on a NaI(Tl) crystal in conjunction with a 400-channel pulse-height analyser. Levels of mercury in the following foods are tabulated: rice, wheat, pulses, millets, leafy vegetables, flower, carrot, potato, tomato, onion, chilli powder, sugar, tea leaves, milk.

  3. Recovery of americium from slag and crucible wastes and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Dabholkar, G.M.; Vijayan, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Narayanan, C.V.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A method of recovery and purification of americium-241 from slag waste streams is described. Extraction of Am from slag solution of 0.16 M HNO 3 was carried out by tri-n-butyl phosphate. After stripping with acetic acid, Am was precipitated at pH 1. This was followed by metathesis to remove Ca. Final separation of Pu from Am solution was achieved by anion exchange method using Dowex 1x4 anion exchange resin. Details of large scale recovery of Am from slag are also described. (author). 12 refs., 11 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Removal of both N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethanes precursors in a single treatment using ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-11-01

    Drinking water utilities are relying more than ever on water sources impacted by wastewater effluents. Disinfection/oxidation of these waters during water treatment may lead to the formation of several disinfection by-products, including the probable human carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and the regulated trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, the potential of ion exchange resins to control both NDMA and THMs precursors in a single treatment is presented. Two ion exchange resins were examined, a cation exchange resin (Plus) to target NDMA precursors and an anion exchange resin (MIEX) for THMs precursors control. We applied the resins, individually and combined, in the treatment of surface and wastewater effluent samples. The treatment with both resins removed simultaneously NDMA (43-85%) and THMs (39-65%) precursors. However, no removal of NDMA precursors was observed in the surface water with low initial NDMA FP (14 ng/L). The removals of NDMA FP and THMs FP with Plus and MIEX resins applied alone were (49-90%) and (41-69%), respectively. These results suggest no interaction between the resins, and thus the feasibility of effectively controlling NDMA and THMs precursors concomitantly. Additionally, the effects of the wastewater impact and the natural attenuation of precursors were studied. The results showed that neither the wastewater content nor the attenuation of the precursor affected the removals of NDMA and THMs precursors. Finally, experiments using a wastewater effluent sample showed that an increase in the calcium concentration resulted in a reduction in the removal of NDMA precursors of about 50%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer Türkmen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group: direct composite resin restoration (Alert with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive, Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia luted with a resin cement (Cement-It combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond, Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. RESULTS: The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7 showed better results compared to the other groups (p0.05. The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. CONCLUSION: The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces.

  6. Isonychia spp. and macroinvertebrate community responses to stressors in streams utilizing the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Kevin W.; Burton, G. Allen

    2008-01-01

    Exposures of caged organisms in situ have proven to be a useful way to improve exposure realism and link to stressor effects in aquatic assessments of hazard or risk. A novel cage system, the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE), was developed for benthic macroinvertebrates (surrogate species, resident populations and communities) to separate low and high flow effects, and major chemical classes of stressors in streams. Three resin types were used to separate the chemical stressors in the streams Honey Creek and Little Beavercreek, Ohio, USA: Dowex TM Optipore TM (non-polar organics), zeolite (ammonia), and polywool (control). Isonychia spp. sensitivity was compared to Chironomus tentans, and no significant differences were found (p > 0.05). Isonychia spp. growth (length) showed a stressor response in the zeolite treatments, and community testing revealed improved metric responses in the Dowex TM treatments. The BiTIE chamber system demonstrated stressor-response relationships using sublethal and multimetric endpoints. - Use of an indigenous aquatic insect and benthic macroinvertebrate communities allows for discerning the stressors in low and high flows with an in situ TIE approach

  7. Radiochemical determination of Beryllium-7 in a fission-product mixture containing many inorganic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, Y.; Van Kote, F.

    1969-01-01

    A radiochemical method is described for analysing beryllium-7 in a mixture of fission products containing many inorganic salts. By studying the influence of various parameters it has been possible to speed up the decontamination on an anionic resin using an HCl isopropanol mixture, as proposed by KORKISCH- and al. Be(OH) 2 is first precipitated in the presence of E.D.T.A.; the main contaminants are then fixed on Dowex 1 x 10 in 12 M HCl and on Dowex 1 x 8 in a 3 M HCl (20 per cent)-isopropanol (80 per cent) (vol/vol) mixture. The Be, which is not fixed, is precipitated by NH 4 H 2 PO 4 in the presence of E.D.T.A., ignited as Be 2 P 2 O 7 , filtered, weighed, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The method makes it possible to dose 4 samples in 16 hours with a chemical yield of 80 per cent, using a 4 day-old fission product solution. The overall decontamination factor, exceeds 10 8 . (authors) [fr

  8. Creep deformation of restorative resin-composites intended for bulk-fill placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2012-08-01

    To determine the creep deformation of several "bulk-fill" resin-composite formulations in comparison with some other types. Six resin-composites; four bulk-fill and two conventional were investigated. Stainless steel split molds (4 mm × 6 mm) were used to prepare cylindrical specimens for creep testing. Specimens were thoroughly irradiated with 650 mW cm(-2). A total of 10 specimens for each material were divided into two groups (n = 5) according to the storage condition; Group A stored dry at 37 °C for 24h and Group B stored in distilled water at 37 °C in an incubator for 24h. Each specimen was loaded (20 MPa) for 2h and unloaded for 2h. The strain deformation was recorded continuously for 4h. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-way ANOVA followed by one-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test at a significance level of a = 0.05. The maximum creep strain % ranged from 0.72% up to 1.55% for Group A and the range for Group B increased from 0.79% up to 1.80% due to water sorption. Also, the permanent set ranged from 0.14% up to 0.47% for Group A and from 0.20% up to 0.59% for Group B. Dependent on the material and storage condition, the percentage of creep strain recovery ranged between 64% and 81%. Increased filler loading in the bulk-fill materials decreased the creep strain magnitude. Creep deformation of all studied resin-composites increased with wet storage. The "bulk-fill" composites exhibited an acceptable creep deformation and within the range exhibited by other resin-composites. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins; Karboxylatjonbytarmassans egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Boren, Hans [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden); Torstenfelt, Boerje [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  10. Effect of Various Surface Treatment on Repair Strength of Composite Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alizade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: In some clinical situations, repair of composite restorations is treatment of choice. Improving the bond strength between one new and old composite usually requires increased surface roughness to promote mechanical interlocking sincechemical bonding might not be adequate. Similarly, the treatment of a laboratory fabricated resin composite restoration involves the same procedures, and there is a need to create the strongest possible bond of a resin cement to a previously polymerized composite.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the shear bond strength of repaired to aged composite resin.Materials and Methods: Eighty four cylindrical specimens of a composite resin were fabricated and stored in distilled water for 100 days prior to surface treatment. Surface treatment of old composite was done in 6 groups as follow:1- Air abrasion with CoJet sand particles with micoretcher + silane + dentin bonding agent2- Air abrasion with 50μm Al2O3 particles+ phosphoric acid+ silane+ dentin bonding agent3- Air abrasion with 50μm Al2O3 particles + phosphoric acid + dentin bonding agent4- Diamond bur + phosphoric acid + silane + dentin bonding agent5- Diamond bur + phosphoric acid + dentin bonding agent6- Diamond bur + phosphoric acid + composite activator + dentin bonding agentThen fresh composite resin was bonded to treated surfaces. Twelve specimens were also fabricated as control group with the same diameter but with the height twice as much as other specimens. All of the specimens were thermocycled prior to testing for shear bondstrength. The bond strength data were analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA test, t test and Duncan's grouping test.Results: One-way ANOVA indicated no significant difference between 7 groups (P=0.059. One-way ANOVA indicated significant difference between the three diamond bur groups (P=0.036. Silane had a significant effect on the repair bond

  11. Fracture frequency and longevity of fractured resin composite, polyacid-modified resin composite, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement class IV restorations: an up to 14 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture frequency and longevity of fractured class IV resin composite (RC), polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer; PMRC), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) restorations in a longitudinal long-term follow-up. Eighty-five class IV RC (43...

  12. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper

  13. CW 50W/M2 = 10.9 diode laser source by spectral beam combining based on a transmission grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Peng, Hangyu; Fu, Xihong; Liu, Yun; Qin, Li; Miao, Guoqing; Wang, Lijun

    2013-02-11

    An external cavity structure based on the -1st transmission grating is introduced to spectral beam combining a 970 nm diode laser bar. A CW output power of 50.8 W, an electro-optical conversion efficiency of 45%, a spectral beam combining efficiency of 90.2% and a holistic M(2) value of 10.9 are achieved. This shows a way for a diode laser source with several KW power and diffraction-limited beam quality at the same time.

  14. Evaluation of internal adaptation of Class V resin composite restorations using three techniques of polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the internal adaptation of Class V composite restorations to the cavity walls using three different techniques of polymerization. METHODS: Standard cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 24 extracted human third molars with margins located above and below the cementoenamel junction. Restorations were placed in one increment using two restorative systems: 3M Filtek A110/ Single Bond (M and 3M Filtek Z250/ Single Bond (H in the same tooth, randomly in the buccal and lingual surfaces. Resin composites were polymerized using three techniques: Group 1 - Conventional (60 s - 600 mW/cm²; Group 2 - Soft-start (20 s - 200 mW/cm² , 40 s - 600 mW/cm²; Group 3 - Pulse Activation (3 s - 200 mW/cm², 3-min hiatus, 57 s - 600 mW/cm². Buccolingual sections were polished, impressions taken and replicated. Specimens were assessed under scanning electron microscopy up to X1000 magnification. Scores were given for presence or absence of gaps (0 - no gap; 1 - gap in one wall; 2 - gap in two walls; 3 - gap in three walls. RESULTS: The mean scores of the groups were (±SD were: G1M-3.0 (± 0.0; G2M-2.43 (± 0.8; G3M- 1.71 (± 0.9; G1H- 2.14 (± 1.2; G2H- 2.00 (± 0.8; G3H- 1.67 (± 1.1. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunnet's tests. No statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was found among groups. Gaps were observed in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: The photocuring technique and the type of resin composite had no influence on the internal adaptation of the material to the cavity walls. A positive effect was observed when the slow polymerization techniques were used.

  15. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  16. Sequestration Resins for Accelerating Removal of Radioactive Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattini, Paul-L.; Wells, Daniel-M.; Garcia, Susan-E.; Richard, Kohlmann; Asay, Roger; Yengoyan, Leon

    2012-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is developing sequestration resins that can be used in the treatment of nuclear plant water streams for the enhanced removal of ionic cobalt. EPRI is focusing on three key areas of success: 1. Plant safety. The resins that are synthesized must be fully tested to determine that no leachable species or decomposition products (in the event of a resin bed failure) would be introduced to the plant. 2. Acceptable system performance. The resins are currently being synthesized in a powdered form for use in the reactor water clean-up and fuel pool clean-up systems that utilize pre-coatable filter elements. The resins must have effective flocking behavior; uniform application over the underlay resin and efficient removal from the septa elements after use. Bead type resins are also under development. 3. Enhanced cobalt removal. The resins are expected to out-perform the currently used ion exchange resins in the removal of ionic cobalt. During nuclear plant maintenance or refueling outages, current ion exchange resins may require several days to reduce concentrations of cobalt (for example, radio-cobalt 60 Co and 58 Co) and other activated corrosion products to safe levels in reactor coolant streams. This performance limitation often delays key maintenance activities. EPRI's resins are expected to provide at least a three-fold increase in removal capacity in light water reactor coolants. These resins also offer the potential for higher overall removal efficiencies reducing occupational exposures and waste management costs. This paper addresses issues from the range of novel resin development for radio-cobalt removal from synthesis at the bench-top level through scale-up to demonstration of use in an actual operating nuclear power plant. (authors)

  17. [Studies on purification of total glycosides of paeony (TGP) from Paeonia lactiflora by ethanol gradient combined with resin processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xin-Ying; Meng, Xian-Sheng; Pan, Ying; Han, Ling; Bao, Yong-Rui; Guo, Xiao-Rui

    2010-11-01

    To study the purification technology of TGP from Paeonia lactiflora by ethanol gradient combined with resin processing and determine the optimum technological conditions and parameters. Using orthogonal test design to investigate the effect of ethanol gradient treatment on the content of TGP. Moreover, from the static and dynamic adsorption nine types of macroporous adsorption resin were evaluated to select the best resin type and the optimum separation and purification conditions. The best technology of Paeonia lactiflora ethanol precipitation was concentration of 1 g crude drug/mL precipitated by 95% ethanol to 90% concentration and then frozen for 10 h. HPD300 resin was the optimal model for the separation and purification of TGP from Paeonia lactiflora, with 5BV of 50% ethanol eluenting and the ratio of herb to resin was 2:1 . This technology is suitable and advanced for industry production and it is simple and convenient, rapid, accurate, etc.

  18. Pore Structure and Fluoride Ion Adsorption Characteristics of Zr (IV) Surface-Immobilized Resin Prepared Using Polystyrene as a Porogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Hidenobu; Ito, Yudai; Harada, Hisashi; Uezu, Kazuya

    Zr(IV) surface-immobilized resins for removal of fluoride ion were prepared by surface template polymerization using polystyrene as a porogen. At polymerization, polystyrene was added in order to increase mesopores (2-50 nm) and macropore (>50 nm) with large macropores (around 300 nm) formed with internal aqueous phase of W⁄O emulsion. The pore structure of Zr(IV) surface-immobilized resins was evaluated by measuring specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution with volumetric adsorption measurement instrument and mercury porosimeter. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted by Langmuir equation. The removal of fluoride was also carried out with column method. Zr(IV) surface-immobilized resins, using 10 g⁄L polystyrene in toluene at polymerization, possessed higher volume of not only mesopores and macropores but also large macropores. Furethermore, by adding the polystyrene with smaller molecular size, the pore volume of mesopores, macropores and large macropores was significantly increased, and the fluoride ion adsorption capacity and the column utilization also increased.

  19. Survival of resin infiltrated ceramics under influence of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Elsafi, Mohamed H

    2016-04-01

    to evaluate influence of cyclic fatigue on two resin infiltrated ceramics and three all-ceramic crowns manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. CAD/CAM anatomically shaped crowns were manufactured using two resin infiltrated ceramics (Lava Ultimate and Vita Enamic), two reinforced glass ceramic milling blocks ((IPS)Empress CAD and (IPS)e.max CAD) and a veneered zirconia core ((IPS)Zir CAD). (IPS)e.max CAD and (IPS)Zir CAD were milled into 0.5mm thick anatomically shaped core structure which received standardized press-on veneer ceramic. The manufactured crowns were cemented on standardized resin dies using a resin adhesive (Panavia F2.0). Initial fracture strength of half of the specimens was calculated using one cycle load to failure in a universal testing machine. The remaining crowns were subjected to 3.7 million chewing cycles (load range 50-200N at 3s interval) in a custom made pneumatic fatigue tester. Survival statistics were calculated and Weibull modulus was measured from fitted load-cycle-failure diagrams. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to fractographically analyze fractured surfaces. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests (α=0.05). Dynamic fatigue resulted in significant reduction (F=7.54, Pceramics and (IPS)Empress demonstrated the highest percent of fracture incidences under the influence of fatigue (35-45% splitting). None of the tested veneered zirconia restorations were fractured during testing, however, chipping of the veneer ceramics was observed in 6 crowns. The lowest percent of failure was observed for (IPS)e.max crowns manifested as 3 cases of minor chipping in addition to two complete fracture incidences. SEM images demonstrated the internal structure of the tested materials and detected location and size of the critical crack. The internal structure of the tested materials significantly influenced their fatigue behavior. Resin infiltrated ceramics were least influenced by fatigue while

  20. Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, M.; Boussu, F.; Coutellier, D.; Vallee, D.

    2012-08-01

    The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP) impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1-4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5-7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two processes. The first is a

  1. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Kamiya, Kunio.

    1975-01-01

    Object: In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant, to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Structure: Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Kamiya, K

    1975-01-16

    In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant the objectives is to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use.

  3. [Effect of ceramic thickness and resin cement shades on final color of heat-pressed ceramic veneers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, D F; Zhan, K R; Chen, X D; Xing, W Z

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To analyze the effect of ceramic materials thickness and resin cement shades on the final color of ceramic veneers in the discolored teeth, and to investigate the color agreement of try-in pastes to the corresponding resin cements. Methods: Sixty artificial maxillary central incisor teeth (C2 shade) were used to simulate the natural discolored teeth and prepared according to veneer tooth preparation protocol. Veneers of different thickness in the body region (0.50 and 0.75 mm) were fabricated using ceramic materials (LT A2 shade, IPS e.max Press). The ceramic veneer specimens were bonded to the artificial teeth using the 6 shades of resin cements (Variolink Veneer: shades of LV-3, LV-2, HV+3; RelyX™ Veneer: shades of TR, A3, WO) ( n= 5). A clinical spectrophotometer was used to measure the color parameters of ceramic veneers at the cervical, body and incisal regions. Color changes of veneers before and after cementation were calculated and registered as ΔE1, and the changes between try-in paste and the corresponding resin cements were registered as ΔE2. Results: Three-way ANOVA indicated that ΔE1 and ΔE2 values were significantly affected by the ceramic thickness, resin cement shades and measuring regions ( Pceramic veneers were cemented with resin cements in shades of HV+3 and WO. The ΔE2 values of six shades ranged from 0.60-2.56. The shades of HV+3, WO and A3 resin cements were more than 1.60. Conclusions: Different thickness of ceramic materials, resin cement shades and measuring regions could affect the final color of ceramic veneers. The color differences of some resin cements and corresponding try-in pastes might be observed in clinical practice.

  4. Urea-formaldehyde resins: production, application, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, A.; Risnasari, I.; Sucipto, T.; Heri Iswanto, A.; Rosmala Dewi, R.

    2017-07-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, one of the most important formaldehyde resin adhesives, is a polymeric condensation product of formaldehyde with urea, and being widely used for the manufacture of wood-based composite panels, such as plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard. In spite of its benefits such as fast curing, good performance in the panels (colorless), and lower cost; formaldehyde emission (FE) originated from either UF resin itself or composite products bonded by UF resins is considered a critical drawback as it affects human health particularly in indoor environment. In order to reduce the FE, lowering formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio in the synthesis of the UF resin was done. In this study, synthesis of UF resins was carried out following the conventional alkaline-acid two-step reaction with a second addition of urea, resulting in F/U mole ratio around 1.0, namely 0.95; 1.05, and 1.15. The UF resins produced were used as binder for particleboard making. The board was manufactured in the laboratory using shaving type particle of Gmelina wood, 8% UF resin based on oven dry particle, and 1% NH4Cl (20%wt) as hardener for the resin. The target of the thickness was 10 mm and the dimension was 25 cm x 25 cm. The resulted particleboard then was evaluated the physical and the mechanical properties by Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Further, the resulted particleboard also was used for the mice cage’s wall in order to mimic the real living environment. After four weeks exposure in the cages, the mice then were evaluated their mucous organs as well as their blood. The experiment results were as follows: 1) It was possible to synthesis UF resins with low F/U mole ratio; 2) However, the particleboard bonded UF resins with low F/U mole ratio showed poor properties, particularly on the thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity; 3) There was no significant differences among the mucous organs of the mice after a month exposure FE originated from

  5. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n=168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p<0.05). Both adaptation and sealer penetration in root canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p<0.05). It can be concluded that intracanal laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  6. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  7. Effect of solvent content on resin hybridization in wet dentin bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette; Yao, Xiaomei; Brenda, Bohaty

    2007-09-15

    With wet bonding techniques, the channels between the demineralized dentin collagen fibrils are filled with debris, solvent, and water. Commercial adhesives include solvents such as ethanol or acetone to facilitate resin-infiltration into this wet substrate. Under in vivo conditions, the solvent may be diluted because of repeated exposure of the material to the atmosphere, or concentrated because of separation of the bonding liquids into layers within the bottle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of ethanol (10-50%) on infiltration of the adhesive resin and collagen fibril encapsulation in the adhesive/dentin interface using light microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that under wet bonding conditions the hybridization process was highly sensitive to the initial solvent concentration in the adhesive system. The staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the quality of the interfacial hybrid layer was poor at the lower (10%) or higher (50%) ethanol content. Micro-Raman analysis indicated that there was a distinct difference in the degree of adhesive penetration among adhesives containing different concentrations of ethanol. Adhesives containing 10 or 50% ethanol did not realize effective penetration; the penetration of the adhesive monomers increased dramatically when the initial ethanol content was 30%. The amount of solvents are essential for achieving effective bonding to dentin. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Nanoparticles on the Fracture Toughness of an Epoxy Resin at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Cannon, S. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core-shell rubber (CSR) nanoparticles on the fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Varying amounts of Kane Ace (Registered TradeMark) MX130 toughening agent were added to a commercially available EPON 862/W epoxy resin. Resulting fracture toughness was evaluated by the use of Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The size and distribution of the CSR nanoparticles were characterized using Transmission Electric Microscopy (TEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Up to nominal 4.6% addition of the CSR nanoparticles, resulted in a nearly 5 times increase in the measured breaking energy. However, further increases in the amount of CSR nanoparticles had no appreciable affect on the breaking energy.

  9. Fiber reinforced silicon-containing arylacetylene resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A silicon-containing arylacetylene resin (SAR, a poly(dimethylsilyleneethynylene phenyleneethynylene (PMSEPE, was synthesized. The PMSEPE is a solid resin at ambient temperature with a softening temperature about 60°C and soluble in some solvents like tetrahydrofuran. The melt viscosity of the PMSEPE resin is less than 1 Pa•s. The resin could cure at the temperature of lower than 200°C. Fiber reinforced PMSEPE composites were prepared from prepregs which were made by the impregnation of fibers in PMSEPE resin solution. The composites exhibit good mechanical properties at room temperature and 250°C. The observation on fracture surfaces of the composites reinforced by glass fibers and carbon fibers demonstrates that the adhesion between the fibers and resin is good. The results from an oxyacetylene flame test show that the composites have good ablation performance and XRD analyses indicate that SiC forms in the residues during the ablation of the composites.

  10. Removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by a high-efficiency resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hao; Ren, Yongzheng; Sun, Xueliang; Xu, Yadi; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Tiancheng; Kang, Jianxiong; Liu, Dongqi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of Pb 2+ from aqueous solution by 732 cation-exchange resin in sodium type (732-CR) has been studied in batch experiments at varying pH (2.0–8.0), Pb 2+ concentration (50–200 mg/L), contact time (5–300 min), temperature (288–308 K) and resin dose (0.125–0.75 g/L). The experimental data show that the ion-exchange process was dependent on pH and temperature, the optimal exchange capacity was found at pH 4.0, and higher temperature was beneficial to lead sorption. Kinetic data indicate that the ion-exchange process followed a pseudo-first order model. The equilibrium exchange capacity could be reached at approximately 4 h, and the maximum sorption capacity of Pb 2+ at pH 4.0 was 396.8 mg/g resin. The equilibrium data were evaluated with Langmuir and Freundlich model, and were best fitted with Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters for removal of Pb 2+ indicate that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic. Additionally, column tests were conducted by using both synthetic solution and effluents from lead battery industry. The regeneration of resin was performed for two sorption-regeneration cycles by 1 M NaOH, and the results show that effective regeneration was achieved by this method.

  11. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine

  12. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers' performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding K d values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding K d values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and K d values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and K d values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine sorption.

  13. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH 2 BO 3 -H 3 BO 3 solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  14. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  15. Light-controlled microwave whispering-gallery-mode quasi-optical resonators at 50W LED array illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yurchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present experimental observations of light-controlled resonance effects in microwave whispering-gallery-mode quasi-optical dielectric-semiconductor disk resonators in the frequency band of 5 GHz to 20 GHz arising due to illumination from a light emitting diode (LED of 50W power range. We obtain huge enhancement of photo-sensitivity (growing with the resonator Q-factor that makes light-microwave interaction observable with an ordinary light (no laser at conventional brightness (like an office lighting in quasi-optical microwave structures at rather long (centimeter-scale wavelength. We also demonstrate non-conventional photo-response of Fano resonances when the light suppresses one group of resonances and enhances another group. The effects could be used for the optical control and quasi-optical switching of microwave propagation through either one or another frequency channel.

  16. A critical analysis of the degree of conversion of resin-based luting cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Dutra Noronha Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the degree of conversion (DC% of four resin-based cements (All Ceram, Enforce, Rely X ARC and Variolink II activated by two modes (chemical and dual, and evaluated the decrease of DC% in the dual mode promoted by the interposition of a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the chemical activation, the resin-based cements were prepared by mixing equal amounts of base and catalyst pastes. In the dual activation, after mixing, the cements were light-activated at 650 mW/cm² for 40 s. In a third group, the cements were light-activated through a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc. The DC% was evaluated in a FT-IR spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total reflectance crystal (ATR. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. RESULTS: For all resin-based cements, the DC% was significantly higher with dual activation, followed by dual activation through IPS Empress 2, and chemical activation (p<0.05. Irrespective of the activation mode, Rely X presented the highest DC% (p<0.05. Chemically activated Variolink and All Ceram showed the worst results (p<0.05. The DC% decreased significantly when activation was performed through a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that resin-based cements could present low DC% when the materials are dually activated through 2.0 mm of reinforced ceramic materials with translucency equal to or less than that of IPS-Empress 2.

  17. Method for detecting resin leakage in LWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    Resin leakage from condensate polishing units can result in steam generator corrosion. This report describes the development of a resin leakage detection method based in analyzing the organic breakdown products released from resin on heating. The breakdown products are analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Some of the organic products formed have been identified. A design for a resin monitoring unit, suitable for incorporation into the IONTRAC system, is presented. Theoretically, detection of ppB levels of resin by processing about one liter of water, is possible

  18. Effect of light-curing units, post-cured time and shade of resin cement on knoop hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reges, Rogério Vieira; Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Piva, Evandro; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness after 15 min and 24 h of different shades of a dual-cured resin-based cement after indirect photoactivation (ceramic restoration) with 2 light-curing units (LCUs). The resin cement Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) shade XL, A2, A3 and opaque were mixed with the catalyst paste and inserted into a black Teflon mold (5 mm diameter x 1 mm high). A transparent strip was placed over the mold and a ceramic disc (Duceram Plus, shade A3) was positioned over the resin cement. Light-activation was performed through the ceramic for 40 s using quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) (XL 2500; 3M ESPE) or light-emitting diode (LED) (Ultrablue Is, DMC) LCUs with power density of 615 and 610 mW/cm(2), respectively. The Koop hardness was measured using a microhardness tester HMV 2 (Shimadzu) after 15 min or 24 h. Four indentations were made in each specimen. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The QTH LCU provided significantly higher (pcement showed lower Knoop hardness than the other shades for both LCUs and post-cure times.

  19. Effect of repair resin type and surface treatment on the repair strength of heat-polymerized denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurt, Murat; Yeşil Duymuş, Zeynep; Gundogdu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Acrylic resin denture fracture is common in prosthodontic practice. When fractured denture bases are repaired, recurrent fractures frequently occur at the repair surface interface or adjacent areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural strength of the acrylic resin denture base repaired with heat-polymerized acrylic resin, autopolymerizing resin, and light-polymerized acrylic resin. Ninety-six specimens of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were prepared according to the American Dental Association Specification No. 12 (65.0 × 10.0 × 2.5 mm) and sectioned into halves to create a repair gap (3.0 × 10 × 2.5 mm). The sectioned specimens were divided into 3 groups according to their repair materials. The specimens from each group were divided into 4 subgroups according to their surface treatments: a control group without any surface treatment; an experimental group treated with methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA group); an experimental group treated with airborne-particle abrasion with aluminum oxide particles of 250-μm particle size (abrasion group); and an experimental group treated with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (laser group). After the surface treatments, the 3 materials were placed into the repair gaps and then polymerized. After all of the specimens had been ground and polished, they were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 1 week and subjected to a 3-point bend test. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the Tukey honestly significant difference test was performed to identify significant differences (α=.05). The effects of the surface treatments and repair resins on the surface of the denture base resin were examined with scanning electron microscopy. Significant differences were found among the groups in terms of repair resin type (P<.001). All surface-treated specimens had higher flexural strength than controls, except the surface treated with the methyl

  20. 21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlorinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyether resins, chlorinated. 177.2430 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use in...

  1. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  2. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A chemoviscosity model, which describes viscosity rise profiles accurately under various cure cycles, and correlates viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with structural transformations of the thermosetting resin system during cure, was established. Work completed on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins is reported.

  3. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite to resin-modified glass-ionomer cement using three different resin adhesives vs. glass-ionomer based adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical success of sandwich technique depends on the strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC bonding to both dentin and resin composite. Therefore, the shear bond strength (SBS of resin composite bonded to RMGIC utilizing different resin adhesives versus a GIC-based adhesive was compared. Materials and methods: In this in vitro study, 84 holes (5×2 mm were prepared in acrylic blocks, randomly divided into seven groups (n=12 and filled with RMGIC (Light-Cured Universal Restorative, GC. In the Group I; no adhesive was applied on the RMGIC. In the Group II, non-etched and Group III was etched with phosphoric acid. In groups II and III, after rinsing, etch-and-rinse adhesive (OptiBond Solo Plus; in the Group IV; a two-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond XTR and in Group V; a one-step self-etch (OptiBond All-in-One were applied on the cement surfaces. Group VI; a GIC-based adhesive (Fuji Bond LC was painted over the cement surface and cured. Group VII; the GIC-based adhesive was brushed over RMGIC followed by the placement of resin composite and co-cured. Afterward; resin composite (Point 4 cylinders were placed on the treated cement surfaces. The specimens were placed in 100% humidity at 37 ± 1°C and thermo cycled. The shear bond test was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min and calculated in MPa; the specimens were examined to determine mode of failure. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The maximum (24.62±3.70 MPa and minimum (18.15±3.38 MPa SBS mean values were recorded for OptiBond XTR adhesive and the control group, respectively. The pairwise comparisons showed no significant differences between the groups that bonded with different adhesives. The adhesive failure was the most common failure mode observed. Conclusion: This study suggests that GIC-based adhesive could be applied over RMGIC as co-cure technique for sandwich restorations in lieu of employing the resin

  4. Phosphorus-containing imide resins - Modification by elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    The syntheses and general features of addition-type maleimide resins based on bis(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide and tris(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide have been reported previously. These resins have been used to fabricate graphite cloth laminates having excellent flame resistance. These composites did not burn even in pure oxygen. However, these resins were somewhat brittle. This paper reports the modification of these phosphorus-containing resins by an amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) and a perfluoroalkylene diaromatic amine elastomer (3F). An approximately two-fold increase in short beam shear strength and flexural strength was observed at 7 percent ATBN concentration. The tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were reduced when 18 percent ATBN was used. Anaerobic char yields of the resins at 800 C and the limiting oxygen indexes of the laminates decreased with increasing ATBN concentration. The perfluorodiamine (3F) was used with both imide resins at 6.4 percent concentration. The shear strength was doubled in the case of the bisimide with no loss of flammability characteristics. The modified trisimide laminate also had improved properties over the unmodified one. The dynamic mechanical analysis of a four-ply laminate indicated a glass transition temperature above 300 C. Scanning electron micrographs of the ATBN modified imide resins were also recorded.

  5. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  6. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  7. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  8. Determination of Sr-90 in milk samples from the study of statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero-Pazos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of 90Sr in milk samples is the main objective of radiation monitoring laboratories because of its environmental importance. In this paper the concentration of activity of 39 milk samples was obtained through radiochemical separation based on selective retention of Sr in a cationic resin (Dowex 50WX8, 50-100 mesh and subsequent determination by a low-level proportional gas counter. The results were checked by performing the measurement of the Sr concentration by using the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy technique, to finally obtain the mass of 90Sr. From the data obtained a statistical treatment was performed using linear regressions. A reliable estimate of the mass of 90Sr was obtained based on the gravimetric technique, and secondly, the counts per minute of the third measurement in the 90Sr and 90Y equilibrium, without having to perform the analysis. These estimates have been verified with 19 milk samples, obtaining overlapping results. The novelty of the manuscript is the possibility of determining the concentration of 90Sr in milk samples, without the need to perform the third measurement in the equilibrium.

  9. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  10. Modification of Aliphatic Petroleum Resin by Peracetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bondaletov, Vladimir Grigoryevich; Bondaletova, Lyudmila Ivanovna; Hamlenko, A.; Bondaletov, Oleg Vladimirovich; Starovoit, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining modified aliphatic resin (PRC5) by means of petroleum resin oxidation by peracetic acid. We have experimentally determined oxidation conditions that lead to producing resin with maximum epoxy and acid numbers. Ratio of "oxidative system: PRC5" is 0.5:1, process duration is 2 hours. The modified resin structure is determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Rhodium-103m generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamadaliev, N.; Levin, V.I.; Malinin, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    103 Pd separated from metal rhodium irradiated with deuterons has been used without a carrier for sup( 03m)Rh generator The generator of sup(103m)Rh is a column 6mm in diameter filled with an anionite in Cl - form (Dowex-2,8,200-400 mesh) with an adsorbed parent isotope of 103 Pd. As a result of its decay, a 103 Rh daughter isotope is accumulated, which can be washed out from the generator from time to time with a corresponding solution. To prepare the generator, 0.5g of the resin with an adsorbed 103 Pd is charged into the column containing 1g of the same resin. Washing out with 2N HCl yields more than 90% of sup(103m)Rh with a radionuclide purity of more than 99.99%

  12. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  13. Comparative study of NiW, NiMo and MoW prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Villalba, R.; Ochoa, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present work concern the amorphisation process induced by mechanical alloying in the NiW, NiMo and MoW systems. The alloys chosen combine a group of transition elements varying from very similar atomic radius and electronic valences (MoW) to different ones (NiW and NiMo). The three systems achieved an amorphous state after 50 h of milling. The mechanism of amorphisation proposed for NiW and NiMo was the combined effect of an excess concentration of the solute atoms entering into the structure of one of the elements and a critical concentration of defects. Continuous formation of an amorphous phase at the interface of the crystalline phase was observed during the process. MoW seems to amorphize by continuous reduction of grain size down to a critical value where the amorphisation takes place

  14. CURING OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES USING MICROWAVE RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING (RTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. YUSOFF

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to compare the difference between microwave heating and conventional thermal heating in fabricating carbon/epoxy composites. Two types of epoxy resin systems were used as matrices, LY5052-HY5052 and DGEBA-HY917-DY073. All composite samples were fabricated using resin transfer moulding (RTM technique. The curing of the LY5052-HY5052-carbon and the DGEBA-HY917-DY073-carbon composite systems, were carried out at 100 °C and 120 °C, respectively. Microwave heating showed better temperature control than conventional heating, however, the heating rate of the microwave cured samples were slower than the conventionally cured samples. This was attributed to the lower power (250 W used when heating with microwaves compared to 2000 W used in conventional heating. Study of thermal characteristics as curing progressed showed that the polymerisation reaction occurred at a faster rate during microwave curing than in conventional curing for both the DGEBA and the LY/HY5052 carbon composite systems. The actual cure cycle was reduced from 60 minutes to 40 minutes when using microwaves for curing DGEBA-carbon composites. As for LY/HY5052-carbon composites, the actual cure cycle was reduced from 3 hours to 40 minutes. Both conventional and microwave heating yielded similar glass transition temperatures (120 °C for DGEBA systems and 130 °C for LY/HY5052 systems. Microwave cured composites had higher void contents than conventionally cured composites (2.2-2.8% and 1.8-2.4% for DGEBA and LY/HY5052 microwave cured composites, respectively, compared to 0.2-0.4% for both DGEBA and LY/HY5052 thermally cured composites. C-scan traces showed that all composites, regardless of methods of curing, had minimal defects.

  15. Surface flashover performance of epoxy resin microcomposites improved by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin; Min, Daomin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Shengtao, E-mail: stli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Zhen; Xie, Dongri [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and its Application, Ministry of Education, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Lin, Shengjun [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Pinggao Group Company Ltd., State Grid High Voltage Switchgear Insulation Materials Laboratory, Pingdingshan 467001 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy resin microcomposites were irradiated by electron beam with energies of 10 and 20 keV. • Surface flashover voltage increase with the increase of electron beam energy. • Both the untreated and irradiated samples have two trap centers, which are labeled as shallow and deep traps. • Deposition energy in epoxy resin microcomposites increases with electron beam energy, and surface trap properties are determined by deposition energy. • The influence of surface conductivity and trap distribution on flashover voltage is discussed. - Abstract: The influencing mechanism of electron beam irradiation on surface flashover of epoxy resin/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcomposite was investigated. Epoxy resin/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcomposite samples with a diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of 1 mm were prepared. The samples were irradiated by electron beam with energies of 10 and 20 keV and a beam current of 5 μA for 5 min. Surface potential decay, surface conduction, and surface flashover properties of untreated and irradiated samples were measured. Both the decay rate of surface potential and surface conductivity decrease with an increase in the energy of electron beam. Meanwhile, surface flashover voltage increase. It was found that both the untreated and irradiated samples have two trap centers, which are labeled as shallow and deep traps. The increase in the energy and density of deep surface traps enhance the ability to capture primary emitted electrons. In addition, the decrease in surface conductivity blocks electron emission at the cathode triple junction. Therefore, electron avalanche at the interface between gas and an insulating material would be suppressed, eventually improving surface flashover voltage of epoxy resin microcomposites.

  16. Incineration of ion exchange resins using concentric burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, T.; Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kuriyama, O.; Yusa, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new incineration method, using concentric burners, is studied to reduce the volume of spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants. Resins are ejected into the center of a propane-oxygen flame and burned within it. The flame length is theoretically evaluated by the diffusion-dominant model. By reforming the burner shape, flame length can be reduced by one-half. The decomposition ratio decreases with larger resin diameters due to the loss of unburned resin from the flame. A flame guide tube is adapted to increase resin holding time in the flame, which improves the decomposition ratio to over 98 wt%

  17. Polymerization shrinkage kinetics and shrinkage-stress in dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sunbul, Hanan; Silikas, Nick; Watts, David C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate a set of resin-composites and the effect of their composition on polymerization shrinkage strain and strain kinetics, shrinkage stress and the apparent elastic modulus. Eighteen commercially available resin-composites were investigated. Three specimens (n=3) were made per material and light-cured with an LED unit (1200mW/cm(2)) for 20s. The bonded-disk method was used to measure the shrinkage strain and Bioman shrinkage stress instrument was used to measure shrinkage stress. The shrinkage strain kinetics at 23°C was monitored for 60min. Maximum strain and stress was evaluated at 60min. The shrinkage strain rate was calculated using numerical differentiation. The shrinkage strain values ranged from 1.83 (0.09) % for Tetric Evoceram (TEC) to 4.68 (0.04) % for Beautifil flow plus (BFP). The shrinkage strain rate ranged from 0.11 (0.01%s(-1)) for Gaenial posterior (GA-P) to 0.59 (0.07) %s(-1) for BFP. Shrinkage stress values ranged from 3.94 (0.40)MPa for TET to 10.45 (0.41)MPa for BFP. The apparent elastic modulus ranged from 153.56 (18.7)MPa for Ever X posterior (EVX) to 277.34 (25.5) MPa for Grandio SO heavy flow (GSO). The nature of the monomer system determines the amount of the bulk contraction that occurs during polymerization and the resultant stress. Higher values of shrinkage strain and stress were demonstrated by the investigated flowable materials. The bulk-fill materials showed comparable result when compared to the traditional resin-composites. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Separation of 99Mo from 132Te using thiourea as complexing agent. Application to the separation of 99Mo from the fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik, S.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    A radiochemical method to isolate 99 Mo from 132 Te both produced in the fission of 235 U has been developed. The method is based on the formation of a cationic complex of tellurium with thiourea in acid medium wich is retained (98.7+-0.5) % on a cation exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X8, 100-200 mesh) wile (99.8+-0.05)% 99 Mo passes through it, due to the non formation of such complex in the same experimental conditions. The radiochemical purity of the separated 99 Mo verified by using gamma spectrometry was found to be suitable for the preparation of 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators. The retention of 99 Mo on an alumina column as function of pH was investigated. The best pH range for this purpose was found to be between 4.0-4.5. Yellow crystals with melting point of 115 0 C were formed when non-irradiated tellurium reacted with thiourea. Elemental analysis, ultra-violet and infra-red absorption spectrophotometry as well as thermogravimetry were used to characterize the complex formed. In the studies made in order to characterize the compound it has been observed: 1. the most probable chemical composition of the complex studied is [Te(SCN 2 H 4 ) 4 ] (SO 4 ) 2 ; 2. the coordination takes place between tellurium and sulphur atoms; 3. the maximum absorption in the ultra-violet region occurs near 310nm. The thermogravimetric curves obtained allowed to propose the concerned thermodecomposition mechanism. (author) [pt

  19. A new ion selective electrode for cesium (I) based on calix[4]arene-crown-6 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanjaneyulu, P S; Kumar, Abha Naveen; Sayi, Y S; Ramakumar, K L; Nayak, S K; Chattopadhyay, S

    2012-02-29

    A polyvinylchloride (PVC) based liquid membrane ion selective electrode (ISE) for cesium has been developed. 25,27-Dihydroxycalix[4]arene-crown-6 (L1), 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-dimethoxycalix[4]arene-crown-6 (L2) and 25,27-bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 (L3) were investigated for their use as ionophores. The cation exchange resin DOWEX-50W was used to maintain low activity Cs+ in inner filling solution to improve the performance. The best response for cesium was observed with L3 along with optimized membrane constituents and composition. Excellent Nernstian response (56.6 mV/decade of Cs(I)) over the concentration range 10(-7) to 10(-2)M of Cs(I) was obtained with a fast response time of less than 10s. Detection limit for Cs(I) using the present ISE is 8.48×10(-8) M Cs(I). Separate solution method (SSM) was applied to ascertain the selectivity for Cs(I) over alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions. The response of ISE for Cs(I) was fairly constant over the pH range of 4-11. The lifetime of the electrode is 10 months which is the highest life for any membrane based Cs-ISE so far developed. The concentration of cesium ion in two simulated high level active waste streams was determined and results agreed well with those obtained independently employing AAS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  1. Cytotoxic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled acrylate-based restorative composite resins: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadda, Harshita; Naveen, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj; Mohan, Saktiswaren; Satapathy, Bhabani K; Ray, Alok R; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-01

    Although the physical and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-filled dental restorative composite resins have been examined, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination. Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins. These were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity by using human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Surface morphology, elemental composition, and functional groups were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectra normalization, baseline corrections, and peak integration were carried out by OPUS v4.0 software. Both in vitro cytotoxicity results and SEM analysis indicated that the composite resins developed were nontoxic and supported cell adherence. Elemental analysis with EDX revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silicon, and gold, while the presence of methacrylate, hydroxyl, and methylene functional groups was confirmed through FTIR analysis. The characterization and compatibility studies showed that these hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based restorative composite resins are nontoxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and show a favorable biologic response, making them potential biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  3. Design study of wind turbines 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications. Volume 2: Analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    All possible overall system configurations, operating modes, and subsystem concepts for a wind turbine configuration for cost effective generation of electrical power were evaluated for both technical feasibility and compatibility with utility networks, as well as for economic attractiveness. A design optimization computer code was developed to determine the cost sensitivity of the various design features, and thus establish the configuration and design conditions that would minimize the generated energy costs. The preliminary designs of both a 500 kW unit and a 1500 kW unit operating in a 12 mph and 18 mph median wind speed respectively, were developed. The various design features and components evaluated are described, and the rationale employed to select the final design configuration is given. All pertinent technical performance data and component cost data is included. The costs of all major subassemblies are estimated and the resultant energy costs for both the 500 kW and 1500 kW units are calculated.

  4. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  5. Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutellier D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1–4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5–7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two

  6. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  7. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  8. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  9. Effect of various infection-control methods for light-cure units on the cure of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, S L; Lam, Y K; Lee, F K; Ramalingam, L; Yeo, A C; Lim, C C

    1998-01-01

    This study (1) compared the curing-light intensity with various barrier infection-control methods used to prevent cross contamination, (2) compared the Knoop hardness value of cured composite resin when various barrier control methods were used, and (3) correlated the hardness of the composite resin with the light-intensity output when different infection-control methods were used. The light-cure unit tips were covered with barriers, such as cellophane wrap, plastic gloves, Steri-shields, and finger cots. The control group had no barrier. Composite resins were then cured for each of the five groups, and their Knoop hardness values recorded. The results showed that there was significant statistical difference in the light-intensity output among the five groups. However, there was no significant statistical difference in the Knoop hardness values among any of the groups. There was also no correlation between the Knoop hardness value of the composite resin with the light-intensity output and the different infection-control methods. Therefore, any of the five infection-control methods could be used as barriers for preventing cross-contamination of the light-cure unit tip, for the light-intensity output for all five groups exceeded the recommended value of 300 W/m2. However, to allow a greater margin of error in clinical situations, the authors recommend that the plastic glove or the cellophane wrap be used to wrap the light-cure tip, since these barriers allowed the highest light-intensity output.

  10. Modelling of Zirconium and Hafnium separation using continuous annular chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch-Setyadji; Endang Susiantini

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear degrees of zirconium in the form of a metal alloy is the main material for fuel cladding of NPP. Zirconium is also used as sheathing UO 2 kernel in the form of ZrC as a substitute of SiC in the fuel elements of High Temperature Reactor (HTR). Difficulty separating hafnium from zirconium because it has a lot of similarities in the chemical properties of Zr and Hf. Annular chromatography is a device that can be used for separating of zirconium and hafnium to obtain zirconium nuclear grade. Therefore, it is necessary to construct the mathematical modelling that can describe the separation of zirconium and hafnium in the annular chromatography containing anion resin dowex-1X8. The aim of research is to perform separation simulation by using the equilibrium model and mass transfer coefficient resulted from research. Zr and Hf feed used in this research were 26 and 1 g/l, respectively. Height of resin (L), angular velocity (ω) and the superficial flow rate (uz) was varied to determine the effect of each parameter on the separation of Zr and Hf. By using Kd and Dv values resulted previous research. Simulation results showed that zirconium and hafnium can be separated using a continuous annular chromatography with high resin (long bed) 50 cm, superficial flow rate of 0.001 cm/s, the rotation speed of 0.006 rad/min and 20 cm diameter annular. In these conditions the results obtained zirconium concentration of 10,303.226 g/m 3 and hafnium concentration of 12.324 g/m 3 (ppm). (author)

  11. PEG-related polymer resins as synthetic supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial chemistry has become a significant part of the discovery and optimization process for novel drugs,affinity ligands,and catalysts.The polymeric supports play a key role in combinatory chemistry.Therefore,various kinds of functional polymer resins have been exploited as supports,reagents,and catalysts in organic synthesis.In comparison to the conventional Merrifield resins,the poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-related polymer resins have advantages including good compatibilities with polar solvents,good solvent absorbency and swelling properties.This review focuses primarily on the more recent work in the field of developing PEG-related polymer resins as supports for organic synthesis.

  12. Study of plasma off-gas treatment from spent ion exchange resin pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hernán Ariel; Luca, Vittorio; Bianchi, Hugo Luis

    2017-03-23

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene-based ion exchange resins are employed extensively within nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors for purification and chemical control of the cooling water system. To maintain the highest possible water quality, the resins are regularly replaced as they become contaminated with a range of isotopes derived from compromised fuel elements as well as corrosion and activation products including 14 C, 60 Co, 90 Sr, 129 I, and 137 Cs. Such spent resins constitute a major proportion (in volume terms) of the solid radioactive waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several treatment and conditioning techniques have been developed with a view toward reducing the spent resin volume and generating a stable waste product suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Between them, pyrolysis emerges as an attractive option. Previous work of our group suggests that the pyrolysis treatment of the resins at low temperatures between 300 and 350 °C resulted in a stable waste product with a significant volume reduction (>50%) and characteristics suitable for long-term storage and/or disposal. However, another important issue to take into account is the complexity of the off-gas generated during the process and the different technical alternatives for its conditioning. Ongoing work addresses the characterization of the ion exchange resin treatment's off-gas. Additionally, the application of plasma technology for the treatment of the off-gas current was studied as an alternative to more conventional processes utilizing oil- or gas-fired post-combustion chambers operating at temperatures in excess of 1000 °C. A laboratory-scale flow reactor, using inductively coupled plasma, operating under sub-atmospheric conditions was developed. Fundamental experiments using model compounds have been performed, demonstrating a high destruction and removal ratio (>99.99%) for different reaction media, at low reactor temperatures and moderate power consumption

  13. The addition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite to an experimental adhesive resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Trommer, Rafael Mello; Andrioli, Daniela Guerra; Bergmann, Carlos Pérez; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2013-04-01

    Was produced nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HAnano) and evaluated the influence of its incorporation in an adhesive resin. HAnano was produced by a flame-based process and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The surface area, particle size, micro-Raman and cytotoxicity were evaluated. The organic phase was formulated by mixing 50 wt.% Bis-GMA, 25 wt.% TEGDMA, and 25 wt.% HEMA. HAnano was added at seven different concentrations: 0; 0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10 and 20 wt.%. Adhesive resins with hydroxyapatite incorporation were evaluated for their radiopacity, degree of conversion, flexural strength, softening in solvent and microshear bond strength. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05), except for softening in solvent (paired t-test) and cytotoxicity (two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni). HAnano presented 15.096 m(2)/g of specific surface area and a mean size of 26.7 nm. The radiopacity values were not different from those of 1-mm aluminium. The degree of conversion ranged from 52.2 to 63.8%. The incorporation of HAnano did not influence the flexural strength, which ranged from 123.3 to 143.4MPa. The percentage of reduction of the microhardness after immersion in the solvent became lower as the HAnano concentration increased. The addition of 2% nanostructured hydroxyapatite resulted in a higher value of microshear bond strength than the control group (phydroxyapatite into an adhesive resin presented the best results. The incorporation of nanostructured hydroxyapatite increases the adhesive properties and may be a promising filler for adhesive resin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Stability of anti-reflection coatings via the self-assembly encapsulation of silica nanoparticles by diazo-resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzman, Jonathan S.; Ridley, Jason I.; Khalifa, Moataz B.; Heflin, James R.

    2015-12-01

    A modified silica nanoparticle (MSNP) solution was formed by the encapsulation of negatively charged silica nanoparticles by the UV-crosslinkable polycation oligomer diazo-resin (DAR). Appropriate DAR encapsulation concentrations were determined by use of zeta-potential and dynamic light scattering measurements. The MSNPs were used in conjunction with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) to grow homogenous ionic self-assembled multilayer anti-reflection coatings. Stability was induced within the films by the exposure of UV-irradiation that allowed for crosslinking of the DAR and PSS. The films were characterized by UV/vis/IR spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The transmission and reflection levels were >98.5% and <0.05%, respectively. The refractive indices resided in the 1.25-1.26 range. The solvent stability was tested by sonication of the films in a ternary solvent (H2O/DMF/ZnCl2 3:5:2 w/w/w).

  16. Studies on the incorporation of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants into bitumen and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevie-Svendsen, M.; Tallberg, K.; Aittola, P.; Tollbaeck, H.

    1976-01-01

    The joint Nordic incorporation experiments should provide technical data needed for the assessment of solidification techniques for wastes from nuclear reactors in the Nordic countries. Spent ion exchange resins are a main fraction of such wastes, and more knowledge about their incorporation is wanted. The effects of simulated and real ion exchange wastes on the quality of bitumen and cement incorporation products were studied. Blown and distilled bitumen and three Portland cement qualities were used. Product characterizations were based on properties relevant for safe waste management, storage, transport and disposal. The applicability and relevance of established and suggested tests is discussed. Up to 40-60% dry resin could be incorporated into bitumen without impairing product qualities. Products with higher resin contents were found to swell in contact with water. The products had a high leach resistance. Their form stability was improved by incorporated resins. Product qualities appeared to be less affected by physico-chemical variables than by mechanical process parameters. Pure resin-cement products tend to decompose in water. Product qualities were strongly affected by a variety of physico-chemical process parameters, and integer products were only obtained within narrow tolerance limits. Caesium was rapidly leached out. To attain integer products and improved leach resistance within technically acceptable tolerance limits it was necessary to utilize stabilizing and caesium-retaining additives such as Silix and vermiculite. Under the present conditions the water content of the resins limited the amounts that could be incorporated in 40-50wt% or about 70vol.% water-saturated (containing 20-40% dry) resin. (author)

  17. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives up an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (orig.)

  18. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Yokota, Rikio

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives us an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (author)

  19. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of epoxy resin fiberglass tape at superfluid helium temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouy, B.; Polinski, J.

    2009-03-01

    The system of materials composed of fiberglass epoxy resin impregnated tape constitutes in many cases the electrical insulation for "dry"-type superconducting accelerator magnet such as Nb 3Sn magnets. Nb 3Sn magnet technology is still under development in a few programs to reach higher magnetic fields than what NbTi magnets can produce. The European program, Next European Dipole (NED), is one of such programs and it aims to develop and construct a 15 T class Nb 3Sn magnet mainly for upgrading the Large Hardron Collider. Superfluid helium is considered as one possible coolant and since the magnet has been designed with a "dry" insulation, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance of the electrical insulation are the key properties that must be know for the thermal design of such a magnet. Accordingly, property measurements of the epoxy resin fiberglass tape insulation system developed for the NED project was carried out in superfluid helium. Four sheets with thicknesses varying from 40 to 300 μm have been tested in a steady-state condition. The determined thermal conductivity, k, is [(25.8 ± 2.8) · T - (12.2 ± 4.9)] × 10 -3 W m -1 K -1 and the Kapitza resistance is given by R K = (1462 ± 345) · T(-1.86 ± 0.41) × 10 -6 Km 2 W -1 in the temperature range of 1.55-2.05 K.

  20. A production method for Cr-51 at IEN's cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, M A.V.; Britto, J L.Q. de; Vinagre, U M; Silva, A.G. da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1990-01-01

    Thick target yields for the reactions {sup 51} V(p,n){sup 51} Cr and {sup 51} V(d, 2 n){sup 51} Cr were measured and compared with literature values. The excitation function for the {sup 51} V(p,n){sup 51} Cr reaction was also measured. A method for the production and separation of this radioisotope was developed via the {sup 51} V(p,n){sup 51} Cr reaction and a combination of Fe+3 coprecipitation and an anion exchange technique using a Dowex 1X8(100-200 mesh) resin in hydrochloric acid medium. (author).

  1. A production method for Cr-51 at IEN's cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, M A.V.; Britto, J L.Q. de; Vinagre, U M; Silva, A.G. da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    1990-01-01

    Thick target yields for the reactions {sup 51}V(p,n){sup 51}Cr and {sup 51}V(d,2n){sup 51}Cr were measured and compared with literature values. The excitation function for the {sup 51}V(p,n){sup 51}Cr reaction was also measured. A method for the production and separation of this radioisotope was developed via the {sup 51}V(p,n){sup 51}Cr reaction and a combination of Fe{sup +3} coprecipitation and an anion exchange technique using a Dowex 1X8 (100-200 mesh) resin in hydrochloric acid medium. (orig.).

  2. Mercury determination in natural waters using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnone, M.; Marques, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. An analytical method for quantitative determination of Mercury traces in river and sea water is proposed. The neutron activation method and radiochemical separation of Mercury by developing of C L 4 Hg -2 complex, and their chromatographic separation using anionic exchange resin Dowex 1 X 8 of 400 mesh is used. The quantitative determination is done by gamma spectrometric analysis. The selection limits reached with this method showed that this is an amenable procedure in routine mercury determination in the ppb level, specially useful in the environmental contamination analysis. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  3. Efficient in situ separation and production of L-lactic acid by Bacillus coagulans using weak basic anion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitong; Qian, Zijun; Liu, Peng; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2018-02-01

    To get rid of the dependence on lactic acid neutralizer, a simple and economical approach for efficient in situ separation and production of L-lactic acid was established by Bacillus coagulans using weak basic anion-exchange resin. During ten tested resins, the 335 weak basic anion-exchange resins demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity and selectivity for lactic acid recovery. The adsorption study of the 335 resins for lactic acid confirmed that it is an efficient adsorbent under fermentation condition. Langmuir models gave a good fit to the equilibrium data at 50 °C and the maximum adsorption capacity for lactic acid by 335 resins was about 402 mg/g. Adsorption kinetic experiments showed that pseudo-second-order kinetics model gave a good fit to the adsorption rate. When it was used for in situ fermentation, the yield of L-lactic acid by B. coagulans CC17 was close to traditional fermentation and still maintained at about 82% even after reuse by ten times. These results indicated that in situ separation and production of L-lactic acid using the 335 resins were efficient and feasible. This process could greatly reduce the dosage of neutralizing agent and potentially be used in industry.

  4. Method of burning ion-exchange resin contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To process spent ion exchange resins to reduce their volume, without increasing the load on a off-gas system and in a stable state and at the same time not leaving any uncombusted portions. Method: The water slurries of the ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive materials is dehydrated or dry combusted to reduce the water content. A binder is then added to solidify the ion exchange resin. The solidified ion exchange resins are then combusted in a furnace. This prevents the ion exchange resin from being dispersed by air and combustion gases. Furthermore, the solidified ion exchange resins in the form of small pellets burn from the surface inwards. Moreover the binder is carbonized by the combustion heat and promotes combustion to convert the ion exchange resins into a solid mass, making sure that no uncombusted portion is left. (Takahashi, M.)

  5. Integrating Porous Resins In Enzymatic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Haque, Naweed

    . Screening resins for moderately hydrophobic multi-component systems is challenging. Often it is found that the capacity of the resin is inversely related with product selectivity. Therefore a tradeoff has to be made between these parameters which can be crucial from an economic point of view. A low resin...... procedure. The screening therefore becomes a multi-objective task that has to be solved simultaneously. Such an approach has been applied in the method formulated in this framework. To overcome these challenges, different process strategies are required to obtain high yields. A number of different...... inhibition, has gained considerable recognition. The resins act as a reservoir for the inhibitory substrate and a sink for the inhibitory product and simultaneously attain the required high substrate loading to make the process economically feasible. In this way the potential benefit of the enzyme can...

  6. Analysis of plutonium and uranium by the resin bead-mass spectrometric method